Front Cover
 Officers and representatives of...
 Life of the society
 1937 Listing of Latvian post offices...
 Postal history of the Moldavian...
 Soviet post offices named for Taras...
 More about the international "N"...
 Russian in fifteen minutes by P....
 The "Dojdziemy" stamp by the Editorial...
 Soviet posts in the Western Ukraine...
 Rumanian military postal and telegraphic...
 The stamp commemorates (5) by Dr....
 Additional notes on A.R.A. cards...
 Rossica from the Australian colonies...
 Notes on bank transfer forms and...
 Soviet industrial bank post offices...
 Notes from collectors
 Book reviews


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00059
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1973
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00059

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Life of the society
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    1937 Listing of Latvian post offices by the Editorial Board
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Postal history of the Moldavian ASSR by the Editorial Board
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Soviet post offices named for Taras Shevchenko from U.P.U. records
        Page 20
        Page 21
    More about the international "N" markings by Vambola Hurt
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Russian in fifteen minutes by P. J. Campbell
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    The "Dojdziemy" stamp by the Editorial Board
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Soviet posts in the Western Ukraine 1939-1941 by the Editorial Board
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Rumanian military postal and telegraphic offices by D. Passalega
        Page 44
        Page 45
    The stamp commemorates (5) by Dr. G. Wember
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Additional notes on A.R.A. cards and their postal rates by Dr. R. Ceresa
        Page 50
    Rossica from the Australian colonies by the Eeditorial Board
        Page 51
    Notes on bank transfer forms and postal rates by Dr. R. J. Ceresa
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Soviet industrial bank post offices by Norman Epstein
        Page 55
    Notes from collectors
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Book reviews
        Page 63
        Page 64
Full Text


4 of the





No. 85 1973

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Andrew Cronin, Box 5722, Station-A, Toronto, Ont. Canada

EDITORIAL BOARD: K. Adler, A. Cronin, N. Epstein.



2 Officers of the Society; Representatives of the Society.

3 Editorial.

4 Life of the Society.

11 1937 Listing of Latvian Post Offices, by the Editorial Board.

16 Postal history of the Moldavian ASSR,by the Editorial Board.

20 Soviet Post Offices named for Taras Shevchenko, from U.P.U. Records.

22 More about the International "N" Markings, by Vambola Hurt.

24 Russian in Fifteen Minutes, by P. J. Campbell.

28 The "Dojdziemy" Stamp, by the Editorial Board.

32 Soviet Posts in the Western Ukraine 1939-1941, by the Editorial Board.

44 Rumanian Military Postal & Telegraphic Offices, by D. Pasqalega.

46 The Stamp Commemorates (5), by Dr. G. Wember.

50 Additional Notes on A.R.A. Cards & their Postal Rates, by Dr. R. Ceresa

51 Rossica from the Australian Colonies, by the Editorial Board.

52 Notes on Bank Transfer Forms and Postal Rates, by Dr. R. J. Ceresa.

55 Soviet Industrial Bank Post Offices, by Norman Epstein.

56 Notes from Collectors.

63 Book Reviews.



PRESIDENT PRO-TEM: Gordon H. Torrey Ph.D., 5118 Duvall Dr., Washington DC,20016.
SECRETARY: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225.
TREASURER & CHAIRMAN):Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn N.Y. 11226.
CHAIRMAN AUDITING COMMITTEE:Andrew Cronin,Box 5722,Station-A,Toronto,Ont.Canada.
LIBRAIRIAN: J. Lee Shneidman Ph.D., 161 W.86 St., New York, N.Y. 10024.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS:Samuel Robbins,3563 Meier St., Los Angeles, CA 90066.
Boris Shishkin,3523 Edmunds Rd. NW,Washington DC, 20007.


G.B.SALISBURY CHAPTER:Joseph F. Chudoba,426 Eastern Parkway,Brooklyn N.Y. 11225.
WASHINGTON, D.C.: Boris Shishkin,3523 Edmunds Rd. NW, Washington DC, 20007.
WESTERN USA:Lester S. Glass,1553 So.La Cienega Bvd.,Los Angeles CA 90035.
GREAT BRITAIN:John Lloyd,"The Retreat",West Bergholt,Colchester,Essex C06 3HE.

Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However,
acknowledgement of the source and a copy of the reprinted matter would be

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the
Editors disclaim all responsibility.

At present, the Membership Dues are $7.50, due January 1 for all members.
Application forms, which must be filled out, are available on request.
Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists
will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

c/o Mr. Norman Epstein,
33 Crooke Avenue,
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226, USA.

We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in
English and Russian language editions, now at the revised price of $3.00 each
plus postage for Rossica members and at $3.50 each plus postage for non-members.
Xerox copies of out-of-print issues are available at $5.00 each plus postage.



Our members will have noted recently in "Linn's Stamp News", a weekly philatelic
newspaper, an exchange of views between your editor, on the one hand and a "Linn's"
contributor, Roman Semeniuk, on the other.

This was brought about by the publication in "Linn's" on 5 Feb. 1973 of an
article by Mr. Semeniuk: "Philately helps to depoliticalize Ukrainian poet Taras
Shevchenko". In the opinion of your editor, the thrust of the article was
political, especially because of the claim made that the issuance by Paraguay of a
20-guaranies souvenir sheet honoring Taras Shevchenko was the only such instance
by a country in the free world. He also said that the exact reasons for its
emission were unknown. Because of their editorial policy, "Linn's" did not choose
to print in full your editor's reply and this opportunity is now taken to give our
members all the facts relating thereto. It should be stressed that this is not by
way of criticizing the editorial policy of "Linn's".

The first reference to this souvenir sheet was in an article by Myroslaw
Samowerskyj in the April 1972 issue of "The Ukrainian Philatelist". Mr. Samowerskyj
is a Ukrainian stamp dealer and wholesaler in Buenos Aires and he related the
difficulties in trying to get Argentina to honor Shevchenko philatelically.
Finally, Paraguay did so on 24 December 1971 on the occasion of the unveiling of a
statue to Shevchenko at Buenos Aires 19 days before. A careful reading of his
article shows that Mr. Samowerskyj played a most important part in the issuance of
the sheet, which is confirmed by the imprint "M. Samowerskyj" printed at the
bottom right of this item. In a word, he is the exact reason for the emission of
the sheet.

Moreover, he is the only source for the sheet (4000 issued) and his Price List
No. 3 quotes it at $5.00 mint, with FDCs at $6.00 each and the "MUESTRA" (SPECIMEN)
overprint at $2.50 (1000 issued). The face equivalent is 16 U.S. and as Mr.
Samowerskyj states he is selling practically at cost, it can only be assumed that
prospective buyers will, in fact, be recompensing him for the heavy inducement
slipped to the Paraguayans to issue the sheet. Needless to say, neither Scott nor
most of the other world catalogs list this or other modern Paraguayan effusions.

Some further comments. How anyone can equate a squalidly feudal dictatorial state
like Paraguay with the free world is completely beyond comprehension. Poor old
Taras, that great champion of freedom, must be turning in his grave at the thought!
Your editor wrote to the Paraguayan Philatelic Section, asking if the sheet were
still available and, if not, could they supply Mr. Samowerskyj's address. A printed
reply was received, saying that the Section does not deal with clients abroad and
that all their issues were sold wholly to buyers resident in the country. Then
there followed the names of two officials and a typewritten postscript:"Frankly, we
do not know the name and address of the person to whom you refer in your letter".
This is an idiotic lie.

The sheet is an airmail item, with the face value (20 guaranfes) designated for
international mail. Paraguay is a member of the U.P.U. and is thereby obligated to
send to Berne copies of every postal issue, for distribution to all other member
countries. When asked by your editor if Paraguay had done so with the Shevchenko
sheet, the U.P.U. International Section advised it had absolutely no knowledge of
this emission. In other words, this is not a legitimate postal issue within the
U.P.U. definition.

There is a good Ukrainian phrase for this whole business: "1ypHe OA0o" (dirty
deed). However, now that our members have the facts, it is left to them to decide


whether or not to acquire the sheet. Incidentally, if the representation given at
left of the Shevchenko statue in Buenos Aires is correct, then they should shoot
the sculptor. Elsewhere in this Journal a list is set out of 36 Soviet post offices
named for Taras Shevchenko. It is suggested that the collection and classification
of their postal markings would be much more worthwhile philatelically than the
Paraguay sheet.

Some Ukrainians will doubtless be angered by the above remarks. So far as the
Rossica Society of Russian Philately is concerned, all we can say is that the
philately of the Ukraine is greatly treasured and esteemed by us and we are proud
of the discoveries we have and will be publishing. However, we will not glorify
garbage from any area. Those who follow us will learn about undreamt-of things in
Ukrainian Philately. So far as we are concerned, the sensible and rational choice
is quite clear.


Members will have noticed that this issue No. 85 for 1973 has been delayed
somewhat. The prime reason has been the disruption caused by the return to Canada
of the Editor-in-Chief for employment reasons. For many years now, he has been
carrying the heaviest burden in the operation of the Society, involving not only
the editorship of the Journal, but many other unpaid tasks as well and always
under very trying circumstances. Because of current economic and personal
circumstances, it is no longer possible to carry such a load.

A highlight for the month of February 1973 for the Washington-Baltimore Chapter
was a visit by Dr. Teh Fu-yen of Los Angeles, a distinguished Zemstvo specialist.
He came to visit us in response to the invitation extended to him by the
Secretary of our Chapter and also President Gordon H. Torrey.

Dr. Teh, a Chinese-American, is a man of many interests and many gifts.
Specializing in biochemistry, he holds the post of Associate Professor of
Medicine in the Department of Medicine at UCLA. Also an engineer, he is a member
of the Department of Chemical Engineering of UCLA.

His major philatelic interest is Zemstvos. He says it grew out of his earlier
specialty: Chinese Treaty Ports. The few samples from his collection that he
brought along were quite remarkable. They included a Zemstvo cover franked not
with bisects but, of all things, quadrisects His detailed knowledge of the
much sought-after Russian locals was quite impressive.

Boris Shishkin, Chairman of the Washington D.C. Chapter.

A pleasant interlude over the Memorial Day weekend of 26-28 May 1973 was a visit
by Norman Epstein and Andrew Cronin to Washington, D.C. for a meeting of the
local chapter of the Rossica Society. As guests at the home of Dr. and Mrs
Gordon H. Torrey, the two officers were treated royally by their hosts during
the stay, for which they were both deeply grateful. This was topped off by the
meeting held on Saturday afternoon, 26 May, at the home of Boris Shishkin.

Among the enthusiasts in attendance were Rimma Sklarevski, Drs Constantine
Stackelberg and Gordon H. Torrey, N. Epstein and A. Cronin. Two color-slide


shows with synchronized taped
commentary were presented and those
present then pored over the
philatelic treasures of Boris
Shishkin. Much interest centered on
his fine collection of many ZUNR
covers, postmarked at Stanyslaviv
and Vorokhta in May 1919, during -
the last days of the Western
Ukrainian National Republic. Many
notes were made of rare items in- .
the Boris Shishkin and Gordon
Torrey collections, to form the
basis for articles in this and
future issues of the Journal.

The photos herewith were taken by Norman Epstein and show (1) President Gordon
Torrey, (2) Washington Chairman Boris Shishkin and (3) left to right: Gordon
Torrey, Rimma Sklarevski and Boris Shishkin. Quite a memorable occasion !

Following fast on the Washington, D.C. visit, the early days of June 1973 were the
scene for the arrival at New York City of our keen Civil War and Forgeries
specialist in Great Britain, Dr. R. J. Ceresa. A schedule was arranged whereby
Mr. Cronin took him over to Norman Epstein's home where, after an excellent repast,
an evening was spent in putting Dr. Ceresa's magnificent study of North West Army
forgeries (42 different types !) and Ukrainian counterfeits on color slides.
Many other philatelic problems of mutual interest were then discussed and, needless
to say, a great time was had by all. By collecting and collating forgeries, Dr.
Ceresa is performing an extremely valuable service for collectors in our spheres of
interest and we are very grateful for his contributions to our color slide programs.

We now set out hereunder the results of the "POLSKA 73" International Philatelic
Exhibition, held at PoznaA, Poland on 19 Aug. 2 Sept. 1973, as part of the


celebrations for the 500th. anniversary of the birth of the great Polish astronomer
Mikolaj Kopernik (Copernicus). Members of the Society are marked thus: (*)


S. M. Blekhman (USSR) Tuva
G. L. Gevirts (USSR) Zemstvos
M. V. Liphschutz (France) Poland No. 1 & Russia used in Poland 1858-1870
K. J. Vasil'ev (USSR) Russia & USSR


D. B. Diamandiev (Bulgaria) USSR 1917-1941.
A. Droar (GB) Imperials
P-A. Erixon (Sweden) Russia 1822-1922
H. von Hofmann (GFR) Latvia
B. A. Kaminskii (USSR) Polish Kingdom markings
J. Poulie (Switzerland) USSR
V. Pritula (USSR) Development of Aviation
V. Sorokin (USSR) Zemstvos
E. Vincovskis (USSR) Kurzeme (Kurland) prestamp markings

A. Cronin (Canada) Tuva
K. Dirnbacher (Austria) Lemberg (L'viv) markings
O. Forafontov (USSR) Moscow markings to 1917
A. Gdalin (USSR) Mickiewicz topic (with special prize)
L. Kitain (USSR) Lenin topic
E. Kobylanski (GB) Ukraine 1918-1920
A. Lell (USA) Estonia
L. Liepnieks (USSR) Baltic prestamp markings
J. Lloyd (GB) Imperials
I. Morozov (USSR) USSR
J. Poulie (Switzerland) Lithuania
I. Zbarskii (USSR) USSR 1922-1937 (with special prize)


BSRP (GB) British Journal of Russian Philately
Soviet Collector (USSR) Soviet Collector manuals
VOF (USSR) Journal "Philately of the USSR"


V. G. Belkin (USSR St. Petersburg markings
M. Blaha (Czechoslovakia) Carpatho-Ukraine 1620-1970
A. Georg'evskii (USSR USSR 1941-1945
J. Hoffman (Czechoslovakia) Russian covers 1917-1922
H. Imhof (GFR) St. Petersburg 1766-1914
N. K6nig (GFR) Russia
M. Kulikov (USSR) Chess topic
L. Lada-Jakugevic (Czechoslovakia) Zemstvos
D. Lysogorov (USSR) History of Poland
O. Martyshov (USSR) Copernicus topic
M. Palatnik (USSR) Azerbaijan
J. Podluski (Poland) Western Ukraine 1918-1920


A. Presterud (Norway) Russia
H. J. Stromberg (USA) Estonia
S. Vvedenskii (USSR) Lenin topic


D. N. Minchev (Bulgaria) "Russian Postal Services in Bulgaria"
Rossica Society (USA) Rossica Journal of Russian Philately
E. S. Voikhanskii (USSR) "Postage Stamps of Azerbaijan"
Ya. Vovin (USSR) "Expertization of Soviet Postage Stamps"


F. Aujesky (Czechoslovakia) Lenin topic
M. Botasheva (USSR) Hands topic
0. Charnetskii (USSR) Medicine topic
Yu. Freidlin (USSR) Smolnyi topic
Ya. Gintsburg (USSR) Electrification topic
0. Grubich (USSR) Copernicus topic
A. Gul (USSR) Solar System topic
H. Jackel (GDR) Marx topic
G. Jannaschk (GDR) USSR
S. Khokhlov (USSR) Equine Sport topic
I. Morosanov (USSR) Soviet People topic
K. Rismyhr (Norway) Latvia
V. Sadovnikov (USSR) Football topic
I. & J. Schnittka (GDR) Dzerzhinskii topic
Dr. M. Skweir (USA) Ukraine tridents
M. Sokolov (USSR) Press topic
R. Winiarski (Australia) Zemstvos


Cercle Philatelique France-URSS Philatelic Literature

It will be noted that our Rossica Journal did poorly at this exhibition, in
comparison to the silver diplomas gained at previous international shows. The
advisability of exhibiting at future shows is being seriously reconsidered.


The National Philatelic Exhibition "NAPEX 73", held in Washington, D.C. on 14-16
Sept. 1973, on the occasion of the centenary of the first U.S. postal card, also
bestowed a gold medal on our President, Gordon H. Torrey, for his entry of RUSSIA
USED ABROAD. Not only was the award obtained praiseworthy, but such exhibits are
also of great help in keeping our fields of interest in the public eye.
Congratulations, Gordon !

Melvin Kessler, our keen member at Fort Walton Beach, Florida, was a committee
member for "FLOREX 73", held at Clearwater, Florida on 2-4 Nov. 1973. At the show,
his wife accepted on his behalf the Literary Plaque of the Florida Federation of
Stamp Clubs, for his continuing series of articles on Russia, written for "The
Florida Specialist" during 1972-1973. Once again, a Rossica member is performing
a valuable service in keeping our collecting interests in the public eye. Thanks !



Statler-Hilton Hotel, "Schuyler Room". Saturday, 17 November 1973

The meeting was called to order at 2:30 pm by President pro-tem Dr. G.H. Torrey.

Roll Call of Officers:

President pro-tem: Dr, Gordon H. Torrey (present) Librairian:
Secretary: Joseph F. Chudoba (present) Dr. J. Lee Shneidman (excused)
Treasurer & Chairman Norman Epstein (present)
Membership Committee Board of Directors:
Editor & Publisher & Andrew Cronin (excused) Sam Robbins (excused)
Chairman Aud. Committ. Boris Shishkin (excused)

Members present: Visitor:
Martin Cerini, Martin Pleskow, John Bulat
Rimma Sklarevski, Jaroslaw Terlecky

Reading of minutes of previous meeting: (Minutes were read).

M/S/C Epstein, Sklarevski: to accept the minutes as read.

TREASURER'S REPORT: (Report made by Treasurer Norman Epstein)

Bank balance as per bank statement of 31 October 1973 $2196.86
Deposits & Credits from 1 Nov. 1972 to 31 Oct. 1973 2326.93
Outstanding checks as of 31 Oct. 1973 -.-
Total of Balance and Deposits as of 31 Oct. 1973 4523.79
Total expenditures and bank charges 1 Nov. 1972 to 31 Oct. 1973 1497.59
Balance as of 31 Oct. 1973 3026.20

Note: There had been a discrepancy of 30 since the last report, which had been
From the above balance, there will still be an expenditure of approximately
$850.00 for Journal No. 85, which is due to be issued at the end of this year.

M/S/C Sklarevski, Chudoba: to accept the report.

REPORT OF JOURNAL EDITOR: The report was made by Treasurer Norman Epstein on
behalf of Editor Andrew Cronin, who was in Canada
and excused from attending the meeting. He reported
that No. 85 of the Journal was nearing completion and
should be at the printer's about the middle of
December. It will be mailed out as soon as finished.

M/S/C Chudoba, Sklarevski: to accept the report.

SECRETARY'S REPORT: (Report made by Secretary Joseph Chudoba)

Secretary Chudoba reported that since tthe last meeting there had been a gain of
two members. We have 194 members in good standing as of 15 November 1973.
According to the records, 23 members were dropped from the membership rolls for
non-payment of dues and we had enrolled 25 new members. Many of the members who
had been dropped dailed to pay their dues as prescribed by the Constitution of the

Activities and attendance at meetings had been sluggish and notices had been sent


to members announcing meetings. A new innovation had been put into effect by the
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury Chapter (New York), consisting of having color slides and
synchronized commentary set up to deal with many phases of Russian Philately.
However, the response from members had not been very encouraging. At the present
time, despite the efforts of some of the officers to get the members to the
meetings and participate in the activities of the Society, the results had been

M/S/C Epstein, Pleskow: to accept the report of the Secretary.

Treasurer Epstein reported that although we had sold quite a number of back issues
of the Rossica Journal, there were still large quantities being stored at his home.
Since he did not have storage space available for them, they would have to be moved
or disposed of.

M/S/C Sklarevski, Chudoba: that Treasurer Epstein be authorized to dispose of
surplus issues of the Rossica Journal at his discretion.

Secretary Chudoba read a letter from Dr. Shneidman, Librairian of the Society,
regarding the Society's participation in future shows sponsored by the A.S.D.A.
Also, several communications were read regarding the revision of rules set by the
A.S.D.A. Secretary or Executive Officer for Philatelic Clubs & Societies
participating in the A.S.D.A. Show for this year. Normally, our Society had paid
$100.00 for a lounge at the Show and had received 10 badges for the officers of
the Society and the members who attended the lounge during the Show. This year,
our lounge rental had been increased by 25% from $100.00 to $125.00 and we were
allotted only 4 badges. Also, the show hours had been reduced. We had protested
this action in letters to the President of the A.S.D.A. and the Executive Officer
but to no avail. The officers of many other philatelic societies and clubs, as
well as dealer members of the A.S.D.A., expressed their disappointment and
disapproval of the action taken by the A.S.D.A. leadership. In view of the
foregoing, it was recommended that the following action be taken:
(a) A letter be sent to the Executive Officer of the A.S.D.A., indicating our
dismay and including a protest regarding the 1973 Annual A.S.D.A. Show, the rules
for which having been altered from those of previous years. Also, the fact that
we had received copies of these rules after having paid for the increase in the
lounge rental. The question of our Society's participation in future shows
sponsored by the A.S.D.A. will be held in abeyance pending receipt of the rules
to be imposed by the A.S.D.A.
(b) Letters to be sent to all philatelic societies and clubs that had participated
in the 1973 Annual A.S.D.A. Show, expressing our protest.

M/S/C Epstein, Pleskow: to approve the report and take the action outlined.

A report was made that the regular nominations and elections for the officers will
have to take place in 1974, as the regular three-year term will then have expired.

M/S/C Chudoba, Epstein: that President Gordon H. Torrey be authorized to conduct
the procedures for the nominations and elections of the officers. The
nominations shall take place between 1 January and 31 May 1974 and the elections
between 1 August and 15 September 1974. The Elections Committee will comprise
members from the Washington, D.C. Chapter of the Society.

A report was made by President Torrey regarding the regulations and restrictions


applicable by the Philadelphia International Philatelic Exhibition "INTERPHIL
1976" to persons who do not belong to philatelic societies designated by the
F.I.P. and who wish to exhibit at that show. The general feeling was that any
philatelist,who has interesting material to display and wishes to exhibit, should
have the right to do so without any restrictions, as long as he pays the regular
entry fee as applicable to all other entrants. The feeling of all members present
supported this position.

M/S/C Sklarevski, Cerini: to adjourn (meeting adjourned at 4.15 pm).

Respectfully submitted,



In view of the very small turnout for the Annual Business Meeting, I am
wondering if the membership desires to end the annual open business meeting.
Even the New York Area members apparently feel it to be unimportant. The meeting
could be replaced by a report in the Rossica Journal following the November
A.S.D.A. Show, when the Society's officers could meet to carry any required
business. Such a method would, however, seriously limit the influence of the
average member's opinions on the operations of the Society.

Another change, which appears in the offing, is the elimination of the Rossica
Lounge itself at the A.S.D.A. Show. The cost of the lounge has risen and its use
by members has diminished. It iy doubtful that it serves as a satisfactory
publicity or recruiting device in the generalized milieu of the A.S.D.A. Show
for such a specialized society as ROSSICA. It might be replaced on the Saturday
of the A.S.D.A. Show by a hotel suite where members could gather for relaxation,
exhibition, exchange and the sale of stamps with each other.

I would appreciate hearing from members or any other questions they may have in
mind. My address is: 5118 Duvall Drive, Washington, D.C. 20016. My telephone
number is Area Code 301, 229-7799.

Gordon H. Torrey.

We are honored to announce the entry of Mr. Janis Ronis, President of the
Latvian Philatelic Society, into membership of the Rossica Society. Latvian
collectors in North America have earned a great deal of respect as serious
philatelists. They always give us heavy competition at auctions for material of
Latvian interest, particularly anything to do with the great designer and
engraver Richards Zarrins, who was their tautietis (compatriot). As a mark of
esteem for Mr. Ronis, we have made a special effort to include in this issue of
the Journal a Listing of Latvian Post Offices as at 1937. Esiet sveicinati, kungs !



from U.P.U. records

(So far as we know, this listing, which was published in the April 1937 edition
of the "Dictionnaire des Bureaux de Poste" by the Universal Postal Union in Berne,
Switzerland, has never been reproduced in any Western philatelic magazine. It will
be of great help, not only to Latvian collectors per se, but also to postal
historians collecting material in the interesting transition period of 1940-1941,
when Latvia became part of the USSR and postal matter and markings of the pre-
Soviet era continued in use. The listing is completely alphabetic, with the office
name followed by the province in which it was situated. All the offices offered a
full range of postal facilities, including registration, parcel service, ordinary
and telegraphic money orders etc).

Adazi, Riga Auleja, Daugavpils Braslava, Valmiera
Aglona, Daugavpils Aulezers, Daugavpils Brenguli, Valmiera
Aizgarga, Ludza Aumeisteri, Valka Bridaga, Valmiera
Aizkraukle, Riga Auri, Jelgava BrieZi, Jelgava
Aizpurve, Jaunlatgale Ausekli, Ventspils Brukna, Bauska
Aizpute, Aizpute Ausmas, Tukums Brunava, Bauska
Aizupe, Kuldiga Buiva, Valmiera
Aizviki, Liepaja B Bukaigi, Jelgava
Akmenrags, Aizpute Bablte, Riga Bukmuila, Rezekne
Akniste, IlZkste Baldone, Riga Bukulti, Riga
Alaukste, Cesis Balgale, Talsi Bulduri, Riga
Allaii, Riga Baltinava, Jaunlatgale Burtnieki, Valmiera
Allazmuila, Riga Baltini, Daugavpils
Aloja, Valmiera Baltupe, Rezekne C
Alsvanga, Aizpute Balvi, Jaunlatgale Carnikava, Riga
Aliksne, Valka Barbele, Bauska Celiji, Talsi
Amata, Cesis BArta, LiepHja Cempi, Valmiera
Amele, Ventspils Basi, Aizpute CEre, Talsi
AmjUdze, Ventspils Bauska, Bauska Cerini, Cesis
Ance, Ventspils Bebrene, Ilukste Cerkazi, Valka
Andrini, Daugavpils Bebri, Riga Cesvaine, Madona
Andrupene, Rezekne Beja, Valka Cibla, Ludza
Anna, Valka Belava, Madona Ciesnieki, Kuldiga
Annasmuila, Riga BAne, Jelgava Cirava, Aizpute
Annenieki, Tukums Beresne, Rezekne Cirkale, Ventspils
Anspaki, Daugavpils Berzaune, Madona Clruli, Talsi
Antonopole, Rezekne Bgrzgale, Rezekne Ciskadi, Rezekne
Ape, Valka Berzkalns, Jaunlatgale Code, Bauska
Apriki, Aizpute Berzmuiza, Jelgava
Apsciems, Tukums Berzpils, Jaunlatgale D
Apsupe, Jelgava Birini, Riga Dabra, Rezekne
AraiSi, Cesis Birzgale, Riga Dagda, Daugavpils
Ariji, Jelgava Birzi, Jekabpils Dalbe, Jelgava
Arciems, Valmiera Bite, Madona Daudzeva, Jekabpils
Asaci, Rezekne Blankaskrogs, Valmiera Daugavpils, Daugavpils
Asare, Ilikste Blidene, Tukums Dauguli, Valmiera
Asite, LiepHja Blome, Valka Dauksti, Madona
Astere, Valmiera Bodnieki, Bauska Deglava, Ludza
AsQne, Daugavpils BolderAja, Riga Degumnieki, Madona
Atagiene, Rezekne Borkava, Rezekne Digndja, Jekabpils
Auce, Jelgava Bramberge, Jelgava Dikli, Valmiera
Auggpils, Jaunlatgale Bran i, Ventspils Dilgavieze, Liepaja
Augstroze, Valmiera Branti, Cesis Dobele, Jelgava


Dole, Riga Gren'i, Tukums Jaunpiebalga, Cesis
Driceni, Razekne Gricgale, Jikabpils Jaunpils, Tukums
Drusti, Cesis Griki, Riga Jaunplava, Talsi
Druva, Tukums Griva, Ilakste Jaunrauna, Cesis
Druviena, Cesis Grobiga, Liepaja Jaunsaule, Bauska
Dubegi, Liepaja Grostona, Madona Jaunseja, Riga
Dubuji, Rezekne Grundzale, Valka Jaunselpils, Jekabpils
Dubulti, Riga Gudenieki, Aizpute Jaunsilzemnieki, Valmiera
Dunalka, Aizpute- Gulbene, Madona Jaunsvirlauka, Jelgava
Dunava, IlDkste Gutmapi, Jekabpils Jaunzemji, Madona
Dundaga, Ventspils Jefi, Valmiera
Dunika, Liepaja G Jekabnieki, Jelgava
Dunte, Valmiera Gibuji, Talsi Jekabpils, Jekabpils
Durbe, Liepaja gibzde, Ventspils Jelgava, Jelgava
Dare, Valka gipka, Ventspils Jerzika, Daugavpils
Dirupe, Kuldiga JUdali, Riga
Dzelzava, Madona I Jumprava, Riga
Dzequkrogs, Valka Idena, Rezekne JurAi, Tukums
Dzerbene, Cesis Idus, Valmiera Jarkalne, Aizpute
Dzilleja, Ludza Idze, Rezekne Jurmalciems, LiepAja
Dzimtmisa, Bauska lecava, Bauska Justunova, Ludza
Dzirciems, Tukums leras, Kuldiga
Dzukste, Jelgava leriki, Cesis K
Igate, Riga Kabile, Kuldiga
E Ikgkile, Riga Kaceni, Jaunlatgale
Edole, Ventspils Ile, Jelgava Kairisi, Daugavpils
Eglaine, Ilukste Ili4i, Talsi Kaleti, Liepaja
Egluciems, Jaunlatgale Ilmaja, Liepaja Kalisi, Talsi
EikaZi, Riga Ilukste, Illkste Kalki, Ventspils
Eleja, Jelgava Ilzene, Valka Kalnamuiia, Jelgava
Elkgii, Jekabpils Imula, Tukums Kalncempji, Valka
Elste, Madona Inciems, Riga Kalnciems, Jelgava
Emburga, Jelgava Ingukalns, Riga Kalniena, Valka
Engure, Tukums Indra, Daugavpils Kalnozols, Madona
Erberge, Jekabpils Ipiki, Valmiera Kalnvirsa, Madona
Ergeme, Valka Irlava, Tukums Kaltene, Talsi
Ergli, Cesis Ivanda, Kuldiga Kalupe, Daugavpils
Evele, Valka Izvalta, Daugavpils Kalvani, Jekabpils
Ezere, Liepaja Kalvene, Aizpute
J Kandava, Talsi
G Jadeksi, Talsi Kapi;i, Daugavpils
Gaidupe, Valka Janopole, REzekne Karki, Valka
Gaigalava, Rezekne Jagukalns, Madona Kdrkli, Madona
Gaiki, Kuldiga Jduvarti, Rezekne Karsava, Ludza
Galgauska, Madona Jasmuiza, Daugavpils Karzdaba, Madona
Garan'i, Rezekne Jaunanna, Valka Kastrdne, Riga
Garkalne, Riga Jaunauce, Jelgava Katrina, Cesis
Garoza, Jelgava Jaunbebri, Riga Katvari, Valmiera
Garsene, Illkste Jaunburtnieki, Valmiera Kaunata, R&zekne
Ggrgnieki, Cesis Jaundziras, Tukums Kazdanga, Aizpute
Gatarta, Cesis Jaungulbene, Madona Klavi4i, Jaunlatgale
Gaujiena, Valka Jaunjelgava, Jekabpils Kligi, Jelgava
Gauri, Jaunlatgale Jaunkalsnava, Madona Klostere, Aizpute
Gavartine, Daugavpils Jaunkakni, Valmiera Koknese, Riga
GlUda, Jelgava Jaunlatgale, Jaunlatgale Kolkasrags, Ventspils
Goba, Bauska Jaunmilgravis, Riga Korgeni, Valmiera
Gostigi, Riga Jaunmuiza, Kuldiga Korva, Valka
Gramzda, Liepaja Jaunokra, Daugavpils Krice, Rezekne
Graudupe, Kuldiga Jaunpagasts, Talsi Krape, Riga


KrSslava, Daugavpils Liede, Madona Mellmezi, Talsi
Kraukli, Madona Lielauce, Jelgava Mellui, Riga
KraZas, Kuldiga Lielborne, IlUkste Melnsils Ventspils
S Krievciems, Daugavpils Lielindrica, Daugavpils Melnupe, Madona
KrimUnas, Jelgava Lielirbe, Ventspils Mengele, Riga
KrigjaBi, Jaunlatgale Lielrenda, Kuldiga Merdzene, Ludza
Krogseta, Kuldiga Lielsvitene, Bauska Merkeli, Riga
Krogauce, Jelgava Lielvdrde, Riga Mgrnieki, Valmiera
Krote, Liepaja Lielvircava, Jelgava Mersrags, Talsi
Krustpils, Daugavpils Lielzalva, Jekabpils Metriena, Madona
Krfte, Liepaja Liepaja, Liepaja MelAre, Daugavpils
Kudepe, Valka Liepna, Jaunlatgale Melmuila, Jelgava
KOdums, Cesis Liepupe, Valmiera Melvidi, Rezekne
KQkas, Daugavpils Liepugki, Rezekne Migldni, Daugavpils
Kuk5as, Tukums Liezere, Madona Misa, Bauska
Kuldiga, Kuldiga Ligatne, Riga Mordanga, Talsi
KUii, Talsi Liksna, Daugavpils More, Riga
Kuplaji, Riga Lilaste, Riga Mucupe, Talsi
Kuprava, Jaunlatgale Limbali, Valmiera Muizaraji, Kuldiga
Kurbe, Ventspils Linava, Jaunlatgale
Kur!i, Ventspils Litene, Madona N
Kurcums, rlukste LivAni, Daugavpils Nabe, Valmiera
Kursisi, Kuldiga Livberze, Jelgava Nagli, Rezekne
Kusa, Madona Lizums, Cesis Nalobna, Rezekne
SLode, Cesis Naudite, Jelgava
KEOi, Riga Lone, Jekabpils Naujene, Daugavpils
Kegums, Riga Lubana, Madona Nauk9eni, Valmiera
.emeri, Riga Lubeja, Madona Nauleni, Daugavpils
Yepava, Daugavpils Lubezere, Talsi Nautrdni, Ludza
Bimale, Kuldiga Ludviki, Daugavpils Nereta, Jekabpils
Vinguti, Kuldiga Ludza, Ludza Nica, Liepaja
Luntas, Talsi Nicgale, Daugavpils
L Lutrini, Kuldiga Nigranda, Liepaja
Labrags, Aizpute Nikrdce, Aizpute
LabvArzi, Rezekne L Nirza, Ludza
LaHi, Daugavpils Lauderi, Ludza Nitaure, Riga
Ladpldsis, Riga Laudona, Madona Nogale, Talsi
Lade, Valmiera Nomava, Jekabpils
LAdezers, Valmiera M Nuki, Valmiera
Laidi, Aizpute Madliena, Riga Nurmuiza, Talsi
Laidze, Talsi Madona, Madona
Laipmeli, Talsi Majori, Riga 0
Lambreksi, Tukums Makageni, Rezekne Odziena, Madona
Lamini, Tukums MAlmuila, Valka Ogre, Riga
Lasupe, Kuldiga Malpils, Riga Ogresgals, Riga
Laubere, Riga Malta, Rezekne Okte, Talsi
Lauci, Ludza Marciena, Madona Olaine, Riga
Laukgali, Ventspils MArinkalns, Valka Oli, Madona
Launkalne, Cesis Markalne, Valka Omuli, Valka
Laurciems, Liepaja MArsneni, Cesis OSenieki, Kuldiga
Lauva, Valmiera MAteri, Ventspils Otanki, Liep5ja
Lazdukalns, Jaunlatgale Matigi, Valmiera Ovigi, Ventspils
Ledmane, Riga Mazirbe, Ventspils OzoldArzs, Daugavpils
Ledurga, Riga Mazsalaca, Valmiera Ozolmuiza, Rezekne
Leimani, Jekabpils Mednieki, Jaunlatgale
Lejasciems, Valka Medze, Liepaja P
Lestene, Tukums Medzula, Madona Pace, Ventspils
Libagi, Talsi MeirAni, Madona Padobe, Jaunlatgale
Lii, Talsi Melli, Cesis Padure, Kuldiga


Pakalne, Jaunlatgale Rasa, Riga Sgrene, Jekabpils
Pale, Valmiera Rauda, IlUkste Sesava, Jelgava
Palsas, Jaunlatgale Rauna, Cesis Sidgunda, Riga
Palsmane, Valka Rava, Liepaja Sidrabipi, Madona
Pampali, Kuldiga Rekova, Jaunlatgale Sieksdte, Aizpute
Panemune, Bauska Remte, Tukums Sigulda, Riga
Paplaka, Liepaja Renceni, Valmiera Sikgqukrogs, Riga
Parumba, Riga Re4ge, Jelgava Silajapi, Rezekne
Pasiene, Ludza Rezekne, Rezekne Silaveveri, Jekabpils
Paslava, Jaunlatgale Rezna, Rezekne Silene, Ilfkste
Pastende, Talsi Riebegi, Rezekne Sinole, Valka
Patkule, Madona Riga, Riga Sipele, Jelgava
Pauri, Rezekne Rimsani, Daugavpils Skaist~a, Daugavpiis
PAvilosta, Aizpute Rinda, Ventspils Skaistkalne, Bauska
Pededze, Valka Rite, Jekabpils Skangali, Jaunlatgale
Peipipi, Daugavpils Riteri, Riga Skriveri, Riga
Penkule-Pagasts, Jelgava Ritupe, Jaunlatgale Skrunda, Kuldiga
Piedruja, Daugavpils Roja, Talsi Skudras, Cesis
Pieneni, Daugavpils Ropazi-Pagasts, Riga Skujene, Cesis
Piksari, Valmiera Rostba, Madona Skulte, Riga
Pilda, Ludza Rozanova, Daugavpils Slagune, Tukums
Piliki, Daugavpils Rozgni, Valmiera Slampe, Tukums
Pilsblidene, Tukums Rubene, Valmiera Slate, Jekabpils
Pilsrundale, Bauska Rubegi, Ilfkste SliterAni, Jekabpils
Piltene, Ventspils Rucani, Madona Sloka, Riga
Plani, Valka Rucava, Liepaja SmArde, Tukums
Planila, Kuldiga Rudbarzi, Aizpute Smiltene, Valka
Platere, Riga Ruduski, Rezekne SnEpele, Kuldiga
Platone, Jelgava RudzEti, Daugavpils Snikere, Jelgava
Plava, Talsi Rugaji, Jaunlatgale Sofikalns, Valka
Plavinas, Riga Rijiena, Valmiera Spagi, Daugavpils
Pociems, Valmiera Ru4li, Kuldiga SpAre, Talsi
Podnieki, Talsi Rundani, Ludza Sprivuli, Valka
Polkarona, Rezekne Ruskula, Jaunlatgale Sprogi, Jekabpils
Pope, Ventspils Rugfna, Daugavpils Staburags, Jekabpils
Prauliena, Madona Rulina, Rezekne Staicele, Valmiera
Pravini, Tukums Stalidzani, Rezekne
Preili, Daugavpils S Stameriena, Madona
Priede, Jelgava Sabile, Talsi Stelpe, Bauska
Piednieki, Rezekne Saikava, Madona Stende, Talsi
Priekule, Liepaja Saka, Aizpute Stepeli, Cesis
Priezkalns, Talsi Sakstagals, Rezekne Stiene, Valmiera
Puikule, Valmiera Salacgriva, Valmiera Stirniene, Rezekne
Punduri, Jaunlatgale Salaspils, Riga Stolerova, Rezekne
PUpoli, Rezekne Saldus, Kuldiga Straume, Jelgava
Pfre, Tukums Saliena, Ilukste Straupe, Cesis
Purmsati, Liepaja Sarkani, Madona Strautigi, Valka
Purvmala, Jaunlatgale Sdti, Tukums Strazde, Talsi
Puga, Rezekne Sauta, Jekabpils Stren'i, Valka
Pusgaldiii, Kuldiga Sauleskalns, Daugavpils Struijas, Ventspils
Pustina, Daugavpils Saulkrasti, Riga Strutele, Tukums
Puze, Ventspils Sausngja, Madona Struzini, Rezekne
SAviena, Madona Stukmani, Riga
R Sece, Jekabpils Subata, Ilukste
Radova, Jaunlatgale Sedvigi, Liepaja Sudmali, Daugavpils
Ragana, Riga Selekcija, Talsi Sunakste, Jekabpils
RAmuli, Cesis Selpils, Jekabpils Suntazi, Riga
Ranka, Casis Seme, Tukums Sventa, Ilukste
Raqki, Kuldiga Sepi, Talsi Svetupe, Jelgava


Svitene, Bauska Valgale, Talsi Viksnumels, Jaunlatgale
Valgunde, Jelgava Vilaka, Jaunlatgale
S Valka, Valka Vilani, REzekne
* ibe, Jekgava Valle, Bauska Vilce, Jelgava
iriliii, Riga Valmiera, Valmiera Vilkni, Valmiera
Rkirotava, Riga Valtaiki, Aizpute Vilpulka, Valmiera
Vanagi, Daugavpils Virbi, Talsi
T Vandzene, Talsi Vircava, Jelgava
Tadaiki, Liepaja Vane, Tukums Viregi, Valka
Talsi, Talsi Varak1Ini, Rezekne Virga, Liepaja
Tdsi, Liepaja Variesi, Daugavpils Virpe, Ventspils
Taudejaii, Rezekne Varkava, Daugavpils Viskali, Riga
Taurkalns, Bauska Varme, Kuldiga Viki, Daugavpils
Taurupe, Riga Varnava, Jekabpils Vitrupe, Valmiera
TErande, Ventspils Varnavici, Ilikste
Tetele, Jelgava Vartulauva, Ludza Z
Tilia, Jaunlatgale VAvere, Riga Zafi, Rezekne
Ti4gere, Talsi Vaveriena, Rezekne Zadzene, Riga
Tinuli, Riga Vecdki, Riga Zalamuila, Kuldiga
Tirza-Pagasta, Madona Vecani, Rezekne Zalenieki, Jelgava
Tome, Riga Vecate, Valmiera Zallte, Bauska
Tomeni, Valka Vecirgi, Madona Zalvlte, JEkabpils
TrakSi, Madona Veckalsnava, Madona Zaia, Kuldiga
Trapene, Valka Veclaicene, Valka Zante, Tukums
Trepe, Daugavpils Vecliepkalne, Madona Zari4i, Jelgava
Trikdta, Valka Vecmuiza, Bauska Zasa, JEkabpils
Thja, Valmiera Vecogre, Cesis Zaube, Riga
Tiii, Talsi Vecpiebalga, Cesis Zebrene, Tukums
Tukums, Tukums Vecpils, Liepaja Zeltigi, Valka
Turaida, Riga Vecrikava, Rezekne Zemgale, Ilukste
Turlava, Kuldiga Vecsaule, Bauska Zemite, Tukums
Turlavmuiza, Kuldiga Vecsece, JEkabpils Zentene, Talsi
Vecslabada, Ludza Zibergi, Daugavpils
U Vecsvirlauka, Jelgava Ziemupe, Liepaja
Ugdle, Ventspils Vecumi, Jaunlatgale Zilupe, Ludza
Ukeni, Talsi VEjava, Madona ZiVa, Ventspils
Ukri, Jelgava Velena, Valka ZlEkas, Ventspils
Ulbroka, Riga Velki, Cesis Zobe, Jelgava
Ulmale, Aizpute Vembri, Daugavpils Zonepe, Valmiera
Umurga, Valmiera Ventspils, Ventspils ZutEni, Kuldiga
Ungurmuila, Daugavpils Vergali, Liepaja Zvarde, Kuldiga
Ungurpils, Valmiera VErsis, Valmiera Zvidziena, Madona
Upesgriva, Talsi Veselava, Cesis
Upesleja, Jaunlatgale Veseta, Madona
Upesmuila, Tukums Vestiena, Madona 2agatas, Rezekne
Upmale, Jaunlatgale Veveri, Valka 2iguri, Jaunlatgale
UpsEde, Aizpute Vidale, Ventspils locene, Ventspils
Urga, Valmiera Vidrizi, Riga Lubites, Jaunlatgale
Usma, Ventspils Vidsala, JEkabpils
UZava, Ventspils VidsmuiZa, REzekne
Uzi4i, Jelgava Vieniba, Madona
Uzvaldi, Daugavpils Viesatas, Tukums
Viesiena, Madona
V Viesite, JEkabpils
VainiZi, Valmiera Viesturi, Jekabpils
Vaiiode, Liepaja Vietalva, Madona
Vaive, Cesis Viganti, Daugavpils
Valmemarpils, Talsi Vijciems, Valka
Valenburga, Jekabpils Viki, Valmiera



by the Editorial Board

This interesting subject is linked with the history of Bessarabia. The latter is
not so much a country, as a geographic name for the territory between the Dniester
and Pruth rivers. Bessarabia has had a mixed population, including many Moldavians
and also strong representations of Ukrainians, Bulgarians, Jews, Gagauz (Turki-
speaking Christians), Gypsies and some Cossack and German colonists.

The Moldavians, also found in appreciable numbers on the other side of the
Dniester river in the Odessa area (sometimes referred to as "left-bank
Moldavians"), speak a language identical with Rumanian, but written in the
Cyrillic alphabet. About 40% of the vocabulary is Slavic due to long contact
with their Ukrainian neighbors. We will see that the histories of the Moldavian
and Ukrainian peoples are intermingled.

As a result of the October Revolution, the Bessarabians set up a governing
assembly on 2 Dec. 1917 called "Sfatul Tirei" (The Council of the Country) and
formed an autonomous Moldavian Republic within Soviet Russia. However, the
Rumanian Army entered Kishinev, the capital, on 13 Jan. 1918 and full union with
Rumania came about on 9 December. The RSFSR and USSR never recognized the loss
of Bessarabia and this problem remained a serious bone of contention with the
Kingdom of Rumania between the two world wars.
K4 ,.29
With Bessarabia, or "right-bank A n u -
Moldavia" gone and the resultant n.. i
influx of Moldavian Bolsheviks
across the Dniester river, a
Moldavian Autonomous Soviet -' RW *
Socialist Republic was formed on __
12 Oct. 1924 on the left bank,
within the framework of the
Ukrainian SSR. Speaking of ASSRs --
in general, it is not necessary \ .
that their populations form ethnic \ \
majorities within their own areas. \ .'7
So far as the Moldavian ASSR was r --'i.
concerned, the figures in 1926 "'''' .. .... :-: I
were as follows:- \ ':'
Ukrainians 48.5%; Moldavians 30.1%; ,
Russians 8.5%; Jews 8.5%; others /

Initially, the capital was at '.-,,'
Balta, but this was moved to '
Tiraspol' in 1929. Tiraspol' is ..
a very old settlement, going back\ K\W,
to ancient Greek times, hence its MOJIAIABCKAl ACCP 47--
name, which means "City on the ,, a .- *.'
Tiras" (Dniester). The map in AC a, n Ie
-- ACCP TOA0c 0 1 0Ar20
Fig. 1 shows the extent of the 0 U-*cPA C TACCP :OTCo-1 10. "
oo Ln-rP -P y nCCP -nC o* 0 "-
ASSR; it had an area of 8400 sq. V__o . .n, -..n TO
km. and was divided into 14 rf.w 5n.a ^i I& T... .
M ClfU4n*AX === WI.4i.U4O. 03 k, XO* .. .. 3
districts. The population in 1933 c..j ; ..... .... .
was 615,500. 1 I TI* -C"" ,,oj&*
Fig. 1. 6I-VA -&-mm MSI lc. guna 13 o
op noxAw wa(cs. 7%) 4apea6p TM ou T3Xu 0 400 4-12 00


The USSR in 1940 was a far stronger nation than the weakened RSFSR of 20 years
earlier, struggling to overcome the effects of the territorial losses resulting
from the Civil War. On 27 June 1940, the USSR presented Rumania with a 24-hour
ultimatum for the return of Bessarabia. The Red Army marched in the next day.
The result was the incorporation of the Akkerman (Cetatea Alba), Izmail and
Khotyn districts in the Ukrainian SSR, while the rest of Bessarabia (right-bank
Moldavia) merged with the Moldavian ASSR on 2 Aug. 1940 to form the Moldavian
SSR (Union Republic status). Either then, or at some later date, the Anan'ev
and Balta districts of the former Moldavian ASSR were turned back to full
Ukrainian administration, as the population was overwhelmingly Ukrainian in
composition. Despite being occupied during WW II, the unified status remains
the case today and it should be noted that such boundaries are much more
logical ethnically than the old "Bessarabia" concept.


A relatively large number of post offices was in operation during the ASSR
period, as shown by the following list taken from the April 1937 edition of
"Dictionnaire des Bureaux de Poste", published by the U.P.U. in Berne:-

2nd. " DUBOSSARY KAMENKA Birzula dist.
4th. " Dubossary KARANTIN Dubossary dist.
from 1935 GARABA KORZHEVO Rybnitsa dist.


PASSAT SERBY Kodyma dist.
PERELETY SHERSHENTSY Grigoriopol' dist. Okny dist.
PESCHANY SHLYAKHETNAYA Smolyanka dist. Tiraspol' dist.

The earliest indications on mail of the ,/' t/ < ,
existence of this ASSR are given as the ,)
initials "A.M.C.C.P." (AMSSR) on three 4
covers to Omaha, Nebraska in the / '
collection of President Gordon H. Torrey, t
as follows:- //"

Origin Cancel
Tiraspol' 13.3.25 THPAC7OJ-b
Tiraspol' 24.6.25 "
Tiraspol' 25.8.25 (Fig. 2)-- / VfP" '

Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.

At some later date in the 1920s, this office was supplied with bilingual Russo-
Ukrainian cancellers, of which the subscript "e" has been seen with dates 21.1.30
(Fig. 3) and 11.5.30.

The only other town from which markings have been noted is BALTA, the original
capital. This must have been quite a busy office, as we can see from subscripts
"a", "e" and "zh" shown on postmarkers from 1926-1927 (Fig.4). Note the initials
"A.M.C.C.P." given at bottom. The inscription was changed to "EATJTA AVJPJ......"
(BALTA MOLD...), with subscript "k" and date 14.10.39, as shown in Fig. 5.


The final example, from the Norman Epstein ..t *
collection, is a money-order form with some I
interesting features. Stamps to the value
of 23r. 40k. were affixed and cancelled
with the original BALTA A.M.S.S.R. type. '^"3S,. '
but now with subscript "i" (u) and date \ 11
13.7.41, i.e. in the first days of the
Nazi-Soviet War. Technically speaking, the
bottom inscription was not correct as the
republic had advanced from autonomous to
union status almost a year before. Also,
the Balta district may have already been
handed back to the Ukrainian SSR, in which
case it would no longer have been in 1
Moldavia The moral of the story is:
know your history and your philatelic A. 4ig, ''4
material then takes on greatly '
enhanced importance. See Fig. 6.

In conclusion, it can be assumed that as "
markings of only two offices have been
noted so far, those of all other offices
must be in the range from scarce to very A
rare. A lot of work obviously remains to
be done in this field and a search for
such material will inevitably turn up
items of great interest.
Fig. 6.

"Here and there...

Shown below are three examples of illustrated glossy cards in wallet size with
1974 calendars printed on the back. With printings of 1 million each by the Yakub
Kolas Multicolor Printing Combine and sold at 3 k. each, these useful cards also
make an attractive philatelic sideline. Bulgaria also issues similar cards.

BII moameflucmuiecHou numrw.pimpe- HIATEJIXTCTO3!
mHOio UHmePecHou noflOfleHOU UHmp9'iCHO) e u noj1iiai...nr ,,:"mu,
u a19-u


from U.P.U. records

The following list is taken from the work: "Nomenclature Internationale des
Bureaux de Poste", U.P.U., Berne 1968, Switzerland, 3 vols. It is given in
multilingual form, for better utilization by our members.

CuipdaptuHcKoo o06. Syr Dar'a province.
Vepn8e8ectoo o6.A. Chernihiv province.
YepKacbto' o6.a. Cherkasy province
FypbeecKoz o6d. Gur'ev province.
mnnponempoecWKo" o6A. Dnipropetrovs'k prov.
AKmo6uicooz o6di. Aktyubinsk province.
PypbeecKo0 o604. Gur'ev province.
CaMapKaH3cKoti o6A. Samarkand province.
9. IEB-EHIO, yPCP, nponeponempoecKo o6l. SHEVCHENKO, Ukr.SSR,
Dnipropetrovs'k prov.
1O.lEB1EHM-O, YPCP, oHetbKo'i o06.., SHEVCHENKO, Ukr.SSR, Donets'k prov.,
BeqnuKoHoeociAKiecboao Velika Novosilka
p-Hy. district.
11.MEBBEH1F0, YPCP, LoHezbKo- o6da., SHEVCHENKO, Ukr.SSR, Donets'k prov.,
BoAooapcimoeo p-hy. Volodars'kyj district.
12.LzLEBEHID, YPCP, 7onezbKo'" o6d., SHEVCHENKO, Ukr.SSR, Donets'k prov.,
iepeonoapMzi cbKoso Red Army district.
13.lEBWEHIHO, yPCP, 3anop3scwKo' o6da., SHEVCHENKO, Ukr.SSR, Zaporohian prov.,
A4uecwoeo p-ny. Akymiv district.
14.ILEBEHMO, YPCP, 3anop.scW)io o6d., SHEVCHENKO, Ukr.SSR, Zaporohian prov.,
Bactiectioeo p-Hy. Vasylivka district.
15.ILEBEHIOD, YPCP, MKonaa'ecno'S o6A. SHEVCHENKO, Ukr.SSR, Mikolayiv prov.

Vinnytsya province
17 .fEBIEHHOBE, YPCP, [inponempoecbKo" o6da. SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr.SSR,
Dnipropetrovs'k proy.
18.lEBIEHKOBE, YPCP, JKunomupcbKo o6d&. SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr.SSR, Zhytomyr
19 .lEBIEHIBE, PCP, 3anopscmKo" o6da., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr.SSR, Zaporohian
BepdsRcboeo p-Hy. prov.,Berdyansk dist.
20.lEBrEHHOBE, YPCP, 3anopIscwboo o6a., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr.SSR, Zaporohian
noi0A3C02o0 p-ny. prov., Polohi dist.
21.IAEBIEHHOBE, JPCP, 3anopi3cbKoF" o6d ., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr.SSR, Zaporohian
VepeoHoapMicoToeo prov., Red Army
P-nY. district.
22.LEBIEHKOBE, YPCP, IeaHo5fpaHKecKo' SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr.SSR, Ivanofrankivs'k
o6d. province.
23.lrEBr1EHHIBE, YPCP, OdecbKo" o6.I., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr.SSR, Odessa prov.,
Eepe3secbwoeo p-Hy. Berezivka district.
24.LIEBIEHIDBE, YPCP, Ooecbco" o6d.., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr.SSR, Odessa prov.,
CScicozo p-ny. Kiliya district.
25 .zIEBIEHKOBE, YPCP, Odecwobo o6d., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr.SSR, Odessa prov.,
Pa30snHRHcbKOn 8 p-ny. Razdilna district,

26.IEBqEHHIBE, YPCP, ionmaecDKoe o06/. SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr. SSR,
Poltava province.
2-7.LLEBrEHJDBE, YPCP, CyMcWKo o06d., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr. SSR, Sumy province,
P rFyxiecbKo00 p-Hy. Hlukhiv district.
28..lEBIEHDBE, YPCP, Cy4cbKoF o6A., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr. SSR, Sumy province,
lKoomoncbKmoo p-Hy. Konotop district.
29.LlEBiEHAEDBE, YPCP, XapKiecbto0 o06., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr. SSR, Kharkiv prov.,
BenuKo6ypayz4tKoeo Velikyj Burluk district.
30.LzEBf-EHgOBE, YPCP, XapK ectbo? o6d., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr. SSR, Kharkiv prov.,
CaxnoaeuhoKos2 Sakhnovshchyna district.
31.LzEBiEH-iDBE, YPCP, Xap KecbKo o6/., SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr. SSR, Kharkiv prov.,
Wee6eHKoecbKoao Shevchenko district.
32.IEBIEHHlOBE, YPCP, lepKacwo ofQ6. SHEVCHENKOVE, Ukr. SSR, Cherkassy
3anop3cbKoW 06od. Zaporohian province.
KpacHodapcKoao Krasnodar district.
3anopd3cbKo 06o/. Zaporohian province.

There was another post office: AfAiF L EB-EHA4 Kuaectwo o6a. (MOHYLA SHEVCHENKA -
Tomb of Shevchenko in the Kiev province). This was listed in both the 1937 and 1951
U.P.U. editions of "Dictionnaire des Bureaux de Poste", so we know it survived the
war years. However, it does not appear in the 1968 listing quoted above, so it is
possible that the office was renamed. Information, anyone?

In conclusion, it is felt that the study of the postmarks and other postal
indications from these offices would make a fascinating topical study and the
Editorial Board would be pleased to receive any data on the subject from members.

***** *****


Will all members please note that subscriptions are due on 1st. January of each
year, regardless of the original month of joining and the 1974 dues from members
must be received by 31 March 1974 at the latest, to avoid payment of reinstatement
fees. New members receive all the Journals issued during the year of joining.

To avoid the unnecessary delays which have occurred in the transfer of funds, our
English members are kindly requested to send their annual dues direct to our
Treasurer, Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 11226, U.S.A., by
the most convenient means: money order, bank draft, etc., rather than to a central
source in the United Kingdom.

Foreign members in general should add $1.50 to their cheques and bank drafts
because of the high bank collection charges in the USA.



by Vambola Hurt

Reference is made to the article by the Editorial Board on "The International
'N' Markings" in Rossica Journal No. 84, pp.52-53.

The Odessa marking is not known to me. The TALLINN N marking
is a well-known one. Originally issued in pre-Soviet Estonia 2
at the end of the 1930s, it was also used during the German .
occupation (see Fig. 1 herewith). The use of this marking' 9 V 4
was continued for several years after WW II. All mail in the i -
Estonian area addressed abroad was supposed to have been
collected in one post office at Tallinn and provided with
the marking before leaving the country. Although a postal Fig. 1.
marking, there is no doubt that it can be fully equated
with censorship.

Based on covers in my collection and on covers provided by Mr. E. Ojaste of
Gothenburg, Sweden, I have made a limited special study, as follows:-

(a) The oldest cover was mailed in Valga (Walk). The stamps are cancelled
with the Cyrillic marking TALLINN-RIGA P.V. 48 (49?), dated 13.6.46. The
TALLINN N marking is on the back

(b) Cover mailed in Valga. The stamps are cancelled with the TALLINN N postmark
dated 11.6.46. The same marking and date on the back.

(c) Cover mailed in Rakvere (Wesenberg). The stamps are cancelled TALLINN N
19.11.46 in lilac. The same marking and date on the back.

(d) Cover mailed in Sindi. The stamps are cancelled TALLINN N 20.5.47, with
the same marking and date on the back.

(e) Registered cover from Valga. TALLINN N marking dated 23.12.47 both on front
and back. Cancellation unknown (stamps cut off).

From 1948 on, there is a continuous correspondence between Tallinn and
Helsinki, which gives us some interesting dates:-

(f) A postcard with the same marking, dated 1.5.48

(g) Another postcard, mailed on 25.8.49 and provided with the new TALLINN N
marking (see Fig. 6 on p.53, Rossica No. 84). The older type seems to have
become unusable and was thus replaced by a similar one, but of different size.

(h) Three further covers with the same new marking, dated 27.12.49, 13.1.50
and 11.4.50.

(i) A new change was now introduced. The next postcard is cancelled with a
bilingual Russo-Estonian marking: TALLINN-9, dated 16.5.50. The postcard was
also provided with a boxed Russian marking, reading "MEJIEZHA4PO HOE"
(INTERNATIONAL). This latter marking was in use for quite a few years and,for
the above and other reasons, has been considered as the censorship successor
for the "N" marking.


I have in my possession an additional cover which may also
be of interest in this connection. The cover was sent from
Uppsala. Sweden 11.11.49 to Tallinn and returned to sender
"(unknown address?). The cover has been backstamped with a 28X
TALLINN S marking, dated 28.12.49 (see Fig. 2 herewith).
The marking is of the same size and type as the later
TALLINN N one. It seems possible that other markings could
also have been used for the same purpose in Tallinn. There Fig. 2.
is no doubt that bilingual Russo-Estonian markings were in
use at that particular time for internal postal use; the earliest one in my
collection is from MUSTLA and dated 4.5.56.

Some remarks can also be made regarding the registration markings. The example
shown in Fig. 4 on p. 52, Rossica No. 84 is an old one from the times of pre-
Soviet Estonia. The following one given in Fig. 5 for Parnu must have been
introduced in 1947-1948. It was later replaced by registration markings
inscribed only in the Estonian language. The misspelling of the Estonian
language, however, happens frequently. For example, the registration marking
for Viljandi (Fellin) is mispelt even today.

A totally different approach seems to have been applied K SSE
at KINGISSEPP (formerly Kuressaare and Arensburg). In ET.SSR
1955, the usual handstamped registration marking was
used (see Fig. 3 herewith). However, a registration
label appears in 1956 (see Fig. 4 herewith). I have Fig. 3.
never heard of registration labels being used in the
Soviet Union after WW II. Any comments ?

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Two interesting points have been NS
raised by Mr. Hurt. In the first place, the boxed
Russian-language "AEWYHAPO YHOE" cachets were
introduced throughout the USSR in 1950, primarily Fig. 4.
as directional marks for mail going abroad. The
practice was abandoned when the volume of such mail eventually became very large.
We will get around to a study of these cachets one of these days, as many types
exist and they were also applied on foreign mail arriving in the USSR.

Re registration labels after WW II, they were also prepared locally in the Latvian
SSR, at least for mail going abroad, with the office name in Latvian and an added
printed designation in French reading "R.S.S. DE LETTONIE". Other instances from
elsewhere in the USSR also probably exist and perhaps our members can send in the
necessary details.


Sam Bayer

A former member of the Society, Mr. Bayer was a dealer in covers and especially
those to do with aerophilately. It was because of his initiative that many fine
covers of the Zeppelin flights came into existence and these included some
unusual combinations that came within our spheres of collecting interests.

A man who always looked young for his age, he passed away at the age of 77 on
19 October 1973 in Englewood, New Jersey. We extend our sympathy to his survivors
in this their irreparable loss.



by P. J. Campbell.

The Editorial in Issue No. 82 of the Rossica Journal was entitled "Learn the
Russian Language" and went on to point out the many advantages of being able to
translate the words on stamps, the postmarks and even to be able to tackle
philatelic literature. This little article is intended to take up where the
Editorial left off and to lead the reader one step further along the road.

One of the main groups of the world's languages is called Indo-European and,
within that group,there are a number of sub-groups. One of these sub-groups is
called Slavic and another Germanic. Russian comes within the former sub-group
and English in the latter. It would therefore seem that Russian-English
translation would pose very great problems but, within our own specific subject
(philately), there are a surprising number of similarities of words. This
article is partly based on these similarities.

The first problem to be faced, of course, is that Russian is written, or
printed, in the Cyrillic alphabet, so we must list the 30 significant
characters of that alphabet before attempting our first translation.

As a historical note, the Cyrillic alphabet was derived from the Greek by two
monks, St. Cyril (hence the term Cyrillic) and Methodius in the year 861 and
was used by various missionaries from Constantinople when they were converting
the Slavic peoples Russians, Serbians and Bulgars. Meanwhile, another group
of missionaries, whose base was Rome, were converting the Polish and Czech
peoples, using texts printed in the Roman alphabet. These two alphabets have
persisted in those countries to this day and appear on their stamps more than
a thousand years later !

It will simplify our task if we ignore grammar entirely, assuming that we will
be translating only from Russian to English. We will ignore handwriting or script
(which is seldom used on stamps) and concentrate only on Capital (upper case)
letters. We will also ignore the other 99 languages which are spoken in the USSR
but are seldom used on stamps.

With these simplifications, we can now list the Cyrillic alphabet, with our own
Roman alphabet alongside, and a rough idea of pronunciation. Luckily, Russia uses
the same Arabic numerals as we do, so these pose no problem. In some cases, it is
necessary to use two English letters to represent a single Russian letter,
because the alphabets are not exactly equivalent.



Elections for Officers of the Society will take place during 1974. Nominations
for candidates should be sent to the Secretary, Mr. Joseph F. Chudoba, 426
Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn. N.Y. 11225, USA, no later than 31 March 1974, so that
the Elections Committee can send out the ballots no later than 30 May 1974.


Cyrillic Roman Approximate
Alphabet Alphabet Sound in
(Russian) (English) English

A a farm
B b bottle
B v value
r g go
A d dog Notes:
E ye yet (1) rolled;Parisian
rK zh azure or Scottish
3 z zone (2) Scottish
H i feet pronunciation
t y by (3) New England
Sk kid pronunciation
JI 1 law
MJ m money
H n not Omitted to
0 0 a simplify
I p a pot transliteration
II p pot
P r thrice (1) i elected
C s soot I in
T t tore J 1918
y u super
(D f four
X kh loch (2)
U ts its
[I ch church
II sh ship
II shch fresh cheese
bl y buoy (3)
Se met
H) yu use
H ya yard



A few other items to note are that the Russian letter 'A" appears as "a" in
lower case and the letter "B" as "6", but the upper and lower case alphabets
are otherwise the same. There are also two Russian letters that are put in to
affect the pronunciation of other letters: these are and ". Just ignore
them as we are not presently concerned with pronunciation.

A last thing to note is that you may encounter the letters "i", '6" and "e". These
were used in Imperial Russia but were dropped on 10 Oct. 1918, so simply replace
them by "H ", "E" and "0" respectively.

With the basic alphabet listed, we can now attempt our first transliteration,
using direct substitution from the above alphabet and taking the Russian word
from the overprint on Scott B24 to B29:-

A= a
T = t easily recognized as the word "philately".
E= e
J= 1
H= i
R = ya

Now a few more, by the same direct substitution method:-

Scott Nos. Russian Transliteration Comments







The above are examples to show that the word is sometimes recognizable with a
little imagination and this takes us to the second group, composed of proper
names, that often transliterate recognizably on stamps or on postmarks:-

Scott Nos. Russian Transliteration Comments






You may find a few letters left over at the end, but don't worry. The above is
most useful for sorting out long sets of different geographic areas (Scott 647-
658), cities (Scott 2326-2335), peoples (Scott 1568-1582), fair pavilions


(Scott 1770-1785), or battles (Scott 2512-2514D). In some cases, these stamps
are issued in sets of the same value and similar colors, so it is essential to
be able to spell out some single word that positively identifies the stamp.
S Some cities soon becomes familiar:MOCKBA(Moscow),JIEHHHrPAA (Leningrad) or, as
it was known before lETPOrPAA(Petrograd) or, earlier still C.IIETEPBYPr
(St. Petersburg). You will also get used to the shortened forms of MOCK. and C.n.B.
(SPB or St. Petersburg). Names usually come out easily; try PHMA KHEB O AECCA
and BAPIABA for yourself. An extension of this second group is where, even
after substituting letters, the word is not recognizable. Now go to the third
column of the alphabet table above and try to pronounce the word you have
written. This sometimes solves the problem:
e.g. Scott 715 HIDO- OPK gives NYU-IORK which, in pronunciation, is
recognized as NEW YORK !

The third group, of course, is where you have substituted letters and come up
with a word you still don't recognize. You are now committed to the next step,
a dictionary. Collins publish one at $1.35, but there are several available
under $2.00. Do not get too big a book, as you are seeking only simple words.
The confusing (to us) order of the Cyrillic alphabet will cause a little trouble
at first and you will sometimes confuse "q" with "Y", "3" with "3" and it is
strange to find that "bl" is a single letter. A little practice will smooth your
path, however, and open new horizons in our fascinating hobby.


Scott No. Russian English

489 KA3AKH



763 qEXOB


2635 o.rEHPH

Here and there....

It is not very often that famous philatelists are also noted
on postage stamps, but this has now happened in our own
sphere with the issue by the USSR on 20 May 1973 of a 4-kop.
commemorative (Scott No. 4084), honoring the noted polar
explorer and late President of the All-Union Society of
Philatelists, Ernst T. Krenkel' (1903-1971). See the
illustration herewith of this stamp, which was tastefully
produced by a combination of photogravure and recess




by the Editorial Board.

The title refers to the 50-kop. stamp issued by the Polish Armed Forces in the
USSR during WW II. Quite a lot has been written about this stamp. The present
article is intended primarily to cover the areas not yet adequately surveyed and
also to clear up any discrepancies.

As a result of the onset of the Nazi-Soviet War, Polish POWs interned in the
USSR were released, beginning in Sept. 1941, to form the Polish Armed Forces in
that country under the command of General Wladyslaw Anders. One of the first
postal signs of this organization was the appearance at Yangi- ~
Yul in Uzbekistan of a circular marking, completely in Polish
and reading around the circle "D-TWO. POL. SIL. ZBR. w &'wM r
Z.S.R.R", with the figure "1" between three asterisks at the POIZTA
bottom (Headquarters of the Polish Armed Forces in the USSR). 0 .
Above and below the date bridge were the words "GLOWNA POCZTA / "OLOWN
POLOWA" (Main Field Post Office see Fig. 1). The bridge was
left blank, for the manuscript insertion of the date and the
earliest usage seen is 5/V/1942 (5 May 1942). Fig. 1.

By the next month, it was already being suggested that a postage stamp be
issued for the Polish Field Post Service in the USSR and a competition was
subsequently held for a 50-kop. design. It was won on 8 Aug. 1942 by an artist
using the pseudonym of "STAN". This was an imaginative
design, showing a freed Polish family and soldier
walking back towards a map of Poland.

A die was engraved for this design and proofs taken in
tete-beche pairs, by reversing the pieces of paper. We
have seen the following colors and papers:- .

(a) Carmine on grey paper.
(b) Dark blue on grey paper.
(c) Green on grey paper. -J
(d) Light blue on white paper (Fig. 2).

Other colors and combinations probably exist.

This die was later disfigured by vertical lines cut
down the centre and we have noted an impression of 01
this state (Fig. 3). It has been said that this design
was not issued because of political reasons. We can
see why by looking carefully at the place-names given
on the map: Lwow, Warszawa and Wilno. The first city
was the capital of Western Ukraine (L'viv) and the
last, the capital of Lithuania (Vilnius), while both Fig. 3.
were on Soviet territory. Note the reversed "N" in the name WILNO.

As the "STAN" project was abandoned, the second design entitled "Dojdziemy"
(We shall come back) was adopted on 13 Aug. 1942 and the die was engraved on
steel by engraver K. Polkowski. His initial "P" appears in the bottom right
corner of the right panel, above the value tablet. This is also a very striking
design and the details are as follows:-


LEFT PANEL: Polar bears, with
the Aurora Borealis (Northern
Lights) in the sky.

CENTRAL PANEL: Marching and
helmeted Polish soldiers,
with the crowned Piast eagle
in the background.

RIGHT PANEL: Central Asian
desert scene, showing camels
and the sun in the background.

See Fig. 4 for the details. 19 KOP

Proofs taken from this design ..
have been noted as follows:- Fig. 4.

(a) Grey-brown, imperf.op white paper.
(b) Dark grey-brown, imperf. on white paper.
(c) Red-brown, with simulated perforation holes
at right, in the same color.
(d) Red-brown, with simulated perforation holes
at left, in the same color (Fig. 5).

In addition, color proofs have been reported Fig. 5.
in black, dark blue and red. Also, an
imperforate proof sheet of six stamps (two horizontal rows of three units, with
wide spacing between the stamps) and a final plate proof sheet with simulated
perforations, printed in two rows of three, with one row inverted in relation
to the other.

The stamp,as issued on 18 Aug.
1942, was in the same sheet
format as the final plate
proof sheet and this leads us
to investigate the composition
of the printing plate. It
seems certain that three
stereos in type metal were
taken from the die, simulated
perforations added to the
left and right sides of the
second stereo and all three
then nailed to a block to form
the printing plate. This last
point is important, as the
colored impressions formed by
the nail heads often show up Fig. 6.
in the printing process. As
the press was a hand-operated machine with a small bed, sheets of six stamps were
produced by turning the sheets around to add the second row and thus making three
tete-beche pairs (Fig. 6). The first stamp in the strip of three has a color flaw
in the frame-line separating the left and central panels of the design, just to
the right of a polar bear; there is also a blob of color linking two of the sun's
rays at top right below the second "R" of "Z.S.R.R." (see Fig. 4 for both flaws).
These are also constant in the same positions and unit on the inverted strip of
three, proving the composition of the plate. These varieties and an examination
of all the material we have seen leads us to believe that practically all the


proofs produced were stereo proofs and not B !
die proofs.

The die was later defaced with "X"-like strokes -
and we have seen an impression of this state,
made in black (Fig. 7). Fig. 7.


This is the most important feature of the issue and one where there are some
grey areas. The following items are known to have gone through the mails:-

(a) Portion of an envelope, apparently addressed to the Polish Forces in the
Middle East and franked with the "Dojdziemy" stamp plus a 30-kop. Soviet "pilot"
definitive. The "Dojdziemy" stamp is cancelled with the marking of the Polish
Main Field Post Office at Yangi-Yul (Fig. 1) and, together with the Soviet stamp,
is tied with a regular Soviet civilian postmark reading: EJIATOBELEHXA 1PAJ7-AEA,- [
EJMAFOBEIEHYA 18.8.42 (Blagoveshchenka, Dzhalal-Abad district, Kirghiz SSR and not
far from Yangi-Yul in the adjoining Uzbek SSR). Other markings-
include a Soviet circular censor marking reading "BOEHHAH ..
22 / M; see Fig. 8) applied at Moscow (censored also in i
the Middle East and sealed with a bilingual Anglo-Polish
gummed slip of paper) plus a final arrival marking of the "
Indian F.P.O. No. 103, operating in the Middle East
(recorded by M. A. Bojanowicz). Fig. 8.

(b) A cover, addressed in Polish and Russian to the Polish Embassy at Kuibyshev,
cancelled as before but with a combination "Dojdziemy" and Soviet 60-kop.
definitive franking. This was also censored by No. 22 at Moscow (recorded by
M. A. Bojanowicz).

"- Fig. 9.

(c) Portion of a front, also addressed to Kuibyshev, with the same markings and
date as before and a combination franking of the "Dojdziemy" stamp and a Soviet
30-kop. "pilot" definitive, apparently also censored by No. 22 at Moscow (see
Fig. 9, from the Alfred Kugel Collection).

(d) A piece with a combination franking of the "Dojdziemy" stamp and a Soviet
15-kop. "soldier" definitive, both of which apparently missed postmarking at the
mailing point and were subsequently hit with two strikes of the "22/M" Moscow
Censor marking (recorded by Dr. M. E. UznaAski).

Purely philatelic items include the "Dojdziemy" stamp on piece with undated
strikes of the Polish Main FPO marking shown in Fig. 1, favor cancellations of


the Soviet circular postmark "HnOJ9BA 1OWTA M 3000, 6" (F.P.O. No. 3000, serial
"b") applied at Yangi-Yul with the dates 18.8.42 and 21.8.42 and finally, in
combination with Indian and Iraqi stamps, all cancelled at the Polish F.P.O.
No. 1114 in the Middle East, which had nothing to do with the proper usage of
the "Dojdziemy" stamp in the USSR.

A total of 263 copies were sold in the USSR from the 18th. to the 21st. Aug. 1942,
when the Polish Forces under General Anders left for the Middle East.


Postage stamps are an expression of a country's sovereignty and this is normally
a jealously guarded right. Even when the Polish Government in exile issued stamps
during WW II, they could only be used on Polish ships (technically Polish
territory) and at Polish military camps in Great Britain on certain days only, by
express permission of the British Government. This is a key point and also applied
to the wartime stamps issued by the governments in exile of Holland, Norway and
Yugoslavia. There is no evidence in the literature that the Soviet authorities
had ever been approached for permission to issue the stamp and, in every instance
where it was placed on mail, the full Soviet postage also had to be added. These
same points were also made in detail by I. Gust, a noted Polish philatelist in
Australia (see "Polonus Bulletin", Aug.-Sept. 1957, p.152-7).

We can further assume that, had the evacuation of the Polish Forces from the USSR
not intervened, the Soviet authorities would have moved to stop the sale of what
they must have regarded as an illegal stamp.Furthermore, there are strong grounds
to believe that the 50-kop. face value also included the cost of the Soviet
postage to be affixed (normally 30 k.). In other words, the value actually was
20 k. + 30 k., with the 20 k. representing the fee for taking the piece of mail
to a Soviet post for further servicing.

Finally, there were three Soviet field post offices which served the postal needs
of the Polish Forces in Central Asia: No. 3000 at Yangi-Yul, Uzbek SSR; No. 3001
at Dzhalal-Abad, Kirghiz SSR and No. 3004 at Guzar, Uzbek SSR.


(a) The issue of the "Dojdziemy" stamp was not so much postal, as philatelic and
political in character.

(b) Despite this background, the stamp is still of great historical interest, as
are also the proofs of the "STAN" project.

(c) As few copies were properly sent through the mails with the necessary
additional Soviet postage, such pieces are of great rarity.

(d) Mail bearing this stamp was posted at the Soviet civilian post office at
Blagoveshchenka, Kirghiz SSR and all such mail was censored in transit by No. 22
in Moscow.

(e) Mint copies are also desirable as the total issue was only 3017 copies, of
which just over 2000 remained after WW II for distribution to philatelists. Very
few copies have gone back to Poland, from where forgeries have been reported,
both of the stamp and its cancellations.




by the Editorial Board.


At 6 am on 1 Sept. 1939, Nazi Germany began, without warning, its treacherous
attack on Poland. True to their glorious military traditions, the Poles resisted
heroically, but it soon became evident they were no match for the Nazi Wehrmacht.
In the Western Ukraine, the maximum point of Nazi penetration was in the Stryj-
L'viv-Sokal areas, but they did not take the capital itself of L'viv (L'vov, Lw6w,

On 17 Sept. 1939, the Red Army began entering the Polish Eastern Territories,
inhabited by about 7 1/2 million Ukrainians, 3 1/2 million Belorussians and a
million each of Jews and Poles. That same day, it was in Baranovichi, Dubno,
Molodechno and Rivne (Rovno, R6wne) and by 22 Sept. in Grodno, Kovel, L'viv and
Vil'na (Vilnius, Wilno). In negotiations with the Germans, the boundaries between
the two forces were fixed along the Vistula-Bug-Solokiya-San line of rivers and
corresponding advances and withdrawals quickly took place after 28 Sept. 1939.

The final result was the official incorporation of the Western Ukraine into the
Ukrainian SSR on 1 Nov. 1939, with relevant changes in this area which was
formerly administered by Poland. The far-reaching ramifications of this event in
the philatelic sphere form the subject of the present article.


During the Polish administration of 1919-1939, Polish was the dominant language
and there was no Ukrainian instruction beyond the middle school (junior high)
level. As a result of the change of status in Sept. 1939, Literary Ukrainian
became the dominant language, with Russian also made official and the further
use of Polish allowed to a limited extent.


To get essentail services going again, banks and post offices were quickly
reopened and, for exchange purposes, the Polish zloty was fixed at par with the
Soviet ruble. This procedure had interesting consequences, as pointed out by the
eminent Polish philatelist, Prof. Dr. Antoni Laszkiewicz. The Polish postal rates
became almost (but not quite)identical with the Soviet ones and as the continued
utilization of Polish postal stationery, stamps and cancellers was also tolerated
for a short time, the following unusual cases became theoretically possible:-

(a) Mail with Polish stamps, paid at the Polish rates.
(b) Mail with Polish stamps, paid at the Soviet rates.
(c) Mail with Soviet stamps, paid at the Polish rates.
(d) Mail with Soviet stamps, paid at the Soviet rates.
(e) Mixed frankings of Polish and Soviet issues, paid at the Polish rates.
(f) Mixed frankings of Polish and Soviet issues, paid at the Soviet rates.
(g) Commercial and philatelic frankings which do not conform to either rate.

With the exception of category (d), examples of such frankings are all rare and
of great philatelic interest.

Philatelically, the incorporation was commemorated by the USSR with a set of five
stamps, printed by the phototype process and issued in April 1940. Inscribed
"Liberation of the fraternal peoples of the Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia"


and giving the date of entry ....
(17.IX.1939), the designs appear, i
for the most part, to have been
taken from newspaper photographs *
of the campaign (see Fig. 1). The -. -
values and scenes are as follows:-

10 kop.: Red Army soldier holding t.
a waving child, with I
villagers and another -
soldier in the background.

30 kop.: Villagers welcoming a Fig. 1.
Soviet tank crew.

50 & 60 kop.: Red Army man handing out newspapers to a crowd of villagers.

1 rub.: Villagers welcoming a tank column.

A comparison of the Polish and Soviet postal rates effective during the
transitional period is now tabulated for the benefit of members:-

Class of mail Polish rate Soviet rate

Local letters 15 gr. 15 kop.
Intercity letters 25 gr. 30 kop.
Foreign letters 55 gr. 50 kop.
Local postcards 10 gr. 10 kop.
Intercity postcards 15 gr. 20 kop.
Foreign postcards 30 gr. 30 kop.
Local & intercity registration fee 30 gr. 30 kop.
Foreign registration fee 45 gr. 80 kop.


In pre-war Poland, the city of L'viv was the headquarters of one of the six
postal districts in the country and it was thus very important postally, with
activities extending beyond the Western Ukraine. After Sept. 1939, there was a
drastic reorganization within the Western Ukrainian borders, with postal districts
corresponding to six new provinces, a special case made for the city of L'viv and
at least one town incorporated in the existing Kam'yanets-Podils'kyj province. The
postal districts we have noted are: Drohobych, Kam'yanets -Podils'kyj, L'viv-Misto
(City of L'viv), L'viv province, Rivne, Stanyslaviv, Tarnopil' and Volyn'. To
complicate matters, towns in the Peremyshl (PrzemySl) area on the eastern bank of
the San river were also included in the Western Ukraine.

Originally, the old Polish cancellers remained in use throughout the Western
Ukraine until they could all be replaced with new bilingual Ukrainian-Russian
types by some time in 1940. Each postal district solved the problem in its own
individual way, as we shall see hereunder. Exceptionally, some purely Ukrainian
or Russian types also appeared. In some cases, the local authorities were not
familiar with Russian grammar and put the Ukrainian names on both sides of the
cancels (left and right). By contrast, most of the Polish registration cachets
were never replaced and they continued in use right up to the outbreak of the
Nazi-Soviet War.

We will now look at what happened on a postal district basis. Our U.S. members
will have an advantage in this respect as much of the surviving mail was addressed


to the Chicago, Detroit and New York City areas. The post offices known to have
operated at the beginning of Sept. 1939 are listed for each postal district under
their Polish names, for ease in identifying markings during the transitional


(a) Post Offices-:

Bortniki Jawora n. Stryjem Prikut Stary Sambor
Borynia Kalin6w Podbu Stebnik
Borynicze Komarno Podhorce k. Rudek Synow6dzko Wyzne
Boryslaw Koziowa Podhorce k. Stryja Tamanowicze
Chodor6w KroAcienko k. Chyrowa Pohorodce Truskawiec
Dobra Krukienice Rajtarowicze Tuchla
Dobromil Lawoczne Rozd6l Tucholka
Dobrowlany Lawr6w Rozlucz Tuligl6wy
Drohobycz Lisiatycze Rozwad6w Turka n. Stryjem
Felsztyn Medenice Sambor Uliczno
Hnizdycz6w Kochawina Milczyce k. Rudek Skole Wladyslaw6w k.Turki
Hreben6w Morszyn Slawsko Wybran6wka
Hussak6w Mszaniec Smorze Wysocko Wyzne
Jasienica Zamkowa Nadyby Wojntycze Soko16w k. Stryja Lurawno
Jasienka Masiowa Nowosielce Zurawna Stara S61 Zydacz6w

(b) Mixed frankings at the Polish rates:

(i) Pair of 25 gr. Polish definitive and 5 kop. Soviet guardsman definitive,
paying the intercity registration rate on a cover to L'viv (Prof. Dr. A.
Laszkiewicz). Polish cancel reading DROHOBYCZ 1 *4b* 21.X.39 and Polish
registration marking DROHOBYCZ Id.

(ii)5 gr. + 10 gr. Polish definitive and 10 kop. Soviet factory girl definitive
for ordinary intercity rate on a letter with Polish cancel SAMBOR *c* 17.X.39
and addressed to L'viv (Prof. Dr. A. Laszkiewicz).

(c) Bilingual Ukrainian-Russian cancels seen:

(d) Soviet stamps distributed in this district:

5 kop. guardsman definitive
10 kop. factory girl definitive
30 kop. Mayakovskii commem.
30 kop. Sports commem.
60 kop. Arms definitive
60 kop. Shevchenko commem.
1 r. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.


The former Polish border town of TARNORUDA was incorporated in the neighboring
Soviet province of Kam'yanets-Podils'kyj. No examples have so far been seen on
mixed frankings or Soviet postage.



We have not yet determined how many post offices existed in the city, but the
highest number seen so far is 17.

(a) Mixed frankings:

(i) 5 gr. Polish definitive and 5 kop. Soviet miner definitive on an unsealed
cover paying the (Soviet ?) printed matter rate to PrzemyAlany. Polish
cancel reading LW6W 1 *2n* 21.X.39.

(ii)5 gr. + 10 gr. Polish .
definitive, two 10-kop. Soviet
"commems and a 15-kop. Soviet :
definitive on a local registered
L'viv cover. Polish cancel LW6W 1
*2a* 22.X.39 and Polish R-cachet
LWOW la. The cover is philatelic
and the franking does not
correspond to either rate (see
Fig. 2).

This is a historic envelope, as
the sender typed a Ukrainian
inscription in red in the top left
corner, reading as follows:-

"eudopu denymamme do ycWpaxcwbKux
napodnux : 6op*e 3axhOiN yKpaggru y
e*Abnum e2 a nanc X.oeo apa 5epeo p.A Fig. 2.
.Aeoei dOA 22 axoemnI pooy 1939".
(Elections of deputies to the Ukrainian National Elections of Western Ukraine in
open ballot, from the yoke of the gentry in Red L'viv on 22 Oct. 1939).

(iii) A cover with mixed franking and Polish cancel of LW6W 16 dated 20.X.39
(advised by Prof. Dr. A. Laszkiewicz).

(iv) Pair of 15 gr. Polish definitive and a Soviet 30 kop. pilot definitive
on a local and philatelic
registered cover to L'viv
and Soviet military cancel
reading "BOEH. I7I0DOBAH
a43A JIMT. C. x 29.10.39"
(Military Postal Base,
Letter S, subscript zh,
29.10.39 see Fig. 3).
Fig. 3.
(v) A cover with mixed franking and Polish machine cancel of LW6W 2 *
8.XI.39 (advised by Prof. Dr. A. Laszkiewicz).

(b) Continued usage of the Polish machine cancels for LW6W 2 on Soviet postage:

LW6W 2 4.III.40 on 20 kop. farm girl definitive
LW6W 2 31.V.40 on 30 kop. factory girl postcard
LW6W 2 a 4.X.40 on 50 kop. steel worker envelope
LW6W 2 a 7.XI.40 on 15 kop. Sports commem.


(c) New Soviet markings; normally Russian at left, Ukrainian at right, with the
post office number at bottom and subscript placed just above it (see Fig.4). The
following have been seen:-

L'VIV 1:

Subscript "a" dated 10.6.40
Subscript "B" 22.11.39
Subscript "T" --.5.40
Subscript "*/e", with ,.-.
Ukrainian at left. Note
asterisk instead of office .
number. Dated 23.2.40
Subscript "i" 27.4.40
This second example is shown IA
on the cover in Fig. 4. This
is from the Epstein Colln. "'
and a remarkable piece as
the envelope was made into a 1 4
commemorative item for the
first anniversary of the
entry of the Red Army. The ""
sender clipped out
appropriate illustrations
from a local newspaper and
added the complete Fig. 4.
liberation set, mailing the
prepared cover to himself.

Subscript "K" dated 4.2.40. Subscript "1" dated 17.10.40. Subscript "A" dated
30.1.40. Subscript "I" dated 5.4.40.

The Polish R-cachets run from LW6W la to LW6W le. Used with all the postmark
subscripts for L'viv 1, a very large number of combinations should theoretically
exist and,if adequate material has survived, its collection and classification
would make a fascinating study.

L'VIV 5: Subscript "B" dated 22.11.40 and 9.12.40.

L'VIV 6: Subscript "F" dated 29.2.40. The Polish R-cachet reading LW6W 3a has been
corrected by hand to "6".
Subscript "F" dated 19.3.30. The blank Polish R-cachet has the inscription
"Lw6w 6" written in at bottom.

L'VIV 7: Subscript "6" dated 2.7.40. Subscript '"" dated 1.5.40.

L'VIV 8: An unusual type without subscript, but with the notation at bottom given
as "8/8" and dated 27.2.40. This apparently was the famous post office on
Valova St. where the L'viv handstamped overprint on four Austrian stamps
was issued on 20 Nov. 1918.

L'VIV 14:Subscript "6", dated --.4.40.

L'VIV 17:Subscript "F", dated 7.2.40 on a registered cover in the N. Epstein


L'VIV ZH.D.P.O. : Subscript "F", dated 5.12.40 and with Ukrainian at left.
This was the railway station post office.

S (d) Soviet stamps distributed in this district:

Liberation set of April 1940 (all values)
15 kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.
15 kop. 1940 Arctic commem.
15 kop. Chekhov commem.
15 kop. Shevchenko commem.
15 kop. Sports commem.
20 kop. Chekhov commem.
20 kop. Farm girl definitive
20 kop. Sanatorium commem.
30 kop. 1940 Arctic commem.
30 kop. Chekhov commem.
30 kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.
30 kop. pilot definitive
45 kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.
50 kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.
50 kop. Aviation Day overprint
50 kop. Moscow Building commem.
60 kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.
60 kop. Shevchenko commem.
60 kop. Arms definitive
80 kop. Maksim Gor'kii airmail commem.
1 rub. 1938 Armed Forces commem.
5 rub. 1939 Lenin definitive




It is with great regret that we have to announce
the sudden death at 1.30 pm on 8 May 1973 of our
noted Bulgarian collaborator and friend of the
Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Dimit'r
Nikolov Minchev.

Mr. Minchev was born in the city of Constanta,
Rumania in 1905 and lived there for 38 years. A
man of many accomplishments, he was an ,
experienced philatelist, publicist, critic,
historian and librarian. He was a pillar of
strength among the Bulgarian Community in
Rumania and the bibliography of all his works
published just in Bulgarian and Rumanian is simply

An ethnic Bulgarian, he left Constanta for Sofia
and helped to enrich the philatelic life of that
capital. Your Editor-in-Chief knew him well for
the last 11 years of his life, culminating in a
personal visit during the "SOFIA-69" Philatelic
Exhibition, which will always remain a pleasant
memory. His departure will be deeply felt.


(4) L'VIV PROVINCE POSTAL DISTRICT (Jheec=wa o6dacmb, J.tbeoecKca od6aacmv,
Powiat Iwowski)

(a) Post Offices:

Barszczowice Kulik6w Radziwill6w k. Brod6w
Betz Kurowice Rawa Ruska
BialykamieA Kutkorz Rodatycze
B6brka Laszki Zawiazane Sass6w
Brodki Lelech6wka Sich6w
Brody Leszni6w Siedliska k. Rawy Ruskiej
Busk k. Lwowa LubieA Wielki k. Lwowa Sielec Bienk6w
Chlebowice Luczyce Skwarzawa
Choloj6w Magierdw Slowita
Chorobr6w k. Sokala Mikulaj6w k. Gaj6w Sokal
Czerkasy Milatyn Nowy Sokoldwka k. B6brki
Dawid6w MoAciska Sokol6wka k. Ozydowa
Dobrosin Mosty Wielkie Stanislawczyk
Dobrostany Mszana Dolna k. Lwowa Stare Siolo
Dobrotw6r Nahacz6w Starzawa k. Chyrowa
Domazyr Nawarja Szczerzec k. Lwowa
Dublany k. Lwowa Niemir6w Szczerzec k. Niemirowa
Dubowcd Nieznjowa Szczurowicze
Dzibulki Nowe Miasto na Drwqca Szklo
Gaje k. Lwowa Nowoszyce Swirz
Gliniany Nowodw6r na Drwqec Tartak6w
Glinna k. Lwowa Obroszyn Turynka
GliAsko Olesko Uwin
Golog6ry Olszanica k. Zloczowa Winniki
Gr6dek JagielloAski Ostr6w k. Sokala Wiszenka
Janczyn Ozyd6w Witk6w Nowy
Jan6w k. Lwowa Piaseczna k. 2ydaczowa Wodynie
Jarycz6w Nowy Pieniaki WoTk6w k. Lwowa
Jawor6w Pluh6w Wyciaze
Kamionka Strumilowa Podhorce k. Zloczowa Zablotce k. Brod6w
Kamionka Woloska PodkamieA k. Brod6w Zadw6rze
Kniaze Podliski Male Zaszk6w
Kolt6w Pomorzany Zimna Woda Rudno
Koniuch6w k. Stryja Ponikwa Zlocz6w
Krakowiec Potylicz Zolkiew
Krasne k. Lwowa Przemyslany Zoltance
Krystynopol Pustomyty k. Lwowa
Krzeszowice Radziech6w

(b) Continued application of Polish cancel on Soviet postage:

PODHORCE k. ZLOCZOWA 3.1.40 on 30-kop. Shevchenko commem.

(c) Bilingual Ukrainian-Russian cancels seen:

DOROZHIV: ZOPOKITB J7bB. OER. ZOPOW.B 15.1.40 (new Ukrainian reg. cachet)
ZIMNA VODA RUDNO:31f-L4 B0,A-P HO JZbB.OEJ7. 3kfV4 BQ0A-PYO7 0 8.5.40
OLES'KO: OJECbKO JbB. OE7. J0.ECLHO a 21.4.41


(d) Soviet stamps distributed in this district:

5 kop. miner definitive
10 kop. factory girl definitive
20 kop. farm girl definitive
80 kop. Mayakovskii commem.
80 kop. 1938 North Pole Flight commem.
1 rub. 1938 Armed Forces commem.
1 rub. 1940 Arctic commem.

a) Post Offices:
Aleksandrija Korzec Podluine
Anton6wka Korostowa Przedbrodzie
Bereine na Horyniem Kostopol Pustomyty k. R6wnego
Bereinica k. Sarn Kuchocka Wola WolyAskiego
Berezno Ludwipol Rafal6wka
Berez6w Ma1yAsk R6wne
Boremel Miedzyrzec k. Korzca Sarny
Chinocze Milatyn na Horyniem Serniki
Chor6w na Horyniem Mirogoszcza Smyga
Demid6wka Mizocz Sosnowe
Deraine Mtyn6w Stara Rafal6wka
Derman Mogilany na Horyniem StepaA
Dubno Mokwin Targowica
GliAsk Czeski Niekiewicze Testuh6w
Hoszcza Niemowicze Tomaszgr6d
Hulcza Czeska Obar6w Tuczyn
Janowa Dolina Osowa k. Rafal6wki Warkowicze k. Dubna
Jaroslawicze Ostki Wlodzimierzec
Kisorycze Ostr6g na Horyniem Wolkowyje k. Dubna
Kles6w Ostrozec Zdolbica
KlewaA Oenin Zdolbun6w
Kniahinin Pefcza

(b) Continued usage of Polish cancels on Soviet postage:

ROWNE / WOLKOWYJE 2A (??) 25. II. 40 on 1 r. 1938 Armed Forces commem.

(c) Bilingual Ukrainian-Russian cancels seen:

KLEVAN' 2: IJIEBAHb 2 ....... .KEBAHb 2 a 27.3.40

(d) Soviet stamps distributed in this district:

50 kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.
60 kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.
1 rub. 1938 Armed Forces commem.


This is an unusual postal district, which moved towards fully Ukrainian
markings in the transition period and then developed a purely Russian
orientation, with the cancellers apparently made in Moscow, instead of being
manufactured locally.


(a) Post Offices:

Bednar6w Koniuszki Siemianowskie Roiniat6w
Biudniki Konkolniki Rozn6w k. Zablotowa
Bohorodczany Kornicz Rudniki k. Zablotowa
Bolech6w Korsz6w k. Kolomyji Rypne
Bolszowce Kosmacz Solotwina
Bukaczowce Kos6w k. Kolomyji Spas
Bursztyn Kuty Staniskaw6w
Bytk6w k. Semianowic Lanczyn Stecowa
Czernelica Lipica Dolna Stratyn
Czortowiec Lysiec Stryj
Delatyn Marjampol k. Halicza Sniatyn
Delej6w Markowce Tarnowica LeAna
Dolina Matyjowce Tatar6w na Prutem
Dora Mikuliczyn Tlumacz
Duba Nadwdrna Tlumaczyk
Diur6w Niegowce k. Kalusza Troscianiec
Firlejdw Niezwiska Turka k. Kolomyji
Halicz Niini6w TySmienica
HotyA Obertyn Tybmieniczany
Horodenka Oleszk6w Uhrin6w
Horodnica Olszanica k. Ustrzysk Wistowa
Jablon6w k. Kolomyji Oslawy Biale Wojnil6w
Jamna Ottynia Worochta
Jaremcze Pasieczna k. Nadw6rny Zabie
Jasienka Masiowa Peczenizyn Zablot6w
Jasien6w G6rny PerehiAsko Zalucze
Jezierzany k. Borszczowa PistyA Zawadka k. Kalusza
Jezupol PodkamieA k. Rohatyna Zielonka k. Nadw6rny
Kalusz PodszumlaAce 2ukojnie Strackie
Kniahynicze Popielniki tur6w
Kolomyja Puk6w
Komar6w Rohatyn

(b) Mixed franking at the Polish rate:

25 gr. Polish MoAcicki stamp and 30 kop. Soviet pilot definitive paying the
intercity registration rate on a cover to L'viv (Prof. Dr. A. Laszkiewicz).
Polish cancel reading KOLOMYJA *b* 21.X.39 and Polish registration cachet

(c) Continued application of Polish cancel on Soviet postage: aon '

NIATYN *4a* 11.1.40 on 10-kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib.
commem. (Dr. Gordon H. Torrey Collection see Fig. 5
Fig. 5.
(d) New markings in Ukrainian only:

ZABOLOTIV: 3ABOJDTIB 01.111.40 SAX. AHP. (see Fig. 6).
KOLOMYYA: IDJ1KMF 9.X11.39 (Prof. Dr. A. Laszkiewicz)


(e) New markings in Russian only (Moscow-style cancels):

CTAHMCJ14B TYT. K-PA H 20.7.40

(f) Soviet stamps distributed in this district:

5 kop. miner definitive
10 kop. factory girl definitive
20 kop. farm girl definitive
3Q kop. pilot definitive
50 kop. 1940 Arctic definitive
60 kop. Arms definitive
80 kop. Dzerzhinskii commem.
1 rub. 1938 Armed Forces commem.

20 kop. farm girl postcard


(a) Post Offices:

Barysz k. Monasterzysk Jagielnica Mogielnica k. Trembowli
Bawor6w Jankowce k. Lanowiec Monasterzyska
Berezce k. KrzemieAca Jan6w k. Trembowli Nastas6w
Biala na Seretem Jastrzebowo k. Tarnopola Nowe Siolo k. Podwoloczyski
Bialoboznica Jazlowiec Nuszcze
Bialoz6rka Jezierzany k. Buczacza Okopy Sw. Tr6jcy
Bilcze Ziote Kaczandwka Osowce k. Buczacza
Borsuki Karnacz6wka Petlikowce Stare
Borszcz6w KociubiAczyki Poczaj6w
Boryszkowce Komar6wka k. Buczacza Podhajce
Brzezany Koniuchy k. Brzeian Podwoloczyska
Buczacz KopyczyAce Podwysokie
Budzan6w k. Trembowli Korol6wka k. Borszczowa Potok Zloty k. Buczacza
Buszcze Koropiec Potutory
Chorostk6w Kos6w Lacki Probufna
CzarnokoAce Wielkie Koszlaki Proszowa
Czortk6w Koszylowce Rudnia Poczajowska
Darach6w Koziowa Skala na Zbruczem
Dederkaly (Wielkie) Kozl6w k. Tarnopola Skalat
Dzuryn Kozowa Skoryki
Germak6wka Krzemieniec Sorocko k. Grzymalowa
Grzymal6w Krzywce na Borszczowa Stary Oleksiniec
HadyAkowce KudryAce Strus6w
HaluszczyAce Kurzany Suszczyn
Hluboczek Wielki Kuty k. KrzemieAca Szumsk k. KrzemieAca
Hoihocze Litwindw Tarnopol
Horolanka Loszni6w Tluste
Horynka Luka Mala Tiustenkie
Husiatyn Maksym6wka Torskie
Ihrowica Mielnica na Dniestrem Touste
IwaAczany Mikulaj6w na Dniestrem Trembowla
Iwan6wka k. Trembowli Mikulince Ulaszkowce


UAcieszko Zadar6w Zawal6w
Wasylkowce Zaleszczyki Zbarai
Wielka Brzostowica Zaloice Zbor6w
Wisniowczyk Zarudzie k. KrzemieAca Ziotniki k. Podhajec
Wigniowiec Zarudzie k. Zborowa Zwiniacz

(b) Bilingual and monolingual markings seen:

PIDHAJTSI: I17fr'API TAPH. OEJ7. IO70,t B 1. vI.40
POCHAIV: 70VA4B TAPH. OEJ7. O70qAEB 6 4.9.40
CIAJUAT TAPH. OEJ7. CHAU4T e 10.111.41
TAPHONIOJI a 13.3.41
(new Ukrainian registration cachet see Fig. 7 below).

Fig. 7.

(c) Soviet stamps distributed in this district:

10 kop. factory girl definitive
15 kop. soldier definitive
15 kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.
20 kop. farm girl definitive
30 kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.
30 kop. Timir'yazev commem.
30 kop. pilot definitive
30 kop. Liberation commem.
50 kop. Sports commem.
1 rub. 1940 Arctic commem.

20 kop. farm girl postcard


(a) Post Offices:

Armatni6w Derewek KamieA Koszyrski Krymno
Berezolupy Wielkie Druzkopol Karasin k. Maniewicz Kupicz6w
Brany Holoby Kisielin Lobacz6wka
Bubn6w Holowno Kiwerce Lokacze
Bucni6w Horoch6w Kolki Luboml
Czartorysk Huszcza Korytnica na Bugiem Luck
Czaruk6w k. Lucka Iwanicze Kowel Maniewicze


Miqdzyrzec k. Lukowa Polonka k. Lucka Szack
Mielnica na Wolyniu Poryck Swiniuchy
Mikulicze k. Wlodzimierza Powursk Torczyn k. Lucka
Myszk6w k. Wiodzimierza Przewaly Turopin k. Wlodzimierza
Niesuchoize Pulemiec UAciiug
NieSwiei Ratno Wielick
Obzyr Wielki Roiyszcze Wielka Glusza
Olesk k. Lubomla Siedliszcze k. Kowla W1odzimierz WolyAski
Olyka Sienkiewicze Wojnica
Oldziutycze Silna Wyiwa Nowa
Perespa Sokul na Styrem Zablocie k. Ratna
Podbrzezie Soszyczno Zgorany
Poddebce k. Lucka Stare Koszary Zwiniacze k. Horochowa

RPO (TPO) No 308: Bialystok-Kowel.

(b) Mixed franking at the Soviet rate:

Piece with 5-kop. Soviet sculpture
commem. and 25 gr. Polish
definitive, paying the Soviet
intercity rate. Polish RPO (TPO)
cancel reading BIALYSTOK-KOWEL
20.X.39 No. 308 (Prof. Dr. A
Laszkiewicz see Fig. 8). Fig. 8.

(c) Soviet franking at the Polish rate:

Piece with 45-kop. Saltykov-
Shchedrin commem. and 10-kop.
factory girl definitive, paying
the Polish intercity registered
rate. Polish cancel reading LUCK 1
*f* 20.X.39 (Prof. Dr. A.
Laszkiewicz see Fig. 9).

(d) Bilingual Ukrainian-Russian cancels

LUTSK: J7YI KBOaDH. OE7. ....3 5.2.41

(e) Soviet stamps distributed in this

5 kop. 1938 Internat. Exhib. commem. -'
10 kop. factory girl definitive
20 kop. Chaikovskii commem.
30 kop. 1939 Agric. Exhib. commem.
45 kop. Saltykov-Shchedrin commem. Fig. 9.


(a) Post Offices (as far as can be determined from maps):

Bircza Lipa Miekisz Nowy Wiazownica
Bobrbwka Lubacz6w Przemysl Wielkie Oczy
Hrusz6w k. Lubaczowa Manasterz Rybotycze Zapal6w
Laszki k. Bobr6wski Medyka Stubno

(b) Continued usage of Polish postal stationery:

15-gr. postcard with Polish cancel LUBACZ6W *c* 23.XI.39 and sent to
L'viv (Polish intercity rate). Reported by Prof. Dr. A. Laszkiewicz.

No further material has yet been seen from this territory and it is probably
very rare. The Peremyshl' (Przemysl) Territory was handed back to Poland as a
result of WW II.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: It is obvious from the foregoing that a great deal of work
still remains to be done in this fascinating field. The puzzling fact is that
the Western Ukrainian philatelists, who are most familiar with the subject,
have never done any work in this area and, once again, it has been left to the
Rossica Society of Russian Philately to do the spadework and point out the
possibilities for research.

The lists given of the Polish post offices will also be found of great value
in collecting and classifying covers from the Western Ukraine during the Polish
administration of 1919-1939. Material for this subject has been prepared and will
be presented in a future issue of the Rossica Journal. Such items are highly
interesting and many are of considerable rarity.

Companion studies of the Soviet Posts in Western Belorussia and the Vilnius
(Wilno) district during the 1939-1941 are also in preparation and will be
published shortly. Once again, the procedures applied in each case were
characteristic for that particular area and resulted in postal history
material of especial interest.


(during the Russo-Rumanian War against the Turkish Empire in 1877-1878)

by Dumitru Paqalega, Craiova, Rumania

On 12/24 April 1877, Russia declared war against the Ottoman Empire. On the basis
of a convention concluded in Bucharest on 4/16 April 1877, whereby Rumania
guaranteed "to the Russian Army, which would be called upon to move towards
Turkey, free passage across Rumania and the treatment accorded to friendly
armies". The Russian troops began to enter Rumania simultaneously with the
declaration of war. In order to be able to face any danger posed by the Turkish
forces, who were drawn up on the right bank of the Danube River, where they also
occupied some fortified towns, the entire Rumanian Army was mobilized and
concentrated on the left bank of the Danube.

Because of Turkish attacks (bombardments and incursions) on the localities of
Bechet, Calafat, Islaz and Oltenica, the Rumanian Parliament passed an act of a
state of war between Rumania and Turkey on 9/21 May 1877 and declared the
absolute independence of Rumania. As the main body of the Russian troops neared
the Danube, the Rumanian Army moved towards the west, so that by the beginning
of June 1877 the entire force was composed of two army corps (in all, of two
divisions each), as well as a reserve army and other special troops, located in
the south-western part of the country, namely in Oltenia, along the Danube.

This disposition of the Rumanian military units obliged the GHQ of the Army to
fix its residence in the village of Poiana, near the town of Calafat, on the
Danube. The Sovereign of the country and also the Army General Staff were
stationed in Poiana.


A military postal and telegraphic office
attached to the GHQ of the Rumanian Army
came into being in the village of Poiana
on 6/18 July 1877 and began to function
effectively from that date, resulting in C
many telegrams, communications and
reports being transmitted. The postal
activity of this office was served by
the Craiova-Calafat coach, which changed
its route on 6 July, so as to include
Poiana also on its run. This now became
Craiova-Poiana-Calafat and vice-versa.
The importance of this postal and
telegraphic office and the fact that the c i
GHQ was situated for quite a period of
time in Poiana brought about the
manufacture of a specific postal marking Fig. 1.
for this office, with the inscription
"QUARTIER GEN. POIANA" (see Fig. 1). The postmark was a double-circle type with
diameters of 23.5 and 13.5 mm, with the date in the centre in three lines. This
cancelcan be seen with the date 6 Aug. 77 in the illustration shown herewith
(6th. August 1877, according to the Gregorian Calender, introduced into the
Postal & Telegraphic Service on 1/13 Jan. 1865). The marking is applied in dark
blue ink as a departure cachet on a cover addressed to Craiova, where the postmark
of that (civilian) office was also applied as an arrival marking with the date of
7 August 1877.

In the period of May-July 1877, other military postal and telegraphic offices
also functioned in Oltenia, namely at Bgileeti, Cetate, Galicea and Motlei, but
none of these points had its own postal marking. Many documents testify to the
busy activity of these military post offices, conveying official military
correspondence, as well as personal mail of the forces and, more rarely, mail
addressed to the services. The civilian post offices at Bechet, Calafat, Caracal
and Craiova functioned on a parallel basis and their activity increased

By that time, the Russian troops, who had crossed the Danube at many points,
occupied a large part, then a province of the Ottoman Empire, but met with strong
resistance on the part of the Turkish forces concentrated in Pleven. The Rumanian
Army also crossed the Danube and advanced towards Pleven, where a military postal
and telegraphic office was set up. An order, dated 28 Aug. 1877 and addressed by
the Chief of Staff of the Army to the military units, stated that: "for mail both
private and official, from here for Rumania, a postal service has been set up,
having as its centre the relay station of Pordim, the seat of the GHQ of H.M. the
Sovereign, where all ordinary correspondence may be sent for transmission to
various localities in Rumania. All mail of the GHQ of H.M. the Sovereign would be
exchanged immediately with that of the centre. All of this is being communicated
to you so as to bring it to the knowledge of the corps under your command, with
each division appointing an organizer (official) to carry and take the mail".

This order, signed by Colonel Barozzi, was given in V'rbitsa. Heavy battles took
place around Pleven between the Russo-Rumanian troops and the Turks and, after
great difficulty, the Turkish Army, which was beseiged in Pleven, capitulated on
28 Nov. / 10 Dec. 1877. The greater part of the Rumanian Army, forming the Western
Corps, received the mission to destroy the Turkish forces in North-West Bulgaria
and advanced, after heavy fighting, towards Vidin, a town strongly reinforced by
the Turks. The Army GHQ was successively located at Oryakhovo, Lom-Palanka and
Naz'r-Makhala, in which places a military postal and telegraphic office also


functioned, together with other military establishments.

The orders of 26 Dec. 1877 (by General Cernat, Commander of the Army) and of
28 Dec. 1877 (by C. Robescu, Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs) show that
a post office operated with great activity at Lom-Palanka. The circular order
No. 169 of 15 Jan. 1878, given by General Haralambie, commander of the Western
Corps and addressed to the three divisions under his command, stated as follows:
"Private letters, packets and official mail which are not urgent will only be sent
once daily, while those that are urgent will be despatched immediately they are
handed in". This shows that it was not just a question of a field post office
charged only with military mail, but also of a complete postal .nd telegraphic
office, which also conveyed private mail.

An armistice was concluded on 23 Jan. / 4 Feb. 1878, while the Treaty of San
Stefano was signed on 19 Feb. / 3 March 1878, with the result that the Rumanian
troops began to return to Rumania and the post offices in Bulgaria were gradually
closed down. By a telegram No. 5706 circulated on 9 April 1878, C. Robescu,
Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs, advised all the telegraphic offices of
the following: "As our troops are retreating from Bulgaria, the telegraphic offices
at Archer-Palanka, Lom-Palanka, Naz'r-Makhala, Nikopol, Pordim, Vidin and V'rbitsa
are being closed down. Please announce this on the spot".

Unfortunately for philatelists and collectors of postal history material and
because only insufficient archives have so far been examined, no other markings
have been found of the military postal and telegraphic offices in 1877-1878,
other than that with the inscription "QUARTIER GEN. POIANA". However, letters have
been preserved that were sent by soldiers, but bearing markings of the civilian
post offices in Rumania, such as Bechet, Calafat etc.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The information given above, which was especially written for
the Rossica Journal by Mr. Pasqalega, is valuable as it adds to our knowledge of
the postal arrangements during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. The possibility
is not excluded that the "QUARTIER GEN. POIANA" marking may also exist on Russian
stamps of the period or even on covers addressed to Russia.


by Dr. G. Wember

(translated from the magazine "Schweizer Briefmarken-Zeitung", organ of the
Federation of Swiss Philatelic Societies, issue No. 6 for June 1971, by kind
permission of the publishers).

In 1969, the USSR brought out a special issue of five values for the 150th.
anniversary of the birth of the painter Repin. The 10-kop. value (see illustration
herewith) is a self-portrait, while known paintings by Repin are shown on the
other four stamps. The well-known painting "BypoaiHu Ha Boaee" (Barge Haulers on
the Volga) is given on the 4-kop. value and the painting probably most publicized
after its appearance, namely "Zaporoghian Cossacks write a letter to the Turkish
Sultan" is shown on the 16-kop. stamp. The values of 6 kopeks: "The Unexpected"
and 12 kopeks: "Refusal of a Confession" also reproduce paintings which always
attract attention to themselves.

If excerpts alone are taken from these paintings and placed under the glass, it
will immediately be recognized that, with Repin, we are dealing with an
exceptional talent. It is therefore gratifying that we in the West are again made
aware of Repin, who had already made a name for himself during his lifetime even


beyond the borders of Russia, by means of these reproductions of his paintings.
This gives us the opportunity to become acquainted once again with this
phenomenal man. A chronicler of events will remember that, by the turn of the
century, prints of his works had appeared in Germany, as the paintings
reproduced on this stamp issue will also testify. We will now take the time to
sketch a portrait of Repin, so as to gain a proper appreciation of these

Il'ya Efimovich Repin (a second variant of his last name is Ryepin) was born on
5 August 1844 in the village of Osinovka, near Chuguev, in the province of Khar'kov.
As the son of a military colonist, Repin grew up in poor circumstances, since his
father often had to work far away from his family. This situation improved when
his father came back, took up horse-trading and settled in town at Chuguev. At the
latter, there was, among other things, also a Topographical Academy, where the
father brought his 11-year old son Il'ya. This was the first occasion for the
gifted youngster to practice and teach drawing and painting, particularly in
watercolors. As early as the year 1857, we have an exquisite watercolor a view
of Chuguev. Upon dissolution of the academy in 1857, Repin, whose early talent had
already blossomed into the painting profession, went to the painter Bunakov for
lessons. At that time, the normal procedure was to lead him from icon painting to
portraiture. After barely one year's instruction under Bunakov, young Repin was
able to stand on his own feet. He was already a portrait painter at 15 years of
age and in demand in the province, where he was able to get commissions for which
he was paid from three to five rubles each, which was not to be sneezed at.

This led him on to his main desire to become an artist and thus he made his way
to the Academy in St. Petersburg. But the beginning was made difficult for him.
At first, his acceptance as a pupil at the Academy was refused "on account of
insufficient acquaintance with the rudiments of drawing". These were difficult
months for the young Repin. Alone in the big city, his few rubles were soon used
up. He tried to keep his head above water with occasional assignments.

After overcoming his initial difficulties, his successful acceptance then
followed and Repin became one of the most talented pupils, as he found in Kramskoi
not only a fine teacher, but also a subsequent friend. The influence of Kramskoi
on the artistic development of young Repin and his later creations cannot be
valued too highly. His progress and maturity in the class work soon became obvious.
With the successful acquisition of a purely dexterous ability and theoretical
knowledge put his talent on a sound basis and broadened its scope. The first great
works of Repin were already being commented on at the academic exhibitions in 1867.
A purely realistic representation soon manifested itself in his early work,
especially in portraiture, which he had brought to a point of perfection in his
younger years. From this period we may cite here the portraits of his fiancee and
his brother Vasya. Moreover, Repin not only advanced artistically in St. Petersburg
but, above all, he also found his own social level. Repin himself was a passionate
lover of music and he soon came into contact with the contemporary great men of
music. This contact was to develop into friendly relations in the later period of
his life. The Academy lost Repin when he won a gold medal, obtained for the painting
"The Resurrection of the Daughter of lair (Jairus)". This subject, which had been
set by the Academy, hardly interested him, to the extent that he wanted to avoid
participating. However, in deference to the memory of his late sister Ust'ya, he
resolved to apply himself and, within a few weeks, completed this well-known
picture. It caused a great sensation at an exhibition in 1871. A grant of six
years of study abroad was also linked with the gold medal he had gained and Repin
was now free to further his development. It was for him the road that led to

Using the scenery of the outskirts of St. Petersburg, Repin took his first


impressions of the Neva River, which he used after many revisions and changes
in its composition, with separate sketches for the personages and landscape in
the well-known picture "Barge haulers on the Volga", better known to us here in
the West as "The Volga Boatmen". Repin was always going off to the Volga district
for detailed studies and he rented a peasant's hut there, so as to examine on the
spot the hard life of the barge haulers and their awful living conditions. This
painting, measuring 131 x 281 cm., with its various figures represented in life
size, is a complete tableau from everyday life, arranged in a unique composition
and brought to-artistic perfection! This gaggle of threadbare creatures, eleven
in number, with each of them different and clothed in his own solitary fate, is
shown dragging his heavy load under the blazing sun in a file up the Volga.
This is a painting with a unique social accusation and which, while portraying
something living and in a life-like manner, cannot be expressed in words. It is
no wonder that,when the picture was first exhibited, it was a real and triumphant
success for Repin, who was barely 30 years old at the time. However, there were
some discordant notes; one reactionary critic spoke of it as a "desecration of
art". This painting is now housed in the State Tret'yakov Gallery in Moscow.

After the success of "The Volga Boatmen", Repin went off on the journey abroad,
which was owed to him and which led him via Vienna to Paris. His painting "Sadko"
was done there, but it is not regarded as one of his better works. He did not
find the right resonance abroad for working and he therefore came back to Russia
long before his scholarship term had expired. Repin believed that it was only on
Russian soil that his longing could be stilled and his inspiration flourish. In
the light of present-day examination of his artistic creations, Repin will be
recognized as the harbinger of a realistic style and indeed of a "realistic
naturalism". He created paintings which went against the former conventional
conceptions and which, in subject manner, involved an entire artistic school
with real and convincing tones.

One of his best paintings from the point of view of portraiture was indisputably
the work: "Zaporoghian Cossacks write a letter to the Sultan Mahomed IV". This
picture, which is painted in a size measuring 217 x 361 cm. and now housed in
the Russian Museum at Leningrad, is renowned throughout the world. Repin worked
on it for more than ten years. Just the individual sketches and the studies on
the Zaporoghians demanded much from him and would not leave him in peace
throughout all the years of gestation. If one were to take the overall view,
break it up into individual pieces and look at them separately, one would then
appreciate fully all the wealth of this artistic declaration which Repin has
expressed in the painting in the most felicitous form, both pictorially and in
the choice of colors. It is a painting overflowing in strength, with the warriors
shown in the midst of their camp life, in which no one person is alike and
embodying strong folklore characteristics with robust love of life, while the
overall characterization has forgotten nothing and the smallest detail is given
down to the finest grain.

It should be noted parenthetically for its clearer understanding by the reader
that this letter written by the Cossacks is a historical item and the original
is to be found today in Leningrad. The fullness of life, this laughter which
jumps from phrase to phrase, becomes completely evident, as it is caught to the
fullest extent in the painting and the contents of the letter do not lack in
raciness and virulent expression. It can be understood why the writer of the
letter is laughing when he characterizes the Sultan as a "damned devil" and
describes him as a "dirty swineherd", "bloodstained anus" and a "trouser
trumpeter". The warriors endorsed the conclusion of their letter with one of the
most irreverent and idolatrous comparisons, when they recommended to the Sultan
that "he kiss their rear ends". If the reader is interested in the entire contents
of the letter, he should look it up. It is too long to be given here,


If we have these words before our eyes and match them with the figures and the
types of these Zaporoghian Cossacks, that differ so much from each other as
embodied in the painting, then we can quickly visualize the striking effect that
this picture has for each spectator. So many drawings and masterly sketches can
be gleaned from this painting, especially as Repin repeatedly made long journeys
to the specific settlement area of the Zaporoghian Cossacks. We can also compare
in the picture his study of the weaponry, which was essential for the complete
historical context and accuracy.

On the painting entitled "Refusal of a Confession", given on the 12-kopek stamp,
Repin shows a man who has been condemned to death and who refuses to confess in
his last hours before a representative of the church. We see here in the picture
two opposite conceptions lumped together from two different worlds. The 6-kopek
value shows the well-known subject entitled "The Unexpected", or "The Return
Home of the Banished One". Demonstrating an attentive differentiation in the
characterizations of the two children and the mother (in the background), we
see how they look spellbound at the completely "unexpected person" and stare at
the husband and father. It contains everything that the subject demands and this
is dramatically captured in the scene portrayed.

Quite apart from these and other works, we must regard Repin as a portraitist
above everything else. He soon astonished his peers with his sketched portraits.
We can almost say that practically no one of the great personages of his time is
not represented in the series of portraits created by him. We cite here just the
poet Tolstoi, Turgenev and Gor'kli, those of the savants Pirogov and Stasov and
the two musicians Musorgskii and Rimskii-Korsakov. This is a list of famous names
that would be difficult to improve upon. One of his gems in this area is the
portrait of Tolstoi. This is one in which Repin reveals the entire soul and depth
of sentiment of the poet. His personality is to be felt all over the portrait.
It should be added that a charcoal drawing dating from 1891 also exists of the
Italian actress Eleonore Duse.

In addition to his artistic creativeness, Repin also worked as a professor at
the Art Academy from 1893 to 1907. When the Revolution broke out in 1917, Repin,
who could not relate to the new State, went off to Kuokkala in Finland. He lived
there until his death on 29 Sept. 1930 in the house of Natalie Nordmann, an
authoress who had befriended hi-i; he had separated from his wife as far back as
the turn of the century.

STAMP ILLUSTRATION: Il'ya E. Repin. USSR. 1969. --"
Commemorative issue for the
125th. anniversary of the
birth of the painter.
Value: 10 kop. multicolored
Designers: Pimenov and
Offset and photogravure. IuAnACCcrwI
Comb-perforated 12 1/2 x 12



by Dr. R. J. Ceresa

The dealers' stalls at the "STAMPEX 1973" philatelic exhibition in London
turned up three more A.R.A. cards of interest, but from the prices charged, it
appears they are avid readers of our Journal! The first was a second example
of Type X (described and illustrated in Rossica Journal No. 83, pp.ll-]2),
apparently sent on the same day as the previously recorded card, since the
machine postmark is that of Moscow 21.4.22, but the franking is only a single
250-ruble definitive with 7500 RUB. surcharge. There is no sign of missing
stamps or postage due markings but, this time, the French Galata arrival
marking is dated 30.6.22. The rate should have been 18,000 rubles.

Of greater interest were two examples of a new type (Type XI), with the message
in French and the address given on the back as "18, Rue Tilsitt, Paris, France"
(see Figs. 1 & 2 for details). Perhaps some of our French members can carry out
on the spot research with regard to the A.R.A. service. Like the examples of
Type X, both have been overprinted with the new address "GUARANTY TRUST Co. OF
NEW YORK / GALATA CONSTANTINOPLE". The first is franked at 8000 rubles (Fig. 1)
and is postmarked Moscow 5th. Despatch Office 21.4.22 (8) and the second is
franked with a single 10,000-ruble provisional and postmarked Moscow 1st. Despatch
Office 15.5.22. The cards arrived on the 1st. and 2nd. June 1922 respectively,
without postage due being raised for the correct 18,000 ruble rate.

The general pattern seems to be that, through ignorance, the wrong rate was
frequently applied by the senders, but no postage due marking was added in the
RSFSR (43 out of 51 cards examined were wrongly franked. On arrival in the USA
or England, postage due was generally raised, but apparently not in Turkey.

.THE AMERICAN F : c kaer C 0e 0 I Ml.e x *I cA T; AeI alcKI aIpo-.
MINISTRATION- L. I C1:- '; tl '
ricaine de SecOur I .1"" r S f Ta P
en Russie, des cc..-, .,rL'l, C IrMT
Q(1MwM11TY OfriiW n w nnrpelvnr ACal. iiI..0.,.o -..- KEW T-n-Unn .
i Amef aiiB ie T istrati' ^n .0 .. ... .
i I- n;~iliDiL r i~ r I t r il ^ IMbI B PO'.LIAli [ AIli.'1 i Ar-EJ1:l B nPPOAOBObICTBHK.
pour exiver un Bufletin de Com- '.:i-l. ITE H"i 2 BEE6UEI
| nand. pour 'envoi d'ali--" i .,. '." -

Fig. 1. Fig. 2.
C'et asi qe po-50-
poorvair en Rounie de col. ....
caine de Secnur.

Fig. 1. Fig. 2.



by the Editorial Board

The title above refers to place names of Russian origin which were assigned
to post offices in the Australian Colonies during the past century. The present
article is restricted to two such offices, one each from South Australia and
Western Australia, together with the supporting historical facts:


The town is situated 55 miles NW of Adelaide, capital of the Colony and State
of South Australia. Obviously named with the battles of the Crimean War of 1854-
1855 still fresh in memory, a post office was established there on 1 March 1871.
The name of the first postmaster listed was W. J. Wood in 1872. At that time,
one mail was exchanged daily between Adelaide and Balaklava. The mail closed at
Balaklava at 9:30 am and arrived at Adelaide at 6:53 pm. Mail closed at Adelaide
at 6:30 am and arrived at Balaklava at 4:30 pm. Telegraph facilities were
established in 1877, money orders in 1878 and an agency of the South Australian
Savings Bank (in the post office) in 1880. In 1883, the staff consisted of a
postmaster and two telegraphic messengers. The present post office building was
built about 1880.

Re cancellations in the Colonial period,
we have seen a "squared circle" type t
applied on a postcard and reading
BALAKLAVA 1 DE 28 08 (1908 see Fig. 1).

The post office is still in operation
and the current marking from the State
period is shown in Fig. 2, reading -
BALAKLAVA 6-P 27 MR 73 STH AUST. Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

Thanks are due to Mr. J. M. Mitchell, current postmaster at Balaklava and the
Public Relations Section of the Australian Post Office at Adelaide, South
Australia for the interesting historical data given in the above notes.


This is now a ghost town, but with great tourist potential as the oldest port
in the North West of the largest and most sparsely populated of all the
Australian Colonies. Situated about 830 miles NNE of Perth, the capital, it was
the port for Roebourne, the most important settlement in that part of the
colony. Originally, the port had been named Tien Tsin, after the ship that
landed the first livestock in the area. It was then renamed after H.M.S. Cossack,
which arrived in 1871, with the Governor of the Colony, Sir Frederick Weld,
present aboard and the townsite declared on 25 May 1872. Early records list a
post office as operating there from August 1876 and the 12-mile tramline to
Roebourne was completed in 1889. The town was a busy port for many years,
handling supplies for Marble Bar, Whim Creek, Port Hedland and the pearling
industry for many years. The last boom year for pearling was in 1891, but there
was a gradual decline from then onwards and the post office was finally closed
around 1937.

So far, we have only seen cancellations waS'" 'i RALI
from the Colonial period, namely a 15-
bar killer with the number "24" in the (
centre (see Fig. 3) and a later
circular datestamp, with the date
Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

DE 26 02 (26 Dec. 1902). There is no doubt that such cancels will be scarce and
hard to find, particularly on cards and covers.

Thanks are due to Messrs Charles Amery of Perth, W.A., J. Pender of Armadale,
W.A. and L. A. Strutt, Public Relations Officer of the Australian Post Office in
Perth, W.A. for the valuable historical and philatelic data given above.


by Dr. R. J. Ceresa

Dr. Shneidman's article: "Postal Rates and Foreign Exchange July-August 1923"
in Rossica Journal No. 84 has given us the long-awaited explanation of the
apparent overfranking of these remittance cards. As he has correctly indicated,
the postage paid seems to cover the postal rate to and from the recipient's
bank, plus registration ONE WAY. All my examples, like those illustrated by Dr.
Shneidman, have registration markings from the town of the recipient, but no
Moscow registration label or cachet (the violet "3AKA3HOE" handstamp marking is
identical on seven examples from the Russian Commercial Bank in Moscow, but each
was returned from a branch in a different, so they were probably sent as well as
returned by registered post).

ieHie o nonyreHin. "'. ^ ^ f"

oyd~: V --"^ '

"" i,3 : ".." 1.. :.j *. .A

E '*

Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

My earliest example is a 1916 printed card from the Moscow bank, sent to Rechitsa,
Minsk province on 15.5.22 with a 150,000-ruble franking composed of 5 and 10-kopek
perf. Arms types revalued at one million times face. This was the first day of the
new rate for which a postcard cost 20,000 rubles and the registration fee was
100,000 rubles; an overfranking of 10,000 rubles, probably due to the shortage of
small denomination stamps see Fig. 1. This card, like the next two to be
described, is perforated at one edge and may have had a counterfoil, or the cards
may have been printed and bound into booklets like current cheque books. The
second card, from the Management of the State Bank, Foreign Department, in Moscow,
though of a very similar type, has the oblong Moscow "Blank" revailidating cachet
of the same type used to revalidate the prisoner-of-war cards described by Dr.
Shneidman. It is probable that revalidated p.o.w. cards with the appropriate
documentation on the back (applied by means of a very large handstamp, of which
several different types can be identified) were introduced at this early date and


all bank transfer forms received this cachet in Moscow. This particular card was
sent from Moscow 9.2.23 to Ostro-Plastikovo, Ryazan' province with a franking of
200 rubles (1922) or 2 rubles (1923), which is the correct rate based on twice
the postcard rate plus registration fee. A third card of the same type,from the
Russian Commercial Bank in Moscow 30.6.23 to Peschanyi Brod, is franked at 8
rubles (1923) with a block of four 200-ruble 1922 Star provisionals, in keeping
with the new postage rates of 10 June 1923 see Fig. 2.

The next group complements that of Dr. Shneidman, being sent to Koidanovo -Minsk
province, Voznesensk Odessa province and Odessa itself by the Russian Commercial
Bank on 14 July 1923, all with 12-ruble frankings and each form having the same
type of revalidated p.o.w. card. A card to Korsun' Kiev province, sent 10.9.23
from the same bank, is franked at 24 rubles (1923) at a time when the rate should
have been 28 rubles (16 r. for return postage and 12 r. for registration), but no
postage due was raised. See Fig. 3.

A card to Sartana Don province from the Central Russian Bank,sent 29.8.23, is
franked at the old 8-ruble (1923) rate, when it should have been franked at 18
rubles. In this case, there is no indication of registration, i.e. no "3AKA3HOE"
cachet at the top of the card and no return registration cachet or number. Even
so, the franking is 2 rubles light for the 5-ruble postcard rate introduced on
20 August 1923 and no postage due was raised.

Two cards from the Russian Commercial Bank, sent on 2.10.23 to Gomel Mogilev
province and Uzda Minsk province respectively, have mixed frankings equivalent
to 29 r. 50 k. and both were sent, if not returned, by registered post. Assuming
the same formula for calculating the postage required, we arrive at a figure of
14 kopeks gold and thus the frankings indicate an exchange rate of 1 ruble gold
equal to 353.57 rubles 1923, a marked deterioration from the official rate of
330 rubles (recorded on p. 28 of the catalogue: "URSS 1917-1941", produced and
published by the Cercle Philatelique France-URSS, Paris 1969), which pertained
to the previous day. The fact that the same formula applied is confirmed by the
latest card of all in my collection, specially printed for the Bank of External
Trade of the USSR, Foreign Department, but still revalidated by the oblong Moscow
"Blank" cachet. It was sent to Shpola Kiev province on 27.10.25 and franked
with the 14-kop. Popov commemorative stamp (see Fig. 4). Note that the card has
the word "3AKA3HOE" printed on the front.

t P BR B o e A H o n n t H VIp e -. L / < ^ ^
P,,r le i t. *aqOM~e 110p

SFig. Fig. 4.

RN;, h| *


Fig. 3. Fig. 4.


A somewhat different bank transfer form was used concurrently with the above, which
was neither registered nor returned to the local bank. These cards were sent from
the recipients in the Ukraine to the "Russian Central Office of the International
Woekers' Aid to Russia, Parcel Department". The earliest is from Shchedrin Kiev
province 10.6.23, franked at 2 rubles (1923) for the first day of the new postal
rate. The second, sent from Odessa 18.6.23, was franked at the old rate of 1 r.
50 k. (1923) and postage due was raised at Odessa. The manuscript marking within
the oval "'TOn71f4TATb" marking is 4 r. 50 k., but the postage due was only one
ruble (1923) !! See Figs. 5 and 6 for the front and back of this card.

nO4TOBRa KRWOHKR. c. wa ~u4
flO'4Tr0B1'I-- y(*" Iineam I'oc u ,ir f g,:m ,,, i
A/ E o T6 A. f,"ipou ,. j /, ,mjv
Sepe, O J .rdleap iiHui I' iv imp e I Om, .tom, rr fexiii, I., ',

OTjEJI noCblIOH. ,,- i or~. .,
I f/ -, vfo~iiapoaii,-' a. iozeu .u ( m u -, .i-

Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

The postage due marking is interesting
because it has a clear serial number
'2' and I cannot recall seeing
"Onn7JATTb"" markings with serial
numbers used during the Civil War and 0 HTOBR KRPT
early Soviet period. '

The final card, sent from the Kiev 1 i o ,' .
P.O. on 1.10.23, again the first day
of the new rate of 4 kop. (gold), with e iQHdjapoS czaCt Jo.ncwzu Lcuu
a franking of 14 rubles (1923) see OTREnJ nOCblIOR.
Fig. 7 which also shows the printed 1 MOCKBa
inscriptions in a slightly different '
1-a TeepcKaR- mcal Qm 3.
type. This corresponds to a rate of
exchange of 350 rubles (1923) to one
ruble (gold). However, assuming that,
at the time of sending on that day,
the morning rate of 330 rubles (1923) Fig. 7.
to one ruble (gold) still applied,
4 kop. (gold) would have been 13 r. 30 k. (1923). The nearest likely franking
with currently available stamps would have been 13 r. 50 k. (1923), since the low
value provisionals and definitive stamps seem to have been largely consumed at
this date. The amount of 14 rubles (1923) may have been the nearest available,
the actual rate say at the end of the day, or a little extra added, 'just in case'.

Dr. Shneidman is to be congratulated for bringing to our attention in his article
the prepayment of return registered postage on bank transfer form, for it now
enables us to make sense of most of the rates on these cards and associated
postage due markings, where they occur.



by Norman Epstein

This is by way of an exploratory article on the general subject of post offices
attached to banks and their branches and is based on two specific items in my

(a) A bank transfer card, which supplements Dr. Ceresa's study of such items in
this issue of the Rossica Journal. Franked with a copy of the 7-kop. Decembrist
commem. with the cancellation: "M3C-BA4 I7FOMEAHK C.C.C.P. 30.12.25. 27 MOY. TEJJ.
OT/." (Moscow, Industrial Bank of the USSR, 30.12.25, 27th. Postal & Telegraphic
Office), this is an Acknowledgement of Receipt Card which was sent to Kopyl' -
Minsk province 3.1.26 and sent back to Moscow, returning on the same day, as
noted by the machine cancellation as applied up the left side of the card. See
Fig. 1 hereunder.

Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

(b) A registered cover from the Minsk,Belorussia branch of the same bank and
with the 38 kop. postage cancelled: "M4HCK[T FOMAHK I7.T.O. 3.8.26. AMHCK BE=I."
(bilingual Russo-Belorussian marking, reading: Minsk Industrial Bank P. & T.
Agency 3.8.26. Mensk Bel.). The most unusual feature is the registration cachet,
completely in Latin transliteration and reading as follows:

Left Panel: Prombank SSSR (Industrial Bank of the USSR).
Central Panel: MINSKOJE / l-e Gor. P.-T. / otdelenije / pri Prombanke
(Minsk, 1st. City P. & T Agency at the Industrial Bank).
Right Panel: proiswodit wse / Bankowskije operacii (carries out all
banking operations).

This is the first advertising registration cachet I have ever heard of (Fig. 2).

Other post offices and agencies have undoubtedly existed and it would be
interesting to hear what other members have been able to turn up in this area.




Here are three items that may be of interest to fellow-members:

(a) Parcel Post C.O.D. card sent from Vengrov 7.12.12 to Reiovets. Franking of
45 k. postage for the parcel plus 48 k. for the C.O.D. charge ( 2 kop. per ruble
to be collected on an amount of 23 r. 80 k.). Three Arms type stamps cancelled
Vengrov 7.12.12. The parcel was not collected at Reiovets 7.2.13 and both the
parcel and the C.O.D. card were returned to Vengrov 9.2.13. The sender of the
parcel was charged 45 kop. return postage, represented by two Romanov stamps
cancelled Vengrov 11.2.13. The original receipt-counterfoil issued to the
sender was attached to the card. See Figs. 1 & 2.

r 0R

Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

(b) Parcel Post C.O.D. card sent from Rechitsa 18.2.13 to Stochek. Franking of
25 kop. postage for parcel plus 10 kop. for C.O.D. charge. On arrival at Stochek,
both the parcel and the card were redirected to Vengrov (Stochek cancels dated
20.2.13 and 25.2.13). On arrival at Vengrov 26.2.13, the recipient was charged
additional postage of 25 kop., represented by the 25 kop. Romanov stamp cancelled
Vengrov 13.3.13. See Figs. 3 & 4.

"' 1. ';: 0, I- I ...
WMOR^i wnjurtra. Pyr, mn 1! PIN,

-"ig. '_ .ig -
C.. o/ CcOpea. C pedame,"t. ,a -o tj ." ,A.o / I

OW K ayESHhf OTM13TKII. 1 i."'i a #'- f W a" a
St"- -*'" l a a

: ....."'" "-- lif-** 3 o- --.I.'. I -u,..3, o ,oe iRi t war Jm
~ *'\ ^- o_ No.' m e .- r -- ?
'- ,AV -,.- 'oI ,,

Fig. 3. Fig. 4.


(3) Figs. 5 & 6 show the front and back of a cover postmarked Hagen, Germany
8.4.26 and addressed to Taipeng, China via Siberia and Canton. In addition to
the transit marking of RECHT (ARRIVEE) in Persia (!), the interesting thing is
the roughly duplicated label on the reverse, inscribed: "handed in by U.S.S.R.
S Consulate, / Canton for delivery. /" and two-line Chinese equivalent. I have not
come across anything like this before; it opens up some interesting possibilities
regarding transmission of mail between the Soviet Union and China during this
period. I should be pleased to have any comments.


Fig. 5. Fig. 6.


Reference is made to the article by Dr. C. de Stackelberg in Rossica Journal No. 83.

After many years, Estonian collectors in Sweden succeeded in getting in contact
with Mr. J. Weiner, a well-known collector and specialist of Estonian and Russian
stamps and postal history. Unfortunately, that contact was of a very short nature,
as Mr. Weiner died in Tallinn a couple of months ago.

One of the questions put to him covered the German-Baltic stamp. Mr. Weiner told
our contact that the stamp and its history were well known to him and that, in
his collection, which was lost during the war, there were both stamps and covers.
A number of stamps and covers had also been in the collection of Mr. Teetsov in
Tallinn. Both of these collections have now been dispersed and nothing is known
of their present whereabouts.

Mr. Weiner did promise to write an article about the stamp but unfortunately his
death intervened. Verbally, he confirmed the opinion that the stamp covered both
the cost of the postal service and at the same time certified that the letter was
genuine. The stamp was not always attached to the cover. The mail to Petrograd
was provided with two markings (German and Russian) and the mail from Petrograd
with only one (Russian).

Based on the stamps in my own collection, I can state that there is a noticeable
difference between the brown colors. It is known that differences also exist as
far as the other colors are concerned. The late Mr. Falk (quoted in Rossica)
stated in a private letter in 1968 that his information regarding these stamps
originated from a Mr. Piesenhausen (should probably be Tiesenhausen), who was
supposed to be one of the leaders of the committee.



The item shown below in Fig. 7 is more a conversation piece than anything else,
although it appears to be genuine in all respects. This was in the form of a
registered cover, sent from Rostov-on-Don 25.4.22 to Berlin 9.5.22 and with the
transit Rostov-on-Don "three triangles" marking dated 29.4.22. The back of the
cover, which is shown herewith, gives the entire franking, namely a 2-kop. and 4-
kop. Arms type stamps, both cancelled Rostov-on-Don 1, subscript "d" and dated
25.4.22. The 2000 r. Rostov-on-Don charity stamp affixed between them was left
uncancelled, but shows the same amount of wear and tear. Checking the postal rate,
we can see that the two Arms type stamps exactly covered the rate for a registered
letter going abroad, as fixed by the tariff of 1 April 1922 (30,000 r. for an
ordinary letter and 30,000 r. for the registration fee, with the kopek stamps
sold at one million times face). The important point is that the 2000 r. charity
stamp was affixed during the correct period, as these four stamps were issued in
April 1922. They are very rare, properly applied and cancelled on cover and it
may have been that the postal officials at the Rostov-on-Don P.O. would not
originally postmark them, as they did not constitute an issue properly sanctioned
by the Central Authorities. On the other hand, it can be equally argued that
someone placed the charity stamp on this particular cover at some later date so as
to enhance its value, as he knew the period of usage would have been correct.
; p *,. ....,. *:.b -
r : 4

u he to go or s ig tt o rs he pr y d in t p T

that leads to other questions. In the article by C. de Stackelberg: "Notes on the

how the Vs were printed in the margins of the 25 and 40-stamp layouts, to prevent
fraudulent printing on the large margins. From his diagrams, I can understand how
A. /_.


Onthe Vsof the problems associated with learning something for the first time is that's.

P; !i
;; I~ ya~o! t:J iU
40 ~, ~f.

.i:;n01Y r :1

On o hepobes socaedwthlarin omtin orte isttmei ta
yo hv t g ve smthngtatotes av roabydoe nth ps. h
pupoe f hefolwig ots s o bai aswrsfo m uetinsfrm u
I av a od op o Rsic JuralNo 6, hihisa eathofinorato

yo hvet g oersmehig ht thrshveprbal dnei-58-as. h

...... ~-^ ................ ^ ........S...BS ..........^SS5 ........................... ................... .....3... .

Fig. 8. Fig. 9.

In 1916 (Stackelberg's date) when
the new layout was made of 50 stamps,
the double Vs appeared in the top and
bottom rows. However, there was ample
space above and below these rows, as
well as on the sides, for someone to ****..*
use to print fraudulent stamps. Here
are photos of pieces showing some of
these margins. Fig. 8. is the 3 r.
50 k. Scott No. 137, Fig. 9. is the
7 r. Scott No. 138, Type II and Fig.10
is the 10 r. Scott No. 109.
Fig. 10. Fig. ll.......
It seems to me that the margins on all
three pieces are adequate for printing, even though the varnish net does not
extend completely over the margins. Was the problem of fraudulent printing no
longer an issue at this late date ? If the double Vs were not meant to fill in
the printable spaces as in the earlier printings, what were they used for on
these sheets of 50 stamps ?

In the same Rossica Journal No. 61, there is another article by E. F. Newman on
the flaws of the 10 r. stamp of the 1906-1922 issues. He indicates printings of
the 10 r. stamp in 1906, 1915, 1917, 1918 and 1919-1922. Yet Dr. Stackelberg's
article lists issues of this value as 1906, 1907, 1915 and 1916. Aside from the
later issue, why the discrepancies ?

In my Fig. 10, the piece of 10 r. shows flaws that indicate, according to Newman,
a printing of 1918 or 1919-1922. In Fig. 11, a single 10 r. value with double Vs
above, the only flaw of the filled-in upper right corner indicates a 1917 printing,
according to Newman, in position 2 or 19. Position 19 cannot have Vs above and
position 2 can only have them on sheets other than layouts of 50. If this is so and
assuming that I have identified the stamp flaw correctly, then it seems that this
printing also had some margin above the double Vs. Was this a margin like the later
50-stamp layout ? If there was a large margin beyond the double Vs with this 1917
printing, then what was the purpose again of the double Vs ?

It is interesting to note that although the perforation gage of the 10 r. stamps
in Figs. 10 & 11 is the same, the size of the holes on the stamp in Fig. 11 is
smaller than on the stamps in Fig. 10. The colors are also different.

I have one more question that is extremely interesting to me. It is acknowledged
that the varnish net was applied to prevent reuse of cancelled stamps by removing
the cancellation in some manner. However, no one has described how this works. Was


the cancellation ink supposed to react somehow with the varnish so that whatever
were the common ways of removing cancellation ink, the varnish and printing
would also be removed ? Did the varnish discolor the printing ink if chemically
treated ? Simple soaking of these stamps does not appear to dislodge the varnish
or the printing, as it apparently does to the Austrian issues with varnish bars.
I can understand the purpose but I just do not see how it works. How about it,
fellow-members ?


I have a cover in my collection which might be of interest to other Rossica
members in the light of the recent articles on inflation covers (K. Adler) and
Postage Due Mail (D. B. Diamandiev, Dr. R. J. Ceresa) in Rossica Journals Nos.
82-84. This cover was sent with postage due from Belynkovichi in Mogilev province
to Omaha, Nebraska, USA on 7 Oct. 1923 (see Figs. 12 & 13).

L ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ** -i,, -'I -_ -

Fig. 12. Fig. 13.

It is franked, reverse side only, with eleven 3-ruble red Small Head type stamps
of 1923 (Scott No. 238) and one 100-ruble 1922 overprinted Arms type stamp (Scott
No. 221). All of two and part of another of the 3-ruble stamps are missing, but
gum stains, bits of perforations and cancellations indicate that these stamps
were in place when the cover was posted. Thus, the total franking would have been
34 rubles 1923, the 1922 100-ruble stamp being worth only 1/100 face value in
1923. This would have been 11 rubles short according to the postal rates that went
into effect on 1 October 1923, which required 45 rubles for an international
letter. This shortage does not seem to be clearly indicated on the front of the

It can be seen that the sender had intended the letter to be registered (3a.a3oe,
B Amepucy Registered, To America), doubling the amount actually due to 90 rubles.
However, the official who determined the due postage apparently decided to ignore
this, since the word "Registered" is crossed out. Near this are several hastily
scrawled numerals. It is difficult to be certain about these marks, but the top
one seems to be a "12" and the bottom one a "9" or a "7". If these are meant to
be an indication of postage due (not counting the crossed out registry), then
why do they not indicate an "11" ? To complicate things further, there is a
distinct possibility that two individuals dealt with this cover, since the word
"Registered" is crossed out in blue pencil, while the numerals and the large "T"
cachet (required on postage due mail by the U.P.U.) are in purple pencil.

Some clue to the actual shortage is provided by the sum assessed by the U.S. Post


Office. This should have been twice the underfranked amount, according to the
U.P.U. rules. Upon arrival in New York, the cover had two U.S. 3-cent postage due
stamps affixed. So, if the amount could be converted to gold francs and then back
into 1923 rubles, we would at least know how much the U.S. authorities thought
the letter was underfranked. Unfortunately, I do not have that information.

In conclusion, several possiDilities must be considered in regard to this
particular cover. Either the sender did not realize how much the 100-ruble stamp
of 1922 had been devalued, or he was still using some earlier postal rate, or the
Mogilev post office itself had not yet received the correct new rate and was
using an old formula (after all, the new rate had been in effect only six days
when the cover was mailed and news travelled rather slowly during this period).
Any comments on this, or similar inflation covers, would be welcome.

Also in my collection are two Arms type stamps with the central --
oval obliterated with dark black ink. The stamps are a 3-kop. red
and a 5-kop. claret of the 1917 Provisional Government issue, .
Scott Nos. 121 & 123 (see Fig. 14). I have never before come
across such stamps and am wondering if any reader knows their
origin. Are they perhaps connected with the illegal Trachtenberg
"Swords & Phrygian Cap" abdication issue, or are they Civil War
issues ? Fig. 14 > -


Shown below in Figs. 15 & 16 are the front and back of an interesting postcard
I recently required.


Fig. 15. Fig. 16.

Sent through the famous temporary post office of the annual Nizhnii-Novgorod
Fair on 2 Aug. 1916, the front of the card bear the traditional cancel inscribed
"MI01L-SgM4PIK4" (Nizhnii Fair), with the subscript "3" (z). It was received in
Revel' three days later.

This was a card, issued by a local photographer, M. Dmitriev, in 1912, as stated
up the front left side and the view side has a picture of the Main Building at
the Fair. We can see that it was quite an imposing structure and it is possible
that the post office was also located therein. Does anyone know for sure ?



(a) With regard to usages of the two revolutionary stamps (chain-cutter type of
1918), see Fig. 17 for a registered postcard franked with the 35-kop. value and
sent from Riga 28.4.19 to Kostroma 3.5.19 during the first Latvian Soviet Republic.
At that time, ordinary correspondence could be sent free and thus this stamp just
paid the registration fee. This is the only item I have seen sent to Kostroma, but
there are several cards and covers in mine, as well as two other Moscow collections,
sent from Riga in 1919 to Moscow and Petrograd. Philatelists in other countries
possibly have similar examples and they are all undoubtedly historic items.

3, AHA3HOE ( i, ,-

n3%/ ,k C 1ffB1iD1ikEft APXIU. 4W

reoprb X. Erep-b .
Pnr kaela ynA Nr 4. / K

S -. -2 R La\

Fig. 17. Fig. 18.

(b) Fig. 18 shows a bogus cover, with three different shades of the 35-kop. value
and the one at far left being unquestionably imperforate. Purported to have been
sent from Moscow to Kaunas in Lithuania, the three stamps are all genuine, but
the postal rate is completely wrong, the Moscow marking of 6.12.1922 is
questionable, there are no transit markings of any kind and the Kaunas backstamp
appears to have been added by favor for the "manufacturer" of the cover. It is
"a pity that the imperforate stamp, in itself a nice item, was desecrated in such
"a way.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: A similar cover, made by the same person, but with a pair of
the imperforate stamp, has been seen here in the United States.

(c) Finally, another piece of philatelic vandalism is shown in
Fig. 19 herewith. What seems to be an imperforate copy of the
5-kop. gold Postage Due surcharge on the 35 kop. stamp turns out
on comparison to be a trimmed copy of a stamp, where the top
margin of the sheet had been missed by the perforating machine.
Once again, this would have been a nice item as a stamp with a
"fantail" margin, had there not been an attempt made to
"improve" it. As the machine was a comb perforator, the width
of perforated stamps is always constant and genuine imperf.
stamps must always exceed this width. Fig. 19.



IDENTIFY YOUR STAMPS, by Ervin J. Felix. A hard cover book of 256 pages, issued
by the Whitman Publishing Company, Racine, Wisconsin, USA, 1967 in an edition of
25,000 copies.

This is a richly illustrated work, aimed at the beginner and it offers the typical
information required by such collectors, such as "Stamp Illustrations and
Identifications", in which many Russian and kindred types are featured. Its
principal merit, from our viewpoint, is that two of our members, namely Irving
Lapiner and Souren Serebrakian, helped in the compilation.

For the collector of Russia and States, there are several sections of interest,
namely "Imperial Russian Stamps and the Revolution 1917-1922" (with pictures of
two scarce Imperials used abroad at Chalantun and Urga), "Trident Overprints",
"They look alike...but !" (differences between Imperials, Finnish and Polish
issues), a beautiful 1904 Liaoyang Field Post cover from the Russo-Japanese War
and a 1921 Wrangel cover from Tuzla.

There could have been no finer way to introduce budding philatelists to the
pleasures of our own spheres of collecting and Mr. Felix deserves great credit
for putting together such a book that is really different. It must have been
popular as it has long since been sold out. Mr. Felix is now the manager of
STANGIB in New York City and we hope to see further interesting work from his pen.

John Bulat. A hard cover book of 96 pages, issued by Philatelic Publications,
Yonkers, N.Y. and obtainable from the author, John Bulat, at P.O. Box 91. Main
Station, Yonkers, N.Y. 10702, U.S.A. Price $10.00 postpaid.

Divided into six sections, covering the issues of L'viv, Kolomyya, CMT Rumanian
Occupation, Stanyslaviv, First & Second Vienna sets and the Ukrainization of
Postage Stamps and Postmarks, this is an exhaustively illustrated work which will
undoubtedly become the standard reference for this difficult and highly complex
field of collecting. From our personal acquaintance of Mr. Bulat, we know that
he has put a tremendous amount of effort into the preparation of this study, over
a period of several years and he has been aided by some eminent specialists in
the field, including our own member and expert, Mr. J. S. Terlecky.

In the area of Ukrainian Philately, the limelight has been held for so many years
by the numerous "Trident" overprints that it has not been generally realized just
how rare are the stamps that were issued in the Western Ukraine. Mr. Bulat has
set the record straight and his work should help to bring more interesting facts
to light.

We have no hesitation in urging all interested collectors to purchase this book
as soon as possible, as the printing is limited. They will never regret their

60c plus postage and available from World Coins, Sidney News Building, Sidney,
Ohio 45365, USA.

This special edition covers in depth the First Numismatic Study Tour of Russia,
31 May to 21 June 1973, as well as Crimean Coinage, Tangas in Turkestan, the
Mikhailovich Collection revisited and a Review of USSR Coins. Much interesting
information is contained therein and the friendliness exhibited in the six cities
visited (Moscow, Leningrad, Odessa, Samarkand, Tashkent and Bukhara) augurs well
for the Second Numismatic Tour, scheduled for June 1974.


PACCKIA36 0 1APAX ("Stories about Stamps"), by I. Grinberg. A copyright paperback
of 104 pages, issued by the "Kazakhstan" Publishing House, Alma-Ata, 1973, in an
edition of 35,000 copies. Priced at 13 kopeks.

Divided into four main headings: "The Russian Pre-Revolutionary Posts", "On the
border of epochs", "Soviet Definitive Stamps" and "Spectators of History", this
work gives the aspiring Russian and Soviet collector all the basic groundwork
for setting aboot the task of building up a worthwhile collection. While there
is nothing really original in the brochure, the author displays great ability in
organizing and presenting his material, giving many useful references for further
investigation. It is productions like this one that help philatelists to avoid
pitfalls and jump to wrong conclusions.

Stamps of the Republics of the Soviet Union" a catalogue-price list). A
brochure of 32 pages, issued by the "Soyuzpechat' Publishers, Moscow, 1973, in
an edition of 25,000 copies. Priced at 16 kopeks.

Basically, this is a catalogue of the States issues during the Soviet period and
it includes listings of the Far Eastern Republic, Ukrainian SSR, Transcarpatho-
Ukraine, the Transcaucasian Republics and the Northern Caucasus, the Central
Asian Republics of Bukhara and Khiva and the Soviet Republics in the Baltic area.
Within its own boundaries, it is of a semi-specialized nature and gives the
Soviet collector some idea of what to look for. The prices given therein are,
in general, purely nominal, in conformance with the long-standing Soviet practice
of discouraging speculation in postage stamps. Useful as a summary of the field.

("Price List of Retail Prices of Individual Postage Stamps of the USSR 1921-1969").
A brochure of 32 pages, authorized by the Ministry of Communications of the USSR
on 7 March 1973 and issued by the "Soyuzpechat' Publishers, Moscow, 1973, in an
edition of 50,000 copies. Priced at 7 kopeks.

This modest booklet is the most surprising thing that has come out of the Soviet
philatelic world in many a long year. The following comments by P. F. Mazur,
writing in the Bulgarian magazine "Philatelen Pregled", p. 11 for Oct. 1973, sum
up the situation in an adequate way:

"There are 450 stamps listed in the price list, about 250 of them being basic
types and the remaining 200 varieties...New Prices are given in the list for mint
and used stamps...With few exceptions, the prices of all stamps have increased
considerably. The total value of the 450 stamps listed in mint state comes to
13,300 rubles and for the used to 5600 rubles. This considerable increase in prices
for Soviet postage stamps is explained by the fact that,for a very long time, no
attention was paid to their real collecting value. Realistic prices for postage
stamps were not listed in previous catalogues, but only their nominal values.For
this reason, there arose great discrepancies between the real and catalogue
prices. Putting the prices in order will solve the serious problem of the
trading of Soviet postage stamps for collecting purposes, especially for rare and
valuable items."

The above is also in keeping with the opinion expressed in a recent number of the
Rossica Journal, pointing out that, by keeping stamps at nominal prices,
innocent collectors could often be swindled out of their holdings by knowledgeable
sharpshooters. It appears that the Soviet authorities have now also come around to
this point of view and the eventual result must be a constant increase in the
valuations of rare Soviet items, particularly when the Soviet ruble becomes a
convertible currency. Some idea of the price increases can be gained from the fact
the the imperf. Zeppelin stamps of 1930 (40 k. & 80 k.) are priced mint at 250
rubles each C$335 !!).