<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Index
 Officers and representatives of...
 Editorial
 The mail by S. Ya Marshak
 Further notes on ARA cards and...
 Forgeries of the Tambov-Tulinovka...
 The Slavyanskii provisional envelope...
 The 26 commissars of Baku by K....
 Postage due procedures in Russia...
 The postal history of Suvorov Atoll...
 The Tiflis city post by R....
 The one-ruble stamp, 1910-1917...
 Notes on the South Russia Denikins...
 The stamp of the German-Baltic...
 More Tarasoviana by the Editorial...
 The stamp commemorates by Dr. G....
 The mail by air by Pavils...
 The resumption of communications...
 At the expert commission of the...
 Airmail notes by Ray Hofmann
 Soviet aerophilatelic notes by...
 Notes from collectors
 Book reviews


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00061
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1972
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00061

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Index
        Page 1
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The mail by S. Ya Marshak
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Further notes on ARA cards and their postal rates by Dr. R. J. Ceresa
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Forgeries of the Tambov-Tulinovka provisional by Norman Epstein
        Page 13
    The Slavyanskii provisional envelope by Norman Epstein
        Page 14
    The 26 commissars of Baku by K. Adler and A. Cronin
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Postage due procedures in Russia and the USSR by D. B. Diamandiev
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    The postal history of Suvorov Atoll by the Editorial Board
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The Tiflis city post by R. Polchaninoff
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    The one-ruble stamp, 1910-1917 by Rev. Leonard Tann
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Notes on the South Russia Denikins by Michael Rayhack
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    The stamp of the German-Baltic committee of Petrograd in 1918 by Dr. C. de. Stackelberg
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    More Tarasoviana by the Editorial Board
        Page 46
        Page 47
    The stamp commemorates by Dr. G. Wember
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    The mail by air by Pavils Kalnozols
        Page 51
    The resumption of communications with Germany by Pavils Kalnozols
        Page 52
    At the expert commission of the VOF, translated by Michael Tscheekar
        Page 52
    Airmail notes by Ray Hofmann
        Page 53
    Soviet aerophilatelic notes by P. J. Campbell
        Page 54
    Notes from collectors
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Book reviews
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
Full Text

THE JOURNAL

of the

ROSSICA SOCIETY

of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY


















AWARDS
""WIPA" 1933 BRONZE MEDAL "POLSKA" 1960 SILVER MEDAL
"PRAGA" 1935 BRONZE MEDAL "PRAGA" 1962 SILVER MEDAL
"OSTRAPA" 1935 SILVER MEDAL "MELUSINA" 1963 SILVER MEDAL
"ZEFIB" 1937 SILVER MEDAL "PHILATEC" 1964 SILVER MEDAL
"BEPHILA" 1967 SILVER MEDAL "WIPA" 1986 SILVER MEDAL
"EFICON" 1068 SILVER MEDAL "SIPEX" 1986 SILVER MEDAL
"TEMEX" 1968 SILVER MEDAL "PRAGA" 1968 SILVER MEDAL
"INTERPOSTA" 1969 SILVER MEDAL "APS-O8" 1968 SILVER MEDAL
"SICILIA" 1968 SILVER MEDAL "EFIMEX" 1968 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"BARCELONA" 1980 SILVER MEDAL "SOFIA-69" 1980 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"UNIPEX" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "BUDAPEST-71" 1971 SILVER CERTIFICATE

No. 83 1972








EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Andrew Cronin, Box 806, New York, N.Y. 10008.

PUBLISHER: Martin L. Harow.

EDITORIAL BOARD: K. Adler, A. Cronin, E. Marcovitch, N. Epstein.



INDEX FOR No.83

Pages

2 Officers of the Society; Representatives of the Society.

3 Editorial; Life of the Society.

7 The Mail, by S. Ya. Marshak.

11 Further Notes on ARA Cards & their postal rates, by Dr. R. J. Ceresa.

13 Forgeries of the Tambov-Tulinovka Provisional, by Norman Epstein.

14 The Slavyanskii Provisional Envelope, by Norman Epstein.

15 The 26 Commissars of Baku, by K. Adler & A. Cronin.

17 Postage Due Procedures in Russia and the USSR, by D. B. Diamandiev.

26 The Postal History of Suvorov Atoll, by the Editorial Board.

29 The Tiflis City Post, by R. Polchaninoff.

32 The One-Ruble Stamp 1910-1917, by Rev. Leonard Tann.

35 Notes on the South Russia Denikins, by Michael Rayhack.

43 The Stamp of the German-Baltic Committee of Petrograd in 1918,
by Dr. C. de Stackelberg.

46 More Tarasoviana, by the Editorial Board.

48 The Stamp Commemorates, by Dr. G. Wember.

51 The Mail by Air, by Pavils Kalnozols.

52 The Resumption of Communications with Germany, by Pavils Kalnozols.

52 At the Expert Commission of the VOF, translated by Michael Tscheekar.

53 Airmail Notes, by Ray Hofmann.

54 Soviet Aerophilatelic Notes, by P. J. Campbell.

55 Notes from Collectors.

60 Book Reviews.

** ** **









OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT:Kurt Adler,Metropolitan Opera,Lincoln Centre Plaza,N.Y.10023
VICE-PRESIDENT:Gordon H. Torrey Ph.D,5118 Duval Dr.,Washington D.C.20016
SECRETARY:Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
TREASURER:Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226
CHAIRMAN AUDITING COMMITTEE:Andrew Cronin,Box 806,New York,N.Y. 10008
CHAIRMAN MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE:Martin Harow,17 Second St.,Brentwood,N.Y.11717
LIBRAIRIAN:J. Lee Shneidman, Ph.D, 161 W.86th. St., New York, N.Y. 10024
BOARD OF DIRECTORS:Emile Marcovitch,65-61 Saunders St.,Apt.4-Q,Rego Park,N.Y.11374
Boris Shishkin,3523 Edmunds Rd.,N.W.,Washington D.C.,20007
Samuel Robbins,3563 Meier St., Los Angeles, Cal., 90066



REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G.B.SALISBURY CHAPTER:Joseph F. Chudoba,426 Eastern Parkway,Brooklyn,N.Y.11225
WASHINGTON, D.C.:Boris Shishkin,3523 Edmunds Rd.,N.W.,Washington D.C., 20007
WESTERN USA:Lester S. Glass,1553 So.La Cienega Bvd.,Los Angeles,Cal.,90035
GREAT BRITAIN:John Lloyd,"The Retreat",West Bergholt,Colchester,Essex C06 3HE



Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However,
acknowledgement of the source and a copy of the reprinted matter would be
appreciated.

*******

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the
Editors disclaim all responsibility.



At present, the Membership Dues are $7.50, due January 1 for all members.
Application forms, which must be filled out, are available on request.
Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists
will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Mr. Norman Epstein,
33 Crooke Avenue,
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226, USA.



We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both
in Russian and in English at $2.50 each: Russian Editions Nos. 44 to 69.
English Editions Nos. 78 to 83 are $3.50 each plus postage; earlier issues
from No. 44 onwards are $2.50 each plus postage, except where only Xerox
copies are available at $5.00 each.





-2-







EDITORIAL


OUR NEW LOOK


Members will have noticed the new style of presentation of our Journal for this
issue.

The change has been dictated purely and simply by economics. In order to cut our
costs, it was decided the Society should buy an electric typewriter with inter-
changeable elements, including one with Cyrillic characters. Your Editor has been
co-opted into laying out and personally typing up all the pages so as to save
money, in addition to his other duties. Every effort .will be made to improve the
presentation as familiarity with the new equipment increases. The same standards
also apply to the contents of our Journal, of which we can be very proud, as
international awards prove.

It is a sad but true fact that, in every philatelic society, all the work is done
by a small and dedicated group of officers. In our particular case, by a very
small group of people who also bear heavy responsibilities in their private and
professional lives.

Putting the Journal together is a particularly heavy and thankless task, but it
is vital as it holds the Society together. Our fields of collecting are among
the greatest and most varied in Philately and the Editorial Board makes every
effort in the Journal to break new ground and discover new facts.

Our only limits should be economic. Given your help and constructive criticism,
the Journal cannot fail to become better and better.



LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

At a meeting of the Council of the Royal Philatelic Society, London, England,
our genial member and Rossica representative, John Lloyd of West Bergholt,
Essex was elected a Fellow of the Society on Thursday, 16 December 1971.

Knowing the extent of John's contributions to Russian Philately, we can say
that this great honor was very well deserved. We wish him many more years of
fruitful activity in his chosen spheres of collecting !



Our long-time member and noted Editor-of "STAMPS", one of the leading U. S.
magazines of stamp collecting, Mrs Charlotte N. Downs, has tendered her
resignation from the Society because of inability to attend our meetings in New
York City.

For many years, Mrs Downs has rendered valuable help to our Society in
publicizing our activities and the contents of our Journals in "STAMPS". We
have greatly benefited thereby and in recognition of her many kindnesses, a
motion was carried at the May 1972 meeting of the Gregory B. Salisbury Chapter
in New York City that she be granted Honorary Life Membership in the Society.

In truth, it could not have happened to a nicer person !



-3-







The article by K. Adler and A. Cronin on the engraved Lenin ruble values,
originally printed in Rossica No. 79, has been translated and reprinted with
selected illustrations under the guidance of Professor K. A. Berngard in the
June 1972 issue of the monthly magazine "04JTATEW1 CCCP" ("Philately of the
USSR"), published in Moscow. The lucid translation was by E. Nesterova.

The international reputation of our Journal is thereby strengthened and we hope
there will be future occasions when Rossica articles will be reprinted. It is
only by sharing information that further facts can come to light. Both the
monthly magazine "Philately of the USSR" and the annual "Soviet Collector"
handbooks have published extremely interesting studies on a variety of subjects
and we intend to feature them in our own Journal, when time and facilities
permit.

Our indefatigable Bulgarian collaborator, D. N. Minchev, had a great honor
bestowed upon him at the recent "SOCPHILEX 72" philatelic exhibition of the
Socialist countries, held at Sofia, Bulgaria on 20-28 May 1972.

Mr. Minchev entered in the Literature Section with his three studies: "The
Russian Posts in Bulgaria during the War of Liberation of 1877-78", "The
Russian Posts in the Danubian Principalities and Bulgaria in the 18th.-19th.
Centuries" (both in Russian in the handbook "Soviet Collector", Nos. 8 & 9.
respectively) and "The Russian Postal Services in Bulgaria during 1877-79"
(in English in our own Rossica Journal No. 81), for all of which he received
a gold medal We understand this issue of the Journal received much
favorable comment from Bulgarian, German, Rumanian and Russian visitors at
the show and this award is also a great honor for Rossica. There were seven
gold medals awarded at the exhibition and this is the first time a Bulgarian
has won such a high distinction in the Literature Section of an international
show. See the photo below for the presentation to him (at left) of the medal
by Ivan Aladzhov, Deputy Minister of Information and Communications (at right)
on Wednesday, 24 May 1972 in Sofia.




















At the same exhibition, our second Bulgarian contributor, D. B. Diamandiev,
received a vermell medal for his display of "Soviet Russia 1917-1923".

*******

We regret to announce the resignation of our Ukrainian Editor, J. S. Terlecky.
Mr. Cronin will handle this section temporarily until a Ukrainian specialist

-4-






can be appointed to the post. We also need a Baltic Editor to handle that area
and applications from specialists would be welcomed by the Editorial Board.

The Journal has published much new material of great interest to collectors of
the above and other specialities and this policy will be continued in the
future. The greater the knowledge about all specialist areas, the greater the
appreciation of one's own particular sphere of study.



We are setting out hereunder the results of the "BELGICA 72" International
Philatelic Exhibition, held at Brussels, Belgium 24 June 9 July 1972. Members
of the Society are marked thus: (*)

SPECIAL PRIZE IN THE CLASS OF HONOR:

S. M. Blekhman (USSR) Russia & USSR.

GOLD MEDAL:

G. Gevirts (USSR) Zemstvos.
V. Pritula (USSR) "Spreading Wings" topic.

VERMEIL MEDAL:

D. B. Diamandiev (Bulgaria) USSR
Yu. Freidlin (USSR) Heroic Leningrad topic.
A. Gdalin (USSR) Pushkin topic.
H. von Hofman (West Germany) Latvia.
W. E. Lea (England) Imperial Russia.
M. V. Liphschutz (France) Russian Maritime & River Posts,
(with felicitations of the Jury).
V. Sorokin (USSR) Zemstvos.
K. Vasil'ev (USSR) USSR.

SILVER MEDAL:

Dr. R. J. Ceresa (England) Inflation Period & Transcaucasia.
A. Dadikin (USSR) Lenin topic, (with special prize).
M. Dobin (USSR) Marx & Engels topic.
A. Droar*(England) Imperial & Polish Postal History.
P. A. Erixon (Sweden) Russia 1822-1922 (with special prize).
O. Forafontov (USSR) Russian Covers & Postal Stationery.
A. Georg'evskii (USSR) Early Soviet Period.
G. Hellstrom (Sweden) Mongolia.
F. Huysmans (Belgium) Russian maarkings & cancels.
I. Morozov (USSR) USSR.
E. Voikhanskii (USSR) Philatelic Literature (with AIJP
bronze medal).
Ya. Vovin (USSR) Mute cancellAtions of W.W.I.
Ya. Vovin (USSR) Philatelic Literature.
N. Yakimov (USSR) Russian Posts in the Baltic Provinces.
I. Zbarskii (USSR) Stamps & Postmarks of USSR.
SILVER DIPLOMA:

British Journal of Russian Philately Philatelic Literature.
Filatelen Pregled (Bulgaria) "
Filateliya SSSR (USSR) "
Sovietskii Kollektsioner (USSR) (with AIJP bronze medal).

-5-







SILVER-BRONZE MEDAL:

M. Aizen (USSR) RSFSR & USSR
V. Belkin (USSR) St. Petersburg markings.
J. Dimanstein (USSR) RSFSR 1917-1923.
E. Kobylanski (England) Ukraine
R. Koerber (USA) Wrangels.
L. Liepnieks (USSR) Postal History of Livonia.
N. Luchnik (USSR) Used Abroads
Yu. Rudnikov (USSR) Aviation topic.
V. Snegirev (USSR) Topic: "USSR in International Arena"
E. Vincovskis (USSR) Postal History of Kurland.

SILVER-BRONZE DIPLOMA:

D. N. Minchev (Bulgaria) Philatelic Literature

BRONZE MEDAL:

0. Martyshov (USSR) Arctic Exploration topic.

BRONZE DIPLOMA:

Y. Gurevich & V. Shcherbakov (USSR) Philatelic Lierature.

In addition, our member in England, M. A. Bojanowicz, showed his superb
collection of the Kingdom of Poland in the Court of Honor.

The sumptuous catalogue of the show indicated that standards were very high
and the competition keen for awards. Among the illustrations given of rare
items was one from the exhibit of Zeppelin Posts by L. Kofler of West Germany.
This was a registered airmail express cover from Moscow 3 Despatch Office
27 July 1931 to Konigsberg in East Prussia, franked with imperf. copies of the
1930 Zeppelin set of the USSR The familiar German airmail arrival cachet for
Konigsberg was also struck on the front of the envelope.



SPECIAL NOTICE

Will all members please note that subscriptions are due on 1st. January of each
year, regardless of the original month of joining. New members receive all the
Journals issued during the year of joining.

To avoid the unnecessary delays which have occurred in the transfer of funds,
our English members are kindly requested to send their annual dues direct to our
Treasurer, Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226, USA, by the
most convenient means: money order, bank draft etc., rather than to a central
source in the United Kingdom.

Foreign members in general should add $1.50 to their cheques and bank drafts
because of the high bank collection charges in the USA.



HAVE YOU REMEMBERED TO PAY YOUR ROSSICA DUES ? MAIL YOUR DUES IN THE ENVELOPE
PROVIDED TO: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226, USA.


-6-










IOr'A THE MAIL

Sopucy wnumKoey To Boris Zhitkov

1 1
Mno cmyzwncR e deep Ko MHe Who knocks at the door for me
C mancmog cywMwo Ha peMHe, With stout bag on strap,
C 4upoz 5 Ha .MedHoi 6dfue, With figure "5" on copper disc
B cuHet gopMeHHOa ypcKe? And blue forage cap?
3mo OH, There he is,
"3mo OH, There he is,
JTeHuHpadOcKu nowmanabo. The Leningrad mailman.

Y Hezo He has
CeeodA MHOao Today many
huceM Letters
B cyme Ha 60oKy In bag at side -
H3 TieHma, From Tashkent
Taeauposa, And Taganrog,
13 TaM6oea From Tambov
1 BaKy. And Baky.

B ceMb s acoe OH HaAM deno, At seven he started work,
B oecanb cyM(a noxydena, By ten the bag had shrunk,
A K oeeHadgzamu acaM And by twelve o'clock
Bce pa3Hec no adpecam. All delivered to addresses.

2 2
3aKL33Hoe U3 Pocmoea "A registered from Rostov
,naR moeapuuaa Xumwea! For Comrade Khitkov'"
3aKa3oe dA/A XKwnKoea? "A registered for Zhitkov?
I36uumHe, Hem maKoeo! Sorry, no such person!"

rde xe 3mom apcdahuH? "So where is this citizen?"
YAemeA etepa e BepnuH. "He flew yesterday to Berlin".

3 3
umwnoe 3a zpaHnuy Zhitkov whisks away
170 eo3adyy MwnmcR By air across the border -
3eaMn 3seeHeem e6U3y. The earth turns green below.
A ecaned 3a Ku=moew. And right after Zhitkov
B eaeone nowmoeoM In the mail coach
TlucWo 3aKa3Hoe eesym. A registered letter is carried.

HaKes t no noanKM Packages on shelves
Pa3nAceHu c moAoaM, Arranged clearly,
B dopoee pa36opKa udem, Sorting goes on along the way,
H dea notrmxwaona And two mailmen
Ha naeKax eaeona At the coach benches
HaiumcR HOtu Hanponem Sway the whole night through.

... Ompumra ...A card -
B [y6poesKi To Dubrovka,



-7-










Hocmaca A parcel -
B HohpoeKy, To Pokrovka,
Pasema A paper
Ha cmanzHo U? U. To the station at Klin.
HucbMO A letter -
B Boooaoe. To Bologoe.
A eom 3aaca3oe And here's a registered
Inoloem 3a epanuzy e BepAuH. Going abroad to Berlin.

4 4
Hdem 6epnuncKua noWmaltoH, The Berlin mailman goes along,
Hocoedone nomwoz HaepyceH. Loaded with the last mail.
Odem maKumO onH pahmoM: He's dressed like a dandy:
(ypaxwa c KpacHm4 KaGmoM. Forage cap with red piping.

Ha meMHo-cunHe nudxaKe In dark blue jacket
3enenue nemnuu. With green button holes.
H*em u depwum on e pyce He goes forth and holds in hand
nucao u3-3a aparu im. A letter from abroad.

KpyezoM npoxxue cneiam, Passers-by bustle around him,
MAUUhu WUHMmU uJypwam, Cars screech with their tyres,
Ooa ppyeoa 6ucmpee, One faster than the other,
no JYunoeoa avmee. On the Unter den Linden.

Inooxoaun K Oeepu nowimaDOH. The mailman approaches the door.
MeeZapy cmapoMy noKnon. He bows to the old doorman.
-. Icao /vir eepp Kwumn ea A letter for Herr Zhitkov
Ms noMepa luecmoeof At room six!"

- Bep a e oadotiaamb wacoe "Yesterday at one o'clock
Yexan a AHAWnu Num)oe! Zhitkov went off to England!"

5 5
IuctMO A letter
CaMO By itself
Huyda He noldem, Will go nowhere,
Ho e iwuK eao onycmu But put it in a mail box -
OHO npo6exwn, It travels,
npoAemwn, It flies,
7poimeem It swims
Thcxuu eepcm nymu. Thousands of miles on the way.

Hempydoo nuicwmy It's not hard for a letter
Yeudem ceem: To see the world:
EMy He HyreN 6wuem. It doesn't need a ticket.
Ha Me.dhe deHNeu For copper coins
06Dedem MUp The stamped
3amAeeHHua Passenger
Iacccxup. Traverses the world.



-8-











B dopoee On the way
Ono It
He ndem u He ecm Neither drinks nor eats
M moflAO O0HO And only one thing
Toeopwu: Does it say:
- Cpownoe. "Express.
ANenus. England.
JlOHdo7 London.
Becm, West,
14, Bo6dmK-Gumpum. 14 Bobkin street'.

6 6
Bexum, nod6pacue6 apy3, It runs, shaking its load,
3a aemo6ycoM aemo6yc. Autobus after autobus.
HKauamoa Ha hKptue Posters and notices
naKiamn u afucu. Sway on the roof.

KOHcyonop c nece Kpuuwn: The conductor calls from the stairs:
- Kone4 Mapulpyma! Bo6KuH-cmpwn! "End of the line! Bobkin street!"

17o So6KH-cmpum, no Bo6Kun-cmpwn On Bobkin street, on Bobkin street
Iheaem 6acmpo Mucmep CAwu Mister Smith strides quickly
B nownoeoa cunez KenKe, In a blue postal cap;
A caO OH epode zuenu. And he himself lean as a rake.

HoIm e uemapHadcaonm 04M, He goes to the fourteenth house,
Cmnyum eucAvM MOAomKOM Knocks with the hanging clapper
H zoeopwn cypoeo: And calls loudly:
- AL Mucmepa XKuwnoea. "For Mister Zhitkov".

Meeuap eARdwu u3-nod Owco The doorman looks from under his glasses
Ha UMF u faLMunu At the first and last names
H eoeopwn: Bopuc )Kwumoe And says: "Boris Zhitkov
Omnpaeucl ea Epa3suno. Has gone off to Brazil".

7 7
Papoxod The steamer
Omoadem Departs
epe3 dse MUHyma. In two minutes.
L1eMoaHaMu Hapod People with trunks
3ahAA ece uoam. Took up all cabins.

Ho e o0dy But to one
H3 KaCn Of the cabins
VeModaHoe he H'ecym. They do not carry trunks;
TaM noedem eom wno: Look who goes there:
nownazboH u nowma. The mailman and the mail.

8 8
]7od nAwMiaM Bpa23UAUU, Under the palms of Brazil,
Om 3HOA ymoMAeH, Tired from the heat,
Spedem cedo B a3unuo, Roams grey-haired Bazilio,
Bpa3ut/zncKuh nowoanfbH. The Brazilian mailman.


-9-








B pyKe on deprum cmpanhoe, In hand he holds a strange,
H3amFoe nucmo. Crumpled letter.
Ha MapKe unocmpaHoe On the stamp, a foreign
7o5moeoe KlewMo. Postal cancel.

H Hadnucb Had oamwunuea And a note above the surname
0 mOM, wno adpecam Says the addressee
Yexan U3 Bpa3auUU Has gone from Brazil
O6pamHo e JIeHupad. Back to Leningrad.

9 9
Ino cmywncR e deept o wne Who knocks at the door for me
C moncmoa cym4Kot Ha pamwe, With stout bag on strap,
C zu~poZ 5 Ha 0edoN 6 nsmuce, With figure "5" on copper disc
B cunHe 9 opMeHHoa gypaxie? And blue forage cap?
3mo OH, There he is,
3mo ON, There he is,
JeHuhepadcKhu nowanWbo! The Leningrad mailman!

On npomReueaem cHOea He holds out again
3aKan3oe dA8 KumKoea. A registered for Zhitkov.

- gR KwXumKoea? "For Zhitkov?
3Ci, Bopuc, Hey, Boris,
Hoinylu u pacnufuic! Get it and sign!"

10 10
AbO coced ecKOunu c nocmenu: My neighbor jumped out of bed:-
- Bom maxK 0ydo e caMOM dene! "Now isn't that really amazing'
I7oeadu, nucwmo 3s MhouZ Look, a letter after me
O6nemeno map seMnoa. Flew around the globe.

Mwanoct no 0opo 6doeoNcy, It whirled across the sea in pursuit,
noHecAOCb Ha AMaSOHKy. It ran to the Amazon.
Boned sa aMHO eeo ee3AU Just behind me trains
Ioesda-u Kopa6u. And ships conveyed it.

Ho MOPgM U eopwum CAIOHaM Along the seas and mountain slopes
fo6pe o OHO KO MHe. It came up to me.
1e cmb u cnaea novumaboHan4, Honor and glory to the mailmen,
yfno4neHHM, M 3anmaneHnmM Tired out and covered with dust,

CAaea iecm'H nownm4tbOna Glory to the honest mailmen
C moAcmoa cyMKoa Ha peMNe! With stout bag on strap!"

C. H. MAPIlAK. S. Ia. MARSHAK.


EDITORIAL COMENT: Your Editor has been many things in his time, but never a
poet. The English version is therefore a free translation only. Our members,
who can read the Russian original, will find the poem charming. Samuil
Yakovlevich Marshak (1887-1964) was a gifted poet and translator from English.
Much of his work was written especially for children, for whom he still remains
a great favorite.



-10-







FURTHER NOTES ON A.R.A. CARDS AND THEIR POSTAL RATES

by Dr. R. J. Ceresa

Mr. Lamoureux's A.R.A. card I have classified as Type VIII, as the next type
to be identified. Some further examples have now come to light in a recent
auction purchase of Civil War material. Mr. Cronin's example I have called
Type IX and a second example with the same franking has now been recorded.Also a
subtype (Type IIIc), similar in all respects to liIa but with the name of the
department only appearing without the actual address, i.e. "Russian Food
Remittance Department" only. It was presumably intended that the address
should be added with a handstamp or by manuscript, but in this example it was
sent to the U.S.A., per the address added on the back of the card. The violet
postmark appears to be Shavlikov, 12.7.22 and the card (Fig. 1) has a message
in Yiddish for the recipient. The Moscow transit (machine cancellation) is
dated 18.7.22 and the U.S.A. arrival is A.R.A. New York Office 5.8.22. The
card is franked at 20 rubles (1922) or 200,000 old rubles, with two 10-kopek.
perf. Arms type revalued at one million times face. Six cents postage due was
raised on arrival, which could be related to the difference between the rate at
that time (27 rubles of 1922) and the rate paid.

A Type X can now be added to the list (see Fig. 2), which differs from each of
the previous types in that the words "Write to the" follow on the same line as
"RUSSIA" and are not split into two lines. The heading "American Relief
Administration" is in a larger type, which is spread the whole width of the
available type face. The address is the usual 42 Broadway, New York City, but
the illustrated example has been overprinted with a handstamp in violet,
reading "Guarantee Trust Co. of New York, Galata, Constantinople". The card
arrived at its destination, or at least arrived in Constantinople, since it
has the arrival markings of Galata, in French and Turkish. The card was sent
from Moscow 21.4.22 (machine cancellation) and arrived in Galata 1.6.22. It is
franked at 10,500 rubles with a 10,000-ruble provisional and two 250-ruble
definitive. There is no sign of missing stamps and no postage due was raised
although the rate at that time was 18,000 rubles. The text on the reverse of
the card is set differently, compared with the earlier types (see Fig. 3). This
type also has an order number on the front at bottom right, reading "4-A T.
1832--22", which could indicate that it was printed in 1922.


Te At T/ -'AN i, rj ..
STRAiON ..de ckag/






for food re- dances .
finS~ ifiI i ..^-^y



ans you can-picvide any u-
al in Russianw.,h standard Ameri-
can Relief Adm'instrat'on FOOD _
WE ARE IN GREATT NEED U. S. of Amenrl.
OF FOOD IN RUSSiA. HELP ,oa,*
US IN OUR DISTRESS I? s -ftr '



-11-








*'''* .F... "t ; -E :--I-.--- -- --- .. -..--,,-
T." 'MERiAN RE AMEPHRAHCHAR AAMHCTAR nOMOL U
- .N iTRAftT RE -iz RE t ; AaeT Co coax mmoro4S H neannmx c. j Anoca mn c Anepmnancaun
pcg il poRobonhwilen flnH luTe o aApecy:
AmRe Aitan an
stiu ol In mnin AMERICAN RELIEF
s.s 4n-bS-A.--Ngrite i Russian Food Remittance Department. 42 Broadwa
Ai American Relief Administration nyme.i eiiime MoaaenK cnA6ca,nhi Ao e to a nPo.c me-QAC 1 3-P iOBOT l-
-,Y .. .. n y nme. B h m.me m e ta m cais^ md o f ao. .no-u" r r7 P o Bo j -
Vsqu 0ft1QT'-ME*Py4Wrf CTBEHIIHiMf 170Cb1J1K1fM H4.
a'2 OO GL A WPPUKaA CKOZ adi.tiuc a mpa4uu fIo.nou codep ou'4 a Ha6op npuncoe.
and ask for an Application Form i
tor food remnittances. By this B O EHb HY AEMC B C'ECTHUX nHP
means you can provide ai e n OMOrMTE HnM B BEfEI
individual in Russia with stan- ._______ ....... ...
dird American Relief Admini-r sec: .t s1o l l .. th/
station FOOD PACKAGE Adped:.. t s/e sin --
WE ARE IN GREAT NEe U S. America. .. o .t fC t
01 FOOD IN RUSSIA. H 01 ; ----
US IN OUR DISTRESS! i re r- ,,1Fe e Ir



Fig. 2. Fig. 3.




EDITORIAL COMMENT: The postmark on the card appears to read "LA4Bf DauB."
(Shavli, Kovno province, now tiauliai in Lithuania). At that time (1922),
this town was outside the borders of the USSR and the only reason for the
continued application of such a postmarker would have been its
reassignment for cancelling purposes to some other locality within the
country. This supposition is not as far fetched as it seems, since some
military cancellers from the Vil'na (Vilnius) postal district were thus
reallocated in the early 1920s and we hope some member will explore this
facet of postal history and report his findings.

The situation regarding the present example in Fig. 1 is complicated by the
fact that the Yiddish text appears to give the place of origin as "Schaulen",
which was the German name for Shavli or Siauliai. Comments from readers on
this problem would be appreciated. Whatever the actual point of mailing, it
was only one day's journey from Moscow, through which the card passed on its
way to the U.S.


Here and there....

The town and district of Gzhatsk in the Smolensk province were renamed
GAGARIN in April 1968 by a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, after
the tragic death in an air crash on 27 March that year of the world's first
cosmonaut, Yurii Alekseevich Gagarin. His historic flight into outer space
was made on 12 April 1961 in the space ship "Vostok".

Colonel Gagarin was born on 9 March 1934 at the village of Klushino, near
Gzhatsk, at which latter town his relatives still live.






-12-






FORGERIES OF THE TAMBOV-TULINOVKA PROVISIONAL

by Norman Epstein

This provisional is listed under No. 540 in the Soviet Catalogue, 1933
Edition. It came about in the Tambov Postal District when stocks of the
current 10-kopek regular stamp (workman type) were rubber stamped "15 k." in
violet to meet the increased rate for ordinary internal letters, effective 1
July 1931. It is only known used on covers with the postmarks: "GORELOE TAMB.
G.", "KOZLOV TAMBOVSK.", "TAMBOV" and "TULINOVKA TAMBOVSK. OKR. a".

The forgeries all appear to fall into one rather unusual and deceptive category.
The examples so far seen were made by fraudulently applying a forged "15 k."
surcharge over used copies of the 10-kopek stamp, including on cover, showing
postmarks of Tambov and Tulinovka. What looks like the genuine thing at first
sight turns out to be a fake, as the date is too early. Here are the details:

(a) A loose used stamp, reading "TAMBOV, 14. 6. 31". The surcharge is all
wrong as the "k" stands at the top right of the figure "5", as given
intentionally in the pre-war editions of the "Senf" catalogue, instead of
the correct bottom-right position (see BJRP No. 16, p. 487).

(b) A genuine commercial cover sent on 18.6.31 from the Tulinovka Clothing
Factory to Moscow, with a forged surcharge in pale violet added later (see
Fig. 1). The figures are 10 mm. tall and 2 3/4 mm. apart, while the "k"
is 4 3/4 mm. tall and spaced 1 1/4 mm. away from the "5". All other details
are illegible.

(c) A loose used stamp, reading "TAMBOV 19.6.31". This particular copy was
featured in a recent European auction and appears to have the top of the
"5" slanting up to the right (see Fig. 2). As the illustration is reduced,
no measurements can be given.



In addition, a mint copy has now been found which, although bearing two faint
and unreadable strikes on the back of what purports to be the SFA guarantee
mark, is questionable for the following reasons:

(1) Although in violet, the handstamp seems to have been made of metal rather
than rubber, giving a distinct raised effect on the back of the stamp.

(2) The distance between the "5" and the "k" is 1 1/4 mm. and there are two
thin parallel lines below the "k", the top one being 2 3/4 mm. long and the
bottom 2 1/2 mm. long (Fig. 3).








iI



F 3 ig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.



-13-







It is obvious that more material must be examined to formulate definite
conclusions. However, it can be said that any used stamp or cover with dates
through 30 June 1931 can only bear forged "15 k." surcharges. By the same
token, any loose stamps used in this district with July 1931 dates could also
possibly carry forged surcharges, since the 10-k. value may have been part of
the franking for other rates. In other words, the only guarantee for this rare
provisional is usage on correctly despatched commercial mail.

Comments from members would be appreciated.



THE SLAVYANSKII PROVISIONAL ENVELOPE

by Norman Epstein

There were shortages of 15-kopek stamps also in other parts of the country
when the rate for internal ordinary letters was raised from 10 to 15 kopeks
on 1 July 1931. It is therefore also of interest to note how the problem was
solved elsewhere.

The post office at Slavyanskii, in the ^ 15 ori.
Krasnodar province (Northern Caucasus), jIi o HnnMnun
met the shortage in an unusual way. A I am*mCesO Has.
supply of standard Soviet envelopes,
made of greyish-cream stock and measuring
164 x 115 mm., was furnished with a four-
line typographic overprint in the top
right corner, reading "kop. 15 kop. /
Levied in hard cash / At the Slavyanskii
(P.O.) Nth. Cauc. / Without the seal
invalid (see the illustration at
right).

The seal itself is struck in violet just below, being the type used for
insured correspondence, as it reads "CJ7ABIHCH 17 K / CTP. IOP." (Slavyanskii
P.O. / Ins. Corr.). It would be interested to know if any member has a used
example of this unusual envelope provisional.



Here and there.......

Following upon the death of Dr. E. T. Krenkel', as announced in Rossica Journal
No. 82, the plenum of the All-Union Society of Philatelists selected in Moscow
on 3 April 1972 Anatolii Nikiforovich Yar-Kravchenko as its new President. He
is a National Artist of the RSFSR, Chief Artist for the Novosti Press Agency
and has designed several Soviet illustrated envelopesiand stamps, among them
the 4-kopek commemoratives for physiologist I. P. Pavlov and poet A. V.
Kol'tsov, issued in Sept. Oct. 1969.

We wish the new President all the best in his important post and trust that he
will continue to widen the international relations built up by his noted
predecessor. Amelioration of the rules for foreign exchanges would be an
important step in the right direction.




-14-








THE 26 CCM ISSARS FROM BAKU.

by K. Adler & A. Cronin.

The set of 5 stamps devoted to the above topic was issued on 1 Dec. 1933.
Printed by the phototype process on unwatermarked paper of medium thickness,
the stamps were line-perforated 14. The designers were N. Borov, G. Zamskii
and I. Ganf, while they were printed in sheets of 75 stamps (15 x 5 for the
horizontal designs and 5 x 15 for the vertical ones).

This set is noted for the varieties associated with it. First of all, each
value exists as a series of 8 essays in different colors on a sheet of grey
card, with a red overprint in the centre of the card reading in two lines:
"IPOERT / 6 OXm6dps 1933 e." ("Project, 6 October 1933"). The colors are
ultramarine, grey-black, brown, blue-grey, carmine, green, violet and red.
All these essays are line-perforated 14 and, by contrast, printed on paper
with the "carpet" watermark (Greek border and rosettes). Needless to say,
the set of five cards (40 essays) is rare.

We come next to the varieties of the issued stamps. These consist of missing
or compound perforations and the following have been noted:

4 kop. : Imperf. top margin (fantail), cancelled to order.

5 kop. : (a) Vertical pair from the top two rows of the sheet, imperf.
between and also imperf. top margin (fantail), mint.

(b) Imperf. left margin (fantail), mint.

(c) Imperf. right margin (fantail), cancelled to order.

(d) Imperf. vertically, mint.

20 kop.: (a) Horizontal pair imperf. between, mint.

(b) Violet shade : imperf. bottom margin (fantail), cancelled to
order.

(c) Dark violet shade : imperf. bottom margin (fantail), cancelled
to order.

(d) Perf. 14:14:10:14, mint and used. This is listed in the Soviet
Catalogue. We have not seen examples of this compound perforation,
but it must have come about when sheets with imperf. bottom margins
fantailss) were completed by running them through another line-
perforating machine gauging 10.

40 kop.: Imperf. left margin (fantail), cancelled to order.

Members are kindly requested to send in details of other varieties in their
possession. Incidentally, it is also interesting and worth while making a
collection of these stamps used on covers.

There is further material that can be collected on this topic. As examples,
we can cite a 4-kop. illustrated envelope that was issued in 1966, giving a
view of the square in Baku, named after the 26 Commissars (Fig. 1); a 4-kop.
stamp for S. G. Shaumyan was issued in 1968 on the 50th. anniversary of his
death (Fig. 2).

-15-









The question now arises as to just who the Commissars were. Led by S. G.
Shaumyan, a friend of Lenin, they established a Soviet government in the city
of Baku on 25 April 1918 and it lasted until 25 July. On 4 August, a British
force from Persia under General L. C. Dunsterville entered the city and they
in turn were forced to retreat on 15 September before the advancing Turks.

At the same time, the.Commissars, who had been freed from prison, boarded the
steamer "Turkmen" to go to Astrakhan. Instead, they were diverted to
Krasnovodsk, where they were arrested by the local Social Revolutionary
authorities in the presence of officers of the British Military Mission. Both
the British and S. R. people have subsequently blamed each other for the
execution of the 26 Commissars on 20 September 1918 at the 207th. verst of the
Transcaspian Railway, between the stations of Pereval and Akhcha-Kuima. This
action was the subject of heated correspondence between the British and Soviet
governments for several years thereafter. A letter about the affair from K. G.
Ellis, a former officer with the British Military Mission, was published in
"The Times" of London as recently as 10 October 1961.

From the foregoing, it can be seen that it is of interest to look for Russian
stamps, used at Baku in the period from 25 April to 25 July 1918. So far we
have found none and they are doubtless scarce as, by the summer, the area was
the only Soviet authority in all of Transcaucasia and completely cut off from
the Central Government. As there is also a possibility of finding letters or
cards sent to or from the Commissars, a full list of their names is given here:

B. A. Avakyan A. A. Bogdanov A. M. Kostandyan V. F. Polukhin
T. M. Amirov S. A. Bogdanov I. V. Malygin S. G. Shaumyan
A. M. Amiryan P. A. Dzhaparidze I. P. Metaxas F. F. Solntsev
M. A. Azizbekov I. T. Fioletov I. A. Mishne M. G. Vezirov
M. V. Basin I. Ya. Gabishev I. M. Nikolaishvili Ya. D. Zevin
E. A. Berg M. R. Koganov S. G. Osepyan
A. A. Bor'yan G. N. Korganov G, K. Petrov

While many of the names are of obvious Armenian, Azerbaijani and Georgian
origin, it can be seen that there were also Russians, Jews and one Greek
(Metaxas) represented in the group.












Fig. 2.


Fig. 1.
--.-

aluwa Um. 26 4asumlet Um tapol.
2I IKU EmuCCap M AAm& t|AU. .



-16-







POSTAGE DUE PROCEDURES IN RUSSIA & THE USSR

by D. B. Diamandiev

Postal rates which define the extent of the charges on written communications
between the population of a particular country have existed for a very long
time and even before the appearance of postage stamps. Moreover, there have
always been some people who, for one reason or another, have never complied
with the rates and have sent their letters underpaid (underfranked) or unpaid
altogether.

With the appearance of postage stamps in 1840, a great impetus was given to
correspondence between people, not only within the boundaries of a country,
but also between persons in different countries. The two basic classes of
mail, ordinary and registered, established themselves, as is also the case
today. It was for this reason that the time had come to consider the cases of
letters sent with unpaid or underpaid franking. Such letters are always in
the category of ordinary mail, i.e. those that have been deposited in mail
boxes or such like, without the corresponding preliminary checking by the
postal clerk of the proper rate, which is obligatory for registered mail.

A few countries (France, Italy, Belgium etc) had already solved this problem
before 1874. The unpaid amount or postage due was collected in double measure
from the addressee and the recipt for the collected sum was confirmed with
the addition of special stamps on the back of the envelope.

At a congress in Berne, Switzerland during October 1874, when the Universal
Postal Union was set up, among the subjects covered in connection with
collaboration and developments in the area of postal services and
communications, the question was also raised about "postage due", i.e. on
unfranked or underfranked ordinary letters, which had been sent through the
mails. The agreement, which had been adopted on 9 October 1874, defined many
of the principal postal procedures, some of which are still in force today.

Letters which had gone through unpaid or with postage due were put into a
special category, in that a cachet with the capital letter "T" was placed on
the covers, more or less in thick type and with or without a circular frame.
The marking was applied by the despatching post office and signified that the
corresponding charge had to be collected in double measure from the addressee.
Originally, in countries which did not have special adhesive stamps for this
purpose, the amount was collected in hard cash and paid against an
appropriate receipt. Subsequently, the problem was solved with the issuance of
specific postage due stamps.

I.

Immediately after the introduction of regular postage stamps in Russia on 1
Jan. 1858 and when postal services and communications were still under-
developed, the question of postage due was also raised. But the level of
organization of the Posts did not permit a conclusive treatment of the problem
to be worked out. Postage due was not envisaged for ordinary internal mail.
With respect to letters sent abroad, if they were not franked as required, an
elongated or oval cachet was placed on the covers, reading "RE OPAHFPOBGFAO"
(unfranked), i.e. the relevant letter was to be paid for by the addressee
abroad. Such instances were not too frequent and, as a result, letters with
these cachets are scarce.




-17-







Russia joined the UPU immediately after its establishment in 1874 and all the
principles regarding the handling of mail were put into effect. This was
because all the decisions taken at the congress in Berne were imbued with the
spirit of improvement of postal communications.

However, Russia was -one of the few countries which did not conform with the
principles of postage due. The original organization of the posts in the huge
Russian Empire, especially as expressed in its European section, had ensured
a relatively correct franking of ordinary letters. This also relates to the
mutual and parallel existence and functioning of two types of posts: the State
and Zemstvo services. The latter supplemented the government system. Moreover,
this duplicated situation (unusual in the history of the world's posts)
lasted until 1919 and thus the question of eventual postage due on letters was
not raised often.

Nevertheless, when such cases did come about, they were in one of two
categories, each of which had its own treatment of postage due procedures. For
international mail, the method was the application at the despatching offices
of cachet showing an encircled capital letter "T". Here are three examples:

(a) A 3-kop. card from Frampol', Podolia province, 7 Apr. 1900 to Paris. "T"
cachet with diameter of 15 mm. See Fig. la.
(b) A 3-kop. card from Mitava, Livonia province, 10 Mar. 1915 to Copenhagen.
"T" cachet with diameter of 16 mm. See Fig. lb.
(c) A 3-kop. card from Skopin, Ryazan' province, 15 Feb. 1894 to Paris. "T"
cachet with diameter of 14 mm. Note the stop after the letter "T" (Fig. Ic).






S... ,i
If D~i # ~ If

















Fig. la. Fig. lb. Fig. Ic.

Other types and sub-types must exist and the subject is worthy of further
study.

The same situation also applied to the Russian post offices abroad, especially
those in the Far East and China. They generally utilized the "T" cachets on
the occasions when the relevant letter turned out to be liable for postage due.
"However, special markings were also applied, bearing the name of the


-18-







despatching office and the word '"0/IZ47W75" (to pay up), in which case the
"T" cachet was not utilized (see S. D. Tchilinghirian & W. S. E. Stephen:
"Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad", Vol. 4, p. 344, figs. 472-3;
Vol. 5, p. 456, fig. 663). The amount owing was collected in cash, against
an appropriate receipt.

For domestic mail, the unpaid amount was charged to the addressee in double
measure. Moreover, there were no special adhesive for this purpose and it was
intended that the unpaid letters be marked in black ink, indelible pencil or
by an oval cachet reading "'1fnnA477b" (Fig. 2), to specify the extent of the
amount owing. The sum was accounted for with a receipt delivered together with
the letter and sometimes pasted on the back of the cover. By the way, the oval
"nWI4ATiTW cachet was sometimes utilized by mistake on international mail, as
can be seen from the postcard in Fig. 2a. Sent on 15 July 1917 from Ryazan',
i.e. after the abdication of the Tsar, this item is also interesting in that
it is a 4-kop. Romanov postcard, which should have been taken out of use.





n1O'ITOBXq IKA 1WK,'1 T,




V Fig. 2-


"'S ',' n "^ -- Fig. 2a.







Imperial Russia was one of the few member countries of the UPU which did not
issue its own special stamps for postage due.

II.

During the period from the October Revolution (25 October 1917 Old Style)
until the end of 1923, the amounts of postage due on domestic correspondence
were rarely collected, as increasing inflation made it hardly worthwhile.

As is well known, the situation in the Soviet State after the revolution was
very difficult and complex. On the one hand, the world war raged on and,
connected to this, the internal and external troubles and consequences lead
to the complete depreciation of the currency. Around December 1917, a ruble
then in circulation had a real value of only 4-5 kopeks, compared to the rate
in 1913. After March 1918, intervention and civil war began and the Russian
lands were for almost four years the arena for incessant military activities
and battles, as well as all sorts of events of a political character. The money
in circulation was practically without internal backing. Other local money and
foreign currencies were also in circulation; very often forged currency was
being passed on an equal basis as genuine money.

The same state of affairs also applied in the area of postal communications.
-19-








In the first years after the revolution, the pre-revolutionary postage and
fiscal stamps were utilized for franking mail. This situation continued until
March 1923. The first Soviet stamps, printed and placed in use during 1918-19,
had only a spasmodic appearance among the wide variety of stamps utilized
during this period. Soviet postage stamps were issued regularly only after 10
Aug. 1921. Moreover, the process of depreciation of the currency forced the
postal rates to be changed very often, especially during 1922 and 1923.

On 1 Jan. 1919, the principle of postage free mail was introduced throughout
the whole country for postcards and ordinary letters up to 15 grammes (1/2 oz.)
and this remained in force until 15 Aug. 1921. There were even cases where for
other classes of mail, i.e. letters above this weight limit, registered mail
etc., there were no stamps and the corresponding rate was collected in cash,
with a note made on the envelope about the amount charged.

There is no mention whatsoever about postage due charges in the postal rates
introduced up to the end of 1923. The reason for that was quite obvious;
inflation had reached great heights and the postal rates fluctuated. Even the
postal officials were not conscientious in connection with the correct
franking of letters. Many registered letters were accepted and went through
with frankings, bearing postal rates which had already been made obsolete.
Please see Fig. 3 for such an example, in this case a registered letter from
Bogorodsk-Gorbatov (Bogorodskoe, Nizhnii Novgorod province) 13 Apr. 1923 to
Czechoslovakia, franked with 1000 r. 1922 currency or 10 r. 1923 currency.
The rate had already gone up to 13 r. 1923 currency as of 1st. April that year.




", p- 1
















The same state of affairs also applied even more to ordinary mail. A
typical case is a letter from Khrushchevo, Ryazan' province 8 Nov. 1922 to
Bulgaria franked with 100 rubles 1922 currency, instead of 150 r., which was
the new rate from the 1st. of that month.

As is well known, the Soviet State, after having attained victory in 1922
over its internal and external enemies, then began to put its economy and
finances on a solid basis. There followed international "de jure"
recognition by other powers and the stabilization of industry, finances and
the economy. From the autumn of 1922, there were two parallel currencies in
circulation, i.e. ordinary rubles and kopeks, which already had a certain

-20-








amount of gold and commodity backing and, on the other hand, "chervontsy"
bank notes, which had a solid gold backing. By the autumn of the following
year, the utilization of the gold currency was already also widespread in the
area of postal services (rates, postage stamps etc. from October 1923).

III.

After the new postal rates came into force on 1 October 1923, the question of
postage due charges arose on incorrectly franked ordinary letters for domestic
mail. As a member of the UPU, the Soviet Union adopted the principle of double
payment on unpaid or insufficiently franked ordinary letters. In the postal
rates that were in force from 1 Oct. 1923 to 31 Jan. 1926, charges were
specifically envisaged for postage due. However, the amount to be paid
apparently comprised not only the double amount, but also a certain additional
sum as a fine over and above the doubled amount. An example of such a usage is
given further on in the section devoted to the "1)fOIV7TA" or "POSTAGE DUE"
overprints. As a result, the character of the charge for postage due was
adopted as a monetary sanction for non-compliance of a state law, namely a
postal rate and always at the expense of the addressee.

Before acquainting ourselves briefly with the special stamps for postage due,
printed and utilized from January 1924 (according to some authorities, from
December 1923), it would be worth while casting a glance at the postal rates
during the same period:

FOR DOMESTIC MAIL FOR INTERNATIONAL MAIL

(a) From 1 Oct. 1923 to 31 Aug. 1924. (a) From 15 Oct. 1923 to 30 Sep. 1925.
Postal cards 4 gold kop. Postal cards 12 gold kop.
S(from 15 Dec. 1923 3 kop.). Ordinary letters 20 "
Local letter in Moscow Registration fee 20 "
and Leningrad 5 "
Local letter elsewhere 4 (b) From 1 Oct. 1925 to 30 Apr. 1930.
Interurban letters 6 Postal cards 7 "
Registration fee 6 Ordinary letters 14 "
Registration fee 14 "
(b) From 1 Sep. 1924 to 31 Jan. 1926.
Postal cards 3 "
Local letters in Moscow
and Leningrad 5 "
Local letters elsewhere 4 "
Interurban letters 7 "
Registration fee 7 "

Knowing the basic rates of the postal tariffs for the period from the end of
1923 to 31 Jan. 1926, we will be able to understand also the face values of the
specific stamps for postage due, printed and utilized during the relevant period
in the Soviet Union.

A.

The first set of stamps for postage due was placed in use during January 1924
(or, according to others, December 1923). They were brick-red or carmine
typographic surcharges on the first Soviet stamps of 1918, as follows:
1 k./35 k., 3 k./35 k., 5 k./35 k., 8 k./35 k., 10 k./35 k., 12 k./70 k.,
14 k./35 k., 32 k./35 k., 40 k./35 k. (Yvert 1-8; Scott Jl-9; SG D1-9 etc).


-21-








There is a detailed description of the various sets and stamps given in
numerous catalogues: Michel, Scott, Yvert, Zumstein and the Soviet publications
of 1958 and 1970, as well as in the specialized catalogue of postage stamps of
the USSR 1917-1941, issued by the "Cercle Philatelique France-URSS" in 1969.

Although varying amounts of the sums owing on the missing frankings were
affected, the different face values were fully suitable in various combinations
to cover the double charge, plus the minimum fine, comprising the amount
required for postage due. See Fig. 4 and 4a. for the details of a local Moscow
letter, mailed without postage at the Moscow 8th. Despatch Office on 6 Nov.
1924. Note the large handwritten "L" and "12 Kon"over the oblong "I0N4JATHOE"
cachet (Fig. 4a) on the front of the envelope and the 12-kop. postage due
stamp on the back, cancelled "MOSCOW 2, 8 Nov. 1924". The postage rate
for this article was 5 kop., with the doubled charge bringing it up to 10 kop.,
presumably with an additional 2-kop. fine.







Fig. 4a.














Fig 4 Fig. 5.-- -
Fig .. 4 Fig. 5a.










B.

During August 1924, a new stamp for postage due was placed in use, namely
1 kop./ 100 r., being a rubber surcharge in violet, handstamped in gold kopeks
upon the regular postage stamp of 100 rubles, issued in August 1921.

C.

The third and last set of stamps for postage due were based on a special
design, executed in lithography or typography, with or without watermark
("Greek border and rosettes", known to the Russians as the "carpet" watermark),
which were printed and placed in use during the period from January to

-22-








September 1925 (most likely around May of that year). There were two types of
perforation: 12 and 14.5 x 14, while the values were: 1 k., 2 k., 3 k., 7 k.,
8 k., 10 k., 14 k. (Yvert 11-23; Scott Jll-24; SG D11-30).

0 IV.

The situation was different with the postage due fees relating to international
mail. As a general rule, the foreign postal services collect from the addresses
in their countries the rel evant postage due when an ordinary letter is not
franked in accordance with the rate in force.

The international agreements within the framework of the UPU, referring to the
charges for postage due, were quickly applied in all countries. After long
discussion, the members of the UPU adopted the gold franc as the basis for
computing the charges for postage due. As a result, three separate
computations were required for each specific case: (a) the missing amount was
calculated according to the rate obtaining in the sending country, (b) the
amount was then doubled and converted into gold centimes or francs and finally,
(c) on arrival in the country of destination, this last amount was converted
back into local currency and charged to the addressee. Normally, there are not
many instances of postage due, as the despatching post offices have endeavoured
to be strict in that regard.

With regard to letters sent abroad from the Soviet Union, there are no
exceptions to the general rule. For the period under review, we have an
interesting situation which relates to the rates for Soviet currency, as
calculated from the amounts given in gold centimes and francs and the
equivalent currency in the country of destination. Let us look at some examples:

(a)A letter sent from Russia 6 March 1922 to the U. S., with the rate underpaid
by 10,000 rubles. The letter was charged 7 U.S. cents on arrival. From this,
we can say that the unpaid portion was equal to 3 1/2 U.S. cents. Or to put
it another way for the purposes of comparison, one 1922 ruble was then equal
to 3 1/2 U.S. cents (on 1 May 1922, the first financial reform was carried
out in the Soviet State. A new monetary unit was established, the 1922 ruble,
which was equal to 10,000 old rubles).

(b)A letter sent from Russia 31 May 1922, underpaid by an amount of 7 rubles of
1922, with postage due of 7 U.S. cents being charged on arrival. By now, one
1922 ruble was equivalent to 1/2 U.S. cent.

(c)A letter from Russia 30 Aug. 1922 to the U.S., with 35 r. franking instead
of 45 r. Six U.S. cents postage due were charged, thus showing that one 1922
was now equal to 0.3 U.S. cents (see Fig. 5).

In all cases of postage due, the relevant letters were also marked with the
special international "T" cachets (for examples, see Figs. 5 & 5a).

V.

At the beginning of 1919, the principle of free transmission of mail was
introduced for postcards and ordinary letters weighing up to 15 grammes (1/2
oz.), in the midst of the stormy times and circumstances of the-very serious
external situation. For a period of more than 2 1/2 years, millions of people
were thus facilitated in their daily lives. When it had become apparent that
this free transmission of mail had also played its historic and positive role
and that its continuation was not politically expedient, it was abolished on

-23-







on 15 Aug. 1921.

In a further development, the "HAPHDM OTEJb" (National Commissariat of Posts
and Telegraphs), by a decision of the government scheduled to take place from
1 Feb. 1926, abolished the utilization of postage due stamps on letters in the
Soviet Union.

VI.

From the beginning, the numbers printed of postage due stamps were not great.
The exact amounts for specific stamps are not known, nor is there information
about the utilization of such stamps for the designated purpose.

In some individual and remote inhabited points, the circular letter from the
Postal Administration to the relevant postal stations about the abolition of
postage due stamps was not followed through. Although not authorized by the
higher postal authorities, postage due stamps came to be utilized for franking
regular mail, i.e. they were used as ordinary postage stamps. As the ordinary
postage stamps were also available in sufficient quantities, the utilization
of postage due stamps for franking regular mail was very small. Covers with
such usages are rare.
** **** ****
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Diamandiev has opened up a whole new subject, whose
potential for original research is great. His cover of 6 Nov. 1924 with the
12-kop. postage due stamp (see Fig. 4) is a particularly desirable item, as
such usages are rare. His assumption that internal postage due charges also
included an additional minimum fine is open to further examination. In his
example, it seems more likely that the postal authorities made a mistake and
assessed the postage due charges at double the rate for ordinary interurban
(i.e. city to city) letters, for which the tariff was 6 kop. We would like to
have details from members of similar pieces in their collections.

Delving further into the subject in the Soviet period, we can cite three
interesting examples, as follows:

(a) Domestic procedure during the inflationary period. An invalid 4-kop.
Tsari-st postcard, sent from Ekaterinograd, Samara province 6 Feb. 1922 to
Khartsyzsk, Don province. Postage due was assessed at double the rate that
had actually expired on 31 Jan., i.e. 100 r. for an ordinary postcard and
the despatching office applied its oval "'OW/I'T4l b" cachet to pay up 200
rubles (see Fig. 6 hereunder).

--------^*' :-'--------~ "r -^ :*

BCEMIPHblHi IOLITOBblfH COIUi' t ___ __ __
UNION POSTAL UNIVERSAL -
POCCI[ RU SSIfi
' IlOqTOBAq KAPTOIKA CARTIE P











Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

-24-








(b) International procedure after the abolition of postage due stamps. A letter
with 14 kop. postage, from Trotsk, Leningrad province 10 July 1927 to
London, England (Fig. 7). Note the oval internal postage due cachet for
Trotsk, as well as the international "T" markings, all of which were
crossed out when it was realized that the rate paid was correct.

(c) International procedure after the abolition of postage due stamps. A letter
sent from Leningrad 15 May 1931 to London. Although the rate paid (15 kop.)
was sufficient for the first 20 grammes weight (2/3 oz.) of an
international letter, it may have exceeded that limit and was, in any case,
assessed at 50 gold centimes postage due (see Fig. 8). On arrival five days
later in London, the English equivalent was calculated as 3 1/2 d., the
necessary postage due stamps added and the money collected.






















Fig. 8.









Members will, no doubt, be able to find other noteworthy examples.

Finally, for the benefit of our U.S. members, it is of interest to give the
conversion rates from gold centimes into the local currency equivalent. Up to
the devaluation of the dollar in 1933, the proportion wass5 gold centimes for
1 U.S. cent. For some time after W.W.II, the rate was 3 gold centimes for 1 U.S.
cent. Currently (1972), all countries have abandoned this "gold standard" and the
originating Postal Services mark all mail with a fraction, the numerator giving
double the deficiency and the denominator the surface letter postage going abroad,
both in local currency. On arrival in the U.S., this fraction is multiplied by
the U.S. surface letter rate going abroad (8f or 15e) to give the postage due
collectable here.
S* *


















-25-







THE POSTAL HISTORY OF SUVOROV ATOLL

by the Editorial Board

I.

The atoll forms part of the Cook Islands in the South Pacific and is situated
513 miles N.W. of the island of Rarotonga (see map in Fig. 1). It was first
recorded and named after the famous Russian generalissimo A. V. Suvorov
(1730-1800) by Lieutenant M. P. Lazarev (his portrait is at right on the 40-
kop. Antarctic commem. issued on 25 Oct. 1950 see Fig. 2) during his visit
on 17 Sept. 1814 in the Russian-American Company's armed ship "Suvorov". It
became a British protectorate in 1889. The entrance to the lagoon is flanked
by Anchorage Island, the main one in the group and the only one ever to be
inhabited. The name of the atoll has often been mispelt Suvarov and Suwarrow.

The commercial companies of Lever Bros. and A. B. Donald Ltd. worked the atoll
for pearl shell cultivation and copra-making until the early 1930s. During
W.W.II it was occupied by coast watchers, while a Meteorological and Radio
Station was in existence from July 1949 to Dec. 1950 with a staff of four Cook
Islanders, supervised by Mr. A. W. Hosking.

The next regular inhabitant was a New Zealander, Tom Neale, the sole occupant
from Oct. 1952 to June 1954, April 1960 to Dec. 1963 and from Jan. 1968 to the
present time (1972). He is now 71 and has described his experiences in a
fascinating book: "An Island to Oneself" (Collins, London 1966; Holt, Rinehart
& Winston, New York 1966).

During one of his absences, the International Geophysical Year took place in
1958, with a total eclipse of the sun being observed in the Cook Islands. The
USSR sent a ship observatory, while a Japanese expedition under Professor Yoshio
Kato of Tohuku University landed at Suvorov on 12 Oct. 1958 for recordings.





---- -:












1 ilmerston *
A~tutaki A
""u Manue Fig. 3.
lo's Takutea Mataro
Scale 0 100 200 Miles At M Fig. 1.
Sto giga.
Rjrotong. M

COOK ISLANDS M"'"


RXCATOR-S PROJ26-

-26-








II.

Although there has never been a permanent post office functioning on the atoll,
the foregoing events had philatelic repercussions, as we will now see:

(a) Hugh Fraser Ayson, High Court Judge and Resident Commissioner for New
Zealand at Rarotonga from 1923 to 1943, went on a tour of the islands in
June 1933. As a memento of this event, he opened a temporary post office
at Suvorov and cancelled some stamps, using a relief type dated postmarker.
This was a single-circle canceller, inscribed "SUWARROW" at top and with
dates "11SP16" or "27DE26" in the centre. The stamps utilized were the
1 1/2d., 6d. and 1/- values of the 1920 Rarotonga set and the 6d. value of
the same set for Penrhyn (see Fig.3). Although philatelic, such items are
rare and desirable.

(b) During the existence of the Meteorological and Radio Station, mail bearing
Cook Island issues of 1932-1946 was cancelled locally in manuscript by the
officer in charge, A. W. Hosking, with varying inscriptions reading "The
Garden of Eden", "Suwarrow Island / Cook Islands", etc. and dates in 1949-50.
Once again, such covers are very rare.

(c) Due to the foresight of Mr. G. J. Raymond of Houston, Texas, the landing of
the Japanese Eclipse Expedition at Suvorov from the "Oshoro Maru" was
signified on 12 Oct. 1958, using the ship's postmarker (see Fig. 4):

JAPAESBE ECLIPSE EXPEDITION
I.G.Y.
12 OCT.1956
Suawa-ow Ialqd
"ASHORO iARBU






O.J.Rayond,
o/o Radio Officer,
OSHORO rM Fig. 5.
Fig. 4.



(d) When Mr. Tom Neale returned to Suvorov in Jan. 1968, he took with him a
frank made of rubber, from a die cut from an old piece of copper pipe
(see Fig. 5). As his name was mispelt NEAL, he added the "E" in manuscript
on letters sent back by him.

This frank is rare since, by August that same year, he was applying a
corrected type supplied by the Government Printer at Rarotonga, with the
words "COOK ISLANDS" added across the centre. Some idea of his isolation
may be gathered from the cover in Fig. 6, dated Suwarrow 30 Aug. 1968 and
passing through Rarotonga nine months later on 27 May 1969



The franking privilege gives him free postage on mail to Rarotonga. For other
destinations, Cook Islands stamps must be added. He has no stocks of these
and collectors desirous of obtaining covers from Suvorov must send stamped
and addressed envelopes, franked in accordance with the following rates:

-27-







Surface letter to Commonwealth countries 5 e
Surface letter to Europe & the U.S. 8
Airmail to the U.S. 25
Airmail to Europe 30
Registration fee 20











w Ze I., fr l h i r f






//,J)- g0y





Fig. 6.

Finally, the Editorial Board wishes to extend its thanks to Mr. A. R. Burge
of Wellington, New Zealand and through him, the Royal Philatelic Society of
New Zealand Inc., for all help rendered in putting together the facts for this
article and, in particular, for the kind permission given to quote from the
section on Suvorov Island from Volume V of the magnificent series entitled
"The Postage Stamps of New Zealand". This volume of 818 pages is devoted to
the stamps and postal history of the Pacific islands under New Zealand
administration or protection and the Ross Dependency. Collectors interested
in obtaining this beautifully produced work are advised to write for details
to Mr. A. R. Burge F.R.P.S.N.Z., P. 0. Box 1568, Wellington, New Zealand.



Here and there....

A measure of the growing international reputation gained by Soviet stamps is
the announcement by the Crown Agents of London, England of an agreement with
the Ministry of Communications of the USSR to distribute Soviet new issues and
first day covers.

The agreement went into force on 1 June 1972 for international distribution to
dealers, excluding Belgium, France, North America and West Germany, where specific
arrangements are in force. The Crown Agents originally handled philatelic and
postal tasks for British Colonies and Dominions for many years and they therefore
have considerable experience in the field.


***-28-
-28-







THE TIFLIS CITY POST

by R. Polchaninoff.

On 24-27 March 1971, the Robert W. Boughman collection was sold in New York
City at the Robert A. Siegel galleries. The first day of sale also contained
the first Russian stamp of the Tiflis City Post. This came from the collection
of the late C. Stibbe (member of "Rossica" and "The British Society of Russian
Philately" and a resident of England) and was formerly owned by Agathon Faberge.

The auction in which this legendary Russian stamp was sold went almost unnoticed
in the philatelic world. In the Sunday edition of "The New York Times" of 7
March 1971, there was word of the upcoming Siegel auction, but no mention at all
that this was only the fourth occasion such a stamp would be sold since 1913,
when the stamps of the Tiflis City Post were first discovered. There is not even
a copy in the State Collection of the USSR, housed in the Museum of
Communications, named after A. S. Popov in Leningrad.

I will not repeat the information given in the article by the late Dr.
Bondarenko-Salisbury in Rossica Journal No. 46-47 of 1955, but I will
supplement it with data from the article by B. Kaminskii: "Postal Circulation
of the Tiflis Stamps", published in the magazine "Philately of the USSR",
No. 8 of 1970.

Going through the newspaper "KA4BKA3" ("Caucasus"), B. Kaminskii found that the
"Regulations for the City Post in Tiflis and the delivery of magazines and
newspapers to homes" were sanctioned on 14 June 1857 by the Viceroy of the
Caucasus, Prince A. I. Baryatinskii. The stamps went into circulation six days
later (20 June 1857) and were also utilized by the City Post after the
introduction into the Caucasus of Imperial stamps.

In an announcement from the provincial post office, published on 20 March 1858
in the same newspaper "KABB43" ("Caucasus"), it was clearly stated that it was
not allowed to use the Imperial stamps or "stamped envelopes" but only the
special "seals of the City Post", as the Tiflis city stamps were officially
called at that time.

B. Kaminskii found documents regarding the period of issue of the Tiflis stamps
and their utilization within the city limits after 1 March 1858, when the
Imperial postage stamps were introduced into the Caucasus. It only remained to
find out the date when they were taken out of circulation, so as to have a
complete picture of the history of the Tiflis City Post from its beginning to
its end.

In the magazine "Philately of the USSR", No. 12 for 1971, B. Kaminskii reported
the results of his latest investigations. He calculated that the stamps of the
Tiflis City Post were in circulation until 1865-66 and reinforced his opinion
with statistical data about the sale of 1, 3 and 5-kop. Imperial stamps in this
period. In this same article, Mr. Kaminskii stated that the stamp of the Tiflis
City Post was noted in the catalogues of S. Prigara: "Russian Posts in the
Empire, Turkey, China and the Posts in the Kingdom of Poland" (New York, 1941),
as well as in the specialized catalogue of the stamps of Russia by D. Reynolds
(1957). With regard to the Lipsia catalogue, the reproduction in it is given
with an incorrect inscription: "TEIW9 EL", instead of "Th7W C:".

It is interesting to note that in the book "For you a letter", by M. Arlazorov,
an enlarged reproduction of the stamp is given from the illustration in Lipsia,
without any kind of critical note.

-29-








There remains just one important question about the quantity of the Tiflis City
Post stamps known to us. K. K. Schmidt wrote in 1924 that, of the three copies
found in 1913, he had obtained one. He did not state who received the other two.

Schmidt also did not say from whom he had obtained his stamp of the Tiflis City
Post. It seems most probable to me that Schmidt received his copy from Agathon
Faberg6, with whom he had put together a catalogue of stamps of the Zemstvo
Post. Faberg4 originally had not three, but five copies, i.e. a complete strip.
It is known that the stamp of the Tiflis City Post was printed and sold in
strips of five copies.

N. Nosilov, in his article "About the new first stamp of Russia" in the magazine
"Soviet Collector", No. 11 for 1930, noted that on the word of the authoritative
philatelist, the late V. Lysenko, a collection of Zemstvo stamps was bought by a
Moscow collector, V. Werkmeister and amongst them was a stamp of the Tiflis City
Post. The fate of this stamp, which was the only one to remain in Russia, is
unknown to us.

Up to now, no one has come forward to answer the appeal of the annual handbook
"Soviet Collector", No. 2 for 1964, with information about the fate of V.
Werkmeister and his copy of the Tiflis City Post stamp. The fact that this copy
was bought among Zemstvo stamps by V. Werkmeister leads me to the thought that
it was also obtained from Agathon Fabergd. With regard to Faberge himself, three
copies from his collection were sold in London by H. R. Harmer Ltd. in their
auction of 20 November 1939. All three copies from the Faberge collection have
turned up in the United States, the fate of the fourth copy from the Schmidt
collection is not presently known and the fifth copy, if it has not been lost,
must exist somewhere in the USSR.

I do not believe the rumour that a cover exists with the stamp of the Tiflis
City Post, since there has never been a mention as to who had this cover or even
as to who had seen it with his own eyes.

The Dumont Stamp Company bought the Tiflis stamp at the Siegel Auction on 24
March 1971 for $7500 on behalf of a collector in New York City. According to a
statement by the owner of the firm, another collector living in the U. S.
obtained a copy of the Tiflis stamp around 1967 for $850, while according to S.
Serebrakian, a third collector, whom he knew well, purchased such a stamp for a
few hundred dollars at the beginning of the 1960s.

The only time the copy of the Tiflis stamp in the K. K. Schmidt collection was
displayed was at the "Iposta" International Philatelic Exhibition at Berlin in
1930, as a result of which it was noted in the Michel catalogue for 1933, but
without illustration. No picture of it appeared in Michel until 1941. It is
unknown why the Tiflis stamp was subsequently taken out of Michel, when the
1863 stamp of the St. Petersburg City Post (which, by the way, was also
utilized in Moscow, Kazan' and Astrakhan) has been recognized by Michel and all
other world catalogues. Up to this time, the Tiflis stamp is now featured only
in the Lipsia catalogue of East Germany.

In "The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Stamp Collecting" by Otto Hornung (London,
1970), there is an article entitled "The Forgotten Noah's Ark", in which there
is a short survey of the stamp of the Tiflis City Post. It has some incorrect
data, as the compiler did not have access to the articles by B. Kaminskii,
with the results of the latest investigations.


-30-







It remains for investigators in the USSR to answer two questions:-

(a) Until when were the stamps of the Tiflis City Post in circulation ?
(b) Where is the fifth copy of this stamp to be found ?

We wish them luck.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Polchaninoff's article raises some interesting points and
the following data are set down to fill out the story of this fascinating issue:-

(a) The famous German collector, K.K. Schmidt, stated that there was a copy
known used on cover and the question arises, where is that cover now ? Your
Editor met about 20 years ago in Australia a former resident and architect from
Chernovtsy, Northern Bukovina, named A. Appenzeller, who had been in Moscow in
1940, after the province had been incorporated in the USSR. He claimed to have
seen the Tiflis stamp on cover in the collection of a Muscovite, Arkin by name.
While on diplomatic service in Moscow, the late Dr. Marcello Mochi tried to
trace Mr. Arkin in 1958. He found out that Mr. Arkin had since died and his
widow knew nothing about a Tiflis cover. The inference is that the cover must
still be somewhere in Moscow.

(b) Tracing the fate of the three copies in the Agathon Faberg6 auction, the
purchaser(s) and present whereabouts of Lot 1 (the finest copy) are unknown.
The upcoming disposal of the huge Russian collection held by the famous
Australian owner of the 1 C British Guiana, the late Frederick T. Small, may
answer that question.

Lot 2, which was also a fine copy, was purchased by the late C. Stibbe and
bought in 1957 (Lot No. 3) by Paul Davidson of Chicago. From him, it passed
to the late Robert W. Boughman and now to its present owner, a Rossica member.

Lot 3 (the poorest of the three copies) was bought by H. C. Goss and
purchased in 1958 at the sale of his collection (Lot No. 131) by a Rossica
member.

If there is a fourth copy in the U. S. (the Schmidt copy ?), we do not know
its whereabouts.

(c) In the opinion of Editorial Board member, N. Epstein, the suggestion that
Agathon Faberg6 originally had a strip of five is unlikely for the following
reasons:-

(1) Faberg6 was a great collector of multiple pieces and he would never
have agreed to cut down the strip to dispose of two copies to K. K.
Schmidt and V. Werkmeister respectively.

(2) The three copies in the Faberge auction certainly do not look as if
they all came originally from the same strip and it is inconceivable
that he would have separated out these stamps. He would have kept the
strip intact.

Our member R. Polchaninoff has published three articles in Russian about the
Tiflis stamp in the "Collectors' Corner" of the Russian newspaper "Hoeoe
PyccKoe CAoeo" ("New Russian Word") in New York City, as well as an article
in Croatian in the November 1971 issue of "Filatelija", published at Zagreb,
Yugoslavia. Finally, we should note that the stamp is also of great interest
to medical topicalists, as the featured arms of the City of Tiflis include the
rod of Aesculapius 1

-31-







THE ONE-RUBLE STAMP, 1910-1917.

by Rev. Leonard Tann

The new issue of stamps in January 1909 on wove paper ran up to the 70-kop.
value. Some post offices no doubt still had some stocks of the old 1905
series, particularly of the "heavy" values, 1 r. and upwards. In a land
where the inland rate was 7 kop. (just over 1/2 p, or almost 2-), the Imperial
Post Office preferred to wait for demands for the higher values before printing
them. In 1910, the 1 r. was reissued in the same design and basic coloring as
the 1904 and 1891 issues. The two printings (1910, 1911-14) that preceded the
outbreak of W.W.1 were comparatively free of errors, but nevertheless still
provided us with some excellent varieties, comparable to those of preceding
issues. We must bear in mind that we speak now of the relatively undisrupted
period when control and supervision were good.

There are several ways in which these prewar issues can be detected from the
later 1914-17, 1917, 1917-18 and 1919 issues, mainly in the coloring of the
centres, in clarity of print and in sharpness of perforations. Thus:

1910. Centre yellow-orange, eagle embossed quite heavily, good perfs. Margin
at right/left bears one vertical orange stripe matching color of centre.

1911-14. Centre red-orange, eagle embossed, good perfs. Margin at right/left
bearing three vertical brown lines matching color of frame.

1913. Centre yellow-orange, eagle embossed, good perfs. Margin at right/left
bears one vertical line matching color of centre (this was originally
a special printing overprinted "10 PIASTRES" for the Levant. About 1000
sheets unoverprinted in piastres were a residue and were used in the
Empire itself. Can only be distinguished with margin).

1914-17. Centre orange, eagle embossed very lightly. Colors coarser than on
earlier issues and the three brown lines in the margin at right/left
show considerable fractures, with lack of solid color.

1917, 1917-18, 1919. These issues: orange centre, no embossing and blotchy
appearance. Perforated copies show poor and even appalling perforations.
Generally, there is slight misregistration of the centre and/or
background. Margins are narrow and totally blank.

Used copies of the 1 r. should be approached with caution. Throughout the
Imperial era and up to 1920, stamps are known used long after the issue had
ceased. Copies of the 1902-05 period are known used during the Revolution
and odd copies of the Romanov series are known used in 1918-19. The present
writer has an unusual item, the 1904 1 r. on vertically laid paper,
imperforate between in a vertical pair, clearly cancelled Petrograd 1916. The
clarity of a postmark is therefore no guarantee that it was used shortly after
issue. Copies of the 1910 1 r. could easily have been used in the last period
of Tsarist issues, in 1922 (of course, at umpteen times face value). Postmarks
also tend to darken colors and eliminate any embossing. Peeling off the
envelope does not help either. Nevertheless, used copies can be compared with
used copies of the 1910-14 period to assess date of issue.

It may be as well to list here the varieties that unquestionably fall into the
prewar issues of the 1 r., based on collated notes, the writer's collection
and catalogues. Varieties are to be assumed to be mint unless otherwise stated.


-32-






1910 : 1 r. with margin showing one orange line. 1911 : 1 r. with margin
bearing three brown lines.

(a) centre offset on back.
(b) centre misplaced to 33%, mint & used.
(c) varnish lines misplaced.
(d) centre doubled, mint and used (see note below).
(e) imperforate between horizontal/vertical pairs, mint.
(f) centre misplaced to 50%.

1914-17 : 1 r., margin with three brown lines. Colors coarser.

(a) centre offset.
(b) centre misplaced up to 50%.
(c) varnish lines misplaced.
(d) centre doubled.
(e) imperforate between, mint & used.
(f) background shading inverted (some copies have the centre fractionally
shifted, perhaps up to 5% or 6%), mint & used.
(g) perf. 11/1/2 (not the pin perfs. or sewing machine perfs. of the
later type, like the Tiflis roulette, but from a machine for
perforating fiscal stamps. Compare the 1 r. of 1904 & 5 r. of 1906).

The issues of 1917 are divided into three separate groups, although the
dividing line is drawn too closely by collectors:

Jan. 2 March : last of the issues made under the authority of the Tsar.
3 March 25 Oct. : Duma printings, perf. & imperf.
26 Oct. onwards : Soviet Republican reprints of old styles.

Really, although the various printings can be told apart, there is no clear
dividing line, as one issue merged into another. The characteristics that are
associated with the different printings became apparent and faded away by
default rather than by design. Bearing this in mind, let us consider the main
characteristics of these issues:

Jan. 2 March : last of the Tsarist issues. Three brown lines in wide margin,
centre still embossed.
March October : embossing more or less absent; narrower and blank margins.
Sheets printed in 7 x 8 with six blanks bearing interlocking
Vs. Some later printings show poor registration of colors.
Perf. & imperf.
Soviet October : Colors poorer than before and impression somewhat blotchy.
Eagle appallingly printed, sometimes barely recognizable.
Sheet printed 5 x 10, later issues with varnish lines
horizontal (1919). Perf. & imperf.

As to the errors, the shifts of centres and backgrounds become more pronounced.
Shifts of more than 3 mm. or so are rare in pre-1917 printings, although
examples do exist showing more pronounced shifts. Shifts or wider dimensions
are common in the Duma and Soviet printings, even up to 6 and 7 mm., if not
more. Multiplicity of errors is evident too. It is exceptional to find any
stamps under the rule of the tsars with more than one variety (except perhaps
for the low value stamps of the 1880s and 1890s, even up to 1906 with imperf.
varieties showing shifts of background) and yet this is more common in mid and
late 1917. The 1 r. stamps are known with treble centres and misplaced
backgrounds, or double/treble frames and shifted centres (for notes on this
subject, see Rossica Journal No. 78, p. 16 and Rossica Journal No. 80, pp. 32-
33).

-33-








* Now we come to the item which is the main purpose of this essay, the 1910
1 r. stamp with doubled centre, used (see Rossica Journal No. 72, p. 89, note
from Mr. K. Freyman of South Africa).

The enlarged photo, which I hope reproduces well, should reveal some, if not
all, of the points to be seen:

(a) The foot of the figure "1" can clearly be seen doubled. The figure "1"
itself can be seen doubled.

(b) The white line enclosing the oval can be seen doubled here. The first one,
that of the original centre, can be seen in its usual place from the north-
west to south of the stamp. Further in can be seen the second white line of
the second centre.

(c) At least three eagle's heads can be seen, two at right and one at left. The
two top ones, of the second print, are surmounted by the crown and its tabs.
The right head of the first eagle can also be seen with tab.

(d) Close observation (perhaps not visible on the reproduction) will reveal the
eagles) with two right claws with orbs.

(e) Traces of double wing-feathers and double posthorns with thunderbolts are
visible, although perhaps not in the picture.

The postmark is "VIL'NA 3, -2. 9. 10" in a double circle with bridge-style
postmark. What cannot be seen here at all is that the varnish lines are
misplaced and tilted so as to fall almost 450 across the stamp's surface.

While extreme shifts are not entirely unknown in Russia prior to 1917, they were
exceptional, as was said before. The present writer has two copies of the 1904
1 r. with centres shifted 10 & 12 mm. respectively, but these are unusual. This
lovely item typifies the general rule of very moderate shift of the second
centre, which is almost 2 mm. To a checker looking through countless batches of
the 1 r. issues, this item, presumably from a complete sheet, would not catch
his eye as it is not violently noticeable in a split second. Checkers certainly
did not hold each sheet up to check varnish lines.

So those who keep notes of these things should put a little star in the used
column for the 1 r. stamp of 1910, under sub-initial, double centre:



















-34-








NOTES ON THE SOUlH RUSSIA DINIKINS

by Michael Rayhack

This article was born one night as the result of insomnia and let us hope the
reverse will not happen to the reader! The facts stated here are largely due
to common sense and the joining of data to make a statement. One day, the
Soviet archives on postal matters will be available to postal historians and
this article will look like child's play.

One sleepless night, my attention was riveted on the Denikin stamps I had put
away in part sheets and blocks of ten (2 rows of 5) for the ruble values and
large blocks of 100 (4 panes of 5x5) etc of the kopek values. I started with
the kopek stamps as I had a strip of 4 panes of 25 scamps, resting on a
bottom inscription with a long narrow color bar at left. Please see Fig. 1:








3KCcnEFIq M3rTOBtLon.0 HH4Imnjx EMIHK U.A.lBiioowcKAcn .

Fig. 1.
Translated, it reads: "Office for the Preparation of Valuable Papers of the
All-Great Don Army at Novocherkassk". This imprint of the printer proved to
play a great part in determining the printing of the ruble values.

I started to assemble the sheets of the kopek values, with the aid of part
sheets I had traded with another person who, fortunately, had been buying them
from the same dealer I had dealt with. The first thing to strike my eye was
the gum side of the strip of 100 stamps, that seemed to have all the
varieties of gum, classified by other authors as separate printings. Yes, there
was brown gum with large grains, brown gum with small grains and just brown
gum. These grains popped out of the gum and, as the gumming machine spread the
liquid on the sheet, the variations of gum were formed. At some other time, a
slightly different spreader was used, as the gum grains were flattened and
elongated by the roller of the spreader. So I say, lump all the brown gum
stamps into one category, as they all came from one sheet and specialization
is not needed.

Using the original bottom strips of 100 stamps, 4 panes of 25, and noting the
wide selvage of paper on either side, I started to reconstruct the full sheet,
using different kopek values where necessary to keep the sequence intact. A
part sheet with selvage gave me the clue that the top of the sheet had a "+"
mark, a printer's sign for registration and to indicate the middle of the
sheet. So, with the aid of the selvage on all four sides, the sheet was
reconstructed into 16 panes of 5x5, or 400 stamps. Later oh, this must have
proved inconvenient to handle and ship and there was also a lack of demand
for the lower kopek values, as inflation was pushing the postal rate to 70
kopeks per letter' Thus, we find our next type of sheet, with the inscription
and color bar following it, all inverted in relation to the stamps. With
slight variations, the inscription starts above the top right hand pane of
5x5 and ends with the color bar above the top left hand pane. It is safe to
assume that this type of sheet was printed in 4 panes of 25 stamps, just as

-35-







for the Tsarist kopek issues. See Fig. 2 for the disposition of the imprint:

INV-d_ *33vh Of U8o iagg 1SoMHiH XIiqX qHHqJiOJ 910JjVE bU)MV3U2[








Fig. 2

The kopek and ruble values were printed on the same greyish-yellow paper
without any distinguishing watermark, but the kopek values of 15, 35 & 70 are
found on a white paper. There is no proof that this was a separate printing,
since many of the stamps carry the brown gum with grains, as noted in the
early issue. However, cancelled copies with clear date and town cancellations
are very scarce, but early and late usages are noted on the copies in my
collection. I believe that, due to the wartime shortages, the extra white
paper found was simply fed into the press along with the regular paper.

All the kopek stamps range through a wide area of hues for each value. The
Stanley Gibbons catalogue lists a 5-kop. yellow shade, a 10-kop. emerald, a
15-kop. carmine-red and a 35-kop. slate-blue, all as varieties with separate
numbers. These stamps are again hard to find and are even greater rarities
cancelled with clear dates and town names. The inks used for these shades
have a shiny hue to them and the paper has an oily appearance, like modified
parchment paper, which distinguishes them from the complicated range of colors
in the Denikin kopek stamps. Without covers and without a quantity of
workable postmarks, it is impossible to make even an educated guess as to
whether this was a separate printing, made in another town. The only error
found in the kopek values is the 70-k. value tete-beche, which must have
occurred while the printer was changing the format from 400 stamps to 100
units. It is possible that only one or two sheets were printed, as this is a
scarce error and, to date, it has never been found in used condition, to my
knowledge. Note the illustration below of this variety (Fig. 3):





Fig. 3




The height of excitement during the insomniac night came when I joined two
strips of ten (2 rows of 5 stamps) of the 7-ruble value, which had been
severed from each other, according to the color bar and inscription, which was
placed on the left side of the sheet. Switching over to the more plentiful
strips of ten I quickly reconstructed the left side of the sheet, showing
that there were 50 stamps in all, in 10 rows of 5 units. The top row showed a
two-color "+" registration sign put there by the printer, which meant there
was another pane of 50 stamps on the right side. Guided by the wide selvage on
the right of the rows of stamps in my possession, I found that I had three
rows of ten stamps that had been severed from each other and I now quickly

-36-






made up the right-hand pane. Now proof was had that the sheet was printed in
two large panes of 50 stamps (10 rows of 5), to total 100 units for the ruble
values. The inscription is preceded by a formal color bar in one of the colors
for the background, while a makeshift "scratch" color bar represents the color
of the centre and numerals of value. The bottom row also carries a two-color
registration mark "+", for the guidance of the printer. The right-hand pane of
the sheet also carries two "scratch" color bars, in the inks of the backgrounds
and the centres. Thus, the reconstruction of the ruble values definitely proves
that the sheets were printed in 20 rows of 5 stamps each, i.e. in two panes of
50 units.

The night had worn on and so the intense researching went on over a period of
weeks. The next subject was the printing of the perforated ruble values and
here was another surprise. Thanks to the help of L & F Stamp Service, I
obtained a perforated cancelled copy of the 10-ruble value, with a "fantail" in
the top margin, showing that the printer's imprint was now inverted and placed
above the first row of stamps at top Please see Fig. 4 below for this variety:

Fig. 4 Fig. 6


























Fig. 5 Fig. 7









-37-
I aI-, ,., *1---;

*.'~
a'JO




KIf rE
















-37-









Why there was an additional printing with the imprint inverted in such a
position is not known, but this may have been done in some other town. For some
authors have stated that the Denikins were reprinted in three separate towns.
Having large blocks of the 10-ruble perforated stamps on hand, I reconstructed
the sheet almost entirely and again it was one of 100 units, subdivided by the
two color registration markings in the middle of the sheet to give two panes of
50 stamps each. The inscription or imprint was on the left side and the two
color scratch markings on the selvage of the right side. The outside perimeter
of the sheet ended in a straight edge, to-give 36 stamps with "fantail" margins.
The printers probably thought it was not worth the effort to perforate the outer
margins of the sheets.

Now for another piece of news. A block has been found of 2 rows of 5 stamps of
the 10-ruble perforated variety, with a gutter along the bottom edge of the
pane, as found on the 100-subject Tsarist kopek values. This invites
speculation that the sheet contained gutters to separate the sheet of 100
stamps into 4 panes of 25 stamps (5 rows of 5), for easy separation at the post
offices. This seems as valid a reason as any other and confirmation is earnestly
requested of other members.

When sheets of the Denikin stamps, especially of the two-color ruble values,
were shown to printers here in the U. S., they all declared them to have reached
a high peak of perfection in the art of printing and they were amazed that such
perfection could have existed under the wartime conditions prevalent in South
Russia. Incidentally, many collectors have ample examples of double and triple
centres, double frames and misplaced centres and numerals of value in the ruble
stamps. These are nothing more than printer's waste and none have been seen
cancelled or on cover. I have many examples with printer's pencil marks for the
"+" registration mark and double perforations as the printer lined up his
perforating machine. Again, to my knowledge, such varieties never include a
stamp with centre and numeral missing, which is a legitimate error. Please see
Fig. 5, which shows a portion of a money transfer card with Denikin kopek values
and a 5-ruble Denikin with centre and numeral of value missing. The card is
authentic and is duly cancelled 29 Nov. 1919 in Novocherkassk. To my knowledge,
this is the only known error in the ruble Denikin stamps and 99 more copies must
exist somewhere, if they have not been destroyed. Of course, this may also have
been a unique printing freak, where a piece of paper slipped in and took the
centre and numeral of value.

Considering the wartime conditions of the issuance of these stamps, they are
remarkably free of forgeries and errors, with the exception of the 70-kopek
tete-beche and printer's waste varieties. The only forgery is the laughable
Italian issue with different colors and rosettes instead of numerals. These
were quickly noticed and recognized for what they were fantasies.

The collection of used Denikins falls into two categories, that of White use
and that of Red usages when they occupied South Russian towns, using the
Denikins found in the post offices they captured. For further details, see
the Appendix to this article. Use in the Ukraine provides some rare cancels,
as the Denikins replaced by order all the Ukrainian "Trident" issues. But
someone forgot to carry out this order completely, as can be seen from Fig. 6,
a rare bird in my collection. This is in the form of a money order card,
showing a fine array of Ukrainian "Tridents", Odessa Types II & IV, used
together with two 10-kopek Denikin stamps at Varvarovka in the province of
Kherson.


-38-








Another area that adjoins South Russia is the Caucasus and here you have to
Compete with Caucasian collectors for used Denikins, which are rare as the
White army occupied the area for only a few months.

The Denikin kopek values lead you down another byway and that is the collection
of used 5, 10 & 15 kopek values, when they were used by the Soviet postal
authorities at 100 times face after March 1920. Again the word scarce is
applicable for cancelled stamps in good order, as clear town and date cancels
are rarely found in the collections I have purchased. All used Denikins are
very scarce postmarked after July since the Soviet authorities banned the use
of Kuban South Russia stamps after 31 July 1920. This probably also applied to
the Denikins, as it is seldom that you see a cancelled Denikin stamp after that
cut-off date, which makes the chase for late postmarks exciting. All Kuban
remainders were ordered shipped to Moscow and again that must also have applied
to the Denikins, for another usage occurs. Through the kind help of Mr. K.
Freyman of Cape Town, South Africa, I obtained a cover franked with nine 20-kop.
Tsarist stamps with a revalued franking power of 180 rubles and two 35-kop.
Denikins, which must have been revalued at 100 times face for 70 rubles. This
is a most unusual occurence, bringing the total franking up to 250 rubles,
which was enough for an inland letter within the Soviet state but not for
international mailing. This letter was sent from Moscow 24 Aug. 1921 via
Petrograd 30 Aug., to arrive in Tallinn, Estonia on 21 Oct. 1921, taking two
months for a 400-km. (250-mile) trip. A special rate may have existed for the
Baltic countries, although Mr. Freyman, a resident of Tallinn at that time,
recalls that higher postal rates existed on the letters he personally saw.
There is no doubt that this letter saw legitimate postal usage.

Finally, to touch again on the Denikin stamps, the perforated varieties of the
3 & 7-ruble values are the hardest to find cancelled. On cover, all the perf.
Denikin stamps are rare items. I passed up three covers about ten years ago
and have not seen any since. There is good reason to think of the perforated
Denikins as separate issues, as the quality of the paper improves and a lighter
gum is used, which indicates that more care was taken in preparing these
stamps.

Please see the APPENDIX below for a detailed treatment of the main points raised
in chis article.

S, ** ** *

APPENDIX

A. The make-up of the sheets for the various values:

5 KOP.:(a) Sheets of 400 in 16 panes of 25 stamps (5 rows of 5) and
imprint in bottom margin between 2nd. & 3rd. bottom panes (Fig. 1).

(b) Sheets of 100 in 4 panes of 25 stamps (5 rows of 5) and
imprint inverted, placed in top margin, starting above
the top right pane (Fig. 2).

10 KOP.: Sheets of 400 in 16 panes of 25 stamps (5 rows of 5) and
imprint in bottom margin inverted.

15 KOP.: Sheets of 100 in 4 panes of 25 stamps (5 rows of 5) and
imprint inverted, placed in top margin, starting above
the top right pane (Fig. 2).

-39-








35 KOP.:(a) Sheets of 400 in 16 panes of 25 stamps (5 rows of 5) and
imprint presumably normal, in bottom margin between 2nd. & 3rd.
bottom panes. Will other members please confirm ?

(b) Sheets of 100 in 4 panes of 25 stamps (5 rows of 5) and
imprint inverted placed in top margin, starting above the top
right pane (Fig. 2).

70 KOP.:(a) Sheets of 400 in 16 panes of 25 stamps (5 rows of 5) and
imprint in bottom margin between 2nd. & 3rd. bottom panes (Fig. 1).

(b) Sheets of 100 in 4 panes of 25 stamps (5 rows of 5) and
imprint inverted, placed in top margin, starting above
the top right pane (Fig. 2).

1 RUB. to 5 RUB.: No material on hand in sheet form, but presumably as for
the 7 & 10-ruble values described hereunder.

7 RUB.: Sheets of 100 stamps in two panes of 50 (10 rows of 5), with
imprint in the left selvage, starting with color bar in the
1st. & 2nd. rows and the inscription going from the 3rd. to
the 6th. row.

NOTE: All the values of this issue were printed by the litho-
graphic process but apparently not by the traditional method of
transfers and stones, as no evidence has been found of building
up the plates by this method in the material under examination.
It is therefore assumed that all values were printed by the
photolithographic process.

In this particular value, there is an unusual flaw, consisting
of a spur at the end of the leaf above the letter "H" of "LFH4H"
(see Fig. 7). It occurs regularly on the following positions in
each pane: 8, 10, 16, 18, 20, 28, 30, 36, 38, 40, 46, 48 & 50.
A definite pattern is thereby demonstrated but examination of
more material is required before any firm conclusions can be made.

10 RUB.:(a) Sheets of 100 stamps in two panes of 50 (10 rows of 5), with
imprint in the left selvage, starting with color bar in the
1st. & 2nd. rows and the inscription going from the 3rd. to
the 6th. row.

(b) Printer's imprint placed in the top selvage, somewhere above
the top row of stamps. Disposition of the imprint along the
selvage and the composition are not known, due to lack of
material. Found on perforated stamps. Can any member add
further information ?



B. Rouletted stamps.

The 70-kopek value comes with a very rough "perforation". This is called
rouletting by some, but the two cancelled copies I have show widely spaced
spaced punctures of the type made by a sewing machine. They do not calibrate
as to perforation size by the Stanley Gibbons "Instanta" Gauge. Unfortunately,
cancels do not show up very clearly on this dark blue stamp and, so far, no

-40-








legible postmark is known to indicate the town of origin of these sewing
machine separations.

C. Cancellations.

1. "White" usages (Julian Calendar used, which was 13 days behind the
Gregoriao system).

BLACK SEA (Chernomorskaya) PROVINCE:
Novorossiisk: 23 Sept. 1919 on "Vokzal" (R. R. Sta.) oval postmark: 5 kop.

CRIME (Tavrida) PROVINCE:
Sevastopol': 29 Jan. 1920 on 10-kop. rare emerald shade, Gibbons No. 39a.

DAGHESTAN PROVINCE (occupied July 1919 to Feb. 1920):
Petrovsk: 17 June 1919 on 70 kop.; 20 Sept. 1919 on 5 r. imperf.;
27 Jan. 1920 on 5 r. imperf.

DON ARMY PROVINCE:
Kramatorovka: 4 Oct. 1919 on 5 kop.; 30 Nov. 1919 on 35 kop.

KUBAN PROVINCE:
Ekaterinodar: 19 Feb. 1919 on 10 r. imperf. Such usages were rare as Denikin
stamps were not supposed to be used in the Kuban Territory,
because of differences between the two governments.

SARATOV PROVINCE:
Novaya Otrada: 15 Oct. 1919 on pieces of money order cards bearing the 15-kop.
value. Rare and unusual usage.

TEREK PROVINCE:
Groznyi: Occupied -11 May to 5 Nov. 1919.
Postmarks of this town are very scarce and the sole example in my
collection has big block letters. The Groznyi cancel has been found
forged on various ruble values. The forged letters of the postmark
"rFPO3fR TEPCK." are made with narrow small letters and the letter "3"
has a straight upper stroke, making it resemble the numeral "6". The
forgery is not dangerous and is dated 16.11.19.

Vladikavkaz: 5 Nov. 1919 on parcel post form with 10 kop., 2 x 1 r., 5 x 5 r.
and 10 r., all imperf.
17 Dec. 1919 on 1 r. imperf.

UKRAINIAN CITIES:
Hutyais'kii Zavod: 5 Oct. 1919 on 35 kop. Very unusual usage as Ukrainian
cancel applied, inscribed:"rTRHCYCHN 3ABO) 1. .T.K. HA XAPb."

Khar'kov: Occupied 12 June to 30 Nov. 1919.
1 Sept. 1919 on 15 kop.; Oct. 1919 on 35 kop.

Kiev: Occupied 17 Aug. to 3 Dec. 1919, except for two-day period at
beginning of October.
18 Oct. 1919 on 7 r.; 13 Nov. on 10 r.; 1 Dec. on 10 kop.;all imperf.

Novo-Aidar: 3 Aug. 1919 on 10 kop.


-41-







Novo-Rublevskoe: 15 Aug. 1919 on 10 k. & 1 r. imperf.

Poltava: 28 Aug. 1919 on 10 r.; 30 Sept. on 3 r.; 11 Oct. on 10 r.,all imperf.

Trostianets: 20 Sept. 1919 on 5 r. imperf.

Valk: 20 Oct. 1919 on 1 r. imperf.

Varvarovka: 10 Dec. 1919 on 10 kop.; see Fig. 6.

II. "Red" usages (Gregorian Calendar utilized).

DAGHESTAN PROVINCE:
Petrovsk: 11 May 1920 on 5 kop.; 12 July 1920 on 5 r. imperf.

TEREK PROVINCE:
Essentuki: 27 Jan. 1920 on 1 r. imperf.

UKRAINIAN CITIES:
Odessa: 24 July 1920 on 2 r. imperf.

Poltava: 3 March 1921 (!) on 2 r. imperf.

Steblev: 9 Dec. 1920 on 5 kop.

Varvaropol'e: 30 Nov. 1920 on 5 kop.

III. Unexplained usages.

BATUM-ODESSA OVAL STEAMER MARKINGS:

The following comments on this mystifying usage were sent to the author by
Dr. R. Casey of Orp'ington, Kent, England:
"The Black Sea ports had come under Turkish bombardment in November 1914 and
we may safely assume that maritime postal services in this region were
suspended for the duration of hostilities. On the face of it, the reappearance
of the oval "LZ4POX." (steamer) cancellers for the Black Sea routes in 1919
should occasion no surprise. Nevertheless, I believe that the Denikin adhesives
bearing "Odessa-Batum" and "Batum-Odessa" cancellations were specially
prepared for collectors and in no way indicate the restoration of pre-war
maritime postal services.

These cancellations are invariably dated 21.12.19 or 28.12.19 and all those I
have seen are neatly struck on strips, pairs or singles of the 10-ruble issue,
perforated. I am inclined to think that they are horses from the same stable as
the "Tiflis roulette" and other philatelic oddities that emanated from this
region in 1919 and 1920, coincidentally during the period of British
intervention in the Caucasus and South Russia".

Please see Fig. 8 herewith for examples
of such usages.


GEORGIAN MARKINGS:
Batumi: 1 Feb, 1921 on 2, 3 & 5 r. imperf. )
Probably philatelic.

The present writer would appreciate any comments or further information from
members on any of the points raised in the foregoing article.
-42-







THE STAMP OF THE GERMAN-BALTIC OObWTTEE OF PETRIGRAD IN 1918

A little known private mail stamp

Dr. C. de Stackelberg.

In February 1918, after the occupation of the Russian provinces of Estonia and
Livonia by Germany, a private courier service was established, probably by the
Administration of the Nobility of Estonia (Ritterschaft) in Reval, to
facilitate communications between Reval (and possibly of the Livonian Nobility
in Riga) and the German-Baltic Committee in Petrograd.

This committee was established by German-Baltic residents in Petrograd, to look
after the interests of Balts in Petrograd and Russia, to assist them in
obtaining exit permits which would enable them to return to their homelands in
the then occupied Baltic provinces in accordance with the stipulations (Sect. VI,
Para. 2) of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, to trace the whereabouts of relatives
and friends and to facilitate correspondence with them. This committee was thus
a semi-official organization, which seems to have been recognized, or at least
accepted, by the Soviet authorities in Petrograd.

Due to the cost involved in sending private letters to and from Petrograd by
this courier service, special 1-ruble stamps were printed, to be affixed as a
fee on the private letters carried by the couriers and were never sold to the
public. These stamps were probably printed in Reval, as it is doubtful that
they could have been printed at that time in Petrograd. These stamps are large,
47 x 47 mm. and imperforate. They were lithographed on Manila paper in four
colors, showing strips and squares within a black frame. From the left, the
first vertical strip was white, the next was green, followed on the right by
three horizontal rectangles, which were colored blue, red and brown. The black
inscription on the stamp reads in five lines : "DEUTSCH-BALTISCHES / COMITE./
ST. PETERSBURG / PRIVATPOST / 1 RUBEL.".

These stamps were cancelled with a round, double-circle rubber stamp in lilac
ink, containing a circular inscription reading "Baltisches ComitB" and at
bottom "Petrograd" between two stars. On arrival in Petrograd, the letters
were further stamped by a similar marking in purple ink, but the inscription
was now in Cyrillic characters: "BaEnacK i KaCmwnem- / Hempoepadl". The letters
leaving Petrograd were stamped with the Russian cachet only.

The number of these stamps printed and used is not known, nor is the exact
period of their use. Some authorities state that this courier service only
existed "a few days", but I think a few weeks at least, as the Committee
lasted for quite some time in 1918. With the establishment of an official
German Commission in Petrograd, located in the palace of Prince Yusupov at
Moika 94, where the Baltic Committee had also functioned, the correspondence
between Reval and the Committee was probably taken over by the German
authorities.

These stamps are rare, especially on cover. The two illustrations hereunder,
one with the German and the other with the Russian cachet, stem from the
Rimma Sklarevski collection.

LITERATURE:

1. Article by H. Shenitz in Rossica Journal No. 29, Jan.-Feb. 1938.

2. C. Schmidt: "Privatmarke des Baltischen Comitis", in "Mitteilungen der
Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Staats- und Privatmarkenkunde e.V.", No.58,2/40.

-43-







3. Magazine "Der Baltikum-Sammler", No. 2 for March 1964, containing the
following data:

(a) Reprint of an article by L. N. & M. Williams from "The Stamp Magazine",
entitled "A rare European Local Stamp".

(b) A letter on the subject by Eng. Helding Falk of Sandviken, Sweden.




D DE 4i-ALTISCHES


it
ST.IPETERSOURO.

PR I ATPOST;.:







EDITORIAL COMENT: To help round off the story of this postal service, we now
set out hereunder some excerpts from an article on the subject in Rossica
Journal No. 39 for Feb. 1940 by the well-known Russian specialist K. K. Schmidt:

"The circle of persons utilizing this private post was quite restricted.... The
courier conveyed the mail from the Baltic provinces, unpaid by stamps. The
stamps were only affixed upon receipt of the mail at the Baltic Committee and
the payment of 1 ruble was levied on the receiver. Such stamps were cancelled
with a red or violet cachet in the Russian language....

At a specific time of the day, the public gathered in the street in front of
the Committee building, awaiting the mail and the officials called out the names
of the addressees, as the mail was not delivered to homes. Letters and packages
were distributed to the public without requiring proof of identity, as a
consequence of.which letters could also have fallen into strange hands....."

The tale does not end here, however. Our member, Norman Epstein, recently
acquired a cover bearing this stamp with the cancellation in German. Please
see the illustration overleaf. Addressed to Stade near Hamburg, Germany, the
envelope contains a letter from a schoolmistress to her parents. The letter
is headed Orenburg, 4 May 1918 (New Style) and the important excerpts are as
follows:

"Today our pastor here received a telegraphic enquiry via Stockholm, asking
whether there was a Marie Winckler here or not. This evening the reply went
out. Apparently you have not been receiving my letters. I most earnestly beg
you not to worry.... The German State helps everyone financially and in other
respects I am helping myself...... Nothing will come from my hoped-for
beetroot journey. Whatever can be done to obtain the permit, will be done.....
I want to leave the Caucasus".

This last statement is explained by the fact that the address of the sender
is given on the flap of the envelope as "M. Winckler, Baku, Gymnasistskaja 186".
-44-









A pencilled notation also on the back of the envelope also notes that it
arrived on 18 Oct. 1918, i.e. it took 167 days or almost six months to get to
its destination.

Looking at. the front of the envelope, we see at top the Russian direction to
Germany crossed out and replaced by a German inscription, translating as
"Imperial German Field Post". In other words, the letter went somehow from
Orenburg overland into the German Field Post Service. At what stage the German-
Baltic Committee label was added cannot be surmised and moreover the cachet
cancelling it is wholly within the surface of the label and therefore does not
tie it to the envelope. Obviously, the last word is far from having been
written about the ramifications of this private postal service and we need to
see further material so as to see the full picture. Comments from readers
would be welcome.













BE TS H-ALTISCES



'P RI ATPOST.
RUEL







CORRIGENDA

Members are advised to make the following corrections to the article "The
Russian Postal Services in Bulgaria during 1877-79", by D. N. Minchev, as
published in Rossica Journal No. 81:

Page 15, line 8 from the top: instead of "finest", read "first".

Page 39, line 7 from top: instead of "Cherkasskii", read "Dondukov".

Page 42, line 2 from top: instead of "inner", read "opter" circle.

Page 56, line 10 from bottom: instead of "contractor", read "contract".



** *-45-

-45-







MORE TARASOVIANA

by the Editorial Board

Since the publication in Rossica Journal No. 79 of the original article about
this pioneer philatelic publisher and collector in North Russia, further
material has been recorded in the U.S. Taken chronologically, the items are
as follows:

A. Allied Intervention in North Russia.

A fine registered cover from the S. Robbins collection with 1 r. 50 k. postage
(10 x 15-kop. stamps) from Archangel, 4 & 5 April 1919, via London 1 May to
Bombay, India 2 June (see Figs. 1 & 2). Note the interesting 5-line censorship
marking "INTELLIGENCE / G.H.Q. Northern / Russia Exp. Force / Passed by Censor /
on the back (Fig. 2).


e .4orth Collectors'and Corrt ponentes', .
O j1F 1. ." I..

7/ / ^-, /- V a . + '- .. .







V4 43











(a) A sheet from the S. Robbins collection, marked "Imprimes" in French (Printed
Matter) and sent from Solombala....4.21 to Southampton, England with a pair
of 2-kop. stamps (now worth 4 rubles) as postage.










(b) A registered letter with his imprint, sent from Solombala 10 Sep. 1921 to
Munich, Germany with 28 Sep. arrival. In the absence of stamps, the 10 rubles
rate was paid in cash, per the violet cachet at bottom left, reading "Entered
as income / 10 rub. 10 IX. 21 / ....under No. 34 / Post Office -signed";
see Fig. 3 on next page. From the K. Adler collection.







(c) Various forms and notices about exchange proposals and his magazine,
B. Svcirculated by him in 1922. See Figs. 4-6 overleaf. Courtesy of S. Robbins.

(d) A specially printed bilingual envelope from the S. Robbins collection, marked "Imprs" in French (Printed
endorsed "printed matter" and sent from Solombala....4.21 to Southampton, England with a pairFeb.
of 2-kop. stamps (now worth 4 rubles) as postage.

(b) A registered letter with his imprint, sent from Solombala 10 Sep. 1921 to





tMunich, Germany with 60 r. 1922 postage absence(60 kop. 1923 money;seps, the Figs.78).0 rubles
rate was paid in cash, per the violet cachet at bottom left, reading "Entered
as income / 10 rub. 10 IX. 21 / .... under No. 34 / Post Office -signed";
see Fig. 3 on next page. From the K. Adler collection.

(c) Various forms and notices about exchange proposals and his magazine,
circulated by him in 1922. See Figs. 4-6 overleaf. Courtesy of S. Robbins.

(d) A specially printed bilingual envelope from the S. Robbins collection,
endorsed "printed matter" and sent from Solombala 20.2.23 via Moscow 28 Feb.
to Munich, Germany with 60 r. 1922 postage (60 kop. 1923 money;see Figs.7,8).

Details of further items from this correspondence would be welcomed from members.
-46-







MORE TARASOVIANA

T .....i 0uolccors' -a .Co.r[sFSp3!!Ic;s' -'S

V0 Pt T .RSOyF. S025 9 JO URNAL.
AR \MA-5L- -Jl. /5GL0'1PAL- ft' --*l- -

7 eo, ^ T-l,.- .r I (I V i l i., //h h/ 'o,11, I,,, I, I// /I till "" //Ie, 1"" '* jy 1 "IM "I'l it'
T t. ; /.:'L'- tI I ULt- I \ i \l ub i t ,' flery ? r ,.
SLC .S,,i,, ,' .., / -. ,;. .; 1 ,,, D, /, e f !I, y ,r

""-r. RIC !. BU r P \ ^ t l, "' h .,,t ll d, l ,-" ;.y: !>"" tri/ilP yI,,, hdo'-. W trl "Po' .I
RECOM M R. .EE. l P ll'' 9i' I ,,,,- i it' ,,, ii y 'Ii'q ,/ ,, iI tIi yi ,,l do, *-'r t. .). ,p
lREtOMMRNDEE, o l, o" I oti-
3RfiH3MOE. .4/ ofosql ',//r,' in,. u,.xri/r to ,u t i is lr, l,,t, t" .,. l/ i, .,,/- in,,/,-
GOTF .1TR.4. utivw .id pi.,/, >,'ups ,,,.I i.t h/ ,'r cida/i.l i, pino ( i l,. .!/,,, .. .. ,y .st. ,11 I
lUUUCH'N. ",t their f i,,,' ,d' .
E.I .f1,r Fl,,d et, .... if '-, \ fl ye if', iit .Y'o tr, m ne .. ,I', y', tr,',oi,.<,,,,
a utca MOO .- pE Rl AMY. byt it n, / f.Ir .! ,, f ,s ,/ .,'t..,;,,: ,i, ,l, o iy
u & //vt e S /i'o it rfp/ r d :/ 'sn ,l I,,nnsit s .is/ plsci. sr" ui.i /J.


froit to P. 0. B,, 6, ls..l ,'l



Fig. 3. 'Alripplie'tidoi for insib t., 'r.

Arc li:iinol, April I022. A 1hes ._ ........ ..... ..... .

Hereitli I beg ?o inf rm you that since october 1921 I publish monthly biatcitil in .s ltp.ps. Dutl.
The Northern Correspondence',-the first collectors' review in all the Russia.
I-ing entirely devoted to all kinds ot collecting and correspondence it is lively /iatCO;iititl" Ili N C. (C. J. V..
rowing up every time andl before this day over 300 gojj and reliable collectors
rom every country of Soviet -'edration as Russia, Ukraina, Kaukasus. Sibarn- etc. ,Sittt ...
entered NC exchange list and besides them hundreds of many others read my publi-
cation and deal w.th it. Fig. 6.
before now I have printed it nearly all in Rnssian language but as soon I saw
he better postal communication is with abroad I decided to make my jourii-l more ;/J you want to secure a number of cards, Stamps and different curiosities of thi
interesting f)r foreign collectors also and sup-osing to print some goad part of countr--Become n member of
t in English, French, German and Esperanto I offer you now to subscribe for country--ecomc a member of
ur NC paper and to join our NC exchange; all collectors and correspondents
re heartily invited to do so and to renew their relations with Russia and all "
s interesting parts.
As no m)ney orders are exchanged between our c )untries at present I offer
ou 0t mike your payments in gon! unused pistc rJs of your country, 45 of I } ll 4 .'I Il 1110 litii ae
uch ones, views or other kind sent me in three separate registered covers will Etubl nshed The Oniv C,,]el( tors oI' ill 11a tH4 tlssia. ca...e
e sufficient for yo.r subscripLtin from April 1-st t 11 the end 1922 and your THE NORTHERN CORRESPONDENCE". c 0*
I i advertisement up to 10 words not including your address in one of copies.
opoly for foreign trade no big stamp sending are allowed to pass and they E.. ypan H.....ps Ho.....
ay send in their letters only a small private exchange enclosures., N ii )ypa it-opoo, eos oppn
Hoping that you will b. interested in these lines and wailing your GEBf HOPPECfnOHAQE-I-.,4
avourable reply. c-.c i s 'L
1 remain, /i .r .-.1 f
Cordially yours / '
Se-ge FI. levleff.
Editor and publisher of .The Northern -Gorrespond:ace". P. Box 1, 5
r.hangel. Russia.
.---.-.-- -.- .---- ----- .. -/ Otto Edenharter
APPLICATI L N F r 0 : Frundsberg-Str.44
I send you 45 unused P.-Cards of my country and ask you to send me Mfladen
The Northern Correspondence' during 1922 and to print in the nearest copy my /, :rt-ny lber
d as follows: ...... .

...........-.... .... ....... ........... .ig 7...
Name and address:. F.. 7...

Signature: .. ...
Date.__.. ....................... ...... .. Recon. by NC....................





A chance to exltheg yoe collectliUi.
I. For 200 dif. stamps or 2000 common or 10
philatel. journals. or 20 view cards I give: 5 cards
of Liberty Loan 1917 or 5 of W ar Loan 1916 or 6 ... o,
v::w cards of Russian cities or 6 Russian entire *
or NN 1, 2 3-:1. of Russ. B. P. A. ;
II. For 300 dif. stamps or 3000 common stamps "a
I givz 12 war cars or 12 views of Russia, or
lU entire or l4 chariy stamps of Russia or one
registered enveloppe with 15 Soviet stamps origi-
nally postmrkiJ on address side.
11l. -or one stamp catalogue 1921, or 22 1 give:
l.l ,al rticl.s mentioned under I and II...



Solombala-Archangel, Russia.
Willi intt rtstu stamps on view s -7de. When more
hin 10 esss rtmenti are reques51d the przmiu in .v




Fig. 5. -
-47-








THE STAMP COIVMEMORATES

by Dr. G. Wember

(translated from the magazine "Schweizer Briefmarken-Zeitung", No. 9 for Sept.
1970, organ of the Federation of Swiss Philatelic Societies, by kind permission
of the publishers. This is our third translation in this series from his pen).

"Night Sanctuary", the theatrical work by Gor'kii which appeared in 1902, made
the world prick up its ears, so decisive was its success. If his previous
publications were denied a broader basis, it was by entering this drama that
Gor'kii showed us as "scenes from the depths" his 34 years of existence, not
only in the footlights of the theatrical scene, but also as another world which
came out into the light from the depths of society. Perhaps it was Gor'kii
looking back at his own former life, which he had kept in reserve so as to form
such realistic scenes, place such figures of misery on the stage and let them
say their piece. No more qualified speaker than Gor'kii could be found, drawing
directly from his own youth and from his former surroundings. We will henceforth
take the opportunity once again to put our portrait of Gor'kii in a wider frame
and bask in this early work of the poet.

Maksim Gor'kii, whose name signifies so well "the bitter man", had perhaps
chosen this pseudonym not quite unsuitably, for his youth was certainly more
than bitter. It was often streaked with cruelty. Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov
was born in Nizhnii-Novgorod on 28 March 1868, as the son of a paperhanger. An
education did not fall to his lot. He grew up in surroundings and in an
atmosphere that conjure up a childhood about which one lets Gor'kii himself
describe best. He did not spare himself. After the early death of his father,
out of his own family and circle of relatives, Gor'kii grew up with his grand-
parents and was obliged to submit to all sorts of brutalities.

We hear from him personally what he had to say about those years: "The days
when I lay sick were the most meaningful in my life. I was fully matured within
and had experienced a flood of new feelings of a peculiar kind. From that time
there dates a certain restless attention with which I continuously viewed
mankind and I developed an extraordinarily subtle sensitiveness against any
kind of insult or pain, which was done to me or others". He was punished and
struck by his grandfather for the slightest trifle. It is no wonder that these
childhood years, in an environment of drunkenness, accompanied by excesses and
mistreatment of the worst kind which were the order of the day, made their
deepest impression on him and left their traces on his soul.

However, in spite of all this bitterness, a star also shone over Gor'kii's
childhood. A star which was all meaningful for him, according to his own
statements. It was his grandmother, to whom he owed so much. Gor'kii has set
up an unequalled monument to her in his most pretentious work, which has
occupied a noticeable place in world literature. In this three-part
autobiography, composed of "Childhood" '(1913), "Under Enemies" (1915) and "My
Universities" (1923), the picture of his grandmother is projected, especially
in the first-named work. About her, Gor'kii says: "My grandmother was and
remains for all my life the closest bosom-friend, the most beloved and dearest
person in the world". There is no doubt she was not only everything in life to
young Gor'kii with her undying love and goodness, but she had also enriched
his mind to such an extent that he always found the strength again through her
to withstand his youthful and difficult path in life. This made it all the
more sad for him when, after the death of his grandmother, he was left entirely
to his grandfather, who had become a drunkard.

-48-








Gor'kii never had strong ties with his mother and she did not exercise the
slightest influence over him. A peculiar fixation had attached itself to his
mother. As is well known, Gor'kii's father was stricken with an infectious
illness, which he had caught in caring for his young son and he subsequently
died from it. The matter was here transformed by the mother into a guilt
complex in which she attributed to her son,through the transmitted
infection,the blame for the death of her husband. His mother married again in
1877, taking a young student of noble birth, with whom she went off to
Moscow and so Gor'kii passed the following years quite alone in Nizhnii-
Novgorod with his grandmother, who had come down in the world. His mother's
second marriage to the yound nobleman, who squandered everything, went
entirely awry and by 1879, she had already died of consumption.

We find that the last two works quoted above, namely "Under Enemies" and "My
Universities", are equally interesting, although these two do not come up to
the standard of "Childhood", in a literary sense. Neither of these two books
gives a good reflection of what he had experienced in so convincing a way as
in "Childhood". Gor'kii did himself proud in that work.

Gor'kii was a self-taught man. But from where could he procure the education
or even development which he otherwise would have lacked ? From his early
youth, he was forced to make use of every opportunity for work and he even
hired himself out for a few kopeks as a casual laborer. He often had to be
glad of the most trifling earnings. We find him everywhere. Thus, he worked
as a dishwasher on steamers. The landing places of the steamers were his
night quarters. In the midst of such turbulent and continual changes of places
of work, young Gor'kii instructed himself mainly by reading. By the age of 13,
he had already devoured the French boulevard novels and all adventure and
criminal literature aroused his lively interest. He especially preferred
Balzac, who had influenced Russian literature particularly strongly. He spent
years wandering. Thus, he roamed through the Ukraine, Crimea and the Caucasus
from 1889 to 1892.

His first literary attempts then came. He finally began as a writer in Tiflis.
His tale "Makar Chudra", which justified his first literary attempt, also
originated here in 1892 and brought him attention. The "Sketches and Tales",
which followed in 1898, made people sit up and soon led to further editions.
Thieves and attackers were the heroes in his stories. As in his tale "Calcas",
he puts into a privileged category his representations of people who loosen
every social bond, making light of all rules, laws and prejudices. The unwritten
laws rule here and the might of the fist is elevated as the guiding principle.
And these characters appeal to us. Gor'kii created powerful forms, into which he
knew how to breathe life and which were painted in vivid colors.

On the other hand, his dramatic effort."The Commoners" (1901), in which he
exhibited the contrast between workers and the middle class, cannot be regarded
as successful. His piece "Night Sanctuary", already cited above, came soon
after in 1902. The decay of social conditions is so clearly put before our eyes
in the scenes of this play that it becomes the factual documentation of a
dissolution. It is not to be wondered therefore that, after its first
appearance, the drama found acceptance in the standard repertory of theatres.
It has gone into hundreds of performances at some theatres. For instance, as
the critic Chronist reminds us, the "Kleine Theater" in Berlin alone presented
the piece almost 500 times in 2 1/2 years. In a presentation of the role of the
hussy Nastya by Gertrud Eysoldt and the personification of Vaika Pepel' by
Eduard von Winterstein, masterful performances were given in the portrayals of
these rejected and lost people. People who, while still in the depths of

-49-








misery could also laugh and cry, were shown on the stage. As the critics noted,
it was the "Night Sanctuary" for a real "Orgy of Despair".

Gor'kii, who said about himself: "I have worked a great deal, I am still
working and will do so until I die", has given much to Russian literature. We
can mention from his later work the novels "Mother" (1907) and "The Affair of
the Artamanovs" (1925), in which he depicted above the decadence of private
enterprise. We should also note his last work, "The Life of Klim Samgin",
which was not completely brought to its conclusion and in which he depicted
the chronicle of three generations of a mercantile family.

In addition to his basic literary activity, Gor'kii also busied himself
extensively in the journalistic sector, which was rare for a writer. He
clashed quite early with Lenin. He also became a contributor to illegal
papers and magazines. With his poems, he has come to be regarded in Russian
literature and not for nothing as the "stormy petrel of the proletarian
revolution".

Apart from the appreciation of his literary output, Gor'kii's life shows that
by 1905, he had already been arrested for political activities, but because of
his poor health, he was soon set free. He left Russia in 1906 and lived on
Capri from 1907 to 1913. He came back to Russia in that year but was later
obliged to go south again to cure his illness, staying at Sorrento (Italy)
from 1921 to 1930.

Gor'kii died in Moscow on 18 June 1936. The last great mark of honor, i.e.
the renaming of his birthplace Nizhnii-Novgorod as Gor'kii had already been
bestowed on the poet during his lifetime. The Moscow Art Theatre also bears
his name today.

STAMP ILLUSTRATION: Maksim Gor'kii. Soviet Union. 1958. A-i '
Commemorative issue for the 90th.
birthday of Gor'kii.
Value: 40 kop., multicolored.
Designer: R. .Zhitkov.
Comb-perforated 12 1/2 x 12.
Offset print.



Here and there....

The President of the Department of Postal Administration at Jersey in the
Channel Islands (England) is Senator Wilfred H. Krichefski. He is a familiar
and courteous figure on duty in the Jersey philatelic stand at the annual
INTERPEX shows held in New York City.

Asked about the origin of his family name, he revealed that his ancestors had
come from Russia and settled in Jersey. He had never thought of changing the
unusual surname for, as he so rightly put it: "One is always proud of one's
forefathers".

****-50-

-50-








THE MAIL BY AIR

by Pavils Kalnozols

(translated from "The Russia Collectors' and Correspondents' Journal", No.
8-9 for April-July 1918, published from Box 1321, Moscow).

On 30 March this year (1918), there were details in the Moscow evening papers
about the flight from Petrograd to Moscow of the first four aircraft carrying
the mails. It was stated that there were about 10 poods weight (360 lbs.) of
mail on each plane.

At the time, these reports gave occasion to raise hopes that there would be
quicker and more precise delivery of correspondence which, because of the
disruption of transportation, civil strife and various other irregularities
of recent times, is being held up longer on the way or even lost altogether.

For their part, philatelists were awaiting the appearance of special "air"
postage stamps, such as those utilized by the airmail services in foreign
countries. But it transpired that all such suggestions and hopes had to be
abandoned. No change has been observed as yet in the rapidity of mail
delivery, upon the introduction of the airmail services. This has even been
explained on the grounds that it is intended, in general, to convey official
packages only, and not private mail. It is obvious that the whole affair is
still in the preliminary stages.

A letter addressed to us when the air services began, arrived at our post
office box No. 1321 in Moscow three or four days later. There were no
special markings of any kind on it. The only distinguishing feature was that
it had on it an ordinary 35-kop. stamp, cancelled by a Moscow postmark, while
there no Petrograd marking at all on the letter (statement emphasized by the
present translator). Moreover, there was some sort of number on the envelope,
referring no doubt to the recording procedure adopted by the pilot in
accepting the letter for despatch.

It had been proposed to organize airmail services along four routes, namely:

(1) Northern: Moscow Bologoe Petrograd.
(2) Southern: Moscow Tula Orel.
(3) Eastern : Moscow Vladimir Nizhnii Novgorod.
(4) Western : Moscow Vyaz'ma Smolensk.

It is hard to say when the "preliminary stages" will be completed. At least,
no statements at all can be found in the press about the realization of this
particular plan.

With regard to the issue of special airmail stamps, it is doubtful that the
Russian organizers are interested in the idea, not being philatelists. It
would therefore be desirable that somebody among our subscribers, acquainted
with "aerial" circles, would try to develop the new proposal, rendering a
great service not only to philatelists, but also to the State.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The discovery of this particular issue of the above
magazine is of great historical importance, being apparently the last time
it was published, at the beginning of the Civil War. The information it
contains is therefore especially important as it gives postal data about that
turbulent period. The existence of these preliminary air services is an


-51-







amazing piece of news and we hope that our airmail enthusiasts will be now
able to turn up examples from this pioneer period.

We reproduce hereunder another excerpt from the same issue of this magazine,
referring to new postal rates that went into effect as one of the results of
the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, concluded on 3 March 1918 between the German
Empire and its allies on the one hand, and the Soviet authorities on the other.
The new service covered by these rates must also have had an effect on the
private postal service of the German-Baltic Committee, about which please see
details elsewhere in this number of our Journal.



THE RESUMPTION OF COMMUNICATIONS Wi'H GERMANY

by Pavils Kalnozols

As of 8 June 1918, the acceptance of ordinary and registered letters and cards
was officially resumed for Germany, Poland and the Baltic area, as well as for
other localities of Russia occupied by Germany.

The Moscow post office was already accepting such letters on 5th. June. The
rate for an ordinary letter is 30 kop., for a postcard 12 kop., while 30 kop.
is charged for the registration fee. In other words, three times dearer than
prewar and yet they are all noticeably cheaper than the rates for mail
within the country.

The receipt of replies from Germany and the occupied localities is proceeding
slowly, but it is possible that the reason for the delay is either the
examination of letters by the military censorship which has again been
introduced into our country and, of course, also by Germany, or also the great
accumulation of mail.

A *

AT THE EXPERT COMMISSION OF THE VOF

(translated from "Philately of the USSR", Apr. 1971, p.15 by Michael Tscheekar).

"On examining my duplicates, I discovered a 4-kop. stamp issued in 1969 in the
set '2500 Years of Samarkand' (Sov. Cat. No. 3813), in which the figure of value
'4' looked as if the tip had been cut off. The height of the figure was 7 mm.,
instead of 7 1/2 mm. as on the remaining copies I had of this stamp".

This letter was sent to the Expert Commission of the VOF (All-Union Society of
Philatelists) by the philatelist B. Chiiid-Dorzhiev of Ulan Ude. With the aim of
determining the character of the variety discovered by B. Chimid-Dorzhiev, the
Expert Commission studied sheets of the 4-kop. stamp, issued in the set "2500
Years of Samarkand". It was determined that the 21st. stamp on some sheets (the
furthest stamp at left in the bottom corner) demonstrated the specified variety.
Thus, this variety is not an incomplete impression by chance of the figure of
value as a printing freak. It follows that it should be regarded as a printing
variety, existing on a part of the issue. The Expert Commission has expressed its
thanks to B. Chimid-Dorzhiev.

K. Berngard, President of the Expert Commissibn of the VOF.



-52-







amazing piece of news and we hope that our airmail enthusiasts will be now
able to turn up examples from this pioneer period.

We reproduce hereunder another excerpt from the same issue of this magazine,
referring to new postal rates that went into effect as one of the results of
the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, concluded on 3 March 1918 between the German
Empire and its allies on the one hand, and the Soviet authorities on the other.
The new service covered by these rates must also have had an effect on the
private postal service of the German-Baltic Committee, about which please see
details elsewhere in this number of our Journal.



THE RESUMPTION OF COMMUNICATIONS Wi'H GERMANY

by Pavils Kalnozols

As of 8 June 1918, the acceptance of ordinary and registered letters and cards
was officially resumed for Germany, Poland and the Baltic area, as well as for
other localities of Russia occupied by Germany.

The Moscow post office was already accepting such letters on 5th. June. The
rate for an ordinary letter is 30 kop., for a postcard 12 kop., while 30 kop.
is charged for the registration fee. In other words, three times dearer than
prewar and yet they are all noticeably cheaper than the rates for mail
within the country.

The receipt of replies from Germany and the occupied localities is proceeding
slowly, but it is possible that the reason for the delay is either the
examination of letters by the military censorship which has again been
introduced into our country and, of course, also by Germany, or also the great
accumulation of mail.

A *

AT THE EXPERT COMMISSION OF THE VOF

(translated from "Philately of the USSR", Apr. 1971, p.15 by Michael Tscheekar).

"On examining my duplicates, I discovered a 4-kop. stamp issued in 1969 in the
set '2500 Years of Samarkand' (Sov. Cat. No. 3813), in which the figure of value
'4' looked as if the tip had been cut off. The height of the figure was 7 mm.,
instead of 7 1/2 mm. as on the remaining copies I had of this stamp".

This letter was sent to the Expert Commission of the VOF (All-Union Society of
Philatelists) by the philatelist B. Chiiid-Dorzhiev of Ulan Ude. With the aim of
determining the character of the variety discovered by B. Chimid-Dorzhiev, the
Expert Commission studied sheets of the 4-kop. stamp, issued in the set "2500
Years of Samarkand". It was determined that the 21st. stamp on some sheets (the
furthest stamp at left in the bottom corner) demonstrated the specified variety.
Thus, this variety is not an incomplete impression by chance of the figure of
value as a printing freak. It follows that it should be regarded as a printing
variety, existing on a part of the issue. The Expert Commission has expressed its
thanks to B. Chimid-Dorzhiev.

K. Berngard, President of the Expert Commissibn of the VOF.



-52-







AIRMAL NOTES

by Ray Hofmann.

SThe general response to the article "Flown Mail from and to the UMSS",
published in Rossica No. 82, has been very gratifying. The U. S. stamp weekly
"Stamps", edited by our member, Mrs Charlotte Downs, gave us a glowing write-
up, while "Linn's Stamp News", in its issue of 1 May 1972 had a nice mention
about the article. Many thanks to all.

Just a minor correction to the reference on page 17 of Rossica No. 82 about
the first item for the year 1932. This was the Graf Zeppelin flight to
England in 1932 and not to the Netherlands, despite the direction put on the
cover by the sender, Karl Hennig of Hamburg.

Details can now also be given about an unusual cover sent via the North
Atlantic Air Service in wartime. Please see the illustration herewith of a
registered airmail cover sent from Kaunas-5, Lithuania, 13 Feb. 1941 to New
York City 16 March, via Lisbon, Portugal. Note the combination postage of
65 c. in Lithuanian stamps, the 2 c. Lithuanian SSR stamp and 2 r. 90 k. in
Soviet postage. The airmail label is printed in Lithuanian and French, in
black on blue paper (Fig. 1).

EDITORIAL CCMENT: We add to the notes by giving details of Lot No. 3944 in
the 55th. Corinphila Auction, held at Zurich, Switzerland cn 24-29 March
1972. This is a postcard, sent by the Soviet Philatelic Association to U.S.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, on the occasion of the attempted Moscow-San
Francisco Flight (see Fig. 2). Handed in at the Moscow 3rd. Section P.O. on
2 August 1935, the special postage stamp (Scott No. C68) was cancelled the
next day and the special bilingual Special Flight cachet added for the event.
Note at bottom left the additional rectangular cachet in Russian which reads:
"Resumption of the flight /'MOSCOW SAN FRANCISCO'/ postponed to the summer
of 1936 / Correspondence is being sent / in the ordinary way ". If readers
will now refer back to Rossica No. 75, p. 99 for the illustration of a
similar card, bearing a copy of C68a (inverted overprint) in the S. M.
Blekhman Collection in Moscow, they will see that the handwriting for the
addresses is the same in both cases.


71 'r-' *

." I i .. I r .I .
'..,IT, 1; (* _, \' -



1 R II4.: I L&AMJ L 1'




'm^a w r Al- '-
Par avion '


Fig. 1 Fig. 2

-53-







SOVIET AEROPHILATELIC NOTES

by P. J. Campbell.

Referring to Rossica Journal No. 82 with its extensive aerophilatelic content,
the following notes correlate several items and illustrations and may be of
interest to some members:

1. Page 6, reporting the death of Ernst Teodorovich Krenkel', mentions that
he was radio operator of the Papanin Expedition and shows a picture of
him in the 1938 set honoring the rescue of Papanin's North Pole
Meteorological Party (Scott Nos. 643-46, issued 21 June 1938).

2. The article by M. V. Vodop'yanov (pages 37-41) describes some of the
Homeric years of aviation. Mr. Vodop'yanov, as one of the pilots of the
Chelyuskin rescue, modestly fails to mention that the basic idea for a
floating ice station had occurred independently to him and to Papanin some
years before. This probably why he himself piloted the first plane of the
Papanin Expedition, landing at the North Pole on 21 May 1937 in a Tupolev
ANT-6 aircraft, with registration "CCCP N 170" and with"ABkI4-APKTff4"
("AVIA-ARCTICA") painted on the nose. Those aboard the first plane
included I. D. Papanin as leader of the mission and E. T. Krenkel' as
radio operator. The following aircraft arrived at intervals over the next
few days, piloted by Molokov (another Chelyuskin hero), Alekseev and
Mazuruk. These are the four little "silhouette" aircraft (all ANT-6's),
pictured on the North Pole Flight set, issued 25 Feb. 1938 (Scott Nos.
625-28; SG Nos. 757-60; Yvert 617-20; Zumstein 579-82; Michel 584-87).

One of these stamps is illustrated on Fig. 26 (p.34), so you have yet
another "picture" of Messrs Vodop'yanov and Krenkel'.

A set of Spanish "Cinderella" stamps shows Prof. O. Schmidt and his son
at Moscow Airport, wishing Papanin and his crew "bon voyage".

3. On page 36 of the Journal, we find the 25-kopek stamp of the Chelyuskin
set (Scott C64), showing Vodop'yanov landing his special Polikarpov R-5
biplane at Schmidt Camp on 13 April 1934. The three men in the foreground
must be E. Krenkel' and S. Ivanov (the two radio men of the "Chelyuskin")
and A. N. Bobrov, Deputy-Chief of the Expedition after Schmidt had been
flown to a Nome hospital with pneumonia. Several records describe this day
on which the camp was finally cleared, with Vodop'yanov, Molokov and
Kamanin taking the last six people and eight dogs from the camp. Scott
C67 (the 50-kopek value of the same set) must also represent the 13th.
April event, so one of the two R-5's shown is probably Vodop'yanov's,
with Krenkel' aboard.

4. Other sources have mentioned that Prof. Otto Schmidt (see 3-kop. value of
the Chelyuskin set and 4-kop. commem. issued 30 March 1966) was involved
in the Sibir'yakov voyage of 1932, the Chelyuskin voyage of 1933-34 and the
Papanin Expedition of 1937. The same pilots and people seem to pop up over
and over in these, the great days of exploratory flying, but it only serves
to show that there were relatively few people involved in worldwide aviation,
performing miracles in comparatively fragile and unreliable machines. The
creation of a new decoration "Hero of the Soviet Union" specially for the
Chelyuskin pilots was some measure of the esteem in which they were held -
heroes all.



-54-







NOTES FROM COLLECTORS

JOHN LLOYD, COLCHESTER, ENGLAND.

I thought you would like to have details of a prestamp letter recently acquired,
which had some unusual features (Fig. 1). Sent from Moscow 22 April 1844
(rectangular marking at right centre), it is endorsed as follows:

"No. 9 By the Tiflis Extra-Post

To His Highborn and Gracious Lordship, Sergei Petrovich Buturlin.
To the Comrade of the Chief of Staff of the Separate Caucasian Corps of the
General Staff, to the Colonel and Cavalier, at Stavropol' ".

Note that the letter was received at Stavropol' on 1st. May, per the abbreviated
arrival marking struck on the back.

It appears that the term "axcmpa-now1a" refers to "3KcmpeHaH. nowna", i.e. the
special or urgent postal service, whereby the letter was sent by the equivalent,
at that time, of the special delivery or express post to Stavropol', on the way
to Tiflis. It took 9 days to get there.

Does anyone have other examples of this type of service from the prestamp era ?










,. ,1 ,
"" .0







Xy
C/ / 7/












Fig. 1.

-55-
yS^ ~ ^ o^ ^ ^ ~ <

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^c^ ^yr^,-55-^








KUER ADLER, NEW YORK, N.Y.

See Fig. 2 for the impression on the back of a Russian reply paid postal card
of an unrecorded commemorative postmark reading "*AMDC 04 BPEM. 7.0. XTI M1EWO/H.
cB3Mt. BPAq., 8 ABF. 1897" (Moscow, Temporary Postal Agency, 12th. International
Conference of Doctors, 8 Aug. 1897). Quite apart from the early date, the
marking is also of topical interest.



nOqTOBAR. KAPTO







Fig. 2. Fig. 3. e--

Fig. 3 shows a cancel of the temporary postal and telegraph agency at Staraya
Russa in Novgorod province, "b" subscript, applied 18 June 1915 on a postcard
to Yalta. These seasonal markings are scarce and interesting. Details of
similar material would be appreciated from members.

DR. LEONID KVETAN-CHENAKALO, NEW YORK, N.Y.

The complete "Chelyuskin Rescue" airmail set is featured in Fig. 4, used on an
express cover to Moscow, with a special Ukrainian postmark reading "HHTB.
I7IAZI 17OHEPIB / F05.. 3ZIT 0T1ATEJITCTIB, 11.9.36" (Kiev Palace of Pioneers /
Provincial Convention of Philatelists. 11 Sept. 1936).



nOUTOsA AWKCTIBHA



~ l .' J Kyda ....................................

;.o y ................................... ..... .

.- "' .'A ". RA l np.rimc.b. ............... ..



Fig. 4. Fig. 5.

Another item of Ukrainian interest is the letter sheet in Fig. 5, which is
incorrectly labelled "1OlTOM 4 J.TIBCTIB4" (postal card). Issued for the 28th.
anniversary of the October Revolution (1917-1945), it is printed in claret
with Ukrainian directions: "Space for the stamp", "To where", "To whom" and
"Sender". Does anyone have this item used ?


,56-








ANDREW CRONIN, NEW YORK, N,Y,

It is always worth while reading carefully the postmarks on stamps, particularly
if they are from unusual localities. See Fig. 6 for a block of nine of the 30-kop.
pilot typographed, cancelled "'AW17 AW'. 0&7., 7.8.42."(Maikop, Adygei province,
7 Aug. 1942). The same marking and date has also been seen on a block of four of
the 1 r. stamp of 1938, commemorating the 20th. anniversary of the Red Army.

The town of Maikop in the Northern Caucasus, with important oilfields nearby, was
taken by the Nazi forces on 11 Aug. 1942, i.e. 4 days after the date on the above-
mentioned postmark. There may not have been a chance to transmit the mail before
the Germans came. This was the time when the epic battle of Stalingrad was
beginning to take shape. As a result of that disastrous defeat, the Nazis began
evacuating the Caucasus on 2 Jan. 1943, withdrawing from Maikop soon afterwards.






fE 1A I 1 t




^[l -----


mm -






Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

The centenary of the first Russian postcard was celebrated on 24 Jan. 1972 with
the issuance by the Ministry of Communications of the special 4-kop. postal card
shown in Fig. 7, with appropriate inscription at left and electronic sorting
indicators below. Note the design at top right with crossed posthorns and
thunderbolts, signifying the present fusion of postal and telegraphic services.
In 1872, they were separate entities and were not amalgamated until 1884, as
also shown by the postage stamps of the period.

RICHARD L. BIRD, FAIRBANKS, ALASKA.

I have what may be a freak. It belongs to the 9th. issue of Russia, 1883-1888,
Scott No. 34, 5-kop. value. I will try to describe the flaw on this stamp.

Beginning at the top, immediately the top heavy border, about 2 1/2 mm. left of
the crown tip, proceeding in a straight line downward to the top of the oval
arounf the left "5" and almost touching the first letter of the bottom inscription,
is a line completely devoid of ink from just below the crown to a point about
opposite the posthorns. Frcm these two points to where the line terminates at
both ends, there is evidence of ink and possibly distortion of the design, but I
am unable to tell for certain. Without finely calibrated equipment, I am unable
to give a good description of this line, but it appears to be approximately 3/4 mm.
wide were it passes through the wing feathers of the eagle.

-57-







Using a microscope (much like that described in Rossica Journal No. 79), I doubt
that it is a paper crease. The outside border and the heavier inside border are
not affected and the line does not taper out at the ends. I was wondering if
there is evidence of a broken plate for this issue. Comments, please !

NOTES FROM MOSCOW COLLECTIONS.

Please see Fig. 8 for an example of the 20-kop. blue postal card of the early
Soviet period, with uncrowned double-headed eagle (Higgins & Gage No. 36) and
bearing the cachet of approval under No. 917 of the National Commissariat of
Posts & Telegraphs, dated 2 July 1918 and signed by the Director for Accepting
Printing Orders. Note also the perforated word "OBPA3SEb" ("SPECIMEN") across
the card. This item is from the S. M. Blekhman collection and probably unique.



---A38PAJ-AH blIH UJAJIPN COiP
no I B 1852 1962



..... ......


*- ** ** ** : ** r* : **I
.. ... .- !
S- l nO3Tr


K KOn n04TA ccCP
Fig. 8. Fig. 9.-

The 4-kop. commem. issued on 16 July 1962 for the centenary of the birth of the
Azerbaijani poet Alekper Tairzade Sabir (1862-1911) exists in two versions. On
the stamp -shown in Fig. 9, the Azerbaijani inscription at top reads "AZERBAIJAN'S
POET SABIR"; 250 copies are known of this variety. In the issued stamp, the last
two letters "'LE" are dropped from the first word, so that the amended inscription
at top now reads "AZERBAIJANI POET SABIR". Details by courtesy of N.I. Vladinets.

DR. A. H. WORTMAN, ENFIELD, ENGLAND.

Enclosed is a partial photostat from a postcard I picked up in Greece. It was
written in Greek at Odessa 30 Aug. 1913 by a child to his father in Athens. The
cancellation is an unframed "OfECCA" type, 27 x 5 mm., struck in violet (Fig. 10)
and with slightly fancy serifs. Is this a handstamp of the ROPiT ship "Odessa" ?
Dr. Casey has portions of the mark on loose Romanov stamps. Who has a cover ?




.LMO. 1 19 02 1 C



Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12.

-58-






Now for a new postmark of the TAL'ENVAN Field Telegraph Agency, centrally placed
on a pair of 14-kop. stamps, horizontally laid and dated 5 Mar. 1902 (Fig. 11).
This turned up in a little lot of common Russian stamps that had not been touched
for years, by the look of the envelopes. So another blank has been filled.
Another recent acquisition is a cover of 1889 from Sakhalin. It is a stationery
7 kop., no thunderbolts, blue paper cover and the impressed stamp is cancelled as
drawn in Fig. 12. The cover is addressed in Russian to Kunst and Albers, a well-
known firm at Vladivostok. On the front, there is a blue postmark reading
"AJIECAE9HOB. II. HA OCTP. CAXAFJH / 1 IDYT. 7EJI. 109T., 23 M4 1889
(Aleksandrovskii Port on the Island of Sakhalin / 1 Post & Tel. Office, 23 May
1889) and a No. 4 cancel, similarly in blue of Vladivostok, Maritime province,
28 May 1889. This west coast port is now called Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskii.
Finally, re Sam Robbin's cover in Rossica Journal No. 79 with the "QOECCA
BUCTABKA" (Odessa Exhibition) arrival mark of 1911. The whole of the Tereshchenko
correspondence was bought by me about 20 years ago. There were, I think, seven
covers in all, two with arrival postmarks and the others from the exhibition. One
was registered and this I kept. It was cancelled with the "a" postmarker, dated
27 July 1911.








ZEPPELIN mail

* DO-X mail

0 CATAPULT mail -

* rare AIRMAIL covers ,',__ -i

ALL WORLD
la very scarce Zeppelin card of our stock)

Including Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, for sale

Please send detailed wanr-lists

Alberto SAVINI RIMINI / Italy, cas. Post. 210
(ROSI8CA 821, AAMS 5839, ASOA MEMBER)




-59-







BOOK REVIEWS

BAEDEKER'S RUSSIA 1914: A HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS BY KARL BAEDEKER, reprinted
by David & Charles (Holdings) Ltd., South Devon House, Newton Abbot, Devon,
England in conjunction with George, Allen & Unwin, London 1971. Price $11.80.

There will be few Russian specialists who are unaware of the usefulness of the
pre-W.W.I Baedeker's Guides to Russia. Unfortunately, the only English edition
is a rarity. Published in 1914, the War and Revolution soon rendered it
obsolete as a tourist guide. At the time of its publication, it was the most
comprehensive and accurate guide to Russia in the English language. As such,
available copies were snapped up by the national intelligence agencies during
the war. The Allied Armies of Intervention also utilized it during the years
of the Civil War. Not surprisingly, few copies of the 1914 edition remain in
private hands.

Therefore, the reprint by the English firm of David & Charles of the 1914
edition deserves an enthusiastic welcome. This edition covers not only Russia
but also Poland, Finland, Persia, Manchuria and Peking. In its 590 pages, 40
maps and 78 pland are included. Probably the supreme achievement of the House
of Baedeker, it encapsulates in its pages the Russia of 1914, during the last
few months of Tsarist "normality". Few tourists can have benefitted from its
detailed advice and information, before the outbreak of W.W.I commenced a
process which was to destroy the Russia Baedeker and his associates had
described. Not the least of the changes which were to come was the wholesale
changing of place-names, which first reflected anti-Germanism (e.g. St.
Petersburg to Petrograd) and later the new values and heroes of the Soviet
Revolution (e.g. Petrograd to Leningrad).

The postal historians will find the listing of 3000 to 4000 place-names in the
Index and the many maps particularly useful for the locating of the more
elusive postmarks. A full page of postal information provides detailed rates
and regulations currently in operation. The railway and steamship postmark
enthusiast will welcome the wealth of information on these services.
Descriptions of every town of any consequence and many smaller towns and
villages give the collector a glimpse of the places which appear merely as
names on postmarks and maps.

Strongly recommended as an addition to the bookshelves of every Russian
specialist.
Barry Evans.

GUIDE TO THE GREAT SIBERIAN RAILWAY (1900), reprinted by David & Charles
(Holdings) Ltd., South Devon House, Newton Abbot, Devon, England 1971.
Price $14.30.

This book is a reprint of the original edition of 1900, published by the
Imperial Ministry of Ways and Communications. Designed to encourage English-
speaking tourists and businessmen to patronize the Trans-Siberian Railway, it
painstakingly describes the vast railroad and its connections. Every town,
village and halt on the route of the railway is described, along with the
countryside through which the route passes. Particular emphasis is laid on the
vast economic resources which the railway was able to tap. Traders and firms
of any consequence are specifically named.

The geographical and historical background to the building of the railway is
given, as is the date of opening of each section. A fascinating collection of


-60-









over 350 photographs illustrates towns, stations, bridges and steamers along
the route. Among the photographs, which particularly caught the reviewer's
attention, were those of mail-carrying river steamers and a three-man post-
boat on the Lena River.

Every station on the route is marked on large-scale folding maps. An appendix
contains 20 pages of fares and time tables of both railway and steamer
services. This large and magnificently produced volume of 520 pages concludes
with 12 pages of advertisements from Russian commercial concerns, including
railway and steamship companies.

Its pages contain not only factual information of direct utility to the postal
historian but also provides hours of fascinating reading for anyone seeking to
understand the Russia of 1900. Another major contribution to our field of
interest by the publishers, David & Charles.
Barry Evans.

YTIOJUK IHUIJHEIOHEPA ("Ihe Collector's Corner"). A regular column devoted to
philately and other collecting activities by our member R. V. Polchaninoff,
featured in the Russian-language newspaper "Hoeoe PyccKoe CAoeo" ("New Russian
Word", published in New York City), since August 1968.

Written in his usual thorough and concise style, Mr. Polchaninoff gives in the
issue of 19 March 1972 of the newspaper an interesting description of the
development of our Journal and its performance at international philatelic
exhibitions.

An excellent review of the contents of Journal No. 82 then follows, with many
pertinent comments about the information presented therein. Mr. Polchaninoff
performs a valuable service in constantly bringing our Rossica Journal to the
notice of the newspaper's Russian-speaking readership and we owe him our
grateful thanks for his conscientious efforts in preparing such publicity. May
he be granted many more long and fruitful years to keep up the good work !

Incidentally, the article by fellow-member Emile Marcovitch on "The Collector's
Corner" published in Rossica Journal No. 80, has now appeared in Russian in the
Parisian literary magazine "BospoxdeHue" ("Renaissance"), No. 228 for Jan. 1971.

iFbHOCTTA HA PYCI-DTO /PYfKECTBO 3A HDPAEOIITABARE H TPTPOBkH POIIuT BbB BAPHA
("The Activity of the Russian Company for Navigation and Trade ROPiT at
Varna"), by D. N. Minchev. Published in the Oct. 1971 issue of the Bulgarian
magazine "Shipbuilding & Navigation", organ of the Ministries of Transport,
Machine-Building and Technical Society.

Based on his article "Some unknown data on the ROPiT postal activities at
Varna", published in our own Rossica Journal No. 79 (pp. 42-46), as well as
other philatelic and historical sources, our contributor treats the subject in
his usual thorough style, making it an important work of reference.

The relevance of the study is heightened by its appearance in this shipping
journal, published in the port of Varna. The other articles in this issue are
of unbelievably high technical quality, utilizing mathematical models and
computer techniques. Quite an achievement for a country with a population a
little over 8 millions.


-61-







INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF STAMPS, published by IPC Magazines Ltd., Carlton
House, 68 Great Queen St., London WC2B 5DD, England.

This publication consists of 98 parts, which originally appeared on newsstands
as separate weekly installments. Magnificently printed and copiously illustrated
in natural colors, the sections of main interest to us are Vol. 5, Part 13 and
Vol. 6, Part 14. Devoted to the postal history and stamps of Russia and the USSR,
the material for publication was provided through the Novosti Press Agency by a
team of prominent Soviet philatelists, directed by Dr. S.V. Kristi and consisting
of Prof. K.A. Rerngard, B.A. Kaminskii, Dr. N.V. Luchnik, B.K. Stalbaum and A.N.
Vigilev, with photographs by V. Manushkin and V. Shivanovskii of the rare items.

Going as far back as the 10th. Century to the beginnings of the postal service
during the Kievan Rus', the presentation also features an illustration of a
"6epecma", or birch-bark letter, one of more than 500 found in the Novgorod
Velikii area and dating between 1025 and 1055. Many other wonderful things are
shown, some of them having also been referred to in previous issues of our
Journal. These two parts are an absolute must for any Russian collector worthy
of the name and they may be obtained for $1.85 postpaid, preferably sent in an
American Express Money Order, made out to the Post Sales Department of the
publishers, whose address is given above. Rest assured it will be money well
spent.


XaOISECTBEHiJhE MAPfEOBAHHHE ItHBEPTW CCCP 1968 zod u 1969 eod ("Illustrated
Stamped Envelopes of the USSR for 1968 & 1969"). These are two separate
catalogues in booklet form, the first compiled by V. A. Orlov and S. I. Nagel'-
Arbatskii, with 84 pages and priced at 27 kop., while the second has been
prepared by V. A. Orlov and N. V. Orlov, containing 72 pages and priced at 26
kop. Both were printed by the "Svyaz' Publishers of Moscow in 1971 and issued
by the All-Union Society of Philatelists.

Any person who receives mail from the USSR is familiar with the wide range of
illustrated envelopes utilized to enclose letters. From the advertising and
many other viewpoints, these items of postal stationery are such a good idea
that it is a wonder they have not been more widely adopted by other countries
outside the Socialist bloc. In any case, their appeal to collectors is enhanced
by the many topical subjects under which they may be classified, as shown in
these two booklets, which also include corrections and additions to previous
listings. The second booklet brings the listing up to No. 6019 (!), all of
which goes to show that any serious Soviet collector has his time and money cut
out just keeping up with the stamps and postal stationery items of his own land,
let alone collecting those of other countries It is just part of the
tremendous variety and scope in our fields of collecting.


RiM nHOHCHO-On'A TAHCT-iOPHH HPA 4ODP3FI1A I7PE3 XIX BEK ("About the Postal
History of the Dobrudja during the 19th. Century"), by D. N. Minchev. Published
by the "Dobrudja" Philatelic Society at Tolbukhin, Bulgaria in 1970 as a
booklet of 20 pages.

Based on his previous studies printed in several philatelic journals, including
our own publication, as well as other philatelic and historical sources, Mr.
Minchev gives the Bulgarian reader a thorough idea of the scope of the subject.
Covering the private and governmental postal services that operated in North
and South Dobrudja, he highlights the Russian presence in the area, which came
about as a result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. Booklets such as these
perform a valuable service, as they encourage philatelists to bring further
philatelic items to light.
-62-








VIGNETTES OF RUSSIA: The non-postage stamps of Imperial Russia issued prior to
August 1914. Compiled by our long-standing member and Director of the Society,
Emile Marcovitch. Published by and obtainable from William Ittel, 136 Dickson
Ave., Ben Avon, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15202. Contains 5 + 94 pages and priced at $3.25

We are honored to review this, the first in a series of priced catalogues of
the vignettes of Russia and States, prepared by the veteran philatelist Emile
Marcovitch. This work is a labor of love, upon which he has lavished many long
years of effort, facing unbelievable difficulties to locate the required
material. Its relationship to postal adhesives is very close, particularly in
the topical and thematic spheres; many items are great rarities and also of
considerable historical importance.

Anyone who has had the privilege of viewing personally Mr. Marcovitch's
collection has not failed to be charmed and impressed by its scope and the
erudition displayed. We strongly recommend that our members obtain this first
and the two succeeding parts of this memorial to what can be done in a hitherto
little-known and fascinating area of collecting. Baltic, Polish and Ukrainian
specialists will also find much of interest to them in this series.


CFIPABEOffKf- 3HKCIEPTH3E COBETC0-DX ITOBb( MAPOK ("Manual for the Expertization
of Soviet Postage Stamps), by Ya. M. Vovin. A booklet produced by the "Svyaz' "
Publishing House and issued by the All-Union Society of Philatelists. Contains
88 pages and priced at 36 kopeks. Printed in 40,000 copies.

This is a truly magnificent work on the forgeries and fantasies of the Soviet
era and finally fills a long-felt need. It is compiled by a veteran Leningrad
collector, who has also been able to draw on the cooperation of nine other
philatelists. The booklet is the product of a well organized mind and covers
admirably the basic problems that face collectors in the stamps of the RSFSR
and the USSR. This is the kind of information that turns dabblers into
specialists and the All-Union Society of Philatelists deserves great credit in
seeing that the data is presented in a large printing and at a price that is
well within the reach of the most humble beginner.

The booklet is worth its weight in gold and we are exploring the possibilities
of having the information translated for our members.


THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY, No. 46 for Dec. 1971. This issue leads
off with a long awaited "Used Abroad Chronicle XV" by M. Liphschutz and I.
Maslowski, featuring many amazing items, including a superb 1879 Odessa cover to
Bulgaria and back with 7 different Bulgarian markings originating in the Russian
period (B. A. Kaminskii Collection). "More Used Abroad Items" by our old friend
W. S. E. Stephen then follow and Dr. A. H. Wortman hits us with a beautiful
study "Postal Functions of Telegraph Offices", featuring choice examples from
the Russo-Japanese War. "More Flaws" on Imperial stamps are thoroughly covered
by Prof. O. Winterstein and "Yet More Flaws" on the same subject by Dr. M. Gould
& Rev. Leonard Tann. Through the efforts of C. C. Handford and John Lloyd, a very
helpful section is presented on "Ascher The Listing of Zemstvo Postal
Stationery". The Rev. L. Tann then writes up "Usage Extraordinary" of Austrian
and German field post markings on Russian material and our U.S. contributor Max
Ayer does a fine job on "The Post Office Handstamps of Azerbaijan". There are
notes on "Early Covers from Astrakhan", a tribute to Dr. R. Seichter, News &
Views, a fine survey by Editor P. T. Ashford of "The Stamps of Independent
Georgia", reviews of new literature including Rossica Journal No. 80, comments
on auctions, obituaries and meeting reports, thus rounding off this fine number.

-63-









IMPERIAL RUSSIAN STAMPS USED IN TRANSCAUCASIA, Part One, Postal History, by
P. T. Ashford. A booklet of 56 pages, published on behalf of the author by the
British Society of Russian Philately, with a foreword by Dr. A. H. Wortman,
FRPSL and Founder-President of the British society. Price $3.00 in banknotes
from the author at 9 Pentre Close, Ashton, Chester CH3 8BR, England.

The author is the Editor of our fraternal journal in England and Transcaucasia
has always been the great love of his life. Illustrated with several maps which
go as far back as 1784, this part lucidly surveys the posts in the Caucasus and
Transcaucasia up to 1914, with listings of all offices taken from official
sources. Six beautiful covers are featured, including John Lloyd's discovery of
an "Extra-Post" item (see "Notes from Collectors" elsewhere in this Journal).

This part is a model of systematic research into the postal history of a remote
and fascinating area of the Russian Empire. Bringing up the rear is an impressive
bibliography, including references to that doughty chronicler of the Russian
Imperial Postal System, Nikolai Ivanovich Sokolov, who was originally introduced
in English translation by our own Rossica Journal.

Subsequent parts of this work will list cancellations on Russian stamps from the
provinces and districts of Tiflis, Kutais, Sukhumi, Batum, Black Sea, Erivan,
Kars, Baku, Elisavetpol', Zakatali and Mail Coaches of the Transcaucasian
Railway.

Much of the material, although rare, can be gathered by patiently searching
through relatively cheap stamps. This series by a prominent specialist will be
of great help in aiding collectors to form an unusual and rewarding postal
history study. The work is therefore very highly recommended.



IO!tOBbE MAPIf A3EPEA4rPAHA ("Postage Stamps of Azerbaijan"), by E. S.
Voikhanskii. A soft-bound book issued by the Azerbaijani State Publishing
House, Baku 1971. Contains 52 + 64 pages, produced in 5000 copies and priced
at 63 kopeks.

With the text divided into 13 sections and followed by 64 pages of illustrations
and detailed diagrams, this study will undoubtedly prove to be the standard
work on the subject. The present reviewer had the pleasure of both meeting Mr.
Voikhanskii and seeing sections of his collection on display at "'SOFIA 69" in
Bulgaria and was impressed by the knowledge shown.

The assiduous research into the postal archives and press of the period has
enabled the author to present a clear picture of the postal situation from 1919
to 1923. Philatelists will find the book invaluable in arranging their
collections of'a difficult but highly interesting area of study. The work is
very strongly recommended.

*A*k**** *


HAVE YOU REMEMBERED TO PAY YOUR ROSSICA DUES ? MAIL YOUR DUES IN THE ENVELOPE
PROVIDED TO: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226, USA.




-64-