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 Cover
 Index
 Officers of the society
 Representatives of the society
 Life of the society by G....
 Minutes of the 1974 annual business...
 The varnish lozenges, 1909-1923...
 Perforations on Russian stamps...
 The 1866 three kopec error with...
 Ant-25 by P. J. Campbell
 German occupation of Estonia by...
 American doctors in the Crimean...
 Fakes, favors, and forgeries by...
 Stockholmia 1974 by S. Robbins
 Dotted number cancels in Estonia...
 Russian related phantasies by G....
 The Perfins of Russia by V....
 The 1974 auctions: the Adler, Droar,...
 The Sakhalin dog sledge mail by...
 Book reviews


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00058
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1975
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00058

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Index
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Life of the society by G. Torrey
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Minutes of the 1974 annual business meeting by J. Chudoba
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    The varnish lozenges, 1909-1923 by G. V. Shalimoff
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Perforations on Russian stamps 1858-1955 by C. de Stackelberg
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    The 1866 three kopec error with five kopec background by G. Torrey
        Page 43
    Ant-25 by P. J. Campbell
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    German occupation of Estonia by V. Mandvere
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    American doctors in the Crimean War by E. Raymond
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Fakes, favors, and forgeries by J. L. Schneidman
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Stockholmia 1974 by S. Robbins
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Dotted number cancels in Estonia by P. Gleason
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Russian related phantasies by G. Torrey
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    The Perfins of Russia by V. Maxa
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    The 1974 auctions: the Adler, Droar, and small sales
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    The Sakhalin dog sledge mail by H. Weinert
        Page 92
    Book reviews
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text
THE JOURNAL

"of the

6 ROSSICA SOCIETY

of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY


















AWARDS

:OTAPA" in= SILVER MEDAL "MELUBINA" 1S SILVE MEDAL
AB" 197 SLVER MEDA. "PHILATEC" "s" SILVER MEDAL
S" EPHtLA" SILVER MEDAL '"WIPA" 196 SILVER MEDAL
EFWtCON" 1B SILVER MEDAL "SIPEX" 16M SILVER MEDAL
TaMEr" 1918 SILVER MEDAL "PEAGA" 19 SILVER MEDAL
"INTilEROSTA" 18 SILVER MEDAL RAS-6" 1980 SILVER MEDAL
"ZI=cLIA" 1i91 SILVER MEDAL "EFIMEX" 1901 SILVER CERTIFICATE
-A SSW 4UONA" 10M SILVER MEDAL "SOFIA6W' 19I SILVER CERTIFICATE
S i i- -SILVER MEDAL 8DAPEST-71" WI SILV CERIFICrAT
.... "CHICAGAPS" 1974 GOLD MEDAL

SN s6/87 1975













THE JOURNAL OF THE
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
VOLUME 86/87 1975

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Rimma Sklarevski, 34 Wilfred Ct.,Towson, Md. 21204
EDITORIAL BOARD: Rinma Sklarevski, Gordon Torrey, Norman Epstein
PUBLISHER: Kennedy Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, Va.22043


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Officers of the Society; Representatives of the Society 2

Life of the Society, G. Torrey 3

Minutes of the 1974 Annual Business Meeting, J. Chudoba 5

The Varnish Lozenges, 1909-1923, G.V. Shalimoff 8
Perforations on Russian Stamps 1858-1955, C. de Stackelberg 16

The 1866 Three Kopec Error with Five Kopec Background, G.Torrey 43

ANT-25, P.J. Campbell 44

German Occupation of Estonia, V. Mandvere 53

American Doctors in the Crimean War, E. Raymond 59

Fakes, Favors, and Forgeries, J.L. Schneidman 67

Stockholmia 1974, S. Robbins 71

Dotted Number Cancels in Estonia, P. Gleason 73
Russian Related Phantasies, G. Torrey 80

The Perfins of Russia, V. Maxa 83

The 1974 Auctions: The Adler, Droar, endSmall Sales 87

The Sakhalin Dog Sledge Mail, H. Weinert 92

Book Reviews 93

S








OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20016

VICE-PRESIDENT: Constantine Stackelberg, 1673 Columbia Road N.W.,
Washington,D.C. 20009
SECRETARY: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice St., Falls Church, Va. 22043

TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226

LIBRARIAN: J. Lee Schneidman, 161 W. 86th St., New York, N.Y. 10024

BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Samuel Robbins, 3563 Meier St.,Los Angeles,Cal.90066
Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Rd.N.W.,Wash.D.C. 20007
Lester S. Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Blvd.,Los Angeles
California, 90035


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G.B. SALISBURY CHAPTER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave. ,Brooklyn,N.Y.11226

WASHINGTON-BALTIMORE: Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds RD.N.W.,Wash.D.C. 20007

LOS ANGELES: Samuel Robbins, 3563 Meier St., Los Angeles, California 90066

GREAT BRITAIN: John Lloyd,"The Retreat",Wester Bergholdt,Colchester,Essex,
C06 3HE



Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However,
acknowledgement of the source and a copy of the reprinted matter would
be appreciated.


The views in this Journal expressed by the authors are their own and the
editors disclaim all responsibility.



The membership dues are $7.50, due January 1st for all members. Application
forms are available upon request from the secretary or treasurer. Member-
ship lists will be sent annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
% Norman Epstein
33 Crooke Avenue
Brooklyn, New York 11226 USA



We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale,both
in English and Russian language editions (of some). These may be obtained
from Mr. Epstein.

2 -








OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20016

VICE-PRESIDENT: Constantine Stackelberg, 1673 Columbia Road N.W.,
Washington,D.C. 20009
SECRETARY: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice St., Falls Church, Va. 22043

TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226

LIBRARIAN: J. Lee Schneidman, 161 W. 86th St., New York, N.Y. 10024

BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Samuel Robbins, 3563 Meier St.,Los Angeles,Cal.90066
Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Rd.N.W.,Wash.D.C. 20007
Lester S. Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Blvd.,Los Angeles
California, 90035


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G.B. SALISBURY CHAPTER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave. ,Brooklyn,N.Y.11226

WASHINGTON-BALTIMORE: Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds RD.N.W.,Wash.D.C. 20007

LOS ANGELES: Samuel Robbins, 3563 Meier St., Los Angeles, California 90066

GREAT BRITAIN: John Lloyd,"The Retreat",Wester Bergholdt,Colchester,Essex,
C06 3HE



Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However,
acknowledgement of the source and a copy of the reprinted matter would
be appreciated.


The views in this Journal expressed by the authors are their own and the
editors disclaim all responsibility.



The membership dues are $7.50, due January 1st for all members. Application
forms are available upon request from the secretary or treasurer. Member-
ship lists will be sent annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
% Norman Epstein
33 Crooke Avenue
Brooklyn, New York 11226 USA



We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale,both
in English and Russian language editions (of some). These may be obtained
from Mr. Epstein.

2 -









LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

by Gordon Torrey

This past year has been one of considerable activity and trial for
the Society's officers. The sudden resignation of our capable and
longtime editor, Andrew Cronin, created a hiatus in the editing and
production of the Rossica Journal, the most important part of the Society.
Our new editor, Rimma Sklarevski, was suddenly faced with assuming the
editorial duties without any backlog of articles for a forthcoming issue
of the Journal. Fortunately, several members had articles in preparation
and we are truly grateful to them. Others got to work and wrote additional
ones.

Russian philately lost one of its foremost authorities with the death of
Sir John Wilson last February. Volume 88 of the Rossica Journal will be
a Memorial Issue to him, and it will contain a reprint of his comprehensive
article on 19th Century Russian Stamps, first published in the London
Philatelist in 1940. It still remains an authoritative work despite its
publication 35 years ago. While the reprinting is intended as a tribute
to Sir John, whom I had the honor of meeting at Philympia during a reception
at the Royal Philatelic Society, this article is also being reprinted in
the hope that it will be helpful to many of our newer members.

Last November 22nd Rossica lost one of its most active members, Donald
Polon of Chicago. How ironic it was to me to have visited with Don just
a month earlier when I assisted in judging the Chicago Philatelic Society
and American Philatelic Society Exhibition. He will be missed by his
many friends, and I have extended the sympathy of Rossica to Mrs. Polon.
At the same exhibition the Rossica Journal was awarded a gold medal in
the Chicago Philatelic Society's literature competition.

The move of the "headquarters" of the Society to the Washington area and
the new slate of officers assuming their duties has caused some interrupt-
ions in correspondence and lost motion, as well as delay in the Journal's
publication. I hope this larger edition of the Journal will compensate
somewhat to the membership for their loyalty and patience. Once again,
I ask any of our members with problems or questions about the Society to
write to me or the secretary. We promise a prompt and, hopefully, satis-
factory answer. A number of our members in the United States and abroad
have won honors at a number of philatelic exhibitions, including inter-
national ones such as Stockholmia '74. To each of these I extend my
warmest congratulations.

Again I make another appeal for Journal articles. So far we have had to
depend upon a few stalwarts who come forth on a regular basis. Please
do not think that you are not qualified to submit an article. If you
have any problems along these lines our editorial board would be only
too willing to help out. Also it is my feeling that a "question and
answer" column could be of considerable benefit to our membership. So,
if you have any questions, send them in to me and I will parcel them out
to our various experts.


3 -









For our members abroad let me add a reminder that they can pay their
annual dues at any Barkley's Bank which will transmit the proceeds to
Rossica's account at Barclay's in New York.

During the coming fall stamp exhibitions season your president will
participate in the following exhibitions as a judge. These are NOJEX
at Cranford, New Jersey (Oct.24-26), the CUYLOR and Society of Philatelic
Americans Convention in Cleveland, Ohio (Oct 31-Nov. 2) and at SEPAD at
Philadelphia where we will hold our annual business meeting. SEPAD is
November 14-16 at the Sheraton Hotel on John F. Kennedy Boulevard. Since
Rossica will be one of the participating societies at SEPAD we will have
a lounge with the compliments of the SEPAD organization. This, to my
knowledge, will be the first annual meeting ever held outside of New York.
Rossica will not participate in the ASDA show in New York. Other part-
icipating societies at SEPAD will be the Baltic States Group, the Society
of Hungarian Philately, and the United Nations Study Unit of ATA. Since
we will be participating in the show, I hope that we can get a strong
turnout of members and that exhibits of Russian and related material will
be entered by our Rossica members. Entry forms for the show may be se-
cured by writing to SEPAD, Box 17407, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19105.
The frames cost $5.00 each and will hold sixteen pages 9 x 12 inch size
or smaller--- the size of the part shown, since they will be overlapped
at the hinge side. The location and dates for the show are outlined above,
and it will include a large dealers' bourse. I would, of course, like
to meet any members who attend any of these exhibitions.

Aside from the New York and Washington Rossica chapters there is now a
new one in Los Angeles, the Fred Spears chapter. Information concerning
its meetings can be had from Lester S. Glass, 1553 S. LaCienega Blvd.,
Los Angeles, California 90035 or from Sam Robbins, 3563 Meier Street,
Los Angeles, California 90066. The New York group continues its meetings
at The Collectors Club on the last Friday evening of each month, and
information about them can be obtained from our Treasurer, Norman Epstein.
The Washington-Baltimore group usually meets on Saturday afternoons once
a month at Boris Shishkin's.

In closing I wish to pay tribute to our former secretary, Joseph Chudoba,
who for many years diligently attended to the affairs of the Society in
many more ways than those of the usual society secretary. If it were
not for Joe, Rossica might not have survived its many many trials over
the last few years. Soon he will be retiring after a long working career
to the lovely countryside of Pennsylvania. His interest in Rossica will
not waver, we are sure, and we hope to see him in Philadelphia in the
fall.

Word has just reached me of the death of Serge Rockling last February,
a founder and director of the House of Romeko in Paris.








-4-







"ROSSICA" SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING

Statler-Hilton Hotel "Suite 1150" Saturday, November 23, 1974

The meeting was called to order at 2:25 P.M. by President Pro-tem
Dr. Torrey.

Roll Call of Officers:

President Pro-tem: Dr. Gordon Torrey Librarian:
(Present) Dr. J. Lee Shneidman (Excused)
Secretary: Joseph Chudoba (Present)
Board of Directors:
Treasurer: Norman Epstein (Present) Boris Shishkin (Excused)
Sam Robbins (Excused)
Editor: Rimma Sklarevski (Present) Lester Glass (Excused)

Members Present:

Martin Cerini, Dr. Kennedy Wilson, and Denys Voaden

Reading of minutes of previous meeting:

M/S/C Sklarevski, Epstein: To dispense with the reading of the minutes
since they appear in Journal #85.

Treasurer's Report: Report made by Treasurer Norman Epstein

Bank Balance as per Bank Statement on October 31,1973...........$ 3,026.20
Deposits and Credits: November 1,1973 to October 31,1974....... 2,468.96
Total of Balance and Deposits as of October 31,1974............. 5,495.16

Total Expenditures and Bank Charges: 11-1-73 to 10-31-74........ 1,503.67

Balance as of October 31,1974.................................. 3,991.49

Comment by Treasurer Epstein: We did not issue two Journals this year,
but if we had, and computing the costs of the printing, we would have
spent between $850 and $975 for the printing of these Journals since
the costs of paper and printing have risen sharply during the year.This
year we held our ground financially because of curtailed expenditures.

M/S/C Cerini, Sklarevski: To accept the Treasurer's report.

Journal Editor's Report: Report made by Editor Rimma Sklarevski

Progress is being made on Journal #86 which should appear in the early
part of 1975. There were no Journals issued for 1974 due to lack of
material. The members who sent in material did not send text to accompany
the pictures they sent. It is proposed that the next issue be a double
issue numbered #86-87 when issued. In supplementing the report, Dr.
Torrey mentioned that Journal #85 received a Gold Medal at the American
Philatelic Society and Chicago Philatelic Society literature awards
section recently, and the award should go to Andrew Cronin who edited
that Journal.

M/S/C Wilson, Cerini: To accept the Editor's report
5 -








Secretary's Report: Report made by Secretary Joseph Chudoba

Since the last annual business meeting we have had an increase of one
member, making a total of 195 members in good standing as of November 15,
1974. We dropped 34 members from the rolls for non-payment of dues,
resignations, and the fact that one member, Mr. Vincent Link of Newark,
Ohio, passed away. During the year we enrolled 35 new members which
brings us up to the present total of 195 members.
Attendance and activities at meetings has been very poor, despite
efforts to encourage membership participation. Many requests from
members have been received regarding the issuance of the Journals,
expertisation of stamps, and various other matters. Appropriate
replies were sent.
We also have had some trouble with some of our members, against whom
complaints have been made. These matters have been brought to the
attention of the President. It seems that some of our members have
been receiving stamps and literature and have not been paying for
the materials received. It has been suggested that the Constitutional
procedure be applied in these cases. Also all matters regarding
"Rossica's" participation in National and International Philatelic
Exhibitions will be brought to the attention of the President.

M/S/C Epstein, Sklarevski: To accept the Secretary's report.

Report on Balloting for Officers: Report made by Secretary Chudoba in
the absence of Ray Hofmann, who had been excused.

Results of Balloting:

For President: Dr. Gordon H. Torrey (33 votes) Elected
For Vice-President: Dr. C. de Stackelberg (33 votes) Elected
For Secretary: Dr. Kennedy L. Wilson (33 votes) Elected
For Treasurer: Norman Epstein (33 votes) Elected
For Auditing
Committee Chairman: Martin Cerini (33 votes) Elected
For Librarian: Dr. J. Lee Shneidman (33 votes) Elected
For Members- Board
of Directors: Boris B. Shishkin (32 votes) Elected
Sam Robbins (32 votes) Elected
Lester Glass (31 votes) Elected

There being no opposition to the above-noted Officers, it is
recommended that they stand elected for the years of 1975, 1976,
and 1977.

M/S/C Voaden, Chudoba: That the report on balloting be accepted and
the Officers stand elected for the next three years.

New Business:

The matter of expertising stamps was brought up. In the past this work
has been done by three members and the proceeds donated to the "Rossica"
Society treasury. At present it is being done by two members and the



-6-








question of continuing this service was brought up. The Society has
much reference material in connection with this work, and it was felt
that it should continue, President Torrey authorized Treasurer
Epstein to act as Chairman and appoint members to act as an
Expertisation Committee.
Recently, there has been a dealer who specializes in Russian and Polish
stamps, who conducts auctions. In his auction catalogues, he mentions
stamps which wre supposedly expertise by "Rossica" Society. These
stamps were signed "Ross" and not the full name "Rossica" and had been
signed by a dealer named Rosselevitch who uses the name "Ross" on stamps
he has expertise. Since there may be fakes among the stamps signed
"Ross" and this would have a bad reflection on our Society, it was
suggested that we take action to stop this. All stamps that have been
expertise by "Rossica" Society have the full name of "Rossica" stamped
on the back, and not any abbreviation of the name. It was further
recommended that the dealer who is selling stamps signed "Ross" should
inform his customers that those stamps have not been expertise by the
"Rossica" Society, but by an individual whose name is Rosselevitch;
otherwise proper action will be taken to stop it.

M/S/C Epstein, Sklarevski: That the above recommendations be put
in effect.

M/S/C Wilson, Voaden: To adjourn. (Meeting adjourned at 4:15 P.M.)


Respectfully submitted:

Joseph F. Chudoba
Secretary



********





NOTICE


Rossica member, Mr. Paul G. Partington, has volunteered to help out
Rossica with translations of Russian and Ukrainian. These should be
largely confined to such things as addresses on letters, short letters
etc. He would appreciate volunteers to assist him in Russian. He
is also looking for volunteers to help out with Albanian, Bulgarian,
Czech, and Swedish. He may be contacted at the address below:

7320 South Gretna Avenue
Whittier, California 90606




7 -









THE VARNISH LOZENGES 1909 1923

by George V. Shalimoff


In Volume 61 of the Rossica journal there was an interesting exchange
of viewpoints by F. Julius Fohs and Dr. C. de Stackelberg concerning
the varnish or chalk lines on the 1909-1923 Russian stamps. The question
of which was applied first, the printing or the varnish network, was
argued on the basis of examination of stamps, pieces, and sheets as well
as pieces that had been bent over during some course of preparation.
Although the evidence could be interpreted either way, the weight of
opinion favors the varnish application as the last printing step over
the printing ink.

Considerable weight was given to the purpose of the varnish. The usual
statement one finds in the catalogs is that the varnish was applied to
prevent de( raui of the post office by removal of the cancellation from a
used stamp. in response to my question of how the varnish prevented
defraud, Dr. de Stackelberg has written to me that the removal of a
cancellation would also remove the varnish which would be detected as a
"cleaned" stamp by postal authorities.

This, of course, is a reasonable explanation except that many examples
of mint stamps and sheets can be found in which the varnish is almost
imperceptible. How would the postal authorities be able to tell a
lightly varnished stamp from one which had its cancellation skillfully
removed? From the large quantities produced and the large volume of
mail in this period, it is hard to imagine that each postal piece was
carefully examined for the varnish network on the stamps.

I feel this important function of the varnish has not been adequately
explained and that all arguments are moot until the mechanism of the
varnish action is known. If there is a more subtle mechanism than the
explanation of Dr. de Stackelberg, if one knew how the varnish was
intended to prevent the removal of cancellations, it would be apparent
whether the varnish had to be applied first to the paper or after the
printing. Nevertheless, the conclusion that the varnish is on top of
the printing is probably correct.

Glancing light is the usual means of observing the varnish network on
the stamps and sheets of the period. The difference in reflection
from the paper, printing, and varnish provides observation of the
varnish network and is strong evidence for the network to be printed
on the face of the stamps even though the varnish lines are colorless.
It would be nice to be able to see these lines another way.

By means of reflected ultraviolet light photography, I have been able
to make these varnish lines visible on a photographic negative and
print. Varnish is made of natural or synthetic organic compounds,
most of which absorb ultraviolet light. If the stamps are illuminated
with ultraviolet light (this is invisible light from below the threshold
of our vision) and if with special filters we allow only this ultra-
violet light that is reflected from the stamps to reach the film in the
camera, we obtain a photograph with an added feature. Those areas-of

8 -









the stamp where the ultraviolet light is absorbed, such as by the
varnish lines, will not record on the film. These areas will appear
dark on the positive print. The printing inks will also absorb the
ultraviolet light to various degrees depending upon the color,
composition, and thickness.

Figure 1 is an example of an ultraviolet reflection photo of a stamp
of the 1909-13 series. This, I consider, is a very heavy application
of the varnish, and it obliterates the printing which appears lighter.
The varnish appears to be on top. Heavy dark continuous ridges of
varnish along the edges of the diamond shaped pattern are visible in
enlargements of the photo.

Less ultraviolet light absorption is shown in figure 2 which I believe
is due to a lighter application of the varnish. Perhaps the lighter
application is the basis for the contention that the varnish may have
been applied first to the paper. There can be another reason for a
coating to appear lighter when photographed with ultraviolet light.














Fig. 1. Fig.2. Fig.3.


This could result if another varnish material was used which had its
absorption in a different region of the spectrum. However, this quickly
gets into the very difficult problem of chemical absorption spectroscopy
which is beyond the realm of the home photographic darkroom. If we
assume that the varnish material was essentially the same throughout its
period of use, then the darkness of the varnish absorption on the print
would be roughly proportional to its thickness of application. This may
not be a valid assumption in light of the difficulty the Russian printers
had in obtaining dyestuffs for printing ink in this period. A similar
difficulty may have existed for the varnish as well.

Although examples are known with varnish on the back side or gum side,
the example in figure 3 is apparently due to a heavy application of
varnish to the face which penetrated the paper to the back of the
stamp. Note how the lozenge pattern on the back is an exact mirror
image of the lozenge pattern on the face of the stamp in figure 4.



9-




















Fig.4. Fig.5. Fig.6.


Figure 5 shows the familiar horizontal lozenges of the 1919 high value
releases. It was extremely difficult to photograph the varnish
absorption of the 3.50 and 7 ruble values because the inks used for
these issues were themselves very absorbent of ultraviolet light and
appear quite dark on the print. This makes it very difficult to
observe the varnish pattern, as in figure 6.

On the example in figure 6, there was absolutely no trace of varnish
lines when the stamp was examined in ordinary light using the glancing
light method. This initially led me to believe the varnish was
missing. However, definite traces of the varnish are visible on the
ultraviolet photograph. Similar observations were made on earlier
issues where the lozenge pattern is vertical. It may not be possible
to decide whether the varnish pattern is above or below the printing
in these cases since the pattern is only visible on the clearer
portions of the stamps; nevertheless, the pattern is present which is
more than we can say with examination in ordinary light. Of the
several hundred varieties that I have photographed with this method,
I have found none which show no traces of the varnish lozenges. I
should perhaps qualify that last statement by saying that the 5 ruble
overprint for use in Turkey (Scott #230) did not show any varnish
traces when photographed, but it is the special issue that did not
have any varnish according to Dr. de Stackelberg's article on the
marginal inscriptions of the ruble values in Rossica, Volume 61,
page 21.













Fig.7. Fig.8. Fig.9.


10 -









Occasionally we see reference to these varnish patterns being thick
or thin. Indeed they are as shown in figures 7 and 8. However,there
is a whole range of thicknesses between these extremes which may be
due to wear of the applicators during the printing process. Also the
lines may appear sharp as in figure 7 and 8 or fuzzy as in figure 9.

The few full sheets, panes and corner pieces I have photographed
with this method show no varnish plate numbers. A portion of a sheet
is shown in figure 10. The plate numbers visible correspond to the
printing ink color and the black overprint.








t











Fig.10.


In the same article by Dr. de Stackelberg given above, it was
mentioned that on some sheets it appeared that the marginal "V's"
were printed after the varnish had been applied. The few pieces
that I have with the marginal "V's" give mixed results. The imperf.
one ruble strip in figure 11 appears to have the varnish network over
the entire printing. Similarly the 10 ruble perforated example in
figure 12 also appears to have the varnish on top of all the
printing.











Fig.11.


11 -





























Fig.12. Fig.13.


However, another example of the 10 ruble stamp in figure 13 shows the
varnish to appear over the lighter color of the "V's" but undetermined
over the more saturated red color. The light coating of varnish and
the strong absorption by the deep saturated colors work against us
and do not allow decisive conclusions in this case.

Heavy coats of varnish provide spectacular ultraviolet photos of the
RSFSR star overprints as shown in figure 14. The lighter coatings
which produce weak images of the varnish network tend to be obscured
by the overprinting and one must look to the clear margins for the
varnish evidence as in figure 15.

The various effects of heavy and light coats, thick, thin, and fuzzy
patterns were observed on all the various issues of the Imperial,
Provisional, and Soviet governments. There were no apparent differences
over the period with the exception of the horizontal lozenge printing.
I did not study fully the overprinted Russian offices or the Army of
Northwest and Wrangel issues because I do not have enough duplicates
or pieces to see if there are any trends. We know, of course, that
these issues also have the varnish lozenge network. I would not
expect to find anything different with these issues.

Ultraviolet examination of stamps is by no means new. All of us
are quite familiar with the current "tagged" stamps and "bright"
papers released by many countries which fluoresce under ultraviolet
light illumination. I must emphasize that the absorption phenomena
that I have described above cannot be seen when the stamps are
illuminated with ultraviolet light. It is only after the film is
developed does one know whether there is ultraviolet absorption
phenomenon on the stamp.


12 -









EDITORIAL COMMENT: The editor has asked Dr. C. de Stackelberg to
comment on Mr. Shalimoff's article. Dr. de Stackelberg's comments
are as follows:

I have read Mr. Shalimoff's article with great interest and have
only a few observations to make:

The idea of affixing a varnish net (so called "chalk lines") on
top of stamps to prevent their "cleaning" or washing off cancellation
marks for their re-use to the detriment of the post was copied from
Austria after a large stamp washing "laundry" was discovered by the
police in Warsaw in 1908. In 1900 the Austrian Postal Authorities
had been confronted with the same problem. This is why in 1901 they
issued their new stamps over-printed with diagonal yellow bars of
varnish (starting with Scott #70). As at that time most of the
stamps on letters were obliterated at post offices by hand stamps,
postal employees could detect whether the bars, or in Russia the
chalk net, were missing. This acted as a deterrent although after
1917 no one bothered much about such details in Russia.

It is important to remember that the 1909-1923 Arms type issue of
Russia is represented by many different printings each having its
own characteristics. (See my article in Rossica, No.57-1959,
page 19.) From 1908 to 1915-16 they were printed in aniline colors
which were only obtainable from Germany. After 1916 a variety of
colors were used of different chemical compositions. Later the
paper was also changed from wove paper to papers of various
thicknesses,strengths, porosity and transparency. (Rossica,No.57-
1959, page 17.)

The applicators (rollers) of the chalk net, especially after 1917,
became worn, and the diameter of the chalk line thus increased from
the normal width of 3/4 mm. to as much as 1 andl/2 mm. and in some
cases left only very faint impressions.The varnish itself changed
also in composition from light yellow to brownish in the early
twenties.

After the revolution in 1917 the inspection (quality control) of
each sheet at the Government Printing Office became very sloppy.
Sheets were delivered to the Post Office with many errorsincluding
misplaced chalk nets, leaving one side row of stamps without chalk
lines. (Whole sheets without any chalk lines may exist but must
be extremely rare as I have never seen one.)

What I want to point out here is that over the period of fifteen
years, from 1908 when some of these stamps were first printed to
1923, each of the many printings had its own characteristics. This
occurred because they were printed on paper with different color
absorbing qualities, in different inks which absorbed the chalk lines
in different ways, and with varnish whose composition changed. There
are great variations. The strength of the impression of the stamps
on the paper and the impression of the chalk new also varied due to
the wearing off of the plates, the rollers, and presses over the
years. All these factors resulted in the light absorbing differences
Mr. Shalimoff mentions in his article.

14 -









Very heavy applications of varnish on the Russian stamps do slightly
fluoresce a faint yellow orange under ultraviolet illumination. The
varnish lozenges appear light in the photo taken to catch this effect
shown in figure 16 which is the same stamp as in figure 1. This
effect is even more difficult to photograph and less striking than
the earlier photos. The fluorescence appears brightest on the clear
paper but seems absent over the ink. At first one might say that
the ink is above the fluorescent varnish.However, fluorescence can
be easily quenched by slight interaction with the ink, consequently
this effect and the difficulty in photographing the faint fluorescence
yields only marginal information.














Fig.15.











Fig.14.


Fig.16.


Unfortunately the ultraviolet reflection photography method does
not answer the question of whether the varnish is above or below the
printing in all cases. I feel in the cases of heavy application the
varnish appears to be on top. With the lighter applications one is
less certain. Also the mechanism of the varnish with respect to a
cancellation is not explained. However, ultraviolet photography does
provide information about questionable applications since even traces
not seen by eye in ordinary light are detected on the photographic
negative and print. It is, I believe, a new dimension for the
examination and study of the varnish lozenge issues of 1909-1923.
13-









I, therefore, do not believe, as Mr. Shalimoff says, that the heavy
and light coats and the thick, thin, and fuzzy patterns of the chalk
lines can be observed on all issues of the IMPERIAL Provisional and
Soviet Government. I repeat again that each printing had its own
characteristics.

Finally, I do not think that the illustrated 35 kopec stamp shown
in figure 1 of the article is of the 1909-1912 printing as described
as at this time the chalk net showed thin, sharp, and "delicately"
printed lines.
*********is













































15 -









PERFORATIONS ON RUSSIAN STAMPS 1858-1955

by Dr. C. de Stackelberg


Data on the perforations of Russian stamps, as published in many stamp
catalogues, unfortunately often are erroneous. A basic article on the
perforations of Russian stamps from the beginning until 1955 might be
of considerable interest to specialists.

Perforations in general

To start with, a few words must be said about stamp perforations in
general. Perforations are measured by the number of holes encountered
within the space of two centimeters along the side of a stamp. Special
guages to measure stamp perforations are made from a variety of materials;
usually they are printed on cardboard or metal, or on various kinds of
plastic. With few exceptions, i.e. those made of some plastics, all of
the gauges often are quite inexact, as they expand or shrink with temp-
erature changes. Those printed on cardboard also change depending on
the amount of humidity to which they are exposed. The most exact guages
are those which are engraved on crystal. These are manufactured in
Sweden and are rather expensive. It must be pointed out also that
stamps, themselves, after perforation may change their size. The paper
on which they are printed may shrink under dry heat conditions or expand
when exposed to humidity. Such distortions may amount to as much as half
a perforation hole.

Depending on the type of perforating machines available for use at a
given time at the printing office, sheets of stamps can be perforated
by a number of different methods. However, during the time period
covered by this article Russian stamps were produced by the line, comb,
or harrow types of perforations.

1. Line Perforations(abbreviation "L" in the tables which follow)
At each downstroke of the perforating machine only a single horizontal
or vertical line is perforated across the sheet and its margins. See
illustration 1.



..... ........... ................ ........................ ..............





... ........ ... .. .............. .. .. .... ................... .......... .





..... .............. ................ ................. ................. .................


Fig. 1.

16 -








2. Comb Perforations (abbreviation "C") In this method each stroke
of the machine cuts perforations on three sides of each stamp, so that
a single stroke of the perforator looks like a "comb". See illustration
number 2.
............ ............ ............... ...... ............


I I

Fig. 2.

Sheet margins are not perforated but show at the beginning and at the
end of each line of horizontal perforations one or two extra holes. See
illustration 3.


"............... ............... ............... ............... ...............
















Fig. 3.

3. Harrow perforations (abbreviation 'IT") Here the machine perforates
at one stroke all four sides of the stamps in a sheet or, in the case
of many Russian stamps, all four panes of the sheet. The margins around
each panel remain unperforated. (See illustration 4, showing the upper
part of a panel.)

Perforations of Russian Stamps

The best and most detailed study on the perforations of Russian stamps
covering the period 1858-1930 was made by Mr. C Manshelei. It was
published in the old "Rossica" in the number 10 issue of October 10,1932
and in the number 16 issue of August 1934.



17 -











. . . . . . .. . . ..



















Fig. 4.


Mr. Manshelei and a group of friends measured hundreds of Russian
stamps with gauges expressed in units of 1/4 of a hole. Not only did
they measure the number of holes in a perforation but also the size of
the holes. For instance, Manshelei's findings indicate that the holes
of the 14 1/2 x 14 3/4 perforations (Type 1) of 1858, and 1865 to
1883-4 were large, thus producing smaller teeth, whereas the holes of
the 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 perforations after 1883-4 were smaller, producing
longer teeth. However, Mr. Manshelei was unable to obtain for his
study margins of the issues of 1858 and 1865 to 1883-4. As a result
of this he was unable to determine whether they were line or comb
perforated. In my summary I have indicated that they were comb from
1858 to 1864, since I have been able to examine sheet margin pieces in
the collection of Mr. Boris Shishkin. Also Mr. Manshelei was unable
to determine whether the stamps of the Romanoff issue of 1913 were line
or comb. Pieces in Mr. Shishkin's collection indicate that they were
comb perforated. Also, I have been able to determine that the issues
of 1865 to 1888 were harrow perforated.

Mr. Manshelei's study has been summarized in the following tables,
entitled Parts I,II and III-A to cover the years 1858 to 1923. For the
perforations of the RSFSR and USSR stamps covering the years 1922-3
to 1955 the data and perforation tables of the official Soviet stamp
catalogue of 1955 were used and follow as Parts III-B, IV, and V. It
must be pointed out that in the Soviet catalogue the perforations are
measured by units of half holes, whereas, as mentioned earlier,
Manshelei's perforations are expressed in units of one-quarter hole.





-18 -
-18








According to John H. Reynold's "Special Catalogue of Postage Stamps
of Russia, Part I published by the British Society of Russian
Philately in 1957, a number of irregular perforations exist. They
are listed as Part I B.

One must be aware of fake perforations that exist on forged stamps
which may be different from or similar to perforations on the
genuine stamps. There are also fake perforations 11 1/2 of the
1 rouble arms type stamp made from genuine imperforated sheets of
the 1918 printed on wove paper (Scott #31) to simulate the rare
11 1/2 perforation of 1906 on laid paper. Another fake 11 1/2
perforation appears on the "Airship Building" issue (Scott's 446-
50) and the Malygin issue (Scott's C-30-35) made at a stamp dealer's
order in Berlin.

Therefore, should perforations be found which are different from
those listed in the following tables, they are either fakes or the
paper of the stamp has expanded, or more probably, shrunk.



































-19 -






PART I -A

Perforation of Imperial Russian Stamps

1858 1914

Scott # 4Bte Print Paper Value Perforation Type
Wk. colorless
2,3,4 1858 Typo numerals 10,20,30 K 14 1/2 x 14 3/4 L/C

5 10 1858-1864 Wove paper 1 K-30 K 12 1/4 x 12 1/2 C
1863 5 K C

12 18 1865 1 K-30 K 14 1/2 x 14 3/4 H

19 25 1866-1875 Wmk. wavy lines 1 K-30 K H

26 30 1875-1881 __" 2 K-20 K H
Horiz. laid
31 38 1883-1883/4 _" _paper 1 K-70 K H
"" 1883/4-1888 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 H
Vert. laid
39 40 1884 _paper 3 1/2,7R 13 1/4 L
Horiz. laid
41 44 1889 _paper 4 K-20 K 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 H

45 1889 "t 1 R 13 1/4 L

46 52 1889-1892 1" 1 K-35 K 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 H

53 54 1889-1892 3" 3.50R & 7R 13 1/4 L
Vert. laid
55 67 1902-1905 _" _paper 1 K-70 K 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 H

68- 70 1R,3 1/2,7R 13 1/4 L

B1 B4 1905 No wmk. 3,5,7,10 K 12 x 12 1/2 C **

(B1,B3,B4) i" 3,7,10K 13 1/4 L

(B) 3 K 11 1/4 L

0








PART I A

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

(B) 1905 Typo No wmk. 3 K 11 1/4 x 13 1/4 L
Vert. laid
71-72 1906 paper 5, 10R 13 1/4 L
.o wmk.
73-86 1909-1912 Vert.chalk line K-70 K 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 H

87 1909 "l R 13 1/4 L

88-100 1913 No wmk. 1 K-70 K 13 1/4 L/C

101-103 Romanoff "Chalk surfaced 1, 2, 3R 13 1/4 x 13 1/2 L/C

104 Issue "paper 5R 13 1/2 x 13 1/4 L/C

B5-B8 1914 Tinted paper 1 K-10 K 13 1/4 L

"War Charity 12 1/2 L
"11 1/4 L
B9-B10
B13 White paper 1K,3K, 10K 13 1/4 L
" 12 1/2 L

" 11 1/4 L

B9-B13 Overprinted 1 K-10 K 13 1/4, 12 1/2 L
"Sample" 11 1/4
1915 Thin
105-107 Paper money _" cardboard 10,15,20 K 13 1/4 C
Vert.
108-109 1916 chalk lines 5, 10R 13 1/4 L

(108) SR 11 1/4 L
1916 10 on 7K
110-111 Surcharged "__ 20 on 14K 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 H








PART I A

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type
Thin
112-113 1916-1917 Typo cardboard 1 on 2,2on 2K 13 1/4 C

114-116 Paper money 1,2,3K
1917 Vert. Kop 10 Kop
117-118 Surcharged "_chalk lines and K 20 K 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 H

PART I B

Additional Irregular Perforations (R.R.R.)
after Reynolds Catalog 1957 *

13 1/2 x 11 1/2 x
68 1902-5 Typo Vert.laid paper 1 R 13 1/2 x 13 1/2 L
"13 1/2 x 13 1/2 x
11 1/2 x 13 1/2 L
13 1/2 x 13 1/2 x
13 1/2 x 11 L

11 1/2 L

11 1/2 x 13 1/2 L
11 1/2 x 13 1/2 x
13 1/2 x 13 1/2 L

70 7 R 13 1/2 x 11 1/2 L
11 1/2 x 13 1/2 x
13 1/2 x 13 1/2 L







* *







PART I B

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value PerforationTy

B1 1905 Typo No wmk. 3 K 11 x 11 1/2 L
11 1/2 x 13 1/2 x
13 1/2 x 11 1/2 L
1 1/2 x 13 1/2 x
13 1/2 x 13 1/2 L

13 x 13 1/2 L

13 1/2 x 11 1/2 L
13 1/Z x 11 I/Z x
13 1/2 x 13 1/2 L
13 1/2 x 13 1/2 x
13 1/2 x 11 1/2 L

B3 7 K 13 1/4 x 13 1/2 L

B4 10 K 13 1/4 x 13 1/2 L
Vert.
71 1906 laid paper 5 R 11 1/2 L
13 1/4 x 13 1/4 x
10 1/2 x 13 1/4 L

72 10 R 11 1/2 L

"( "For the benefit of the postman" )

Not listed 1909 Typo No wmk. 15 K 12 1/4 x 12 3/4 C**
in Scott 1 1/4 x 12 3/4
1911 15 K 13 1/2 C*


Note: Reynold's perf. 13 1/2 probably equals Manshelei's 13 1/4 L. (except B3 and B4)
Reynold's perf. 11 1/2 equals Manselei's 11 1/4, L and
Reynold's perf. 12 1/4 x 13 3/4 equals Manselei's 12 x 12 1/2,II.

"** This "C" perforation is the perforation of fiscal stamps, see Part III A







PART II

Perforation of Stamps used during the time of the Provisional Government

1917

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type
Vert.
1917(-1923) Typo chalk lines

119-130 Arms type 1K-70K 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 H

131 1R 13 1/4 L

135 10R 13 1/4 L

137-138 3.50R, 7R 13 1/4 L

137a & 138a 1918 3.50R, 7R 12 1/2 L
Horiz.
87a,137b,138c 1918 chalk lines 1,3.50.7R 13 1/2 x 13 1/4 C
Vert.
139-140 1918 chalk lines 1 on 1K, 2on 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 H

141 2K, and 3K


PART TII A

Perforations of Stamps used 1918-1923 in RSFSR

1. All Arms ype stamps listed in Part II *
1918 Vert.
149-1450 Kerenski issue chalk lines 35. 70K 13 1/4 L
1918-1920 Vert.
Saving Bank stamp diamonds 1,5,10K 14 1/4 x 14 1/2 H

Note: For greater detail see C. de Stackelberg's article "A New Check List of the Arms
Type Issue of 1909-1923" in Rossica #57 of 1959 to #64 of 1963.

* 0 0








PART III A

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value PerforationType

4. Fiscal stamps Typo Vert. 5,10,15,20

50,75K 12 x 12 1/2 C **

1,1.25,2,35 )________________
Postal Saving
5.- Bank Stamps 25,50K 13 C
ZS,50K,1R
6. "Control" Stamps 3,5,10,25,100R 13 C

PART III B
Lt Perforations of Stamps of the RSFSR




234-237 1922-1923 Typo No wmk. 10,50,70,100R 14 x 14 1/2 H

"I Issue 12 1/2 L
i i" 13 1/2 L
May 1923---
238-241a No.wmk 1,2R 12 H
SIssue14 x 14 1/2 H
____ l_" 3-20R 14 x 14 1/2 H








PART IV

Perforations of the ordinary or so called
"Standard Issues" of U.S.S.R.

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type
(i.e. no June 1924 Litho No wmk. 1-20K 14 14 1/2 H
Scott #)
263,264 30,40K H
R- R H

"__" "3,4K,1R 12 H

278-291 1924-1925 Typo No wmk 1K to 2R 14-14 1/2 H

292-293 i 13 1/2 L

S278a-290a 1K-1R 12 L

(292) 3R 10 L

(292) 3R 13 1/2 :10 L

(293) 5R 10 1/2 L
304-323 1925-1927 Typo Wmk.
"Greek border" 1K to 2R 12 H

(311) 8K 14:14 1/2 H

(321-323) 1R,2R H

324-325 3,5R 13 1/2 L

(324-325) 3,5K 12 1/2 L




*







PART IV

(cont.)


Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

342-344 1925-1928 Engraved "Greek border" 1-3R 10 1/2 L

302.-303 5,10R 10 1/2 L

343a 1925-1928 2R 12 1/2 L

302b,303c July 1925 5,10R 12 1/2 L
12 1/2 x lo 1/2x
(343) 1926 2R 10 1/2 x 10 1/2 L

(344) 1926 3R L

302 1925 5R 12 1/2 x 13 1/2 L

302b,303 1925 5,10R 13 1/2 L
Watermarked
406 1928-1929 lozenges 3R 10 L

407-408 1928-1929 5,10R 10 L

406-408 3,5,10R 10 1/2 L

408 1928-1929 10R 10 1/2:12 1/2 L

408 12 1/2:10 1/2 L

406,407,408 1939 No wmk.. 3,5,10R 12 1/2 L


Third Standard Issue


413-419 1929-1932 Typo Lozenges 1-10K 12 x 12 1/2 C

420 14 C







PART IV

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

421-426 1929-1932 Typo Lozenges 15-80K 12 x 12 1/2 C

436,437 1,3R C

(437) 3R 12 1/2 L

(413,417,419) 1,5,10,14, 10 1/2 L
(420,422) 20K

(436) 1929 1R 10 1/2 L

(420) 14K 10 L

613A,614 1937 No wmk. 1,2K 12 x 12 1/2 C
S615,615A 4,5K C

616A,617,619A ____ 10,20,50K i C

Fourth Standard Issue

616,617A 1936-1937 Typo No wmk. 10K,20K 12 x 12 1/2 C

619 Chalk surfaced 40K 12 x 12 1/2 C
paper

(616,617A) No wmk. 10,20K 12 1/2 L

(616) Dec 1953 Offset No wmk. 10K 12 x 12 1/2 C







S *








PART IV

Fifth Standard Issue

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

735,736 1939 March/Aug Typo No wmk. 15,30K 12 x 12 1/2 C
Recess
736A printing 60K 12 1/2 L

736A __60K 12 x 12 1/2 C

Sixth Standard Issue
1939 Aug-
734,735,736 1943 March Typo No wmk. 5K,15K,30K 12 x 12 1/2 C

734,735,736 12 1/2 L

736A 1943 60 12 x 12 1/2 C

(736) 1946 Sept Litho 30K 12 x 12 1/2 C

C735) 1947 Sept Offset 15K 12 x 12 1/2 C

(736) 30K 12 x 12 1/2 C

(736) 30K 12 1/2 L

1161 1947 Nov. Typo" 60K 12 1/2 L

Seventh Standard Issue

"Recess 5k,10,15,
1214-1221 1948-May-Sept printing No wmk. 20,30,45 12 x 12 1/2 C
(50,60K

(1220) April 1949 Offset No wmk. 50 12 x 12 1/2 C

1260 LR 12 x 12 1/2 C







PART IV

Seventh Standard Issue

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

1260 April 1949 Offset on thin paper 1R 12 x 12 1/2 C

1260 1953 "_on strong paper 1R C

Eighth Standard Issue


1343-1346 April 1949 Offset No wmk. 15,20,25,30 12 x 12 1/2 C

1689 Oct. 1948 40K C

1347 April 1949 50K C

C 82 Dec. 1949 1R 12 1/2 x 12 C

C 82 1R 12 1/2 L

PART V

Perforation of Commemoratives and Airmail Stamps of USSR

246-249 Aug 1923
Agri. Exhibit Litho No wmk. 1,2,5,7R 12 1/2 L

246,247,249 1" i f __1,5,7R 13 1/2 L

269-272 Jan 1923 Litho 3,6,12,20K 13 1/2 L
Lenin 4- J Size 20.5x26 nm._





S 0







PART V

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

298-301 Jan 1925 Recess "Greek border" 7,14,20,40K 13 1/2 L
Wmk.
Lenin Memorial I on ordinary paper

298-301 i" II on strong paper 7,14,20,40K 13 1/2 L

Jll-J17 Jan 1925 Litho No wmk. 1-14K 12 H
Postage Due
J13,114, 3,7,10,14 14 1/2 x 14 H
Jl16,17

J11J 17 May 1925 Typo 1-14K 12 H
Postage Due J
______ "Greek border" Wik 1-14K 12 H

326,327 Sept 1925 Recess "Greek border"Wmk. 3,5K 12 1/2 L

326 200 Anniv.of 3K 12 1/2 x 12 C

326,327 Academy of Sci. 3,15K 13 1/2 L
Oct.1925
328,329 Popov 7,14K 13 1/2 H

339-341 Dec. 1925 3,7,14K 12 1/2 L

20 yr Anniv.of 12 x 12 1/2 C
1st Resolution 13 1/2 L
Dec. 1925
333-335 Decemberists 3714K 13 1/2 H

347-348 July 1926 Litho 7,14K 12 x 12 1/2 C
Esperanto i
___Congress ___" 11 1/2 L







PART V

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

B48-B49 May 1926- Litho "Greek border'Wmk. 10,20K 13 1/2 H
Jan. 1927
Orphans J No wmk. H
March 1927?
B52-B53 rphans Tpo"Greek border"Wmk. 8*2,18+2K 13 1/2 H

373 May 1927 Recess "Greek border'"Wk. 14K 10 1/2 L

374 Esperanto Chalk surf.paper 14K 10 1/2 L
No wmk.
"- 14K 10 x 10 1/2 L

__10 L
on
359,360,362 I Litho stamp! No wmk. 8:1,8:2,8:7,8:8 112 H
363,364,365 June 1927 8:10,8:14K

360,361,362, 8K on II 8:2,8:3,8:7,8:81 12 H
363,364,365 8:10, 8:14K
Postage
362,364 Dues I "8:7, 8:10K 14 1/2 x 14 H
361,362,364,36 II 8:3,8:7,8:1 68:14 H

-- July 1927 I onTypo stamps 8:1,8:2,8:7K 12 H
8:8,8:14K J

8K on II 8:1,8:2,8:3K 7 12 H
8:7,8:8,8:14Kj

366 to 372 Postage I "Greek border"Wmk. 8:1,8:2,8:38::7 12 H
Dues 8:8,8:10,8:14K J
II 12 H




* O 0





S S
PART V

(cont.)

$cott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

349 June 1927- Typo Nowmk. K 8:7 14 x 14 1/2 H

349 Feb 1928 8:7 Type I 12 H

350 8K "Greek border"Wmk 8:7 12 H

349 overprints No wmk. 8:7 14 x 14 1/2 H

349 8:7 Type II 12 H

350 "Greek border"Wnk. 8: 7 12 H

C10,C11 Aug 1927 Litho chalk surf. 10,15K 12 1/2 x 12 C
Airpost Conf. paper

375 10th Anniv. Typo 3K 13 1/2 C

376 Nov. 1927 Recess 5K 10 1/2 L
376 5K 12 1/2 x 10 1/2 L

376 5K 12 1/2 L

377 Engraved 7K 10 1/2 L

377 7K 11 1/2 L

378 Typo 8K 13 1/2 C

378 8K 10 1/2 x 12 1/2 L

379 Litho 14K 12 1/2 x 12 C
380 Typo 18K "








PART V

(cont.)
Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

381 Nov.1927 Recess chalk surfaced 28K 10 1/2 L
paper
381 10th Anniv. 28K 10 x 10 1/2 L

381 (cont.) 28K 10 L

353 Dec 1927 Recess "Greek border"Wmk. 8:7K 13 1/2 H

354 overprint 8K 12 1/2 L

355 on various 13 1/2 H

356 stamps Litho 12 x 12 1/2 C

402-405 Feb. 1928 Typo chalk surfaced
10th Anniv. paper 8-28K 13 1/2 H
Red Army _

B54,B56 Jan.1929 Recess 10+2,20+2 10 1/2 L

B56 Child Welfare 20 2 10 L

411 Aug.1929 Recess "Greek border" 10K 12 1/2:12 C
Wmk.
411 Pioneers 10K 10 L

411 10K 10 1/2 L

412 14 12 1/2 x 12 C

411,412 10K,14K 12 1/2 x 12 x L
10 1/2 x 12
10K,14K 12 1/2 x 12 x L
10 x 12



0 S








PART V

(cont.)
Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

427 & 428 Oct. 1929 Typo "Greek border"Wmk 5,1oK 12:12 1/2 C

429 & 430 Industrial- 20,28K 12 1/2:12 C

430 ization "i 20K 10 1/z L

B55,B57 Jan. 1930 Recess chalk surfaced 10+2, 20+2 10 1/2 L
Child Welfare _paper

431-434 Feb.1930 Typo "Greek border" 2-14K 12: 12 1/2 C
10th Anniv.of Wmk.
Army Cavalry

435 Aug 1930 Typo 10K 12:12 1/2 C
Educational Exhibition

C12,C13 Sept.1930 Recess Diamonds wmk. 40K,80K 10 1/2 L

Airmail i" 40K,80K 12 1/2 L

438,439 Dec.1930 Typo "Greek border" 3,5K 12 x 12 1/2 C
25th Anniv.of Wmk.
440 Revolution 10K 12 1/2 x 12 C

446 May 1931 Recess 10K 12 1/2 L

"Airship 12:12 1/2 L

447 Construction Litho 15K 10 1/2:12 C
"12 1/2 L

448 Typo 20K 12 1/2 C
__12 x 12 1/2 C








PART V

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

448 May 1931 Typo "Greekborder" 20K 12 1/2 x 12 C
Airship Wmk.
449 Construction Photogravure 50K 12 1/2 L
(cont.) 50K 10 1/2 x 12 C

450 Recess 1R 12 1/2 L

IR 12 x 12 1/2 C

C30-C33 July 1931 Photo 30K-2R 12 1/2 L

Airmail "_ 12 x 12 1/2 C

El May 1932 Photo 5K 12 1/2 x 12 C

E2,E3 Express 10,80K 12 x 12 1/2 C

C34,C35 Aug. 1932 50K,1R 12 1/2 L

"Airmail 50K,1R 10 1/2 L

C34 50K 10 1/2 x 12 L

470,471 Sept.1932-33 15K,35K 12 1/2 x 12 C
Gorky

451 Oct.1932 Engraved No wmk. 15K 12 1/2 L

451 Airship (stamps of 15K 14 L

451 Construction I various sizes) 15K 10 1/2 L

479 Nov.1932 Litho "Greek border" 50K 12 1/2 x 12 C
Help to Revolutionaries Wmk.







PART V

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation ype

472,473,478 Nov. 1932 Photogravure "Greek border" 3,5,35K 12 1/2 x 12 C
Wmk.
474,475,476,477 10,15,20,30K 12 x 12 1/2 C
15th Anniv.
474 of Revolution 10K 12 1/2 L

485,486 Dec.1932 15,35K 12 1/2 L
Int.Philatelic
486 Exhibition 35K 10 1/2 L

480 March 1933 3K 12 x 12 1/2 L
50th Anniv.of
481,482 Marx's death 10,35K 12 1/2:12 C

487 March 1933 30 15K 12 1/2 L
"Philatelic
488 Exhibition 70 35K 10 1/2 L
489,492,496
497,498 April 1933 1,4,8,9,10 12 x 12 1/2 C

500,501,502 Enthnographic 20K,30K,35K

490,493, Issue 2,5K,6K,14K 12 1/2 x 12 C
494,499

504-506,508-510 15,15,15,15 10 1/2 x 12 C

507 15 12 x 10 1/2 C

514-516 Oct.1933 Recess 1,3,5K 12 x 12 1/2 C
Revolutionaries

C37-C39 Nov.1933 Photogravure 5,10,20 14 L
Stratostate







PART V

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation ype

518 Nov.1933 Photogravure No wmk. 20K 14 L
Order of
518 Red Flag 20K 9 1/2 L

519-523 Dec.1933 4 to 40K 14 L

520 Commissars 20K 14 x 14 x 10 x 14 L

C40-C44 Feb. 1934 5-80K 14 L

C40-C44 Airmail "Greek border" 5-80K 14 L
Wmink.
C42 20K 14x10x14x14 L

C44 80K 10x14x14x14 L

524-528 Feb.1934 Engraved No wmk. 5-35K 14 L
10th Anniv.of Lenin's Death

529,530 March 1934 20-40 14 L
Fedorov

531 March 1934 Photo "Greek border" 10K 10 L
Sverdlov Wmk.

532 March 1934 15K 14 L
Nogin

536-539 Sept.1934 5-20K 14 L
Mendeleev

C50-C52 Sept.1934 5,10,20K 11 L
" Airmail 5,10,20K 14 L

C52 20K 14 x 10 L








PART V

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

C52 Sept.1934 "Greek border" 20K 14x14x14x10 L
Airmail (cont.) Photo Wmk.

C53-C57 Oct.1934 5-30K 14 L
Airmail

540-545 Nov. 1934 No wmk. 1-30K 14 L
Lenin
546-550 Jan.1935 "Greek border" 5-35K 4 L
Anti-war series Wnk.

C58-C67 Jan.1935 1K-5OK 14 L
Airmail

551-554 Feb.1935 5-20K 14 L
Subway

559-568 April 1935 No wmk. 1K-40K 14 L
Sports issues

555-558 May 1935 "Greek border" 5,10,15,20K 14 L
Engels Wmk.

C68 Aug.1935 12+10K 14 L
Airmail

569-572 Sept.1935 5-35K 14 L
Expo. Persian Art

573-576 Nov.1935 No wmk. 3-20K 14 L
Kalinin

580,582 Dec 1935 "Greek border" 2,40K 11 L
Wmk.
Kirov 14 L







PART V

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

581 Dec.1935 Photogravure "Greek border" 4K 11 L
Wmk.
Bauman ." 4K 14 L

577-579 Dec.1935 No wmk. 3,10,20 11 L

Tolstoi 14 L

579 20K 11 x 14 L

583-588 April 1936 Recess I On strong 1-15K 11 L
wove paper
Pioneers No wmk

14 L

586 5K 11 x 14 L
" 14 x 11 L

" 11x14x14x14 L

lx11x14x14 L

lxllxlx4 L

"" 14x11x14x14 L

lx11x14xll L

584 & 588 II On porous 2,15K 11 L
paper
215K 14 L








PART V

(cont)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value Perforation Type

590-595 Feb.1937 Typo Chalk surfaced 10K-1R 12 1/2 L
paper
"Pushkin 14 x 12 1/2 L
11 x 12 1/2 L

591 20K 12 1/2 x 11 L

590,591,592 10K,20,40K 11 L

590,591,592,593 10,20,40,50K 14 L

590-594 Ordinary paper 10K-80K 12 1/2 x 12 C

597-601 June 1937 Photogravure No wmk. 3K-20K 12 1/2 L

603-604 Architectural 40,50K 12 1/2 L

602 Issue "Greek border" 30K 11 L
Wmk.
602 30K 12 1/2 L

606-609 July 1937 Typo Chalk surface 10K-80K 12 1/2 L
Dzerzhinski paper

C64-C74 Dec.1937 Photogravure No wmk. 10K-1R 12 1/2 L
Airmail

611-613 Jan.1938 Typo 5,20,50 12 1/2 x 12 C
Paris Exposition

606-609 Feb.1938 20K 12 1/2 L
_Rustaveli







PART V

(cont.)

Scott # Date Print Paper Value PerforationType

625 Feb.1938 Litho No wmk. 10 12 1/2 x 12 C

626 North Pole 20 C

627 Expedition Typo 40 C

628 80 C

629-634 March 1938 Photogravure Strong paper 10K-80K 12 1/2 L
with blue
635 20th Anniv. Typo fibers 1R 12 x 12 1/2 C

(629-634) of Red Army Ordinary 10K-80K 12 1/2 L
paper
S(635) 1" I1R 12 x 12 1/2 C

636-639 April 1938 Photogravure No wmk. 10-50K 12 1/2 L
Flight USSR-USA

640-642 April 1938 "10,20,50K 12 1/2 L
2nd Flight over North Pole

647-657 Oct'37-May '38 Typo 11 x 20K 12 1/2 x 12 C

658 Army Engraved 40K C

659-906 1938 to 1943 were either perforated 12 1/2 L
or 12 1/2 x 12 C
or 12 x 12 1/2 C

907-1745 1943-1955 were only perforated 12 1/2 L

Note Last stamp listed in the Soviet Stamp Catalog of 1955.




*S











THE 1866 THREE. KOPEC ERROR WITH FIVE KOPEC BACKGROUND

by Gordon Torrey



In June 1870 the noted Belgian stamp dealer, J.B. Moens, announced in
his stamp journal, "Le Timbre Poste," that a Russian rarity had been
discovered by a Monsieur Mahe. This was the current Russian three kopec
green and black stamp which had been discovered with the background of
the five kopec lilac and black stamp of the 1866 series. This error is
now listed as Scott 20d and Gibbons 19d. Moens went on to state that
he had gone through his large stock of the three kopec stamps and had
found none of this error, so he considered it the discovery of a
considerable rarity. By July Moens had examined a copy of the error,
and he reported that it was on watermarked horizontally laid paper and
perforated 15.

In his work on the 19th century issues of Russia published in "The
London Philatelist" in February 1941, Sir John Wilson mentioned that
all used copies were dated 1870. However, the author has a cover from
Odessa to Vienna, via Kishinev in Bessarabia, cancelled in early
October 1871. Sir John went on to mention that this stamp was the best
known and most easily acquired of Russian errors and that while used
copies were fairly well distributed, unused copies were another matter.
Finding a block of four unused took considerable searching.

Copies of this error were used widely. In my own collection there are
copies used from Warsaw, St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Kishinev,
Bessarabia. Others have been reported from Libau and Bialstok. The
Kurt Adler collection contained two covers from Kishinev, one to Prague
and the other to France. Other covers have been reported addressed to
Germany, Holland and Austria. The earliest usage known to me is a
cover dated March 27, 1870 from St. Petersburg. I would be interested
in hearing from other collectors who have covers or copies of this
stamp with dated town cancellations.

An unused block of this variety was in
the Faberg5 collection. This turned up
in the Goss collection and sold for 80
pounds sterling in February 1958. The
Baughman collection, sold in March 1971,
had two unused blocks of this stamp;from
the photographs neither appears to be
the ex-Fabergg or Goss blocks. One sold
for $475.00 and the other for $325.00.
A brilliant block of four sold in the
H.R. Harmer sale of the Frederick T.
Small collection in December 1974 for
$900.00. ..... ....




43 -











ANT-25





.:.::... ; -... ..::.:...:. .








Preface

Looking through past issues of our Rossica Journal, one finds a number
of articles on the subject of aerophilately. Particularly notable were
those on the airmail cachets by the late Fred Speers (Rossica Journal
No. 80), two by Ray Hoffmann (R82 and 84) concerning airmail covers,
and a description of outstanding Soviet flights written by the legendary
M.V. Vodpyanov (R82). These articles, however, concentrate on the strictly
philatelic side, and give less emphasis to the machines and men.
For information on that subject it would be necessary to go back further
in time to a series of articles by our founder, E.M.Archangelsky, in
Rossica Journal 46 (in English) and Journals 27, 30 and 32/33 of the years
1937/1938 (unfortunately available only in Russian). Reading the short
biography of Eugene M. Archangelsky, as it appeared from Dr. Gregory B.
Salisbury's pen in Rossica 44, on the occasion of the twenty fifth arriver-
sary of our Society, there is no hint of an aeronautical background to
explain our founder's interest. Can any older member offer any information?

Much new data has become available since those days, and the following
article indicates the type of philatelic story that can reveal itself to
the researcher, based on only a small group of Russian stamps (Scott
Numbers 636-639, 1017, 1693, 2274, 3283, 4084, C26-33, C34-35, C61 and C68).

A second article in this series has been completed (on C58 to 67) and one
on the Papanin adventure is in process.

The author wishes to acknowledge the encouragement of Leonard Tann and
Andrew Cronin, and editorial assistance from Denys Voaden.





-44
44 -









ANT 25 "

by P. J. Campbell


Aviation has a heritage of great men and machines and, unlike other
forms of transportation, has a history which is entirely within the
memory of many people living today. No single list can contain all
of its heroes, and any partial list would omit many that should be
honored.

This article describes one of the machines and some of the men who
make their mark in aeronautical history, and describes the story behind
a few of the stamps of Russia. The aircraft in the Tupolev ANT-25, and
each of the men will be introduced in his turn.

The history of the ANT-25 began in August, 1931 when the Soviet War
Council set up a special commission for construction of a long range
aeroplane, and Andrei N. Tupolev, Chief Designer of Moscow's Central
Aero-hydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI),began in December 1931 by pre-
paring an outline specification for an aircraft with a potential range
of 13,000 kilometers, which was well in excess of the current world
record. The special commission, under the chairmanship of K.E.
Voroshilov, considered the design of the aircraft, development of an
engine, and construction of a suitable runway, and Tupolev began collect-
ing a team (such as that shown on Scott 1017) for the design and manu-
facture of the aircraft; the design team was headed by P.O. Sukhoi and
included B.M. Kondorskii, V.N. Belyaev, and Pogoskii.

The aircraft was to be constructed at the new Plant "B" (later called
the Frunze Factory) at Voronezh, by a manufacturing team including
Pogoskii, Stoman, Berdnik, Taits, Mariamor, and Kolosov.

Studies finally settled on an all-metal cantilever monoplane with a
relatively enormous wing span of 34 meters and a fuselage barely 13.4
meters long; gross weight was 8,000 kg. and design cruise speed a modest
212 kph. Design features included the typical Tupolev corrugated skin
construction (of Kol'chugalumin), a retractable undercarriage with twin
wheels on each leg, and a fixed tail wheel; a most unusual item was
integral fuel tanks between the forward spars of the wing to contain
part of the large fuel capacity, 52% of gross weight! The designation
indicates that the aircraft was the twenty-fifth design of Andrei N.
Tupolev ... ANT-25. Design was completed in July, 1932 and-construction
commenced one month earlier.

The prototype, distinguishable by the squared-off lines of its fin and
rudder, started life with an ungeared version of the M-34 engine, de-
signed by A.A. Mikulin and chosen for the reliability and efficiency
essential to achieve great endurance and range. The M-34 engine was
manufactured at Plant No. 24 in NMscow. The basic engine had a compression

8,000 kilometers; New York Istanbul, Boardman and Polando in
their Ballanca "Cape Cod", set in July 1931.



45 -








ratio of 6.0 and a nominal output of 750 BHP; in time an uprated
engine with a 7.0 compression ratio became available, and this version
offered 874 BHP. In August 1932 work began on development of a geared
version, the M-34R, which was developed to give 900 HP at 1950 rpm
and a 6.6 compression ratio.

The prototype first flew on 22 June 1933, but was something of a
disappointment with fuel flow problems and a range of only 7,200 km.
at a speed of 215 kph.

The second prototype was completed two months after the first and flew
on 10 September 1933 with TsAGI test pilot Mikhail Gromov as pilot;
both prototypes thereafter continued their test programs simultaneously.
The second prototype, utilizing the M34R engine geared down to permit a
lower revving, more efficient fixed-pitch propeller, achieved a speed of
240 kph (compared with 212 for the prototype). It was clear, however,
that the first prototype was limited to an endurance of 48 hours and a
range of 7,200 km. and the second prototype could not exceed 10,800 km.
A further round of modifications followed including careful fairing of
the undercarriage, polishing of the 3-blade propeller, and covering over
of the corrugated skin of the wing and tail with varnish-impregnated
fabric, achieved by sewing the fabric to the corrugations by use of a
curved needle and then doping the fabric afterwards; Gromov says that
this modification alone added 1,250 km. to the range.

Flight tests in early 1934 proved the efficiency of these changes, and
an endurance of 80 hours, with a range of 13,020 km. seemed achievable.
Weight had risen, however, and take-off distance at full load made it
necessary to have a 4-kilometer concrete runway,sloping downwards,to
get the bird in the air. This runway, the first in Russia, was built
on the southern outskirts of Moscow at Shchelkovo.

On 12 September 1934 Gromov, with co-pilot Filin and radio operator
Spirin, took off and flew 12,411 km. in 75 hours and 2 minutes in a
circular course over Russia, averaging a sedate 165 kph! It is
interesting to note that Sigizmund A. Levanevskii was in charge of this
test program, although he did not participate in the flight.

Some say that the ANT-25 was inspired by the British Fairey Long Range
Monoplane (Napier Lion engine) of 1927, and some mention the French
Dewoitine "Trait d'Union" that had crashed in Siberia, but several
design features of the ANT-25 confirm it as an original concept and a
superlative performer within its design parameters.

Several long distance flights were now considered to demonstrate the
potential of ANT-25. Some favored a flight from Moscow Black Sea -
Mediterranean Sahara South Atlantic Brazil, and others a trip over
the Pole to California. The latter route was eventually chosen, and the
first production model was produced, incorporating 20 rubber flotation
bags in case of a forced landing on the water. These bags, together with
comprehensive electrical equipment, radio, and much special instrumentation,

Mikhail Gromov was well known already for a series of flights which
will be described in a separate article.



46 -









TUPOLEV ANT-25 CHARACTERISTICS




o d% w 4 Cd -

C 0 4 q -l o0 Pv O OA ( 0 0,(




RD Prototype M-34 874 34 13.4 87.1 3700 8000 92 9.2 212 48 7200 1000
(7.0) A P l CO --r
RD Second M-3R 900 34 13.87.1 378 10000 115 1. 244 66 10800 -
.r4 0 tD.^ W0 ho W 4D W bD b-- a) cd 5 bD O h0 0+ W V g
wo 44 o r0 rr rt4 V -H P4 rk 0 hW a) (U .r4 $: 04 M to
r., w 04 -a) < (d a) O r. Cd COv 1 0- Cd (d .14

RD Prototype M-34 874 34 13.4 87.1 3700 8000 92 9.2 212 48 7200 1000
(7.0)
RD Second M-34R 900 34 13.0887.1 3784 10000 115 10.1 244 66 10800
Prototype (6.6)

RD Production M-34R 950 34 13.8 87.1 4200 11280 130 12.5 246 80 13000 1590
Model 11500



Table gives all data in Metric System:

multiply meters by 3.2808 to get feet

multiply kilometers by .62137 to get statute miles

multiply kilograms by 2.2046 to get pounds








increased gross weight even further. Finally, on 3 August 1935, S.A.
Levanevskii with crew members Baidukov and Levchenco took off from the
new runway, bound for San Francisco. An oil leak over the Barents Sea,
however, necessitated abandonment of the flight after 22 1/2 hours, and
the aircraft returned to Siberia.

Airmail was carried on the flight,and the specially overprinted stamps
carried the words "Flight, Moscow San Francisco, via the North Pole:
1935". The overprint (Scott C68) was on the 10 kopec brown (Scott C61)
showing Levanevskii during his attempt to rescue the survivors of the
ship "Chelyuskin". narrowly missing crashing into Cap Onman in his
Consolidated Model 174F "Fleetster".... but that is another story. To
return to the covers, they were taken from the aircraft and sent on to
their destination by more normal routes, some arriving in New York on
17 September 1935. Scott's catalog, as well as Zumstein, Michel, Minkus,
Yvert et Tellier, Gibbons, and Borek, all list the flight as though it
had been completed; only CPFU (Cercle Philatelique France URSS) states
that the flight was interrupted by mechanical troubles. Unfortunately,
Levanevskii tried again in a four engine Bolkhovitinov DB-A in 1937,
and he and his crew came down after crossing the Pole and have never
been found in spite of an intensive search.

To return to the ANT-25, the first really successful trip started on
22 July 1936 when Valerii P. Chkalov (Scott No. 1936) Aleksandr V.
Belyakov, and Georgii F. Baidukov took off from Moscow in the second
production aircraft and, in 56 hours and 21 minutes, reached the North
Pacific near Nikolaevsk- on-Amur, thus establishing an unofficial non-
stop record of 9,373 km. which was slightly over the current world
record. The route they had flown was a Great Circle ... breakfast in
Moscow and dinner over Franz Josef Land (Scott C34-35), where they sent
greetings down to the air base being constructed at Tikhaya Bay (Scott
C26-33). During the following morning they passed over Cape Chelyuskin
and Nordvyk and ate lunch over the Lena River (Scott 2274). By supper
they were over the mountain ranges at Yakutsk and later they passed
3,000 metres over Petropavlovsk (Scott 3283) on the Kamchatka Peninsula.
On part of this flight the temperature was six degrees below zero in the
cabin; the ANT-25 was always a cold ship! Finally they crossed the Sea
of Okhotsk to land on the island of Udd, near Nikolayevsk -on-Amur. This
landing was a tribute to Chkalov's skill as it had to be made in almost
complete darkness, across the width of the island, skipping two ponds on
the way; one of the starboard wheels was ripped off on the second bounce
on the stony surface, and the aircraft came to a rest finally after an
impressive ground loop! As a result of this fine flight, Udd was renamed
Chkalov Island, the fliers received an enthusiastic welcome on their return
to Moscow where they were decorated as "Heroes of the Soviet Union", and
a map of the route was painted on the tail of the aircraft. This aircraft
was subsequently displayed at the XVth Salon Internationale de
1'Aeronautique in Paris in the fall of 1936.

It is interesting to note that reliable Russian sources state that a
total of fifty of the ANT-25 aircraft were planned, including military
versions, but only twenty were completed by the spring of 1936, including
one with the Junkers Jumo -4 Diesel engine and another one, designated
RDD of RD Diesel,with the AN-1 Diesel designed by A.D. Charomskii.



48 -








One of the problems of the ANT-25 was that, with relatively low power,
and such an enormous fuel load, it sometimes took nearly all of the
special runway to get the fully loaded machine airborne and over 50 km.
to reach 500 meters altitude! Such figures, of course, are indicative
of the way the machine was flown to conserve fuel and not necessarily
a true measure of performance.

Next, at 1:06 AM on 18 June 1937, the same ANT-25 took off for the
North Pole and beyond, again with Chkalov, Baidukov and Belyakov (Scott
636 to 639). The paint scheme of the aircraft featured a black nose,
bright red wings and horizontal stabilizer, and the identification
letters URSS and N025 on the wing in large white letters. The name
"Stalinskii Marshrut" or Stalin's Route, were written in large letters
along the fuselage. The flight began with an old ANT-4 and a fighter
as an escort, but they soon departed. By 3;30 AM they reached 3,600
meters over Cherepovets and continued north with Chkalov and Baidukov
alternating on the controls because there was no autopilot on the
ANT-25. By mid-day they were over the Barents Sea, and, still climbing,
they passed over the Fraz Josef Archipelago by late evening at 4,300
meters and were nigh above the North Pole by 4:00 AM on 19 June, 27
hours after takeoff. Far below them the first ice station learned of
their passage overhead, but no radio contact was made, apparently because
of equipment problems aboard the aircraft. The group on the ice floe
was the Papanin meteorological team (which will be the subject of a
separate article in a later issue). Now they flew south, along the
123rd meridian, using oxygen sparingly as they approached the ANT-25's
service ceiling of 5,700 meters just before noon on the 19th of June.
Throughout the flight, severe cold in the aircraft caused problems for
crew and equipment; this problem, and a shortage of oxygen, seem to
have been the weakest parts of the planning for the trip and more than
once nearly resulted in disaster.

As they continued south, ice build-up on the aircraft and engine cooling
problems forced they to a lower altitude and by 4:00 PM they passed over
Canada's Banks Island, and the crew ate for the second time after 40 hours
of flight! South again over Great Bear Lake and the MacKenzie Rivers where
they sent out their call sign "RT-35" hoping some Canadian station would
relay the call to Moscow. It was then decided that a nearby storm'
necessitated a change of course, and they turned practically due west
to cross the Rocky Mountains; by 1:00 AM on the 20th of June they were
over the Pacific, letting down from 5,800 to 4,000 meters and swinging
south again. At 3:00 AM they passed over the Queen Charlotte Islands and
by dawn were able to contact the Bellingham radio beacon and approach
the U.S. border.

Now, surprisingly, they made first radio contact, but with a station in
Anchorage, Alaska; the transmission was in English, however, and they
were unable to understand. By noon they were over the USA and, sixty
hours after takeoff and with but five hours fuel left, they picked up
the Portland radio beam and circled over Eugene, Oregon. After circling
again, they decided to land at Borax Airfield, Vancouver, Washington,
just across the Columbia River from Portland and not to be confused with
Vancouver in British Columbia. At approximately 4:00 PM on the 20th of




49 -








June, the red winged ANT-25 landed after its 8,504 km,,63 hour and
25 minutes flight from Moscow. A fine set of stamps, Scott 636 to
639 show a map of the route and, from left to right, Baidukov, Chkalov,
and Belyakov.

One month later the third production aircraft, somewhat modified with
dual controls, distinguished by a white painted nose, and marked with
N025-1 on the wing, took off from Moscow on Monday, 12 July 1937 with
Mikhail Gromov, A.B. Yumashev and S.A. Danilin aboard (Scott 640 to
642). This aircraft followed a similar route over the Pole but had
better luck with the weather, thereby avoiding the dog-leg across the
Rockies. E. Krenkel *, radio operator with the Papanin meteorological
group (See Rossica Journal No. 83, page 54) was able to exchange greetings
with the Gromov crew as they flew over the Pole. The result was a new
world record when "The Triumph" landed in a pasture near San Jacinto,
southwest of Los Angeles, California. Flight time was 62 hours and 17
minutes, and the Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI) confirmed
the distance flown as 10,148 km.;this exceeded the 1934 record of 9,104
kilometers (New York to Rayak, Syria) of Codos and Rossi in a Bleriot
110 "Zapata."

Gromov actually had enough fuel left for another 1,500 km., but no
arrangements had been made to fly over Mexico, so the flight ended at
San Jacinto.

The three airmen were later taken to March Field, and then to Washington
to meet Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the aircraft was disassembled and
taken back to Russia via Washington.

The ANT-25 was often called the "RD", which simply represents the Russian
words "Rekord Dal'nosti" or Record of Distance! In 1933 the Design
Department for Experimental Land Based Aircraft Construction (KOSOS)
established a design for a long range bomber based on the RD and
designated the new model as RD-W (the W standing for'"oennyi Variant"
or Military Variant). The RD-W was designated to carry four 100 kg.
bombs and limited defensive armament. The project team included N.A.
Fomin and P.O. Sukhoi. This model was also identified as the ANT-36,
or the military designation DB-1. The design was soon obsolete, however,
the DB-1 was not built but the concept was transferred to the twin engine
DB-2 (ANT-37) which made its name and left its stamp, if you will pardon
the expression, on the philatelic world; but that is another story.

Chkalov was killed on 15 December 1938 flight testing the second proto-
type Polikarpov 1-180, a fighter; Baidukov and Belyakov both reached
Lieutenant- General rank in the Red Air Fleet in World War II. Gromov,
after serving with an aircraft production group studying the U.S. aircraft
industry during the war, became a Colonel-General leading a Stormovik
group and an Air Army (See Scott 992C, 996 and 2570 for typical examples)
and later became Chairman of the Praesidium of the Chkalov Central Aero
Club after the war. Andrei Tupolev and P.O. Sukhoi went on to become
world-famous aircraft designers and Tupolev, who died in December 1972,

See stamp issued by Russia
20th May 1973. (Scott 4084)



50 -








TRANS-ARCTIC FLIGHTS OF CHKALOV AND GRCMOV
IN TUPOLEV ANT-25 (RD) AIRCRAFT 1936/1937







i:::~! Moscow-San Jacinto
: : Gromov, Yumashev, Danilin
i.i:ii::.: 12-14 July 1937 (NO25-1)
Sa n Jacinto o





"of America:. 18-20 June 1937 (N025)



s / Moscow-Udd (Chkalov Island)
Chkalov, Beliakov, Baidukov

Canada" 22-25 July 1936 (N025)

















. .. Social::::::.::i::!::::: ist Rep.blics::::...:::



....~ :: : :::'.:': . :.:::::::::: ::


















.. .....-:.....:.. .: ... .. ..........:... ... .:-' -:- M oI s::'': :'''::'d:)
.. '.'::: ............. .--...-.::: : : .
...........
----- ----
..........::-::

.......... ~iii~iii
X Xiii;ii~ii~:
~t~ii~i~~ ~::I~:::~:~:::~~:~::~: !::::........... ---~iii~


~::::~:.iz ~.~:r: ;: ~:~:.z-t FSI:~;)::::::::::::::::~::1C.:
-------- ...~::'': :::::::~~:::l:~:::::c:

......... K ..:::i:::
......... ..iitii~iiiiir :::::~:g:::::
.... .......::::~:
~:::~:~::~:~:~::~:~:~::.5:~i ................................ .....:.:.:
it': ~:~~:~::~:~:~:~'~2 :::::~::::::~::::...........::~
.. .. .. .
... ............. ..... %...
~i~~iiiiiii~iii~ii ~... .........::
53 :::: :::~';'....... ....................::::
.............. ...i:i~:::::':~ :::
.. ..........;..::::::: ~ ::::~~~::~~:::~::I::
~:~: Lr~;i~~iiiiii~iiiiiiiiiii~~ijX.
$ riiiiiiiiii~~~Union of Soviet ......::~ ~ :::

...... .. :;::::::::::;:% ::::::;,%*::::f;; lrjii








:i: 5 1








is generally recognized as among the great personalities of the aviation
industry. The factory at Voronezh produced 11-2 Stormoviks during the
war and is now producing the Tupolev TU-144 supersonic transport aircraft.

The fine photogravure stamps, Scott 636 to 642, were the work of the
skilled and prolific designer V.V. Zavialov and depict the.crews as well
as clear maps of the flights. The only known variants of the stamps are
imperforate instead of the normal 12 1/2 perf., and it appears that the
only flight which carried any regular airmail was the aborted flight of
Levanevskii. While Russia has produced many stamps showing early aircraft,
there has never been a stamp clearly depicting the Tupolev ANT-25 (the
tiny aircraft shown on Scott 640 to 642 can hardly be described as clear
illustrations); perhaps this omission will be remedied in one of the fine
historic series (such as Scott 3673 to 3680) which appear from time to time.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Air Progress August/September 1964. Volume 16, Number 4,page 74.
Article "Long Distance Flyers"

2. American Aircraft Historical Society Journal Summer 1968.
Article "Red Airmen to California" by Martin Cole...including excerpts
from "Across the North Pole to America" by Michael Gromov, Foreign
Language Publishing House, Moscow (1939).

3. Aviation Week and Space Technology Robert Hotz, Editor.
(a) Editorial 'Memoires of Andrei Tupolev", January 8,1973.
(b) Editorial "The Paradox of Voronezh", July 2,1973.

4. Challenge to the Poles John Grierson, Archon Books (1964) USA.

5. Flying July 1962. Volume 71, Number 7, page 38.
Article "Red Plane over Southern California by Robert E. Holmes.

6. Forty Thousand Against the Arctic H.P. Smolka, Hutchinson (1937).

7. Histoire de 1'Aviation Sovietique par J. Marmain, C.W. Cain and D.J.
Voaden. Article "L'Oeuvre de A.N. Tupolev, in "Aviation Magazine",
Paris, Number 170 (February 1956).

8. Istoriya Konstruktskii Samoletov v SSR by V.B. Shavrov
Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroenie"; Moscow 1969, pages 500-504.

9. Jane's "All the World's Aircraft" 1935-1938

10. Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately

(a) Issue Number 82, page 40. Article "Outstanding Flights by Soviet
Airmen" by M.V. Vodopyanov.

(b) Issue Number 83, page 54. "Soviet Aerophilatelic Notes"
by P.J. Campbell.

(c) Issue Number 80, page 12. "Russia's Airmail Cachets" by
Fred W. Speers.

52 -









11. Model Airplane News May 1950, page 41 et seq.
Article "Men and Ships" by Roy Cross.

12. On the Top of the World by L. Brontman, Victor Gollancz.
Limited, London (1938) pages 246,247 and 260.

13. Over the North Pole by George Baidukov
George G. Harrap and Company, London. Edition of 1938.

14. Philatelic Catalogues

Scott; Michel; Zumstein;
Sanabria, Yvert et Tellier;
Cercle Philatelique, France URSS;
Gibbons; Borek.

15. Russian Civil and Military Aircraft 1884 1969
by Nowarra and Duval, Fountain Press, London.

16. Russian English Dictionaries
(a) A new English-Russian Dictionary: David McKay of Philadelphia:
M. Golovinsky.
(b) Collins; Russian -Gem Dictionary, Soviet Orthography: Shapiro.

17. Wings Over the Arctic by M. Vodopyanov.
by Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, pages 262 to 272.
***********



GERMAN OCCUPATION OF ESTONIA *
1941

by V. Mandvere


The rapid advance of German armies into Russian-occupied Estonia in the
summer of 1941 resulted in a vacuum of central authority. The spear-heads
of the army passed through Southern Estonia in pursuit of the fleeing
Russians, and it often took a few weeks before the occupation authorities
arrived. In the meanwhile, the Communist regime was overthrown and local
government was established by Estonians. Postal services in many areas
were resumed almost immediately and consequently several stamp issues
were made by the local administrations. Some of these issues were of
dubious character, and were never used postally, while others served a
definite need and were sold and used regularly. Two country-wide issues
were authorized by the occupation powers, and were in use until their
replacement by the "Ostland" overprints in 1942 which were used throughout
the Baltic States and Western Russia until 1944.


Reprinted with thanks from the German Philatelic Society "Specialist"
of June 1962 with the permission of Dr. Werner M. Bohne.


53 -








General Issues

The first regular issue (Michel l-3x) was sold mostly in Southern Estonia
and the second printing (l-3y) was in general use. 3,500 sets of the
imperforates were printed, and part of these were sold in the Tartu
(Dorpat) post office. Various sources put the number of sets sold from
500 to 1,500, and it appears probable that the balance of the issue was
lost during the war. Commercial covers of this variety are practically
non-existent.

Although, according to Michel, the first and /' 7 l"
second printing (x and y) were issued in almost U -
identical quantities, the first printing is far +60:.1
scarcer, and the catalog prices are not truly
reflective of their comparative availability. L

The second issue (Michel 4-9) was in general
use, and approximately one million sets were i
printed and sold, but their commercial use was -
also negligible. A second printing of this set, ....
distinguishable by thicker paper, yellow gum, -J I
and deeper color tones, was prepared but only
the three lower values were released for sale,
and the remainder was taken to Germany. General Issue

The three types mentioned have a net-type background. However, two further
varieties appeared without this underprinting. 600 sets with gum were sold
in Estonia, and an unknown number of sets without gum were sold in Berlin.
The latter is Makulatur (printers' waste). Mixed frankings of No. 1-9 are
possible with German stamps and the "Ostland" issue, which were valid and
on sale in the post offices before the Estonian issues lost their validity
on April 30, 1942.

A variety of proofs in various colors were made of both sets, mostly
under dubious circumstances (e.g. one set of proof blocks bears the name
and rank of an officer in the occupation forces!). A constant error occurs
once in each sheet of the 50+50 pfg. (Michel 7) in the form of a smudge
to the left of the value.


Local Issues

Elva

The stock of Russian stamps held by the local post office was overprinted
in black with an ordinary rubber handstamp bearing the words "Eesti Post".

I was in Elva at the time and can vouch that these stamps were on sale in
the post office, available to everyone, and were used for franking all
outgoing mail.

Since the area of the postal service was limited, commercial covers are
rare, but favor cancellations were freely available.



-54 -








It was my impression that there was no speculative
factor involved in this issue, but unfortunate
circumstances developed later. The post office
not noly overprinted the great variety of its
stock, but also overprinted mint stamps brought
in by the public. As a result stamps which had
never been available at this post office were
overprinted. It is also rumored that certain
German and Estonian stamps were overprinted in C '
this manner. The uncertainty of the munber of /
basic stamps overprinted, and their quantities,
can be seen from a comparison of Michel and Muller
listings. The first lists 31 stamps while the Elva Issue
latter's total is 37. The quantities issued
vary considerably in almost every case.

It is safe to assume that neither listing is accurate, since post office
records were kept by denomination only and did not segregate different
types of stamps. After about one month of sale, the occupation authorities
confiscated the remainder, and the rubber stamp used for overprinting was
subsequently destroyed. The stamp was quite worn from use, and there is
a difference in impressions of the earlier and later overprints. It is
extremely difficult to distinguish originals from forgeries. Perhaps the
best guarantee for this issue is a clear cancellation by the Elva post
office between July 10 and August 12,1941.


Otepa (Odenpah)
This issue, which is the blue chip of the Estonian locals, was authorized
by the town council and printed locally. The stamps were on sale in the
town post office, and were valid from July 22 to August 15, 1941.

The local printer was not equipped to
handle the printing of stamps, and the
EESTI POST process was laborious. Individual impress-
ions of the one plate were required to
Produce a sheet of 20 stamps. The two
O colors were printed separately. When the
4 plate broke in the middle of printing, a
1 new plate (Type II) was prepared. Since
+ some of the sheets were partly printed,
"30- 30 the use of the second plate resulted in
10. l OtepaA Types I and II appearing in the same sheets.
The issued quantities in the catalogs are
reliable. The odd numbers arose because
Odenpah Issue stamps with printing errors were removed
from the sheets and destroyed. The 20+20
imperforate appears to be an accidentally
unperforated variety, and it is doubtful if any of them were sold in the
post office.

The Otepai stamps have a blue-dotted background, and all genuine stamps
have a broken dot in the seventh vertical row from the left between
figures 8 and 4.

55 -









Moisakula

This issue was made by surcharging and overprinting the available stock
of Russian stamps and one stamp of the Estonian Republic. The act
signed by the local postmaster and chief of police in authorizing the
issue has been preserved and confirms the quantities listed in Michel.

The stamps were sold and used by the Abja and Moisakula post offices
from August 4 to August 16, 1941.

The surcharging arose as it was believed that existing German postal
rates would be in effect instead of the previous rates. This was not
bourne out later since the new rates did not commence until the "Ostland"
issue, but the Moisakula issue followed the German table.

The issue was discontinued on August 16 when stocks of the general
issue arrived from Tartu. The plates used were destroyed.


Parnu (Pernau)

The Parnu issue differs from the previously listed locals by its
commemorative nature. There was no actual necessity for it postally,
since the general issue was already on sale. They were on sale and
valid from August 16 to 25, and the quantities listed in Michel are
verified by the original act of issue.

To counteract speculation that arose from the scarcity of the 50 kopec
stamps the Central Post office in Tallinn
ordered a reprinting of the set in larger
quantities. This attempt, however, was
defeated since the second printing dis-
tinctly differs from the first. The second
printing must be considered philatelic in
that it enjoyed sale in post offices across
the country but was never valid. All used
copies are favor cancellations.

Numerous printing errors, including /
inverted overprints, exist. Besides the
above mentioned issues, local issues appear-
ed also in Rakvere, Hummuli, and Puka.

All these were overprints on Russian stamps. l--
The Rakvere issue was never sold, and the
other two are considered to be private
issues. Pernau issue



In addition to the above discussed issues, there is a prevalence of
fraudulent material currently available. These forgeries involve
primarily overprints which have been applied to Soviet stamps. Some
of the more common ones follow.

56-









These overprints were never
officially applied. They T -: c
were produced after the war
to defraud collectors. They

complete sets, sometimes on v
values that have been invalid 1 1 "'A '.
for postage for many years -' "
prior to 1940.
They are offered in different '
overprint positions, includ-
ing inverted.





































Elwa Near Dorpat
57-














A number of Russian stamps were
overprinted in small quantities,
but none of these were ever issued.
All used copies, like the one
illustrated at the right are
fraudulent.













Rakwere (Wesenberg)

Comments by Dr. C. de Stackelberg

To specialists it might be of interest that the most detailed study on
Estonian stamps issued during the first months of the German occupation
of Estonia in 1941 was undertaken by Mr. Votele Org and published in 1959
under the title "Esti Post ja Postmargid 1940-1942," by the EMP Publishing
House in Stockholm,Sweden.

According to Org there were not two but three printings of the first
regular issue, dated August 7, 12, and September 11, 1941. The second
issue (Michel 4-9) mentioned in the article above was not a general
issue but a charity issue with the proceeds of this surcharge, as
marked on the stamps, going to a reconstruction fund.

It is incorrect to say that for the Pernau local issue"there was no
actual necessity, as the general issue was already on sale." It is
correct that the general issue was printed and on sale in Tartu already
on August 8th, whereas the Pernau issue was issued on August 16th. However,
it must be realized that at that time, due to military operations, there
was no cross country communications between these two towns. Tartu was
occupied finally by the Germans on July 25th and Pernau on July 8th. But
the German advance was stopped just outside of Pernau and was resumed
only about August 21st, culminating with the taking of Tallin, the
capital of Estonia, north of Pernau on August 28th. Thus at best the
stamps printed in Tartu could have reached Pernau only a few days before
August 25th, the day on which sale of the Pernau locals was stopped at
the local post office.

58-








AMERICAN DOCTORS IN THE CRIMEAN WAR

by Edward A. Raymond


From 1854 to 1856, Russia was embroiled in the Crimean War opposing the
Ottoman Empire (Turkey), England and France, who were joined by the
Italian Kingdom of Sardinia. Nowadays, few people remember anything
about that war, beyond the battle of Balaklava, immortalized in Lord
Tennyson's poem, "The Charge of the Light Brigade," and the fact that
Florence Nightingale and her band of nurses served at the siege of
Sevastopol. Hardly anyone, in the United States or in Russia, has
ever heard of the 36 young American surgeons who volunteered to serve
on the Russian side. Most of them were involved in the siege of
Sevastopol; half of them perished in Russia during the War. Their
sacrifice should be remembered as it has some significant facets.

It is, first of all, a striking testimony to American regard for
Russia at that time, despite the great differences between the two
countries. The young men served as assistants to the great Russian
surgeon, Dr. N.I. Pirogov, author of the pioneering Basics of Military
Field Surgery and father of modern military medicine. 1 Lessons they
brought back were taught first in the University of Pennsylvania
Medical School and then were applied during our Civil War (1861-65).

They brought the use of women nurses, an important Russian innovation
in military medical practice, back to America. This, too, was applied
in our Civil War. The American doctors were assisted in the Crimea by
detachments of Russian women nurses, selected and trained for hospital
service, who worked in beleaguered Sevastopol the greater part of a year
before Miss Nightingale reached the battlefield with her selfless but
largely untrained English women volunteers.3

In the first half of the nineteenth century, European and American
military surgery was roughly comparable to that of the Greeks and
Romans. Lord Lister did not introduce the practice of antiseptic
surgery until 1885 too late for the Crimean conflict or our Civil War.
Immunization against cholera and typhus came two decades after that.
Neither the United States nor Russia had any medical schools with the
prestige of the University of Paris in France. Dr. Pirigov studied
there, as did many medical students from America. A number of these
were Crimean volunteers.

A modern chronicler, E. Dvoichenko-Markova, ascribestheir willingness
to volunteer to their wish first of all to obtain a great deal of
surgical practice in a short time, and secondly to the considerable
amount of money which the Tsarist Gov rnment was offering to contract
surgeons with good European training. It could also be added that
Americans took a sympathetic view of Russia in the pre- Civil War
era. In part, this was due to Anglophobia. To Americans schooled in
the history of the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, any enemy
of England seemed a natural ally. Thousands of Irish immigrants were




59 -








crowding into the country, adding to anti-British feeling.

Furthermore, the casus belli of the Crimean War was Czar Nicholas I's
desire to intervene in the Ottoman Empire to protect the Christian
holy places in and near Jerusalem, and to obtain free and secure access
to them for Christian pilgrims. To put pressure on the Turks he
occupied sore Balkan territory which had been part of the Ottoman
Empire. The British and French had responded to this threat to the balance
of power in Eastern Europe and opposed the Czar. Turkish cruelties and
misrule intheir Empire were notorious, and the efforts of Greece and
other East European countries to win their independence in the 1830's
and 40's had arroused enthusiastic popular support in the United States.
Russia seemed to be on the side of civilization. Finally, our Mexican War
was fresh in public memory, the martial spirit was still keen, and interest
in the Crimean conflict as a spectacle ran high.6 These various factors
made the actions of the American doctors less surprising than they would
otherwise seem today.

Indeed, Russia received some even more surprising offers of aid than
that of doctors. Three hundred Kentucky riflemen wanted to prove their
expert marksmanship on the Tsar's enemies; and a group of private
American ship owners went to St. Petersburg, the Russian capital, with
an offer to organize a flotilla under the Russian flag in the Pacific.
In order not to violate American neutrality Russia had to turn these
proposals down.

Most of the American doctors managed to reach Odessa, on the Black Sea,
before the British and French fleets succeeded in blockading the port.
Here, an energetic Russian citizen of Greek descent named John Ralli
served as American Consul entirely without pay. He made himself
extremely useful to the American doctors by storing their possessions
for them at Odessa and assisting them to continue on to the Crimea or
other destinations. He collected the letters and personal effects of
those who died, and returned them to the doctors'families in the
United States. He wrote regular reports to Washington on the progress
of the war and activities of the doctors.8

Ex-Connecticut Governor Thomas Hart Seymour served as.United States
Minister to the Court of TsarNicholas I in St. Petersburg during the
Crimean War. A collection of his papers has just been made public at the
Connecticut Historical Society; perhaps their most important feature is
his interest in the 36 American surgeons who volunteered for service with
the Russian Army and served inthe Crimea. At their request he interceded
with the Russian government to secure their employment and.represented
them when the Russians mislaid their diplomas or assigned the doctors
in ways inconsistent with their contracts. He assisted in repatriating
their personal effects, corresponded with their families in the United
States, and contributed handsomely to a memorial at Simferopol to those
who lost their lives.

As the mortality rate among the doctors rose he made efforts to secure
their discharge from further service. Although these efforts showed
every promise of success, the majority of doctors did not elect to




60-








leave. 9 Some of the letters which they wrote to him from the front
were discovered as late as the l0's, still filed in the former U.S.
Legation Building in Leningrad.

A Californian, Dr. King, and a Massachusetts man, Dr. Draper, arrived
in Sevastopol, near the tip of the Crimean Peninsula, in the summer of
1854, in time to witness the first bombardments. King was soon trans-
fered further inland to Simferopol, and a third American, Dr. Turnipseed,
took his place in Sevastopol. By the end of December the Russian
Commander at Sevastopol had brought Draper and Turnipseed down from
the northern edge of the city and installed them in his own home in
the center of town. He bore the once-famous name of Osten-Saken, and
lived near the handsome and impressive Noble's Club. This had been
converted into a military hospital, and here the young American doctors
worked. "It is a beautiful building," they wrote to Washington, "which
does honorto the city and stands as its chief adornment." I

Count Lev N. Tolstoi, in "Sevastopol," gives a first-hand description
of this hospital

"At the entrance soldiers are standing with litters.. You walk into
the great assembly hall. You barely open the door, and you are at once
impressed by the sight and the odor of 40 or 50 patients who are severely
wounded or have suffered amputation, some on cots, but most on the
floor. Do not trust your feeling which holds you back on the threshold
of the hall..it's a wrong feeling; walk on.. If your nerves are strong, now
go through the door on the left; in that room they are putting on bandages
and performing operations. You will see there the doctors, with arms
blood-stained up to their elbows, and pale, morose countenances, busy at
a cot, on which, with open eyes and speaking, as though in delirium,
meaningless but sometimes simple and touching words, lies a wounded
soldier under the influence of chloroform. The doctors are occupied with
the disgusting but benificent work of amputation. You will see the sharp,
bent knife entering the healthy body; you will see the wounded man come
to his senses with a terrible piercing cry, and with curses; you will see
the surgeon's assistant throw the amputated arm into a corner; you will
see on a litter, in the same room, another wounded man, who, watching the
operation performed on his companion, writhes and groans, not so much from
physical pain, as from the moral anguish of anticipation; you will see
terrible, soul-stirring spectacles, but you will see war.. in its real
aspect, in blood, in suffering and in death." 12

The operating room was set up in the billiard room of the club. Some of
the tables were piled high with lint for sponges and bandages; the floor
was crusted and splashedwith blood. The patients were housed in the ball-
room, once so gay and elegant. Now the groans of amputees replaced the
music which had sounded there. Some of the badly wounded in the room..
even amputees.. were women and children from the shelled-out Ships' Quarter.
Allied fleets had bombarded this Quarter where sailors' families lived
with terrible effect. 1J

Elsewhere in his writings Tolstoi gives a fuller description of the
ballroom after a bombardment:




61 -








" A large, high, dark hall, lit only by four or five candles, with
which the doctors proceeded to examine the wounded, was literally full.
Stretcher bearers constantly brought in wounded and went for more, putting
them down one after the other on the floor which was already so crowded
that the unfortunates touched each other, and soaked each other with
blood. Pools of blood were visible in unoccupied areas, and the hot
breath of several hundred men and perspiration of the stretcher bearers
produced a special sort of heavy, choking, stinking odor in which
burned the candles at opposite ends of the hall." 14

A contemporary account speaks of the Schneider Hotel where doctors from
the hospitals took meals. They "ran in here i5 their oilcloth aprons
smeared with blood and dried scraps of meat." Nor was the lack of
sanitation confined to hospitals.

As early as the beginning of December 1854 Dr. Pirogov began to fear
the outbreak of epidemics. In one of his published"Letters From Crimea"
he observed to his family that the British buried their dead only 28
inches deep, and that animal entrails and droppings lay everywhere. He
predicted that when hot weather arrived in the Spring, typhus would
threaten everyone. He did not have to wait that long. Before Christmas
one of the Russian doctors in Sevastopol had died of the dread disease.
At Simferopol where Dr. King was serving eight nursing sisters came
down with typhus. On January 13, 1855, Dr. Pirigov wrote:

"The sisters of the second unit arrived. The sisters of the first unit
have all fallen ill with typhus and three have died. "16

At the time this letter was written Dr. Turnipseed had contacted typhus
in Sevastopol. His colleague, Dr. Counrtney King, paid him a visit from
Simferopol. Dr. Turnipseed was the first of the American doctors to
fall victim to the epidemic, and one of the few to survive. Upon his
return to Simferopol Dr. King received a transfer to Kerch', on the
eastern tip of the Peninsula. There typhus was raging.

On March 25th, Dr.Pirogov noted:"Almost half of our doctors are ill,"
and in April, "the doctors all fell ill, and many died before my eyes.
All had typhus. I myself succumbed for four weeks. Typhus struck King
in Kerch'." 18

Writes Dvoichenko-Markova:

"Dr.King was the first victim among the American doctors. He died
March 19th, and the next day his friend Dr. Draper also died of typhus
in Sevastopol.

King, a young and most-promising American doctor, died alone at Kerch',
far from his country and his relations. But the Russian Orthodox
congregation took the sick American under its protection. When they
buried the American doctor according to their rite.. the clergy and
full procession conveyed his remains to the grave. The Russian Government
sent a letter of condolence to his family and later sent the last
remains of King and Paper back to America, in accordance with the wishes
of their families."



62 -








From March 28 to April 8,1855, Sevastopol underwent constant bombard-
ment. Within that period the doctors had to perform nearly 500
amputations along. American surgeon Whitehead took Draper's place,
and there were other young American doctors who arrived with him.
At the end of April the garrson of Sevastopol was reinforced, raising
its strength above 100,000.LU On April 22nd, Dr. Turnipseed referred
to the especial violence of the bombardment which started on Easter
Day, March 23, and lasted for eight days, but without effecting serious
damage to the ring of bastions protecting the city; damage done by day
was repaired at night. The city itself received nightly bombardment
from the Allied fleet. He wrote

"The night before last I was expecting nothing better than the house
in which I have apartments (sic) would receive some of the unwelcome
visits. A few nights ago the Frence blew up (ont fait sauter) their
subterranean mine near the 4th bastion. They were at a distance of
50 Sagines. This wonderful combustion of powder however failed to
have any effect on the 4th bastion. There were between 50 and 100
Russians killed however by the stones which fell in great numbers on
the 4th bastion." 21

On May 14th, Dr. Pirogov wrote that during two days and nights there
were 2 000 wounded and 800 dead Russians, and among the enemy twice as
many. A few days later Dr. Whitehead notified Consul Ralli that
the fighting on May 26th the Russians lost 10,000 wounded and dead.
In May the Crimea started to get hot, and in place of typhus an epidemic
of cholera broke out. A young American doctor from Aberdeen, Mississippi,
McMillan, fell ill of cholera in Sevastopol and died within six hours.
The next victim of the disease was Dr. Nicholas, working in Kherson, on
the Dnepr River. Then in Simferopol, one after the other there died,
Dr. Jones from Maryland, Dr. Deininger from Pennsylvania, Dr. Marshel
from California, and Dr. Clark from New York. Dr. Stoddard fell ill
there also, but recovered and departed for Berlin to recuperate. Not
long afterwards his colleagues in Simferopol were dis ressed by the
unexpected news that he had died suddenly in Berlin.

The long agony of the siege of Sevastopol lasted eleven months -336
days. Throughout the summer of 1855 the conditions within the city
grew steadily worse. The number killed was appalling over 1,000 a
day. During the last 28 days of the siege alone over 1,500,000 pro-
jectiles were thrown into the city. The cost in lives to Russia was
probably 250,000, and the expenditure of resources was beyond her
means. On September 8,1855 Sevastopol fell. The war ragged on for
some weeks longer, but it had cost the Allies dearly also and they were
in a mood to make peace. It was formalized in the Treaty of Paris,
March 30, 1856. This treaty neutralized the Black Sea, admitted Turkey
to the Concert of Europe, and drew from the Sultan of Turkey a firman
protecting the rights of Christians residing in Turkey or visiting the
Holy Land2 The settlement secured for Russia her initial object of
the war. 25

Foreign doctors in the Russian service faced a good many obstacles. For
the most part they were entirely ignorant of the language. They served
in a peculiarly rigid Imperial Army, having voluminous and exacting
regulations and cumbersome medical administration. It is conceivable


63 -








that Russian doctors, who had not received a medical education in Paris
but had acquired decades of experience, might have resented a spirited
lot of young Americans. In their favot the Americans had the best
skills their day and generation offered. They stuck to their posts
in besieged Sevastopol under shell fire to the end, braving bombard-
ment and the no-less-deadly hidden threats of cholera and typhus. Most
served in central hospitals where their skills were especially needed.
This was not because of a fear of forward areas, as Dr. Bostwick showed.
Throughout the campaign he served a regiment of Russian Hussars as its
Regimental Doctor. Brierly of Baltimore received high Russian decorations
in the Crimean operations and even remained Russian service after the
war, serving in South Russia and Bessarabia.

American doctors were stationed as far north as Kremenchug, in central
Ukraine. Here Dr. Hart from Tennessee died of smallpox. They worked
as far west as Odessa, Nikolayev, and Kherson; as far south as Simferopol
and Sevastopol; and as far east as Kerch'. They endured danger and
sleepless nights, serving the wounded under fire and the military and
civilian victims of fearsome epidemics. They worked in nightmarish
surroundings. Over half of them gave their lives for Russia.


REFERENCES

1. "Pirogov (Nikolai Ivanovich)," Entsiklopedichesky Slovar'. St.
Petersburg: I.A. Efrona,1898,Vol.XXIII,p.651.
2. E.Dvoichenko-Markova, "Amerikanskiye doctor v krimskoi voinye,"
Novoye Russkoye Slovo, January 17,1954 1:1-8
3. Dr. Nikolai I. Pirogov, Sevastopolskiye pis'ma i vospominaniya.
Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademiya Nauk SSR 1950,p.129.
4. William L. Langer,An Encyclopedia of World History. Boston: Houghton-
Mifflin Company, 1948,p.55.
5. Divoichenko-Markova, loc. cit.
6. Alexandre Tsarsaidze, Czars and Presidents: The Story of a Forgotten
Friendship. New York: McDowell -Obolensky,1958, pp.150-151; Charles D.
Hazen, Europe Since 1815. New York: Henry Holt and Company 1923,pp.560-61.
7. Dvoichenko-Markova, loc.cit.
8. United States,Department of State,Consular Reports,Odessa,February 28,
1855 November 3,1855. In U.S. National Archives, File M-459,Roll 1.
9. Thomas Hart Seymour Papers, Special File, Connecticut Historical
Society, Hartford; United States, Department of State, Ministerial
Reports, St. Petersburg. Dispatch No. 30, Minister Seymour to Secretary
Marcy, St. Petersburg, May 3, 1855. In U.S. National Archives, File M-35,
Roll 16; Daniel Coit Gilman, "Letters from Russia," Yale Review, Vol. V,
No. 3, April 1916, p.622.
10. Interview, Eugene Prince Peter Kunholm (discoverer of the documents)
New York, October 1956. The papers are believed to be located in the
official records of the U.S.S.R.
11. Extracts from a letter from Dr. Draper, enclosed in Dispatch No. 97,
Consul Ralli to Secretary Marcy, Odessa, February 28,1855. In U.S.
National Archives, File M-459,Roll 1.
12. Count Lev.N. Tolstoi, "Sevastopol" in Collected Works, Vol. 1,Boston:
Colonial Press Company,1904,pp.115-19.
13. Dvoichenko-Markova, loc. cit.
14. Count Lev. N. Tolstoi, Sevastopolskiye rasskazi, Moscow: Izdatal'stvo
Detskaya Literatura, pp.43-47.

64 -









15. Dvoichenko-Marcova, loc. cit.
16. Dr. Nokolai N. Pirogov,Pis'ma iz Krima,quoted in Dvoichenko-Marcova.
17. Extracts from a letter from Dr. King, enclosed in Dispatch No.97,
Ralli Marcy, op. cit.
18. Dvoichenko-Markova loc. cit.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Dispatch No. 105, Ralli- Marcy, Odessa, June 18,1855. IN U.S.
National Archives, File M-459, Roll 1.
22. Pirogov, Pis'ma iz Krima, op. cit.
23. Dispatch No. 105, Ralli -Marcy, Odessa, June 18, 1855.
24. Dvoichenko- Markova, loc. cit; Dispatch No. 116, Ralli-Marcy, Odessa
November 5,1855. In U.S. National Archives, File M-459, Roll 1.
25. Hazen, op. cit., p.562.
26. Dvoichenko-Markova, loc. cit.


AMERICAN DOCTORS WHO SERVED WITH THE RUSSIAN ARMY

DURING THE CRIMEAN WAR 1854 56


COLTMAN Organizer for the Americans Surgeon Major-Russian
Army

KING (died in. Russia) California Stationed Kerch

HENRY,Charles F. Returned to USA Simferopol

TURNIPSEED Later Rome, Italy Sevastopol

KING,Courtney (D. in R.)

WHITEHEAD, Wm.R. (D. in R.) Virginia Sevastopol,
Odessa Je 55

McMILLAN (D. in R.) Aberdeen, Mississippi Sevastopol

NICHOLAS (D. in R.)

JONES (D. in R.) Maryland Died of cholera

BEININGER (D. in R.) Pennsylvania Died of cholera

MANSHEL,Addison A. (D. in R.) California Stationed-Sevastopol

CLARK (D. in R.) New York Crimean

STODDARD Maryland Served in Crimea
Died in Berlin,Prussia

BOSTWICK, H.P.

BRIERLY Baltimore,Maryland Received high decorations
in Russian service
after war
65 -









HART, William (D. in R.) Tennessee Served at Kremenchug,
Simferopol, Odessa

SMYDER Stationed- Sevastopol

THRALL, W.L.M. Sevastopol

HARRIS New York Returned to U.S.

DAVEGA Charlotte,S.C. Stationed-Sevastopol
Returned to U.S.

PHELPS, E.

ELDRIDGE Maryland Served at Simferopol,Kiev
Returned to U.S.

WEEMS, George W. Stationed- Simferopol

HANKS, J.B.P. Stationed- Simmferopol

MALLETT, A.F. North Carolina Stationed- Simferopol
Tennessee

HOLT, Joseph Stationed-Simferopol

REED Philadelphia,Pa. Stationed- Simferopol

JOHNSON Served in Crimea and
Yelisavetgrad (Caucasian front)

MORTON, I.H. Stationed Odessa

OLIVER Stationed Odessa

PARKER Stationed Simferopol

SMITH, T.E. Vermont (?)

REARS, Charles A. Baltimore, Maryland


Source: Records of THOMAS HART SEYMOUR (Hartford Ct. Historical Society)

Born in Hartford 1807 Governor of Connecticut 1850-53
28th Congress 1843-45 U.S. Minister to Russia 1853-58
Major Mexican War Died Hartford 1868
Colonel for Chapultapec 1847


FROM THE EDITORIAL BOARD: This article is based on archival material that
our long-time member, Col. Eugene Prince, unearthed as well as interviews
with him. The article is published in the hope that some of our members
may have covers to or from some of these American doctors who served with
the Russian Forces in the Crimea. If any Rossica member turns up related
material, the editor would appreciate being notified and given a description
so that it may 'be published in the next Rossica Journal.
66 -








FAKES, FAVORS, AND FORGERIES
ODDITIES IN COLLECTING STAMPS OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD
by J. Lee Shneidman

For one reason or another almost every stamp issued by Russian
authorities Bolshevik or White has been "played with." Most
collectors know that all the Armenian, Georgian, and Azerbaijanian
overprints have been extensively counterfeited. Most collectors look
at expensive stamps with a jaundiced eye, but even cheap stamps were
counterfeited or played with. Of course, in times of revolution
postmasters may not have been overly careful and so oddities which
look fake might not be, or items which look legitimate might not be
so. I want to report on four items, three of which raise questions.









4 ... /-A-k .e
m *





^ly^ ^e^ ^, fy ^ "'' ^






Fig. 1

Item number one (See figure 1) is a cover from Kiev. The cover has
"Zdes" (Local usage) in the upper left corner and has a pair of the
70 kopec 1917 imperf. arms stamps in the upper right hand corner.
From the quality of the printing on the stamps they are obviously from
an early printing. The letter is addressed to Ego Vysokoblagorodiu
Ivanu Nikolaevitchu Muuzenko, 24 (or 94) Fundypleevskaia, K. 10
(Apartment 10). The use of "Your worship" seems a little strange but
it is a possible form.



67 -








The postmark (enlarged in figure 2) seems wrong. I have a number of
Kiev envelopes from this period, and they all have 18 and not 8 as a
date. Is the cancellation fake? The Rada government introduced the
Trident overprints on August 22, 1918, but the stamps on this cover
are without overprint. Also, the rate of 1 ruble 40 kopecs pays no










V X
















Fig. 2

known rate. In Bolshevik territory the rate, until September 14, was
30 kopecs for a local letter. From September 15 to December 31 the rate
was reduced to 15 kopecs in order to drive several independent letter-
delivery companies out of business. Was the Ukrainian rate tied to
the Soviet? Is the cover a fake? It certainly looks like it. But
why would anyone want to fake a cheap stamp on a cover? If it were a
"Trident" overprinted stamp, one could understand it, but a pair of
P .. I

















imperf. 70 kopec stamps?
Item two (figure 3) is also strange. On a recent trip to Washington
known rate. In Bolshevik territory the rate, until September 14, was




30 kopecs for a local letter. From September185 and 15 to December 31 the itemrate




at different stores. Both stamps had the same cancellation: 19-11-28.
was re was ducked to 15 kopecs i order to drive several independent was crystal cletter-
and wrong! It probablypanies out of business. Was the Ukrainian rate tied to
othe Soviet? Is the cover a fake? It cer tainly looks like it. Butackward
why wouldssian "" (ya). If you are goingwant to fake a cancellatioheap stamp on a cover? If it were a
"Trident" overprinted stamp, one could understand it, but a pair of
imperf. 70 kopec stamps?

Item two (figure 3) is also strange. On a recent trip to Washington
I picked up used copies of Scott 185 and 188. I purchased the items
at different stores. Both stamps had the same cancellation: 19-11-28.
There was no town cancellation on 185 but on 188 it was crystal clear
and wrong! It probably should have been "Vinnitza Pod." but instead
of the first "H" or "N' in Vinnitza, there was a Latin "R" or a backward
Russian "A" (ya). If you are going to fake a cancellation on a cheap
stamp,why use so obviously incorrect spelling?




68 -












'.










a*- .



4 1 M .
S N-








































iFig. 4



69 -










The next item is a printed piece of paper folded over and open at
both ends. It is a notice from V.V. Tarasoff of the North Collectors'
and Correspondents' Journal (see figure 4). The problem here is the
postage rate. The letter was mailed from Archangel on September 20,
1922, arrived in Moscow on the 23rd, and cleared the censor on the
25th. It was received October 16th. The correct postage for an
external postcard was 27 rubles and for an external letter 45 rubles.

Tarasoff, however, paid only 9 rubles or 20% of the letter rate
(see figure 5). Was there a special rate for printed matter? Was
there a special rate for advertisement? Or did Tarasoff have a
special deal?




























Fig. 5


Soviet philatelic history 1917-23 is interesting. I hope some of
our members can answer some of my questions.







70 -





"STOCKHOLMIA 1974"
by Sam Robbins


The celebration of the 100th Anniversary of the foundation of the
Universal Postal Congress served as a fitting background for the
International Stamp Exhibition, "Stockholmia 1974". It also served the
purpose for my wife and me to take our first trip abroad with our
itinerary including Denmark, Sweden, the Soviet Union, and England.

With great anticipation we entrained for Alvsjo,Sweden, where
"Stockholmia 1974" was being held. As we entered the Exhibition Hall,
strains of music were heard; the Postal Workers Orchestra was giving
a concert of welcome. We were truly rewarded for the hall,totaling
20,000 meters, exhibited 4500 frames representing 94 nations of the
world, a truly magnificent sight dear to the heart of all philatelists.
Of particular interest to Rossica society members were the exhibits
on Russia and the Soviet Union from all over the world, including
many from Soviet philatelists.

Our good friend,Michael Lipschutz of Paris,had an outstanding exhibit
of Zemstvos for which he won a gold medal. Dr. John D. Riddell of Great
Britain showed Russian Post Offices in the Far East. Among them were
many rare cancels including an early cover (Ex-Faberge) from the Russian
Post Office in Peking dated 10/14/1872, type 2, with script "Peking"
postpaid with 10 kopec stamps of the 1875/79 issue and a 1 kopec of
1865/75.. Our British member, Dr.Raymond Casey, showed his Russian Post
Offices in Asia and won a vermeil medal. Among the moft interesting
material in it was a cover from Vladivostok with a very scarce cancel
of the year 1889.

Among the outstanding representation of collectors from the Soviet Union
was Mr. Alexander Montschadski with his exhibit on Russian pre-philately.
Mr. Jakow Wowin had an excellent show of the mute-cancels of World War I
and Mr. K.J. Vassiljev, a presentation of the Russian Empire and USSR.
A special collection of the Zemotvo District of Bogorodsk by Valentin
Sorokin was a most complete representation including covers and stamps.
Mr. Igor Morozow presented a very good show of RSFSR 1918-1922 with a
study of the rates.

Our good friend,John Lloyd of Colchester, England, exhibited a very
interesting collection of Russia pre-adhesive postal markings which
gained him a silver medal and also "Russia Beyond the Arctic Circle"
containing rare covers of early flight which received a bronze medal.
John was a most genial host when we visited him in Colchester; he gave
us a tour of the historic sights and we had a chance to examine his
extensive collection in the comfort of his home. We had a truly grand
time, and this visit was a highlight of our trip.

Washington member, George Turner, won a silver medal for his exhibit of
19th Century United States Postal History and a bronze for his topical
collection of "Collecting Stamp Collectors on Stamps." Our Swiss



71 -






colleague, Walter Frauenlob received a vermeil medal for his exhibit
of Russian Offices in China and the Levant,1858-1919. Unfortunately,
the Rossica Journal was not sent for the competition.

A last note London's reputation in the world Philatelic market
place still holds firm. The prices are high, but there is material
in our field both in stamps and postal history. Inflation and great
demand by old and new specialists has resulted in high prices, but I
recall in the past of reading of similar complaints by others about
material on Russia and the Soviet Union.

In closing we wish to thank the organizers of "Stockholmia 1974"
for a most competent and artistic exhibition.

****t****







SOMETHING NEW UNDER THE SUN

An easy way to find SCOTT CATALOG NUMBERS FOR SOVIET ISSUES


Even though Rossica members are expert in the stamps of
Russia, finding Soviet issues in Scott's can be time-consuming
and frustrating. I have invented a unique (I think) way of
locating them quickly and easily. My system, advertised in
Linn's, is based on using only nine topographic features of
the stamp. They are: kopec value, its location, the latest
year shown, the stamp format, how many colors used in printing
etc. From these features a code number is developed. Tables
of these code numbers are given and opposite each code number
is shown the Scott catalog number.

I offer to Rossica members a copy at a 20% discount from
the Linn advertised price of $5.00. Send $4.00 in cash,check,
or mint US stamps (postage only please) to:

J. PAUL CALI
P.O. BOX 1865
ROCKVILLE, MD 20850










72 -








DOTTED NUMBER CANCELS IN ESTONIA

by Peter Gleason

Estonia, the most northern of the Baltic countries, was conquered during
the Middle Ages by the Teutonic knights. Local control was maintained
by the Baltic Germans until the 20th century, although national control
changed hands many times during the numerous wars in the Baltic area.
When Russia won Estonia from Sweden in 1721, it continued the use of
German names for the post offices by merely spelling the names with
cyrillic letters. The exception is Dorpat (Tartu), which had its own
Russian name KOPbEBo (Uriev). Estonia, which became independent in
1918, comprised the Russian province (gubernia) of Estland, the
northern half of Livland, the western tip of St. Petersburg at Narva,
and a small western section of Pskov.

On December 10,1857 the Russian Post Office Department issued a decree
announcing the introduction of postage stamps. The use of stamps began
on January 1, 1858, and postmasters were instructed to cancel them by
drawing a cross with black ink ("pen cross" cancel). On February 26,1858
the Post Office Department ordered the pen cross cancel abolished, and
instructed postal officials to cancel stamps with postmarks showing the
town and date. In the same decree, the use of special dotted number
cancellers was introduced. These cancellers consisted of numbers
surrounded by groups of dots forming either a circle (type 1) for
provincial capital post offices, or a rectangle (type 2) for district
capitals. On August 17, 1858 another decree introduced diamond shaped
dotted number cancellers (type 3) for use in smaller towns of
geographical importance. At the same time, triangularly shaped
cancellers (type 4) were introduced for branch offices including stage
coach stops and some estates. Two other types of dotted number
cancellers were also issued, an oval type for border post offices and
a hexagonal type for railroad car post offices (and terminal railroad
stations). Several postal circulars (1860 61) ordered that only
black ink should be used for cancelling. Nevertheless, blue and red
cancellations are not very rare. In 1863 town-date cancellations and
receiving strikes were ordered, and the use of dotted number cancellers
was discontinued except for type 4 (which was ordered discontinued
in 1877). However, type 4 cancels are rare after 1863. This is probably
because postmasters found it inconvenient to use two different cancellers
on each letter (i.e., the town-date and the dotted canceller).



*.- ** ,....... *

0:, 0- S :- ,00*098 :0.
***





Type 1 Type 2 Typ. 3 Type 4




73 -










Known Dotted Number Cancels in Estonia, by Type


Type Number German name Estonian name Province


Type 1 37 Reval Tallinn E

Type 2 6 Narwa Narva SP
383 Wesenberg Rakvere E
384 Weissenstein Paide E
385 Hapsal Haapsalu E
386 Jewe Johvi E
387 Arensburg Kuressaare E
389 Walk Valga L
391 Werro Voru L
393 Dorpat Tartu L
394 Pernau Parnu L
395 Fellin Viljandi L
611 Quellenstein Voltveti L

Type 3 23 Baltischport Paldiski E

Type 4 364 Petschur Petseri P
370 Waiwara Vaivara E
371 Wargel Varja E
372 Werder Virtsu E
373 Hohenkreutz (near Pikaristi) E
374 Jeddefer Jadivere E
375 Jegelecht Joelahtme E
376 Kahal Kahala E
377 Leal Lihula E
378 Liwa (at Riisipere) E
379 Loop Loobu E
380 Risti Risti E
381 Runafer (near Kasari River) E
382 Pedrus Podruse E
383 Sottkull Sotkula E
384 Turpel Turpla E
385 Friedrichshof Saue E
386 Choudleigh Voka E
387 Hallik Halinga L
388 Sennen Sanna L
389 Surrie Surju L
390 Iggafer Igavere L
393 Kuikatz Kuigatsi L
394 Kurkund Kilingi-Nomme L
397 Mentzen Moniste L
398 Moisekull Moisakula L
399 Nerhausen Vastseliina L





74 -














Known Dotted Number Cancels in Estonia, by Type


(Continued)




Type Number German name Estonian name Province

Type 4 400 Nennal Ninasi L
408 Teilitz Tolliste L
409 Torma Torma L
410 Uddern Uderna L
646 Isborsk Irboska P
675 Arro (near Aruvalla) E
676 Mustlanom Mustla-Nomme E
677 Pillistfer Pilistvere E
736 Marien Koeru E
Magdalenen
841 Didrikull (near Taheva Jaam) L



Provinces- (Gubernia): SP = St. Petersburg
E = Estland
L = Livland
P = Pskov




Early maps show considerable variation in the spellings of German names for
the Estonian towns. The spellings shown in the accompanying list are those
which seem to have been most commonly used, and generally agree with the names
as listed by Rucker. Some offices at estates and stage coach stops were
not associated with any particular village, but are shown on some maps as
merely postal stops on the roads. For example, Mustlanom and Arro are
identified on the ps t road between Tallinn and Paide (Reval-Weissenstein).
Mustlanom was a stage coach stop located in Jarvamaa near the district
border, 3 km north of Mustla and 2 km south of Nommekula (Harjumaa).
Arro was an inn (krug) located 1 km north of Aruvalla where the road
branched to the east. Both Arro and Mustlanom post offices were closed in
1876 when the Tapa-Tartu rail line was opened. However, both appear on
Rucker's 1914 map, and Mustlanom is listed by Lindberg as an active office
during the independent period.

Number 677 (type 4) was first issued to the office in Sabyegaevskaia (Smolensk)
on January 10, 1861, and was later issued to Pellistfer on December 10, 1861


75 -








Estonica-.1rca 860 e. _ser^ r-s

-Re l Ctia l Loo Ped rus -argal W.-OINv
B30tisc PoT Wsen c Wes nhrg ekrutz Tu-L
> iQ-rro /
FrieAre As E ST LAND PROVINCE

-C .... RO M "u .-"" o nS--o-- r t lser



-a serder- / OHallik I 'e r






P.. O --ic / eno rLr-t -
0Y AIAN PR OVINC0 \
Sv ur^ u n \ uddern

k I Vv\ciatzi

oacs cLod PostOtF'.ces a ilitz SLker oQ chur
---- ston~ian-Latuar Border o rsw
-* ?rou~nc.^( Borders "nnen fleuluser\
D id W M e- nty-en Pstxov


*







LOCATION DETAILS
OF
ARRO, DIDR(KOLL, HOHENKREUTZ, LIPS, UWA, MUSTLANOM





fruuvoJio "(. Lops was tr Lafvia)
Lesas 0 L(Lopa)





k e-R=s- r r1$-
DIDRI WtLL







SV tus tla










77
01a 'Post Ro-N;





P Ir odrot RoAi

S- ?Seaoncauri.t o k
Kaso;;L~iotr; Tes *Bor jer



R_.O* li I S ktIs 0 t la Q




77 -







Bibliography


Bochmann, E. "Die Postmarken von Russland", 1895 (Leipzig) p.111-119

Hofmann,H. Personal Communication,1972.

Hofmann,H. "Vorphilatelie in Balticum",1964. Includes map.(German)

Kethro,W. "Dots Postmarksof Imperial Russia," BJRP, No.25,1959,p.6-8.

Kethro,W. "Dots and Postmarks of Imperial Russia (continued), BJRP,
No.26, 1959, p.20-25.

Kethro,W. "Continuing'Dots Postmarks of Imperial Russia' ", BJRP,No.27,
1960,p.29-32.

Kethro ,W. "The Dots Postmarks of Imperial Russia (continued)",BJRP,
No. 29,1961, p.83-87.

Lindberg, G. "Verzeichnis der Nummern in den Russischen Stempein Nach
Amtlichen Unterlagen," 1965. (German)

Org,V. "Ryska Punktnummerstmiplar FMr Estland Postorter," Frimnrks-
Bladet #6,1951. (Swedish)

Prigara,S. "Russian Philatetic Handbook," 1941. (Russian)

Ricker, C.G. "Alphabetisches Namen Verzeichnis zur Generalkarte der
Russiscien Ostseeprovinzen," published by Franz Kluge, Reval,
1914. (German)

Rachmanov,V. "Russia Number One",The Collectors Club Philatelist,
Vol.32, No.5, 1953,p.229-240.

Sch8nherr,W. "Die Poststempel und Markenentwertungen Estlands,"
Saimler-Woche, #40, 1925, p.567. (German)

Stalbow,E. "Die Postverhaltnisse im Baltikum vor 110 Jahren,"
Baltikum-Sammler," #132,1971,p.11. (German)

Veveris,A. "Krievijas Imperijas Punktu Zimogi," Kollekcionars,
#5, 1961. (Latvian)

Wortman,A. "The Dots Numeral Cancellations-Some Further Notes,"
BJRP, No. 29, 1961, p.4-9.

Wortman,A. "The Dots Numeral Cancellations- Additional Information,"
BJRP, No. 30, 1962, p.4-5.

Wortman,A. "The Dots Postmarks- Further Information," BJRP, No.31,
1962, p.23-24.

Wortman,A. "Dots Postmarks- Supplementary Notes ", BJRP No. 32,
1963, p. 13.


78 -








Bibliography

(continued )


"KIlak6rts ja Postijaam," Kalander 1971 ,p. 119-122, (Kirjastus "Eesti
Raamat"), Tallinn 1970.

" Sidepidamisest Endistel Asgadel," Kalander 1972, p.110-115,
(Kirjastus "Eesti Raamat"), Tallinn 1971.


Maps:

"Russia Part 3," published by Baldwin & Cradock (London), 1834.

"Generalkarte von Liv-, Est- und Kurland" by C.G. Ricker, (Reval),
1914.

"Kas Tunned Maad," (1:200,000) 1936, No.24- Tartu.

"Eesti Maanteede Kaart, (1:300,000), Published by Eesti Maanteede
Valitsuse, ]942.
"Riga," published by the British War Office,1959, Stock No.1301XN03435
(1:1,000,)000 ).

"Eesti Teedo Kaart" by Eduard Bach (auto road maps), Tallinn, 1935.

"Eesti by A. Tammekann, (1:3000,000), published by Rootsi-Eesti
Opperaamatufond, 1972.

























-79 -







RUSSIAN-RELATED PHANTASIES

by Gordon Torrey

For the information of some of our newer members the Rossica Journal
intends to publish short articles on some of the bogus or phantasy
stamps that collectors run into from time to time. While very little
in the way of new information will be presented, these notes will
bring to the attention of our members information not generally known
or available to many collectors. I wish to acknowledge the pioneer
work done by Emile Marcovitch, which was published in this journal
beginning in 1958. The first of the productions to be discussed are
those of Turkestan.

The Turkestan Phantasies

















According to Chapier, a pioneer student of phantasies, the Turkestan
phantasies fjrst appeared on the market about 1921 and their origin
was unknown. They were purported to be the issues of an independent
Turkestani regime located somewhere in central Russia. This issue,
consisting of six stamps, is found both perforated and imperforate.
The values, with their motifs are: 1 kopec lemon yellow,the head of
"a bearded native and a native woman; 2 kopecs green, a Turkestani on
"a camel with mountains in the background; 5 kopecs violet, a Turkestani
riding a camel with what seems to be the desert in the background;
15 kopec grey-brown, the gate to an ancient city; 25 kopec blue, the
buildings of a town on a mountain; 50 kopec red-brown, a shepherd on a
horse watching over sheep. The perforated stamps vary from perf. 11
to perf. 11 1/2 and compounds of these. The stamps have white gum.
These stamps have been found with perforation on three sides, with an
imperforate "fantail", which may indicate that the sheets were
imperforate on all four sides. They are also found with a hand over-
print "RUB" in violet ink, according to Marcovitch.
1 Rossica Vol.55, p.38. (1958)

2Georges Chapier, Les Tibres de Fantasie, Lucerne, no date.
Marcovitch, quoting Capt. Schramchenko, gives the date as 1924.
The latter believed the stamps were produced in Paris.

80 -









Marcovitch also lists under the date of 1924 a five line overprint
in violet on these stamps and states that they exist cancelled with
a black double ring with the inscription "Field Post E. Turkestan
White Army" and a date between two bars in the center of the ring.
According to the late Capt. Schramchenko these overprints were
supposedly issued for the post of the East Turkestan White Army of
Gen Sichev for use in 1924. The overprint reads as follows: on
topa crown, below this the letters "B.T.K" and the Russian letter
"P", the abbreviation for Eastern Turkestan Border Government; the
line below this is "Dawn of Liberation," the next line is "Russia,"
and lastly the date "1924".

The Overprints











.--- .













Imperforate Russian stamps of the 1 and 2 kopec values of 1918 were
overprinted with values from 10 kopecs to 10 rubles in 1920. Supposedly
these stamps were connected with the occupation of a part of Mongolia
by Gen Baron Ungern-Sternberg to which he retreated from Eastern
Turkestan. In the early 1920's these stamps were listed in several
catalogues, but since then have been dropped after their phantasy status
was determined. Each value was overprinted once on each of the 1 and
2 kopec imperforate stamps. The values are 10, 25, 35, 50, and 70
kopecs; 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 rubles. Besides those listed above I have
seen 10, 25, 35, 50 kopecs; 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 rubles with normal
overprint and 70 kopecs inverted on 2 kopecs green, perforated;
also 70 kopecs and 10 rubles on 5 kopecs, imperforate. All have been
seen with a fake double circle cancellation reading "XOTAN" (Khotan)




81 -









at the top and "TYRK ObL (Turkestan Oblast) at the bottom, with the
date "12 3 20" across the center between two lines. Cancellations
with '"ERV" also have been reported.


Persidskaya Pochta (Persian Post)










Another bogus issue that collectors run across occasionally is a
series of 11 labels perforated 11 1/2 lettered in both Persian and
Russian characters depicting a kneeling sharpshooter under the heraldic
lion of Persia, or a group of five sharpshooters with the heraldic
Persian sun over them. This set comes both imperforate and perforated.
The values are: 1 shari violet, 2 sh. dark brown, 3 sh. green, 4 sh.
greenish-grey, 5 sh. red, 10 sh. blue, 12 sh. yellow, 1 kran dark grey,
2 kr. light green, 9 kr. ultramarine, and 20 kr. orange- red on yellow
paper. Ostensibly these stamps were produced for Russian troops that
were stationed in Persia during the First World War.




























82 -









THE PERFINS OF RUSSIA

by Vojtech Maxa
Prague, Czechoslovakia


The story of Russian Perfins is complicated and far from complete. At
the moment all we have available are bits and pieces of information, some
basic contradictions, and a few Perfins about which very little really is
known.

I have in my collection some old Russian stamps with the Perfin M.7. over
a number. Most of these Perfins are on the higher values of the 1913
Romanoff set. The frequent appearance of the same basic first line with
only a change in numeral suggests that the Perfins were used by some kind
of government agency rather than by private firms.

With this clue, I set out to discover as much as possible about Russian
Perfins. My first lead came from the Honorary Secretary of the British
Society of Russian Philately, Mr. John Lloyd. He sent me a copy of an
article published some time ago in the society journal. The article,by
a Mr. Werth, gave an explanation of the nature of Russian Perfins.

Werth says that because Tzarist Russia had no postage due stamps, postmen
collected postage due amounts in cash. Each day the money collected by
all the postmen in a given office was counted and stamps covering the
total amount were affixed in a special book. These stamps were perforated
with the initials of the appropriate post office. Obviously, the clerks
made use of the high value stamps to save time and space, but sometimes
kopec values were used to make the amounts come out to the correct frac-
tion of a ruble. The books were kept in the post office vaults, but
sometime during the Civil War, some of the books were stolen and the
perforated stamps wound up on the market.

According to Werth, then, the Russian Perfins are some sort of official
stamps used for internal accounting purposes.

I published this information in Czechoslovakia's Filatelie magazine and
quickly received a letter from a Mr. 4Mazur of Moscow-- and he told a
totally different story.

Mazur claims that the Perfinned stamps were never used to account for
postage due money. Instead, he says, stamps equal to the amount paid
for such things as registration fees, money order fees, and insurance
fees were affixed to forms, countersigned by the sender and the clerk,
and then kept in the postal archives for proof in the event of claim.
Originally the stamps --which were mostly the high values -- were merely
cancelled with the date stamp of the particular post office involved.

However, says Mazur, a robbery of the postal archives around 1910 led
to a change. The robbers removed many of the stamps from the postal
forms, cleaned them, and sold them to unsuspecting people. To prevent
a recurrence, the authorities decided to perforate the stamps on all
future receipts.



83 -








Mazur says that Perfins can be found on Russian stamps from 1911 to
1918 and that Russian collectors know 16 dies.

1. M.17./numerals 1 to 69 8. r.P.
2. 17.0./numerals 2 and 3 9. A.K.
3. X.K.
4. B.17.
10. /7 ,--1

5. ^M 7 VI -,
'" 11. WEB.P.
VII 12. IEBb 2
6. M.P. 13. W1HCK.P.
7. HP/A 14. CME7A
15. N.P.
16. N./AP.

In my own collection I have various M.77. Perfins with the Roman numerals
I to VI. It seems that the lower numbers were both in Arabic and Roman
numerals. For example, I have M.7./6 (figure 1) as well as M.17./VI
(figure 2). I also have M.7./9 and M.77./54 (figure 3) and one Perfin
B.I7. (figure 4). All these have been recorded by the Russians.
2- ---

. TF.. ..



But I also have some perfins that are apparently unknown to our Russian
colleagues. I have a B.C. or possibly a B.O. (it is a split as shown
in figure 5), and I have a 7-hole "dot" as shown in Figure 6. I have
a T.K./3 (figure 7) as well as a T.K./l. I also have a .T.K (figure 8),
and a split (figure 9) that is probably a three character pattern
combined with a St. Andrews cross. Finally I have a T.X. as shown in
figure 10.

: : ...* .
S. .. ..



I admittedly know little about any of these patterns, but the really
important thing is that the T.K./3 and the B.C. (or possibly it is a
B.O.) patterns are on Lenin stamps from 1926. This directly contradicts
tne contention that Perfins ceased to be used after the Revolution.

All of these "facts", however, do little more than bring up several points
that need to be clarified.

"* Everybody seems to agree that the M.7. Perfins belong to different
Moscow post offices. But if that is the case, then how is it possible




84 -









that these Mbscow Perfins show up with other than Moscow date stamps?
I have one in my collection, for example, which bears a Warsaw date
stamp. Mazur suggests that the stamps were cancelled at the post office
where they were bought and affixed to the receipts, but that the Perfins
were applied at the main post office where the receipts were kept.
However, we have uncovered 69 different Moscow Perfins but only two
from Kiev and St. Petersburg. Surely there must have been more than
two post offices in these huge towns. (Remember that until the Revolution
St. Petersburg was the capital of Russia; Moscow was made the capital
in 1918.--Editor)

* The Perfins seem always to have been perforated from the obverse of
the stamp. I have a small cutting from which Perfins have been removed
and this paper -- obviously part of an official form -- is also perforated.
This supports Mazur's theory: the stamps on relatively small receipts
could be perforated after they were affixed, but it would be impossible
to perforate stamps glued to the pages of a thick accounting book. If
the stamps were perforated before they were affixed in the book, they
would have to exist also with Perfins struck from the reverse of the
stamps.

* Mazur's explanation that the postal authorities decided to perforate
stamps on certain receipts to prevent their misuse is not logical. In
this particular case the authorities primary interest was to keep the
receipts safe in case of claims. The reuse of the stamps in the case of
a loss of thereceipt was of secondary importance only. The entire scheme
seems to be too clumsy to be effective. Of course, one must acknowledge
that the Tzarist bureaucrats were not the brightest.

* The theory that all Russian Perfins are of an official character and
that they ceased to be used after 1918 probably won't hold up. First
we have seen Perfins N.P. and N./PA which could hardly come from any
Russian post office since they are written in the Latin alphabet. Is it
possible that they are, after all, private Perfins? As to the Perfin
CME7A, there is a small town of Smela some 50 miles south of Kiev. Today
there are about 100,000 people living there. Before the Revolution it
was much smaller, and it is hard to explain why a post office in a small
town so near the capital of the Ukraine would have its own Perfin when
much bigger post offices evidently did not have them. Is it possible
that this Perfin belongs to a private firm called Smela?

* The existence of T.K./3 and B.C. (or B.O.) Perfins on Soviet stamps
of 1926 is very puzzling. What purpose did they serve? They could
have been used to account for postage due since the postage due stamps
were used only from 1924 to 1926.

* Is there anything official in any government document to support the
use of Perfins in Russia? Neither Werth nor Mazur back up their assert-
ions with quotations from a postal gazette or any such official publica-
tion. Any new postal scheme of this sort surely was made official with
at least some paperwork.






85-








In the absence of answers to at least some of these questions, Russian
Perfins philately retains an air of mystery, Justwhat purpose did the
Perfins serve in Russia?

It is possible that somewhere inside Russia -- or perhaps far removed
from Russia -- there lies the key to an understanding of Russian
Perfins. If any readers of the Bulletin can provide additional leads,
I hope they will contact me. I will carefully record new patterns, new
postmarks, and new bits of information and I will keep the Bulletin
fully informed of my findings.

Printed by permission of the Perfins Vojtech Maxa
Bulletin,Volume 26, No. 6, whole Antoninska 8
number 260. June 1973 170 00 Praha
Czechoslovakia










ATTENTION ZEPPELIN COLLECTORS


NEW CATALOGUE !

ZEPPELIN-MAIL AND ZEPPELIN STAMPS OF RUSSIA


with nearly all known printing-varieties of stamps and
all flight covers photographed on 70 pages 8" x 12".
Realistic market prices in D-Mark. VERY LIMITED EDITION
in German. $29.95 postpaid (NY residents add tax).

H.G.I. STAMP CO.
P.O. Box 472 Port Jefferson Sta., N.Y. 11776

ZEPPELIN AND FIRST FLIGHT COVERS OF THE WORLD AVAILABLE
ON APPROVAL. References, please '













86-








THE 1974 AUCTIONS: THE ADLER, DROAR, AND SMALL SALES


i The year 1974 was an unusual one for collectors of Russian material;
three major collections were auctioned within a period of a little
over three months in the fall. Two were in New York and one in
Switzerland.

Beginning the season on August 14-15 was the sale of partial holdings
of Rossica's former president, Kurt Adler. Particularly strong in
postal history and including many proofs, the collection extended
over the whole gamut of Russian philately from the prestamp period
to the present day, with the exception of zemstvos. On the opening
day of the sale there was standing room only, possibly the largest
crowd ever seen for a Robert Siegel auction. Among those present
were many Rossica members including several from abroad, notably
Dr. Casey from England and Walter Frauenlob of Bern. Others were
represented by agents.

Record prices were realized; some items went at seemingly astronomical
sums. The collection brought a total of $322,093.50, a record for
any Russian collection to date. The sale catalog was a veritable
handbook with 21 pages of illustrations and a total of 1337 lots. This
is certainly a tribute to Mr. Adler's knowledge and acumen in the field
of Russian philately.

The sale opened with 136 lots of stampless covers. Lot #1, a St.
Petersburg stampless dated April 1776, reached $700, a new high for a
* Russian stampless cover. While all stampless lots brought good prices,
there were a number of bargains on some lots. Prices generally ranged
in the neighborhood of $20 to $75 apiece except for 18th century items
which sold for more.

Among the highlights of the sale picked at random were a very fine
number one on a cover from Bialstok to Warsaw for $525 and another
with a beautiful Tula postmark at $725. More striking were the prices
realized for the 1858 perforated stamps on cover. The 10 kopecs
ranged from $22 to $90 apiece. Perhaps even more surprising we-e the
prices on the 20 kopec stamps. These ranged from a low of $105 to a high
of $800. The rarity of the 30 kopecs on cover was shown fully, the
cheapest being knocked down for $210 and the highest for $1150,even
with a small tear. However, many 19th century stamps went either at
under catalogue or estimate, though none went cheaply.

Specimens, essays,and booklet panes (1909) brought excellent prices.
A set of Romanov trial color proofs (45 in all) went at an astonishing
$ 3600. A lot of 131 specimen stamps of the 1899-1909 period realized
$1650. The mute cancellations, 620 loose stamps and 265 covers, went
for $6750. In the mobile post office field a lot of 503 railroad post
office markings sold at $1450, while 45 ship cancel covers and 49 stamps
brought a surprising $9000.
Postal stationery came into its own at the sale with a rare 1851 5kopec
scarlet envelope with the imprint at the upper right realizing $1300.




87 -








Russian postal history material from Bulgaria andRoumania brought
fierce competition in the bidding, especially covers from the Russo-Turkish
War of 1877-78.

Kurt Adler's Soviet stamps and covers illustrate the rapidly increasing
interest in the period up to the Second World War. Imperforates and
proofs brought intense bidding. The 1931 Tambov provisional 15 kopec
on 10 kopec olive green on a large piece sold for $170, a price
seemingly quite low for its rarity. Semi-postals sold at nearly full
catalogue and unusual items set records. Airmails were very popular
and errors and covers were the subject of considerable competitive
bidding. Russian airmails on cover seem to have a bright future,
especially the earlier ones.

The "Used Abroads" section brought record prices, especially postal
history items. Large miscellaneous lots brought amazing prices. A
stunner was lot 960, which consisted of the 1872 Levant issue 1-5 kopecs
on a cover cancelled with "784" and the Jaffa datestamp. It brought
$6250, a price which was followed by gasps from many of the bidders
present. Material used in Persia was popular and Tannu Touva and
Mongolian covers realized prices that astonished many bidders present.
Offices in China were the subjectof very spirited bidding while one
1880 postmarked cover realized $700. Items with Japanese markings
brought very good prices. Ship mail covers and markings were especially
strong. One lot (1088), a posted on board postmark with the cancel
"Russk. Vost. Aziat Parakhodstov Mongolia' sold at a whopping $1450.

Russo-Japanese War items, long corraled by Kurt, went at unheard of
prices, the top being $3000 for a 1904 cover with a registry label
from Lyaoyang. A lot of 65 covers and cards brought $10,000, an average 0
of over $150 apiece.

While the above has emphasized prices as a measure of rarity and demand
for Russian material, it has been only a way to measure the popularity
and intenseness of today's collectors of Russian material. Certainly
Russia has continued to maintain its place in the forefront of philately.
Of course, Imperial Russia has for long been considered one of the
"classic" areas of collecting and has competed on an even footing with
such other major areas as Scandinavia, France, Italian States, and Great
Britain to name a few. The last great sale of Russian material prior
to the Adler sale was the collection of Robert W. Baughman at Siegel's
in March 1971. If one compares the prices between the two sales he can
only sigh and wish that he had picked up many of the items that he then
thought were too high; they are bargains now!

Russian collectors were given but little respite from the Adler sale,
and their pocketbooks even less rest when the October "Droar" sale
was held in Basel by Robson Lowe. While the Droar collection was not
nearly as extensive as the Adler one, it was loaded with spectacular
items. Among the treasures present was an original artist's sketch prepared
for submission to the Russian Post Office for its first stamp. This was
ex-Faberge and unique. Another stunning item was a superb number one
cancelled in blue "Moscow I Jan 1857" (an error for 1858), with a
certificate from the Royal Philatelic Society. These two lots realized


88-









12,000 and 6,000 Swiss francs respectively, and one must remember that
on the continent the buyer pays a commission, it being 10% in Switzer-
land. While on this point, it might be well to mention that much of
the Adler material went to auction agents with the ultimate buyer
paying a commission top of the price realized.

A Moscow City Post (circa 1846) envelope cancelled brought 3200 S.F.
while a St. Petersburg City Post stamp on an 1863 cover realized 2800
S.F. A surprise was lot 1067, a 1907 piece of a transfer card bearing
a pair of the 7 kopec background omitted. It went for a mere 100 S.F.
Russian material used from Poland brought good prices, reflecting the
increased interest in Polish area philately. Zemstvos,.for some
strange reason, did not meet their estimates, perhaps an indication
of the thinness of the market.

In the "Used Abroads" section the more common items and miscellaneous
lots did not sell as high as might have been expected, but a cover
from Alexandria,Egypt, dated 1872 cancelled by the "785" dots cancel
exceeded its 3500 S.F. estimate by 500 S.F. It bore a Turkish 2 pi.
postage due cancelled on arrival in Aleppo. An 1863 Levant 6 kopec,
thinned, with a Batum cancel originally from the Yardley collection
sold for 850 S.F. A rare cover from Crete to Syras in 1861 with the
intaglio seal "Comp. Russe de Navig. a Vape Agence de Candie brought
its estimate of 3500 S.F. An 8 kopec overprint on the 10 kopec of 1878
attained S.F. 750, surely a reasonable price for this rare item. The
"7" kopec surcharge on cover went for 1800 S.F. Palestinian material
confirmed its popularity with a 1881 Jaffa cover postpaid with the
ROPIT 1 and 5 kopec stamps, estimated at S.F. 1500, being sold at
S.F. 6500. One of the most amazing realizations was a Yambol Eastern
Roumelia cover of 1881 (ragged at the edges) bearing a block of four
10 paras E.R. stamps and a Constantinople Local Post 1 piastre with
the block being cancelled by the circular date stamp. It went at an
astounding 7 times its estimate of S.F. 1200, realizing S.F. 8500.
An 1880 Peking cover to Wiesbaden bearing a 7 kopec red and grey
cancelled with a fine oval datestamp and a Kyatka way marking on the
reverse climbed to S.F. 6000. Here, again, Russian material used in
Mongolia was popular and brought excellent prices. Railway line post
office markings on cover of numbers 262 (Kharbin-Manchuli) and 261
(Manchuli-Kharbin) brought from 700 to 1800 S.F. The total realization
for the sale was 357,275 S.F., of which the Droar Russia accounted for
133,025 S.F.

H.R. Harmer's of New York auctioned the Frederick T.Small collection
on December 10-11, 1974, to bring the three big sales of Russia to
an end. By this time the Russian collecting fraternity was badly
strained financially. However, it rallied and managed to buy a total
of $103,224 worth of material. Mr. Small is best remembered as the
man who owned the British Guiana 16 magenta, long touted as the rarest
stamp in the world. This collection contained considerable former
Fabergf material, most notably the unique strip of five used number ones.
The item fell below its estimate of $10,000 to $20,000 and sold at
$7750. By and large the prices realized for number ones on cover made
the prices of the same stamp at the Adler sale look cheap. However, it
is difficult to compare covers except in a rough way since each is an



89 -








item by itself. This sale had beautiful number ones with very
attractive cancellations; also it contained a pair and a strip of three
on cover. The pair on cover went for $500 and the strip (pen cancelled
and not tied) for $2100. Most astonishing of all was a "mixed franking"
cover with a number one and a number three from Revel in April 1859.
This item brought $4250. Here, again, the scarcity of Russia's second
issue on cover, with the exception of the 10 kopec, was shown. There
was only one 20 kopec on cover, from Kishinev, which brought $380.
There was no 30 kopec offered on cover. Polish material was strong;
a cover with 2 one kopec and a 3 kopec of the perf 12 1/2 1858 issue
with a circular Warsaw Railway Mail Car No. 5 cancellation brought $62.50.
The St. Petersburg City Post stamp on cover (1863) was the subject of
an interesting sidelight on stamp auctions. Two covers were offered and
the first was run up to $800 while the second brought $340. The $800
cover was used during the proper time,the second cover in a late usage
cover 1868.

An ex-Faberge item that brought a good price was the 1 kopec black and
yellow Scott 196 (imperforate) used, knocked down at $230, cheap enough
for this great rarity. A brilliant block of four of 20d, the three
kopec with the "v" background of the 5 kopec realized $900, twice what
a similar block brought at the Baughman sale in 1971. Die proofs of
the Romanovs on small cards brought anywhere from $62.50 to $100 apiece.
The 2 ruble and 3 ruble Romanovs in imperforate pairs realized $230 and
$329 respectively. The reprint of the 1881 telegraph 20 kopec stamp
sold at $32.50.

Polish and early Russian stamps used in Poland with a cover with the
l0kopec blue and carmine of 1860 from Grozno to Riga tied with a red
town cancel went to $16000. A cover from the Uliassatai Russian office
to New York in 1916 reached $1500, a remarkable figure. Russian material
used in Finland was very popular and brought surprising prices. One
unusual example was an 1897 cover postpaid with Russian stamps, as was the
practice, cancelled with the attractive "Ship" cancels which attained
270.

In the Used Abroad section prices were high compared to those of the past
several years. However, postal history in general has greatly increased
in price lately --several hundred percent within the space of three or
four years.

The very rare 10 kopec dark blue overprint "KITAI" on vertically laid
paper brought $150, three-quarters catalogue and a bargain at that. One
bargain was lot 542, a stampless cover with the boxed double frame line
of Smyrna and small framed"PP" to Volos that went for a mere $60. A
surprising $65 was paid for an advertising postcard bearing a 10 para on
2 kopec green cancelled by a Jerusalem ROPIT cancel of 1892. Siberian
priamur issues unused brought three-quarters catalogue, and Scott 64
went close to full catalogue ($240 versus a catalogue of $250). A couple
of Unkranian Shagiv stamps used attained surprising prices, going at
$35 and $40 depending on the cancellation.

Other Civil War material was very popular and reflected the tremendous
interest in this period. Inflation period covers were sold at prices


90 -









often exceeding their regular retail level. Auction fever still seems
to be endemic. Airmail stamps and covers prompted spirited bidding. In
the Caucasian area an Armenian collection of 245 different stamps brought
$500 against an estimate of $1000-1500, inactuality a goodly sum for a
collection of this treacherous country with its many shoals of forgeries
to be watched for. Some Georgian items brought full catalogue. Ukrainian
lots showed the renewed popularity of this difficult.country with its
many confusing overprints. The sale closed with a large lot of Zemstvos,
over 7500 stamps, in stock books and album pages. There were numbers of
multiples and stationery. It went at $14,000 compared to its estimate
of $15,000 to $20,000.










W.S.E. STEPHAN


Word has just reached me from Mr. Stephan's
daughter that he passed away after a sudden
heart attack on 16 May 1975. "Bill" Stephan,
a resident of Aberlour, Banffshire,Scotland,
was a longtime collector of Russia, and was
best known for his collaboration with the late
Simon Tchilinghirian in the monumental series
of handbooks published on "Stamps of the
Russian Empire Used Abroad" and "Austrian Post
Offices Abroad." He will always be remembered
for his work, and I have expressed sympathy to
Mrs. Taylor on behalf of Rossica.

Gordon Torrey

















91 -







THE SAKHALIN DOG-SLEDGE MAIL

by Dr. Howard Weinert


The present author has recently obtained a very interesting book
entitled, In the Uttermost East. It was written by. C.H. Hawes and
published by Harper and Brothers in 1904. The book is an account of
Hawes' investigations among the natives and convicts of Sakhalin.
Hawes was in fact the first English traveler to explore the northern
interior of the island, after arriving in September, 1901.

Unlike most of the books on Russian travel which this writer has read,
Hawes' book contains a description of postal communications between
Sakhalin and the mainland. During the summer, of course, mail arrived
by ship. However, from the middle of November until May the Straits
of Tartary are closed to navigation, and communications, other than
telegraphic, were cut off, except for two months in midwinter. The
rest is in Hawes' words.

"Toward the end of December, or the beginning of January, the sea is
sufficiently frozen for natives to undertake the arduous task of
sledging to Nikolaevsk with the mails. At Alexandrovsk, and generally
to the south of the 'funnel' of the straits, only the coastal fringe
of the sea is frozen, but to the north of that all is covered save
for occasional holes. It is no easy journey along the ice-bound
fringe of the coast, northwards to Cape Pogobi, and thence across the
snow-covered frozen sea to the mainland.

To the narta, as the sledge is called, are harnessed thirteen dogs
of the Arctic type.... The narta is a lightly constructed
framework of wood, about fourteen inches high and fourteen feet long..
The mails are out and on the narta, and the Gilyak throws himself
quickly astride of the sledge, feet on rails, clasping his two short
iron-shod sticks; the mail is away. A dash down the hill, and less
than a mile's run (from Alexandrovsk) brings them to the sea....
For 100 miles they pursue their course over the frozen fringe of the
sea.

From Cape Pogobi the crossing of the straits is made in a north-
westerly direction, threading the Khazeliv Islands to a Gilyak village
Mi on the opposite shore, nearly fifty miles distant. This part of the
journey must be compassed in daylight, and an early start (5 a.m.)
is made. At first the dogs speed along over the smooth snow-covered
surface at about seven miles an hour, with halts of five or ten
minutes at every ten versts to give them breath. As the middle is
neared rougher going is met with, for hummocky ice has been piled up by
the wind, and detours have to be made to avoid dangerous holes.

At last the islands are reached and threaded, but the sun has already
set, and darkness has descended ere the glad sounds of barking amnounce
the arrival at the Gilyak village of Mi. The next day the coast must
be skirted again, and the Amur descended, before Nilolaevsk can be
reached.

Another interval of six weeks' or two months' isolation follows mid-
winter communication, during which no ship can plow the iceladen
strait nor sledge venture across the treacherous ice."
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BOOK REVIEWS


IMPERIAL RUSSIAN STAMPS USED IN TRANSCAUCASIA by P.T. Ashford

Part II (Pages 60-139) Tiflis, Tiflis Town Post. Price $4.00 from author -
9 Pentre Close, Ashton, Chester (C3 8 BR, England.


This is the second handbook from the pen of this well known author on
Russian philately. The first part containing 60 pages appeared in 1972
and covered in Chapter I, the History of the Posts in Caucasus and Trans-
caucasia.

Part two consists of two chapters and covers: (1) The Tiflis Town Post
and (2) The Cancellations of Tiflis.

The tremendous amount of research undertaken by Mr. Ashford has resulted
in this splendid handbook, which in chapter two includes all of the known
information on the Tiflis stamped envelopes and the Tiflis Town Post Stamp.
It is quite an undertaking to gather all of the written information
available on a subject and then after sifting it, produce a masterpiece,
i.e. the Tiflis Town Post.

Chapter three illustrates and describes cancellations of Tiflis beginning
with 1848, and starting on p.121 it gives a check list of each type as
well as the price realized.

This well written and easy to follow handbook will help a great deal the
collector of Tiflis material. Tiflis covers and cancellations are very
popular in the U.S.A.

Rimma Sklarevski


ZEPPELINPOST UND LUFTSCHIFFBRIEFMARKEN DER UDSSR by I. Lukanc

Printed in German. Published by J.E. Wolfensberger. Degerstrasse 109,
CH-8059-Zurich, 1975. 70 pages.


Just recently this excellent catalogue on Russian dispatches and Zeppelin
flights to Russia won the AEROFIL exposition in Budapest with a Silver
Medal and the NAPDST exposition in Essen with a Bronze Medal.

This beautiful and definitive catalogue has on its cover, in color,
Scott C12B and C13B imperf tied on flown registered cover, the return
flight Moscow to Friedrichshafen. On page 28 are two covers from my
collection bearing Scott C12 and C13 tied on two flown registered covers
on the same flight, sent to the same address by th6 person who sent the
covers on the front of the catalogue. This C12 is the only known
registered cover instead of on a card.

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Following are some of the highlights excerpted from this catalogue:

There are photographs from "The Around the World flight of the Graf
Zeppelin, 18 August 1929, with a drop at Irkutsk." Also there are
photos of various dispatches on this flight with the exception of an
Italian dispatch which I have in my collection. As far as I can
ascertain from Zeppelin specialists, the Italian dispatch is the only
one known. There is the "Moscow Friedrichshafen Flight" and photos of
C12 and 13, both perf and imperf, on and off cover. Included are photos
of both on regular and registered covers and also on private registered
covers. The photographs and detailed information are outstanding.

Also illustrated and discussed are Scott C12-19 and C20-24; there are
photos of these stamps both on and off cover. First Day of Issue C15-19,
May 15,1931 and First Day for C20-24, May 21, 1931 are included. Photos
of C15, double impression, both on and off cover are shown. C20, double
impression, is shown only on a stamp. A copy of C20, double impression
on a zeppelin cover,is owned by the reviewer. Photos of C22 on thin
paper, on cover, and C23a, blue grey error, mint, used and on cover are
other illustrations. The catalogue lists Sanabria, No. 40, violet brown,
mint single and as a pair ( a variety of the 50 kopec, Scott C23, black
brown). Only 24 copies of the violet brown are known to exist.

Both stamps and covers of the Polar Flight are illustrated. This includes
covers dispatched from other countries, including great rarities. Scott
numbers C26-29 and C30-35 are shown on one cover. Pairs, blocks and
rarities are depicted. Examples are C25 cancelled on the first day of
issue, October 21, 1932, and perforation rarities 10 1/2 and 14 followed
by listings for mint, used and on cover for these stamps.

The Soviet Airship issue, Scott C53-57, issued October 17, 1934 is
depected. Photos of this popular dirigible set are shown, both of stamps
and of a first day flown registered Zeppelin card on the llth South
America Flight, 1934. Usually C30 and C32 are tied on the back of
these cards.

Included is Scott 681, 20 kopec blue showing a dirigible over the Kremlin
which was issued in October 1938. All known dirigible maximum cards are
listed with photos portraying different cards mint and used.

One section contains photos of the different South American flights and
also the Luposta and the England Flights. The rarest of these flights
is the England Flight. Also pictured are flights from Brazil to Moscow.

Summing up, this catalogue deserves all the superlatives that come to
mind. Mr. Lukanc did much research; his Zeppelin story is so complete.
The photographs are sharp and life-like. Every Zeppelin and Russian
air mail collector should own this philatelic masterpiece.


Ray Hoffman






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TANNU TUVA: Album pages for stamps

K-Line Publishing, Inc. (P.O. Box 159, Berwyn, Illinois 60402)
May 1974. $7.95 plus $1.00 p & packing; extra pages are$3.50 for ten.

The K-Line specialty album pages for stamps of Tuva have been
designed and edited by Richard C. Kanak, and will be of especial
interest to collectors of Tuvan postage stamps who seek background
information on this little-known country. The assembly is distinguished
by the well-balanced and clearly-arranged artistic layout and by the
substantial amount of supporting information on this remote land
which, during much of its existence as an independent state, was
probably only known to stamp collectors and a handful of Far East
specialists, and surely not to the general public.

The review set and a purchased set each contained 27 pages, comprising
a cover/title-page; three pages of background data; 19 pages with stamp
illustrations and spaces; two blank pages for additions or varieties
(the publisher's bulletin mentions three blanks); and two pages with
bibliography. They are punched with three holes for standard 3-ring
binders, as are all K-Line pages,and are offset-printed on 120-lb.
stock, with the exception of the cover which is on a heavier glazed
card stock and bears a useful map of Tuva with reproductions of nine
postmarks.

The map shows numerous rivers and lakes and some mountain passes, with
about a dozen names of geographical features. It also gives the
locations and names of seventeen towns. One should bear in mind the
often-printed caveat that such a map, which is of course a small-scale
one, should not be considered an authority on international boundaries.

The three descriptive pages are an excellent single source for geograph-
ical, historical, and statistical background on Tuva; the "general
information" is as recent as 1970 and gives population and production
figures. Although Tuva was incorporated into the USSR in 1944, it
undoubtedly still possesses much of its own character, especially as
the population density is not high. The physical beauty of Tuva's
mountains, forests, rivers, and lakes is outstanding, and is of course
hinted at in the pictorial stamps of the 1930s.

Additional reading suggestions are listed in two more pages of
bibliography, but the major offering here is a compilation of
seventy-plus references, nearly all philatetic, from the hand of
James Negus. This listing is obviously of the greatest value to
the true Tuva enthusiast, who will be able, among other exercises,
to read up on the controversy about the pictorials' validity, which
is perhaps not settled to everyone's satisfaction even today. Messrs.
Negus and Kanak deserve warm thanks for presenting such a full coverage
of the philatelic writings on this fascinating country.

Nineteen illustrated pages are furnished for the display of Tuvan
stamps by collectors who like to use pre-arranged pictorial layouts.
"Each page has a pale grey-green background design of the State arms



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and the illustrations of the stamps, which are mostly in rather low
contrast coarse-screen printing, are not so assertive as to detract
from the appearance of actual stamps where, for example, a page might
be incompletely filled.

Page headings give the date of an issue and a statement of its design
or purpose. Technical details are kept to a bare minimum, and per-
foration varieties are not mentioned although duplicate pages are
provided for the 1934 registered stamps as these were issued perforated
and imperforate. Similarly, the three different colors of the 1942 25 k.
design are not mentioned. The spare blank pages are useful here for
mounting varieties. The consecutive depiction of the stamps follows
the Stanley Gibbons listing which is fuller than that of Scott with,
as mentioned, the omission of most variations of perforation or color.

The illustrations and bibliography, taken,say, with the articles by
Cronin and Stephen in our own "Rossica"Journal, will give the student
a very good acquaintance with Tuva and its stamps. From the pictorial
and artistic viewpoints, not only the photographic representations but
also the frame decorations in Tuvan-Mongol style, which were so carefully
chosen and depicted by V.V. Zavyalev in his designs, are worth much more
than cursory examination. An addition to the bibliography which is of
interest here is S.I. Vainshtein, "Istoriya Natodnogo Iskusstva Tuvy",
Izd. "Nauka", Moskva, 1974.

There are a very few minor typographical errors such as missed letters
in a few words;the author's name (Kolarz) is omitted in listing the
book,"The Peoples of the Soviet Far East"; S.Cammann's book,"The Land
of the Camel," deals with Inner Mongolia only, and not Tuva. Did Tuva
formally declare war on Germany in 1941? Perhaps; what is not generally
known is that Tuvinian cavalrymen and tank crews, described as volunteers
(not conscripts), fought as far west as Hungary and Czechoslovakia,
though from 1943 onward.

A specialist can take issue with aircraft identifications given in
captions to stamps of 1934 and 1936. Zavyalev might have based his
drawings on real aeroplane photographs, but in the art work,reduction,
and printing, I think there has been some blurring and loss of specific
features. The 1934 5 k. and 15 k. air mail values show not a Junkers
F-52 (this designation did not exist) but a cross between a Junkers F-13
and Ju 52/1 m. I don't think the latter was ever exported to the USSR.
And as the Ju F-13 was a single-motor monoplane, this cannot be depicted
on the 2 t. triangular of this set. This stamp's aeroplane, and the
floatplane on the three 1936 lozenge-shaped stamps, are low-wing
trimotors resembling the Ju G-24, and not the ANT-9 which was a high-
wing design. The floatplane on 1934 25k. triangular closely resembles
the Ju F-13 but not any Tupolev design. The high-wing monoplane on the
diamond air mail stamps of 1934 might resemble a Fokker F-III (the F-II
did not go to Russia), could even have been meant to be a Stal'-2....
but looks more like the AK-1 (which flew, as a matter of fact, across
Mongolia en route to Tokyo in 1925).

But this is a very technical non-philatelic digression and is not meant
to detract in any way from my admiration for Mr. Kanak's production. It
is a delight to peruse even if one has no Tuvan stamps, and it is a worthy
model for future presentations,especially of some of the smaller countries.

9- Denys Voaden
96 -