Front Cover
 Officers and representatives of...
 Table of Contents
 The Russian federation: March-April...
 Ship mail from the Arctic, by John...
 Introduction of registration labels...
 Looking at the Romanov essays,...
 Romanov Jubilee stamps and postal...
 Notes from the Belkin books, translated...
 The longest shortest route, by...
 Oleg Agafonovich Faberge, by George...
 Hold up to the light cards: Deltiology...
 A Ukrainian scholar's comments...
 Notes from the Belkin books, translated...
 Deja Vu?, by Mike Renfro
 Which came first, the circle or...
 Shanhaikuan revisted, by Alfred...
 Postcard views of the Trans-Siberian...
 A little local railway: Warsaw-Gora...
 One station or two - and which...
 Odds and ends or bits and pieces,...
 The president's corner, by Dr....
 Officer's and general membership...
 Membership status
 Tannu Tuva anybody?; Member-to-member...
 Expertization; New Rossica...
 Reviews of philatelic publicat...
 Submitting articles for the...


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00065
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1993
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00065

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The Russian federation: March-April 1992, by George Shaw
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Ship mail from the Arctic, by John B. Holland
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Introduction of registration labels in Russia, 1899, by Noel Warr
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Looking at the Romanov essays, by Leonard Tann
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Romanov Jubilee stamps and postal stationery used at field post offices during WW1, by Alexander Epstein
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Notes from the Belkin books, translated by George G. Werbizky
        Page 35
    The longest shortest route, by Michael Ercolini
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Oleg Agafonovich Faberge, by George G. Werbizky
        Page 38
    Hold up to the light cards: Deltiology (part 7), by Dr. William Nickle
        Page 39
    A Ukrainian scholar's comments on the Russian post office in Beirut at the end of the 19th century, by Ian W. Roberts
        Page 40
    Notes from the Belkin books, translated by George G. Werbizky
        Page 41
    Deja Vu?, by Mike Renfro
        Page 42
    Which came first, the circle or the oval?, by P.E. Robinson
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Shanhaikuan revisted, by Alfred F. Kugel
        Page 47
    Postcard views of the Trans-Siberian railway, by P. E. Robinson
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    A little local railway: Warsaw-Gora Kal'variya, by Leonard Tann
        Page 52
        Page 53
    One station or two - and which one?, by Gary Combs and Noel Warr
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Odds and ends or bits and pieces, by George G. Werbizky
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    The president's corner, by Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman
        Page 63
    Officer's and general membership annual meeting; In the back room
        Page 64
    Membership status
        Page 65
    Tannu Tuva anybody?; Member-to-member adlets
        Page 66
    Expertization; New Rossica publications
        Page 67
    Reviews of philatelic publications
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Submitting articles for the journal
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
Full Text

of the




No. 121 October 1993

SESCAL 1992 WIPA 1965
ORAPEX 1993 SIPEX 1966
STaMpsHOW-APS 1993 PRAGA 1968
CAPEX-78 1978 WIPA 1981
ZEFIB 1937 POLSKA 1993
TEMEX 1958 SOFIA-69 1969


President: Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman, 629 Sanbridge Circle E., Worthington OH 43085
Vice President: Dr. Peter A. Michalove, 307 S. McKinley, Champaign IL 61821
Secretary: Robert B. Bain, 3132 Bayswater Ct., Fairfax VA 22031
Treasurer: Gary A. Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville MD 21108
Librarian: David Skipton, 50 D Ridge Road, Greenbelt MD 20770
Auditor: Leon Finik, P.O. Box 521, Rego Park NY 11374

Board of Directors:

Dr. Gordon Torrey, 5118 Duval Dr., Bethesda MD 20816
Dr. James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park IL 60304
Mike Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara CA 95055


Washington-Baltimore Chapter: Dr. Gordon Torrey
Northern California Chapter: Mike Renfro
Midwest Chapter: Dr. James Mazepa
Great Britain: Dr. Raymond Ceresa

All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any
means without permission in writing from the journal editor. The views expressed by the authors in
this journal are their own and the editor disclaims all responsibility.

The Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc. is a non-profit, non-political organization incorporated in the state
of Maryland, USA, and affiliated with the American Philatelic Society. The Rossica Journal is the official periodic
publication of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc., published twice a year in April and October and mailed
"surface rate" from the Editor's residence. Price for non-members is US $10 per issue. For air mail delivery, please add
US $5. Subscriptions are available for US $30 which includes air mail postage. Available back issues are listed in the
section titled "In The Back Room." Submit articles for consideration directly to the Editor. Periodically other Rossica
publications are listed in the back of the journal. Information is available from the Librarian or Secretary.
Society dues are US $20 per year with a discount for early renewal. Membership applications can be obtained from
the Treasurer or Secretary at the addresses listed under "Officers of the Society."
Dealers wishing to advertise in the Journal are welcomed. Information pertaining to advertising can be found in the
back of the Journal.
Checks and money orders submitted should be made payable to The Rossica Society of Russian Philately and not
to any officer. Checks not drawn on a US bank must include an additional US $10 for processing fees. Sorry, no credit
cards are accepted. Please make all checks payable to:

c/o Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Ct.,
Millersville, MD 21108

SCopyright 1993
The Rossica Society

ISSN 0035-8363


Journal No. 121 for October 1993

Editor : Gary A. Combs
Editorial Board: George Shaw, David M. Skipton, Howard Weinert

Topic Page


Editorial 2
The Russian Federation: March-April 1992-George Shaw 3
Ship Mail from the Arctic-John B. Holland 17
Introduction of Registration Labels in Russia, 1899-Noel Warr 22
Looking at the Romanov Essays-Leonard Tann 26
Romanov Jubilee Stamps and Postal Stationery Used at Field Post Offices 29
During WW1-Alexander Epstein
Notes from the Belkin Books-translated by George G. Werbizky 35,
The Longest Shortest Route-Michael Ercolini 36
Oleg Agafonovich Faberg6-George G. Werbizky 38
Hold Up to the Light Cards Deltiology (Part 7)-Dr. William Nickle 39
A Ukrainian Scholar's Comments on the Russian Post Office in Beirut at the 40
End of the 19th Century-lan. W. Roberts
Notes from the Belkin Books-translated by George G. Werbizky 41
DejA vu-Mike Renfro 42
Which Came First, the Circle or the Oval-P.E. Robinson 42
Shanhaikuan Revisited-Alfred F. Kugel 47
Postcard Views of the Trans-Siberian Railway-P.E. Robinson 48
A Little Local Railway-Warsaw-Gora Kal'variya-Leonard Tann 52
One Station or Two And Which One?-Gary Combs and Noel Warr 54
Odds and Ends or Bits and Pieces-George G. Werbizky 58

President's Corner-Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman 63
Officer's and General Annual Meeting-Robert B. Bain 64
In the Back Room 64
Membership Status 65
Tannu Tuva Anybody? 66
Member-to-Member Adlets 66
Expertization 67
New Rossica Publications 67
Reviews of Philatelic Publications 68
Dealer Advertisements and Information 72


by Gary A. Combs

It seems like I just got issue 120 out the front it never hurts to have friends who have friends. The
door and here comes issue 121 and I, for the first more people with whom you can "network", the
time, have some articles already in hand for issue better your collection and knowledge will/could be.
122 next April. Thank you! We have so much knowledge bottled up in the
When the journal is entered into a philatelic collections of some of our members that, if pub-
competition, I have to send the last two issues to lished, it could fill several issues of the journal well
make a full years' run for the judges. I entered nos. into the future-NO GGW! Every issue introduces
118-120 in three separate competitions in three a new topic or thematic or postal history article or
separate countries and we garnered high awards and etc. If you feel that you are not a writer, rest assured
praise from all the judges except one. At that a lot of the people that do submit articles are not
SPRINGPEX '93 we took a vermeil; at ORAPEX writers either-I have to have something to do.
'93 in Canada we took a vermeil; at POLSKA '93 As the Editor I receive many letters from other
we took a silver. POLSKA '93 was an International members as well as non-members from around the
competition and we did very well! world, asking if I know anyone that collects differ-
I think a bit of praise must be extended to the ent areas. I am somewhat limited in my ability to
authors that have shared and continue to share their respond to many of them. Why? I do not know what
philatelic knowledge and collections with us. In the vast majority of the membership collects. This
addition to submitting articles, I have found many problem has a solution that is simple-complete the
of the authors very willing to provide advice and questionnaire that Bruce Bain sent and return it to
assistance on other author's works. This is most him. He is compiling a membership collecting
gratifying, as a philatelic Editor could not possibly interests list, but it is incredibly small and represents
afford to collect the vast material available to all less than 1/3 of the membership. Please complete it
collectors. and send it in. Who knows, it might just be the best
There are other individuals that must also be contact list you could ever imagine philatelically!
thanked even if they do not submit any articles. I But you will never know unless you participate.
specifically refer to the Editorial Board. Dave More and more members are exhibiting their
Skipton has endeared himself to me forever with his collections across the country and around the world.
unselfish assistance as Librarian. Without Dave and Have you exhibitors considered publishing an ar-
the Library, there would be many more mistakes tide on that exhibit for the journal?
than there currently are (0). As most of you are aware, bogus as well as good
In correspondence with the various authors, I material is flowing out of the former Soviet Union.
am pleased to say that they have received letters and However, it still is a "buyer BEWARE" environ-
occasionallyitemsfortheircollectionbecausesome- ment and you must be very careful!
body read their article and wrote them a letter. For According to an article in Linn's Stamp News,
those of you that are not aware, we exchange our Ukraine has banned overprints on their stamps and
journal with many other philatelic societies. The some people are having to pay to send stamps into
journal also is sent to several libraries around the and out of Russia. Does this sound familiar? Say
world. So, the material published is read by many 50+ years old to be more precise? Who is tracking
more people than just the current membership, this phenomenon? For one, Michael Padwee and a
Have you thought about becoming a part of this core of dedicated "unhinged" followers (see issue
circulation? Have you given any thought that by 120, p. 12). Please support them and their efforts so
submitting an article you may have the opportunity future generations of philatelists do not have to go
to grow philatelically? As with anything else in life, through what this generation did.
2 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

The Russian Federation: March-April 1992

By George Shaw
This article continues an examination of post- International Postage Rates
Soviet postal history developments. The first article
focused on the Soviet Postal Index system (Rossica The postage rates for the Russian Federation
Journal 120, April 1993, pp. 3-12). In this issue I were as follows in March-April 1992:
will address usage in March-April 1992 in the
Russian Federation. Subsequent issues of Rossica Surface letter 3.60 rubles
will depict similar developments for the autono- Airmail card 3.50 rubles
mous areas of Russia as well as the other republics. Airmail letter 5.00 rubles
The impetus for these articles was the extensive + Registration 12.00 rubles
correspondence generated by the Voice of America + Express 13.50 rubles
(VOA) contest to bring foreign listeners to the
United States to commemorate the 500th anniver- These rates were used only on about half of the
sary of Columbus' discovery of America. I would 2500envelopes examined. Rates from prior periods
like to thank the VOA, the Ayr Hill Stamp Club, (e.g., 50 kopecks or 1.50 rubles for international
Stamps for the Wounded (Lion's Stamp Club) as airmail) are common. The lack of stamps with
well as Gary Combs, Bruce Bain, and Dave Skipton denominations 'as high as one ruble may have
for their help in putting together these articles, contributed to underfranking; this shortage is the
Having read hundreds of letters enclosed as part of primary cause of the emergency reevaluation mea-
the 600,000-piece correspondence, I realized how sures covered next.
many people around the world have great affection
and respect for the VOA-its effectiveness was one Revalued Postal Stationery
of the discoveries for me in researching this article.
This correspondence is virtually pure-it is almost The Russian Federation used five different
entirely non-philatelic and shows graphically the methods of revaluing postal stationery and enve-
problems that ordinary citizens had coping with lopes. There appears to be no clear geographical
accelerating inflation and political fragmentation, pattern in their origin or use.
The Russian Federation Meter revaluations
The Russian Federation continues to base its The current style of Soviet meter (fig. 1-1) was
Postal Index on the system of oblasts, krais, and used from atleast six differentdistricts-Volgograd,
smaller raions, villages, towns, and other urban Perm', Ivanovo, Chelyabinsk, Stavropol', and
settlements established under the tsars and modi- Ekaterinburg. These are all in black, except for
fled by the Soviets. Similarly, this administrative Stavropol's, which is in violet. Generally, a "450"
structure has maintained the parallel autonomous was applied to make the 5-ruble international air-
republics, oblasts, and okrugs in order to recognize mail letter rate.
about 30 ethnic groupings.
This article will discuss the usage of the
Russian Federation during March-April 1992 in n C
the following categories: 0 C
4 5 Figure 1-1. soviet meter mark
International postage rates, Figure 1-1. Soviet meter mar
Surcharges and manuscript overprints, K
Revalued postal stationery, ( 01K
Usage by oblasts and krais.
Rossica Journal Number 121 3
October 1993

Meter cut-outs Handstamps

I have multiple examples from Ul'yanovsk and Although not as varied as those found in Ukraine,
Ekaterinburg of the standard Soviet meter cut out the Russian handstamp revaluations are, nonethe-
and glued to envelopes to derive both surface and less, interesting. Figure 1-4 depicts the most com-
airmail international rates. Cover 1 shows a "350" mon form: ruble/kopeck/T(axe) P(ercue). These
cut-out, as well as three stamps, to derive the 5- come in varying sizes and are printed in black or
ruble rate. Please note that the surcharge on the violetcolors.IhaveseenthemfromRostov,Priamur,
"20+10" charity stamp is included in the franking. and Moscow Oblasts, plus the Marii Autonomous
Republic. Figure 1-5 presents a mirror image of fig.
Labels 1-4: TP/kopeck/ruble. It was used from Artemovsk
in Ekaterinburg Oblast'. Figure 1-6 shows contin-
Figure 1-2 illustrates a "Postage Paid" printed ued use of USSR as the name of the country as well
label used in St. Petersburg. It was cheaper for the as the odd denomination of 602 kopecks. The cover
Estonian traveling to St. Petersburg to pay 5-rubles came from the village of Znamenskii, Ivanteevka
postage (note Taxe Percue 5-00 Poids label) in raion, Saratov Oblast'. Finally, fig. 1-7 is a local
Russia than to shell out 40 rubles at home. Figure 1- type from Moscow that uses two lines of text.
3 shows a label applied at Raevskii, Bashkir AR,
indicating postage of 5 rubles was not paid.

SPRCUE Figure 1-4.

I. 1L El -.>i" A
P Figure 1-5.

Figure 1-2. Postage Paid label. i
1KS 62 NC 2-

i t i -6 F igure 1-7.

i ,6_ b ..' 'Cri.-C1. i ; &-i, L 'Z

-- ".- .... c ,.---+ .... "-1-6

Figure 1-3. Manuscript label applied at Rae'skii, Bashkir
AR, stating postage was not paid in fidl. Figure 1-8 depicts a manuscript revaluation from Ryazan.

4 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993


ix --P

"-" -,'- -I'
:... .. -! ": /. "_ -- 4 --

i I / I
S,.-L" -- t.j : u 4 ,- --- e

Otb6 r4163
'U \, IU IPI\

Cover MetCoer cu-outfrom Ekateriburg loc a lower lert.

Rossica Journal Numbr 121 I d(

October 1993
r cn6 cnQ .-cn- .cn6 cn6 ".cn.- t
F1^ 6 46, 4- t 16 16 ;6

October 1993

Surcharges TatarAutonomous Republic. A7-kopeckpostal
envelope was upgraded to "30" kopecks from
The only surcharges reported as of the Spring of Al'met'evsk (cover 7).
1992 were from St. Petersburg; these have been Chuvash Autonomous Republic. Tripling of
covered extensively. I have seen all St. Petersburg value on the 10- and 30-kopeck stamps from
city values (16,18,200,353,450, and 500) used on Cheboksary (cover 8).
the VOAcorrespondence. Cover 2 is from the back Kemerovo Oblast'. Tripling of value on the 50-
of an envelopewith a blockof 16. The "7+16"value kopeck of 1976 issue from Leninsk-Kuznetskii.
was issued for the 7-kopeck stationery to make the This was accomplished by placing a "1" before the
30-kopeck domestic letter rate; the "7+18" stamp denomination (cover 9).
accompanied a5-kopeck stamped envelope for the Kamchatka Oblast'. Tripling of value on the
same rate. The 353-kopeck overprint was used to 15-kopeck of 1978 and a 5-kopeck commemora-
convert a7-kopeckstamped envelope into the 360- tive of 1990 from Mil'kovo (cover 10).
kopeck international surface letter rate.
Usage by Oblasts and Krais
Manuscript Overprints
It is difficult to generalize about usage geo-
Manuscript surcharges appear to be much graphically as there are no regional patterns of
scarcer than the St. Petersburg surcharges. In addi- which stamps were used, if the proper rates were
tion, some of them are very subtle and, thus, require adhered to, or even whether emergency measures
a careful eye to spot. Please check your recent were necessary. This section will segment the Rus-
covers and see if you can find similar items from sian Federation into the five basic zones of the
other districts. They bear an ironic resemblance in Soviet Postal Index discussed in the prior issue of
looks and purpose to the Postmaster Provisionals of Rossica (120). Postal index series "100," "200,"
1920-22. "300," "400," and "600" radiate like spokes from
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhnii Novgorod Oblast). Low the capital, Moscow. Similarly, the autonomous
values were revalued 100 fold; higher values 2 fold. regions (to be covered in the next issue of Rossica)
The following stamps were revalued in the VOA form a distinct overlay as the Autonomous Repub-
correspondence: "py6" on the 1-kopeck of 1988 lics, at least, are readily separable from oblasts and
and the 2-kopeck of 1991; the 2-ruble of 1984 krais.
revalued to "4" rubles; the 10-kopeck flower picto- It is likely that the distribution of covers avail-
rial of 1987 to "20" kopecks; and the 20-kopeck of able in the United States over the past several
1977 to "40" kopecks. The five letters I have seen decades (mainly Moscow, Leningrad, and the Bal-
are from different people, representing three post tic States) is changing as the country opens up.
offices. Interestingly, the 10-kopeck of 1977 was There are many districts with 3-5 million people
not revalued. Cover 3 shows this mixed franking. from which I have seen few covers over the prior 20
Orel Oblast'. The 10-kopeck of 1988 was years. Examples include Kemerovo in Siberia and
doubled to "20" kopecks. Cover 4 shows a strip of Saratov in the southeast. On the other hand, rela-
5usedfromthevillageofFedotovoinKromyraion. tively familiar districts such as Arkhangel'sk and
Kursk Oblast'. The 16-kopeck of 1976 was Novgorod were relatively scarce in the VOA corre-
tripled to "48" kopecks (cover 4) on a cover post- spondence, largely because of their small popula-
marked at Samoryadovo, Kursk Obl., but mailed tions. In this correspondence, "common" equates to
from Staryi Oskol, Belgorod Oblast'. more than 20 VOA letters; "scarce" is less than 10
Stavropol' Krai. The 5-ruble of 1984 was letters.
doubled to "CtHTATb 10 PYB. (schitat' 10 rub.)
considered as 10 rubles" (cover 6), used from
Mineral'nye Vody.
6 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

---- ......-", ,' ---

WO_, ,

.:4. _,,_i c.. ..
... .. *;*: : ,*, c-
.. ..", ,,. K

fliUNalwle R nAm tC inpAnMpTI 11 COX3 tt uaaSwimtNI

Cover 3: Dzerzhinsk (N. Novgorod Obi.) manuscript revaluation on 2-ruble stamp.


,c- \ o .f.. 21K TrA CM ,(P

ek 3. & I( CO e14

s ... ' 4c- e oL-,o
-- --Vo m

f4KTe I1AKC teApHRTK CRSR3" Mecta i :ta .am 'eKaf

Cover 4: Fedotovo, Kromy raion, (Orel Obi.) with 10-kopeck stamp revalued to 20 kopecks.
Rossica Journal Number 121 7
October 1993

e3PST OF IoX 9E 526
;i OT7,E9r Y PAJ/t

F3O9 530 r r-TAlPbit bcOA

FEA IJ t51O 3I 7
Zr Zr~ -8 _pp 74 -w *:a, 8 ___
nNuWHTe KkACKC nptARnprT1 CBsa3H uEcr8a -4a-HRnIAAuC-f

Cover 5: Postmarked Sanmoralovo (Kursk Obi.) with 16-kopeck stamp revalued to 48 kopecks.

AA V.' A A ,

15 -L LT ij Iz --zzD' 'I.-N

l. -TA (' i PFTA)DC Q A/ 3

11"W"Te nHtcC npCAnP T CN" N m- f MLUA/ CA
Cover 6: Minerahye Vody (Slavropol' Kra) with 5-ruble stamp altered to l0 rubles.
8 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993-
'nlP T ;>2:, / WJ P c s~

iw.Te M nACKC lnpCffpMT44 C44,4H Me( IrKiTA UClP
Cover 6: MineLralnye Vody (Stavropol' Krai) wit/h 5-ruble swtap alWtred IC) 10 rubles.
8 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

5 TN r0 5.

S i,'-.10N_, CST.____ CT

"0 .-D._- -9

n :lMw e HHAtKC OnpAIIpuITHR C9831 MeCTa a 3HaqeIn

Cover 7: Al'net'evsk (Tatarstan) with indicia augmented from 10 to 30 kopecks.

S i/ '4 ,

<. ,; -, .'?' / '

m mm m m m mei ma- -0"'(mg .- _
---- ., ... i : .; : .
\ r -i' *: ; '"i I : '**
t-. i \ '* '" i, ', J .... ".-. .t ." ;J

Cover 8: Cheboksary (Chuvash A.R.) with stamps increased three fold.
Rossica Journal Number 121 9
October 1993

/ To H7"p-

2 :2 '/4 "I AP- /

{-s, CLN cp 9-c
.. r,. ,;....61-- C &C 1t
H.,ixc npLean/pgRk eicR p om .p

XePC 1Oco9 r 1
-LeS C -"""C "'" ,' t. /7rC/ I

Ko. y 2 & 0 c>

1October 1993

October 1993

Moscow and the Northwest Oblasts The Southeast and Southern Urals
These oblasts are the "100" series in the postal
index and contain about 34 million people. The About 30 million people live in the Russian
cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg as well as the "400" series postal index. The most populous oblasts
surrounding oblasts are populous; their postal ma- are Samara, Saratov, and Volgograd; none are
trial is common. The other districts are smaller scarce. Cover 17 is from Penza and uses 33 copies
(less than 2 million people) and VOA envelopes are of the 1984 5-kopeck peace propaganda stamps
relatively uncommon. Cover 11 shows a "layered" (Scott Nos. 5256, 5258). Cover 18 is from Miass,
look from Lekhnovo, Kholmogorsk raion, Chelyabinsk Oblast', and includes multiple copies
Arkhangel'sk Oblast'-38 stamps in 4 layers. There of a Kirghiz nationality stamp (Scott No. 6037)
are occasional examples of Soviet franking mixed from 1991.
with other countries.On cover 12, Bulgarian stamps
were added. Cover 13 has the correct Russian The Northern Urals & Siberia.
postage; however, the letter was then sent to Ger-
many where it was again franked and forwarded to It surprised me to learn that 45 million people
the United States. live in this area, including about 30 million in
Siberia. Many of the districts have more than 3
The West million people; VOA envelopes were, therefore,
plentiful. Even Kamchatka and Sakhalin were well
There are only four Russian districts included in represented (20 or more VOA envelopes). Cover 19
the "200" series of the postal index. These areas is from Omsk and'shows a 10-cent United States
comprise less than 5 million people. Nevertheless, definitive with the correct 17 rubles for a registered
the material is relatively common in the VOA international airmail letter. Cover 20 depicts 20
correspondence. Cover 14 depicts the "1992 Rus- copies of the imperforate 2-kopeck stamp of 1991
sian Winter Olympics" stamps from Kaliningrad, on the reverse of an envelope from Irkutsk. I have
the former area of East Prussia that is now separated seen this stamp on several covers; however, I be-
from the rest of Russia by Lithuania. lieve it is uncommon.

The South Final Remarks

These oblasts and krais in the "300" postal A couple of final words on the usage in the
index series have a total of 29 million citizens with Russian Federation are in order. The VOA trans-
Krasnodar and Rostov Oblasts the most populous. mitters were located in Munich, Germany, Sri
The VOA correspondence from Tambov and Lanka, and the Philippines. This latter location
Voronezh is relatively scarce. Cover 15 shows the partially explains the heavy concentration of Sibe-
2-ruble "1992 Russian Winter Olympics" stamp rian covers. In addition, many non-Russians who
horizontally bisected (it is unclear if this was inten- were living in the major cities entered the corre-
tional) to help make the 5-ruble rate. The cover spondence. Imagine my surprise to open seemingly
came from Gul'kevichi, but was postmarked in ordinary envelopes and discover return addresses
Moscow. Cover 16 portrays a 5-kopeck indicium from the Afhgan Embassy, the Cambodian Gov-
cut from a piece of postal stationery and applied as emment, or African students.
5 rubles at Sochi-Adler. Both envelopes are from
Krasnodar Krai.

Rossica Journal Number 121 11
October 1993

( VP --X/iH^ -/N ^i

6:^ 4, 4,o : 9 a//
.... ...... .... ......

Cover 11: Lekhonovo, Khohnogorsk raion, Arkhangel'sk Obl. with layers of 10- and 15-kopeck stamps.
.. ,.- -? ;

S ..-. .

I K, -W P "' .U .. .. "",

.JM \tUkl 1) (D vl l

4 0. .61.. ,, ,

VMoU 8WdidVJVqy dH C %, .-

12 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993


Vowee o~/ 1 e/c, I

IiMTe HACC Upe pmHT cB'a, MeCTa Ha3HaeeH

Cover 13: Letter flanked in St. Petersburg and posted in Germany with additional German stamp.


'" iV"' -4

Flo .1OSSIJA le/"
...T ..... ... ........ ..........

_d' S4t^ '^ ^ r^

aIlMurTe MnAKC npeAnparTna ceaun mecia Mana&. ,M ,
Cover 1: RussLettian Olympked in St. Petersburg and posKalingrad the former with additional German stamp.
diy5 -- + .

Rossica Journal Numbcr 121 13
,7October 1993
Octobe 1993
~i~;p;k~~g-. ----p lIlY------ ^~EC La~

October 1993

"H c ec pa

Cover 15: Unintentional (?) bisect of Russian Olympic stamp from Krasnodar Obl. Cover came from Gul'kevichi, but
was postmarked in Moscow.
oxy- -

1- W L ". .. .

PA- RVO''Q k ),kXNA .I

1HAeKC npeaip""r ii oCripatnTea.14
14 Rossica Journal Number 121
Lu! I/

Cover 16: 5-kopeck indicium from Sochi-Adler (Krasnodar Ob.) used for 5-rble international airmail rate. bu
14 Rossica Journal Number M2

tl 4 1964 198 94 9904 19864
I ,- ..

0A 5 noT 00ccO5 0

.O. CIO n0TA CCCP s) 5r CLc c'

|o .,, ~ o o L ;i ,,-
^qTA CCC^ ilOqTACCCP-J: .* '4'
Sno f /ccc'. _'__'_ _cccp_._

..o.TACCCP.. ...cccp.5.. __e 44^ o.,
SOTACCC ol ::: / b, 6c


Cover 17: Economizing space: 33 copies of 1984 commemoratives from Penza

noeT CCCP- I
S,-,- -, .... -, a ,- ^ ,A
S-,no ccck :,Ip_- ..-iC-' _

JflNM t* NWirnKC npcAIIpKNTKI CB943 MUtT a HLiHa.ltBI 7 w 't(/ A C J y

Cover 18. Multiple copies of the 1991 Kirghiz nationalihy stamp from Miass, Chelyabinsk Obi.
Rossica Journal Number 121 15
October 1993
cWCY c Ol-Y ~C


12p iYJ- -- n9---

_A l LCCF'

~ *DC 2S0.5A, fSA

SLKznesova str. pt. 45,

Cover 19: United States stamp added for good measure at Omsk. The sender still lost the VOA lottery!

A .CC. p CCP 1 c'j cccp )E rc( 1A CCCP w rin CcCP

,iili .", "A L"b .,Ai. -. ; _ _ _' _"_ _ _ '_
_a ,-' ,^ '- -.,N, 1 -,' .--....,,

"3 r .is k G2. 2.. U 'SS
r1( 1A O*Af 1( 1A CCCP 6:t1tjr, I; rcA C 1]( 1ccO
V4 2r. 2t7 2 2 -

Cover 20: Imperf 2-kopeck stamp of 1091 in multiple of 20 colwies used from Irkutsk.
16 Rossica Journal Number 121
AOctober 1993

October 1993

Ship Mail from the Arctic

by John B. Holland

Over the last few years I have formed an inter- After a week the cover reached its destination at
testing collection of Soviet Polar material. In this Station No. 29 where an arrival mark was applied.
short article I would like to share three of these The arrival mark reads "Drifting Scientific Re-
covers with the membership. search Station-North Pole 29." The cover arrived
Polar material is not rare, indeed most of it is not on 10 June 1987.
even scarce, yet many covers are difficult to find. The six-digit postal index-663241-iswithin
The history behind icebreakers creating passages in the index for Krasnoyarsk. Krai, 663, Taymyr Au-
solid chunks of floating ice so that other ships may tonomous Okrug, 6632. Unfortunately, the "41" is
pass is very interesting. These ships must be made not a "29" then we would have a direct correlation
extremely strong since the pressure of the ice field for the numbers.
is tremendous and can crush an ordinary sea-going The second item is a registered cover posted
vessel with incredible ease.The men who man these from Pevek in the Magadan region on 7 October
ships provide valuable assistance to those that live 1988 and addressed to "Drifting Station 'North
and work in the frozen wastes of the Arctic. Often, Pole-31.'" Two cachets from the icebreaker "Ad-
the only link to the rest of the world is an icebreaker miral Makarov" adorn the front of the cover. It is
which brings food, supplies, and mail to the re- assumed that the cover traveled to "North Pole-31"
search scientists in and around the North Pole. via the "Admiral Makarov," but there are no post-
Some of the facilities cannot be reached by aircraft marks from the ship itself. The cover arrived on 22
and depend completely on the icebreakers. October 1988, as seen in the arrival mark reading
Cover number one is an example of an Inter- "Drifting Scientific Station 'North Pole-31.'" This
Service postal stationery envelope, which was car- cover is from a station not commonly seen and
ried to North Pole Station No. 29, via two nuclear- further input from other members would be greatly
powered vessels the "Arktika" and the "Sibir'." The appreciated.
bold description in the upper left-hand corer of the The third cover is addressed to Leningrad on a
cover indicates that the envelope is an Inter-Service pre-printed envelope bearing the inscription "Inter-
one. The "Arktika" was the first atomic-powered national Red Book" and depicting a polar bear. The
icebreaker to travel from Murmansk to the North cover was carried aboard the Diesel-Electric Ice-
Pole on 9-17 August 1977. breaker "Lena." The cachet applied aboard the
Thecoverisaddressedasfollows:"PortDikson, "Lena" depicts the 30 years that the "Lena" has
Krasnoyarsk Krai, North Pole-29, via A/L Sibir', to plied the northern seas. (During earlier times, the
V. V. Lukin." A pristine postmark from the Arktika Lena visited locations outside of the Soviet Union.)
reads "Murmansk Marine Steamship Line, Atomic The coverwaspostmarked "Steamship Arkhangel'sk
Icebreaker Arktika" and is dated 21 May 1987. A -Mezen"' on 6 July 1985-a White Sea route. The
standard fleet cachet reading "Murmansk Marine "21" after the date means 2100 hours-9 P.M..
Steamship, MMF (Murmansk Marine Fleet)" is In 1976-1977, the Soviet Union issued a com-
adjacent in violet. This cachet is observed on all memorativeseriesofstampshonoringtheicebreak-
fleet stationery from this period, ers (Scott nos. 4532-4536, 4579-4585), and a
Upon arrival at Port Dikson, the cover was souvenirsheet(Scottno.4586)tohonorthefirsttrip
transferred to the icebreaker "Sibir"' to complete its of an atomic icebreaker, the "Arktika," from
journey to North Pole Station No. 29. On board ship Murmansk to the North Pole. Only the souvenir
a postmark was applied to the cover which reads sheet is illustrated in this article-after the covers.
"Atomic Icebreaker Sibir"' dated 3 June 1987.

Rossica Journal Number 121 17
October 1993

... p.."0A "0" D O I0. o .Ok.

n~ te miNIAtii npQ npHirNi c>> MKTI QIIU>

'- -
10 05 87

ep all noi -31"
fA / ________


"- 4

Cover number 2. To North Pole Station No. 31, via "Admiral Makarov."

1 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993
Rosia ouna Nmbr 2

-V .

SL -r

- "-... .. ...'-" _-

:' wmuri *urfC DpenopNln lum EsU ln *uaj aml

Cover number 3. To Leningrad via "parokhod, A rkhangel'sk-Mezen."

In the late 1970s, the Soviet Union issed a series of 18 stamps and a souvenir sheet to commemorate
the icebreakers.
1976 series, Scott Nos. 4532-4536

"Pilot" "Ermak"-built in Newcastle in 1899 "Vladimir Ilich"


"Fedor Litke" "Krasin"


Rossica Journal Number 121 19
October 1993

1977 series, Scott Nos. 4579-4586

"Dezhnev" "Sibir'" Diesel-Electric "Lena"

Diesel-Electric "Amguema"
-_ .1

Souvenirsheet (Scotto.4586) honoringthe atomic-poweredicebreaker"Arktika,"
"20ehne Sibir' iesel-Electric Lenaumber 121
S-October 1993AM
^-----5^^ -^^ ^ ^ '^

Diesel-Electric "Amguema"

r: nO4TA I


JY 322961

Souvenirsheet (Scott no. 4586) honoring the atomic-powered icebreaker "Arktika,"
the first ship to travel from Murmansk to the North Pole on 9-17 August 1977.
"20 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

1978 series, Scott Nos. 4721-4726

.. .......... .......

"Vasilii Pronchishchev" "Moskva"

.. .... .

CL 0

"Kapitan Belousov"

"Admiral Makarov" Atomic-powered "Arktika"

Atomic-powered "Lenin"

Rossica Journal Number 121 21
October 1993

Introduction of Registration Labels in Russia, 1899

by Noel Warr

Russia introduced registration labels in 1899, on these labels, which were nearly all in Cyrillic
which was quite late for such an innovation. Prior to script. Later, from 1900 on, labels on internal mail
the introduction of labels, registered correspon- were in Cyrillic with the abbreviation "Z" for
dence was annotated with either "Zakaznoe" (Rus- "Zakaznoe." Items going abroad received a label in
sian) or "Recommand6e" (French), less usually Latin script with "R" for "Recommand6e." This
"Recommandirt" (German) using manuscript en- practice continued throughout the Imperial period
tries or private handstamps for the purpose. Occa- and beyond. There were occasional slip-ups -
sionally both Cyrillic and Latin forms are encoun- sometimes a "Z" label was used instead of an "R"
tered on a cover. This practice continued after the label and itwould be replaced or covered overby the
introduction of labels. These annotations were ac- correct label. The 1899 labels have not been seen in
companies by a manuscript number usually in- use in any other year and are superseded by the "Z"
scribed on the front of the cover in the upper left- and "R" labels from the beginning of 1900. [D.
hand corer. Often these marks are seen used in Skipton has one from Simferopol' 21 Apr. 1900-Ed.]
conjunction with an official mark defined as a Moscow also began using labels in 1899 and
dotted "R" in a circle- the earliest known example introduced the "R" labels which came into use in the
is 3 January 1884 on a cover from Moscow to rest of the empire only in 1900. In fact, the earliest
Copenhagen. The use of this dotted "R" mark also Moscow label I have is an "R" label. Additionally,
continued after the introduction of labels. In St. Moscow "R" labels used during the Imperial period
Petersburg, special handstamps similar in form to were different from those in use in the rest of the
the later paper labels were in use prior to 1899. empire in that the "R" was on the right-hand side of
Series of nine articles on registration in Russia the label instead of the left-hand side.
was published in the British Journal of Russian _
Philately (BJRP), Nos. 52 to 62. Additionally, an / E C 0 MMAN DJ RT
article in BJRP 64 covers the introduction of auto- 3 A A H E
mated machines for the receipt and stamping of ./
registered mail. On reading the first of these articles
my initial reaction had been "Who's interested in c ma de
registration labels?"After reading it, I became more C
interested in the subject and quickly became fasci- t
nated by the topic, especially as it unfolded over this .A '
series of articles. The earliest label reported to date
(BJRP 55) is 3 January 1899 on a cover from EarlyformsofstampedregistrationmarksinRussian,French,
Kremenchug to Dresden with a Kremenchug sta- German. On the left is a dotted "R" in circle, on the right and
below the words spelled out.
tion label. In BJRP 58, November 1981, a summary below the words speed out.
of the fifteen 1899 labels reported in the articles is
presented. Since then I have added others to my /)
collection which are reported here for the first time: C7,C t A c ,t a
it is mere coincidence that six of these happen to be
from Poland since only two of the fifteen labels in C -,.
BJRP 58 were from Poland-both from Warsaw.
The 1899 labels are quite varied and often very
attractive. With the exception of labels used in Early forms of manuscript registration marks.
Moscow, there was no mention of "Registration"
22 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

Three Polish labels on covers from Lodz' to Two cover fronts from Warsaw have labels
Helsingfors (Helsinki): similar to those reported in BJRP. The labels are
printed in black on white paper,
The first, from February 1899, has an imperfo- printed in bak o hite paper
rate label, black printing on white paper, "Lodz' imperforate. The first reads
V Psrcu ~sa "Varshava Tsentral'naya Poch-
P.T.K. [Post-and-Telegraph Kontora (Office)] FeVarhava Tntora 17 [alt in
Petrok G. [province] 207" accompanied by a single toaya Kntor 187 [alrd
manuscript to 186]" -Warsaw
circle cancellation "Lodz' Central Post Office 18ith a
flesp n. T. Petrok. G. 9 Pocht. Tel. Kont.
Uerpo r. ,, single-circle cancel of 7 April
20 17 II 18-99. It has a hand 1899, a hand-stamped "Zakaznoe," and a manu-
0-7-- -1-9- stamped "Zakaznoe" and manu-
-script 3079-again to Helsingfors.
script Nos. 922, 391, and 1571 on the front. On the Te seond lael reas "ars
The second label reads "Varshava Gorodskaya
reverse side are transit marks from St. Petersburg on P Kontora 452"
.o -r".^, ^ Pochtovaya Kontora 452" -
18 and 19 February and a Helsingfors arrival mark i .WarsawTownPostOfi 452-
Z5 p *I 1. Warsaw Town Post Office 452
of 3 March. Finland, unlike the rest of the Empire, drp.xo -with a manuscript"3 for the
rapSACKSMa -With amanuscript"3"Yforthe
used the Gregorian or New Style calendar instead of A. .
7. *' ] 3rd Town Post Office. An ac-
the Julian or Old Style calendar. In the 19th century 3 T n P A
.2 -icompanying cancel of 4 Au-
there were 12 days difference between them. Thus, 452.t 1899, a manning cancl of 4
gust 1899, a manuscript "93,"
this cover was posted on 17 February old style or 1 I and a dotted in circle
Marc new style. 41 and a dotted "R" in circle -
March new style.
sent to Leipzig.
A similar cover from 21 July 1899 but with the se to Leipzi
A cover from Narva to Southampton has a very
label perforate. The manuscript number in the up- ver rm Narva t thampt ha a very
small, simple label that reads "Narva 949," accom-
per left-hand comer is 904, which corresponds with .
Sthe number on sthe panied by a single-circle datestamp "Narva St.
the number on the
S- label. Addition- Petersburg g. (province) Pocht. Tel. Kont. (serial)
et-H : iO\ label. Addition-
"[ n l b. AT '2 18 II 18-99," a manuscript
It fr l ally, there is a Hara'
al t h e is a 1"Zakaznoe," a dotted "R" in
manuscript"610," a dotted "R" in
n \- circle and blue lines, a London
w/ manuscript "Za-
SmanuscriptZa- registration mark of 6 March, and a Southampton
kaznoe" mark, a
Skaznoe" mark, a arrival mark of 6 March.
..... a ..... t il transit mark from
A cover front from Riga to Cambridge with a
St. Petersburg of 24 July, and a Helsingfors arrival p o
mark of 6 August. perforate label, black printing on copper green
mark of 6 August. paper reading "Riga Tsentr. Pocht. Kont. No.54 lit"
The third cover from Lodz' has an imperforate -Riga Central Post Office
--Riga Central Post Office
label that reads "Lodz' 1 gor. P.O. [1st Town Post .. e o
I No. 54 letter-accompanied
Branch Office] Petrok. g. 781" rp. byasingl -circlecane "Riga
JIlolk I rtn. n. o. 5 r i by asingle-circlecancel Riga
11oA3 I tP. 0. and is accompanied by a single- ..1 Pocht. K a (ria)
HeTpox. r. Pochtov. Kontora (serial)'3'
[ T]/i 1 circle cancel "Lodz'lEGorodsk. Pochtov. Kotr ia 'Y
178 1 circlecancel"Lodz 18Gorodsk 4 XII 18-99," a manuscript "Recom-mand6e," blue
Pocht. Otd.5 IV 18-99," manu-
SPoc. d 5 manu- lines, and a dotted "R" in circle. There is a London
script and handstamped "Zakaznoe," and a manu-
transit mark of 19 December.
script "2722." There is a St. Petersburg transit mark b
This imperforate label is on a cover from Riga
of 7 April and a Helsingfors arrival mark of 20 his ierorate l l is o a or ro
April. to St. Petersburg, with black
printing on white paper read-
A similar cover is from Tomashov Ravskii, ing a telegr" -Ra
Petrok. province to Helsingfors with an imperforate P' 1'a "Riga t
S label and a handstamped TCrp Telegraph-with a manu-
o script 976. The label is ac-
Tonawos Pa.BCHid' "Zakaznoe," a manuscript 3686, script e label s c-
erio. r. companies by a single-circle
mailed on 13 February 1899 i
12 cancel"TelegrafnayaStants."
... , and arriving on 28 February. ---
Rossica Journal Number 121 23
October 1993

-Telegraph Station-of 3 April 1899, and The remaining two St. Petersburg items are
"Pochtov. Kontora."-PostOffice-(serial)"l"of from Telegraph offices. The first item has a single
4 April 1899. A St. Petersburg arrival mark on 5 circle cancel reading "SPburg
April is also noted. C.-tMep6'pn,. Vlll- Gor. Tel. Kont. (serial) '1'
From St. Petersburg we have a fine early usage rop. Tea. 20 11 18-99" the 8th City
of a label in French, printed in black on red paper Mi K uT. Telegraph Office, which was lo-
reading "St. P6tersbourg R No. 11" with a manu- I 77, cated at the District Court house,
script "4" in the Liteinyi Prospect (according to
space allotted im- BJRP 46). Additionally, there is
mediately before a dispatch mark of the St. Petersburg Town Post
"St. P6tersbourg."It from the same day. The label is printed in black on
is accompanied by a off-white paper reading "S.-Petersburg. Gor. Tel.
S single-circle cancel No. 8 (in manuscript) Kont. No. 779."
in violet ink reading The second item is similar: to Magdeburg with
"St. Petersburg 4 a single-circle cancel reading "SPburg XXXIV-
Otdelenie [Branch] [serial] '1' 13 1 18-99." Addi- Gor. Tel. Kont. [serial] '1' 22 XII 18-99" -the
tional marks noted include a manuscript '3687;' a 34th City Telegraph Office, which was located at
"B 1.25;" a double circle "St. Petersburg 5 Ehksp." No. 33, 2nd line, Vasil'evskii Island. The label has
13 January and 2- Jan 99. The cover is addressed to a manuscript "34 6" in the space allowed between
Deventer, Holland. No. and Kont. This label is tied by a handstamped
The next three examples are similar to each pre-label mark in reddish purple ink reading "R St.
other, with the label also black on red paper. The Petersbourg XXXIV No ........" with a manuscript
first cover's label reads "SPB Pochtamt No. 568 "Recommand6e/Zakaznoe" and "236." The cover
S '.^.......^e Lit." with an added hand was dispatched by the 5th dispatch office on 22
SPIIO I :. stamped"B."Theaccom- December 1899 and arrived in Magdeburg Buckau
-: paying postmark is from on 5 January 1900.
S56 the 1st Dispatch office,
S ; : serial 11, dated 13 April
S 4 1899. The cover was sent
to Helsingfors where it arrived on 26 April 1899. A
handstamped "Zakaznoe," manuscript numbers "1"
and "2772" are also noted.
The next two examples are similar to the previ- C.- ITeP6yprr.
ous label except that they represent a different Pop. Tej..
printing with the addition of parentheses between o
which the letter is stamped. The first example l880
illustrated below (on the left) has a letter "A" and is. "
dated 21 April. The second example (on the right) I ..
has a letter "F" (G) and is dated 24 July.

CHI. | ----U T
C l 1 aMi C.E. o0iWamT.I Saving the best for last, we will take a look at
A' 4 ." 767 7 four covers from Moscow, all from 1899, two with
a. (' the "typical" 1899 label and two with the label
: introduced in 1900 for the rest of Russia.

24 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

The first "typical" label is printed in black on tersburg transit mark on 3 June. There is a stamped
yellow paper reading "Moscow Pochtamt 695 L" "Zakaznoe" and a manuscript "2025" on the front.
with a handstamped "E' These are internal items using Cyrillic labels: the
-' ..(Pochtamt = Main Post Of- "R" labels were not used since- as was customary
Mloce fice) and sent to Bukhara later the "R" labels were for use on items sent to
S95. where it arrived on 23 March foreign destinations.
1899. The accompanying The "R" labels are known from January 1899.
cancellation is that of the 1st The "R" label shown here is on a cover sent to
Dispatch Office, 13 March 1899. There is a stamped Trondheim, Norway
"Zakaznoe," a manuscript "A 390" and other marks J.i oscou. T on 12 March 1899.
on the cover. | ;R The label is all red
printing on white pa-
per reading "Moscou
i96. Moc.a. McHOxa. no,,. a .. No. 680 R." It was dispatched by the 4th Dispatch
Office on 12 March 1899, bears a Finnish TPO, a
transit mark from Kristiania of 28 March, and an
"arrival mark from Trondheim of 29 March. On the
front of the cover is a stamped "Recommand6e," a
S"dotted-R-in-circle" mark, manuscript numbers
"237" and "40/3." On reverse side of the cover is a
manuscript "159."
Another "R" label shown here is similar and
addressed to London. The cover was dispatched by
P the 4th Dispatch
Office on 30 April
4 1899 and arrived in
/ __ -aLondon on 16 May.
On the front of the
cover is a stamped "Recommandirt/Zakaznoe;" a
"dotted R in circle" mark; blue lines; a manuscript
"23y" in the top left; a manuscript "30" in the center.
On the reverse side is a manuscript "15." It is
"interesting to note that the 1900+ Moscow "R"
S.....--,-,. labels were the same as these 1899 labels except that
the number was printed in black and the rest of the
label in red.
1899 is a very interesting year for registered
Moscow--the Main Post Office.: card printed in July 1912. mail in Russia and surely much more remains to be
discovered about it. Perhaps some member has a
The second label is similarbuthas ahandstamped sufficient accumulation of covers (or access to)
"7" to left of the number and an "A" to right. The from St. Petersburg, Warsaw, or some other loca-
cover is addressed to Helsingfors where it arrived tion during the year 1899 and could follow-up on
on 16 June 1899. The ac- this brief look through the window into labels used
.-I companying cancellation in Russia in 1899.
S iMoc a 1is from the 7th Town I would be very appreciative if any member can
: (.o1. 1.. Postal Branch Office on 2 add new information to this article and would like
June 1899 with a St. Pe- to hear from those members.

Rossica Journal Number 121 25
October 1993

Looking at the Romanov Essays

by Leonard Tann

It is true to say that virtually nothing has ap- and 10-kop. types were reproduced again in his
peared in the pages of the Russian Society journals frame design for the Nicholas II essay. This design
over the years on the Romanov Jubilee essays. The shows a great deal of "scroll work" with laurels
articles in the British Journals of the 1950s by the around the base of the portrait. Figure la shows the
late and respected Dr. Gregory Salisbury on the completed type, this being in sepia with an incom-
whole spectrum of the Romanov issue touched on plete frame line on the left. Figure lb shows a
the essays in passing. Perhaps because they are all similar essay with the frame in blue, the portrait in
very scarce and not issued eventually dulls the black, and given the notional value of 10kop.
interest. But in this, the 80th year of this fascinating
andhistoricissue, it is time tolook at one of the essay
types. I have had a bare handful of essays for some
time and acquired a few more recently, which
enables me to make comparisons and tentatively
draw some conclusions. I am obliged indeed to
friend and fellow collector John Myke of Canada.
We exchanged photocopies and comments, all of _
which are included in these notes. Figure la on the left shows completed type; lb on the right
The first portrait of Nicholas II was executed by shows same with notional value. Both these essays are
Louis Eugene Mouchon of France. It was a three- enlarged.
quarter face looking to the (observer's) right. It was
"head and shoulders," the Tsar wearing a uniform Partly because of the retouching of the beard,
showing an epaulette on the right shoulder and mustache, and other details, the essay has the ap-
decorative cords crossing his chest. The oval was pearance of a "caricature!" Or, as John Myke de-
executed inhorizontal wavy lines-the background, scribed it "sort of a Van Dyke look."
the face and forehead, and the shading of the Figure 2 shows two three-quarter face essays,
uniform. There are several stages of this essay, but also in the "scroll frame." Although at first glance
all show the same horizontal wavy-line format, they appear to be the same as those in fig. 1, closer
although with differences in heavy and light shad- inspection shows the portrait to be quite different.
ing. There was some retouching of the beard and The first thing is that the portrait, background, and
mustache and to the "central hair curl" as well. shading on the uniform are not made up of wavy
Richard Zarrinsch designed a frame to accom- horizontal lines, but of crosshatchingg." Second,
modate this oval portrait. Working on stamp de- the portrait is much more "real" and has none of the
signs since at least 1888, he perfected the designs caricature or Van Dyke appearance. Third, the head
for the 1-rub. value and the matching miniatures- is slightly more upright. This essay is known printed
the 4-, 10-, 20-, and 50-kop.-and produced the on stamp paper and perforated. The two items in fig.
magnificent designs of the 5-and 10-rub. stamps in 2 are in tawny-brown and dull olive-green, respec-
1906. The new 1909 values, 1-10-kop. stamps, tively. I think that these essays on paper and perfo-
were his work, adapting the 10-rub. design for rated are not given any notional values. Only one or
smaller types. His basic concept of a "Pochtovaya two of the essays imperforate on card are given
Marka" ribbon at the top with curled buckles on values.
both ends, a value tablet at the base, assorted laurels, Figure 3 shows the frame essay, the "scroll
and scroll work are all seen in the 10-rub. and low type." This is in black on card with the center blank.
value stamps and in the rejected cliches of the 7-

26 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

.r .... Fleurons

... .......... ... ...Type I. .Type II.


e 2. E d t a. 8 lines of shading a. one line of shading.
Figure 2. Enlarged three-quarterface essays. over fleuron fleuron is clear.
b. lines of shading in b. lines of shading in curl
curl of ribbon separate of ribbon come down
0____ Mfrom one point

There are two or three differences that I noticed
and John drew my attention to a couple more. These
include: different lines of shading inside the curl of
the "Pochtovaya Marka" ribbon; variations in shad-
ing on some of the leaves in the laurels and around
the frame; and the top half of the frame around the
Figure 3. Fraine essay, portrait-the area from the scroll ornament at the
top of the leaves on one side to the "pair" on the
While the frames in figs. la and 2 appear to be other side, the lines of shading vary between the two
similar, there are some immediately noticeable types.
minor variations, which suggest to me two types. In I would like to suggest that the Type I frame
the top "Pochtovaya Marka" ribbon, at the left end with the Mouchon "caricature" essay came first and
there is a curly buckle reminiscent of the rejected was rejected.I would suggestthatRichard Zarrinsch
style on the essays for the 7- and 10-kop. Arms in had the portrait re-drawn while at the same time
1908. The curly buckle has at the end a "fleuron." making a few retouches to the frame resulting in the
On the essays shown here in fig. la and the frame in more realistic portrait and a frame with minor
fig. 3, there are several lines of light shading across variations.
the fleuron to the edge of the ribbon. The two "scroll Let me add that the two types of portrait-Type
ornaments" at the base of either side of the central 1 the "caricature" and Type 2 the "realistic" re-
"shield" to accommodate the figure have curling drawn type exist also in the second type of frame
lines of shading going upwards in the same direc- designed by Zarrinsch, the "laureated" frame which
tion as the scrolls and have two lines at the base has much more foliage with cords of leaves across
going across. The frames on the essays illustrated in the top and down the sides.
fig. 2 have only a single line of shading under the These types were completely rejected and, as
fleuron by the buckle in the top ribbon and on the we know, the stamps issued depicting Tsar Nicho-
base scrolls there is "cross-hatching." las II show an (almost) full face in frames. The
Tentatively, I would call the "Scroll Essay" issued stamps were also designed by Zarrinsch.
with the several lines of shading across the fleuron As was mentioned in my notes in the last
in the top ribbon plus other variations Type 1. The Rossica journal on the Romanov stationery proofs,
other type with only one line of shading by the these essays continued in production and discus-
fleuron and cross-hatching on the base scrolls sion into 1912 before being scrapped and replaced
would be Type 2. by the issued types.

Rossica Journal Number 121 27
October 1993


c d c d

Type I Type II

c. 8 lines of shading. c. 6 lines of shading, 2 cross
No shading in top of lines at base. Some tiny traces
right-hand scroll, of shading on top of right-hand
d. 7 lines of shading scroll.
d. 5 lines of shading, 2 cross lines
at base.

This is a very interesting aspect of the Romanov Jubilee issue and I hope that other collectors who have
some of these magnificent essays might comment on my notes here, perhaps adding to them, and defining
these two types of portrait and frame more clearly.
Just a final note on the accepted type of portrait for Nicholas II. Shown here are various proof types
of the portrait by Richard Zarrinsch illustrating rejected and accepted (far right) portraits, all with
horizontal line shading. There were different plates of the accepted portrait for the 7-kop., 10-kop., and
5-rub. stamps.


[The Romanov essays and proofs have always been illusive items to find at auctions and from reputable dealers. After
the untimely death of Norman Epstein, his accumulation of several hundreds became available once again for
collectors. However, the price per item is not inexpensive. Leonard Tann and other collectors have purchased a few
of these items and are now examining them very carefully for probably the first time since Greg Salisbury wrote
briefly about them in the 1950s. Eventually, the information that the philatelic community has at its finger tips on the
subject will catch up with the rest of this most fascinating issue of imperial Russia.-Ed.]

28 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

Romanov Jubilee Stamps and Postal Stationery Used at
Field Post Offices During WW1

by Alexander Epstein

When Russia entered WWI on 23 July (5 Au- Figure 1 illustrates a picture postcard which
gust) 1914, stamps and postal stationery from the was franked with a 3-kop. Romanov stamp and sent
1913 Romanov Jubilee issue were in wide use to Moscow. The stamp received a standard double-
throughout the empire. From the beginning, a vast ring postmark of FPO 113 on 17 October 1915.FPO
network of field post offices (FPO) operated in all 113 was attached to Supreme headquarters (Stavka)
the military theaters of the Russian forces. of the Russian Commander-in-Chief, who from
Russia, like other countries, extended free mail August 1915 was the Emperor Nicholas himself.
services to its military personnel for ordinary corre- The postcard was posted in Mogilev, which is
spondence, the bulk of which was posted at field or where the headquarters were located. The message
state post offices. Internal overweight letters (above appears to have been written by a woman who came
30 g.), money transfer orders, parcel cards, printed to Mogilev to be with her husband, a serviceman
matter, and all mail abroad required franking ac- and probably an officer assigned to the headquar-
cording to the current rates. Additionally, mail sent ters. This may explain why the postcard was posted
by civilians through FPOs was also subject to at the FPO rather than at the town post office of
prepayment. Therefore, adhesives and postal sta- Mogilev.
tionery, including those of the Romanov Jubilee Figure 2 illustrates a money transfer form sent
issue, were sold at FPOs. Stamps canceled with to Warsaw (from the collection of D. Galishnikov).
postmarks of the FPOs, especially when attached to A 15-kop. stamp is canceled with the postmark of
postcards and covers, are not common and difficult Reserve FPO 143 on 25 April 1915, at which time
to find. In this article I will describe and illustrate the RFPO was attached to the 59th Infantry Divi-
some covers and loose stamps from my collection sion, located somewhere in Russian Poland.
and those of other collectors who were kind enough During the early period of Russia's involve-
to provide information. ment in the war, limited success was achieved,


Figure 1.
Rossica Journal Number 121 29
October 1993

IEPEBOJIb no [O1 1.T

xyyLo(a 0; t "3 ....l

tf l, as..$.. _J^ Ui\4 '

Figure 2.
especially on the Southwestern Front against the attached to the Army (i.e., medical personnel like
Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the summer nurses, etc.) as well as local inhabitants who were
an4 fall of 1914, Russian troops occupied all of deprived of any other kind of postal service were
Eastern Galicia and considerable parts of Western served by these FPOs. Stamps canceled at Russian
Galicia and Bukovina including such big towns as field post establishments can be considered as "Used
L'vov (Lemberg), Stanislav (Stanislavov), and Abroad."
Chemovtsy (Czemovitz). Russian troops were sta- During the first weeks of the war, field post
tioned near Cracow and held the passes in the establishments, at least the Corps FPOs, used single-
Carpathian Mountains, threatening Hungary. A or double-ring datestamps with the name of the
large number of Russian FPOs were functioning in military formation to postmark mail and cancel
the area until the summer of 1915 when the counter stamps. However, such cancellers were prohibited
offensive of the Germans and Austrians forced the for reasons of security by a special order from the
Russian troops to abandon most of the occupied Commander-in-Chiefs Chief-of-Staff on 30 July
territories. Some of these FPOs were not attached to 1914. Before new devices indicating only the FPO
any particular military formation (army, corps, Nos. or serial letters were manufactured and re-
divisions, etc.) but operated as sedentary postal ceived by the FPOs, field post establishments on the
establishments at certain towns, most often at rail- Southeastern Front provisionally used semi-mute
way stations. Many of the Russian FPOs in Galicia triangular cancellations with the number of the FPO
served not only the military personnel but also the inside the triangle. The next three examples illus-
civilian populace, who were principally employees trate postmarks of this type used in September and
of the Russian Civil Administration formed in October 1914.
Eastern Galicia. Additionally, various personnel
30 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

A view postcard of Brody (not shown), a town
and railway station in Eastern Galicia near the
border with the Russian Empire and now a part of
Ukraine, was sent from Brody to Vesenberg
(Rakvere in present day Estonia) at the beginning of
October. The franking consists of a 2- and a 3-kop.
Romanov stamp making the total franking 5-kop.
Such over-franking was not uncommon during the gu
period from the end of 1914 to 15 August 1917. The A postal stationery card with a Romanov 3-
confusion comes from the fact that internal rates for kop. indicium (fig. 4 from the Tann collection) sent
ordinary letters rose from 7-kop. to 10-kop. on 21 to Helsingfors bears a triangular cancellation of
September but the rates for postcards remained Corps FPO 20, which was attached to 18th Army
stable-even though some people thought they also Corps. On 7 October 1914, when the message was
had risen. The stamps are canceled with a triangle written, this Corps was a part of 9th Army, which
with the number "107" inside, which was used by was located in the Sandomir area in the southern
Reserve FPO 107. RFPO 107 was located at Brody part of Russian Poland-outside Galicia.
and conducted postal operations from August 1914 It is worth mentioning that the Scharfenberg's
until July 1915 when it was evacuated and subse- collection catalog edited by O. Riep in 1925 in-
quently closed. cludes a photo of a 7-kop. Romanov stamp bearing
Another triangle on a loose 15-kop. stamp is a triangle with the number "10" and mentions
shown in fig. 3. It is a provisional postmark of the similar cancellations with a "1" and "26." Many
Reserve FPO 114, which was located at the L'vov others should also exist. It seems that not only
railwaystationuntilJunel914.Atleastthreeslightly triangular postmarks were used by the FPOs as a
different type of this postmark are known. provisional measure, but also other forms such as

,. (. ,.' ,

e7/ / /1

ct--- ./

Figure 4.

Rossica Journal Number 121 31
October 1993

the two-line cancellation on the 7-kop. stamp for a train to Kamenets. She had spent 5 days in
illustrated in fig. 5. Unfortunately this violet post- Sambor and 2 weeks in L'vov.
mark is not complete: only the words "polevaya" In addition to Reserve FPO 114, which opened
(field) and "kont ..." (probably a part of "kontora" soon after the taking of L'vov by Russian troops on
or office) are found on the stamp, so the postmark 21 August, another field post establishment, the
cannot be identified. Presumably, such cancella- L'vov Control FPO which opened in December
tions were used at the Northwestern Front. 1914, operated simultaneously with FPO 114. Fig-
ure 7 (from the Tann collection) is a pair of 1-kop.
stamps canceled with a postmark from the Control
FPO on 15 March 1915. It should be noted that this
date is approximately one month after the Control
I FPO was upgraded to a Main FPO and apparently
had not yet received new cancellers.

Figure 5.

One more item from FPO 114 is illustrated in
fig. 6. This postcard displays a picture of L'vov and
is franked with a 3-kop. stamp canceled on 27
December 1914 with a standard double-ring post-
mark. The message-a New Year greeting-was F e
written by a woman waiting at the railway station

'II -
-' 1 '

St C"[

h-igure 6.
.'. .. .

32 Rossica Journal Number 121

October 1993
a.f ^Cj "c <.^ ....../: \; C 4 *?

'<" .. .,., 6Z, .. jI-._\
^ -- ^i,-) .,r ^ n '. /.< <, i- .. .. "4, -C

1anaTeJbcrno ,,A I'.P ;'iio, i.h' ,' i:i'^4.
W yd'l'i ctu o .Anr)yi',', LvU,H 1I11. '

Figure 6.
32 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

The picture postcard in fig. 8 (with a view of a civilian or an officer-in the latter case, the
Przemysl) was sent from this town to Petrograd on postage stamp would be unnecessary. The message
21 March 1915, which is 15 days after the Russian provides no clues.
11th Army captured this Austrian fortress, follow- One more picture postcard, this time from Rava
ing blockade of several months. The 3-kop. stamp Russka, a small town about 60 km to the northwest
is canceled with a double-ring postmark of FPO of L'vov, is illustrated in fig. 10. A 3-kop. bears the
120, which was attached to the 11th Army head- cancellation "Line-of-Communications (Eh-
quarters. The message was evidently written by a tapnoye)" P.T.O. No. 214, which was located at this
functionary attached to the fortress' quartermaster town without any particular attachment. The writer
service. In addition to FPO 120, FPO 152with serial came to Rava Russka from L'vov and was waiting
letter "11" also was assigned to Przemysl during the for a train.
Russian occupation.


Wl^ -*~ ld^^. *^ 15 ^ 'is

/c .: "^ ^.......................

.' ^ C^ r /

Figure 8.
ThemessageonthepicturepostcardofStanislav The last example (fig. 11) is a 3-kop. postal
(fig. 9) appears to have been written on 29 January stationery card canceled with a double-ring stan-
1915 in Stanislav. A 3-kop. stamp is canceled with dard postmark of FPO 26, which was attached to
a standard postmark of Reserve FPO 128 on 8 24th Army Corps. By the date of the cancellation-
February. It is unclear why there was a 10-day gap -8 January 1915-this Corps was a part of 3rd
between the date of the message and the date of the Army, which was fighting in the mountains in the
cancellation. Although FPO 128 had been up- southern partof westernGalicianearZmigrod.This
graded to a Corps FPO two months earlier and is a pure military usage of the postal stationery as a
attached to 30th Army Corps, it still used the former blank sent free. The message is to a soldier's mother
Reserve FPO canceller. There is also a partially at Kublich, Podolia province and reads "By orders
readable military cachet to the left of the stamp. of the regiment commander, this is to let you know
Only the word "strelkovyi" (rifle) can be deci- that your son, Joseph Sturman, was killed in action
phered so it might have been a rifle regiment. against the Austrians on the 3rd ofOctober [1914]."
Therefore, it is unclear whether the card was sent by
Rossica Journal Number 121 33
October 1993
October 1993

/ ",- ,, i
12 16

...- . .-- (.
,. -

Figure 10.

SOctober 1993. "

,.<*.,,Z S ..,v.,,,... ,,.<,; ., ,. ,.., ,-

I '. ; ^ / ^'! -. ,

Figure 10.

October 1993

j r rl FITOBAur [\I A.I

.. .. .. 1 | ) ""-""/ { -" '" ,/*,

." '*

/^T^' *he \irst 'Augut '( st"-') i

.I--. \ ..... ... ..-.
**.:, -" """r ("" ^- -

....... .......... ... <>,/ "< < ".7(-

Figure 11.

Readers are advised to check their collections occupation of parts of Turkey and Persia
for other items with Romanov stamps used at the (1916-1917); and on Romanian territory (end
FPOs. Correspondence and stamps canceled at of 1916-1917)
Russian FPOs during: are all of special interest.
"* the first (August 1914) and second (Novem-
ber 1914-January 1915 ) advance into East- [Member Mark Tartakovskiy reminds me to point out
ern Prussia; that mail to military personnel from civilians and mail
"e Prss ua t from military personnel to civilians was not charged
thesecondoccupationofGalciaandBukovina postage. However, mail that passed through the FPO
(June 1916-June 1917); system going from from non-military to non-military
had to be appropriately franked.-Ed.]

From the Belkin Books

translated by George G. Wcrbizky

Post-and-Telegraph Journal No. 39, 23 Post-and-Telegraph Journal No. 44, 14
July 1888, the following heading was re- July 1888, the following heading was re-
corded: corded:

"Concerning the travel of postal wagons No.87 and "Concerning transporting of mail along the
88 between Lukovo (J1YKOBO)and Granitsa Novorossiisk railway line.
(FPAHHLIA) instead of between Lukovo and No. 121-Tikhoretskaya-Novorossiisk
Dombrov (IOMBPOBb) ." (I HxopeLUKasq-HoBOpOCCHIMCKb)
[no further text provided-TR] No. 122 Novorossiisk-Tikhoretskaya..."
[no further text provided-TR]
Rossica Journal Number 121 35
October 1993

The Longest Shortest Route

by Michael Ercolini

In the 1880s and a little later around 1900, there The cover took one day to reach to St. Peters-
was a flurry of correspondence from the United burg where it received a routing mark at the
States to a Mr. Edward C. Huff, an American, in Nikolaevskaya terminal and was sent on its way to
Siberia. Most of this correspondence was from a Moscow at the other end of the line, where it
lady in San Francisco who had a supply of these received a Moscow Nikolaevskaya receipt mark.
printed envelopes. She rarely used the correct post- The cover left St. Petersburg on 22 June 1880 and
age, almost always underpaying the amount, but arrived/departed Moscow on 23 June 1880.
this time she actually overfranked by one cent. Mr. No marks are present to indicate how the cover
Huff received his mail in care of Enoch Emery, Esq. reached the next routing point but possibly the
at Nikolaevsk-na-Amure. Not much else is known cover traveled on route no. 33 to Vologda and from
about this mail except there was a lot of it that was there by land to Perm'. At Perm' (station number
sold in the late 1970s in San Francisco. Can any one) the cover was placed on postal wagon no. 81
member enlighten us on the nature of this extensive on 28 June 1880. This is the earliest recorded date
correspondence? for line no.81 which ran from Perm'to Ekaterinburg.
The cover illustrated in this brief article is from From Ekaterinburg, the cover probably trav-
that correspondence in 1880 and is quite interesting. eled the old Siberian post road via Omsk to Irkutsk
The cover is franked with a pair of Scott #184 where it received a transit mark on 21 July 1880.
3-cent American Banknote Company stamps and Although an Irkutsk postmark with posthoms is not
posted in San Francisco on 8 June 1880. rare, they are very scarce. The 21 July 1880 date is
The Siberia destination is itself most unusual the earliest recorded date for a postmark of this
for the US Banknotes. A small mystery surrounds design from Irkutsk. Additionally, the serial num-
thiScover when one observes the notation "Via. St. ber 6 was previously not recorded. It took about as
Petersburg, Russia" in the upper left-hand corer long to get from St. Petersburg to Irkutsk as it did to
on the front of the cover. Why via St. Petersburg? In get from San Francisco to St. Petersburg.
1880 there was no direct route to Siberia across the From Irkutsk the cover probably continued
Pacific Ocean. Therefore, mail destined for Asia along the Siberian post road to Sretensk. The final
would normally travel to Europe and then on to its part of the journey possibly included travel on ships
destination. There are no US routing marks to along the Shilka and Amur Rivers to Nikolaevsk.
indicate how the cover reached the East Coast, if it However, this will remain a mystery since there are
did, or how it crossed the Atlantic, which obviously no marks to verify the route on the cover.
it did. We can assume that the cover reached its des-
The first clue the cover yields about its travels tination since there are no marks indicating that it
is a postal wagon mark for route #4, which runs was returned.
from Verzhbolovo at the Prussian Border to St. This cover offers an interesting glimpse into
Petersburg. The postmark is dated 21 June 1880 (3 postal routing in the last half of the 19th century, yet
July new style) and is of the type introduced in the asks more questions than it answers. Any further
early 1880s. Thus we may assume that the letter information would be greatly appreciated and, if
traveled by ship probably to Hamburg. sufficient, maybe a follow-on article will appear in
It took less than a month to travel from San the future.
Francisco to the Russian border-almost as fast as I wish to thank P.E. Robinson and Howard
the mail today traveling by airplane! Apparently Weinert for their assistance in researching this
this cover made every dispatch point as the next article, George Shalimoff for the photography, and
horse/boat was leaving, our editor for assisting in the layout.
36 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

1. The San Francisco postmark is a single-circle type 23: 27mm, variety #3 from Mahoney's San
Francisco Postal Markings 1847-1900.
2. The postal wagon no. 4 postmark is of the type listed in Figure 404 of Russian Postmarks-An
Introduction and Guide by A. Kiryushkin and P.E. Robinson, published in 1989 by J. Barefoot, p. 61.
3. The Irkutsk posthom mark is Robinson type 475.02 from his book Siberia, Postmarks and Postal
History of the Russian Empire Period, second edition, published in 1990, page 97.

Via. St. Petersburg, R sia.. .

SE a r d C. H u f,
C r Enoc h m e r y, Es q.
J i colaefsk,
Amnoor River, Eastern Siberia.

Front of cover with pair of 3-cent banknote stamps, San Francisco and Irkutsk postmarks.

-- :; -u^ |

Back of cover with postal wagon no. 4 postmark, St. Petersburg and Moscow Nikolaevskaya rail markings,
and postal wagon no. 81 mark.
Rossica Journal Number 121 37
October 1993

Oleg Agafonovich Faberge
(1 August 1923 5 May 1993)

The Russian philatelic world lost one of the guages, his superb mastery of Russian postal his-
truly great collectors of all time when Oleg tory and way of thinking enabled him to communi-
Agafonovich Faberg6 passed away at his residence cate around the world with fellow collectors.
on 5 May 1993. Oleg was considered by many the In June 1988, Oleg Agafonovich displayed his
foremost expert on many aspects of Russian philat- zemstvo collection in the Court of Honor at the
ely, but especially on the zemstvo post, its stamps, Finlandia '88 World Philatelic Exhibition held in
and postmarks. Helsinki. Because of the extraordinary quality,
The name Faberg6 is French and the family scope, and rarity of material displayed, the Phila-
emigrated to Russia through Germany telic Foundation of Finland decided to
and the Baltic countries in the 19th ."` preserve this collection in a book and
century. In 1842 Gustav Faberg6 estab- it provide testimony to the quality of the
lished a jewelry business in St. Peters- collection of Oleg Agafonovich. The
burg. His son, Peter Carl, expanded the book "Imperial Russia Zemstvo Post"
business and built the family house on was compiled by Oleg himself and an
Bol'shaya Morskaya Street where it edition limited to 600 numbered copies
remains to this day. The house is being was published one day after his death.
renovated thanks to a grant from the This book is hard bound and printed on
Los Angeles-based J. Paul Getty Trust. excellent glazed paper. It is an extremely
In succeeding years, the jewelry high quality publication and one Oleg
business passed into the hands of would be proud of.
Agafon, the second oldest son of Peter Carl and the After an introduction section of 8 pages, the
father of Oleg. After the Bolsheviks seized power, next 431 plates/pages are filled with the most mag-
the father was imprisoned for a while. However, in nificent zemstvo stamps, full sheets, covers, errors,
December 1927 the family fled in sleds across the tet6-bech6s All illustrations are accurately
frozen Gulf to Finland where they took up residence portrayed in high-quality color. When illustrating a
in Helsinki. They managed to take with them only postal cover, both sides are presented on the same
a fraction of their belongings including a portion of page-notjust the front or the back. All illustrations
the notable stamp collection of Agafon. appear to have been reduced approximately 5%
Oleg inherited some of the philatelic material which is not enough to prevent accurate measure-
from his father's extraordinary world-wide collec- ments of the cancels and surcharges.
tion. However, a substantial part of his previous Included with the book in a pocket located on
collection was sold in London at auction during the inside of the back cover is a map of the zemstvos.
WWII, much to the dismay of its owner. It wasn't It is an excellent map that is clear and easy to read.
until after the death of Agafon in 1951 that Oleg The book, like the man about whom it speaks,
became a serious collector. However, the zemstvo are clearly two of the outstanding points in Russian
collection he acquired, the knowledge, and love for philately this century. Although a bit expensive at
this pure Russian subject was all of his own doing. US $190, this book is a MUST for all collectors of
Agafon once stated "philately is like a bottom- the Russian Rural Post and postal historians.
less swamp pulling you down into its depths and George G. Werbizky
never letting go." This was the spirit that Oleg
possesses never .tired of correspodin n th [Combining an obituary and a book review is a bit nontradi-
possessed and never tired of corresponding on the
tional. However, I felt that the book simply represents what
subject. The Oleg Faberg6 collection of Russian Oleg Agafonovich was-an outstanding philatelist who will
Postal marks is incredibly vast as was his expertise be greatly missed by the philatelic world. Thanks to R.
in postal history. His proficiency in several lan- Quinby and K. Hellman for the basic information.-Ed.]

38 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

Hold Up to the Light Cards Deltiology (Part 7)

by Dr. William Nickle

Although I have only three "Hold Up to the Card 1 (St. Basil's) and card 2 (Belltower) were
Light" (HTL) postcards with Russian themes, they made in Berlin by W. Hagelberg around 1900. Card
remain one of the most collectible areas ofdeltiology. 3 was cancelled in Kiev in 1905. Card 3 (not shown)
These postcards are much more common in other is interesting because outwardly it appears to be just
countries,. including the United States. I have not a nice picture postcard with a view of a building in
seen'any mechanical postcards of old Russia. Tsarskoe Selo in St. Petersburg province. However,
As you may have guessed by the title, these quite remarkably, when held up to a light source, the
cards are made of three sheets which are glued images of Tsar Nicholas, his wife, and, in a blue
together with the center sheet made from clear or blanket, a young Alexei appear. This card was
colored tissue paper. Images are cut out of the top produced by Kunstanstalt Kosmos of Munich,
and bottom sheets in exactly the same places so that Budapest, and Graz. The card was postmarked
when glued together and held up to a light source, Amsterdam in 1905.
the images are illuminated by the light passing
through the holes. Often these images are windows
ofbuildings, the moon, sun, writings, or greetings of
various types. HTL postcards were usually made
outside of Russia and therefore cost more.

Co6ops, IBaeCn BiEAacejtIIarO IBsiliquc de St. Basikle N ._..,

Card 1. St. Basil's-made in Berlin by W. Hagelberg around Card 2. Belltower---ade in Berlin by W. Hagelberg around
1900. The moon and windows have been cut out to give the 1900. The windows have been cut out to give the impression
impression flight streaming from the windows, and moon- of light streaming from them.
[Both illustrations were darkened to capture the light shining through the cut-away pieces of the postcards-Ed.]

Rossica Journal Number 121 39
October 1993

A Ukrainian Scholar's Comments on the Russian Post
Office in Beirut at the end of the 19th century

by Ian W. Roberts
In October 1896, the Ukrainian scholar A. Yu. week, calling at Brindisi and Alexandria en route. A
Krymsky, who was born in 1871, traveled to Beirut letter sent from Russia with the inscription "Via
to continue the study of oriental languages which he Vienna" on the envelope usually reached Beirut
had begun four years earlier at the Moscow Institute within 8 to 10 days. By contrast, the R.O.P.i T.
of Oriental Languages. During his stay in Beirut, steamers sailing from Odessa to Beirut via
which lasted eighteen months, Krymsky wrote Constantinople only did so twice a month. As a
regularly to his family in Russia. His father lived at result, mail sent to Beirut by this route usually took
Zvenigorodka, a small town south of Kiev. These between 18 and 20 days to reach its destination.
letters are included in the collected edition of Consequently, Krymsky instructed his correspon-
Krymsky's works which was published in Kiev in dents not to make any reference to Turkey in the
1973. Among other things, they contain some inter- address on his mail, since this invariably resulted in
testing snippets of information about the operations its despatch to Odessa for onward transmission to
of the foreign post offices in Beirut during the final Beirut by R.O.P.i T.
decade of the 19th century. Apart from the speedier service provided by the
In 1888 Beirut, which had previously formed Austrian Post office, Krymsky also found out to his
part of the Syrian province (vilayet) of Damascus, annoyance that the Russian post office was some-
became the administrative capital of a new prov- times unable to sell him any stamps to put on his
ince. Many of the city's inhabitants were Christians letters to Russia. On one occasion he stuck the 1-,
and in 1860 the French had intervened to protect 5-, and 7-kopeck values of the 1884 "VOSTOCH-
their rights after a massacre by the Muslims. By the NAYA KORRESPONDENTSIYA" Russian Le-
end of the 19th century the population was esti- vant set on the envelope. In the accompanying letter
mated to be 120,000. The first foreign post office he complained that he had been forced to make
was opened by the Austrians in 1845 and the French arrangements to buy these stamps along with others
followed their example the next year. A Russian from some of the other Russian post offices in the
post office opened shortly after R.O.P.i T. (The Middle East.In addition, he also expressed the hope
Russian Company for Steam Shipping and Trade) that the stamps would not be removed from the
began operations in 1857. Great Britain did not letter by a light-fingered postal worker while it was
open an office until 1873. Mail sent to the foreign in transit to its destination.
post offices had to be collected by the addressee in Krymsky experimented with the use of the
person. However, Krymsky requested his corre- British and French post offices in Beirut and men-
spondents send his mail by registered post ad- tioned in his letters the precise details of the stamps
dressed to the Russian Consulate General, espe- he had stuck on the envelopes. However, he found
cially if it contained money. If this were done, the that neither of these post offices could offer him as
mail would be delivered to him by a local employee rapid a postal service to and from Russia as the
working as a guard (kavas). At that time there were, Austrian post office. In one letter he informed his
according to Krymsky, only eight Russians resident brother that it seemed as if the Russian post office
in Beirut, of whom five were women teachers. existed primarily for the benefit of stamp collectors.
It did not take Krymsky long to discover after Nevertheless, in another letter to his father dated 19
his arrival in Beirut that the Austrian post office February 1897 (old style) he recorded an improve-
provided the quickest service for the despatch of ment in the delivery time of his father's last letter

mail to and from Russia. The Austria-Lloyd steam- dated 6 February (old style). The R.O.P.iT. steamer
ers bound for Beirut sailed from Trieste twice a departed Odessa on 8 February (old style) and
40 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

reached Beirut on 17February (old style),a delivery Empire's regulations and often complained about
time of 11 days. these infringements to the diplomatic representa-
Towards the end of 1897 Krymsky moved tives of the European governments in
away from Beirut to a small town in the Lebanon Constantinople. Their protests were always re-
called Shevir (or Chouier in the French translitera- jected and the foreign post offices continued to
tion of Arabic used by the Turkish post office). This operate in the Ottoman Empire until the outbreak of
move caused him further problems, since the Turk- the First World War. (Germany and Italy both
ish post office at Shevir took three days to send a followed the example of the other European powers
letter from there to Beirut. Krymsky tried to avoid after they had become unified.) Postal operations
this delay by making use of casual messengers, but resumed by some of the European countries after
this procedure did not prove satisfactory, as it was the signature of the Treaty of S6vres in 1920, but
difficult to obtain a receipt and letters were some- three years later the offices were finally closed
times lost in transit to Beirut. when foreign capitulations were abolished.
In order to avoid Turkish customs and censor- On his return to Russia in 1898 Krymsky took
ship, Krymsky advised his family to send books by up a teaching post at his institute in Moscow. In
registered post to the Russian Consulate General in 1918 he became a Professor at Kiev University
Beirut. Provided that they did not exceed the maxi- where he continued to teach oriental languages until
mum permitted weight, they could be sent by the his retirement in 1941. The following year he died.
printed post service (banderol'). The Turkish au- Apart from his academic work, he wrote several
thorities were well aware of the efforts made by novels and many poems.
resident foreign nationals to evade the Ottoman

Transportation of Mail by the Volunteer Fleet Ships, Circular from the
Chief of the Main Post-and-Telegraph Office:
Post and Telegraph Journal, 16 April 1888, No. 24.

translated from the Belkin Books by George G. Werbizky

Previously, insured and regular correspon- (BECTHMKb), all offices are hereby instructed to:
dence between European Russia and the Maritime
Provinces and Sakhalin Island was sent via a land as 1. All correspondence addressed to Vladivostok,
follows: Omsk, Tomsk, and Irkutsk then by ship- Pos'et, Razdol'noe, Nikol'skoe, Kamen'-Rybolov
this route took three months or longer. (Maritime Province), and Aleksandrovskij post
Inorderto speed up the transit of thiscorrespon- (Sakhalin Island) should be collected in Odessa
dence in both directions, starting in April of this during July and August, keeping in mind the depar-
year, mail will be carried by ships of the Volunteer ture date of the last ship to Vladivostok.
Fleet between Odessa and Vladivostok. The first
ship left Odessa bound for Vladivostok on 10 April. 2. During all other periods, the mail will be sent to
Other ships will leave Odessa on the 15th and 25 of Irkutsk via the land route. When the ships travel
August, and ships will leave Vladivostok on 28 from Vladivostok to Odessa, the same types of
May, the 15th, and 20th of October. It takes approxi- correspondence should be sent from the Maritime
mately 45 days for the ships to travel the distance, Provinces and Sakhalin Island to European Russia.
which is approximately half the current time taken
via the land route. Signed: General-Lieutenant Bezak.
As a result of this decision, as well as the notice
published in No. 82 of the Government Journal Seal applied by: Clerk Maksimov
Rossica Journal Number 121 41
October 1993


by Mike Renfro

Sio i.i "i CiT I received this letter from a correspondent in
SlM oscow in M ay. The cover bears a green sticker
C-41. U reading "CCCP MnJOBMEH 20 rp." According to
.-- my correspondent, this allows 20 grams of stamps
-,,,- "/;,o outwithoutany"problems."Acorrespondingbrown
t. mailings. Is this an updated twist on the Philatelic
SExport stamps of the 20s and 30s or simply d6j vu?

Which Came First, the Circle or the Oval?

by P. E. Robinson
It is well known that the vast majority of Impe- Railway Postal Branch Office ()Kejt3HO-
rial Russian postmarks whose inscriptions include nopO)KHoe noMTOBOe OTalnbeHie)--A large
" the word BOK3AJnb or VOKZAL are oval in shape, type of office, situated at a railway station and
and were used at post offices situated at railway administered by the Railway Post Administra-
stations, usually larger ones. However, a number of tion.
circular postmarks exist which include the word Stantsiya (cTaHui )-A smaller type of office at a
VOKZAL. It is sometimes assumed that these are railway station.
railway postmarks of a type similar to the oval Post Office (P. K.-nolToBaB KOHTOpa)-Alarge
marks, but careful study of the known types has office administered by the ordinary Postal De-
shown that the majority of these circular marks was apartment.
used at non-railway offices, that is, offices that Post-Telegraph Office (P. T. K.-fnoToBo-
were administered by the Postal Department, rather TenerpaauHaR KOHTOpa)-A similar office,
than the Railway Post Administration. Dr. Luchnik but with telegraph facilities.
(ref.1) indicated that most of the circularpostmarks Postal Branch-Office (P.O.-lHo-TOBoe
inscribed VOKZAL were not used by Railway Post OTaneHie)-A smaller type of office admin-
Offices, and other authors have commented on this istered by the Postal Department.
subject since then. The purpose of this article is to Post-Telegraph Branch-Office (P. T. O.-
summarize my own observations on these post- (nloqToBr-TejnerpaqHoe oTabneHie)--A
marks, while making it clear that some questions similar office, but with telegraph facilities.
remain to be answered.
First of all, it is necessary to define the various
types of post office referred to here, as follows, with
the abbreviations used:
42 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993


by Mike Renfro

Sio i.i "i CiT I received this letter from a correspondent in
SlM oscow in M ay. The cover bears a green sticker
C-41. U reading "CCCP MnJOBMEH 20 rp." According to
.-- my correspondent, this allows 20 grams of stamps
-,,,- "/;,o outwithoutany"problems."Acorrespondingbrown
t. mailings. Is this an updated twist on the Philatelic
SExport stamps of the 20s and 30s or simply d6j vu?

Which Came First, the Circle or the Oval?

by P. E. Robinson
It is well known that the vast majority of Impe- Railway Postal Branch Office ()Kejt3HO-
rial Russian postmarks whose inscriptions include nopO)KHoe noMTOBOe OTalnbeHie)--A large
" the word BOK3AJnb or VOKZAL are oval in shape, type of office, situated at a railway station and
and were used at post offices situated at railway administered by the Railway Post Administra-
stations, usually larger ones. However, a number of tion.
circular postmarks exist which include the word Stantsiya (cTaHui )-A smaller type of office at a
VOKZAL. It is sometimes assumed that these are railway station.
railway postmarks of a type similar to the oval Post Office (P. K.-nolToBaB KOHTOpa)-Alarge
marks, but careful study of the known types has office administered by the ordinary Postal De-
shown that the majority of these circular marks was apartment.
used at non-railway offices, that is, offices that Post-Telegraph Office (P. T. K.-fnoToBo-
were administered by the Postal Department, rather TenerpaauHaR KOHTOpa)-A similar office,
than the Railway Post Administration. Dr. Luchnik but with telegraph facilities.
(ref.1) indicated that most of the circularpostmarks Postal Branch-Office (P.O.-lHo-TOBoe
inscribed VOKZAL were not used by Railway Post OTaneHie)-A smaller type of office admin-
Offices, and other authors have commented on this istered by the Postal Department.
subject since then. The purpose of this article is to Post-Telegraph Branch-Office (P. T. O.-
summarize my own observations on these post- (nloqToBr-TejnerpaqHoe oTabneHie)--A
marks, while making it clear that some questions similar office, but with telegraph facilities.
remain to be answered.
First of all, it is necessary to define the various
types of post office referred to here, as follows, with
the abbreviations used:
42 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

According to Circular No. 9 of 3 February -8
1903, postmarks for Railway Postal Branch Offices
(RPBO) were to be oval in shape, with the name of 0.. 0 *
the place above and VOKZAL or VOKZ. below. o 23 14 e .4 5 13,
With very few exceptions, this rule was followed :
when postmarks for RPBO were manufactured.
The circular postmarks inscribed VOKZAL that Figure 1 Figure 2.
have been recorded usually (though not always)
have the word VOKZAL in the upper part of the offices. This has been used as the main source for
mark, following the name of the place and often the list of non-railway post offices situated at or
joined to it by a hyphen. These postmarks are near railway stations that accompanies this article,
usually from non-railway "Postal Offices," "Post- though this list may well be incomplete. Some of
Telegraph Offices," or some similar status, the these offices, generally the larger ones, had the
word VOKZAL forming part of the name of the word VOKZAL as part of the name of the office, or
office, indicating its location at or near a railway in the designation of its status in the post office list,
station, the purpose often being to avoid confusion while others, mostly the smaller ones, were evi-
with another, non-railway office nearby. Some dently not regarded as "vokzals." Postmarks from
other postmarks are inscribed PRIVOKZALNYI, these smaller offices are of the standard, non-
meaning that the office was situated in the vicinity railway types, with neither VOKZAL nor ST. for
of a railway station. "stantsiya." The word "vokzal" was in fact a rather
An example of a circular VOKZAL mark is the loose terri, and it evidently did not have any special
postmark inscribed ORSHA VOKZAL (fig. 1). significance in defining the status of a post office.
The official 1916 post office list (ref. 2) tells us that On the list given here, in each case the name of the
Orsha, a very important mail-exchange center, had office is given, and then its status, abbreviated as in
four postal establishments, a RPBO (which had the official list. This is followed by the gubemiya in
oval postmarks of the standard type), a "Stantsiya," which the place was situated. What these offices
a Post-Telegraph Officea "ORSHA," and a further have in common is that they were all situated at or
Post-Telegraph Office "Orsha-VOKZAL." This near railway stations, but in the official post office
last office was situated at or near the railway station, list they have the designation P. O, P. T. O., or P. T.
andwascalledORSHA-VOKZALtodistinguishit K., indicating their non-railway status. In the offi-
from the regular Post-Telegraph Office nearby, cial list, "stantsiya" offices are simply shown as
Thepostmarkinfig. 1 istherefore from the ORSHA- "ST." and RPBOs are shown as "CT. W. A. n. o.";
VOKZALPost-Telegraph Office, and not from the in each case this is followed by an indication of
RPBO. Further evidence of these offices' non- which types of mail the offices handled. The status
railway status is given by fig. 2, the Vil'na postmark of each office is shown in various different ways,
inscribed VIL'NA-VOKZAL. Like Orsha, Vil'na sometimes with the abbreviation "POSEL." for
station had both a RPBO and a Post-Telegraph "POSELOK" or settlement, but it would seem that
Office. This postmark is of the "killer" type with all the offices listed here were administered by the
metal pins, and so was for use on money transfer or Postal Department, and this is borne out by the vast
parcel forms. Neither of these types of business was majority of postmarks recorded from them. With
handled by RPBOs. It is also noticeable that the very few exceptions, postmarks used at these of-
serial letters on circular VOKZAL marks used at fices are found to be circular, as one would expect
larger offices such as Vil'na and Khar'kov are often in the case of offices which belonged to the Postal
late in the alphabet, while true RPBOs rarely used Department. The illustrations show a selection of
any serials other than "a," "b," and "v." these postmarks.
The official post office list for 1916 is a very
useful reference source in regard to Russian post

Rossica Journal Number 121 43
October 1993

Exceptions occur in the case of Samarkand and This is a matter of definition. The offices that used
Sretensk, whose postmarks are oval, perhaps by them were situated at or near railway stations, and
mistake, and also some later postmarks from so they are clearly station postmarks, but these
Khar'kov. The office at Khar'kov station was an officeswere not administered by the Railway Postal
RPBO until its status changed so that it became a Administration, and so a purist might feel that they
non-railway office with the name KHAR'KOV should not be regarded as railway postmarks in the
VOKZAL. From postmark evidence, this change strictest sense.
took place between December 1900 and July 1903. Before the 1903 circular specified changes in
Many different single-and double-ring postmarks postmark design, the postmarks used by RPBOs
inscribed KHAR'KOV VOKZAL have been re- had the name of the place at the top, and
corded from 1903 onwards, but some later post- "ZhELEZNODOR. P. O." or something similar
marks dating from 1917 are unusual, being oval, below. It was the 1903 circular's instruction that
and were described by Rev. L. L. Tann (ref. 3). They these postmarks should be inscribed VOKZAL that
are similar in all respects to the oval postmarks used has led to the confusion in the minds of collectors,
by RPBOs, except for the serials that have been who naturally grouped all their VOKZAL post-
recorded--"s," "f," and "kh"-which would be marks together, both circular and oval. If the in-
very unusual for offices of this type, being near the structions given by the 1903 circular had retained
end of the alphabet. The serials also seem to follow the "ZhELEZNODOR. P. O." inscription for the
on from the sequence established for the circular postmarks of RPBOs, the confusion could perhaps
postmarks, serials from "a" to "p" having been have been avoided. If proof were needed that noth-
recorded for these. It is possible that the status of the ing is straightforward where Imperial Russian
office changed back to that of a RPBO, though this postmarks are concerned, oval postmarks have
does not explain the late serials. These oval post- been recorded from the RPBOs at Bryansk and
marks have also been recorded on registered covers Tikhoretskaya, inscribed ZhEL. DOR. POCH. OTD.
with cachets inscribed "KHAR'KOV/VOKZAL" at the base, instead of VOKZAL.
and "KHAR'KOV VOKZAL/POCHT. TEL. Finally, it should be mentioned that, by mistake
KONTORA," both of which are correct for a non- orotherwise,circularpostmarksinscribedVOKZAL
railway office, but so far, no registered cover with were occasionally issued to actual RPBOes, an
an oval postmark of this type has been seen with a example being a circular postmark inscribed
registration cachet or label inscribed "KHAR'KOV KISLOVODSK/ VOKZAL, recorded from 1916-
Zh. D. P. O." or some other indication of the office's 17. An oval postmark with the same inscription has
RPBO status. Nevertheless, such a change in status been recorded from 1913-15. This office is shown
remains a possibility. It could also be that the oval as a RPBO in the 1916 post office list, and, unless
shape of these postmarks was a mistake, or due to an its status changed to that of a non-railway office in
idiosyncrasy on the part of a local postmaster, or it late 1915 or early 1916, the circular postmark was
may be that in late 1916 or early 1917 the distinc- presumably ordered or manufactured in error.
tion between railway and non-railway station of-
fices was abolished. For sake of completeness, two References:
of these oval "KHAR'KOV/VOKZAL" marks are
illustrated. 1. Dr. N. Luchnik. "Zheleznodorozhnaya pochta
It is therefore clear that, with very few excep- Rossii." Sovetskii Kollektsioner No. 11, 1974.
tions, the vast majority of postmarks recorded from 2. "Spisok mestnikh uchrezhdenii pochtovo-
these offices fits the pattern of types that would be telegrafnago vyedomstva," published by the
associated with non-railway offices, being circular Main Post-and-Telegraph Administration,
and with the appropriate inscriptions. In fact, of the Petrograd, 1916.
85 different postmarks that I have seen,79 are of the 3. Leonard Tann. "Khar'kov a Town Getting
non-railway type. Are they railway postmarks? Above Its Station." Rossica Journal No. 119,
Oct. 1992.
44 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

Illustrations of circular vokzal marks

210 0 ^2 5 1 1 7 10 -


Ig7 6 15)g) (. 1 a)A (3- 1016 1uPh81]6)
24i 0.11 AV5-8 116


a BOK34oBO
A12 30 1 12 n
31 5 D8 o 84135


KHAR'KOV circles and ovals

;% b80 80ty b i* BO- j4

x> /,* "'-7,

Rossica Journal Number 121 45
October 1993
19 12 28 15 8 0 20 6 17

October 1993

Non-Railway Post Offices Situated At or Near Stations
Province or
Office Designation Oblast'
AKCTa(ba CT. (n.T.K.) Elisavetpol'
AneKcaHApOBB-HorpaHHMHbli CT. (n.T.K.) Warsaw
Ama-Ba.namoBCKaR CT. (n.T.O.) Ufa
BoroTOJnb-BOK3aJnb n.o., later n.T.o. Tomsk
Renamed BOrOTOJTnb-ropOl in 1912
BpaiHCKb M.-K.-B. CT. (n.T.O.-BOK3.) Orel
BepxoBbe CT. (n.T.K.) Tula
BHnJbHa BOK3aJb (n.T.K.) Vil'na
BOJnqHCKb noCe.n. (npHBOK3. n.T.K.) Volhynia
ropKOM>BHUbl CT. (n.o.) Petrokov
rpHIHHO-BOK3a.nb nocen. (n.T.K.) Ekaterinoslav
4IOJnHHCKaR CT. (n.T.K.) Kherson
EnHcaBeTno.Jb CT: (n.T.K.) Elisavetpol'
3ajitbe CT. (n.T.O.) Vil'na
3HaMeHKa CT. (n.T.K.) Smolensk
3oM6KOBHLUb CT. (n.T.O.) Petrokov
H.noBancKaR CT. (n.T.O.) Donskaya
HHHOKeHTbeBCKaR CT. (n.T.K.) Amur
Ka.nHurb-BOK3ajnb CT. (n.T.K.) Kalish
KaHaTOBa CT. (n.o.) Kherson
KJAIOMHHQb CT. (n.o.) Petrokov
KIOAaaMHpb CT. (n.T.K.) Baku
KOHOTonb CT. (BOK3. n.T.O.) Chernigov
JleBHUKan CT. (n.T.O.) Grodno
JIio6oTHH CT. (n.T.K.) Khar'kov
JIRKH CT. (n.T.O.) Elisavetpol'
MypaBbeBo CT. (n.T.K.) Kovno
HHKOJIaeBb-BOK3aJib CT. (n.T.K.) Kherson
Opmua BOK3. nocen. (fnT.K.) Mogilev
IeTponaBJiBCKb npHMBOK3. noceJI. (n.o.) Akmolinsk
no.TaBa-BOK3ajrb CT. (n.T.O.) Poltava
Pa3atS.rbHaR CT. (n.T.K.) Kherson
CarHpbl CT. (n.T.O.) Baku
CaMapKaHai BOK3a.nb (n.o.) Samarkand
CMOpFOHb BOK3. (n.T.O.) Vil'na
Cojibl CT. (n.T.O.) Vil'na
CptTeHCK-BOK3aJIb CT. (n.o. npocT. H 3aK.) Zabaikal
Tyance-BoK3aMJ (n1.o.) Chernomor'e
Ty.na-BoK3ajrb (n.o.) Tula
XapbKOB-BOK3aj.b CT. (n.T.K.) Khar'kov
XpyrteBo CT. (n.T.O.) Vil'na
qe.nj6HHCKb npHBOK3a.nbHbli noCeJT. (n.T.O.) Orenburg

46 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

Shanhaikuan Revisited

by Alfred F. Kugel

The subject of this brief article is a follow-up to tered cover from Shanhaikuan to London illustrated
Dr.Torrey'sarticle on"Fake Russian OfficesAbroad here. How did this come to be? One can't be sure,
Postmarks" in Journal #120, with particular refer- but I can come up with several possibilities:
ence to the-cancel of the field telegraph station at
Shanhaikuan. Dr. Torrey states that "the Russians 1. T&S state (on page 401) that "... the many
evacuated the city on 8 October 1902," which fits sedentary Offices functioning under the
with the reference in Stamps of the Russian Empire aegis of the military authorities of occupa-
Used Abroad by S.D. Tchilinghirian and W.S.E. tion, but actually operated by the Imperial
Stephen (T&S) that the Russian forces evacuated Postal Administration, despite their
western Fengtien (province) up to the Lyao River in name of Field Post (and/or Telegraph) Of-
October 1902. fices, are to all intents and purposes civilian
As to the postal marking, designated as "NN" offices.. ." On this basis, I could imagine
on their page 405, T&S noted only a single example that it continued to function as a Russian
used as a transit marking as a reference. In fact, this post office abroad even after the Army had
marking was in use in August 1903 per the regis- withdrawn.
2. Geographically, Shanhaikuan is unusual
when compared to other Russian field post
4gA^^Cf. stations in Manchuria in that it is just on the
S498 border with China proper. Thus, it is con-
.i aa ryu ceivable that it was not evacuated when the
,,o'. ,-Z.! Army moved from the other towns in south-
,L ; ,. western Manchuria. (During the Boxer pe-
riod, some other Allied forces were sent to
Shanhaikuan as if it were in China proper,
i''including Americans, British, French, and
*r-. 4. y..: Germans.)
3. Another possibility is that it was reoccupied
In 16 "C in 1903 by troops from the garrisons in
S- i Peking or Tientsin when the threat of the
SJapanese increased.

l iK While there is a good deal of supposition
.involved in the scenarios set forth above, I do not
"think the registered cover is a fake and regard it
as proof that there was a Russian P.O. in
Shanhaikuan in 1903. Dr. Torrey concurs that
the cover does appear to be genuine.
... .. I would appreciate hearing from any member
"l t in a position to provide additional information
CD* z \ m' on this marking.

Rossica Journal Number 121 47
October 1993

Postcard Views of the Trans-Siberian Railway

by P.E. Robinson

The Trans-Siberian Railway was completed The Siberians were very proud of their new
shortly after the turn of the century, and so the early railway and several cards in the series show the
years of its operation coincided with the period larger stations and their staff, sometimes with a
during which picture postcards became popular suitably spruced-up locomotive and its crew.
worldwide. The newly-completed railway offered Bridges also feature in the series, many of which
European travelers a fast route to China and the Far were superb engineering achievements. Indeed,
East.Forexample, ajoumey fromLondon to Shang- some of the longest bridges are still in use today.
hai took about three weeks, which was much faster Other cards in the series show gangs of workmen
than the sea route, and the Russian authorities tried engaged in track-laying. Convicts were used on
hard to provide luxurious accommodation for certain sections of the line, mostly in the East, eight
wealthy passengers. The railway therefore became months' service on the line counting as a year off a
popular with businessmen, diplomats and other convict's sentence. Perhaps surprisingly, this series
travelers, most of whom would send postcards does not include any views of the icebreakers
home as theyjoureyed across the Siberian steppes. "Baikal" and "Angara" which carried passengers
To satisfy the demand for postcards, well over and freight across Lake Baikal before the
100 publishers produced thousands of different Circumbaikal Railway was completed, though a
views of Siberia1. Some of these were the large great many other postcards exist showing these two
postcard publishing firms in Moscow and St. Pe- British-built ships.
tersburg. There were also postcard publishers in Postcards in this series are often dated, the
many Siberian towns, and cards were even pro- earliest ones having the year 1903. These are scarce
duced by small local photographers and stationers. and have undivided backs, as do some of the 1904
A few postcard publishers outside Russia also cards. The latest year I have seen on cards of this
produced Siberian views, notably Granbergs of series is 1916, and in later years the numbering of
Stockholm, who produced many full-color cards, some of the cards was changed (see table). From the
Railway travelers could buy postcards at Siberian evidence of cards that have been recorded, it seems
stations, showing views of the railway, stations, likely that some of the views were omitted from the
bridges, tunnels etc. as well as scenes showing the later series, as the new numbers allocated to later
towns through which the railway passed. This ar- cards are lower than the numbers allocated to the
tide is concerned with a numbered series of black same views in the earlier series.
&white cards entitled "Be.nHKii CH66npcKin nyTb," The highest number recorded in the series is 45,
literally "The Great Siberian Way," which was and I have not seen any cards numbered 37 or 41, so
popular with Trans-Siberian travelers in the early I cannot give the captions of these. If anyone has
1900s, judging by the many postally used cards these cards and can let me know the captions I
from the series that turn up in the West. The title of would be most grateful.
the series is printed on each card in Russian and This is an interesting series of cards, portraying
French together with the series number. Almost all as it does the early days of the world's longest
the cards have a caption in Russian which was railway.
printed in red on the earlier cards. On the back of the
cards the name of the publisher (D.P. Efimov of Note
Moscow) is usually, though not always given, and/ e
r t n o t c NaT & C 1. For a list of publishers recorded, see "Wish I
or the name of the printer, Scherer Nabholtz & Co., Wasn't Here: Postcards from Siberia" by
So Msc Th r tw o t Wasn't Here: Postcards from Siberia" by
also of Moscow. These were two of the largest
also of Mo .largest P.E.Robinson, British Journal of Russian Philat-
Russian firms involved in postcard production. No. 67, pp. 17-22.
ely, No. 67, pp. 17-22.
48 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

BeJiKiRf CHOHpcKil nyTb Grand Chemin de la Sib6rie

1 MOCTb mepe3b p. ConlaaTKy Bridge over Soldatka River
2* YKna2Ka nyTH Pa36pocKa wnanb Laying ties
3 MOCTb qepe3b p. YmafKy Bridge over Ushaika River
4 MocTb 4epe3b p. ToMb Bridge over Tom River
5 MocTb mepe3b p. TsiRIHb Bridge over Tyazhin River
6 MOCTb sepe3b p. RiK Bridge over the Yaya River
7 BHnb nocenlKa Tatra View of Taiga settlement
8* KaMeHHar BbleMKa Ha 644 BepcTt A cutting at the 644-verst post
9 r. KpacHoHpcKb Krasnoyarsk
10 CTaHui-n 06b Ob' station
11 (No title-shows locomotive and people)
12 )Kenje3Haq nopora no 6ep. p. KeMiyra Railway beside Kemchug River
13 HoBO-HHKnaeBCKifI noceJloKb Novo-Nikolaevsk settlement
14 Bxonb Ha "CTon6bl" View of the pillars
15 Tanra. Ptxa KeMmyrb Taiga. Kemchug River
16* Tafra. lWanamb qepHopa6o0THx Taiga. Unskilled laborers' hut
17* CTaHuii TaRra. Taiga station
18 (No title-shows line on an embankment)
19 Pt'IHO 6ublKb MOCTa iepe3b p. iK) Bridge over Yaya River
20* KaMeHHaR Tpy6a iepe3b p. TaHMeHKy Stone culvert through Taimenka River
21 nepecenjeHqiecKi nyHKTb 6n. CT. BOOTO.Tob Settlers near Bogotol' station
22 CT. 06b BOAonOAbeMHoe 3AaHie Pumping station at Ob'
23 MOCTb qepe3b p. Bojbmof KeM'Iyrb Bridge over Great Kemchug River
24 KaMeHonoMHHM Ha p. YlmaaiK Quarry beside the Ushaika River
25 rpeMwlii KAnlo'b "Gremyachi Klyuch" (river scene)
26 CTaHUIi AIIHHCKb Achinsk station
27 CTopoweBonfl OMb ia 643 sep. Watchman's house at 643 versts
28 KocyJIbcKaR Tafira The Kosul forest
29 06tA pao0tHXb Workers' lunch break
30 noKapb TanrH Forest fire
31 LlepeBsiHHblR MOCTb TOMCKOIi BtTBH Wooden bridge on the Tomsk branch
32 YKna1Ka nyTH Laying the track
33 CTaHUiF KeMqyrb Kemchug station
34 3apy6ia umnaib Notching of the ties
35 BHIb CT. BorOTOJIb View of Bogotol' station
36 CTaHui.S KpacHOFIpcKb Krasnoyarsk station
37 (not yet recorded)
38 Ao.nHa p. Katni Valley of the Kachi River
39* TecKa KaMHeA anSI EinceflcKaro MocTa. Stone blocks for the Yenisei bridge
40 MocTb tiepe3 p. KocyCnb Bridge over Kosul River
41 (not yet recorded)
42 Pa6oTa KOCTbIlbmMllOBb Spike driving
43 JInHiH Ken. nop. Ha 653-654 B. The railway line at 653-654 versts
44 BtTBb Ha KeMiyrCKiimi Kapbepb Branch-line for the Kemchug quarry
45 YKianAa nyTH Laying the track

Denotes pictures that are also found in another series of picture postcards.

No. 2 in 1903-1906 series is No. 1 in 1913-1914 series.
No. 8 in 1904 series is No. 5 in 1916 series.
No. 16 in 1905 series is No. 11 in 1913/1915 series.
No. 17 also exists titled "06b. CTalIIll Tanra. N" 4."
No. 20 in early series is No. 13 in 1915 series.
No. 39 in 1906 series is No. 26 in 1914 series.

Picture postcards of the Great Siberian Railway.

Rossica Journal Number 121 49
October 1993

BeaWnKI CN6WpCK1i ngTi.--Grand Chemin de la SIb6rle. N2 1.
Mocn tepen p. Coiirixw.

No. 1-The smaller
bridges were usually
Made of wood, like this
one over the Soldatka
4 River.

BuNllI Cudiipcli nlTb.--0rad Chernin de oI SibOrlo. NM 10.
CTSwnll Ob.

No. 10--A view of Ob'
station with the staff
lined up in clean uni-
J "forms, locomotive No.
T18 with its crew. The
station was named af-
ter the River Ob' which
"the railway crossed at
9- "M this point.

BuWKIM CMI6pCll l ngTh.--Grnd Chemln do Is Sibirle. Ni 33.

No. 33-A view of

T h wooden buildings, a few
tig of which still survive.

50 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

BeanNlI CndWpcnlA nVTb.-Grsnd Chemln de li SIbirle. I1 35.

No. 35-A view ofBogotol station, with a group of railwaymen and passengers standing next to a smart-looking locomotive,
its tender piled high with wood.

BeOxulP CNWapcKi9l Inirb.--Gri Chomin de Ia Slbdrlo. Ki 40.
IoIDs GepeBb p. lcecyab.

No. 40-The iron bridge over the Kosul River. A train was often positioned on a bridge to demonstrate its strength.

Rossica Journal Number 121 51
October 1993

A Little Local Railway Warsaw Gora Kal'variya

by Leonard Tann
Baedeker's Russia (p. 11) informs us that, in of the Civil War, the emergence of Poland as a state
addition to the five main-line stations in Warsaw, once again, and the invasion of the Nazis. Rabbi
there was one light railway, a narrow-gauge line Alter was smuggled out of the Warsaw Ghetto in
starting from the Mokotov (pronounced Monketov) 1943, through Italy to British Palestine. As the story
station in the south of the city. On Baedeker's map goes, Jewish gold was used to bribe the Nazis.
of Warsaw (opposite p. 8) this line can be seen on the Assistance was provided by a Polish nobleman who
very bottom of the map at location F/G-8. This light paid for it with his life, and there was cooperation
railway ran via Pyasechno to Gora-Kal'variya situ- from certain officials in the Fascist regime of Italy.
ated on the banks of the Vistula River some 34 Rabbi Avraham Mordechai Alter, having lived
versts (22 1/2 miles) south of Warsaw. Baedeker to see the State of Israel established, passed away in
also informs us that this was a small village with a Jerusalem during the Arab siege in 1948. Two of his
large convent, three sons have succeeded him, the second dying
According to the 1915 Postal Guide, there were just a year ago. The third son who was barmitzvah
at least two narrow-gauge railways that left War- (13) shortly before leaving the Warsaw Ghetto in
saw from the Mokotov station. The Gora-Kal'variya 1943 rules today and the "Geire Dynasty" flour-
line was called the Groetskii narrow-gauge spur ishes in Jerusalem, among many others, a tribute to
track, which connected the following locations: the richness of Jewish life in the Russia of old.
Warsaw, Sluzhevets, Pyry, Pyasechno, Sedlisko, The Rabbis of Gur were regarded as leaders of
Pilyava, Baniokha, and Gora-Kal'variya. The vil- hundreds of thousands of Jews. Every week thou-
lage (poselok) of Gora-Kal'variya is located 3/4 of sands traveled to the little village to visit the saintly
averst (less than a half mile) from the rail station and rabbis, particularly on Fridays before the Sabbath,
had a postal branch office (P.O.). The second line on the eve of festivals, and other holy days.
was the Vilyanskii spur track that connected War- Philip Robinson kindly advises me that the
saw via Vilyanov with Pyasechno. This article 1910-1911 railway timetable lists 9 trains a day
discusses the Gora-Kal'variya line. from Warsaw to Gora-Kal'variya, although only 8
There is a unique history associated with the are listed for the return trip. The number of trains
town of Gora-Kal'variya that is not mentioned in daily departing Warsaw is easily explained by the
Baedeker. The village was home to and center of a thousands of followers who went to see the rabbis.
Hassidic (very orthodox Jewish) rabbinic dynasty. The possible reason for only 8 trains returning to
The name of the town means "Hill of Calvary" Warsaw could indicate large numbers of the rabbis'
which is suitable of course for the Christian Con- followers staying from Friday for the Sabbath or for
vent located there, but most unsuitable for a very festivals. In either case, it can be assumed that they
orthodox Jewish settlement. Jewish tradition returned probably the next day.
"Yiddishized" the name into "Gur" or "Geir." The railway continued its lively functioning
The great rabbis who ruled here were known as until the Second World War when, both for safety
the "Geire or Gere Rabbis." The first was Rabbi and in obedience of a Nazi edict, the Geire Rabbi
Yitzhak Meir Alter (c. 1859-1866). He was suc- and his followers left Gora-Kal'variya and moved
ceeded by his grandson Rabbi Aryeh Leib Alter to Warsaw where few survived the Nazi regime.
who ruled from about 1870 until just after the During the Imperial period there was a mail car
terrible Russo-Japanese of 1905. His son, Rabbi on this route which used a circular postmarking
Avraham Mordechai Alter who was called the device measuring 28mm in diameter and reading
EmreiEmeth (WordsofWisdom),guided his many "fIOLIT. BAFOH-" (postal wagon) across the top,
followers through the first World War, the horrors "BAPLUABA-FOPA KAJIbBAPI'I" (Warsaw-Gora

52 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

Kal'variya) around the bottom, and serial number Gary Combs has a loose 20-kop. stamp from
"1" at both sides. Examples known to the author all the 1902-1905 issue with a cancel of the village of
have the "cross-date" date entry. The two postcards Gora-Kal'variya's postal section dated 16 October
illustrated here, with thanks to Cherrystone Stamp 1904, serial "1," that might have been from a
Co. of New York, are dated 1908 and 1909. Ex- registered cover! There should be other marks from
amples of this mail are known from 1904 through the village and the railway.
1912, and should be known later. One might have It would be interesting to find more material
expected an oval style in the 1904-1917 period, like bearing the postmarks of this railway (and village),
the Khar'kov-Merefa local mail train, but other perhaps some covers written in Hebrew or Yiddish
circular types exist, such as the Moscow-Ramenskoe associated with the Gora-Kal'variya railway. Can
circular local-mail type. any member add to the list of marks for this location
and its short railway?

th .. "

Ba-- US--I I
Postcard addressed to Switzerland, fi'anked with a pair of the 1902-1906 2-kop. stamps. Two strikes of the postal
wagon dated 27-XI-1908.

... .. .. .. ...... .. ..
.... ... 5.. .

3-kop. imprinted postcard to Odessa. Two strikes dated 15-VII-1909 and with the same serial "1."
Rossica Journal Number 121 53
October 1993

One Station Or Two And Which One?

by Gary Combs and Noel Warr
Any study of the postmarks of Moscow must If the direction of travel were the only criteria
include the marks of its railway stations, which, like for selection, the most likely candidate would be the
most other aspects of Moscow postal history, is less line to Kursk from the Kursk station. Does the
than straight forward, to put it mildly. A couple of philatelic evidence support this theory, and how
years ago we discovered a postmark from 1913 does the line to Nizhnii Novgorod fit into the
inscribed "CBBEPH. BOK3." (Vokzal Severnykh picture?
Zh. D. Station of the Northern Railways) al- The line to Nizhnii Novgorod opened in 1862
though, according to the 1914 edition of Baedeker's and initially consisted of two routes (until at least
"Russia, a Handbook for Travelers," none of the 1867) on the same set of tracks: one route daily to
stations was called by this name. This example is Kovrov and return train numbers 1 and 2; one
now in the collection of Rev. L. Tann who says that, route all the way to Nizhnii Novgorod and return-
according to BJRP 66, by 1912-13 the Yaroslavl' train numbers 3 and 4. The line to Kursk was
station had been renamed the Northern. A quick completed by 1867, although, as late as November
check of the 1915 Postal Guide and the 1916 Postal 1866, passenger service was provided no further
List revealed that the terminal name was still than Serpukhov. Baillie states in BJRP 66 that these
Yaroslavl', and the station was the passenger station routes were operated by different companies (Soci-
of the Northern Railways, which ran north towards eties) which subsequently amalgamated; Kossoy
Arkhangel'sk. Maps from the period indicate that it says something similar in BJRP 60.
was the Yaroslavskaya Railway. Thus, we have one Initially, the only reference we had was the
station with two different names in its postmarks 1914 Baedeker and, in spite of the existence of the
still representing the same station. separate postmarks, we had assumed that the two
That question of identity was no sooner posed names (Kursk and Nizhnii Novgorod) had always
than answered. The same was not the case with been connected with the one station. Only after
postmarks inscribed "IO)KH. )K. 11." Yuzhn. Zh. more material became available and our continuing
D. Southern Railways. Once again, none of the research into the identity of the Southern station
guides howss a station with the name "Southern," revealed more information did we first realize, and
nor do any of the maps list a "Southern Railways" then become convinced, that originally the names
coming into Moscow. There is no question that applied to two totally separate stations which were
these marks are observed on mail originating in or subsequently co-located, possibly in theory as the
transiting through Moscow and heading in a south- result of the reorganization of 1891, but definitely
early direction. But to which Moscow railway sta- by 1896 when the new Kursk station opened. We
tion do the postmarks belong? discovered that a new Kursk station was built in
By 1871 there were 6 stations in operation in 1896 and speculate that it was located across the
Moscow: tracks from the old station possibly to accommo-
date extra rail lines coming into the station. Cer-
Nikolaevskaya the line to St. Petersburg tainly this eventmustbe recorded in some literature.
Yaroslavl' North Northeast to Yaroslavl' Can any readerprovide a more accurate date for this
Ryazan'-Kozlov-East-SoutheasttoRyazan' merger of the stations?
Kursk South to Kursk and Khar'kov A look at the 1871, 1875, and 1915 Postal
Nizhnii Novgorod-East (or East-Northeast) Guides as well as the 1881 and 1916 Postal Lists did
to Nizhnii Novgorod not disclose this relationship, which definitely oc-
Brest West Southwest to Brest. curred after 1881 and before 1915!
The Southern Railways marks are noted be-
tween 1871-1883, and similar-type marks for the
54 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

10 a ,
I 0

Nizhnii Novgorod line are known between 1872- dates for the rail stations nor mention that they were
1883. The earliest recorded "Southern Railways" ever separate at one time.
postmark is one in Gary's collection dated 18
"November 1871 on piece, with an Odessa arrival or "'
transit mark. Thereafter, until 1902, marks are r
known that mention Nizhnii Novgorod and none
that mention Kursk. Did the Kursk station disap-
pear between 1883 and 1902 or simply use some
other type of marking? Information is still sketchy
on this point. However, it appears that the Kursk !'-
station used only the TPO marks during that inter- a m -.
val. Can any member provide more definitive infor- -
mation on this aspect? 1902 Baedeker map showing the "Old Nizhnij Novgorod
Between 1902-1909 the circular marks noted station" location.
to date refer to the station as the Moscow "Kursk- The next clue came when we found a copy of an
and-Nizhnii Novgorod" station. In 1903 a new type 1897 Travel Guide written in French and published
of oval mark for rail stations was introduced. Ex- in Moscow which lists the station as "Kursk-
amples of this new oval mark are known for the Nizhnii Novgorod." Now the time frame has nar-
Nizhnii Novgorod station from 1907 on and Kursk rowed to between 1881 and 1897. An artist rendi-
from 1911 on. This non-compliance with the postal tion map prepared for an 1882 "Arts Industry
regulations is not unusual and the concurrent use of Exhibit" does not indicate that the stations are the
postmarks, which are mutually exclusive, is typical same nor separate and does not even list the Nizhnii
of the mist which enshrouds much of the study of Novgorod station. However, we see the first use of
Moscow postal history, the words "Southern Railways." The rail line com-
The first real clue came when we found a 1902 ing into the city and going to the Kursk station is so
Baedeker showing what was the previous location labeled. This is the only reference we have seen to
of the Nizhnii Novgorod station on the accompany- date that clearly calls the rail line "Southern."
ing map. However, Baedeker does not indicate any
Rossica Journal Number 121 55
October 1993

The final piece of evidence came from a re- 6 April 1873;
cently acquired map of Moscow circa 1910-1915 Transferred at Kursk to TPO 17-18 (partial
which clearly points out the rail system. The map strike), which traveled from Kursk to Kiev; and
not only shows precisely where the Nizhnii somehow made it on to Zhitomir arriving 9
Novgorod station was located, but also all the spurs April 1873.
and side tracks in the city as well as the rail work-
shops, cargo terminals, and storage depots. From Thus, the cover traveled in a neat southerly then
the map we discovered that the rail line continues westerly curve from Moscow to Zhitomir.
from the Kursk-Nizhnii Novgorod station in a
northerly direction until it joins with the 2. 4 November 1883, Moscow to Lodz'. The
Nikolaevskaya line and the "rail ring" that sur- originating mark is followed by transit marks of
rounds Moscow providing connection with all rail TPOs as follows:
lines into and out of the city. The spur is named 5 November, TPO 7, Riga to Orel (should have
"branch of the Kursk Railway" and not branch of been 8);
the Kursk-Nizhnii Novgorod railway(s). 6 November, TPO 41, Moscow to Brest;
The "Southern Railways" mark is attributed to 7 November, TPO 30, Brest-Litovsk to War-
the Moscow-Kursk line, which is the line that heads saw;
south and connects with the Southern Railways 8 November, TPO 25, Warsaw to Granitsa;
system at Kursk and subsequently on to Khar'kov- 8 November, TPO 31, Kolyushki to Lodz'.
a major industrial center and hub of the Southern There is a Lodz' arrival mark of 8 November.
Railways, which included the Southeast and South- This was a seemingly very round-about route,
west Railways. Philatelic evidence observed to date as there were more direct links between Moscow
supports this conclusion, and Warsaw/Lodz' than that. Maybe it was as a
Two examples of the Yuzhn. mark on cover are consequence of having been posted at the Southern
illustrated in this article. Railways station and setting off south in the direc-
tion of Orel when it ought to have been spotted and
1. Cover dated 5 April 1873, sent from St. Peters- sent off to the Brest station for a more direct/quicker
burg to Zhitomir: westerly journey. It would obviously not have
Dispatched on the Nikolaevsk. Zh. D. on 5 traveled the length of these various TPO routes, but
April 1873; only the necessary distances to connect with the
Transferred in Moscow to the Yuzhn. Zh. D. on next TPO to take it on its round-about journey.

Cover: St. Petersburg to Zhitonir, reverse side to left; arrival mark from, front of cover to the right.
56 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993


Cover 2: Moscow to

Oft CTOp tw a peca He AOsBoaseTCH Hunero ?upyraro H[CaTb.
Sf &eaele coAepacauie "obma He oTjjtqaoT7,. ^S


Ses Moscow
% Smolensk i -
S\ Tula

Lodz' o. /
S\ Warsaw \ ,
0 Brest Orel
Round-about route followed by cover firo Moscow to Lodz'.

Moscow station named, only in its postmarks, as the
\ Southern Railways station.
0 0 In conclusion, we now know that the Moscow
Earliest recorded Southern Yaroslavl' terminal was the passenger station of the
postmark dated 18 November Northern Railways and that both names are ob-
A 1871. Note Odessa arrival/tran-
S sit in the evening (nELIEP) of21 served in postmarks at various times. The Kursk
November. and Nizhnii Novgorod were separate stations until
probably 1896 when their operations were merged
at the same station-the new Kursk station. Post-
L marks bearing the "Southern Railways" mark com-
i ing from Moscow belong to the Kursk station and
'._ i.t are observed between 1871 and 1883.
We would like to express our gratitude to Philip
The two covers illustrated here, plus previously Robinson, Rev. L. Tann, and the many others who
exposed evidence, appear to provide sufficient proof have assisted us in this effort. Further insight from
for the identification of the Kursk Station as the any member would be very much appreciated.

Rossica Journal Number 121 57
October 1993

Odds and Ends or Bits and Pieces

by George G. Werbizky

Zemstvo Cancellations

One would expect to find "Postage Due" marks postmark was applied over the postage due mark
that were applied by the zemstvo offices. However, and the entire item cannot be seen. The postage due
a review of auction catalogs and informal discus- mark is a black oval measuring 50mm x 30mm.
sions with other zemstvo collectors yielded no such Along the outer perimeter one finds: around the top,
marks. Therefore, a recently discovered postage YFYjIIbMHHCKA1R; around the bottom 3EMCKARI
due mark from the Bugul'ma zemstvo is of great --TA-Bugul'ma zemstvo post. Above the
importance. Bugul'ma issued stamps between 1882 3EMCKA5I HOITA the partial word OInjIAT and
and 1915. The postcard shown in fig. 1 was handled the abbreviation KOH.-additional payment (of)
by both the state and Bugul'ma Zemstvo postal kop.-are barely discernible but present. There is a
systems. The Bugul'ma system applied a postage date in the middle.
due mark to the postcard. Unfortunately, a Samara


04 f4R Ci ,,'KfAeC d r /
E/7 fy ..... / ^ ,/ -

SFigure 1. Bugul'ma zemstvo "Postage Due" mark on cover,
c above. Slightly enlarged and darkened zemstvo mark showing
Saint "DOPLA TIT" and "KOP." to the left

58. Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993
October 1993

Non-Stamp Issuing Zemstvos

The fact that not all zemstvos issued stamps even though they had postal services is not widely known.
One such zemstvo is BHPCKb (Birsk), a city located in the foothills of the Ural mountains near ycDA (Ufa).
Figure 2 illustrates a postcard with the mark of the Birsk zemstvo post in violet and is similar to the mark
shown in fig. 1. The postcard is addressed to a XYTOPb (Khutor-farm). Around the inside of the oval is
BHPCKAl I Yt32HA5I around the top and 3EMCKA5I HOMTA around the bottom-Birsk District zemstvo
post. The date is situated in the middle of the mark.


.. ...... 4

............... ....... .. ............. ... ..... ...... .

.. ................... .. ..V- ..... ...

Iha emor ropwpmm nuumcme mov.wo napesa,

Figure 2. An example of zemstvo mail processed by a non-staimp issuing zemstvo postal system.

When correspondence required handling by both the state and zemstvo postal systems, franking had
to be applied for both systems. Apparently to simplify such franking requirements, at least one zemstvo
printed their own stamp in an empty corer of a state printed cover. The LIAQKb (Shatsk) zemstvo,
Tambov province, printed a 3-kop. indicium on a state 7-kop. cover-Higgins and Gage No. 38a. The
cover is illustrated in fig. 3. It is not clear if a zemstvo was allowed to combine its own printed stamp on
a state form in this manner. However, this combination made sense when a letter originating within a
zemstvo district was being mailed to a destination served by the state postal system. A postally used item
of this type would be highly desirable.

Figure 3. Cover bearing both zemstvo and state postal service printed indiciums. Only the top portion is shown here.

Rossica Journal Number 121 59
October 1993

Zemstvo Horse-Cart Tax Stamp meet. There are gaps since the lines do not actually
touch each other. The forgery, on the right, does not
In my article on zemstvo postal operations in have these gaps and was probably lithographically
Rossica No. 120, mention is made of "Horse-Cart printed. The forgery is also a darker shade of green
Obligation" for transporting the mail and/or gov- than the original. Additionally, the letters of the
emrnment employees. The Simbirsk zemstvo issued forgery differ significantly from those of the genu-
several "horse" stamps of different denominations. ine stamp.
An example of one of these stamps is illustrated in [
fig. 4. sap 21

AlaR 704ATM ________ ____
UpoQtsiA Figure 5. Genuine stamp at left, forgery at right.
I ,a0u x1. Luga Zemstvo

In 19182 the Luga "SOVDEP" (Soviet ofDepu-
Figure 4. Simbirsk "Horse" stamp, front and back.Soviet
ties-an early Soviet governing body at the local
The front shows the coat-of-as for the town level) issued a series of six stamps. Because of their
The front shows the coat-of-arms for the town
S c g o a c o a w local nature, Carl Schmidt chose to list them at the
of Simbirsk, consisting of a crown on a white
end of his zemstvo catalog along with a few other
tower1. Simbirsk is located in central Russia on the e o h
local issues of that period. It should be pointed out
Volga river. The statement printed on the back of t b
that by this time the zemstvos had been disbanded
the stamp reads "Stamp for payment of travel on
by the Soviets. The set contains the following:
zemstvo horse carriages." The exact purpose of this te oie. h t contain th
Denomination Schmidt valuation
stamp, who paid for what, or when is not exactly -o -
clear. Any readerwith additional information please-kop. 2.-
10-kop. 2.-
share the knowledge with us..
In my collection I have the following "horse" 5 3.-
1-rub. 3.-
stamps: 23-rub. 5.-
Perforated 11 1/2-rub. 5.-
5-rub. 5.-
1-, 3-,5-, 30-, and 50-kop., 1-, 2-, and 3-ruble- 5-. 5
,,-, p, 2, This valuation, though, should not be accepted as
the 1-ruble was changed by hand to read 10-ruble
the 1-ruble was changed by hand to read 10-ruble valid because the stamps were printed se-tenant 18
using red ink.
across: 5R-5R-5R-5R-5R-5R-50K-50K-50K-5K-10K-
The ruble values are larger than the kopeck values.,
Imperorate 10K-3R-3R-3R-1R-1 R-1R. With this arrangement,
ao- the distribution in a sheet (postulating that all rows
5- and 10-kop.
have the same layout-I have only a single row in
S. my collection) is:
Nolinsk Zemstvo Forgery my collection) is:
forgery Denomination % of Total
5-kop. 5.6
The Nolinsk 2-kop. stamp, Chuchin No. 4 10-kop. 11.0
(priced at 50.-fairly high), is described as black on 50-kop. 16.7
yellowish paper. The forgery of this stamp only 1-rub. 16.7
approximates the original stamp. The genuine stamp 3-rub. 16.7
illustrated in fig. 5 on the left, was typographically 5-rub. 33.3
printed (i.e., out of individual letters and pieces). 100.0
This is evident in the comers where the frame lines
60 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

It is obvious that the rarest of this series is the 5- South Russia
kop. stamp followed by the 10-kop., etc. But what
about the usage, availability on the market, the There are several types of errors that can occur
number in existence? In the last 30 years I have seen during the printing process. In broad terms, they can
this set offered only twice at auctions-once as a be divided into two categories:
full strip and once as singles but without the 5-kop. Those that repeat and are found on other
stamp. Readers will have to draw their own conclu- sheets in the same location.
sions. Those that occur once and are the result of

and occurs at least twice in a 25 x 4 sheet in positions
... -... a random defect.

1t : __ -I think the errors found onthe General Deniken
issue and illustrated here have not been previously
-covered in the philatelic literature. Figure 8 illus-
trates a repeating error. It is found on Scott No. 63
._____......... and occurs at least twice in a 25 x 4 sheet in positions

.-- ---.... ..... 24 and 93. The letter "O" in the word "KOH." on the
a c. left side is damaged and resembles a "C." The
," inscription across the bottom in full is "3KCHE2I HLU 5
I. qEPKACKb" -Printing Office for the Manufactur-
...... ... ing of Valuable Papers of the Great Don Host in
Novocherkask." "Forces of the Don" refers to one
Figure 6. Luga "SOVDEP" stamps-1918 complete set. of the Cossack Branches- i.e., Don Cossacks.

Russia, Offices in the Turkish Empire "]

The Scott catalog contains the following state-
ment: "No. 23 (1884 issue, 1-kop. orange) sur-
charged '40 paras' is bogus, though some copies
were postally used." The bogus surcharge is not 05
illustrated in Scott nor is it mentioned in the Michel
or Stanley Gibbons catalogs. This omission is rem-
edied by the illustration in fig. 7 showing two J
examples which were postally used.

O et
--- ---- --iKcn EA QI~lF T TAr lT.o.a'HblX~ b S EPIAHKOBI

I' j. Figure 8. KCu" error-second stamp from lower right.
Enlarged overlay shows actual stamp with error.

The second error, shown in fig. 9 on a Scott No.
Figure 7. Bogus 40 paras surcharge. 68, was caused by a random defect. Over-inking of
the plates occurred resulting in the upper stamp in
the pair resembling almost a prophetic word
"PCCCI5" instead of "POCCI 9Y"-Russia.

Rossica Journal Number 121 61
October 1993

Odessa Civil War Issue

SThe economic health of a country can easily be
measured by the kind of money it puts into circula-
tion. At the turn of the century, the ruble was valued
___ at 1.90 rubles to the US dollar. On 27 July 1914 the
exchange of paper money for gold was halted-
WWI had just begun.
By 1915 silver coins disappeared from cir-
culation and copper coins followed shortly thereaf-
ter. In both cases the metal was worth more than the
nominal value of the coin.
SEarly in 1917 250-and 1,000-ruble bank notes
were authorized. During the 8 months that the
Provisional Government existed, 9 billion rubles in
Figure 9. "PCCCII" error instead of "POCCI5" on upper paper money were printed. This is equivalent to all
stamp. Although the illustration does not clearly show the t m p
over-inking, examination under magnification reveals a o r r r o r
of Tsar Nicholas II.
significant ink blob in approximately the 12:00 position. O sar Nicholas II
Since the need for money continued to exist,
Forgeries money in the form of stamps was first issued in
1915, Scott Nos. 105-107. Although these tokens
Sf R m s were occasionally used for postage, postally used
A fellow Rossica member sent me several
copies are not plentiful.
surcharged stamps for examination, the results of ops ae p
During the Civil War, the White Russian forces
which are presented here. Not only are the sur- D t R
ich are presented here. ot on are the s- followed this example: the Don Government issued
charges primitive fakes, but whoever made themkop. money stamp, South Russia Scott No. 10,
a 20-kop. money stamp, South Russia ScottNo. 10,
clearly was duplicating Scott No. 25, 3-R. on 4- .
clearly was duplicating Scott No. 25, 3-R. on and followed it with a 50-kop. stamp, Scott No. 52.
kop. rose, and did not know the Russian language. Another money stamp exists (a local one from
Another money stamp exists (a local one from
In Russian there is a peculiarity when using cardinal t t i i
the town of Odessa) which is not recorded in the
numbers. After all compounds of 2,3,4 (except 12,
catalogs. The color of this stamp is light green and
13, 14) the noun is in the genitive singular case, i.e., catalogs. The color of this stamp is light green and
TPH (3) PYBJlt. After the numerals 5-20, 35-40, is illustrated in fig. 11.
etc., both the noun and the adjective are in the gen- *- Figure II.
itive plural case, i.e., ABA4L1ATb -5Tb (25) Odessa 20-
PYBJIER. Two of these fakes are shown in fig. 10. ?- kop. money
okeccU stamp. Front
to left, reverse
d-. to right.

The front (face) of the stamp pictures the Odessa
coat-of-arms, a two-headed eagle and an anchor.
The reverse carries the following statement in Rus-
"sian "Change token of the town of Odessa. Counter-
feiting will be prosecuted by law." Additional com-
S a, -ments from any readers about this money stamp are
Figure 10. Primitive fake surcharged-grammatically
incorrect. U
62 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

The President's Corner

by G. Adolph Ackerman

During the last 2 years we have had two of the a most intriguing philatelic article on an obscure
mostoutstandingRossicameetings I canrecall, first Soviet flight service before WW II. To my great
in-Chicago, and this year in Washington. Each was surprise, he responded by sending me one of these
accompanied by a significant number of Russian extremely rare covers and has augmented my col-
and Russian-related exhibits and philatelic presen- election during the intervening years. In fact, it was
stations by our members. The exhibits were diversi- through contacting one of the writers in our Society,
fled and included material from both established a real expert, that I began to learn about the diversity
exhibitors and newcomers to the exhibiting field, and potentialities of Soviet air mail collecting. It's
Seriously, you missed out if you didn't attend. We a contact we continue as we both add exciting
had two newcomers exhibiting at NAPEX, both material.
individuals were excited, learned from developing Well, what about writing for the journals? This
their exhibit, and obtained extended input from too has added to my network of friends. First, it has
judges and fellow Russian enthusiasts. Mark your allowed me to help others by sending them special
calendar, ournext annual Rossica meeting will be in information, providing original sources for study,
April 1994 at COLOPEX in Columbus, Ohio. Also, sending duplicate material, and a whole host of
be sure to check out the Rossica chapter meetings in other things. Also, I have been rewarded by a reader
your region, even sending me complimentary material they
What, an annual meeting at one of the top picked up in a dealer's box, as well as with offers of
national philatelic shows in the country? Oh, you covers they thought might be of interest and add to
are just interested in your own little collecting area. my topic. One such cover now decorates the title
Besides, it's too far away, takes too much time to go, page of my special Air Fleet exhibit. I have even
or it's too expensive and they never have anything received notes asking if I had seen a special cover
there that you are interested in or need. Well, if you listed in an upcoming auction that I may have
are not going to exhibit, what about writing up some missed. In fact, this is how I obtained my latest
of the "neat" covers, postmarks, or stamps you unique cover that will soon be written up in our
collect for our Journal? Same problem? No one journal. In addition, I have been contacted by indi-
would be interested, too much time or trouble, or viduals and dealers who have garnered exemplary
you're not an expert and would feel embarrassed, stamps/covers and knew of my interest through a
From a personal standpoint, let me acquaint you published article. As a collector-big or small-
with what can come from these activities. First, you how can you not give this facet of your hobby a
start to build up a network of friends who have chance?
friends. This provides interactions and even new Exhibiting offers the same type of publicity for
material or insight for your own collecting. It's a your collecting habit. It is an extension outside your
two way street--both of you benefit. From this Rossica membership, local stamp group, or stamp
networking, I have obtained journal articles as well show contacts. Through this venue, and to my
as suggestions for new places to hunt for stamps, surprise, I have obtained great material from collec-
covers, and research materials. And, of course, tors I have never met or with whom I had not
some great material has been added to my collection corresponded. This has been true even on the inter-
through these contacts, national scene where I have been exhibiting and my
Have you ever written to one of the journal interest was recognized by others. Does this stimu-
authors after reading their account in a philatelic late you to try your hand at exhibiting?
journal? Why? Well, forexample, several years ago Lastly, as your President, I am trying hard to
I wrote abroad to one of ourwriters who had written accomplish one thing-to publish a detailed Rossica
Rossica Journal Number 121 63
October 1993

listing of our members' collecting interests and In the Back Room
level of expertise. Why? Again, because I think it is
important that a collector, even a beginner, estab-
lishes a network of friends with common interests. We have a limited number of back issues of
It is the best way to expand one's knowledge and to the journal for sale, both in English- and Rus-
find new and interesting material for one's collec- sian- language editions. Russian editions avail-
tion. For some years, the British and German Soci- able are numbers 44-69; English editions avail-
eties have provided listings of their members col- able are numbers 69-119. Unfortunately, there
electing areas. These have been very useful for my are many holes, and some issues have less than 3
research and establishing contacts in the US and in stock. Prices listed for back issues are in US
abroad. I hope such a listing will soon be accom- dollars.
polished by our Society.
Single issue:

Member 7.50 Non-Member 10.00

Officer's and General Mem- Single issues currently available are:
44-45, 48, 54-55,58, 62-75, 78-82, 84-85, 88-
bership Annual Meeting 89,92-93, 110-112,115-120

by Robert B. Bain Double issue:

No report was submitted by the Secretary in time to Member 15.00 Non-Member 20.00
make this edition of the journal. If any member is
interested in what happened at the annual meeting Double issues currently available are:
held in June, please write the President at the 46-47, 76-77, 86-87, 94-95, 96-97, 98-99,
address indicated on the Officers' page in the front 100-101, 102-103, 104-105, 106-107,
of the journal. 108-109, 113-114.

Back issues may be obtained from:

Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Court
Millersville, MD 21108

64 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

Membership Status 1509 Alan Warren
Box 17124
Our membership now stands at 360-13 new Philadelphia PA 19105, USA
tentative members since the April journal! The new 1510 Ral Reiher
applicants are heartily welcomed and, if you hap- Plauener Str. 25 PF 100
pen to live near one, personally welcome that Limbach i.V. D-08491
person to our favorite hobby. Germany
Please review the list of names. If for any reason 1511 Paul Burega
you feel that an individual should not be granted 16 Aldgate Crescent
membership, please write the Treasurer with your Nepean, Ontario
reasons. If no negative comments are received on Canada K2J 2G4
any of the individuals listed below by the end of 1512 Robert J. Klancko
January 1994, they will be granted full membership 2 Orchard Road
status. Woodbridge CT 06525-1122, USA
1513 William "Bill" N. Jones
The new applicants are: 207 Main Street, Box 152
Rockland WI 54653-0152, USA.
1501 Vitaly Charny
10514 Chilton Road 73
Montevallo AL 35115, USA
1502 TimoBergholm Member Collecting Interests
Immula 08500
Lohja as
Lohja as continue to receive many letters from mem-
Finland bers and non-members asking if I know anybody
1503 Stephen S. Roberts
1503 St n R s who collects such and such or would be interested
1701 North Kent Street #806
SNrt Knt Sre in purchasing material. I must rely solely on my
Arlington VA 22209-2108, USA
S r ing A memory, which is only as good as what I know!
1504 Tris Nerima
4 T N There have been many occasions where I simply
66 Rumsey Road
66 Rumsey Road could not answer the question.
Toronto, Ontario
Toronto, Ontario One of the most important parts of our hobby is
Canada M461N8
Cana M6 18 the sharing of information or networking. Those of
1505 Hugh M. Goldberg
1505 Hugh M. Goldberg us that are active in the hobby receive many requests
Subway Stamp Shop
Subway Stamp Shop for assistance or simply that great ego stroker -
111 Nassau St.
111 Nassau St. ,advice, which everybody likes.
New York NY 10038, USA
Our President set a goal for the Society to be
1506 Roger L. Henebry .
1506 Roger L. Heneb able to identify by member who collected what so
2415 Clarksburg Road .
2415 Clar g Rd information could be shared among members. The
Clarksburg MD 20871, USA
Clarksburg MD 20871, USA Secretary initiated a questionnaire in the bulletin.
1507 John B. Holland
Still only a few members have responded. The
138 Kirkway Secretary is compiling the information and will
Alkrington Middleton
Alkrington Middleton have it available for all members in the near future.
Manchester M241LN
Manchester M24 1LN If you have not filled out the questionnaire,
1 Engla please do so and help support the membership.
1508 Douglas F. Penrod -Ed.
15 Sterrett Avenue
Covington KY 41014-1282, USA U

Rossica Journal Number 121 65
October 1993

Tannu Tuva Anybody? Member-to-Member Adlets

Rossica cannot assume any liability for transac-
It is always a pleasure to announce the birth of
tions resulting from member responses to adlets nor
another organization dedicated to the pursuit of sp es es r
get involved with mediating disputes. Members are
philately, especially when the society is interested g i w m d M
cautioned to be fair in offering and in responding.
in an area that might coincide with the interests of Anymaterial considered tobeofvalueby the sender
Any material considered to be of value by the sender
Rossica members.
sent through the mails should be insured or regis-
Ken Simon announced the creation of theTannu
tered for your own protection.
Tuva Collectors Society on 15 March 1993 and
The regulations and prices are as follows:
published the first issue (Vol. 1 No. 1) of their oss ades ae o l s
Rossica adlets will have no limit per se,
official newsletter "TbBa." By the time he pub- however, members are requested to use
lished No. 2 in the summer (June), the society had j me
good judgment.
risen in number to 65!
risen in number to 65! The price will be US $2 for adlets up to
Thefollowinginformationisprovidedformem- wo US 0 cets per word
bers who may wish to contact this society: thereafter.
Each adlet must include the name and
Name: Tannu Tuva Collectors Society address of the member placing the ad.
Dues: None for the time being
Dues: None for the time being No general buy or sell ads will be ac-
Publication: "TbBa"-published irregularly as cepted as adlets. The journal makes
needed until they formalize a little. e provisions for strictly commer-
Other provisions for strictly commer-
cial advertisements.
Aims and Goals: To foster the study of Tuvan l serie is i e t s
stamps and postal history in a serious manner.
members only.
Eventually, a handbook and monographs are on the All adlets must be accompanied by a
agenda. check for the correct amount made out
to the Rossica Society.
Contact: Ken Simon/ITCS
Contact: Ken Simon/CS Mail all adlets and checks to:
513 Sixth Ave. S.
Lake Worth FL 33460-4507, USA. Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Court
Telephone after 7 P.M. Eastern (USA) at 407-588- Millersville, MD 21108
5954. USA

Wanted: MOSCOW cancellations prior to
1918 for research article. On cover, loose stamps or
CSQ. Send xerox or photo. Gary Combs, 8241
Chalet Ct., Millersville, MD 21108, USA.

WWII, the Nazis used workers from the Soviet
Union and called them OSTARBEITERS-Eastern
Workers. I will gladly buy covers, postcards,
Ostarbeiter cloth patches, or related material. Send
offer (with photocopy or preferably a photo) to:
George G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road, Vestal NY
13850-3246, USA.
66 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

Wanted: Used Abroad, Imperial dotted NEW ROSSICA PUBLICATION!
numerals, and Baltic forerunners on cover.
Buy or trade. Send photocopy or description. Mike
Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara CA 95055, USA. The Philatelist's Guide to Maps, Atlases,
and Gazetteers of Russia, by Peter A.
Michalove. Softbound, 134 pages and 23 illustra-
Expertization tions. Cost is $20 for active Rossica members, $25
for non-members, $18 for any individual purchas-
One of the privileges of membership in Rossica ing 10 or more copies at a time (not cumulative).
This excellent reference book is a must for all
is one free expertization per membership year.
Policy on these free expertizations is as follows: serious Russian postal historians. The book con-
tains three parts with topics as follows:
Only one free expertization per mem-
"bership year. Part One: The Classic Cartography of Russia
b Contacts Between Russia and the West
"* The privilege must be used during the ntat e and the es
SThe Late 16th and the 17th Centuries
membership year. It cannot be accu-
mulated. The service was begun in the The Reign of Peter the Great and Beyond
References for Part One
1978 membership year, and prior mem-renes for Part One
bership in the Society has no bearing.
"* The item must be submitted on an offi- Part Two: The Period of Imperial Russian Postal
cial expertization form available from History
Gary Combs or Gordon Torrey. Russian Postal Guides, Postal Lists, and Re-
Gary Combs or Gordon Torrey.
"* Return postage must be included. lated Sources
Only one item per expertization form. O their Sources for the Empire as a Whole
European Russia
Poland, The Baltic, and Finland
Anyone wishing to avail themselves of this olandThe Baltic and Finland
The Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia
service should write the Treasurer, Gary Combs, or The Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia
the Chairman of the Expertization Committee, Gor- Railway Routes
don Torrey, enclosing a legal size (4 1/4 x 9 1/2")
SASE for an expertization form. When submitting Part Three: The Soviet Period
material for expertization, the owner must provide External Border Changes
return postage to include insurance costs, if desired, Placename Changes and Spellings
for the material. Items will be expertized by Rossica Cartography in the Soviet Union
Sources on the Soviet Union as a Whole
members specializing in the various aspects of sources on the soviet union as a ole
Russian philately. European Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, and
Since we occasionally have to send items to Moldova
The Baltic
more than one member for an opinion, please allow e ic
The Caucasus and Central Asia
at least six weeks before inquiring about the status The Caucasus and Central Asia
of an item submitted. Items are looked at on a first a
come, first serve basis. Railway Routes

A transliteration guide and a list of Russian
geographical terms also is included. Please make
checks payable to the Rossica Society and send
them to the Treasurer at the address indicated in the
front of this journal. 0
Rossica Journal Number 121 67
October 1993

NEW ROSSICA PUBLICATION! Reviews of Philatelic Publications

1rOITA The Journal of the Australia & New
Rossica Library Subject Index-Part One, Zealand Society of Russian Philately, Issue 14,
by David Skipton. Cost $50 plus postage for July 1993, Editor Dr. Ross Marshall, P.O. Box 7,
members. Otorohanga, New Zealand.

Dave has spent over a decade creating one of the
finest Russian philatelic libraries in the world.
However, all the knowledge of what is available has
rested solely with Dave until now. Dave, with the JOmRNAL
help ofJ.D. Myke, Scott Allen, and Ged Seiflow has AUgSIAA &
spent an incredible amount of energy in compiling IEy ZIOm
a partial library index for general dissemination. RUSSAN
The Index is approximately 800 pages long and
contains 10,600 entries, which are divided into 92 ISSUE II JULY 1993
cross-referenced categories-and it is only a partial
listing. A larger Part One would be too bulky and
extremely demanding on the reproduction process. Although the "down-under" gang publish two
Part Two should be completed by late 1994. great journals a year, only one will be reviewed in
The Index is mostly arranged first by subject, this issue of the journal due to space constraints.
thenby period of Russian history, and in some cases This issue includes the following articles:
further by type. Each category is presented by title, Postal Rates of RSFSRfor MailAbroad (1917-
author,journal, volume, date, page numberss, pub- 1923) by Alexander Epstein; Republic of Geor-
lisher, translator, and abstract. gia Part III by George G. Werbizky;
A transliteration guide and a comprehensive Kazakhstan's First Stamps by Charles Bromser;
philatelic or communications journal abbreviation Violations of UPU Code of Ethics-no author;
list also is provided. Julian to Gregorian Calendar by Hank Smits;
If you are serious about using your library for Air Expo 92 no author; Combine Harvesters
philatelic research, but do not know what if any- A Philatelic Catalogue by George Lindsay;
thing is available, then this Index is a must for your Table of 3 Postcards by Terry Archer; Express
bookshelf. However, be sure that the shelf is sturdy Mail 1921 by Hans Irmann-Jacobsen; Postal
since the Index weighs in at approximately four Stationery #4 by Alexander Epstein; Aviation
pounds! in Russia Story from the Archives; Spanish
The Index is currently being reproduced in Republican Political Labels 1936-1939 by A.
limited quantities so order your copy now. Actual R. Marshall; Numismatics no author;
costs for shipping will be determined when the item Lithuanian Independence by Ricardas Vainora;
is mailed-rates vary by type of postal service and More Wrappers by Leonard Tann; Numismat-
location-and you will be notified of the additional ics Again by Norman Banfield; Stamps &
charges. Banknotes A Postcard from Finland by
Orders may be sent to our Librarian, Dave Leonard Tann; Vladivostok-Shanghai Steam-
Skipton, or the Treasurer, Gary Combs. Please ship "zh" 25.9.10 by Norman Banfield; St.
make checks payable to "The Rossica Society" and Petersburg, Russia Datestamp.
not to Dave or Gary.
All in all a good read. Try it, you'll like it.

-Gary Combs
68 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

"3AKA3HOE-Recommandirt:Dieeingeschriebenen Auxiliary office registered mail
Postsendungen im Kaiserreich Russland vom Registered mail by railway mail car
Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zum Ende des Registered mail by ship
erstenWeltkrieges 1918,"by Harry von Hofmann, Used abroad
Available from the author at Harry v. Hofmannn Field Post
Verlag, Postfach 52 05 18, 22595 Hamburg, Ger- Private registry books
many @ 68 DM each. Automatic registry marks
""rr v. om The "mute period" of WWI
3AKA3HOE Recommandirt Registered mail and military censors
Registry postmarks of 1916-1918
DIM IngetohrIkb.Wh Pot ..........o.e..,,.. Receipts
Im Kaloelch muand C.O.D.
von gnn duS 19. JM tundts C.O.D.
b nu, Endd. erton WsltM.te 1918 Parcels and packages
Requests to search for missing registered
Russian Post in Poland
Russian Post in Finland
Cross-lines registered mail in WWI
Harry V. Hofmann Vertag. Hamburg
,,93 The author draws heavily on Baltic-area publi-
cations of the period, quoting at some length from
the Rigascher Almanach and Livldndischer
A very well-produced, softbound production Kalendar for various years. Quite a few of the items
of 320 pages, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrated are fine pieces indeed, and Mr. von
photos illustrating the author's points. The scope of Hofmann is to be congratulated on his material.
coverage, while not exhaustive, is considerable: The text is in German, which will pose some
The early years problems for those who do not read the Kaiser's
Rekomendowano deutsch, but the wealth of photos makes up for
Zakaznoe much of it. Researchers may be disappointed by the
St. Petersburg "R" mark approach to footnoting-usually only the journal
Foreign registration labels added to Rus- and number is given, with no reference to title and
sian registered covers author.
1899 provisional registry labels There are a few aspects of registered mail
"Z" and "R" labels according to UPU stan- omitted in the text, most of them covered in various
dards articles of the 1909 Postal Regulations, but they are
A new type of "R" label certainly not major points. Dozens more pages
Double registry labels could have been added on the various types of
"Recycled" registry labels registered mail receipts alone (each major city
Numerator handstamps seemed to have its own idea of what they should
Special handling receipts look like), and the 1899 provisionals are endless.
"Issue against [presentation of] notice" But these points aside, "3AKA3HOE -
markings Recommandirt" is far and away the best treatment
Court registered mail of the subject available, and should be on the
"Extracted from mailbox" markings shelves of every serious Russian postal historian.
Corrected address manuscript marking Highly recommended!
Attempted delivery labels
Telegraph office registered mail -Dave Skipton
Rossica Journal Number 121 69
October 1993

Introductory Handbook of Ukrainian Philately, Cumulative Alphabetical List 1858-1916, by
Ukrainian Philatelist, 1993, Vol. 40 No. 1/2 (63/ Gary Combs. 138 double-sided pages plus four
64). Published by the Ukrainian Philatelic and introduction pages. Cost: $45 for Rossicamembers,
Numismatic Society (UPNS). Price $10. Available $50 for non-members. Sent post paid at surface
from Dr. I. Kuzych, P.O. Box 3, Springfield VA rate. Available from the author.
22150, USA.
INTRODUCTORY HANDBOOK In 1984 Dave Skipton introduced the Reverse
of Although dis- Sort, which is used by Russian philatelists around
UKRAINIAN PHILATELY guised as a phila- the world. Nearly a decade later Gary Combs has
IP. telic journal and taken this massive work-over 18,600 entries-
called a handbook, and rendered a "forward sort" of the information
2J it is an outstanding and corrected a few minor discrepancies.
introduction to the This work first appeared in English, and subse-
subject for novice quently reworked to produce a Cyrillic version
or junior collectors, thanks to computer support provided by Pat Eppel.
]n The handbook is This version is better than the original.
well prepared and As often as I use the Reverse Sort to find a
BdEhd hy Inlert Kzyih
covers virtually all location when only the last part of the placename is
Suspects of Ukrai- visible, I found a definite need for a work that
nian collecting-but a journal it is not. The hand- provided the same information, but in a left-to-
book is an excellent testimony to the stamina of the right or "forward" order. This work precisely fills
UPNS Editor and Peter Bylen. that void.
The handbook is divided into two major sec- Both the Cumulative Alphabetical List and its
tions. Part one, entitled "A Survey of Ukrainian partner publication the Reverse Sort offer the postal
Philately," is composed often chapters-each writ- historian and cancellation collector the most com-
ten by a specialist in his field-covering all facets of prehensive listing of locations available, albeit not
Ukrainian collecting. These deal with zemstvo (lo- a complete listing of all possible locations. An effort
cal) issues, trident overprints, Western Ukrainian to produce a document of that magnitude would
and Carpatho-Ukrainian issues, Ukrainian DP and clearly exceed the size of this work.
POW camp releases, Cinderella labels, current Gary has done an impressivejob with this work
Ukrainian issues, including provisional stamps, and filled a void that has existed since day one of
Ukrainian topicals, and postcards. collecting for those without access to State archives
Part Two of the handbook, entitled "A Catalog in Russia or numerous postal listings. This work
of Classical Ukrainian Philately," makes up the represents the largest single cumulative listing of
final third of the book. It presents and illustrates- Russian locationsin existence in the Westernworld.
Ukrainian stamp issues from the "Classical Era" This publication is highly recommended for the
(1918-23). Some 550 stamps released by the Inde- serious postal historian or cancellation collector.
pendent Ukrainian National Republic are cata- The only potential drawback is that it is not bound.
logued. In addition, separate listings are also made According to Gary, "this allows the individual to
for the issues of the Western Ukrainian National put it in a 3-ring binder or have it bound as they
Republic (132 stamps) and the release of the Ukrai- wish." However, he is more than willing to provide
nian Socialist Republic (36 stamps). a temporary binding called "Xerox hot-melt" if one
The handbook undoubtedlywill become avery desires. The cost is an extra $10 and the final
popular publication and one that should encourage publication will be a 2- or 3-volume product. Let
other philatelic organizations to follow suit and him know if you want it bound or sent via a faster
publish a similar handbook. The price is right! method (and include extra postage).
-Gary Combs -Fafner

70 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

Submitting Articles for the Journal

Submitting articles for the journal has never save the files as gray-scale TIFF files, NOT as
been easier. I can accept floppy disks-3 1/2 PICT (unless it is plain line art that requires no
inch only- created on Macintosh comput- manipulation) or plain TIFF or EPS. Check
ers or on MS-DOS computers. them to make sure they are of good quality
The text for your article must be typed if a before sending them.
computer is not available. When using a com- When submitting tables, charts, or pictures,
puter, please attempt to print the article on a please let me know how you think they should
laser or ink jet printer. If a dot matrix printer appear in the finished article relative to place-
is used, make sure that you print it as close to ment. I will try to honor your layout as far as
letter quality as possible. This saves me an possible. Besides, it may save me some time.
enormous amount of time since I can simply Thanks.
use the scanner and an OCR package to bring If you send covers, pictures, or photocopies
the text of your article into the computer for of items please let me know what part of the
manipulation. Long articles (over 2 pages) item-or the entire item-illustrates the point
CANNOT be accepted if hand written. The you wish to make. As you may already know,
more time I spend on typing the article, the less I sometimes crop pictures to show only the
time I have for anything else. Please under- salient parts. Please send actual size or larger
stand and cooperate. For files that are sent on copies. There is no way you nor I can know
a floppy, I have both Microsoft Word and exactly what size they need to be until the final
MacWrite. You may also submit them in "text layout begins. I reduce covers if they are gen-
file" format or RTF. eral in nature and still show what the author
Pictures can be high-quality photocopies, intended to say. The final size varies with
or prints taken with a camera. Please be sure every item included.
the contrast is balanced so that the picture is If you have any comments (positive or
not washed-out or overly dark. If you cannot negative), want to know more about what
see the image, neither can I. You may also send equipment or software capabilities we have,
the original item. If this method is chosen, or any general information relative to the
please take any measures you deem necessary process, please feel free to write and I will
to safeguard your material. I will return them attempt to answer your questions. If any-
with the same safeguards in place. body wants to volunteer to help with any
If you wish to include drawings in the typing, etc. that may arise, please let me
article, please ensure they are neat and legible. know.
If you draw them on the computer, save them Deadline for the April journal is 1 February
as PICT or TIFF images. I can handle either. 1994. This will give me time to enter the article
EPS images are a bit harder to work with if any and get the next issue to the printer by March.
corrections are needed. If you have a Macintosh, Thanks in advance and SUBMIT articles for
I can deal with MacDraw II and Canvas files. your journal!
Spreadsheets should be in Excel or Lotus
format. I have Excel on the computer. If you
have any embedded macros or calculations
built into the spreadsheet, please tell me what
and where they are.
If you use your personal scanner, please

Rossica Journal Number 121 71
October 1993

Dealer-Member Ads
The Editorial Board of the Rossica Journal in- For one-time ads: $52.50, $97.50 and $150, re-
vites advertisements from our dealer-members as spectively.
well as non-members who conduct the occasional
auction or mail-sale with a strong offering of Rus- For outside back cover ads (full page only)- $150,
sian and related-areas material. The Journal ap- first come first serve (based on postmark date).
pears twice a year, and reaches over 400 members
and affiliates worldwide in April and October. If you should desire to place an ad in the Rossica
Deadlines for submission of ads are February 15 for Journal, please notify the editor as soon as possible,
the April issue, and August 15 for the October issue. together with the text of your ad, the rate and
We strongly prefer commitments for ads in three number of issues, and a check in $US made payable
consecutive issues to aid us in planning. However, to the "Rossica Society" drawn on an American
one-time ads for upcoming auctions or mail-sales bank.
can be accommodated. Thank You For Your Support!

Rates: 1/4 page $35 per issue (for 3 issues) Gary A. Combs
1/2 page $65 per issue (for 3 issues) 8241 Chalet Ct.
1 page $100 per issue (for 3 issues) Millersville, MD 21108

IL(Dim E immpa

Comprehensive Stock of Russian Material:
yearly units
wantlist service

Free price list
Box 521
Rego Park, NY 11374

Fax (718)271-3070

72 Rossica Journal Number 121
October 1993

OW (ne ofakind a
(from the archives of Souren &rebrakian)

SCOTT No. 287, the fa- SCOTT No. 374, ESPERANTO issue
cancelled TIFLIS (now Mint Never Hinged with Full Gum.
Excellent condition all Special $150
perforations intact!
Special offer $150

.*, .. .
*.. .. *. o *
,/ ... .: *.. .
,*.,** .*

SPECTACULAR PAPER FOLD resulting in two partially-printed Scott
No. 81 stamps and SIX PARTIAL ALBINO STAMPS. Small perforation
separation in one place. Gummed as unfolded sheet (i.e., partially).
Special $150

P.O. Box 448 Monroe, New York 10950


What Do You Collect?

I stock Russian Postal History items from the Imperial and
Soviet periods
Airmails, Republics, Space, Zemstvos
Semi-Postals, Inflation, Stations, TPOs,
Interventions and Offices Abroad.

I also stock the Baltic Countries.
Let me know what you are searching for.
Material sent on approval.
I am always searching for material to buy and
offer top dollar.
Please include references or Rossica number.

Member: Rossica Society, Canadian Society of Russian Philately,
British Society of Russian Philately, Australian & New
Zealand Society of Russian Philately, APS, ASDA, PTS
and others.
Webster F. Stickney
7590 Windlawn Way
Parker, CO. 80134