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 Cover
 Index
 Officers and representatives of...
 Editorial; Life of the society
 "Postage due" mail by Dr. R. J....
 Soviet arms type commemoratives...
 Fluorescence on Soviet stamps by...
 "Village National Committee" markings...
 A Soviet stamp variety on Scott...
 The stamp commemorates by Dr. G....
 Forged postal cancellations on...
 Stamp outlets in Moscow by Michael...
 "Land of the Soviets" covers by...
 The international "N" markings...
 Postal rates and foreign exchange...
 Soviet Latvian covers 1940-1941...
 Essays of the "Small Heads" series...
 Notes from collectors
 Book reviews


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00060
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1973
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00060

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Index
        Page 1
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Editorial; Life of the society
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    "Postage due" mail by Dr. R. J. Ceresa
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Soviet arms type commemoratives by A. Cronin
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Fluorescence on Soviet stamps by P. J. Campbell
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    "Village National Committee" markings of the Carpatho-Ukraine by Luson H. Stone
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    A Soviet stamp variety on Scott no. 282a by M. I Galichanin
        Page 40
        Page 41
    The stamp commemorates by Dr. G. Wember
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Forged postal cancellations on the Russian seven- and four-color stamps of Crete by William R. Liberman, LL. M.
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Stamp outlets in Moscow by Michael E. Tscheekar
        Page 49
        Page 50
    "Land of the Soviets" covers by R. Hofmann and R. Weinberg
        Page 51
    The international "N" markings by the Editorial Board
        Page 52
    Postal rates and foreign exchange July-August 1923 by J. Lee Shneidman, Ph. D
        Page 53
    Soviet Latvian covers 1940-1941 by Kurt Adler
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Essays of the "Small Heads" series by R. Weinberg
        Page 56
    Notes from collectors
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Book reviews
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
Full Text

THE JOURNAL

of the

ROSSICA SOCIETY

of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY


















I AWARDS
"WIPA" 1933 BRONZE MEDAL "POLSKA" 1960 SILVER MEDAL
"PRAGA" 1935 BRONZE MEDAL "PRAGA" 1962 SILVER MEDAL
"OSTRAPA" 1935 SILVER MEDAL "MELUSINA" 1963 SILVER MEDAL
"ZEFIB" 1937 SILVER MEDAL "PHILATEC" 1964 SILVER MEDAL
"BEPHILA" 1957 SILVER MEDAL "WIPA" 1965 SILVER MEDAL
"EFICON" 1958 SILVER MEDAL "SIPEX" 1966 SILVER MEDAL
"TEMEX" 1958 SILVER MEDAL "PRAGA" 1968 SILVER MEDAL
"INTERPOSTA" 1959 SILVER MEDAL "APS-68" 1968 SILVER MEDAL
"SICILIA" 1959 SILVER MEDAL "EFIMEX" 1968 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"BARCELONA" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "SOFIA-69" 1969 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"UNIPEX" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "BUDAPEST-71" 1971 SILVER CERTIFICATE

No. 84 1973










EDITOR-IN-CHIEF): Andrew Cronin, Box 806, New York, N.Y. 10008.
& PUBLISHER )

EDITORIAL BOARD : K. Adler, A. Cronin, N. Epstein, E. Marcovitch.



INDEX FOR No. 84.

Pages

2 Officers of the Society; Representatives of the Society.

3 Editorial; Life of the Society.

8 Postage Due Mail, by Dr. R. J. Ceresa.

19 Soviet Arms Type Commemoratives, by A. Cronin.

33 Fluorescence on Soviet Stamps, by P. J. Campbell.

37 "Village National Committee" Markings of the Carpatho-Ukraine,
by Lauson H. Stone.

40 A Soviet Stamp Variety on Scott No. 282a, by M. I. Galichanin.

42 The Stamp Commemorates, by Dr. G. Wember.

45 Forged Postal Cancellations on the Russian Seven- & Four-Color Stamps
of Crete, by William R. Liberman, LL. M.

49 Stamp Outlets in Moscow, by Michael E. Tscheekar.

51 "Land of the Soviets" Covers, by R. Hofmann and R. Weinberg.

52 The International "N" Markings, by the Editorial Board.

53 Postal Rates and Foreign Exchange July-August 1923,
by J. Lee Shneidman, Ph. D.

54 Soviet Latvian Covers 1940-1941, by Kurt Adler.

56 Essays of the "Small Heads" Series, by R. Weinberg.

57 Notes from Collectors.

62 Book Reviews.






*S










OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT PRO-TEM: Gordon H. Torrey Ph.D., 5118 Duvall Dr., Washington DC,20016.
SECRETARY: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn N.Y. 11225.
TREASURER & CHAIRMAN):Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn N.Y. 11226.
MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE)
CHAIRMAN AUDITING COMMITTEE: Andrew Cronin, Box 806, New York, N.Y. 10008.
LIBRAIRIAN: J. Lee Shneidman Ph.D.,161 W.86 St., New York, N.Y. 10024.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS:Emile Marcovitch,65-61 Saunders St.,Apt.4Q,Rego Park,NY,11374.
Samuel Robbins,3563 Meier St., Los Angeles, CA 90066.
Boris Shishkin,3523 Edmunds Rd. NW,Washington DC, 20007.



REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G.B.SALISBURY CHAPTER:Joseph F. Chudoba,426 Eastern Parkway,Brooklyn NY 11225.
WASHINGTON, D.C.:Boris Shishkin,3523 Edmunds Rd. NW, Washington DC, 20007.
WESTERN USA:Lester S. Glass,1553 So.La Cienega Bvd.,Los Angeles CA 90035.
GREAT BRITAIN:John Lloyd,"The Retreat",West Bergholt,Colchester,Essex C06 3HE.



Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However,
acknowledgement of the source and a copy of the reprinted matter would be
appreciated.



The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the
Editors disclaim all responsibility.



At present, the Membership Dues are $7.50, due January 1 for all members.
Application forms, which must be filled out, are available on request.
Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists
will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Mr. Norman Epstein,
33 Crooke Avenue,
Brooklyn, N.Y., 11226, USA.



We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in
English and Russian language editions, now at the revised price of $3.00 each
plus postage for Rossica members and at $3.50 each plus postage for non-members
of the Society. Xerox copies of out-of-print issues are available at $5.00
each plus postage.




**-2-*

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EDITORIAL

FORGING AHEAD

S When your Editor first moved to a big city, one of his first acts was to join a large
philatelic society there. As his knowledge of philately increased, he also switched
his membership to a more serious and advanced group. Years passed and, one evening by
chance, he paid the old society a visit. The thing that struck him was that
absolutely nothing had changed in the interim. The same low standards still prevailed
and it was as if time had stood still.

Our own Rossica Society is not like that. The Journal does not treat the same old
tired subjects over and over and over again. We seek to lead popular taste, not to
follow it. New fields are constantly being opened up and new approaches developed.
All this to help our members collect more intelligently and get more enjoyment Out of
their philatelic activities.

The overwhelming majority of letters received from members has always been very
favorable, especially for our last issue No. 83, so we know we are on the right
track. A well-known auction house in this country recently quoted Rossica Journal
No. 78 as a reference on the Tarasov correspondence. This was just one of the new
themes developed by the Editorial Board and yet another instance of the prestige the
Society enjoys in the field of Russia, USSR, Ukraine and Associated States. We will
do our level best to move on to bigger and better things.



LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING

STATLER-HILTON HOTEL, "BUFFALO ROOM". Saturday, 18 November 1972.

The meeting was called to order at 1:30 pm by President pro-tem Dr. Gordon H. Torrey.

Roll Call of Officers:

President pro-tem: Dr. Gordon H. Torrey (present) Chairman of Membership Committee:
Martin Harow (absent)
Secretary: Joseph F. Chudoba (present)
Librairian:
Treasurer: Norman Epstein (present) Dr. J. Lee Shneidman (present)

Chairman of Auditing Committee and Members of Board of Directors:
Editor-in-Chief: Andrew Cronin (present) Emile Marcovitch (excused)
Sam Robbins (excused)
Boris Shishkin (excused)

Members present: New member attending:

Kurt Adler, Wilbur Linder II, J. Howard Ginny Sue Rosner.
Rappaport, Harold Silvermintz, Rimma
Sklarevski, Fred Yessis.

Minutes of the previous meeting (read at the present meeting):

M/S/C Sklarevski, Silvermintz: To accept the minutes as read.

-3-








Officers' Reports:

Secretary's Report: Made by Joseph F. Chudoba.

Secretary Chudoba reported that, since the last meeting, there has been a minor loss
in members. We have 192 members in good standing as of 1st. November 1972, which
reflects a loss of four members during the year. Of the members who had left the
Society, three had resigned and Mrs Edith M. Faulstich, No. 621, had died. The
officers of the Society had also conferred Honorary Membership upon Mrs Charlotte
N. Downs, the Editor of "STAMPS" Magazine, for the valuable contributions she had
made on behalf of the Society. She is to remain on the membership rolls as a member
in good standing.

As a result of the referendum vote taken last year, the Secretary sent out notices
to members about to become delinquent in their dues, notifying them that if dues were
not paid withingthe first three months of the then current year, they would be
dropped from the membership rolls and that no further notices would be mailed out.
Self-addressed envelopes of the Society have been printed and these will be included
in the appropriate issue of the Journal, so that there will be no excuses for non-
notification of dues payments.

M/S/C Sklarevski, Linder II: To accept the report of the Secretary.

Financial Report: Made by Norman Epstein.

Our Bank Balance per Bank Statement on 31 October 1971 $ 1825.01
Outstanding checks not cleared through Bank by 31 October 1971 1473.41
Actual Balance if outstanding checks were taken into account 351.60

The total deposits and bank credits since the last report was made on 31 October
1971 were as follows:

Deposits and Credits' 1 November 1971 to 31 October 1972 21,890.68
Balance per Bank Statement on 31 October 1971 1,825.01
Total through year 23,715.69
Total withdrawals and bank charges 1 Nov. 1971 to 31 Oct. 1972 21,518.83
Balance as of 31 October 1972 2,196.83

M/S/C Cronin, Chudoba: To accept the report of the Treasurer with a vote of thanks.

Auditing Committee Report: Report made by Chairman Andrew Cronin.


Upon making regular inspection of membership lists aand financial statements of the
Bank, all records were found in order. Application fees, dues payments, proceeds of
sales of Journals and contributions tallied with deposits made by the Treasurer since
the last report.

M/S/C Yessis, Adler: To accept the Auditing Committee report with a vote of thanks.

Journal Report: Made by Editor-in-Chief Andrew Cronin.

Mr. Cronin reported he had had quite a lot of difficulty in getting Rossica Journal
No. 82 out. There had been trouble with the printer, resulting in a number of trips
being made to his premises in trying to get the Journal out on time. Because of these
difficulties, it had been decided to change our printer and do our own set-up work.
This resulted in getting out the last issue (No. 83) without much delay and much less
expensively than previously. The setting-up is being done on an I.B.M. Selectric

-4-








electric typewriter which the Society had purchased for that purpose.

M/S/C Chudoba, Adler: To accept the Editor's report with a vote of thanks for his
untiring efforts and work on behalf of the Society.

Old Business:

Discussion centered around the sale of literature and the question of disposal of
surplus old issues of the "Rossica Journal". Mr. Epstein reported that he had a
request from a philatelic literature dealer for a breakdown on quantities
available and the price. The question had also been raised regarding the sale price
for back numbers of the Rossica Journals to members and non-members.

M/S/C Sklarevski, Chudoba: That the Treasurer use his discretion in disposing of the
surplus copies of the "Rossica Journal".
M/S/C Cronin, Sklarevski: That the Society charge the following for back issues of
the Journal: Members $3.00 each plus postage
Non-members $3.50 "
Xerox copies $5.00 "

It had been further suggested that a Newsletter be published, in order that the
Society receive more favorable publicity and give information to the membership.
Dr. Torrey and Rimma Sklarevski volunteered to work on this project.

A report was also made by Kurt Adler that former member Alexander Bisk, who has now
retired, wishes to dispose of some of his stock. Mr. Bisk had been a dealer for many
years and he wished to thank all members of the Society for past transactions. He
also very kindly donated his file of the Rossica Journal to the Society for disposal
as it thinks fit.

New Business:

Because of coordinating difficulties, a recent meeting of the Officers,held in the
New York area, suggested that all new membership applications be returned to the
Treasurer, rather than having them sent to the Membership Committee Chairman. It was
pointed out that the actual enrollment and issuance of receipts were being done by
the Treasurer, resulting in a more efficient handling of these matters. Complaints had
been received regarding the delay caused by the duplicate handling and it was decided
that,the Treasurer should take over the functions of the Membership Committee
Chairman and enumerate all new members acco rdingly, in order to expedite this matter.

M/S/C Shneidman, Cronin: That the above action be approved.

A report was made regarding the difficulties encountered in the issuance of some
recent issues of the "Rossica Journal". Trouble had been reported in the serious
delays caused by having the work done by our previous printer and it was decided to
change our printer. In using the I.B.M. machine bought by the Society, the type has
been changed and it has been possible to insert Russian characters along with the
English. An entirely new and more efficient method of formalizing the Journal was the
result. It had also been suggested that the offices of Editor and Publisher be
combined and that Mr. Cronin be designated in these capacities.

M/S/C Chudoba, Epstein: That Mr. Cronin be authorized to function in the joint
capacities of Editor and Publisher of the "Rossica Journal" and that a vote of
thanks be given him for the good work he had done.

Because of the success of the Auction Sale held last year, it had been suggested that
the Society hold another sale at next year's meeting. Taking into consideration the


-5-







work involved, the Committee which had Worked on the previous auctions now request
that all material to be included should reach them before 31 May 1973. In the past,
not enough material had been received to warrant the holding of an auction in 1972
and much of the material had to be returned to the senders.

M/S/C Sklarevski, Yessis: To adjourn. The meeting adjourned at 3:30 pm.

Respectfully submitted,



Secretary.


As our members can now see from the listing -
of Officers of the Society, given on page 2
of the present Journal, our respected and
highly knowledgeable member Kurt Adler is no
longer President of the Society. Maestro
Adler was obliged to resign because of the
heavy pressure of other responsibilities.
The absence of his guiding hand will be -
sadly missed, although he will continue as
a member of the Society. As thq 'tRler Vice-
President, Dr. Gordon H. Torrey .nw becomes
President pro-tem, in accordance with our :a
Constitution. In addition to his Russian
interests, Dr. Torrey is a lea dni authority
on the stamps and postal history of the Turkish Empire, winning the Grand Award at
the 1972 SEPAD Show in Philadql"Pa for his display of Ottoman Turkey: "Stampless,
Official Issues and Locals". Th appy and thoroughly surprised exhibitor is shown
above receiving his award, a lov ly silver coffee and tea service with tray, from
the SEPAD President, John W. Hacker. We wish him all the very best as President of
the Rossica Society of Russian Philately.



Probably one of the nicest things that happened at our last Annual Meeting was the
adjournment, as befits a Russian organization, to "The Russian Tea Room", here in
New York City. If ever a place was modestly named, this is it. The establishment is
not just a tea room, but a full-blown Russian restaurant in the grand manner. Joined
by the wives of Dr. Torrey and Mr. Linder, members had a wonderful time, feasting
upon the traditional delicacies of Russian cuisine. Quite apart from the philatelic
"chit-chat that ensued amongst the company at table, the impressions given by Mr.
Yessis of a trip he made a while ago to Belorussia also proved to be interesting.

It was heartily agreed by all present that we make attendance at a Russian restaurant
an annual tradition. This should be an added inducement for out-of-town members to
join us at our annual meetings. You do not know what you are missing !



Our conscientious Swiss member, Walter Frauenlob of Bern, has written a fine little
article entitled "Used abroad Auslandpostaimter", in the prestigious magazine
"Schweizer Briefmarken-Zeitung", issue for Feb. 1972, p.56. Focussing on the Khanate
of Khiva, he gives Swiss readers a wonderful treatment of the subject and illustrates
his point with a lovely pair of 7-kop. Romanov stamps, cancelled "HOBW YPFEH XM)GB.
B24a[. 6,19.11.13" (Novyi Urgench'Khivan Possession b,19 Nov. 1913). Well done, sir !


-6-








OBITUARIES

EDITH M. FAULSTICH

S A Fellow of the Royal Philatelic Society, London, England, International Juror and
respected member of our Society, she passed away on 4 September 1972 at the age of
65, after a mercifully short illness.

Mrs Faulstich was one of the world's leading postal historians, specializing in great
detail in the activities of all the expeditionary forces in Siberia during the Civil
War. An admirable example of the scope of her work was our reprint of her study "Mail
from the Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force 1918-1919" in Rossica Journal No.76-77,
pp.28-57.

A woman of great personal charm and a witty after-dinner speaker, she was a real
adornment to the social side of philately. In a hobby that brings together people
from many walks of life, she was a shining light that brightened the hearts of many
collectors. It is trite but true to say that her presence is being sadly missed not
only by her husband, Fred and relatives, but also by all of us in the philatelic
world.


ALBERT GOLD

Albert was a world-wide cover dealer and a long-time member of the Society. He had
been suffering for some time from a heart condition and suddenly succumbed on Ist.
December 1972 at the age of 66.

Born at Raigorod, Vinnitsa province in the Ukraine, he came to the United States via
Rumania in the early 1920s. A highly skilled artist and draftsman, he also assembled,
arranged and wrote up collections, in particular the famous holdings of the late
Robert W. Baughman, which were dispersed recently.

A familiar figure with his helpful wife at the annual shows in New York City, he had
an Old World charm, with an accent to match. Many of our members treasure philatelic
items that came from him and he must have put in hours and hours of work describing
and preparing them in his distinctive way for sale. The passing of this painstaking
man has left a large and unbridgeable gap in the ranks of cover dealers with
extensive knowledge and stocks.


Here and there....

As members will have already noticed from the 1973 edition of the Scott Catalog,
Vol. 3, the value of a mint copy of No. 287, the 15-kop. value in the Small Heads
regular (definitive) issue, head of a peasant, typographed in yellow on unwatermarked
paper and harrow-perforated 14 x 14 1/2, has now gone from $500 to $1500 in one jump!

As pointed out previously in our Journal, this is the rarest Soviet stamp in mint
condition, with only seven copies known in the United States, including a block of
four which is probably unique. It is not generally realized that used copies of the
stamp are also very scarce and hard to find. Many collections of Russian and Soviet
stamps put up for sale here in New York City have been examined and they invariably
have had cheap used copies of other issues for this 15-kop. value placed in the space
designated for No. 287. If members do not already have a used copy of No. 287 in
their collections, they are strongly urged to try and obtain one immediately. Even at
the present catalog price of $40, it is a bargain! By the way, does any member have
No. 287 used on a cover? We would be happy to publish details and a photo of the same.

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"POSTAGE DUE" MAIL

by Dr. R. J. Ceresa

Mr. Diamandiev's excellent article on the postage due procedures in Russia and the
USSR will, I am sure, open a Pandora's box and stimulate us all to turn out our
"postage due" covers.

There were several complications which caused confusion among postal officials, such
as Prisoner-of-War letters. No franking was required for this type of mail from
Russia to Denmark, but stamps were added unnecessarily at times and, on other
occasions, postage due markings were applied. Thus, a stampless cover with the
cachet of a "Delegito de Univers, Esper. Asocio" to a prisoner of war via Copenhagen,
postmarked SERPUKHOV MOSK. G. 15.10.15, opened by Petrograd Censor No. 125 and with
the Petrograd transit cancellations of the 1st. Despatch Office, dated 18.10.15 and
20.10.15 (before and after censoring !), has an encircled capital letter "T" in the
same ink as the Petrograd markings (Fig. 1).























Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

A similar cover postmarked VINNITSA 9.4.16, Petrograd Censor No. 945 and with Petrograd
transit markings of the 1st. Despatch Office dated 23.4.16 and 2.5.16, has a different
encircled "T" marking in the same ink as the Petrograd markings, but this time negated
with a pencil marking (Fig. 2).

Stampless mail was sometimes delivered to neighboring countries without postage due
markings being applied at the despatching offices, yet postage due was raised in the
receiving country. This often arose because of differences of opinion as to what was
the relevant rate prevailing. The rate rose so frequently during the Civil War period
that it often happened a letter posted at the correct rate was still in transit in
the RSFSR when the rate was raised, so that on delivery the original rate differed
from the current rate. Such letters were sometimes passed without postage due being
raised, but at other times postage due was requested. A cover that falls into a
different category is one from an unknown destination: stampless and without despatch
postmark, addressed to a Mr. Gustav Gerhardt in Milowice, Poland, with Moscow three-
triangle marking of 3.11.20 and on the back the Moscow 1st. Despatch Office transit
dated 5.11. (20). A rectangular rubber handstamp raising 200 Penni postage due was


-8-







applied at bottom right in transit through Estonia. The cachet is inscribed in two
lines "Venemaalt / T. 200 p.". The word "Venemaalt" means "from Russia". A full
treatment of these interesting cachets utilized in 1920-1921 is given on p. 153 of
the "Illustrated Specialized Catalogue of Estonia", by V. Eichenthal, published by
the Philatelic Specialists Society of Canada, Toronto 1962. The marking was penciled
through when it was realized the destination was not Estonian (Fig. 3).






C*tnu^ '-----------------------------
















Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

Postage due was also raised when mail was franked with stamps that were not
acceptable. At one time, my collection contained several covers of late 1917 from
Siberia, franked with Romanov stamps. Some values were accepted but those depicting
Tsar Nicholas II were either removed (missing value being either 7 or 10 kopeks) or
defaced and postage due of double the unacceptable stamps was levied. This can be
understood, but a 5-kop. card of the uncrowned double-headed eagle type, correctly
franked with an additional 5-kop. imperf. Arms type and a 10-kop. Savings Bank stamp
for the 20-kop. rate, sent from Moscow-8 on 2.6.18 to Ryazan', has the Savings Bank
item obliterated with an indelible pencil cross and 20 kop. postage due raised
(Fig. 4). The oval '"OWDL4TWXB" cachet is that of the Moscow-8 City Post Office. For
some erroneous reason, this was crossed out and the notation "40 k" written a little
above it.

An unusual item from 1919 is a small cover franked at 35 kop. and cancelled with an
unrecorded ROSTOV-BAKU ST(ANTS ?) 'b' oval railway marking dated 2.8.19. There is no
indication of registration or insurance, but postage due of 1 r. 40 k. was raised
(oval marking without town name), indicating a shortage of 70 kop. or a correct rate
of 1 r. 5 k. This rate ended in Sept. 1918, so it is probable that the datestamp
should have been 2.8.18 and not 2.8.19. The arrival marking of Essentuki only shows
-3. due to a bad strike (Fig. 5).

Postage due markings become a little more frequent in 1921 and the following are of
interest in confirming the general tenets of Mr. Diamandiev's summary:-

(i) A postcard from Kiev 1, dated 12.9.21 to Sevastopol', franked with a single 1-
kop. Savings Bank stamp having a postal value of 250 rubles, i.e. overfranked by 150
rubles. However, an oval postage due marking was added at KIEV-PODOL for what appears
to be 200 rubles, indicating a shortage of 100 rubles (Fig. 6). The card was
returned to the sender in Kiev (there is an indistinct three-line handstamp added at


-9-







top left in the same ink as the Kiev return marking of 4.1.22), but postage due was
hardly likely for this reason as the overfranking would have more than paid for both
journeys.










-.. ""-." "-, -- -- -















Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

(ii) A stampless cover from Tbilisi (Tiflis, Georgia) 2.12.21 to New York City with
manuscript notation in Georgian "T 250 rubles" at top left of the front, in the same
ink as the address. An oval Tbilisi Postage Due marking in Georgian characters was
added, with amount "1500" filled in with violet ink. The cover has the "NEW YORK,
N.Y., G.P.O., DUE 10 CENTS" marking and a 10 postage due stamp applied on the
front. It also has the Tiflis three-triangle marking at top right with date 5.12.21
(see BSRP No. 43 of 1969, p.14) and the Moscow transit marks of 2.12.21 and 24.12.21
on the back. The rate at this time in the RSFSR was 5000 rubles, but apparently only
750 rubles Georgian in Tiflis, so why the manuscript "T 250 rubles" ? See Fig. 7.







ig. 5.Fig. 7.












-10-
<\ 'r 'i: je f~ ^^ ^L -
\ '\&, 1^1 j i
i \ ->*--"t \"a IJsl


1 AA^I^-^ i^ -








(iii) A cover from Tomashpol' 15.12.21 to Berlin, franked with a single 1-kopek
Savings Bank stamp for the inland 250-ruble rate. For Berlin, the rate would again
have been 5000 rubles. A faint and crude "T" handstamp (unframed), followed by a
manuscript "250 rub.", appear on the front, as well as a penciled "T" and violet "P"
in a double circle, with the figures "240" in blue crayon in the centre (Fig. 8a). On
the reverse, there is a rectangular framed "PORTO" cachet and Moscow transit markings
of 25.12.21, 26.12.21 and 27.12.21 (Fig. 8b). How much postage due was raised ?








Y.I
". / -/ .--"

,.-/"-"








Fig. 8a. Fig. 8b.

The year 1922 also throws up some interesting postage due markings, of which the
following pose some fascinating puzzles that the members may care to wrestle with:-

(i) A 5-kop. postal card of the uncrowned double-headed eagle type from Nizhnii-
Novgorod 29.3.22 to Berlin, franked with 24 five-kopek Savings Bank stamps for a
6000-ruble rate (discounting the imprinted 5-kop. design on the card). This was the
correct rate but an unframed "T" has been applied over the 5-kop, impression,
together with an oval "Porto" marking (Fig. 9). The back bears traces of a Moscow
machine transit of 30.3.22 (rate still 6000 rubles just) and the "T" was probably
applied in Moscow. There is a manuscript "20.." in violet ink against the "T" and
below that in large crayon "480" and "0", which latter are possibly only markings
written on the bundle by the sorter.













Fi. 9





-11-







(ii) A cover from Odessa, correctly franked at 5000 rubles with a strip of five 1000-
ruble definitive and sent 17.1.22 to Vienna, arriving on 16.2.22 with Odessa three-
triangle type marking of 18.1.22 and Moscow transit 31.1.22 accounting for the delay.
However, an Austrian 2-Kronen postage due stamp was applied and tied by the Vienna
cancellation of 15.2.22.

(iii) A cover from Moscow 3.3.22 to Berlin (rate 15,000 rubles), franked with a 5000
rubles on 1-ruble provisional and a single 5-ruble perf. Arms type (not revalued at
this date and therefore not considered by the postal authorities). A manuscript "'i
10.000" was added and later crossed out in blue. No other postage due markings are
present.

(iv) A cover from Petrograd 3.5.22 (with Petrograd transits of 3.5.22 and 4.5.22
and Petrograd Despatch three-triangle marking of 4.5.22), sent to Estonia and franked
at the old 30,000-ruble rate (new rate 200,000 rubles, or 20 rubles 1922). An
encircled "T" has been applied, as well as the manuscript markings "20..", "86C" and
"17..". The "17" probably refers to the missing rate of 17 rubles (1922), but the
postage due was 34 rubles (1922) at the double rate (Fig. 10).





















Fig. 10. Fig. 11.

(v) Cover from Nadezhdinskii Zavod (Urals) 23.8.22 to Brooklyn, franked with a pair
of 5-ruble perf. and a single 2-kop. perf. Arms type for a 120,000-ruble or 12-ruble
(1922) rate, being the old rate for postcards abroad The transit is Moscow (machine)
31.8.22 and the unframed "T" marking was probably applied there if not at Nadezhdinskii
Zavod. The postage due is 66 rubles (1922), i.e. twice 33 rubles, but the manuscript
marking after the "T" apparently rounded it off to 70 rubles. However, the U.S. marking
at bottom is "COLLECT / POSTAGE 15 CENTS" (Fig. 11).

(vi) A pair of 5-kop. postal cards of the uncrowned double-headed eagle type, both sent
from Romanovskaya, Kuban 29.8.22 with 5-kop. perf. Arms type additional franking to
Constantinople, with French and Turkish-language Galata arrival markings of 23.9.22.
The unframed "T" cachet is the same type as that on the Nadezhdinskii Zavod cover just
above and the transit markings are also Moscow machine 11.9.22. The manuscript marking
alongside the "T" seems to read 50 centimes (gold); see Fig. 12. The positioning of
the 5-kop. stamp indicates that the sender considered the 5-kop. impression on the
postal card good for 5 rubles 1922, but even so the franking would have been 17 rubles
1922 short. Since the 5-kop. uncrowned impressions have not been cancelled on either
card, they were presumably not accepted for postal use and the postage due is therefore
44 rubles 1922. Other 5-kop. postal cards of the uncrowned double-headed eagle type

-12-







with and without "BLANK" revalidations were accepted around this time yet another
fascinating field for research !




i 1 KAPTOqK










Fig. 12. Fig. 13.



1922, i.e. 10 kopeks 1923. igThe postage. 13.

The only 1923 item in my collection is a s posropol' 12.2.23 to b
Spassk 20.2.23. The card is of the 5-kop. uncrowned double-headed eagle type with
the Odessa S5 "10 KOP. trident" surcharge. A 40-ruble 1922 star provisional stamp has
been applied over the 5-kop. impressed design, but clearly showing the "10 KOP." of
the trident surcharge. Perhaps the sender hoped that it would be accepted at 10 rubles
1922, i.e. 10 kopeks 1923. The postage due is thus 20 rubles 1922 or 20 kopeks 1923.
The oval postage due marking of Sevastopol' appears to be a clear "10 K



The next section we can regard as being of interest is the classification of a
rectangular marking used or intended for internal mail with the two-line inscription:
"17pu euda'e e3ssZmZ cy.My / ymasauhn7o a donnamoti Mape" in a rectangular frame and
which translates as: "When delivering, collect the amount / indicated on the postage
due stamp". There were a number of different handstamps used, probably varying for
each town applying them (I have identified eight different types to date and this is
yet another field for research), but they were not utilized consistently. This is
illustrated by the following examples of covers which appear to have been written by
comparatively uneducated people to the offices of the "Peasant's Gazette" in Moscow,
as well as to other destinations in Leningrad, Minsk and Tashkent. Most are without
stamps for the prepayment of postage and Dr. Wortman has indicated it is his belief
that many of the peasants were under the impression that "free" postage still applied
in this case. It is possible that a press announcement may have been made that postage
would be paid by the recipient, which would account for the large number of these
covers that can be found. However, double rate seems to have been charged in all
cases. This is the only point at which I would disagree with Mr. Diamandiev and side
with the Editorial Board in the belief that charges greater or less than double the
missing rate were clerical errors.

(i) Unfranked cover from Voronezh 8.1.24 to Moscow with Voronezh oval postage due
marking for 12 kopeks and Moscow V transits of 9.1.24 and 10.1.24. A 12-kop. / 70-kop.
postage due stamp is cancelled Moscow V, 17.1.24.

(ii) A similar cover from Krivandino-Fedorovskoe, Ryazan' province 22.7.24 to Moscow
has the local oval postage due marking inscribed "12 K" and the necessary 12-kop.
postage due stamp added on the back has the cancellation of Moscow 9, 24.7.24 and

-13-







the Moscow transit of 23.7.24 (Figs. 14a, b).




-e-


aa- N-









Fig. 14a. Fig. 14b.

(iii) A registered cover (with the top 3 cm. missing), sent from the Despatch Office
of the City Postal Service of the Moscow P.O., as shown by the violet cachet applied
on the front at bottom left. Against a framed "I,70U41ATHOE" violet marking, there has
been added a manuscript "23 k" notation (see Fig. 15a), indicating underpayment of
11 1/2 kopeks (?). The postage due stamps, totalling 23 kopeks, are cancelled Moscow
17.12.24 (Fig. 15b). What postage stamps were applied, if any ? How was such an
underfranked or unfranked letter accepted for registration in 1924 ? Traces of a
heavy wax seal suggest that it may have been an insured package, which could account
for the odd rate.



: .


i'**I r *^jS^ "




I t' -







Fig. 15a. Fig. 15b.

(iv) An unfranked cover from Rybinsk 27.2.25 to Moscow, with Rybinsk oval postage due
marking inscribed "14 k" in manuscript. The corresponding postage due stamp (14 kop. /
35 kop.) on the reverse has a Moscow postmark with illegible date, but it could be
8.3.25, together with transit markings dated 28.2.25 and 5.3.25.


-14-







(v) Cover from Samara 25.6.25 to Moscow, unfranked and with unframed violet cachet for
the collection of postage due. Moscow transit of 27.6.25 and pair of the 7 kop.
postage due stamps (litho) cancelled 27.6.25.

(vi) Cover from Krasnodar 26.11.25 to Moscow with framed green cachet for the
collection of postage due and manuscript "14" on the front (Fig. 16a). The required
14-kop. postage due stamp (litho) on the baok is cancelled with the unusual postmark
of the Moscow 11 P.O. attached to the All-Union Central council of Trade Unions
(B.LI.C.II.C. see Fig. 16b).







Fig. 16ab. i$. 16b.





^ -,..





-F3 -

Fig. 16a. Fig. 16b.

(vii) Part of a cover sent to Tashkent 21.9.25 with framed violet cachet on the front
noting that there was postage due (Fig. 17a). On the back, there are litho 1-kop. and
10-kep. postage due stamps with the Tashkent "g" postmark of 22.9.25 and confirmatory
strike (Fig. 17b). Why 11 kopeks postage due ?






LIN













Fig. 17a. Fig. 17b.



-15-








(viii) A similar part cover, sent this time to Tashkent and with a slightly different
framed rectangular cachet applied on the front in grey-black (Fig. 18). There is also
an arrival bilingual Russo-Uzbek postmark for the Tashkent railroad, reading
"TAIEHT X. g. / TASHKENT DEMIR YOLU". Once again, there are 11 kopeks in postage due
stamps (litho) on the back, cancelled Tashkent 20.7.25.







i.. > . c O

S'' 0






Fig. 18. Fig. 19.

(ix) A cover from Kokand to Tashkent with violet framed rectangular postage due
instruction (Fig. 19). It is franked on the back with three l-kop. Small Head
definitive, cancelled Kokand 7.10.25, together with 14 kopeks in postage due stamps
postmarked at Staryi Gorod-Tashkent 10.11.25.





..-- / ,_ .

"" 1e, :


,I .. .7* t6 ._.7


KlMHHaRPUCKOE FE;:"' PA E:' 'E M







Fig. 20a. Fig. 20b.

(x) A local cover from Leningrad 7.3.24 with 8-kopek postage due indication on the
front (Fig. 20a). It is franked on the back with 3 kopeks in imperf. Small Head
definitive, cancelled Petrograd-14, 7.3.24 (Fig. 20b). The correct postage due
(3/35 plus 5/35) is postmarked Leningrad on the same day and there appears to be
the remains of a receipt on the front of the cover.

-16-







(xi) A cover from Poltava 6.2.25 to Leningrad with oval Poltava postage due marking
for 14 kopeks. There is on the back a 14-kop. postage due stamp (14/35 k.) cancelled
Lehingrad 15.2.25 with Leningrad transits of 10.2.25.

(xii) A local cover from Grozov, Minsk province with red-violet framed rectangular
postage due cachet and traces of a receipt label on the reverse, with 14 kopeks in
postage due stamps (litho) postmarked Grozov, Minsk 12.7.25.

(xiii) A cover from.Koidanovo, Minsk province 17.7.25 to Minsk with violet framed
rectangular cachet for the postage due indication (Fig. 21) and on the back a 14-
kop. postage due litho stamp cancelled Minsk 18.7.25.







0 i











Fig. 21. Fig. 22a.
(xiv) A cover from Kaskd with the framed
rectangular cachet in violet for postage
due on the front (Fig. 22a). The 14 kop.
in postage due stamps on the back are
cancelled at the destination of Staraya
Bukhara 18.6.25 and they are also
obliterated with a single-line framed
cachet in black reading "He deacmeuwneaa" '
which translates as "Not valid". There is
a further unframed two-line cachet in the
old spelling that reads "3a He.eo Ac l.:,
no.nywanLe / ucmoeniem cpoKa xpanendh"
(Fig. 22b) and means "On account of non-
appearance of the receiver / with the
passage of time of holding", with a
signature beside it. There are also
numerous other manuscript additions and
signatures in Uzbek and under the postage .
due stamps there is the violet postmark__
of the despatching office, reading Kaska
P.T.O. 20.5.25 with serial "a", applied
like a seal over the flap intersections. Fig. 22b.

(xv) A cover from Krasovka, Saratov province 21.4.25, clipped at top and sent to
Andizhan. In addition to the black framed rectangular cachet requesting collection
on postage due, the top right of the cover has a clear violet impression of a


-17-









"Not valid" framed single-line cachet similar to that described just above and
probably referring to an invalid stamp originally at the top right of the cover
(Fig. 23a). There is also a postage due oval marking of Krasovka for 14 kopeks.
The postage due stamps on the back are cancelled with a bilingual Russo-Uzbek
postmark of 5.5.25, reading "Af4TKH .IY ). / ANDIJAN DEMIR YOLU" of the Andizhan
Railroad and dated 2.5.25 and 5.5.25 (Fig. 23b).







Fig. 23a. Fig. 23b.


Echmiadin, Erivan province 17.1.24


.. -" :- ,











to the Rt. Rev. Bishop Turian,
Armenian Rectory, Manchester, England
franked at the 7-kop. internal rate
with a perf. Small Head type. A cross
in pencil has been made alongside the
stamp and a blue bilingual cancellation
added of the Erivan P.T.O. 21.1.24 with /. A
serial "d". The front also has the Erivan
Erivan three-triangle despatch marking /- -f ,
of the same date, struck in blue-black. -. ,2 ; ?
There is a large unframed "T" on the 7. 0- '
front with a manuscript marking which :.t
could be "65 centimes" (gold), a U.K. -
postage due marking "3 1/2 d I.S.O." O. 0.
made up of separate strikes of the 3d
and 1/2 d handstamps and the appropriate
2d, Id and 1/2 d postage due stamps to
complete the picture (Fig. 24). Fig. 24.

By listing some of the more interesting items from my collection with their postal
markings, it is hoped that our contributor D. B. Diamandiev and others can complete
the picture that has been so ably and interestingly presented in the 83rd. number
of our Journal.





-18-







SOVIET ARMS TYPE COMMEIRATIVES

by A. Cronin

S I.

This is an extremely interesting and very instructive topic, not only for the
numerous philatelic varieties that can be collected, but also for the heraldic,
historical, linguistic and other facets which can be investigated.

As the subject is of great scope, this article is restricted to the study of the
State Arms of the USSR and its constituent Union Republics, as shown on Soviet
commemorative stamps. At some future time, separate studies will be made of the same
topic on definitive (regular or "standard") stamps, postal stationery and also the
coats of arms of the Autonomous SSRs.

Some general remarks are in order, before we get into the philately of the matter.
The basic idea for the various coats of arms had been set out in the first Soviet
Constitution on 10 July 1918 at the Fifth All-Russian Congress of Soviets, as follows:

"The Coat of Arms of the RSFSR consists of the representation, on a red background
illuminated with the rays of the sun, of a sickle and hammer placed crosswise, with
the handles pointing downwards, surrounded by a wreath of ears (of wheat) and with
the inscriptions 'Russian Federated Federated Soviet Republic' and 'Workers of all
countries, unite!' ".

The designer of the Arms was Academician A. F. Vasyutinskii, chief medalist at the
Petrograd Mint. Following upon this first step, the USSR officially came into being
on 30 December 1922, when the Soviet republics then existing formed a federal
state. The best design for the new coat of arms then required was selected as that by
V. P. Korzyn and it was formulated by the noted artist I. I. Dubasov (see the article
"Symbols of your Mother Country", by V. Alekseev, "Philately of the USSR", issue
No. 10 for October 1971, p. 18). This was a
distinctive design in the annals of heraldry and W Lotw
has since been followed by other Socialist
countries, as can be seen from Fig. 1, showing a
recent Polish commemorative cancel with the coats -'
of arms of nine such countries, with that of the
USSR at top centre.

In simple terms, the coat of arms for the new
Union featured in the centre that portion of the ^ |-
globe above a rising sun, showing the Soviet land \ 6'"1
mass with the hammer and sickle superimposed
thereon, topped with the Soviet five-pointed star Fig. 1.
and flanked on both sides with bound and curved
ears of wheat. The bands of the binding ribbons were inscribed with the motto
"Workers of all countries, unite! in each of the six national languages of the
Union Republics.

Since 1922, the number of the Union Republics has gone up to 16 and is now 15, with
the status of the Karelo-Finnish SSR changed back to the Karelian ASSR in 1956. The
number of ribbon bands on the State Arms of the USSR has grown and been adjusted
accordingly.

Looking at the individual coats of arms for the Union Republics, as shown overleaf in
Fig. 2, we see that they have the following features in common with the federal version:


-19-



















ARMENIA AZERBAIJAN BELORUSSIA ESTONIA















GEORGIA KAZAKHSTAN KIRGHIZIA LATVIA















LITHUANIA MOLDAVIA RSFSR














TADZHIKISTAN TURKMENIA








USSR


COATS OF ARMS OF THE USSR
hPiAS^ "AND CONSTITUENT UNION REPUBLICS.


UKRAINE FIG. 2. UZBEKISTAN



-20-








(a) The same motto, given in the national language and also Russian (for the RSFSR,
in Russian only).

S (b) The five-pointed star on all except the RSFSR.

(c) The hammer and sickle symbol on all, with a distinctively curved sickle for
Uzbekistan (post-WW II version only).

(d) A rising sun on all, except Armenia and Georgia.

(e) The flanking format of grain for all except Armenia and Georgia, which utilize
a circular dish-like format to enclose the national features of their republics.

Specific information on the distinctive national features of each Union Republic has
been difficult to find, except for the RSFSR and Belorussia (see the work "BenapycXK-a
Caeeujan 3w4uKaned-us" "Belorussian Soviet Encyclopedia", vol. 3, p.436). However,
they appear to be as follows:

ARMENIA: Ears of wheat; grapes; Mt. Ararat.
AZERBAIJAN: Cotton; oil derrick; wheat.
BELORUSSIA: Pre-WW II : at left ears of rye, entwined with clover; at right -
oak leaves and acorns.
Post-WW II: at left ears of rye, entwined with clover; at right -
ears of rye, entwined with flax.
ESTONIA: At left flax; at right rye.
GEORGIA: Ears of wheat; grapes; Mt.Shkhara?; ornamental dish.
KARELO-FINLAND:At left pine branch with cones; at right rye. Also, a pine forest,
water rapids and a weir for fishing.
KAZAKHSTAN: Club wheat (Triticum aestivum compactum).
KIRGHIZIA: At left cotton plants; at right club wheat. Also mulberry leaves
sericulturee) and Tyan'-Shan' Mountains.
LATVIA: Baltic Sea (representing maritime fishing ?); ears of rye.
LITHUANIA: Outer flanks oak leaves; inner flanks rye.
MOLDAVIA: Fruit; Indian corn (maize); viniculture; wheat.
RSFSR: Ears of wheat.
TADZHIKISTAN: At left cotton plants; at right club wheat.
TURKMENIA: Carpet; cotton plants; factory; grapes; oil derrick; wheat.
UKRAINE: Ears of wheat.
UZBEKISTAN: At left cotton plants; at right club wheat.

II.

Examining the commemoratives chronologically, we can classify them as follows:-

1927

Sept. 1. This set, issued for the 1st. International Air
Postal Conference, was the first to show the State Arms of -
the USSR (at top right), with six ribbon bands for the
national languages of the constituent Union Republics (see
Fig. 3). Designed by 0. Amosova, comb-perforated 12 1/2 x
12 & lithographed in sheets of two vertical panes of 40
stamps (5 across & 8 down), with a gutter between the FiR. 3.
panes. Our former member, H. L. Aronson, confirmed the existence of the following
varieties on the upper pane of the 10-kop. value:

(a) Line broken under the date "1927" (20th. stamp
on the pane see Fig. 4).

-21- Fig. 4.







(b) Bottom of "7" of the date "1927" broken (26th. stamp on the pane; i!19lii
see Fig. 5). A sub-variety shown in the 1933 Soviet Catalog also
includes a white patch over the "A" of "ABHO" and they Fig. 5.
both possibly occur on the 26th. stamp of the lower
pane (see Fig. 6). Members are urged to check their i 41
material for confirmation.
Fig. 6.
(c) Large white patch at the bottom left of "7" of
"IOO9IBAH" (27th. stamp on the pane see Fig. 7). i

Fig. 7.
A small dose of history again, before we go any
further. The Union Republics constituting the
USSR on 30 Dec. 1922 were Belorussia, RSFSR,
Ukraine and ZSFSR (the Transcaucasian Federation
of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia). With the
National Delimitation of Central Asia in 1924,
the Union Republics of Turkmenia and Uzbekistan
(both in the Turki linguistic group) were formed
on 27 October 1924. Philatelically, the problem
now is to determine the languages and their
sequence on the six ribbon bands shown on the
set of stamps described above.

This was solved with the acquisition of an
official presentation booklet, prepared under
Order No. 29030 for 1928 by the National
Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs. Issued
in a printing of 1000 copies and inscribed in
French, the front cover shows in actual colors
the details of the State Arms of the USSR in
the six-ribbon format (see Fig. 8). Looking Fig. 8.
clockwise, the languages are as follows:-
Armenian, Azerbaijani, Ukrainian, Russian, Georgian and Belorussian. Two of the
inscriptions are noteworthy:

(a) The Azerbaijani legend is in Arabic script and transliterates as:
"BUtUn dUnya Ulkelerin / yoksullarl birleginiz "
literally meaning "Destitute (people) of all countries of the world, please
unite !". The inscriptions in the Arabic alphabet given on stamps and postal
stationery in the early Soviet period are often referred to as being in Turco-
Tartar but that is incorrect in this particular case. Azerbaijani is a Turki
language closely related to Ottoman Turkish.

(b) The Belorussian version is given as:
"I-POJETAPHli / yciX IKAIy / 3JiM1 Cf ".

From the foregoing, it can be seen that the six-ribbon format was not strictly
correct in 1927, as it did not provide for Turkmenian and Uzbek inscriptions.

1937-1938

5 Dec. 1937-17 June 1938. Several things happened in the ten-year interval until the
issue of the set honoring Constitution Day (5 December) and featuring the arms of the
USSR and the Union Republics (Scott Nos. 647-658). The ZSFSR (Transcaucasian
Federation) was dissolved into its three constituent members and three of the
Autonomous SSRs were raised to Union Republican status, the results being summarized
hereunder:


-22-








Republic Union Status Date Linguistic Group

Armenia 5 December 1936 Armenian (Indo-European)
Azerbaijan 5 December 1936 Turki
Georgia 5 December 1936 Iberian
Kazakhstan 5 December 1936 Turki
Kirghizia 5 December 1936 Turki
Tadzhikistan 16 October 1929 Iranian (Indo-European)

Many of the peoples in the Iranian and Turki groups were first made literate in the
early 1920s, using the Arabic alphabet. As all the Turki languages have complicated
vowel systems, the ambiguous and deficient Arabic script was soon dropped and a
Unified Latin Alphabet was devised by Aa BB Cc Dd F 00
Soviet philologists over the 1925-1932 Ak LI Mm Nn Oo Ge Pp Rr Ss
period for use by 70 different languages $ Tt Uu Vv Xx yy Zz Zz bb aa
in the USSR, Mongolia and Tuva (see
Fig. 9) There were even suggestions to Fig. 9.
Latinize the Cyrillic alphabet for
easier access to Western technology. These died as industrialization proceeded and
new pride taken in the Cyrillic heritage.

The philatelic results of these changes are shown on the seven stamps of this set
devoted to the arms of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan
and the USSR. All of these show the motto given in the national languages and
written in the Unified Latin Alphabet.

According to the 1970 Soviet Catalog, the first value of the set to be issued was
the 40-kop. engraved stamp in horizontal format, designed by I. Ganf and appearing
in December 1937, presumably on the 5th. to coincide with the first anniversary of
the new constitution. Featuring the State Arms of the USSR, the composition now has
11 bands for the motto in the national languages of the Union Republics. Reading
clockwise, they are as follows: Kirghiz, Tadzhik, Uzbek, Armenian, Belorussian,
Russian, Ukrainian, Georgian, Azerbaijani, Turkmenian and Kazakh. Bearing in mind
that the motto is reproduced 11 times on tiny bands in a total of six alphabets plus
diacritical marks, this design is a real masterpiece of the engraver's art. See
Fig. 10 for the wealth of detail involved.

Note also that the first motto (Kirghiz) differs from that on the particular 20-kop.
value devoted to Kirghizia in that it is inscribed: "BYTKYL DYJNB PROLETARLARb,
BIRIKKILE (Workers of all the world, unite!). This tends to confirm that the
40-kop. stamp was issued first and that the Kirghiz inscription was later modified
when appearing on the individual 20-kop. value. The design for the 40-kop. stamp has
been copied several times since and also seems to have inspired the composition for
the 25-kop. issue of Tuva for 1943,even to the panels at bottom (see Fig. 11).



r -'- -


V L vVV V 'V aj *-W --




4 dFig. 11.

S. .... '-" ""---- Fig. 10.
o4.. & a 0 a a .-& C S A a &A. -

-23-








The eleven vertical stamps of 20-kop. value, showing the individual coats of arms and
also designed by I. Ganf, were typographed and issued on 17 June 1938. The most
interesting designs were as follows:-

(a) AZERBAIJAN: The motto now conforms to the norm and reads "BYTYN 9LK@L0RIN
PROLETARLARb BIRLOSIN!" (Workers of all countries, unite !). The first "I" in
the last word is almost completely missing in the inscription on the stamps
of this design.

(b) BELORUSSIA: This is the most fascinating stamp by far in the whole set, as we
will now see. In his brochure "Polonica na Radzieckich Znakach Pocztowych",
Warsaw, 1970, Prof. Dr. Antoni Laszkiewicz pointed out a panel on this design
with the inscription in Polish. Further examination by the present writer proved
that there are a total of four panels, two on each side and each in a different
language (see Fig. 12). The languages are Belorussian and Yiddish at left, with
Russian and Polish at right, as reproduced
hereunder:-

IPOJiETAPHI 7IPOJETAPPkM _
kCIX KPAIH BCEX CTPAH
3JI.YLF4ZRCq COEiFffTECb
(Belorussian) (Russian)

iXLI3 Y, xa PROLETARIUSZE
i7yTjY Y*57 Jia WSZYSTKICH KRA-
!J'T i '9J"-Na JOW, L4CZIE SI' :
(Yiddish) (Polish)

Further enquiry showed that the four
languages were made official for this
republic in 1927. Note the change in :S
spelling to the Belorussian word "KPAIH" "_
("of the countries"), as compared to the
1928 version.

Collectors of Judaica and Polonica are -
urged to obtain this interesting stamp
immediately, as the whole set is now Fig. 12.
equally scarce in mint and used state
and available stocks in the U.S. are very low. The author is indebted to Messrs
S. Kessel, B. Kushner and S. Silverstein for verification of the Yiddish text.
For the information of those linguistically inclined, it transliterates as :
"PRALETARIER / FUN ALE LENDER / FARIINIKT ZIK "

(c) KAZAKHSTAN: The unusual version of the motto is given as "BYKIL CER YIZININ,
PROLETARLARb, BIRIGINDER !", which translates as "Workers on all the face of
the earth, unite !" .

(d) KIRGHIZIA: In contrast to the earlier engraved 40-kop. value, this typographed
stamp now has the motto adjusted to read: "BARDbQ GLKB9LRDYN PROLETARLARb,
BIRIKKILE !" (Workers of all countries, unite !).

(e) TURKMENIA: This stamp has the same unusual version of the motto as for
Kazakhstan and, in this case, it reads in a mixture of upper and lower case:
"ByTin jER jyziniq PROLETARLARb, BiRLEqiA !" .

(f) UZBEKISTAN: The motto reads "BUTUN DUNJA PROLETARLARE, BIRLASINIZ !" (Workers of
all the world, please unite !" .

-24-








1941

March. First anniversary of the Karelo-Finnish SSR. Adapted by I. Dubasov and based
on the design by I. Ganf for the 20-kop. typographed commemoratives of the previous
(1938) issue. Normally line-perforated 12 1/2.

The 1958 and 1970 Soviet catalogs both state that the two values were offset-printed.
However, careful examination under a glass points to the characteristic "raised ink"
effect of the photogravure process, with the design photographed through a screen
coarser than usual. The inscription on left band is rather blurred but in Finnish,
reading "KAIKKIEN MAIDEN / PROLETAARIT / LIITTYKXX YHTEEN" (Workers of all countries,
join together). Karelian is a dialect of Finnish and is in some respects purer than
some dialects spoken in Finland. The noteworthy varieties on the stamps are as
follows:-

30-kop. value
(a) Comb-perforated 12 1/2 x 12 (very scarce).
(b) Flaw on letter "K" and two dots in shading below letters "CK" of "OkHCKAH"
(99th. stamp on the sheet).

45-kop. value
(a) Upright egg-shaped flaw in 4 4
shading above date "1940" at _,_ --__
left (96th. stamp on sheet -
see Fig. 13).

(b) Retouched version of the design,
where the bottom end of the
sheaf of rye consists of rows _
of dots, instead of streaked
shading (Fig. 14). This
variety was first recorded by Fig. 13.
the late John Barry (see BJRP
No. 5, p.86) and is not easy to
find. ig. 14
Fig. 14.
1946

Feb. 10. Elections to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Designed by V. SloA CCt
Andreev, photogravure-printed and line-perforated 12 1/2.

The 30 & 60-kop. values of this set feature the State Arms of the
USSR in their previous form, i.e. with eleven ribbon bands (Fig. 15).
The five republics of Estonia, Karelo-Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and
Moldavia had been added during 1940, bringing the total up to 16
Union Republics. The same number of bands was now required on the
State Arms. Fig. 15.

Nov. 6. 25th. anniversary of the first Soviet regular issue. Designed by I. Dubasov,
printed by the phototype process and line-perforated 12 1/2.

The 60-kop. value of this set and the associated souvenir sheet of four stamps show
among the array of stamps illustrated the 30-kop. design from the Elections set
referred to just previously.

1947

Feb. 9. Arms of the 16 Union Republics (photogravure-printed) and the State Arms of
the USSR (lithographed). Designed by V. Andreev and line-perforated 12 1/2.

-25-







A highly interesting set, from the historical, linguistic and philatelic points of
view. The important features are as follows:

In the cases of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenia and
Uzbekistan, the mottos given in the national languages are now written in the
Cyrillic alphabet. The Kazakh and Turkmenian texts were also modified to conform to
the norm (Workers of all countries, unite !). A, start had been made in 1936 to
replace the Unified Latin Alphabet with Cyrillic in the USSR, Mongolia and Tuva.
This task was completed in the early 1940s. It was a logical decision, as Cyrillic
is the most widely used alphabet in the whole country and its utilization cuts down
on printing costs etc. Unfortunately, these changes were done at the regional or
republican level and there was a lack of uniformity in the versions devised to fit all
the different languages. Work is currently proceeding on a Unified Cyrillic Alphabet,
so that all the Writing systems conform to a recognized standard.

The only areas in the USSR presently using the Latin alphabet are the Union Republics
of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania along the Baltic and the Karelian ASSR. This whole
question of national alphabets and their development has been covered in a very
informative monograph entitled "AMTPABhITh J I3LfOB HAPOaOB CCCP" (Alphabets of the
Languages of the Peoples of the USSR), by K. M. Musaev, "Nauka" Publishers, Moscow
1965. Needless to say, all these changes also had a postal history impact and the
markings so far seen will be recorded in a future article.

Comparing the arms for Belorussia with the 1938 version (see Figs. 16 & 17), we note
a couple of basic changes:-





DLA AAA.DLJ"IU,fl,l
BErPYAX *,i?.. r S





'y'







(s11.. ak VV a. AL noi S..

Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18.

(a) The four ribbon bands remain, but the languages are now reduced to two: Belorussian
spread over the two bands at left and Russian over the two at right. The dreadful
effects of WW II in this republic were undoubtedly among the reasons for the
change.

(b) The Belorussian inscription has now been modified to: "7POJ-ETAPLI YCIX HPAIH /
EFHAPJEC'". 5

There is also some evidence of two separate issues of the photogravure printing for
the coats of arms for the individual Union Republics (30-kop. values), as can be

-26-







inferred from the following two examples:-

(a) KIRGHIZIA
* First issue: Clear printing on white paper.
Second issue: Slightly darker printing on paper with greyish toning on front only.
(b) RSFSR
First issue: The photogravure screen is clearly detailed under a glass, the motto
on the ribbon band well defined and the "0" of "P.C.O.C.P." is visibly clear of
the top frame-line. The gum is white. See Fig. 19.


gPa.l.cP -_ c. te.K.q P,.







C! 0s]r14










i7\ 3D 39u

Fig. 19. Fig. 20.
Second issue: The design has been etched more deeply into the photogravure
plate. The screened effect is now so blurred that it almost looks like
phototype printing, which cannot be the case as the details of the design have
now worsened. The motto is not so clear and the "1" of "P.C.0.C.P. almost
touches the top frame-line. There is surface toning of the paper in a very pale
shade of the color and the gum is yellow. See Fig. 20.
Similar differences should exist for the other 14 designs in this face value but the
scarcity of material in quantity has prevented the formulation of definite
conclusions.
It can, however, definitely be proven that the lithographed 1-ruble multi-colored
value exists in two issues, as follows:-
First issue: Crimson flags, mottos and map;
dark brown inscriptions and white gum.
......... ....... ** .. ...
Second issue: Brick red flags, mottos and map; -- 2.
brown inscriptions and yellow gum. There is a TWPA4C e
brown notation in the bottom margin under the L
31st. stamp, reading "2o_. 7T7PA',, (see Fig. 21). Fig. 21.

-27-








This inscription means "2nd. ISSUE" in English. w w w w -w

A further surprise in this large design is -. EP CP
given us in a bilingual Finno-Russian 128-
page booklet "NEUVOSTOLIITTO / COBETCIHfE
TIDOTOBE M4PFI', officially issued by the
Ministry of Communications of the USSR and
distributed at the "FINLANDIA-56"
International Philatelic Exhibition at
Helsinki. Page 8 of this work illustrates pk
the design, but with the value indications
at bottom left and right given as "60 KOP" .
This is obviously an essay from the. .
Ministerial Archives (see Fig. 22) and it" --
would be interesting to know just how far S S S i *
preparations went.before changing the face
value to one ruble. Fig. 22.

Finally, reading clockwise around the State Arms of the USSR, as given on the large
1-ruble design, the sequence of national languages for the mottos on the bands is as
follows: Latvian, Moldavian, Kirghiz, Tadzhik, Turkmenian, Georgian, Ukrainian,
Russian, Belorussian, Azerbaijani, Armenian, Uzbek, Kazakh, Finnish (Karelian),
Lithuanian and Estonian.

December. 700th. anniversary of the founding of Moscow. Imperforate souvenir sheet
of four stamps in the 3-ruble value. Printed by the autotype (half-tone typography)
multicolor process, with added typographed inscription above and below the stamps
and the State Arms of the USSR, with 16 bands, at top. There are two types of the
inscription, as follows:-

(a) Length of the top line 61.5 mm., with a distance of 89 mm. vertically between
the two lines of the text.

(b) Length of the top line 60 mm., with a distance of 91 mm. vertically between the
two lines of the text. The multicolor combination on the stamps of this
printing is also brighter (see the 1957 Soviet Catalog, p. 261).

1948

July 5. 25th. Anniversary of the formation of the USSR. Designed by V. Andreev.
Printed by the phototype process and line-perforated 12 1/2.

30 kop., 60 kop. State Arms of the USSR.

Comparing this design with the large lithographed 1-ruble commemorative of Feb. 1947,
we can see under a glass that the phototype printing process is far superior in
reproducing in great detail all the texts in the national languages on the 16 bands.

Oct. 29. 30th. Anniversary of the Komsomol. Designed by E. Sokolov. Printed by
photogravure and line-perforated 12 1/2.

20 kop. Physical Culture Parade, with State Arms of the USSR.

1949

Jan. 4. 30th. Anniversary of the Belorussian SSR. Designed by V. Andreev and adapted
by V. Zav'yalov. Printed by photogravure and line-perforated 12 1/2.

40 kop., 1 ruble, with arms of the Belorussian SSR.

-28-








While basically similar to the 30-kop. design of Feb. 1947, there are differences in
the composition which can be seen readily when comparing Figs. 17 (1947 design) and
18 (1949 design).

Oct. 29. 32nd.Anniversary of the Revolution. Designed by E. Bulanova. Printed by
photogravure and line-perforated 12 1/2.

40 kop., 1 ruble with State Arms of the USSR. ... .... .......
I ROUTACCCP
Nov. 30. Issued for Constitution Day (December 5). Designed
by V. Zav'yalov and engraved on steel by N. Mikheev. Recess :
printed on thick paper and line-perforated 12 1/2.

40 kop. with the State Arms of the USSR.

This stamp was printed in sheets of 50 (10 across and 5
down). See Fig. 23 for an unusual plate number "5"- .. ..........
reversed, under the 50th. stamp. At least four other plate --
numbers should exist. Incidentally, this stamp is quite
scarce, particularly in mint condition, as stocks in the
U.S. have long since dried up. Fig. 23.

Dec. 7. 20th. Anniversary of the Tadzhik SSR. Designed by V. Andreev. Photogravure
printed and line-perforated 12 1/2.

40 kop. with the Arms of the Tadzhik SSR, in two printing variations:
(a) design made up of fine diamond-shaped dots, pointing vertically.
(b) design made up of fine square-shaped dots.

These two variations were caused by the two different types of screens used during
the photogravure process in laying down the units for the printing plates. The
differences are readily seen under a magnifying glass (reference: "Philately of the
USSR", No. 2 for Feb. 1972, p. 33).

All the succeeding stamps in this topic can be handily tabulated under the following
headings:-

Date Values Designers Printing Process Perforations Coats of Arms

1950
Jan. 3 40 kop. V. Andreev Photogravure L.P. 12 1/2 Uzbekistan
(a)vert.diamonds
(b)square dots
Jan. 7 40 kop. V. Andreev Photogravure L.P. 12 1/2 Turkmenia
(a)vert.diamonds
(b)square dots
June 1 ruble V. Andreev Photogravure L.P. 12 1/2 Azerbaijan
Sept. 13 40 kop. V. Andreev Latvia
Oct. 8 1 ruble V. Zav'yalov Lithuania
Oct. 8 40 kop. E. Bulanova Estonia
Nov. 29 40 kop. V. Zav'yalov Armenia
Dec. 27 40 kop. E. Bulanova Kazakhstan

1951
Feb. 2 40 kop. E. Bulanova Kirghizia

1952
Dec. 30 1 ruble I. Dubasov Phototype USSR


-29-








Date Values Designers Printing Process Perforations Coats of Arms

1954
May 10. 1 ruble I. Zhikharev Typographed L. P. 12 1/2 USSR

1956. With the Karelo-Finnish SSR now changed back to the Karelian ASSR as part of
the RSFSR, the number of ribbon bands on the State Arms of the USSR was reduced to
15. The mottos were rearranged and are now inscribed in the following sequence,
reading clockwise: Estonian, Armenian, Kirghiz, Moldavian, Azerbaijani, Kazakh,
Uzbek, Georgian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Tadzhik and Turkmenian (see Fig. 2).

In addition, further changes in orthography were made in the Belorussian text and
it now reads as follows: "1TPAJIETAPHI CIX IPAIH, WAF4EiCq !". Truth to tell, the
Belorussian and Russian are very closely related and they actually differ much more
in spelling than in speech.

1957
Oct. 25 40 kop. A. Zav'yalov Offset C.P.12 1/2:12 Armenia
or 12:12 1/2
40 kop. A. Zav'yalov Azerbaijan
40 kop. V. Pimenov & Belorussia
G. Chuchelov
"40 kop. Estonia
"40 kop. G. Chetiya Georgia
"40 kop. V. Pimenov & Kazakhstan
G. Chuchelov
"40 kop. Kirghizia
"40 kop. A. Zviedris Phototype Latvia
"40 kop. V. Pimenov & Offset Lithuania
G. Chuchelov
"40 kop. A. Zav'yalov Moldavia
"40 kop. V. Zav'yalov RSFSR
"40 kop. V. Pimenov & Tadzhikistan
G. Chuchelov
"40 kop. A. Markina Turkmenia
"40 kop. O. Snarskii Ukraine
"40 kop. V. Pimenov & Uzbekistan
G. Chuchelov

Dec. 24 40 kop. O. Snarskii Offset L. P. 12 1/2 Ukraine

1958
Oct. 4- 40 kop. L. Maiorova Recess L. P. 12 1/2 Armenia
Nov. 3 40 kop. I. Sapronov Azerbaijan
"40 kop. L. Maiorova Belorussia
"40 kop. A. Aferov Estonia
"40 kop. I. Mokrousov Georgia
"40 kop. T. Nikitina Kazakhstan
"40 kop. I. Mokrousov Kirghizia
"40 kop. I. Sapronov Latvia
"40 kop. I. Sapronov Lithuania
"40 kop. N. Mikheev Moldavia
"40 kop. T. Nikitina RSFSR & USSR
"40 kop. T. Nikitina Tadzhikistan
"40 kop. N. Mikheev Turkmenia
"40 kop. L. Maiorova Ukraine
"40 kop. V. Smirnov Uzbekistan


-30-








The names quoted above are those of the engravers; all the designs were by S.
Pomanskii. These stamps were printed in four panes of 25 units (5 rows of 5), each
pane being numbered in a margin by a system of dots, printed in the color of the
stamps. In the case of the RSFSR design, the dots for the four separate panes occur
at the bottom right of the panes (see Fig. 24 hereunder). The printing sheets were
cut into panes of 25 stamps for sale at the post offices.











Fig. 24.

Date Values Designers Printing Process Perforations Coats of Arms

1958
Dec. 23 40 kop. E. Gundobin Offset C.P.12 1/2:12 USSR
-25 40 kop. USSR

1959
Oct. 13 40 kop. A. Faingersh Tadzhikistan

1960
July 16 40 kop. F. Lyntein Photogravure C.P.12:12 1/2 Estonia
40 kop. A. Zav'yalov Autotype L.P.12 1/2 Latvia
40 kop. N. Kruglov Offset C.P.12:12 1/2 Lithuania
Aug. 2 40 kop. A. Zav'yalov Offset C.P.12:12 1/2 Moldavia
Oct. 4 40 kop. V. Pimenov Autotype L.P.12 1/2 Kazakhstan
Nov. 14 40 kop. L. Zav'yalov Offset C.P.12:12 1/2 Armenia

1961
Apr. 7 6 kop. I. Levin Offset C.P.11/2 USSR
-26 10 kop. USSR

1962
Nov. 17 4 kop. I. Levin Photogravure Harrow 11 1/2 USSR
Dec. 30 4 kop. I. Kominarts Photogravure C.P.12 1/2:12 USSR
6 kop. Photogravure USSR

1963
Nov. 25 6 kop. Lesegri Photogravure Harrow 11 1/2 USSR
Dec. 30 4 kop. T. Nikitina Recess L.P.12 1/2 Tadzhikistan

For this last stamp,the engraver's name has been given. Once again, it was designed
by S. Pomanskii, with dots for the four panes placed in the margins.

1964
Jun. 30 4 kop. E. Taras Offset C.P.12:12 1/2 Belorussia(obelisk)
Oct. 7 4 kop. S. Pomanskii Recess L.P.12 1/2 Tadzhikistan
designer;
T. Nikitina dots for the four panes in the margins.
engraver
Oct. 26 4 kop. V. Pimenov Offset C.P.12:12 1/2 Uzbekistan
4 kop. V. Pimenov Offset Turkmenia

-31-







Date Values Designers Printing Process Perforations Coats of Arms
1965
Apr. 10 6 kop. D. Nadezhin Photogravure C.P.12 1/2 USSR
& A. Pletnev
July 14 4 kop. V. Pimenov Offset C.P.12:12 1/2 Lithuania
July 16 4 kop. G. Vilks Offset C.P.12 1/2:12 Latvia
Nov. 25 10 kop. E. Aniskin Typographed L.P.12 1/2 USSR
1966
Sep. 14 4 kop. Yu.Ryakhovskii Offset C.P.11 1/2 USSR

1967
Aug. 4 4 kop. N. Andreeva Offset C.P.12 1/2:12 Armenia
& Yu.Levinovskii
"" 4 kop. Azerbaijan
4 kop. Belorussia
4 kop. Estonia
4 kop. Georgia
4 kop. Kazakhstan
4 kop. Kirghizia
4 kop. Latvia
4 kop. Lithuania
4 kop. Moldavia
4 kop. RSFSR
4 kop. Tadzhikistan
4 kop. Turkmenia
4 kop. Ukraine
4 kop. USSR
4 kop. Uzbekistan
Oct. 14 4 kop. I. Martynov Photogravure C.P.12 1/2:12 USSR
Oct. 25 4 kop. N. Shevtsov Typographed L.P.12 1/2 USSR
4 kop.(9) N. Shevtsov Typo & Offset C.P.11 1/2 USSR
40+40 k. Lesegri Offset Imperf. USSR
Dec. 25 4 kop. Des. Lesegri Recess C.P.12 1/2 USSR
Engr. Nikitina

1968
May 22 4 kop. 0. Savostyuk Photogravure Harrow 11 1/2 USSR
& B. Uspenskii

1969
Oct. 14 4 kop. Yu. Kosorukov Photogravure C.P.11 1/2 Ukraine

1970
Mar. 18 4 kop. A. Zharov Photogravure C.P.11 1/2 Azerbaijan

1971
Jan. 12 4 kop. V. Pimenov Offset C.P.11 1/2 Georgia

1972
Apr. 5 6 kop. A. Sokolov Photo & Recess Harrow 11 1/2 USSR
Oct. 4 4 kop. Yu.Levinovskii Litho & Recess C.P.12:12 1/2 USSR (Phil.Exhib.)
Oct. 12 4 kop. Yu.Kosorukov Photogravure Harrow 11 1/2 USSR (Militia)
Oct. 28 4 kop.(4) Yu.Levinovskii Photogravure C.P.12:12 1/2 USSR (50 Years)
& I. Shmidshtein
30 kop. Typo & Embossed Harrow 11 1/2 USSR (50 Years)


** *-32-
-32-







FLUORESCENCE ON SOVIET STAMPS I

by P. J. Campbell



Philately, except at the most rudimentary level, is a technical subject. Collectors
soon find themselves involved, at varying levels, in the science of papermaking, ink
and perforation and in the art of printing, design and color.

Without apology, then, a few scientific principles must be stated and a few words
defined before this article proceeds much further.

Several countries have printed stamps, using fluorescent inks or papers. Great
Britain began the practice in 1957 as part of a plan to sort mail, using
electronic "scanners" instead of the human eye. West Germany followed in 1961,
Canada in 1962 and the United States in 1963.

Fluorescence was first noticed in nature in 1833, but only became of practical use
when the first fluorescent lamps were developed a century later. Basically, the
principle is that a stream of electrons flows inside a glass tube containing
mercury vapor. The mercury atoms become "excited" and emit invisible ultra-violet
rays. These rays normally strike a phosphor coating on the inside of the tube,
causing it to glow brightly with rays of visible light, which pass through the
glass, giving the tubular-type lights now common in homes and business. The ultra-
violet rays can, however, be directed out of the tube through a filter and will
cause specially prepared inks to glow brightly with visible light. These are the
types of inks normally used in mail-sorting machines. The ultra-violet rays make
the stamp gleam brightly; the machine "sees" the glow and passes the letter for
cancellation, as well as aligning it properly for the address to be read by the
human eye. Machines presently in use can receive, align (with stamp in top right-
hand corner) and cancel up to 30,000 letters per hour, so the benefits of the system
are obvious. Several variants of the basic system are possible: the ink in which the
stamp is printed can react to the light, there can be bars of special ink printed
(invisibly) over the face of the stamp, or the paper itself can be impregnated with
chemicals.

Continuing with the "science", it should be noted that the general phenomena we are
discussing are called "luminescence". There are two types of luminescence:-

(a) Phosphorescence where the ink glows while it is being "excited" by the ultra-
violet rays and also for some time after the rays cease.

(b) Fluorescence where the ink glows only when being "excited" by the ultra-violet
rays.

It is important that you remember the two different terms. Perhaps it is easiest to
remember that the numerals on your watch are phosphorescent and that they continue
to glow after the sun has gone down.

The final bit of science is to record that there are two types of ultra-violet lamps.
Both consist of a tube with an electrical contact at each end (anode and cathode) and
both contain argon gas with a trace of mercury. In both, the flow of electricity
"excites" the mercury atoms and ultra-violet light results. At this point, the two
types differ:-

(a) The most common type emits relatively long waves of light of 3654 Angstrom units
wavelength. These lights are completely safe and are used in nightclubs, advertising and


-33-







in industrial non-destructive testing. The light incorporates a filter that screens
out all the frequencies except the one required (3654A) by the use of a glass or
plastic filter, so this lamp can be sold cheaply.

(b) The shortwave type emits ultra-violet of 2537 Angstrom units wavelength. This
lamp requires a filter of opaque cobalt material to get rid of unwanted wavelengths.
We all know that we can be sunburnt by the ultra-violet rays of the sun and it is
known that the earth's atmosphere cuts out all wavelengths below 2900 A, yet here we
are making a lamp that emits rays at 2537 1 The result is that the rays are not
safe, even if reflected off a white surface. Read the manufacturer's instructions,
work on a matt black surface and never look directly at the light.

The reason for the two types of lamps is that many papers use an optical bleach to
obtain whiteness and such papers are used to make envelopes. The result is that a
fluorescent stamp cannot be detected by an automatic cancelling machine when the
stamp is placed on a fluorescent envelope The answer to the problem was to use
phosphorescent inks and to switch off the lamp as the envelope passes by; the stamp
continues to glow with phosphorescence, while the envelope ceases to glow because it
is fluorescent. The machine "reads" the stamp's afterglow and can then do its task.
Some machines can "read" several colors of phosphorescence, so that airmail stamps
can be coded one color and regular postage another.

This is all a digression, however, because I have not located a single use of
phosphorescent ink on a Soviet stamp, so you need only the cheaper lamp to examine
and enjoy your Soviet material.

The first fluorescent ink used on Soviet stamps was on Scott No. 2807, issued on 1
November 1963. This stamp was issued in two distinct versions: Scott No. 2806 which
was printed with ordinary ink (orange in color) and Scott No. 2807 which had the
figures "1917" and the hull of the cruiser "Aurora" printed in bright rose-red
fluorescent ink. Under an ultra-violet lamp, the figures "1917" and the ship stand
out in a surprising and beautiful fashion. At first, I was tempted to classify Scott
No. 2267, Scott No. 2533 and Scott No. 2534 as fluorescent, but they definitely are
not when compared with Scott No. 2807 and the others listed in the table below.

The second use of fluorescent ink was on the 6-kopek stamp issued on 20 December
1963 for the Soviet New Year. The rose-red star and the New Year's Greeting are
printed in fluorescent ink. The 4-kopek of the same issue utilized regular non-
fluorescent ink.

The third use of fluorescent ink was for the 12 April 1964 issue to publicize the
Soviet "Way to the Stars". The moon on the 10-kopek value, depicting scientist F. A.
Tsander, is fluorescent in both perforated and imperforate stamps (Scott No. 2885).
The same is true for the 10-kopek of K. E. Tsiolkovskii (Scott No. 2886), but there
is a variant of this stamp which does not use fluorescent ink; this is the so-called
"magenta moon" (Minkus No. 3043a).

The following is a tabulation of Soviet stamps that utilized fluorescent in their
printing:


SPECIAL NOTICE
By now, all members will have received the membership list sent out with Journal
No. 83. In response to requests, a new category is hereby created, namely "U" for
UKRAINE. Members are kindly asked to send any necessary changes or corrections for
their collecting codes to our Secretary, Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway,
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225, U.S.A., for inclusion in future listings.



-34-







TABLE OF STAMPS OF THE USSR USING FLUORESCENT INK IN THEIR DESIGN

Period 1 Nov. 1963 to 23 Jan. 1968
Type of Issue date
S Scott No. Subject Fluorescent Areas Printing and Value

2807 46th. Anniv. Figures "1917" Photo 1 Nov. 1963
Oct. Revolution and ship hull (4-kopek)

2822 New Year Star and Photo and 20 Dec.1963
Greeting Embossed (6-kopek)

2885 Space Scientist Moon Photo 12 Apr.1964
F. A. Tsander (10-kopek)

2886 Space Scientist Moon Photo 12 Apr.1964
K.E.Tsiolkovskii (10-kopek)

2933 Centenary of 1st Worker and Photo 27 Aug.1964
International label (4-kopek)

2969 New Year Star Photo and 30 Nov.1964
Engraved (4-kopek)

3019-21 Space Map of USSR Photo 12 Apr.1965
(4,12 & 16k)

3056 Chemistry Globe and Photo 15 Jun.1965
Congress figures "4K" (4-kopek)

3192 Space Red arrowheads Typo 8 Apr. 1966
(Luna-10) (10-kopek)

3193-94 Space Day Red arrowheads Typo 12 Apr.1966
(10 & 12 k.)

3288 Space Launch pad Photo 29 Dec.1966
small satellite (6-kopek)
& words "MOLNIYA-I"

3289 Space Arrowhead and Photo 29 Dec.1966
words "LUNA-II" (6-kopek)

3405 New Year Figures "4K", Photo 14 Dec.1967
date & greeting (4-kopek)

3433 Horse- Horse & rider Photo 23 Jan.1968
breeding (4-kopek)


This completes the listing for the period studied, from the first fluorescent issue
on 1 December 1963 to 23 January 1968 (the last date covered in this study). While
issues averaged three per year, in 1966 there were five and in 1967 there was only
one. The majority (14 of 17) were photogravure stamps, three were typographed stamps
and none were printed by lithography.

The most common reason for issue was to celebrate events in Space (8 of 17), two were
issued as New Year stamps, two had political themes and two scientific (one for a
chemical congress and one to recognize horse-breeding).

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It appears therefore that there are no set reasons to utilize fluorescent inks and
it is strange that sometimes one item of a set of two (refer to Scott No. 2822), or
one of a set of five (Scott No. 3433) is chosen. Even stranger is the way a stamp can
be issued both with (Scott No. 2807) and without (Scott No. 2806) fluorescent ink.
The stamps are generally of 4-kopek value, but three are of 6-kopek value, four are
10-kopek, two are 12-kopek and one 16-kopek. Your author can find no rhyme or reason
in the choice of ink and perhaps someone else can make a suggestion. The strangest
point of all is when one wonders why the stamps were printed in fluorescent inks.
Certainly not to assist postal sorting, for the reasons stated above, because many
other stamps (including virtually all definitive) are issued without fluorescent
inks and because most have too small a fluorescent area to be readily detectable
(e.g. the moon on Scott Nos. 2885 & 2886). The reason is not one of appearance,
because the true beauty of the stamp is visible only in ultra-violet light. I leave
this enigma to others.

One other result of this study was the discovery that many Soviet stamps are issued
impregnated with some chemical that makes the paper itself fluorescent. Looking
through my collection with an ultra-violet light, I find the following Scott numbers
which fluoresce brightly: 2903, 2903A, 2903B, 2904, 3024, 3043, 3044, 3045, 3046,
3053, 3054, 3063, 3064, 3066, 3070, 3083, 3094, 3113, 3139, 3149, 3154, 3155, 3241,
3251, 3260, 3295, 3296, 3297, 3298, 3333A, 3342 to 3353, 3354 to 3357, 3414, 3578,
3579 and 3605. These were all mint, uncirculated stamps so they have not been
immersed in any benzine or petroleum fluids which can make some papers fluorescent.

This whole subject of fluorescent paper should not be treated too seriously, because
several things can make paper fluorescent and it would perhaps be unwise to treat
them as true varieties. I do note, however, that at least one stamp (Scott No. 3083)
appears mint on fluorescent and non-fluorescent paper.

The first stamps (in my collection) with fluorescent paper were some, but not all,
of the "Liberation" set of 1965. Thereafter, I find 49 stamps on fluorescent paper
over the next five year (800 stamps). This indicates that about 6% of the stamps
issued are on fluorescent paper.

Again there seems to be no definite pattern. The stamps break down as follows:-

34 offset
8 photogravure and engraved
5 photogravure
2 engraved
49

By subject (a matter of opinion, of course), we find:-

34 political
7 space
4 scientific
4 literary
49

There seems to be no rule regarding value, but one or two other points are of interest.
Three of the forty-nine are on paper that emits a bright yellow fluorescence; these are
Scott Nos. 3260, 3278 and 3279. All the rest emit blue-white light. Scott No. 3260 also
exists non-fluorescent.

As stated above, this matter of fluorescent paper should not be taken as too I
significant for the reasons stated. The fluorescent inks are by far the more definite
items and can be regarded as genuine varieties. It is hoped that no great price

-36-








differences ever arise because the simplest of chemical processes can be devised to
treat the entire stamp, or areas of the stamp, to achieve fluorescence.

Data on other collections, or opinions as to reasons for the use of fluorescent ink
and paper will be welcome, preferably as "Notes from Collectors", addressed to the
Journal Editor.




"VILLAGE NATIONAL COMMITTEE" MARKINGS OF THE CARPATHO-UKRAINE

by Lauson H. Stone

I.

This historic and most beautiful Ukrainian province was cleared of its German and
Hungarian occupiers by the armies of the 4th. Ukrainian Front in October 1944. The
town of Khust (XYCT Chust Huszt) was freed on the 24th., Mukachevo on the 26th.
and the capital of Uzhgorod on 28 Oct. 1944.

Immediately thereafter, Ukrainian National Committees were set up in all villages
throughout the country for administrative purposes. Their organizational work was
so thorough that they were able to hold their First Congress of National Committees
at the "Peremoha" (Victory) Theatre in Mukachevo, beginning on 26 Nov. 1944, with
663 delegates from all parts of the territory. The two main decisions taken at this
Congress were as follows:-

(a) A Central Administration to be set at the capital of Uzhgorod to govern the
country. This administration was to be known as the NRZU (Hapobia Pada
32K', r a C.o ypa'Zu or National Council of Transcarpatho-Ukraine).

(b) The NRZU to be authorized to work for the unification of the province with the
rest of the Ukraine (the territory was then legally part of the Czechoslovak
Republic).

The NRZU was composed of 17 members, headed by I. I. Turyanytsya. On 27 November,
it elected a Presidium and assigned 11 posts for departments in the Administration.
See Figs. i & 2 for the official cachets of the Departments of Education (size:
82 x 11 mm.) and Justice (size: 84 x 14 mm.) in the NRZU. These cachets were applied
in violet.


HAWO A PAW ASAKAnATCbMOJ YvKPA 1 HAPOAfA PAJA 3AKAPTIATCbKOT YKPAJl
1OM11n OCWTN L BI1Aacman u

Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

On 5 December 1944, the NRZU issued a decree, cancelling Czechoslovak and Hungarian
claims on the Carpatho-Ukraine. On 29 June 1945, a treaty was signed in Moscow
between Czechoslovakia and the USSR for unification of the province with the
Ukrainian SSR. The treaty was ratified by Czechoslovakia on 22 November 1945 and by
the USSR five days later. On 22 January 1946, the country was officially designated
as the Transcarpathian Province of the Ukrainian SSR, with the capital at Uzhgorod.

The Village National Committees continued to operate well into 1946 and were then
transformed into "Village Councils" (C.Abpadu), to conform to the structure in the
rest of the Ukraine. It can be seen from the foregoing that these Village National


-37-







Committees played a very important role in unifying the country and a collection
formed of their official cachets is of great historic interest.

II.

All but one of the covers in the writer's / ,'/
possession are from villages in the /j yHOU -IUI
Mukachevo (MywM-EBE) district and all are 0K Bep' BsUH/n
addressed to the Regional Court there. 9 3b6MUe G 06ao0
See Fig. 3 for a Ukrainian map of the ...o... s/ .e.oaeu /
district. Although this mail was official 7 oxoe / noe
in character, postage was charged at the 6lB ll Y we
rate of 60 kop. (60 filler) for the first H/ 38Hees P UGn ) pecnrIee s
20 grammes (2/3 oz.). Normally, the mail // q epeeNeme MYIEBE cmP'u E w/
was not censored, except in two cases eHoe aeudxUoee Iqoon 10
noted hereunder, when a boxed two-line 0 BOA./y H KO PuaOe ...C lsfae*
cachet was placed on the backs, reading cmpouw o. ocTo..
in Ukrainian "3aKapnamctwa Ykpa'A-a / .ropoao H.o op'eou3, "" /G
npo6aueHo zensypoyo" (Transcarpatho- k7 imuPse I'DpuCuH 3a .f
Ukraine / examined by the censorship) and / / opo exa.
with pencilled number of the censor. The Paao0oe C GPOOe
postage applied was from the local issues
lithographed in Uzhgorod in 1945. The
markings are as follows:- Fig. 3.

(a) BARKASOVO (EAPIACOBE see Fig. 4).

Now included in the village of Rivne (PIBHE), 16 miles WSW of Mukachevo. The
letter was sent through the Barkasovo post office on 26 August 1945.

CIIbCbLK HAPOHHMI KROMf[ET L AKAUCO Fig. 4.

(b) KOL'CHINO (IfPJJb2HE see Fig. 5).

The village is 6 miles NNE of Mukachevo and the letter was sent on 7 Sept.
1945 through the post office at PIDHORYANY in the adjoining Irshava district.

C JbtWK;m HAPOj1ril KOMirET KOJIHk 8 Fig. 5.

(c) KOPYNOVTSI (0f-7IB-LB see Fig. 6). ---

Situated 15 miles NW of Mukachevo. Probably /f \
the most interesting of these covers, as it
shows a circular cachet. This is a very late I no
usage on a registered cover, sent through
Mukachevo on 3 Aug. 1946 with Soviet postage A
of 1 krb. 30 k. to the Ministry of Labor
Welfare & Social Security in Prague,
Czechoslovakia. Fig. 6.

(d) KUZ'MYNE (IW/3l-IHE see Fig. 7).

This place is 12 miles NW of Mukachevo. Note the unusual manuscript indication,
reading "Village National Committee at Kuz'myne". Mailed through the neighboring
post office at KAL'NIK on 10 Aug. 1945 and censored by censor "018".

-.tL. *A,.z 'KUr DF ig. 7.



-38-







(e) NOVE DAVYDKOVE (HOBE Z4BPkVEBE see Fig. 8).

This village is 5 miles west of Mukachevo and the letter was mailed on 29 Aug.
1945 at PALANOK, on the outskirts of Mukachevo. Note the unusual two-line
cachet and erroneous spelling of the first word: "CatcKuzV", instead of
"CVAbctbKUU".
CLcaCK. H HapoaHuIM KOMiTeT
a Heoix flawfmxoei Fig. 8.
(f) RAKOSHYN (PAHDLIH see Fig. 9).

Rakoshyn is an important village 6 miles WNW of Mukachevo. Unfortunately, the
postmaster there did not date his canceller in 1945, so the exact period of
usage for the two covers in the writer's collection cannot be fixed.

CIJbCbKHK HAPO.HMA ROMITET PAKOWUH- Fig. 9.

(g) RUS'KE (PYCLbE see Fig. 10).

This village has formed part of Rakoshyn since 1960. The cover was sent through
the RAKOSHYN post office some time in 1945 and, once again, the exact date of
usage is unknown.

CULbr!Kf4 HAPODit4 KHOMITET PY-CbIK Fig. 10.

(h) VELYKYJ RAKOVETS' (BEJJMFl, PAEOBELb see Fig. 11).

Situated in the adjoining Irshava district. Note the interesting manuscript
endorsement : "C. H. K. Ben. PaKoeezbt". Mailed through the local post office
on 8 Sept. 1945.

P. X*. 46t. 44dq Fig. 11.

(i) ZHNYATYNO (QAHPTW1E see Fig. 12).

Located 11 miles SW of Mukachevo. Sent on 29 Aug. 1945 through the neighboring
post office at STRABYCHOVO (CTPAEWBfBE) and examined by Censor No. 19.

CUlbCbKHFI HAPOAHIH kOMITET )KH5ITHII Fig. 12.
The author would be pleased to receive, through the Editorial Board, details of
similar cachets from other villages in the Carpatho-Ukraine during this interesting
transition period.



Here and there....

An important field in our area that we have not yet covered is that of INTERNATIONAL
REPLY COUPONS. The possibilities are immense: Russian Empire, Offices Abroad, all the
Ukrainian areas,States and Civil War revalidations, the Baltic Republics in the pre-
Soviet period and the many changes in international rates which occurred in the USSR.

Who has any ? Many types are probably of great rarity. Members are urged to send
details of their holdings to the Editor so that a classification may be made of the
known types.




-39-








BAPHAHT COBETCtM? MAPI44 G 282a /C7omnm/ A SOVIET STAMP VARIETY ON SCOTT No.282a.

M. H. anuuzanun by M. I. Galichanin.

Mapna eunycKa 1925 eoda, 7 Kon., Stamp of the 1925 issue,
weKo.adOana, syd4u 12, 6es eofinoao 7 kop. chocolate, perf. 12,
3Haaca, munopao6cKaL necamb, cnuwe unwatermarked, typographed,
N 1. PoAioea wpacHoapMeza. Electro No. 1. Head of a
Red Army man.
npu newamanuu amux Mapo, Kaxoi-mo 1
dOauHHn msne.awug npeOMem 6paz a In printing these stamps,
yponen Ha ne=amnoe aume u pas6un something long and heavy was
/CMaW/ eeo a aeyx Mecmnax. dropped on the printing
IoepeoedHHmu oa3sanauc OSee electro and hit (crumpled)
yeAoeue MapKu nocineoHeeo eepmuKanJooao it in two places. The two
pOa. Bepxhy yez.oeas MapKa uweem corner stamps in the last
6o0noboe Kpacouhe nwmno Ha wneae vertical row were struck.
"pa36umWa uzIem.M" /Kpacohte unpuxu The upper corner stamp has
cnnLmauct aMecme/. HuixHR yenoea R MapMa Puc. M 1 Fig. a large colored spot on the
umeem noepexdenue 6yxe e ca.oee "non." helmet ("dented helmet"; the lines of
/tiacmt) mKAue aCma o6pa3yq 6enwe color are merged together). The lower
nAmna/. CM. puc. YA 1. corner stamp has damage to the letters in
the word "K01n" (part of the cliche is
3mom defeKm npeacmaef.lem 6o0nuyo pedocmb, ruffled, showing white patches). See Fig.l.
max Kan noepexreno d6no monWco xmuwe M 1 u
neuseecmHo Koeda e nauane wuu a Konve This defect is a big rarity as only
neamu. ICpoMe moeo, nKa moalo deenxm Electro No. 1 was damaged and it is
nevamu, 6n saMe2ueH nowmoeozo Adaunucmpazuea unknown when; at the beginning or end of
npu npocare MapoK, ece onu 6duu uswnami u the printing. Moreover, when the printing
yHuumoxeHu. B coeemcKx n Kcmanoeax ama defect was noticed by the Postal Admin-
pasroeudHocmb He yKa3saa u uM neuseecmna. istration upon the sale of the stamps,
Co epeMenea, naameAnucmu cMoesym pasucKamb they were all taken out and destroyed.
necK6.ado cpedu eaueHnux M.lpoK, no uucmuee, This variety is not noted in the Soviet
KoHeuno, 6ydym o'ent peOdx& u. catalogs and is unknown to them. With
time, philatelists will be able to find
KaK mom deqem 6v.n o6hapxen ? Ha emopog a few examples among used stamps but, of
dehb nocmynnenu a npodccy MapoK amoso course, mint copies will be very rare.
eunycKa eo BnadueocmoKe, salO2R na nomy, .
youden Kpynneiweeo Ounamenucma eopooa, Mp-a How was this defect discovered ? Going to
JlaHeenbmoe, KomopOMy uuuoeHuxK ebpesal the post office on the second day the
ye.oeue MapoK u3 z4e4nx a.ucmoe. Y3nae a uae stamps of this issue went on sale in
deno, a nodowea K c.aedyiaO4ey OKouwy u Vladivostok, I saw the biggest collector
nonpocuw uunoenuKa ebpesamb yenovee Mapcu in the city, Mr. Langelit'e, for whom the
dnR MeHen. Ha Moe necuacmve, npoxoduezmu clerk was tearing out the corner stamps
MuMO nMoUiHUK naanubno a notwrm, o6pamun from the full sheets. Realizing what was
eHWuanue, wmo U3 Ho06aX Aucmoe aipesaioci going on, I went to the next window and
mo.atb o dee MapKu. Y3nae a Ue, odeno, on asked the clerk to pull out for me the
omo6pa. y MHen ace MapKu, a uunHoeHuKa corner stamps. Unfortunately for me, the
npuwasan mupesamb ece MapKu c deemami.u u Assistant Postmaster, who was passing by,
npunecmu K hemy a0. yHumotxehnu man KaK noticed that only two stamps were being
no HoeoMy npuKasy us I[eHmpa ece MapKu c taken out of the new sheets. Grasping the
Kaumu A.u6o defemnaMu npucasano yHuumoramb! situation, he took away the stamps from me
4Mp. JaHnee.umbe, cmo.Riewu y cocedneeo ona, and ordered the clerks to take out all the
cpasy coo6pa3U6 a e 6 deno, 6pocun Kpynyo stamps with defects and bring them to him
6anKHomy uHoeniUKy u cxasae %mo sa paieai for destruction since, in accordance with
sazdem nocne, nocneuunl ucue3Hymb. Vepes a new directive from the Central Author- S
necXoAbKo o Onei, Koeoa ucmopuq 3a6macb, OH ities, all stamps with any kind of defects
naKnewun ecKoAtxO amux MapoK Ha xoheepmm u were ordered to be destroyed
noeacu.n a noume.
-40-







Mr. Langelit'e, who was standing at the neighboring window, immediately realized what
had happened, threw a high-value banknote to the clerk and, saying that he would come
Back later for the change, hurridly disappeared. A few days later, when the incident
was forgotten, he placed some of these stamps on envelopes and had them postmarked at
the post office.
EDITORIAL COIMENT: A small mint supply of the upper corner stamp, with the "dented
helmet" variety and associated electro number "1" in the sheet margin had previously
been found in New York City. With the article from Mr. Galichanin printed above, we
now know the circumstances surrounding the issue and discovery of these interesting
varieties and, in our particular case,it is a pity that only the upper stamps were
saved. Mr. Galichanin also tells us that he recently saw a pair of these varieties
sold for $170.00.
He is also right in saying that there was an order to take out
defective stamps from the sheets and destroy them. A good
example of this is also known on the 10-kop. commemorative
issued on 1 July 1930 for the All-Union Educational Exhibition
held at Leningrad from 1 July to 15 August (Scott No. 435, 10
Gibbons No. 573). The stamp in the upper right corner, i.e. kon
the 10th. stamp on the sheet, had an interesting variety under
the "T" of "1OYTA", in which the figure "15" of the date "15 Fig. 2.
ABF." was badly damaged and showed a white circular flaw (see Fig. 2). It is depicted
in the 1933 Soviet Catalog under No. 506 I and, once again, it is much rarer than
would normally be the case as it was taken out of the sheets and destroyed. The
variety was also featured for several years by Stanley Gibbons Ltd. of London,
England as their Illustration No. 157 for the normal stamp in their Part II Catalog!





"* ZEPPELIN mail

DO-X mail

"0 CATAPULT mail

rare AIRMAIL covers :
Z-T,2--. '

ALL WORLD (a very scarce DO-X card of our stock)

Including Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, for sale

Please send detailed want-lists

Alberto SAVINI RIMINI / Italy, as. Post. 210
(ROSSICA 821, AAMS 5839, ASDA MEMBER)


-41-







THE STAMP COMVEMORATES (4)

by Dr. G. Wember

(translated from the magazine "Schweizer Briefmarken-Zeitung", organ of the
Federation of Swiss Philatelic Societies, issue No. 3 for March 1971, by kind
permission of the publishers).

Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev was born in Russia on 9 November 1818 as the second son of
a colonel, on the family estate at Spasskoe near Orel. Coming from an old noble
family, he learned on his mother's estate about the life of the leading social
stratum, namely that of the landed proprietor and with it, he came to know at first
hand the real holder of power in his social and political development. Thus, the
young Turgenev not only became acquainted at an early age with the predominant
advantages of the Russian gentry and rich landed proprietor, as well as with all
the habits of an opulent life, but it turned out to be important for him in his
later activities. It also pointed the way to all the sources of prejudice, which soon
showed him that in the maintenance of existence, ruling the nation in such a way
contained already the origin and seeds of discontent, leading to impending and
unexpected divisions. The youthful Turgenev saw as one of the greatest social
injustices the system of serfdom still prevalent at that time in Russia.

Apart from the autocratic system of government, which was in no position to remedy
the corruption and bribery, with the deplorable conditions resulting therefrom,
serfdom and its rectification remained for Turgenev the most essential cause which
one could demand for mankind and its freedom, with the maintenance of man's
personality and his individuality. This system of bondage trampled underfoot the
rights of the individual, with abuse and brutal exploitation, so that matters could
not have been worse and thus millions of Russian people had to suffer in the mass
such as none other. That Turgenev had come around quite early to this viewpoint may
be gleaned from a letter dated 16 June 1874 to S. A. Vengerov, from which we quote:

"I was then 16 years old. Already there dwelt in me a hatred against serfdom. It was,
among other things, also the original reason why I have never sullied my hands with
a single blow, although I grew up witnessing abuse and torment..... However, when my
mother died in 1850, I immediately gave the domestic servants their freedom. For
those peasants who wanted it, I placed them on o6pox (rental) and I have been in all
manner of ways striving for general liberation. On the whole, I let one third go free
and I did not take a single kopek for landed property from the main estate and that
naturally comes to a large sum.........."

The love of Nature had already in his youth exercised great influence on Turgenev's
development. He lost his father at sixteen. He was educated at home by German and
French tutors, so that he could devote himself to philological studies at the
University of St. Petersburg. He completed his studies in 1836. His interest in
Literature and Philosophy, which had manifested itself quite early, was widely
awakened and nourished there. He made his first journey abroad in 1838, leading him
to Germany for studies at Berlin University where he, among other things, read
History under Professor Ranke. His leaning to Goethe also took hold here to the
fullest limit, to the extent that he later wrote a short novel entitled "Faust".

He came back to Russia in 1841 and took his examinations there for the Master's
Degree in Philosophy. As he had been denied a professorial chair, Turgenev spent his
time completely in the art of poetry and the literary profession. His early poems
and first narratives in verse, such as "A Conversation" and "A Landowner" originate
from this period and especially his famous stories, which appeared in 1852 under the
title of "A Sportsman's Sketches".

Turgenev became ill with tuberculosis and went back to Germany in 1847, so as to

-42-








seek a cure at the German spas. His continuing steps for the suppression of serfdom
forced him more and more to live abroad so that he could promote there his opinions
against the forces of reaction in a louder and more lasting manner. The publication
of "A Sportsman's Sketches" in 1852 made the Government aware of Turgenev. On top of
that, after the death of Gogol', he received a notice of recall, was taken into
custody on the orders of the Tsar and sent to Spasskoe, where he had to live under
police observation.

He was later pardoned and again received permission to travel abroad. Turgenev
stayed mainly in Germany and France until his death. Among the salient points of his
stay in Germany and France, the friendship that linked Turgenev for many years with
the singer Pauline Viardot-Garcia should not be passed over. With reference to Baden-
Baden, which was then a focal point for European society and a mediator between East
and West, Turgenev has captured and sketched this period and its personalities in his
novel "Smoke"; he was then living in direct proximity of the artiste. When she later
went off to Paris, he followed her and was taken into her house as a friend until his
death. Pauline Viardot, who had retired from the stage in the meantime and was
practising her profession as a teacher of singing, bestowed her personal and devoted
care on Turgenev until his death.

In the interim, he kept on providing for his stay abroad by attending to his estates
during a short visit. These were his most fruitful and productive years. In 1880, he
gave a speech on the occasion of the inauguration of a monument to Pushkin in Moscow.
Coming back again to France, his illness had meanwhile advanced so far that Turgenev
felt the end was near. He writes thus in 1882 to his friend Polonskii: "If you go to
Spasskoe, greet for me my house, my gardens, my young oak trees, greet for me my
native land, which I will probably never see again..... !". Turgenev passed away on
3 September 1883 after a bitter struggle with death at Bougival near Paris. His
remains were transferred to Russia the same year and interred at the Volkovo
Cemetery in St. Petersburg.

In evaluating the work of Turgenev, the objection is often raised that the real
Russian mood and essence have become foreign to him in his portrayals, as a result
of his having been absent for more than 30 years and he had thus more or less come
strongly under the sway of Western Europe. No less a person than Dostoevskii has
commented as follows about this trait of Turgenev's, as reported by Mrs Anna
Dostoevskaya in her Memoirs: "Dostoevskii saw in Turgenev a distinguished talent.
He regretted only that Turgenev came to understand Russia and the Russian people
less and less because of his long stay abroad". This reproach cannot delineate the
work of Turgenev to its fullest extent. Taking into consideration that the content
of his stories is set in the Russia of the 1850s and 1860s, then the Russian people,
its customs, its mood and the Russian landscape are clearly brought to life, as only
Turgenev could have represented them. From the point of view of his style, Turgenev
is especially noteworthy in his handling of the short novel and the continual
exactness of his language. Turgenev leaves the proof of this to any reader who can
read his works, especially in the original Russian. As he specifically says in the
epilogue to one of his masterpieces, the novel "Fathers and Sons" (1862):

"Protect our speech, our majestic Russian language, that treasure, that legacy,
that has been bequeathed to us by our ancestors and through which Pushkin shines so
brightly Go about respectfully with this mighty tool; in experienced hands, it
could work wonders To those who have no taste for 'philosophical subtleties' and
'poetical niceties', to the practical people, in whose eyes the language is no more
than a medium for the expression of thoughts, nothing more than an ordinary
instrument, to those I say: pay attention at least to the laws of mechanics, draw
out from each thing the greatest possible meaning ".

This injunction was followed by no one better and more clearly than by Turgenev
himself. It is not for nothing that he has been regarded not only as the successor

-43-






of Pushkin but also as the pure representative of a genuine classical style.

Turgenev began his poetic career with verses, but his lyric poetry was labored,
although it initially caused a sensation and admiration. He himself commented about
the worth of his early verses as follows in a letter: "I felt a decided, almost
physical antipathy against my poetry and I not only do not possess a single copy of
the same, but I would also give much to see that it did not exist at all" (written in
1874). His later dramas and comedies also do not come through clearly and they show
themselves to be too weak in performance. He then passed on to prose and found that
his real strength lay, in the short novel, such that when his entire output is
evaluated, Turgenev can be regarded as not only one of the leading writers of Russia
but also of Europe. He can be thought as somewhat the equal of the German Theodor
Storm or the Swiss Gottfried Keller. His wonderfully written short novel "First Love"
should be read at least once.

One of the questions always raised in literary circles is that of the political
orientation of the characters delineated by Turgenev in his works and that of him
himself. As to Turgenev's world, he seems to be saying that, in the Russian view,
much has to be changed, so that one sees in him under the cover of the straightforward
advocate a genuine and upright humanism. Today, we also see him as a fighter of the
first rank, who has gone calmly on his way despite personal rebuffs or even
persecution.

This interpretation of him was also expressed during the celebrations on the occasion
of the 150th. anniversary of his birth in 1968. Turgenev is regarded in present-day
Russia as one of its most famous representatives. The impact of these celebrations
has gone far beyond their basic literary content. The estate at Spasskoe, which was
always a refuge for Turgenev during his stays in Russia, has been restored again to
the state it was during the poet's lifetime. It had been utterly razed in World War
II, in common with many other things. The only item found again was the chessboard
with which Turgenev played games with Tolstoi. The restored library now numbers more
than 5000 volumes. The pleasure grounds of the estate have also been laid out again
in their original form. A monument to Turgenev was unveiled at Orel in November of
the same year, showing the poet seated in larger then natural size and looking at
his native town of Orel.

STAMP ILLUSTRATION: I. S. Turgenev. USSR. 1943.
Commemorative issue for the
125th. anniversary of the
birth of the poet.
Value: 30 kop. dark green
Designer: G. Echeistov.
Photogravure.
Line-perforated 12 1/2.



EDITORIAL COMMENT: It was because of cultured people such as I. S. Turgenev that
Russians in general soon gained the reputation abroad of being expert linguists. Like
most Russians, he was a very patriotic man, as the following excerpt from "The
Russian Language", his poetic work in prose form, shows:
"Bo nOH cOMHneHua, 60 OHU mReocmHNr "In days of doubts, in days of painful
pa3dyMuA o cydb6ax 0oea podunHz, mm reflections on the fate of my land of birth,
oduH AHe noddeplaa u onopa, o senuKuzT, you alone were my support and prop, o great,
MoeyvuU, npaedue6u u ceo6onoHbz pyccKUh powerful, truthful and free Russian tongue.
R3K. He 6ydv me6A caK He enacmb e Were it not for you, how would one not fall
omtw2aRue, npu eu6e eceeo wno coeepwaemci into despair, in the face of everything
doMa ? Ho Heita3 eepumn, wno6u maaKQo going on at home ? But it is impossible to
3aiK He 6mA OaH eeAwKO.y Hapody". believe such a language was not given to a
great people".

-44-








The main six-word phrase from the above quotation is reproduced on the illustrated
stamp, in the panel above the indication of value. It shows an interesting and
understandable mistake, which was never corrected: the first word in the second line
is given as "CMPABEMEfFl" (upright), instead of "HPA I_-/'-" (truthful).
r^ *********


FORGED POSTAL CANCELLATIONS OF THE RUSSIAN SEVEN- AND FOUR-COLOR STAMPS OF CREATE

by William R. Liberman, LL. M.
Vice-President, Hellenic Philatelic Society of America

(reprinted from the "HPSA NEWS BULLETIN", Vol. 11, Nos. 1-2, by kind permission of
the author and the publishers, the Hellenic Philatelic Society of America).

INTRODUCTION:

The acquisition of a genuine stamp of some degree of scarcity, mint and cancelled,
is all too often fraught with financial peril. Many stamp dealers are honest and
knowledgeable, or try to be about the stamps they sell. Other stamp dealers are
honest, but not nearly knowledgeable enough in too many areas of their business.
Some few dealers are either utterly dishonest or simply not interested in getting
sufficient knowledge to justify the faith and continued support of their collecting
customers. This is a problem which is general, applying to the philately of all
nations. Due to the unremitting efforts of individual collectors and/or specialist
societies, collectors have long had and are continuously being given access to the
means of distinguishing for themselves the fake from the genuine, thereby to protect
their collections against the depredations of dishonest dealers. There is a great
and constantly growing body of literature available to the collector in most areas
of philately, which provides information needed to weed out fakes. The study of such
literature and care in buying only from reputable dealers will save collectors much
in money and even more in aggravation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND PURPOSE:

Brig. H. L. Lewis, Ret'd of England, has rendered collectors signal service in
identifying forgeries of the Russian Crete stamps identified by Scott as Nos. 14-46
(see his work: "Crete, Its Postal History and Stamps", 1963, pp.32, 71), supplementing
and enlarging on the earlier published work of Chas. S. Thompson (see his article:
"The Counterfeits of the First Six Issues of Crete"; American Philatelic Congress
Book, November 1942, pp.17-19). No study is known in depth, however, which provides
means to identify forged postal cancels and the forged controls on these stamps. It
is, therefore, the purpose of this study to provide information to collectors on
these points, whereby the genuine can be identified as against the many types of
forgeries on the market. Obviously, since the prices of all but three of these stamps
(the Black Russians: Scott 32-34) are relatively low, it is financially impractical to
submit each copy for expert appraisal prior to purchase. The collector must become his
own expert, at least to some extent and it is hoped that this study will make readers
successful experts on these cancels and controls.

Messrs J. U. Schmitt and Ginther Wenkums, of Munich and Disseldorf, West Germany
respectively, have been extremely helpful in the collection of material on the subject
of this study. Their material has been supplemented by that of many other members of
the HPSA; their conclusions have been confirmed and expanded.

*******

At about the turn of the century, stamps which had passed through the mails and
which had distinguishing cancels were much more in demand than were mint, unused
-45-








stamps. The rationale of the collector then was that the bits of paper were not
really stamps unless and until they had been postally used. Thus, a postal cancel
became a brute necessity for dealers to be able to sell their wares. There had been
stolen by a Russian soldier, one Aleksandr Sokhatin, a considerable quantity of
stamps of the seven-color series, Scott Nos. 14-34 (see the article by Nicolas
Zervoyannis: "Les Timbres-Poste Cr6tois" in the magazine "Philoteleia" of Athens,
issue No. 419 for Jan.-Feb. 1970, pp.22-23). These, as was to be expected, soon came
intp the hands of stamp dealers. Such stamps had never reached the post office
counters and thus lacked the validating government control called for by the
covering decree. In order to make these pieces of paper saleable, they had to be
provided with control endorsements. Also, after the closing of the Russian Offices
on Crete, the Cretan authorities found a large quantity of stamps of the four-color
series, Scott Nos. 35-46 and remaindered them long after they had become useless for
postal purposes. These too lacked the validating government control. A number of
forgers thereupon obligingly created and applied controls to the illicit and
remaindered items (see Nicolas Zervoyannis, op. cit.: "Philoteleia", issue No. 423
for Sep.-Oct. 1970, p.175). More than ten different forgeries of the control have
been identified to date. The control, however, was not enough. The pieces had to have
been postally cancelled and so forgeries and counterfeits of postal cancels were
obligingly provided. To date, at least five different types of fake cancels have been
identified; there may well be more.

As noted above, a stamp of the seven- and four-color series which does not bear the
genuine control is one which either was illicitly produced or remaindered and thus
was never valid for postal purposes. However, such stamps were produced from the
original plates and thus have a somewhat odd status. They are neither proofs nor
reprints. They simply have no place in a collection unless properly identified as
pieces of paper which never were valid for use in franking mail regularly posted.

THE GENUINE POSTAL CANCELS:

Three are known, the earliest being a metal unframed straight-line cachet reading
"PEeYMNON" (Rethymnon) in blue, blue-green or violet. No illustration is needed
since its block-type appearance is obvious.

Two circular hand-applied cancellers were used contemporaneously
in Rethymnon on these Russian Crete stamps, one thereof being
illustrated in the accompanying Fig. 1. On singles and on cover,
this type has been found bearing dates of 2nd, 5th, 8th and llth 9
July 1899; the two earlier dates being seen less often than the
later. The outermost of the three concentric circles is 21.5 mm.
in diameter, the middle circle measures 20 mm. in diameter and
the innermost circle, often faint and fragmented, is 13 mm. in FIG.1
diameter. The date appears in three lines within the innermost
circle; the day of the month on top, the abbreviated name of the month in the
second line and the year numbers "99" at the bottom. The town name "PEBYMNON"
appears in the annular space between the middle and innermost circles, occupying
about 2050 of arc. Apart from the extent of arc occupied by the town name, the
distinguishing characteristics of this cancel are that in the letter "E" (e psilon),
the middle horizontal component is spaced clearly from the vertical line; in the
letter "0" (theta), the cross-bar makes contact with side lines; there are clearly
defined dots in the closed loops of the numbers "99" and the upper portions of all
four letters abbreviating the name of the month are badly damaged and sometimes
barely discernable, even in damaged condition.



-46-







The accompanying Fig. 2 illustrates a second genuine canceller of the
circular type, the physical dimensions of which match those of the O '
cancel of Fig. 1. The outer circle is a bit thicker and more '/A
prominent, however. The dates most often seen with this cancel are
the 1st., 5th. and 10th. July 1899, particularly the latter. The town
name "PE@YMNON" occupies about 1900 of arc, with the vertical lines
of the letter "P" (rho) and the second vertical line of the letter
"N" (nu) being substantially aligned with the bottoms of the letters FIG.2
forming the name of the month. The distinguishing characteristics of
this type are that in the letter "E" (e psilon), the middle
horizontal component touches the back line; there is a circular dot instead of a
cross-bar in the letter "0" (theta); the right hand number "9" alone had a dot
within the loop and the upper portions of the letters forming the name of the month
similarly are badly damaged.

All three cancels were widely used on covers which travelled within and without
Crete, the genuineness of which covers is beyond doubt. Thus, any cancel of the
straight-line type and of the circular type which does not conform to the particulars
of the three described above must be a forgery. From the number of different
forgeries identified, it is clear that a great number of stamps had been stolen by
the soldier Sokhatin and that a great number of stamps had been remaindered by the
Cretan government and all this apart from the fact that several different types of
forgeries of the stamps themselves came into being to plague the collector.

THE FORGED CANCELS:

Three forgeries of the relatively simple straight-line cancel have been identified
so far. In the first, the word "PEeYMNON" is applied in black. The second is
identified by the narrow space between the letters "N" and "0" (nu and o micron) of
"PE6YMNON". The third fake cancel is even less difficult to detect, as the letters
of the town name are Latin and not Greek, thus: "RETHYMNON". This counterfeit has
been seen only on the stamps run off by Sokhatin of the first set of Russian Zone
stamps of Crete. The black cancel is found on forged stamps, but the second cancel
is found not only on forged stamps but also on the stamps stolen by Sokhatin in the
seven-color series, Scott Nos. 14-34.

The first of the counterfeited cancels of the circular type is
illustrated in the accompanying Fig. 3. It only generally simulates
the genuine circular cancel. In the letter "E" (e psilon) of the o0
name "PE9YMNON", the middle horizontal component touches the OJ. z
vertical component; there are no dots within either of the "9"
numbers and the letters "0" (o micron) and "A" (lambda) in the Greek
word for July are almost entirely intact, in contrast to the broken
state of the name of the month in the genuine cancels. The upper G
horizontal leg of the "E" (e psilon) is longer than the lowermost FIG
leg. The outline of the "8" (theta) is somewhat rectangular instead
of circular and the outermost of the three circles is thinner than in the genuine
cancels. The town name "PE6YMNON" occupies about 2200 of arc between the inner and
middle circles and the middle circle is clearly defined, in contrast to the broken
and barely defined circles of the genuine cancels. The date on this forgery is
always 8 July 1899.

There exists a forged cancel, shown in the accompanying Fig. 4,
which is very much like that of Fig. 3 except that the left side of 8 o
the cross-bar of the "0" (theta) of the town name is thickened at 10 .
the point where it meets the side line. Here too there are no dots 99
within the loops of the numbers of the numbers "99" and the upper 7"
horizontal leg of the "E" (e psilon) is longer than the lowermost
leg. There is reported to be still another type of forgery very FG.4

-47-







much like that of Figs. 3 and 4. However, since the
cancels were applied by means of a rubber stamp, the
force or pressure applied could cause the differences
noted between the forgeries of Figs. 3 and 4 and that
of the "another" forgery, wherein the date is entirely
illegible while the circles are reasonably clearlyI 4
defined. It is believed that the minute differences
between the forgeries of Figs. 3 & 4 and the "another" FIG.5
can be discounted and that all three are of the same
forgery.

In Fig. 5, there 'is illustrated a different forged
cancellation, one which is distinguished by the fact 2
that the loop of the "P" (rho) stands off from the
vertical component; by the fact that the "0" (theta) /( I
has no cross-bar, but a dot and by the number "2" of
the day, which differs greatly from the same number"
in the date of the genuine cancel of Fig. 1, enlarged J
in Fig. 6 for ready comparison with the number in
Fig. 5. In this forgery, the outermost circle is very _A.-
heavily pronounced and the intermediate circle is
spaced from it much more than in the genuine (compare
Figs. 5 & 6 on this point as well). FIG.

Another type of forgery of the circular cancel is shown in the
accompanying Fig. 7, always with the date of 10 June 1899. The "6"
(theta) is almost completely squared and the cross-bar is a mere U O
dot. There are only two circles and the town name occupies about \ I TYN.
2220 of arc. This forgery is found on forged stamps and also on
the stolen and remaindered stamps, all with forged control. The
outer circle is 23 mm. in diameter and the inner circle a mere
11.5 mm. This forgery is shown in Stephen & Tchilinghirian: FIG.7
"Stamps of Russian Empire Used Abroad", Part Six, p.552.

Still another forged cancel of the circular type is seen in the D
accompanying Fig. 8. This one has three concentric circles: 22 mm.,
20.5 mm. and 13.3 mm. in diameter, from the outside in. The middle (I OYA)
horizontal leg of the "E" (e psilon) does not touch the vertical 99
line; the cross-bar of the "0" (theta) is a mere dot; there are no
dots within the loops of the numbers "99" and the date is always
1 July 1899. This cancel is found only on forged stamps.
FIG.8
Another cancel has been found on these Russian Crete stamps, but
one which does not belong on them and which could not possibly have
been applied during the short time the stamps were in circulation M
for postal use. In the accompanying Fig. 9, the marking found on a L 27
Russian Crete stamp has a single circle of 22.5 mm. in diameter, (:-
clearly the Type B referred to by Brig. Lewis on pages 134, 135, 4-E
167 Illus. 160a. This mark came into use only after the Russian 1905
post office was closed. It bears the date of 27th. of an illegible
month and the year 1905, beyond question a time when the stamp had
no valid postal potential. The combination "4-E" appears below the FIG.9
name of the illegible month. The point is that this cancel was
used on the Russian Crete stamps to make them more readily salable.




-48-








A further forged cancel is shown in the accompanying Fig. 10; this one IT
with only two circles, of 21.2 and 20.5 mm. in diameter. The date is 8 O
always 8 May 1899 and the cancel is found only on forged stamps. W MAO1Z >

The double-circle cancels should, therefore, present no problem to the
collector and the single-circle cancel with a date of 1900 or
thereafter should similarly signal to the collector the presence of a
postmarker illegally applied or faked. The three-circle cancels might FIG.IO
be dangerous at an offhand look, but for the fact that in no instances
are there dots within either of the numbers "99". That one element is
sufficient to indicate the existence of a forged cancel, of which there are at least
five. If any other forged or counterfeit cancels appear on any of the Russian seven-
and four-color series, a description thereof would be appreciated to the end that a
supplement to this study can be prepared and distributed to the membership.

A report on the forged controls is well under way and that aspect of the Russian
Crete stamps will be covered in the second half of this endeavor.



STAMP OUTLETS IN MDSCOW

by Michael E. Tscheekar

I would like to report to readers of the Rossica Journal where you can buy stamps
and philatelic materials in Moscow, based on my experiences while studying there in
the summer of 1972.

The best and most complete philatelic stocks are at the "Magazin Filateliya" stores.
In Moscow, these are located at:

1. Bol'shaya Kolkhoznaya Ploshchad' 16/18. 9. Ulitsa Detskaya 33.
2. Kotel'nicheskaya Naberezhnaya 1/15. 10. Ulitsa Lyusinovskaya 50/48.
3. Naberezhnaya Shevchenko 1/2. 11. Ulitsa Shosseinaya 24 (Lyublino).
4. Prospekt Leninskii 85. 12. Ulitsa Vtoraya Vladimirskaya 52.
5. Prospekt Leninskii 92, korpus la. 13. Ulitsa Volgina 15 (Bel. Bogorodskoe).
6. Prospekt Mira 103. 14. Ulitsa 1905 goda 1, korpus 2.
7. Prospekt Vernadskogo 59a. 15. Zelenograd, Tsentral'nyi Prospekt,
8. Ulitsa Chekhova 31/22. korpus 360.

In these stores, you can purchase mint and used Soviet stamps of recent years (back
to about 1967 for some issues), first day covers, souvenir sheets and souvenir cards,
packets and small mounted collections of topical stamps such as sport, animals,
flowers etc. You can also purchase recent issues from the socialist countries,
including Cuba and North Vietnam. These stores also sell supplies such as stockbooks,
albums, hinges, tongs and books, such as the hard-cover "Catalog of Postage Stamps of
the USSR" (Moscow, Soyuzpechat', 1970, 656 pp., price 3r. 55k.) and its paperbound
supplements and also reference works such as the excellent "Handbook for the
Expertization of Soviet Postage Stamps" (Moscow, "Svyaz' Publishers, 1972, 88 pp.,
price 36 k.) by Ya. M. Vovin.

There is also an excellent philatelic department at the big, new, conveniently
located "Dom Knigi" (House of the Book), Prospekt Kalinina 26 (this is Moscow's
largest bookstore) and at "Knizhnyi Mir" (Book World), Ulitsa Kirova 16.

The stock in these stores is generally limited to recent issues. All mint stamps are
available at face value. The sales personnel are friendly; some even have a little
knowledge of English and they are happy to wait on foreigners even if their Russian
is not too good. Best of all, in the crowds at these stores you can meet fellow

-49-








collectors who are very eager to talk stamps and trade with you.

Another good source of recent mint issues and a place to meet fellow philatelists is
the Main Post Office, Ulitsa Kirova 26a. Here there is a philatelic section with
several windows, displays of available stamps and changing exhibitions of
interesting items. You can buy full sheets here and also postal stationery, while
there are always collectors around, wanting to talk or exchange stamps.

Of course, you can always purchase current issues at the "Soyuzpechat' kiosks and
counters in the lobbies of hotels, in subway stations and on the street, but the
variety will not be too good. Small albums of commemoratives are available at the
"Bertzka" shops in the major tourist hotels. Prices are in foreign currency and
include a mark-up for the cost of the album.

The July 1972 issue of "Philately of the USSR", page iv, gives information about
another "Filateliya" store that I did not know of:

"The 'Filateliya' Store No. 20 in Moscow accepts on commission and sells stamps of
the USSR and socialist countries. It has a wide selection of Soviet stamps issued in
previous years, stamps from foreign countries, first day covers, philatelic
literature etc. The address of the commission store is Moscow, Belyaevo-Bogorodskoe,
Ulitsa Volgina 23. To get there, take the Metro to the Yugo-Zapadnaya or Kaluzhskaya
stations, then continue on buses Nos. 148, 175, 196 or 226. For information,
telephone 129-89-10".

I hope that readers will share with me information they have about other sources of
philatelic material in the USSR. I tried for a long time to find a "Magazin
Filateliya" in Leningrad, but was unsuccessful; perhaps a reader has the address.
I do know that the Main Post Office in Leningrad has a good philatelic counter and
that there are "Filateliya" stores in Tallinn and Riga (in the same block as the
Riga Hotel), but I do not have their addresses. If readers will send me at 1075
Ellis St., San Francisco, CA 94109 what information they may have, particularly
about cities other than Moscow, I will compile a list.

Even though the selection at these stores is limited to recent issues, they are
excellent places for making friends with philatelists of similar interests.


Here and there....

Our spheres of collecting will be strongly featured at the "POLSKA 73"
International Philatelic Exhibition to be held at PoznaA, Poland under the
patronage of the FIP, from 19 August to 2 September 1973. The philatelic festivities
will coincide with the 500th. anniversary of the birth of the great Polish
astronomer, Mikolaj Kopernik (Copernicus).

We note with pleasure that our English member, Miroslaw A. Bojanowicz, will be a
member of the International Jury, together with the noted American philatelist,
George Turner of Washington, D.C. Other members include Nicolae Tripcovici of
Bucharest, editor-in-chief of the Rumanian monthly "Filatelia", Eng. Anton Antonov
of Sofia, Bulgaria and Prof. K. A. Berngard and V. A. Muratov, both of Moscow.

We wish the organizers of the show all the very best in staging this event and will
give a full report of the results in the next issue of our Journal.




-50-









"LAND OF THE SOVIETS" COVERS

by Ray Hofmann & Richard Weinberg.

Further to the listing of this pioneer flight in the article "Flown Mail from and to
the USSR" (see Rossica Journal No. 82, p. 10), two interesting covers from the U. S.
legs of the journey have now turned up and we describe them hereunder:

(a) An airmail envelope, franked with a copy of the U.S. 5 air stamp Scott C 11,
mailed at Seward, Alaska on 29 Sept. 1929, 9 am and with typewritten notation at
top left reading "LAND OF THE SOVIETS PLANE / Alaska to U.S.". Signed in turn by the
crew as follows: Shestakov (Commander and First Pilot), F. Bolotov (Second Pilot),
D. Fufaev (Mechanic) and A. Sterligov (Navigator). It was backstamped in New York
on 2 Nov. 1929, 2 pm, apparently remaining on the aircraft in flight during all
that time. See Fig. 1 for the details of this cover from the Richard Weinberg
collection.




ma ow -Aw-AN- -AW AWA






* ^~ ~ufl Rqucw I wj^a |





Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

(b) Another flown cover in the form of a U.S. 5 die-stamped envelope, mailed at
Seattle, Wash., 18 Oct. 1929, 11:30 pm. At left there is a notation in typical
Russian handwriting, reading as follows in English, with the signatures in
Russian:

"Land of the SOVIETS"
Commander Shestakov
Co-Pilot Bolotov
Aeronavigator Sterligov
Mechanic D. Fufaev.

See Fig. 2.for this item from the Ray Hofmann collection.

Any covers from this flight are of considerable historical interest and we hope that
members will advise the details of any further items that may turn up.






-51-







THE INTERNATIONAL "N" MARKINGS

by the Editorial Board

The intent of these markings is somewhat obscure and it is hoped that a description
of their applications will bring further information to light.

The time-frame concerned is the early post-WW II period and the cancels were applied
at Odessa (Ukraine) and Tallinn (Estonia), both port cities. Details of the known
material are as follows:

ODESSA:

A double-circle type with diameters of 29 and 19 mm. respectively. Inscribed in Latin
letters: "US (star) SR" at top and "ODESSA POSTAMT" below, with letter "N" in script
form below the date-bridge (see Fig. 1). Observed between 15 June 1946 and 16 Jan.
1948 on the following pieces:

(a) A series of registered postcards with Ir. 10k. postage from t
Chernovtsy (Chernivtsy, Cernauti) in Northern Bukovina to Port
of Spain, Trinidad and struck en route with the Odessa "N" 0
marking, namely: 16 4f

Chernovtsy Odessa "N" Port of Spain
despatch transit arrival Remarks

6 June 1946 15 June 1946 12 Aug. 1946 Fig. 1.
18 June 1946 26 June 1946 2 Sept. 1946 Unusual "Czernowitz"
reg. label (Fig. 2). r
5 Aug. 1946 17 Aug. 1946 4 Oct. 1946 R now

(b) A registered airmail letter with 2r. 30k. postage from L ...--
Odessa 16 Jan. 1948 to Vineland, N.J., USA, 29 Jan. 1948. Fig. 2.

TALLINN:

Type 1: Double-circle marking with diameters of 26 and 16 mm. respectively. Inscribed
in Latin letters "TALLINN" at top and "N" below, with filled-in five-pointed stars at
the sides (Fig. 3). Seen on the following covers, cancelling the franking on mail
handed in at other Estonian localities:



PARNU EEST1I V
S18 PHY 3CTOHCKOHi CCpj
Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.
Despatch Registration Tallinn Destination
point marking "N" date Franking and date
Riidaja --- 27 Aug. 1946 75k. Sutton, England
Kabli Kabli No. 18 12 Sep. 1947 Ir. 30k. New York, N.Y.
(see Fig. 4) 15 Oct. 1947
Kabli Pmrnu No. 812 18 Feb. 1948 Ir. 30k. New York, N.Y.
(see Fig. 5) 9 Mar. 1948
Kabli Parnu No. 813 18 Feb. 1948 Ir. 30k. New York, N.Y.
9 Mar. 1948
Kabli Parnu No. 439 30 Sep. 1948 Ir. 30k. New York, N.Y.
21 Oct. 1948
Kabli Parnu No. 712 21 Oct. 1948 Ir. 30k. New York, N.Y.
17 Nov. 1948
-52-








Type 2: Double-circle marking with diameters of 30 and 18 mm. AKI.
respectively. Inscribed as before, but in larger letters and
with outlined stars at the sides (Fig. 6): 2 0,\

A letter from Kabli, registered at Parnu under No. 980 and V-
with the Ir. 30k. postage cancelled at Tallinn 21 May 1949,
to arrive at New York, N.Y., 12 June 1949.
Fig. 6.
This second type could not have been in use for very long, as the final letter from
this Kabli correspondence, registered at Parnu under No. 245, has the Ir. 20k.
postage cancelled with the bilingual Russo-Estonian postmark, reading "'HPHY 3CT. CCP.
PARNU 26.12.50.19" and subscript "n".

Whatever the reasons for this international procedure, we can see that if Parnu
numbered its registration pieces consecutively on a monthly basis, it must have
handled a comparatively large volume of registered mail. Comments, anyone ?



POSTAL RATES AND FOREIGN EXCHANGE JULY-AUGUST 1923

by J. Lee Shneidman, Ph.D

During the period July-August 1923, the RSFSR was going through a stage of economic
adjustment. The government had abandoned any plans to abolish money and was in the
process of stabilizing the currency. During this period of hardship, people outside
Soviet territory sent money to their relatives within the RSFSR and the Ukrainian
SSR. To control this influx of much needed foreign exchange, the RSFSR established
the Russian Commercial Bank in Moscow. One of the chief agents for the transfer of
funds from the US to the RSFSR was M. L. Blitzstein & Co. of Philadelphia.

Blitzstein agents would give dollars to the Russian bank. The Russian bank would
then send notice of exchange to the bank in the recipient's town. After paying the
money in rubles, the local bank would then send notice of the confirmation of the
exchange back to the Moscow bank.

Cards which left the Moscow bank on July 25 for Bakhmut, Vitebsk and Yelisavetgrad
have 12 rubles for postage: 6 rubles for registration and 6 rubles for sending and
return postage. The bank, however, gave only 90 rubles to the dollar, even though
the official rate of exchange then was 200 rubles to the dollar.

On August 20, the postal authorities established new internal postal rates, based
upon non-existent gold coinage: 4 gold kopeks for a postcard and 6 gold kopeks for
registration. Since neither the money nor the stamps existed in terms of gold, the
authorities established an exchange rate of 1 gold ruble to 130 paper rubles. This
rate was high, since the official rate of exchange was only 115 paper to 1 gold.
According to Soviet sources, the new postal rates in paper rubles were: 5r. (or 5.2
to be exact) for a postcard and 8r. (or 7.8r.) for registration. These rates applied
from August 20 to September 1.

On August 23, a group of cards left Moscow for Kharkov, Boguslav and Gorodsk
(Podolia). On August 29, cards were sent to Polasnaya (Yekaterinburg), Balta
(Podolia), Surazh (Chernigov), Saratov and Lipovets and Monastyrishche, the last
two in Kiev province. Each of these cards has a total of 16 rubles in postage.
Using the official postal guide, the postal rate should have been 18 rubles: 8r. for
registration and 10r. for sending and return postage. The bank, however, paid
postage at the rate of 1 gold ruble to 114.4 paper rubles, which is close to the
official government rate of 1 gold to 115 paper.

-53-








The exchange rate of the dollar is interesting. As of August, foreigners in Moscow
were able to purchase rubles at the rate of 230 to the dollar. But the cards sent
out on August 23 used a rate of 130 rubles and those sent out on August 29 used a
rate of 180 rubles to the dollar.

One further note. The Moscow bank had special cards printed for the exchange of
funds, but five of the six cards sent on August 29 were overprinted prisoner-of-war
cards. See Fig. 1 for such a card sent out on August 23 to Boguslav, Kiev province
and Fig. 2 for a similar card sent out on August 29 to Surazh, Chernigov province.






r E = 'Pour







'* 1. .- ,



Fig. 1. Fig. 2.



SOVIET LATVIAN COVERS 1940-1941

by Kurt Adler

These are all from a Riga correspondence addressed to New York City and mostly sent
by airmail. They are of interest because of the rankings, markings and rates. The
main points may be summarized as follows:
Riga despatch Class of mail Rates Frankings Markings

10 Nov. 1940 Airmail Lt. 1.10 2 x 35s. 1940 Arms Circular "RIGA B / GAISA-
2 x 20s. Sov. Latvia PASTS" (airmail) and str.
line cachet: "North
Atlantic Air Service".

10 Dec. 1940 Airmail Lt. 1.10 10s. 1940 Arms Circular Russo-Latvian
Atlantic Air Service" &
encircled "T" (Fig. 1).
tline cachet: "North
Atlantic Air Service".




encircled "T" (Fig. 1).






oFig. 1.


-54-







Riga despatch Class of mail Rates Frankings Markings

5 Jan. 1941 Airmail Lt. 1.25 25s. 1925 Arms Circular "RIGA E / LATVIJA"
1 Lats 1940 Arms and two-line German cachet:
"Transit fees charged/Post
Office 5, Konigsberg (Pr.)".
See Fig. 2. Also censored by
British "Examiner 791".



//C .



Fig. 2. Fig. 3. y Fig. 4.

8 Jan. 1941 Airmail Lt. 1.25 5s. 1940 Arms Circular "PHTA-RIGA AM",
20s.Sov. Latvia "North Atlantic Air Service"
2 x 50s. and German cachet (Fig. 2).

5 May 1941 Airmail Ir. 50k. 20k. Farm girl Circular "PJTA-RfGA AM" and
30k. Pilot German cachet(Fig. 2).
Ir. Chapaev

5 May 1941 Surface 50k. 50k. Perekop Circular "PPFA-RIGA 1".

6 May 1941 Airmail Ir. 50k. 20k. Farm girl Circular "PhkA-RIGA ",
30k. Pilot German cachet (Fig. 2) and
Ir. Chapaev circular "Ab" cachet (Fig.3).

10 May 1941 Airmail 70s. + 2 x 35k.Sov.Latv. Circular "P4TA-RIGA AM",
80k. 2 x 10k.Factory German cachet (Fig. 2) and
girl & 60k. censored by British
Industrialization "Examiner 4630".

21 May 1941 Airmail 40s. + 5s. Sov. Latvia Circular "PkfA-RIGA )".
Ir. 10k. 35s. "
50k. Farm girl
60k. Industrial.

24 May 1941 Airmail 40s. + 5s. Sov. Latvia Bilingual machine "PkfA E
Ir. 10k. 35s. RIGA" with hours indicated
50k. Harvesting (20-21).
60k. Arms

29 May 1941 Surface 50k. 50k. Harvesting Bilingual machine "PkHA B
RfGA" with hours indicated
(7-8; see Fig. 4).

The airmail arrangements noted above are unusual but understandable in view of the
wartime conditions then. Ray Hofmann drew attention to the North Atlantic Air Service
with his Lithuanian cover in Rossica Journal No. 83, p. 53, but his example is
typewritten, as part of the address. It appears that all the correspondence went out
via Germany, with a special accounting procedure in five cases at Kdnigsberg in East
Prussia. Only two of the covers were censored by the British. We can see that the air
rates rose a total of 40s. in the seven-month period and that the Latvian and Soviet
currencies were at par at the time.

Further comments and additions are invited.

-55-






ESSAYS OF THE "SMALL HEADS" SERIES

by Richard Weinberg.

I would like to bring to the attention of members the details of three unissued
values in this fascinating and classic Soviet regular (definitive) series of the
1920s.











--;,./ L'i -. U ,
.: i- r 9.







Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.

Fig. 1 above shows the unissued 60-kop. value, printed in deep reddish-violet, line-
perforated 11 and tied to an olive-colored card with a two-line red overprint in
Russian, reading "IPOEKT / 17 PlbnR 1926 e." (ESSAY / 17 July 1926). There is also a
circular rubber stamp at lower left, inscribed at top: "HAFLffH. IDWC. 17. u T."
(National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs) and at bottom: "'MPOI4H CCITFWH47"
(Stamp Establishment). This rubber stamp has an outer diameter of 37.5 mm.

Fig. 2 features the unissued 80-kop. value, printed in sepia and with all other
characteristics the same as above. The unissued 90-kop. value shown in Fig. 3 is
printed in dull vermilion, with all other details the same as before.

It would be very interesting to know if other unissued values exist in this series.



Here and there....

Members will have noticed that the printing standards for Soviet stamps keep
improving and some beautifully produced sets have been appearing over the last few
years, particularly those devoted to the reproductions of paintings.

The set of three stamps and a souvenir sheet, issued in January 1973 to commemorate
the 30th. anniversary of the destruction of the Fascist armies at Stalingrad, has
been prepared in a most unusual and complex way. The designs were first engraved on
metal at GOZNAK (State Printing Office) and then transferred to the printing former
for emplacement on the paper by the offset process. These designs are superimposed
on an underlay of complex multicolored composition. This is the first time that such
a method has been utilized for the preparation of Soviet postage stamps.

We understand that an order has been placed in Switzerland for a complex unit that
will print stamps in as many as eight colors. The matching of this equipment with the
traditional Russian skills and innovations in the printing arts will no doubt result
in further very beautiful stamps.
-56-








NOTES FR COLLECTORS.... ........

RICHARD WEINBERG, COLUMBUS, INDIANA '




n ..... .. 1... .... .



11APKH||

HA""1
rnauBr M s5178. TipaM 100
Tn -wTr *neiuarn=I- 6 8a6berop.22.



Fig. 1i.

The illustrations in Fig. 1 above are those of an early Soviet booklet containing
commemorative stamps, which I acquired recently. Apparently produced in 1925, it
contains marginal pairs of the set commemorating the 20th. anniversary of the 1905
Revolution, in the following quantities: 5 pairs of the 3-kop. value, 3 pairs of the
7-kop. stamp and a pair of the 14-kop. top value.

These stamps were apparently torn out by hand from normal sheets of the set and then
stapled in covers which read on the front: "USSR / National Commissariat of Posts and
Telegraphs / POSTAGE STAMPS / for 1 ruble". On the back of the cover we see the
printing order, No. 51788 and the printing (1000 copies), together with the name and
address of the printing shop ("Pechatnik"), which was presumably located in Moscow.
The field of Soviet booklets is still relatively unexplored and it would be
important to have the details of further items in the collections of members.

MICHAEL E. TSCHEEKAR, SAN FRANCISCO, CA.

I would like to report to the readers of our Rossica Journal the news of an
interesting recent Soviet philatelic error. Perhaps this has been reported earlier,
but I have not seen it.

In the summer of 1972 at the Main Post Office in Moscow on Ulitsa Kirova, I was told
by a collector I happened to meet that the 1971 USSR commemorative issued to honor the
American William Z. Foster was originally printed with the dates 1881-1964. After
being on sale for three days, the stamp was withdrawn from sale when it was discovered
that Foster actually died in 1961. The stamp was later reissued with the corrected
date.

I have not actually seen this error, but I talked to other Soviet collectors who knew
of its existence. A hint is provided in "A4TAIOF hOqd7OB5X MAPOK CCCP 1971" (Catalog
of Postage Stamps of the USSR 1971), Moscow, "Soyuzpechat' Publishers, 1972 where
it is reported that this stamp, catalog No. 4066, had an issue date of November-
December 1971.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Although not mentioned by the latest edition of the Scott Catalog,
this "1964" variety has also been seen in the U.S. and has been changing hands at
around $15-$20 per copy. Moreover, one Rossica member was able to pick up several
copies for the price of normals. Some guys have all the luck !

-57-







WILLIAM T. SHINN JR., BETHESDA, MD.

I was interested by the notes on Tarasov in Nos. 78 and 83 of the Rossica Journal.
I've been in Archangel several times but have never heard of Solombala and it isn't
in the big atlas. I presume it is a suburb. In any case, my interest was aroused by
the information on Tarasov because I have recently come across covers from one V. D.
Chuchugin, all dating from the early 1930s. They are philatelically contrived
airmail covers, some to places not in the big atlas. I have only one in my collection:
Archangel to Ust'-Sysol'sk (now Syktyvkar, capital of the Komi ASSR). It does have the
appropriate cancels (see Figs. 2 & 3) and I bought it only after I had ascertained
that there was indeed air service on that route.












FiFig 3.
lag







j .. j^r



"Fig. 3.


H-wy LPTO4 0Td ?Fa oW Fig. 2.
S KHTOpbl.

The cover left Archangel by air on 27 Jan. 1930 and reached Ust'-Sysol'sk on 5 Feb.
Note the bilingual Russo-Komi arrival marking, in which the Komi equivalent appears
to be given as "CY1J-TEH" (Syktyvyn).

ANDREW CRONIN, NEW YORK, N.Y.

(a) See Fig. 4 herewith for a Soviet postcard
with an unusual Judaica theme. Prepared by the
National Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs on ,
15 Nov. 1930, it was issued by GOZNAK (State T
Printing Office) in 1931 in an edition of one
million copies. The Russian text in the design
at left reads at top:"3rd. OZET Lottery, 28853
prizes totalling 420,000 r." and at bottom: ,- 4
"Ticket price 50 k. / Buy a ticket of the OZET -
Lottery", while up the left side it reads:
"Strengthen the international solidarity of the
workers". Above the worker's cap there are
Hebrew letters which, according to B. Kushner,
read "GEZERD" (meaningless to him). The word
OZET stands for "d06lecmeo 3ewieycmpoacmea Fig. 4.
Eepeee TpyAF cuxcR" or "Society for the Promotion of Agriculture among the Jewish
Workers". Working back from this, we may assume that "GEZERD" is a contraction from
the Yiddish "Gezelshaft" (Society) and "Erde" (Land). Our Jewish members are kindly
asked to help us with this problem.

-58-






BULGARIE
Oblitirations

@ h ,,: .-%.






Fig. 5.
'-4-






(b) The series of impressions shown above in Fig. 5
is taken from the Album of Fournier Forgeries put
together by the Philatelic Society of Geneva in //
Switzerland in 1928, after his death. Note that
they were not familiar with the Cyrillic alphabet ( 3 04 ) 5/
and placed these forged markings under the heading 3
of "BULGARIA / Cancellations" (!). The forged
postmarks, from left to right, are those of Kovno,
8 June 1889 (Kaunas, Lithuania); Lubny, 7 Nov. 1887;
St. Petersburg III / 12 June 1889 / no hour Fig. 6.
indication; Novoradomsk, 12 Nov. 1886 (Poland?) and St.Petersburg III / 21 May 1888/
4(?) pm.

Our Secretary, Joseph F. Chudoba, has also come up with two further forged markings
from the Fournier Album, namely that for Liaoyang, 30 Aug. 1904 and Port Arthur,
27 May 1904, both of Russian post offices in Manchuria (see Fig. 6). Strikes of
these forged markings now bring excellent prices at auction, due to demand from
specialists.

(c) Fig. 7 shows a 10C stamp of the Straits SettlementsT II
1908 issue, used fiscally on a piece of a bill of
lading and cancelled in violet with a single-line
unframed cachet reading "RUSSIAN VOLUNTEER FLEET". This
shipping line plied between Odessa and Vladivostok
until the end of the Russian Empire and the fiscal was
probably used at Singapore. The stamp is perforated Fig. 7.
"B.M.C.", probably the initials of some chandler.

,,SOWPOLTORG w WARSZAWIE"
GENERALNE PRZEDSTAWICIELSTWO
TOWARZYSTWA AKCYJNEGO ,,SOWPOLTORG" w MOSKWIE
Sp61ka z ogricron oaoridzlwln l Fig. 8.

(d) The heading above in Fig. 8 is that of an envelope, sent from Warsaw, Poland
on 8 July 1930 to the Trade Representation of the USSR in Hamburg, Germany. The
Polish inscription reads "Soviet-Polish Trading Co. in Warsaw" / General Agency of
the Soviet-Polish Trading Co. in Moscow / Company with Limited Liability. This is
an example of the joint trading companies formed in the pre-WW II period between the
USSR and various foreign countries to encourage commerce.

An interesting collection could be made of covers of the pre-WW II period from the
Soviet and joint companies operating abroad. The possibilities are limitless: the
Soviet trading agencies in Berlin and Hamburg, Germany; Amtorg and Artkino in New
York City; Arcos and the Moscow Narodny Bank in London, England; trade agencies in
the Baltic Republics and Finland; Soviet agencies at Urumchi in Sinkiang province,

-59-






China, etc. Let us hear from members who have this type of material !

ALBERT CACHON REGUILLO, MEXICO D.F.

(a) I have a Russian postcard in my collection, franked with 4 kop. postage and sent
from a Warsaw collector, A. F. Mueller of WolnosA 16, through the Warsaw post office
on 28 Dec. 1890 (Old Style) to Guanajuato, Mexico, where it was received on 30 Jan.
1891. Quite apart from the short time taken for the journey (9 Jan. 1891 New Style
to 30 Jan.), I wanted to bring this example to the attention of members as the amount
of mail exchanged between Russia and Mexico in those days must have been very small
and such items are rare in our country.






WelCpIe4*l ,.eu
Union Postale Universe





I-f






Fig. 9. Fig. 10.

(b) Figs. 9 & 10 above show the front and back of a postcard sent through the ROPiT P.O.
at Jerusalem, Holy Land with 20 paras postage on 23 Dec. 1904 O.S. (5 Jan. 1905 N.S.)
and received in New York City on 24 Jan. 1905. Note also the fine picture of the
Jaffa Gate in Fig. 10.



FROM
_FC Albert M. Paschall, RA O 807963 '
OAA USSR A
cfo Intelligence D1v., UGUSA .
-.essage Cente- 3rpnc .. .- :' :
The Pentagon, Washington 25, D. C.


The Fort Worth National Bank

P. 0. Box 2050

Fort Worth 1, Texas


Fig. 11.

(c) The above cover with 50 kop. in Soviet postage was cancelled with a Washington
D.C. machine marking dated 17 April 1950 and a violet two-line unframed cachet
placed below the stamp, reading "This article originally mailed / in country

-60-







indicated by postage". In other words, this was a letter that had been placed in the
diplomatic pouch at the U. S. Embassy in Moscow. There were special rules for
handling such mail, one of them being that the postage to be paid had to be with the
stamps and at the current rate of the country of origin. I hope other members will
take up the subject as I am sure many interesting examples will be found.

JOHN LLOYD, COLCHESTER, ENGLAND.

Re the little piece in Rossica Journal [I HD 4H I '
No. 83, p.12 about the town of Gzhatsk i rATC .-
being renamed in April 1968 in memory / ,
of Col. Yurii Gagarin, I send you / -'
herewith a photo of a registered air *J ','..
cover sent on "Cosmonautic Day" 12 Apr. N\ ,
1968 from Gagarin to Moscow. Several i PcToi:..
strikes of both Gagarin and Gzhatsk ; .M -d.cy
are on the cover together with air
and registration indications, all in \ % -
violet (see Fig.12). The cachet
2 /hi2 --___
for the 34th. anniversary of Gagarin's 1 *1 0w\ .
birth is in black, with a red star in Ti;.
the centre. It appears this is also an ^ ''Vt,
FDC of the renaming of the town.
Fig. 12.
DR. LEONID KVETAN-CHENAKALO, NEW YORK, N.Y.

The illustration below in Fig. 13 is that of the famous 1932 Philatelic Exhibition
sheet, with an additional two-line overprint in Russian at top, translating as
"To the best shock worker / of the All-Russian Society of Philatelists". There
were only 25 sheets so overprinted and they were distributed to the best workers
at the Moscow show. Apart from my own example, another Rossica member in the U.S.
has a copy, making a total of two in this country. It would be nice to hear of
other members being fortunate enough to obtain such an item for their collections.





,yue.uy yupi ,,h-y




AL.- ii Er lk"












Fig. 13.

-61-








BOOK REVIEWS

CATALOGUE OF THE RUSSIAN RURAL POSTAGE STAMPS (1925), by F. G. Chuchin. Reprint by
Nikolay Sorokin, 1925 E. Genesee St., Syracuse, N.Y. 13210. 254 pages. $10.00
spiral bound.

CATALOGUE OF ZEMSTVO STAMPS (LANDSCHAFTSMARKEN SEMSTWO KATALOG), by K. Schmidt.
Reprint by Nikolay Sorokin, 1925 E. Genesee St., Syracuse, N.Y. 13210. 210 pages.
$10.00 spiral bound.

Few collectors specializing in Russian philately will not have heard of these two
important Zemstvo catalogues, although it is quite likely that scarcity has
prevented inclusion in their libraries. This is understandable in view of the
prices these books command at auction, or in photostatic reprint ($25-$35 for
Chuchin, $50-$75 for Schmidt). The reprinting of these volumes should thus be
welcome.

The Chuchin work has an interesting background. It was published by the State
Philatelic Organization of the USSR to provide a long-awaited complete listing of
Zemstvo issues. According to the preface, the need for such a publication was felt
long before the Soviet period, but for various reasons the project was held up.
In the early part of this century, members of the St. Petersburg and Moscow
sections of the Dresden Philatelic Society (which included several prominent Russian
philatelists) discussed the need for a volume that would supplement the then well-
known "A through K" compilation of K. Schmidt and Faberg6. Work on this got fully
under way following the October 1917 Revolution, when a committee of Petrograd
philatelists began to put together material with the aim of "producing a simple and
popular guidebook" on Zemstvos. Following various financial hardships typical of
the time, the book finally went to press in 1925. The resulting catalogue is a
classic and highly recommended. Inaccuracies in it have been pointed out in the
years since 1925, yet it retains its utility as the most authoritative publication
of its kind to appear in the English language.

The Schmidt catalogue is also a classic, but it is not to be confused with other
highly regarded publications by the same author, most notably the famous two-volume
Die Postwertzeichen der Russischen Landschafts.mter (1928) and the Schmidt-Faberg6
catalogue (1910). The catalogue from which the reprint is taken was the result of
research done around the time of Schmidt's donation of his superb collection to the
Reichsmuseum. The volume was issued by the German Ministry of Posts in 1934, which
also happens to be the date of publication of Volume II of the Schmidt-Faberg6
catalogue (the first work was printed in Berlin, the second in Dresden). The
donation catalogue is a fine work and easily more accessible than the two-volume
Schmidt catalogue.

Both the Schmidt and Chuchin catalogues employ many useful features. These include
illustrations of each stamp type and excellent indexes, glossaries etc. The Chuchin
catalogue contains a good glossary of Russian words that appear on Zemstvo stamps
and the Schmidt book includes a fine German-English philatelic glossary, inserted by
the printer. The two reprints are taken directly from the pages of the originals and,
since the resulting formats are somewhat different, I would suggest that these two
catalogues might best be used in unison. They are complete in themselves, however,
and many readers may not choose to work in the Greman language, in which the Schmidt
work is written.
Richard M. Thompson.

THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY, No. 47 for July 1972. Published by the
British Society of Russian Philately, London, England and edited by P. T. Ashford,
9 Pentre Close, Ashton, Chester CH3 8BR, England.

-62-








The first contribution in this issue is a wonderfully detailed article on "The
handstruck markings of Warsaw" by two Rossica members, M. A. Bojanowicz & A. Droar.
This is followed by a definitive article on the stamps and postal history of "North
Ingermanland" by N. D. Fritzberg. Mr. R. P. Knighton then brings up to date his work
on "Eastern Galicia 1919" and Boris Pritt translates "The preparation and
introduction of the first Russian stamp" by B. Kaminskii, a leading Soviet
philatelist. Dr. A. H. Wortman lends a masterly hand to "Petrograd Censorship some
additional notes", which prove that the last word has yet to be written on this
subject. Derek Palmer, who has wide-ranging postal history interests, now dazzles us
with "A cover from Tsarskoe Selo" with the station marking and C. W. Roberts keeps
delving into Trident problems with "Bjeloborodov's Russian Ukraine 1918". The Editor
continues his publicity work on Transcaucasia with a reprint from "The Philatelic
Journal of Great Britain" of his fine study "The stamps of Soviet Georgia". The rest
of this issue is taken up with "News and Views", "Reviews of New Literature",
"Obituaries" and "Meeting Reports". Once again, a highly useful issue for the
specialists in our spheres of collecting.

3A nO7HCEHCD-0f4fZ4TEOTO7 4EJD BEB BAPHA 1RPE3 XIX BEK (About Postal and Philatelic
Affairs in Varna during the 19th. Century), by D. N. Minchev.Published in the
"Bulletin of the National Museum of Varna", Vol. VIII (XXIII), 1972.

Once again, our indefatigable contributor keeps up his good work as a publicist of
the fascinating postal history of his country in the past century, including the
activities of the Russian Posts there. Covering the large variety of the postal
services operating in this important Black Sea port, he gives the postal history
researcher everything he needs to know to build a fine specialized collection of
the subject. It is all set out in 20 packed pages, with many authoritative and
comprehensive references to works in several European languages.

XY170CKECTBEHHhE MAPIPPOBAHHE HDHBEPW CCCP 1970 zod (Illustrated Stamped Envelopes
of the USSR for 1970), compiled by V. A. & N. V. Orlov as a catalogue in booklet
form. Printed by the "Svyaz"' Publishers, Moscow 1972 and issued by the All-Union
Society of Philatelists in a printing of 20,000 copies. Contains 64 pages and priced
at 21 kop.

Following upon the previous booklets on the same subject for the stamped envelopes
issued in previous years, this issue brings the listing up to No. 7378. Useful
supplements are given at the end, classifying the subjects portrayed on the
envelopes under various headings as an aid to topical collectors, as well as some
corrections to the 1969 booklet. This is a useful and professionally compiled
reference.

RUSSIA A LOOK AT THE RURAL DISTRICT STAMPS ('ZEMSTVOS'), by B. Rogers-Tillstone.
A paper, illustrated with slides, read before the Royal Philatelic Society, London
England on 16 March 1972 and published in the journal of the Society, "The London
Philatelist" for May 1972, pp. 87-97 with a supplemental map of the Zemstvo districts.

This paper is a wonderful survey of this ever-popular subject, carefully prepared by
an eminent British philatelist with a very strong grounding in and understanding of
philatelic principles. Many unusual and rare items are featured therein and it is
this type of article that brings in new disciples to the cause. We have since heard
from an unconfirmed source that the author passed away recently and we can only
regret the departure of such a competent and studious collector. The present
article is a fitting monument to his memory.

MICATEJM HALE PO0M4T (Writers of our Land of Birth). A paperback catalogue-handbook
compiled by V. V. Agenosov and Ya. I. Medvedovskii for the All-Union Society of
Philatelists. Issued by the "Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow 1972 in an edition of 30,000
copies. Contains 160 pages and priced at 76 kop.

-63-







An invaluable guide to the collector of this topic, listing Soviet stamps, special
cancellations and postal stationery, foreign stamps and those of the Baltic Republics
in the pre-Soviet period. The inclusion of this last section is a particularly
praiseworthy gesture.

A lot of work obviously went into the preparation of this catalogue-handbook, as
much biographical and supplementary information is given, saving valuable time
going through encyclopedias. Its usefulness is enhanced by the careful cross-
indexing of sub-topics at the end of the book and it is ideally suited for the
collectors of these themes.

ICTOPIl MICT I CIJ7 YPCP (History of the Towns and Villages of the Ukrainian SSR).
Planned as a series of 26 volumes, for each province of the republic and prepared
the Main Editorial Commission of the Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia of the Academy
of Sciences of the Ukr. SSR. Each volume is printed in an edition of 15,000 copies,
containing from 636 to 745 pages and priced at 3 krb. 60 kop. per volume.

We have seen the volumes for the provinces of Ivanofrankivs'k (Stanyslaviv), L'viv,
Transcarpathia (Carpatho-Ukraine) and Vilynyya (Volhynia). The wealth of
information contained therein is most detailed and it is all well written in the
Ukrainian literary language. Illustrated with detailed maps of all regions and
several pictures in color, this series is a very useful reference for postal
historians and specialists who want to do serious work in Ukrainian philately.
The volumes are available at Ukrainian and Russian bookstores here in the U.S.

EHT-IJIOTEI COBEThHO MJ]IMOBEHHCID (The Moldavian Soviet Encyclopedia). Prepared as
a series of 8 volumes by the Academy of Sciences of the Moldavian SSR, Kishinev
1970 et seq. Issued in an edition of 25,000 copies, with each volume containing
over 570 pages and priced at 4r. 75k. per copy.

The first two volumes have already appeared. The work treats Soviet Moldavia,
historic Bessarabia and the USSR in depth, with strong sections on Rumanian
subjects and finally the rest of the world. The literary standard is high and
anyone with a knowledge of one language from both the Latin and Slav groups will have
little difficulty in reading Moldavian, akin to Rumanian but written in the
Cyrillic alphabet. The series is well produced, with cartographic and multicolor
facilities supplied from Moscow. It is of great help as a reference for the student
of Bessarabian postal history and copies are available at Russian bookstores in the
United States.

BEJ4APYCIKA4H CABEA4H 3HflWJALEf(Belorussian Soviet Encyclopedia). Prepared as a
series of 12 volumes by the Academy of Sciences of the Belorussian SSR, Minsk 1969
et seq. Issued in an edition of 25,000 copies and priced at 2r. 50k. per volume.

The first five volumes have already appeared and the series has been issued on the
same lines lines as the Moldavian work. Anyone with a knowledge of Russian or
Ukrainian will have no trouble in understanding the Belorussian text. The topics of
Belorussian interest are covered in great detail and the work is invaluable as a
reference for the postal historian and specialist. Available at Russian bookstores
in the United States.

MA2OJI LIETUVISKOJI TARYBINE ENCIKLOPEDIJA (The Small Lithuanian Soviet Encyclopedia).
Issued as a series of three volumes by the Academy of Sciences of the Lithuanian SSR,
Vilnius, 1966-1971. Issued in an edition of 60,000 copies, with each volume
containing over 730 pages and priced at 5r. per copy.

Not as detailed as the two sets noted just above, but still very useful as a
reference for postal historians and specialists. Available at Lithuanian and
Russian bookstores in the United States.

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