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 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Officers and representatives of...
 Life of the society by G....
 Rossica at interphil by G....
 Minutes of the 1975 annual business...
 Latvian society promotes resea...
 The civil aviation issue of 1933...
 More information on the American...
 Variations in Scott's no. 959 by...
 Swindles (translated by D....
 His Imperial Highness Grand Duke...
 An interesting offices abroad postal...
 Some further notes on the forgeries...
 Armenia: Notes on the designs of...
 Georgia: Counerfeits of Scott's...
 Remainders of Georgia and Transcaucasia...
 Mails to Russia by C. J. Starn...
 A souvenir sheet size variety by...
 Airmail labels of Osoaviakhim by...
 The 1955 Soviet airmail overprints...
 Two interesting military pictorial...
 New members and changes of...
 Used as savings stamps by P. Mazur...
 Book reviews


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00056
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1975
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00056

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Life of the society by G. Torrey
        Page 3
    Rossica at interphil by G. Torrey
        Page 3
    Minutes of the 1975 annual business meeting by K. Wilson
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Latvian society promotes research
        Page 11
    The civil aviation issue of 1933 by B. Hong
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    More information on the American relief administration cards by Dr. R. J. Ceresa
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Variations in Scott's no. 959 by R. Sklarevski
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Swindles (translated by D. W. Levandowsky)
        Page 30
    His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Aleksey Mihailovich (translated by D. W. Levandowsky)
        Page 30
        Page 31
    An interesting offices abroad postal card by G. Torrey
        Page 32
    Some further notes on the forgeries of the South East famine issue of 1922 by Dr. R.J. Ceresa
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Armenia: Notes on the designs of the first Essayan pictorial issue by R. C. Zartarian
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Georgia: Counerfeits of Scott's 26 to 30 and B1 to B4 by R. Sklarevski
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Remainders of Georgia and Transcaucasia by R. Sklarevski
        Page 43
    Mails to Russia by C. J. Starnes
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    A souvenir sheet size variety by G. V. Shalimoff
        Page 48
    Airmail labels of Osoaviakhim by P. Campbell
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    The 1955 Soviet airmail overprints by G. V. Shalimoff
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Two interesting military pictorial covers by G. Torrey
        Page 55
        Page 56
    New members and changes of address
        Page 57
    Used as savings stamps by P. Mazur (translated by E. Wolski)
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Book reviews
        Page 63
        Page 64
Full Text

THE JOURNAL

of the

ROSSICA SOCIETY

of


RUSSIAN PHILATELY



















AWARDS
"WIPA" 1933 BRONZE MEDAL "POLSKA" 1960 SILVER MEDAL
"PRAGA" 135 BRONZE MEDAL "PRAGA" 1962 SILVER MEDAL
"OSTRAPA" 1a6 SILVER MEDAL "MELUSINA" 193 SILVER MEDAL
"ZEFIB" 1937 SILVER MEDAL "PHILATEC" 1964 SILVER MEDAL
"BEPHILA" 1967 SILVER MEDAL "WIPA" 196 SILVER MEDAL
"EFICON" 16 SILVER MEDAL "SIPEX" 1966 SILVER MEDAL
"TEMEX" 1968 SILVER MEDAL "PRAGA" 196 SILVER MEDAL
"INTERPOSTA" 1968 SILVER MEDAL "APS-48" 1968 SILVER MEDAL
"SICILIA" 195I SILVER MEDAL "EFIMEX" 19M SILVER CERTIFICATE
"BARCELONA" 190 SILVER MEDAL "SOFIA-69" 19 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"UNIPEX" 190 SILVER MEDAL "BUDAPEST-71" 1971 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"CHICAGO-APS" 1974 GOLD MEDAL

No. 89 1975








THE JOURNAL OF THE
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
VOLUME 89 1976


EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Rimma Sklarevski, 34 Wilfred Court, Towson, Maryland 21204
EDITORIAL BOARD: Rimma Sklarevski, Gordon Torrey, Norman Epstein
PUBLISHER: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, Va. 22043


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Life of the Society, G. Torrey...........................................3

Rossica at INTERPHIL, G. Torrey..........................................3

Minutes of the 1975 Annual Business Meeting, K. Wilson ....................4

Latvian Society Promotes Research........................................11

The Civil Aviation Issue of 1933, B. Hong ...............................12

More Information on the American Relief Administration Cards, R.J. Ceresa.21

Variations in Scott's No. 959, R. Sklarevski.............................26

Swindles, translated by D.W. Levandowsky ................................ 30

His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Aleksey Mihailovich, D.W. Levandowsky.... 30

An Interesting Offices Abroad Postal Card, G. Torrey ......................32

Some Further Notes on the Forgeries of the South East Famine Issue
of 1922, R.J. Ceresa..............33

Armenia: Notes on the Designs of the First Essayan Pictorial Issue,
R.C. Zartarian....................35

Georgia: Counterfeits of Scott's 26 to 30 and B1 to B4, R. Sklarevski....41

Remainders of Georgia and Transcaucasia, R. Sklarevski...................43

Mails to Russia, C.J. Starnes....... ........ ..............................44

A Souvenir Sheet Size Variety, G.V. Shalimoff............................48

Airmail Labels of Osoaviakhim, P. Campbell..............................49

The 1955 Soviet Airmail Overprints, G.V. Shalimoff.......................52

Two Interesting Military Pictorial Covers, G. Torrey .....................55

New Members and Changes of Address......................................57

Used As Savings Stamps, P. Mazur, translated by E. Wolski.................58

Book Reviews ................... .....................................63







OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20016

VICE-PRESIDENT: Constantine Stackelberg, 1673 Columbia Road, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009

SECRETARY: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, Va. 22043

TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11226

LIBRARIAN: (interim) Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice, Falls Church,
Virginia 22043

BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Samuel Robbins, 3563 Meier St., Los Angeles, Ca 90066
Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Rd.N.W., D.C. 20007
Lester S. Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90035


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G.B. SALISBURY CHAPTER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11226

WASHINGTON-BALTIMORE: Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Rd. N.W., D.C. 20007

ARTHUR B. SHIELDS CHAPTER: Samuel Robbins, 3563 Meier St., L.A., Ca 90066

GREAT BRITAIN: John Lloyd, "The Retreat," Wester Bergholdt, Colchester,
Essex C06 3HE



Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However,
acknowledgement of the source and a copy of the reprinted matter would be
appreciated.



The views in this Journal expressed by the authors are their own and the
editors disclaim all responsibility.



The membership dues are $12.00, due January 1st for all members. Application
forms are available upon request from the secretary or treasurer. Membership
lists will be sent annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Norman Epstein
33 Crooke Avenue
Brooklyn, New York 11226 USA



We have a number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in English
and Russian language editions (some). These may be obtained from Mr. Epstein
or Mr. Wilson.
-2-









LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

Sby Gordon Torrey

The last issue of the Journal with the reprint of Sir John Wilson's series
of articles from The London Philatelist on "The 19th Century Issues of
Imperial Russia," has received much acclaim. We intend to reprint articles
on other aspects of Russian philately in future issues; this will include
reprints from earlier Rossica Journals. Many of these are out of print and
unavailable to many of our members. We also will print translations of articles
not in English, especially ones in Russian. At the same time we will continue
to carry on the dissemination of new research in Russian philately.

Our printing and postage costs continue to rise, but our recent raise in dues
is expected to take care of these and other increasing expenses. Our member-
ship is growing at an encouraging rate and we expect that increased publicity
carried out by our new Chairman of Publicity, Martin Cerini, will help
considerably. Exhibits by several of our members at Interphil will add interest
in our collecting fields. Certainly the prices at which Russian and related
material is selling these days show the increasing popularity of.Russian
philately. A new membership list will be published during the summer.

Rossica is now ready to accept items for the Society's Expertization Service.
Enquiries and requests should be directed to Norman Epstein, the Chairman of
the Expertization Committee. The fees are comparable to those charged by
other specialist societies. Each certificate will have a photo of the item.
k Opinions will be made by experts in the various phases of Russian philately
in conjunction with other members of the committee.

The Journal is now ready to accept "classified advertisements from members
to be published in the next number of the Journal. These can be either "wants"
or "for sale." The price is $1.00 per line, with a minimum of $3.00 per
insertion. They will be published on a "space available" basis. The number
of lines can be determined by counting the letters in a typical line of the
Journal. Abbreviations, except the most common, will not be accepted in
deference to our non-English speaking members. Copy should be sent to the
Secretary, Kennedy Wilson, along with a remittance. Queries regarding infor-
mation can be inserted, too.

ROSSICA AT INTERPHIL

by Gordon Torrey


Rossica officially participated in Interphil with two slide programs prepared
by Norman Epstein. The first was shown at 10:00 a.m. on May 30 and was entitled
"Russia Number One." The other was given on Saturday afternoon the 5th of June
and pertained to the forged overprints of the Northwest Army. Although the
attendance was not large, it was enthusiastic and a number of individuals
enquired about membership in Rossica.

-3-









LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

Sby Gordon Torrey

The last issue of the Journal with the reprint of Sir John Wilson's series
of articles from The London Philatelist on "The 19th Century Issues of
Imperial Russia," has received much acclaim. We intend to reprint articles
on other aspects of Russian philately in future issues; this will include
reprints from earlier Rossica Journals. Many of these are out of print and
unavailable to many of our members. We also will print translations of articles
not in English, especially ones in Russian. At the same time we will continue
to carry on the dissemination of new research in Russian philately.

Our printing and postage costs continue to rise, but our recent raise in dues
is expected to take care of these and other increasing expenses. Our member-
ship is growing at an encouraging rate and we expect that increased publicity
carried out by our new Chairman of Publicity, Martin Cerini, will help
considerably. Exhibits by several of our members at Interphil will add interest
in our collecting fields. Certainly the prices at which Russian and related
material is selling these days show the increasing popularity of.Russian
philately. A new membership list will be published during the summer.

Rossica is now ready to accept items for the Society's Expertization Service.
Enquiries and requests should be directed to Norman Epstein, the Chairman of
the Expertization Committee. The fees are comparable to those charged by
other specialist societies. Each certificate will have a photo of the item.
k Opinions will be made by experts in the various phases of Russian philately
in conjunction with other members of the committee.

The Journal is now ready to accept "classified advertisements from members
to be published in the next number of the Journal. These can be either "wants"
or "for sale." The price is $1.00 per line, with a minimum of $3.00 per
insertion. They will be published on a "space available" basis. The number
of lines can be determined by counting the letters in a typical line of the
Journal. Abbreviations, except the most common, will not be accepted in
deference to our non-English speaking members. Copy should be sent to the
Secretary, Kennedy Wilson, along with a remittance. Queries regarding infor-
mation can be inserted, too.

ROSSICA AT INTERPHIL

by Gordon Torrey


Rossica officially participated in Interphil with two slide programs prepared
by Norman Epstein. The first was shown at 10:00 a.m. on May 30 and was entitled
"Russia Number One." The other was given on Saturday afternoon the 5th of June
and pertained to the forged overprints of the Northwest Army. Although the
attendance was not large, it was enthusiastic and a number of individuals
enquired about membership in Rossica.

-3-









Several members of the society stayed throughout the exhibition and had an
opportunity to get together for conversations. Rossica's President and
Treasurer remained for the entire Interphil and met many members who attended,
as well as a large number of philatelists from all over the world. Expenses
for this representation of the society were borne by the officers and cost the
society nothing. Also among those who were there for the entire show were
Alexander von Reimers from San Francisco and Arnold Engel of Philadelphia, who
was busy helping out with the exhibition. A very pleasant surprise was the
presence of Michel Liphshutz from Paris, who was the Interphil Foreign
Commissioner for France. Your officers were delighted with this opportunity
to visit with this highly knowledgeable philatelist, and we greatly welcome
his rejoining Rossica.

Other Rossica members who were seen at the exhibition were Norman Pehr, Denys
Voaden, Harvey Warm, Howard Rappaport, Richard Weinberg, Irving Lapiner,
Claude Lysloff, the Arno Winards, Melvin Kessler, and our long-time Chicago
member, Sam Ray. It was a special pleasure to have a chance to visit with
former Philadelphian Lester Glass, now of Los Angeles.

Rossica members were among those who won awards at the exhibition. According
to my tally the awards were as follows: Michel Liphshutz and Norman Epstein
won gold medals for their Russian exhibits. Mr. Lipshutz' exhibit was
"Maritime and River Posts of Russia." Mr. Epstein exhibited "Imperial Russia
1857-1913." Mr. von Reimers won a silver for his "Russia 1913" and Arnold
Engel gained silver for his "Postal History of Latvia 1800-1940." The writer
won a vermeil for "Ottoman Turkey." Three exhibitors from the Soviet Union,
Messers. Boris Kaminski, Oleg Forofontow, and Igor Morozow showed "Russia
1857-1917," "The Mails of Russia during the First World War," and "Stamps of
the Soviet Union" respectively. Forofontow won a silver medal and the other
two vermeils.


"ROSSICA" SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
1975 ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING
MINUTES

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 16 November 1975

The meeting was called to order at 11:12 A.M. by President Torrey.

Roll Call of Officers:

President: Dr. Gordon Torrey (present)
Secretary: Dr. Kennedy Wilson (present)
Treasurer: Mr. Norman Epstein (present)
Editor: Mr. Rimma Sklarevski (present)
Librarian: Dr. J. Lee Shneidman (absent)

Board of Directors: Mr. Boris Shishkin (excused)
Mr. Sam Robbins (excused)
Mr. Lester Glass (excused)

Members Present:

Mr. Joseph Chudoba, Mr. Denys Voaden, and Mr. Fred Yessis

-4-








The President took note of the following member who had passed away during
the last year: Donald B. Polon #320

0 Reading of Minutes of Previous Meeting:

M/S/C Sklarevski, Chudoba: To dispense with the reading of the minutes of
the 1974 annual meeting since they appear in Journal #86/87.

Librarian's Report: In the absence of the librarian, President Torrey read
the following report from Librarian Shneidman:

"The Library's chief function is to provide a source of research. As such
we have both loaned and sold copies to members. The library has a complete
back file of all Rossica journals. Unfortunately, Rossica journals published
in Belgrade and Shanghai are in such poor condition that I cannot lend them.
I have, however, been willing to xerox those journals and mail the copies.
Both private individuals and institutions such as the Swedish Royal Philatelic
Museum have availed themselves of that service. Collectors, however, are
permitted to use the journals in my home.
Besides Rossica the library holds back issues of the British Journal of
Russian Philately although we have not received copies in the last few years -
and scattered issues of The China Clipper, The Stamp Lover, Filateliia SSSR
The Czeck Specialist, The Polish Society, The China Bulletin, plus publications
in Rumanian and Bulgarian. The Library also has various catalogues. Unfor-
tunately, when I took over the holding of the Library I was not given an
inventory. I prepared a small inventory and sent it to Mr. Adler. I do not
have a copy, and I do not know what happened to the original.
The Library also has several thousand back issues of the Rossica journal -
some in Russian which it is willing to sell. The price of the back issues
should be determined by the executive. Previously I have underwritten the cost
of the envelopes and tape. I can no longer do this since it now costs me
50 per package.
Members who wish to use the facilities of the library should contact me.
I would also appreciate it if members who have unique catalogues would contact
the library so that we may obtain copies.."

M/S/C Epstein, Voaden: To accept the report of the Librarian.

Treasurer's Report: Mr. Norman Epstein

Bank balance as of last report (31 October 74) $3,991.49
Income for current year $1,834.36
Expenditures for current year 2,117.71
Net Bank Balance as of 31 October 75 3,708.14
Unpaid obligations as of 31 October 75 2,079.78

Comment by Treasurer Epstein: As can be seen from the sbove tabulation, the
finances of the organization have taken some severe blows from the inflationary
trends which have existed the past two years. Our situation is such that to
print and publish two issues annually of our Journal costs approximately $1.00
more than our present dues.

M/S/C Yessis, Chudoba: The Treasurer's report be accepted.

-5-









Journal Editor's Report: Mr. Rimma Sklarevski

Mr. Sklarevski reported that Journal 86/87, a double issue, had been published
and mailed; Journal 88 was currently at the printers and was expected to be
in the mail to members within 2 weeks. He noted that thus far he had only
8 pages of articles available for Journal 89. He appealed to the membership
to report on any ongoing research by writing it up for publication in the
journal. As a statement of general policy, Mr. Sklarevski noted that he would
no longer accept articles which were personal comments or rebuttals to articles
published by other members. In general, he would publish such comments in a
Letters to the Editor section. However, he explicitly reserves the right to
a. reject any proposed article by returning it to the author, including
the reasons for doing so.
b. edit any article and delete any personal or political comment.
c. publish any letters he receives in a Letters to the Editor section,
with comments from the editor or from authors if appropriate.

M/S/C Wilson, Chudoba: The Journal Editor's report be accepted.

Secretary's Report: Dr. Kennedy Wilson

Membership as of last annual meeting 195
Losses (failure to pay dues, resignations
death, etc. ) 24
Gains 27
Membership as of 31 October 1975 198

The secretary noted that there were three active chapters of the society
meeting on a regular basis:
a. The Gregory B. Salisbury Chapter in New York meets last Friday
of the month, except July and August at the Collector's Club,
22 East 35th Street, New York City; contact: N. Epstein, 33 Crooke
Avenue,Brooklyn, New York 11226.
b. The Arthur Shields Chapter in Los Angeles meets last Friday of
odd numbered months; contact: F. Yessis, 1344 18th Street,
Manhattan Beach, California 90268.
c. The Washington, D.C. Chapter meets periodically at the home of
Boris Shishkin; contact: G. Torrey, 5118 Duval Drive, Washington,
D.C. 20016.

Comments by Secretary Wilson: He further noted that in conjunction with the
Treasurer's report, an excellent way to help the financial picture of the
Society would be to recruit new members. He stated that a program would be
undertaken to reach and recruit potential new members through the philatelic
press. He also urged other members and chapters to actively recruit new
members for the Society.

M/S/C Chudoba, Epstein: The Secretary's report be accepted.

New Business:

Rossica Expertization Service: Mr. Epstein

Mr. Epstein reported on the progress made on the Rossica Expertization Service
as directed by the President at the last annual meeting. He presented an
example of the proposed Rossica Expertization form (copy attached) and the rules

-6-








THE Use the No. assigned here Submitted by ... ............................................
ROSSICA when referring to the opinion The item submitted is, in my opinion: 0
Rendered by the Committee. [1] [2] [3][4] [5]
Expertization Service n e [] th o] E] Improperly identified. It is g
Scott/or .........../No. ............
Enclosed herewith for examination is the following item be- El O 0 [3 D Genuine in all respects
lived to be: E] [ 0 0 [0 Mint never hinged
n E E u 0 0 Unused (..................................)
Country ........................... ........................ Year Issued .................... U sed
MOUNT ONLY ONE STAMP, PAIR, BLOCK OR COVER IN 1 Gen e bt as ned be
Denomination .................... Color ...................... .................. THIS SPACE. MOUNT ITEM SO IT CAN BE EASILY RE- 3 0 0 E Genuine but as noted below
MOVED FOR EXAMINATION BUT BE SURE THE MOUNT E El [E E Reprint
E[ Unused o.g. IS CLOSED OR FOLDED SO THE ITEM WILL NOT ACCI- El El E] [E Bogus
O Mint never hinged El Unused part o.g. E Used DENTALLY SLIDE OUT. A SMALL ACETATE OR GLASSINE El El El E] Counterfeit
Unused n o gum ENVELOPE IS RECOMMENDED. El [3 0
SUnused no gum ENVELOPE IS RECOMMENDED. l E [ Forged overprint/surcharged
El [E E E Fake cancellation
Cat. No. .................................... Cat. Value ....................... D 0 0 0 Fiscally used
E0 0 0 0 E] Reperforated (L, R, T, B)
Catalogue used ............................ .................. ............... El ......... E E E l Fake perforations (L, R, T, B) n
_______ El 0 Regummed
O their inform ation .......................... .................................................. [ Cleaned
El [E [ ] E] Thinned (...........................)
SR paired (.................................................................................................................. R paired (................................)
The item submitted has been previously expertized [] yes, E] no. El 10 0 D Torn (......................................
SEl D 0 0 Altered (..................................)
If yes, give committee nam e and date ........................................... Defective (................................
E: D D 1 D D ......................................................
The following information is desired: 0 [] 0 [ E See reverse
0 l ] El [ Unable to render an opinion
Photographic identification will be affixed
in this space by the Expert Committee. [1] Examiner .............................................

[2] Examinern s space by the Expert Committee..............................
[32] Exam iner ................................................................
..................................I............................................................................. 3 ] E xam iner ....................................................................
My remittance is the amount of $5.00, $7.50, $10.00, $50.00
(circle one) is enclosed as per the schedule set forth in Rule [4 Examiner .....................................................
No. 3. I am also enclosing the stamped addressed envelopes re-
quired by Rule No. 4. [5] Examiner ...........................................................
I have read and fully understand the Rules and Requirements Date returned to owner...................
and I accept them without qualification. I further certify that the
item submitted is the property of the undersigned and if coverage
against loss or damage is desired I will provide my own insurance.

Members of Rossica Philatelic Expertization Service have ex-
.......................... ........................... amined the item submitted and it is their opinion that it is
Owner's Receipt for Item No. ............................
Owner's Item No. ...................... Date submitted ........................ Receipt is hereby acknowledged for the item
submitted. Please use the number assigned
Name............................................................................................................................... submitted. Please use the number assignedorrespond-

................................................................................................................. en ce.
ence.
A address .......................................... .. .... .......................................-..... n e
Address .................................................

City .................................. State .................. Zip No. .................. (Ross. Authorized Signature)
Norman Epstein
..........................D ate ................................ Treasurer
Ross. N o. ........................................................... ... D ate ................................ Ross. Authorized Signature)







item submitted with the report of the opinion rend- ROSSICA
ered. No insurance against loss in the mails will be
provided by the Rossica Expertization Service. The Society of Russian Philatelists
owner must affix sufficient postage to the second
envelope so the item can be returned by registered Expertization Service
mail at full valuation. This requirement is optional
only for those items valued at $200 or less.
33 Crooke Avenue
5. The Rossica Philatelic Expertization Service re- Brooklyn, New York 11226
serves the right at all times to decline to examine or
give an opinion on any item. Single stamps will not U.S.A.
be accepted for authentication as imperforate va-
rities. Such items must be submitted in pairs or RULES AND REQUIREMENTS
larger pieces. Requests for the plate position of a
stamp or overprint will not be accepted. Stamps with- 1 Each stamp or cover submitted for examination
out gum and used varieties must be thoroughly must be mounted or affixed to a separate form. A
cleaned of all hinges. pair or block shall be considered a single item. Sets
Sof stamps will not be accepted unless individually
6. Requests for the market or net value of an item mounted on separate forms.
Swill not be accepted. Catalogue values may be fur- 2. Each item must be the bona fide property of the
Snished if published and desired. individual submitting it for examination. The owner
7. The decisions rendered by The Rossica Phila- may assign an identification number to each item sub-
telic Expertization Service are not guaranteed and are mitted.
only opinions. No refunds unless no opinion given. 3. The fee for a certificate of opinion, in accordance
-| o 8. Since the meaning of the terms, superb, very fine, with the following schedule, must accompany each
etc., are debatable, no opinion as to general condition item submitted.
.1 will be given. Defects and alterations not readily ap-
parent will be noted. Current Scott Cat. Value Fee
$100.00 and under $5.00
9. All reasonable care will be taken of items sub- $100.00 to $200.00 $7.50
mitted for examination, but all items are accepted with
the full understanding on the part of the owner that $200.00 to $300.00 $10.00
neither the Rossica Society, its officers, nor members $300.00 and over, stamped cover, or
of their Expertization Committees are liable for any when cancellation determines value
loss or damage resulting from any cause whatever 5% of Value
W except for gross negligence. Since the Rossica Philatelic Min $5.00
Expertization Service is unable to obtain insurance Max- $50.00
g coverage of any kind, an owner desiring coverage must
"g carry his own insurance. Surcharged stamps Min. Fee $25.00 to $500 Cat Value
10. Item will be returned as soon after examination 5 over 500
as possible but since they are forwarded to committee Stamps will not be accepted. Foreign checks, including
members not more than once or twice a month, owners Canadian, will not be accepted unless drawn upon a
should allow between 60 and 90 days before expecting United States bank and payable in U.S. dollars at par.
"a reply. No item is accepted if the owner insists upon
"a deadline date for its return. 4. One stamped self-addressed No. 10 (large 9 ")
envelope must accompany each item submitted plus
11. The Rossica Society Expertization Committee re- one small stamped self-addressed envelope for each
serve the right to make such changes without notice item or group of items submitted at one time. The
to the rules and requirements as they deem necessary, small envelope will be used to acknowledge receipt
but such changes will be announced as soon as possible. by returning Owner's Receipt of the Expertization
12. The request for an examination constitutes an ac- Service form after a number has been assigned. The
ceptance by the owner of all rules and requirements second envelope (No. 10) will be used to return the
of The Rossica Philatelic Expertization Service. *---(Continued)

b 0 0









requirements, and schedule of fees for expertization by Rossica. He stated
that both the Expertization Committee and the Secretary would keep permanent
Society records of every stamp examined by the Expertization Committee. He
further requested permission of the membership to form a panel of experts
for the committee and to obtain a seal for use by the committee. He stated
that once this had been done, the Rossica Expertization Service would be
ready to service members.

M/S/C Sklarevski, Yessis: The treasurer be authorized to form an expertization
panel and order a seal for the committee.

Rossica Journal: Mr. Sklarevski

Mr. Sklarevski requested the membership's views on the subject of "addlets"
of a few lines length for publication in the Journal. The addlets would be
either offers to buy or sell appropriate material by members of the society
only.

M/S/C Epstein, Chudoba: That the Journal editor be authorized to accept
ads (quarter, half, or full page) at the rates previously established for
such services by the Board of Directors, and to accept addlets from the
membership at some nominal fee for publication in the Journal; further that he
be authorized to provide receipts for income derived from this service.

New Business:

Presentation to Mr. Joseph Chudoba: President Torrey

The President, Dr. Torrey, took this opportunity to present Mr. Joseph Chudoba
with a large engraved silver tray on behalf of the membership of the Society
for his many years of active participation and leadership as an officer of
the Society. In his presentation speech, Dr. Torrey noted that although Mr.
Chudoba was retiring from active participation on the Board of Directors, he
was still the Chairman of the Gregory B. Salisbury Chapter of New York and
thus would continue his active association with his philatelic friends. Mr.
Chudoba was wished a happy and prosperous retirement with a standing ovation
by all present.

Back Issues of the Journal: Mr. Epstein

Mr. Epstein noted that a considerable asset of the society was its collection
of back issues of the Rossica Journal which the Society had for sale. After
some discussion, it was decided that the prices of back issues of the Journal
should be raised.

M/S/C Epstein, Sklarevski: That the price of back issues of the Rossica
Journal henceforth be $5.00 to members and $7.50 to non-members, payable in
advance.

Annual Dues: Mr. Epstein

Mr. Epstein referred to the Treasurer's report and reiterated that the Society
treasury had been severely depleted in recent years. He presented an analysis
which recommended that the annual dues to the Society be raised to $15.00 per

-9-









year. There followed a long and sometimes heated discussion of the financial
status of the Society, the salient points of which were as follows:
a. Either services to members would have to be curtailed or dues would
have to be raised.
b. An alternative to increasing dues was to increase Society membership
significe-tly by a vigorous campaign to attract new members.
c. The Society and Journal, as presently constituted.tended to cater
to the more sophisticated collector of Russian philately and therefore
did not have much appeal to the neophyte Russian collector. The
Journal Editor and the Journal Publisher stated they would make a
significant effort to overcome this.
d. It was generally agreed that the quality of the Journal should not
be compromised and that its size should remain essentially as at
present. Also, the method of printing, although expensive, should
not be returned to offset mimeograph.
e. The present journal costs approximately $4.30 per copy to produce,
due to its small production run.

M/S/F Sklarevski, Chudoba: That the annual dues of the Society be raised
to $10.00. Motion failed 4 to 3.

M/S/P Voaden, Yessis: That the annual dues of the Society be raised to
$12.00. Motion passed 4 to 3.

Plans for INTERPHIL: Dr. Torrey

The President noted that the cost of a booth for the Society at the INTERPHIL
Show was $400.00, and asked the recommendation of the membership. It was
generally agreed that this price was not justified in light of our present
financial situation and that the President was to examine other alternatives
for our 1976 Annual Meeting.

Life Membership: Dr. Wilson

The Secretary noted that there had been a request for life membership. Since
this had not been encountered before, he asked the guidance of the Board. It
was determined that paid Life Memberships in other societies were available
at approximately 15 to 20 times annual dues.

M/S/P Epstein, Wilson: That the dues for Life Membership in the Society be
set at $200.00.

Non-profit Status: Dr. Wilson

The Secretary noted that considerable savings could be obtained in the mailing
of Journals and other notices to the membership if non-profit status could be
obtained. The President directed the Secretary to obtain non-profit status
for the Society, if possible.

Resignation of Librarian: Dr. Torrey for Dr. Shneidman

As part of his Librarian's report, Dr. Torrey noted that the Librarian, Dr.
Shneidman felt that his obligations to his family and profession precluded
his spending more time with Rossica and attending annual meetings. Consequently,

-10-









Dr. Shneidman tendered his resignation as Librarian of Rossica.

M/S/C Sklarevski, Wilson: To accept the resignation of the Librarian.

The President appointed the Secretary as interim Librarian and stated that
he and Mr. Epstein would look into alternative ways of moving the library
from Dr. Shneidman's residence as he requested.

There being no further business to come before the meeting, the President
requested a motion to adjourn at 1:55 P.M.

M/S/P Chudoba, Epstein: That the meeting be adjourned.


Respectfully submitted,

Kennedy L. Wilson
Secretary






LATVIAN SOCIETY PROMOTES RESEARCH


The Latvian Philatelic Society has announced a competition for research
articles dealing either directly or indirectly with Latvian philatelics
or numismatics. Awards will be presented to authors submitting worthy
entries as judged by the governing board of the Society.

This competition has been established in honor of Erna Alberings who prior
to her accidental death in January, 1975, was an active member of the
Latvian Philatelic Society and served for many years as the secretary of the
Society.

Eligibility of prospective authors or publications is not restricted either
by nationality, language, or place of publication. Subject matter may
include Latvian or Baltic postal history, historical postal connections
between the Baltic and other nations, monetary systems and methods of
exchange in the Baltic region, and postal or numismatic circumstances during
wartime or occupation periods. Entries will be judged on applicability of
subject, objectivity of presentation, and the historical accuracy of the
research. All submittals become the property of the Latvian Philatelic
Society without adjudication of authorship rights.

Inquiries or submittals should be addressed to the Latvian Philatelic
Society, 56 Mill Street South, Brampton, Ontario, Canada L6Y 1S6.



-11-












THE CIVIL AVIATION ISSUE OF 1933

by Barry Hong


In 1933 the Soviet government released a set of five airmail stamps commemorating
the tenth anniversary of Soviet aviation and airmail service. The basic design
of the set features a Tupolev ANT-9 high wing airplane with the dates '1923-
1933' at the top and 'ABHOD70TA CCCP' at the bottom. There is a different back-
ground on each of the five stamps; blast furnaces on the 5k, oil wells on the
10k, combines on the 20k, a map of the Moscow-Volga Canal project on the 50k,
and an icebreaker on the 80k.

There are a few differences in the basic design between the 80k stamp and the
other four values of the set. Many of the features found on the 80k but not on
the others can be found on some of the counterfeits of the lower values. This
leads me to believe that the counterfeiter made a master of the basic design
and then drew in the different backgrounds of the four lower values. A close
examination of the counterfeit 80k stamp (figure 15) will reveal that the master
used to counterfeit the other values was not used to counterfeit the 80k.

The shape of the P in CCCP (figure 1) on the 80k stamp and some counterfeits
(right) encloses a small area compared to the P on the genuine lower values.
I will refer to these as the small and large P respectively. There is a
similar small and large P to be found on the starboard wing of the airplane
with the small P on the 80k and some of the counterfeits.

The numeral 2 in the date 1923 can be found in three different forms on the
genuine stamps. On the 80k the nose and base of the numeral are longer than
on the other values (figure 2). This type of numeral 2 is found on some of
the counterfeits (right) of the lower values. The other variation of the
numeral is found on the 10k stamp (figure 7, notation 2). On the other values
the base of the numeral is slightly pointed at the left. However on the 10k
the base of the 2 is square, as if part of the base had been cut away. On
the originals the numerals appear to fade in the bottom half. This fading is
not so pronounced on the counterfeits and in some cases there is no evidence
of fading at all.

The windows on the fuselage on the 80k are wider and fewer in number than on
the other values (four windows on the 80k compared with six on the others).
The design on the 80k is again to be found on the counterfeits of the lower
values (figure 3, right). The counterfeits are recognized by the large last
window and the lack of lines trailing from the windows.

Very little attention was paid to copying the port tire (figure 4). The tire
on the counterfeit (right) lacks the shading necessary to give it definition.
The struts supporting the wheel are drawn too heavily, again lacking all
shading. As a result, the two struts connected to the fuselage meet near the
edge of the tire rather than at its centre.



-12-




















.". -- .


figure 1. Enlargement of CCCP at the bottom of the stamp.
The area enclosed by the P on the genuine stamp
(left) is much larger than that on the counterfeit. The
shape of the P on the counterfeit is narrower than on the
original.








1 2








1 2 4 3


figure 2. Enlargement of the date 1923. The genuine(left)
is distinguished by having a short nose and base
on the numeral 2 while the nose and base on the counterfeit
are noticeably longer.
genuine counterfeit
1. short nose 1. 9 touches 2
2. short base 2. top of 3 filled in
3. long nose
4. lengthened base



-13-
























figure 3. Enlargement of the fuselage windows. There are
six windows on the genuine (left) stamp with two
horizontal lines trailing from the last window. However
there are only four larger windows on the counterfeit and
the lines trailing from them are missing.


















figure 4. Enlargement of the port tire. The tire on the
counterfeit (right) is poorly drawn, lacking the
shading necessary to give it depth and a hub. The struts
supporting the wheel are drawn too heavily, lacking the
shading of the original.










-14-









figure 5. Enlargement of
genuine 5 kopeck stamp
1. space between dark wing
"P and aeleron tips
2. large P (fig.l)
7 3. space between 0 and Y
4. tip of 5 flat
5. wide spacing in 5
6. design does not touch 5
V "' 7. trailing lines from the
windows (fig.3)

5


8BO aBWonoqTac


3



1 2 3
"I figure 6. Enlargement of
counterfeit 5 kopeck stamp
19 1 i. dark wing and aeleron
"tips touch
18 2. misshapen 2 (fig.2)
S 3. numerals 3 and 9 touch
17 4 4. port wing leading edge
broken
5. aeleron missing
S6. misshapen tire (fig.4)
16 5- 7. small P (fig.l)
-6- 8. 0 touches Y
lo p- 9. 0 almost touches n
1 "0. period almost touches K
15 11. W touches 0
14 12. B overlaps W
13 -r 13. tip of 5 rounded
-7 14. narrow slit in 5
l7 15. design touches top of 5
16. strut missing
S17. misshapen windows (fig.3)
S18. small enclosure in P
"1 9 19. C touches aeleron line
12 10

-15-







1 2


4 -.
figure 7. Enlargement of
genuine 10 kopeck stamp
% gt 1. space between dark wing
and aeleron tips
r 2. base of 2 square
3. large P (fig.1)
S4. space between C and
f-". : .aeleron line






*ra -- \ i /






1 2 3 4 6


11 figure 8. Enlargement of
counterfeit 10 kopeck stamp
10 1. dark wing and aeleron
9 tips almost touch
o2. base of 2 pointed
3. misshapen 2 (fig.2)
5. aeleron missing
5 6. misshapen tire (fig.4)
7. small P (fig.1)
6 8. 0 almost touches Y
9. misshapen windows (fig.3)
10. small enclosure in P
11. C touches aeleron line


SaB onc rad^ 7
S. B Oa6 m --- 1 .

-16-







1






figure 9. Enlargement of
Sgenu ine 20 kopeck stamp
I'kt I k1. spacing between and 1
S2. spacing between period
Si''" and K
Sthe letter 's loop
4. large enclosure in P






3 2




1 2

figure 10. Enlargement of
13 counterfeit 20 kopeck stamp
12 1. misshapen 2 (fig.2)
12 \3 2. hyphen almost touches 1
4 3. port wing leading edge
11 -broken

5. misshapen tire (fig.4)
S, 6 small P (fig .l )
S, 7. 0 touches Y
8. period overlaps K
S9. M touches O
10. area between stem and
loop filled in
S___ 11 m isshapen window s (fig .3 )
S6 12 small enclosure in P
T 13. C touches aeleron line


10 9 8 7


-17-













3
figure 11. Enlargement of
genuine 50 kopeck stamp
"1 i. rivers and two lakes
2. river meets base of A
0 3. large enclosure in P

21



aSHO 0Ta






1 2 3 4
figure 12. Enlargement of
counterfeit 50 kopeck stamp
22 1. small enclosure in P
2. numerals protrude above
"circular background
21 ** .-- 3. misshapen 2 (fig.2)
r 4. numerals 3 and 9 touch
"20 -5. aeleron missing
1 o 6. misshapen tire (fig.4)
7. undercarriage doubled
i 5 8. canal outline filled in
18 9. rivers and lakes missing
17 1ScC _- 6 0. small P (fig.1)
17 7 11. 0 touches Y
16 8 12. B and A filled in
15 9 13. W touches 0
S14. B overlaps
10 15. tip of 5 rounded
.B '16. top corner of 5 rounded
S17. river meets base of r
18. canal touches fuselage
S,, 1 .~1-1 19. canal touches fuselage
1413 12 11 20. misshapen windows(fig.3)
21. B appears as a dot
-18- 22. C touches aeleron line
-18-








The design of the stamps should appear clear with sharply defined lines and
the letters evenly spaced. A good illustration of this can be found on the
S 5k counterfeit (figure 6). The pipes from the stoves to the blast furnace
are poorly defined as well as the structure supporting the pipe between the
two furnaces.

The 50k stamp in figure 13 appears good from a design standpoint. However,
upon close examination it becomes obvious that the stamp was not produced
by photogravure. The design is composed of a matrix of dots of varying shades
of blue-gray in the same manner that a photograph is reproduced in a news-
paper. Although I have not seen other values counterfeited in this manner,
I must assume that they exist. Of the counterfeit stamps in my collection,
this is the only one which is gummed.




D r figure 13. Enlargement of
r counterfeit 50 kopeck stamp
1 i. hub protrudes from tire
2. lakes missing
S3 letters KBA m missing
4. river crosses over canal
5. river stops at letters



2



"3aBmon


4 3


Differences in the design are quite useful in detecting counterfeits; how-
ever, they should not be the only criteria used. The counterfeits I have
seen are all on unwatermarked paper and are perforated 10 3/4 or 11 1/4
rather than 14. Also the cancellations on the counterfeits are light and are
found only on the corners.
When looking at the stamps to determine whether or not they are genuine, it
seems natural to compare the background designs. Doing this only makes the
task of identifying counterfeits more difficult because, except for the 5k
and 50k, the background designs have been carefully copied. It is the basic
design, the airplane, the dates and the lettering, which can be most easily
used to determine the stamp's origin.

-19-









I figure 14. Enlargement of
"genuine 80 kopeck stamp
1. numeral 2 with long tip
and tail
S2. no aeleron on port wing
"3. wide windows (fig.3)
S4. small enclosure in P
5. C almost touches aeleron
line

2














1



2
IP

SBfigure 15. Enlargement of
counterfeit 80 kopeck stamp
1. numerals 1 and 9 touch
2. cockpit windshield
misshapen
3. 0 touches Y
4. aeleron line wavy
5. C touches aeleron line





3
-20-









MORE INFORMATION ON THE
AMERICAN RELIEF ADMINISTRATION CARDS

by Dr. R. J. Ceresa


For some time I have been curious about the question "Did any relief by way
of food ever arrive in Russia and if so how was it organized." With the
help of a great friend, our recently departed member, Donald Polon, of Chicago,
I have been able to locate and obtain two vital pieces of information which
more or less answer the question.

The first item (Figure la) is a
receipt for $10.00 dated January
26 1923 from the American Relief
Administration given to a San
Francisco resident with the pro-
mise to supply food as listed on
the back of the form (Figure lb)
to the named recipient in Moscow.
The second item (Figure 2a) is a
postcard with a meter postmark of
New York, dated 14.5.23 addressed
to the same San Francisco resi- ... ..
dent. This card is a Russian 9 6n a *SO
receipt card with Moscow hand- a = 1= &- n
stamp and dated 4.4.23 acknow-
ledging the receipt of a package
of American food distributed from .
the central warehouse in Moscow
and the card lists in English and
Russian the quantities of food Figure la
making up the relief parcel.
(Figure 2b) Thus the only item
missing is the initial A.R.A. card
initiating the request for a food
parcel does any member have this
particular card in his collection?

Four new types of American Relief
Administration cards have now come
to light. Three of these are
printed in German, all with a
space left for the address of the
administrative center to be added.
Type VIb, printed on a white card,
has the words "American Relief
Administration" in bold type in
inverted commas. The last line
reads "Helft uns aus der Not."* In
the current example, the address
has been added with a rubber hand-
stamp in violet ink vis Figure lb
Ferdinandstrasse 56, Hamburg, For a previously reported example
Deutschland. It is addressed to
of this type of ARA card, see Figs. 1

-21- and 2, Rossica 80, p. 30
















"WW







Figure 2a Figure 2b


a recipient in Zurich but was not delivered and has two notations to this
effect. The 8000 Ruble franking is composed of two 50 kopek Control stamps
(used at 250 Rubles each) and a 7500 Ruble definitive. The stamps are not
cancelled suggesting that the cards were despatched from Russia in bundles
with only the top card being cancelled. (To date the ratio of cards with
uncancelled stamps to those with cancelled stamps is about three to one.
Many uncancelled stamps were probably "converted to unused stamps" so the
ratio could be higher although used cards were probably equally destroyed
to recover the used stamps.) The card has a "Stamboul" transit 10 July 1922
and Zurich arrival 12.6.22.

Type XII, printed on a buff card is -
similar except the last line reads Die.A,1G
"Helft uns aus dem Elend." The rTATIO-
example to hand is addressed to ,.
Varna in Bulgaria and has the e" *. A k B
address added in violet ink, vis ,Amricn Rlif AdIinistrtion" l
Kinsky Palac, Staromeske Namesti 16 ';
Praha, Czechoslovakia. The franking ,d N .. Be
is the same as the previous example .or., u..
and the stamps are uncancelled al- ^.
though on the front there is a part au..fR __
strike of Varna dated 16.IX. 22, .n ae- ah hcrrch
(Figure 3). Type X (Figure 4a), jog'ssdMngearsnHoI
also on a buff card is similar to '. ft r au' da Elend.
Type VI but the words American
Relief Administration in bold type Figure 3
are without inverted commas. The
8000 Ruble franking composed of 200 and 300 Ruble early definitive used at
10 times faces is cancelled in light blue with a Moscow Machine cancellation
dated 30.V.22. The Admin address added in manuscript is 42 Broadway, New
York, and the card is addressed to Java, South Dakota. The reverse is
shown in Figure 4b.

Type XIV is a new variant with the 42 Broadway address. The typeset is
much heavier than the earlier reported types and the second line is "NISTRATION"
-22-
















^^^ ^ lcb u^ 4^ r ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ I _
S an ......y







Figure 4a Figure 4b

Figure 4a Figure 4b



instead of the usual break in the word administration to give "STRATION."
(Figure 5a) This example is franked at 6000 Rubles with a 1000 R definitive
and a 5000 on 5 Ruble provisional, again not cancelled. The broadway address
has been erased and the 18 Rue de Tilsit, Paris, France added in violet by
a handstamp. This new address has then been cancelled in pencil and in the
free space above an Austrian address has been inserted, vis, 9 Elisabeth-
strasse, Vienna I. in violet with a handstamp. The reverse is shown in
SFigure 5b.
IV-

OAMPMH4AHAFIn AtAMIHMOTPAUMM fl nOMOU
The ERICA : C9 U*UN .*o e FCf. o." R@,.-i i9. 9O.-
r rn,. .r.-. : K;.AM CAN, AM A RELIEF ADUINIStlh rlethstrasel u114
Ifit .R gin. b., fm. D ,emml -
Ennle i' YTTu Ih ** fl o an, Ia ws at o I 'Scoxp. C scpg*anTBeMuH nDumaw
ld| a IE ." raw f Dq. m a wm asw m .
t_ f- .... ...... .J4.iuJi I+ A' n wrw r iM s Ce'

*cI e ..... .,.. iw u _|
Aben ol 5 loss MQAWM CNSMMY& AV M AWP a. kaau- AW VO -, T HftyrW 7 -U







Figure 5a Figure 5b

References:

1. Two Interesting Postcards of 1922, D.B. Diamandiev, Rossica 80, p. 28
2. ARA Card with French Indication, M. Lamoneux, Rossica 82, p. 46

3. Further Notes on ARA Cards and Their Postal Rates, Dr. R.J. Ceresa,
Rossica 83, p. 11
4. Additional Notes on ARA Cards and Their Postal Rates, Dr. R. Ceresa,

Rossica 85, p. 50

-23-










The distribution of the 60 cards reported to date by their various types
is as follows: (see references on previous page)


Type Illustrated Frequency

Ia Rossica No. 80 15
Ib 2
II 7
IIIa Rossica No. 82 6
IIIb 1
IIIc Rossica No. 83 1
IV Rossica No. 80 14
V Rossica No. 82 1
VIa Rossica No. 80 1
VIb (This issue) 1
VII Rossica No. 82 3
VIII* 3
IX* 3
X* 1
XI* 1
XII (This issue) 1
XIII 1
XIV 1


(The types shown with asterisks were "typed" as Types VII, VIII, IX and X
due to two different types being indicated as Type VII in the original
Table.) A number of cards have appeared at auction in Germany during the
last year or so (about 8 in all with valuations in the range DM 150.00 -
250.00.....I can't believe they actually fetched those prices) and from the
illustrations, where given, they appear to be mainly Types VII, VIII, and IX.


Editorial Board Additions

Various members have gone through their cards and believe that they have
found some hitherto not reported in Dr. Ceresa's article of previous ones
cited. These are shown below with appropriate comments.



7AMepHHAHcI(At'Al MfW^Tj~lP;IrAW- noMOnl~r

n .."- ."",*i "'. AMERICAN IkL .'I D I Nl-7'F AT.Ohr

., n. .... ... .
PG:r r.ap 1I 1/Y I a .i na-1F P l' B i: 3r .k T .EH. JMI C nM-
Sibl I POCCHH CHlbhO hyfl4 COR B rPrOBOilbCrBMH M
isr rme p nOMO E 0IM 5B BEE'
pneprowd;er.iia l jLw W en %- l r.11
' spog6b Pa.rlAs o m1,1i :.,,.- 41, .-

b -y yw-o s.e- .



Figure 6a-24- Figure 6b











Figure 6a shows a card printed in Polish with a Warsaw address printed
for American Relief, but sent from Odessa, according to the return of
recipient on the back. The back, however, is in Russian. (see Figure 6b)




STh AmBCA BEUEF AMIXI-
e manot is AW4 Vanl d

** A3 u J t
,' Ill tlm -.01A. W





and f as, ppication Form
U6anrad bue st FureBy Lh7 me e.
a pO d eli erind aka STATN pck






















I...... ,.,l ....... .r ......... ~- -, --- --
I Wl VAAmerAn.eicka Rep pl
A anFOOD INPAC RIA ELP






























US IN OUR DISTRESS (
Ma =asa iP a La Ia" a
or rowis 1111111A. HblMJ




Figure 7a Figure 7b


Figure 7a illustrates another type of printing and is found on white, buff,

and blue stock. Figure 7b shows the reverse of this type.




6 AMERICAN RELIEF ADMI- The AMORUCAN RELIEF ADMINI-
NIS500TIO" at deliverin pack STRATN ta delwitherng packg der
g t* of Amelkei f0AdsnufIs from of American foedstufft from Its
it Ay warehouses in lRUSSIA many warehousem RUSSIA.
,'rite to the Write to the
AMERICAN RELIEF ADMINISTRA- a oa atahu


"Russian ood Remittance Department, 42 Broadway. New York City Figure 9).
and ask for Applicaion Form and ask for an Application Form
nfor od sk for emitt Appic BY thion orm for food renances. In this way
tor n r i y dvu ye7 can po&VAe us wth packages
S in Rus a with standard Amert coaning AZer an Fopdatuffs.
can Ilief Administration FOOD cWE A toItu GR A nEED.

WE ARE IN GREAT NEED OFLP US IN OUR DISTRESI of Amr
OF FOOD IN RUSSIA HELP ol Ame
US IN OUR DISTRESS




Figure 8 Figure 9


Figure 8 shows another kind of type and a printing order number at the
bottom of the card; a similar card has the printing order number "ak no. 543"
at the bottom. Another card like these has the printing order "636-2
15000" at the bottom. The last type noted is that with underlining of
"Russian Food Remittance Department, 42 Broadway, New York City (Figure 9).



-25-









VARIATIONS IN SCOTT'S No. 959

by Rinma Sklarevski


In March 1944 the USSR issued a set of four stamps, Scott's Nos. 911-14,
designed by A. Mandrusov, which they called "Cities-Hero." It was issued to
honor the defenders of Stalingrad, Sevastopol, Leningrad, and Odessa. To
commemorate the liberation of Leningrad, which occurred on January 27, 1944,
a souvenir sheet of 4 of Scott's No. 913 was issued in December 1944.

We are describing and illustrating herewith the three types known, which
occurred when the text on the souvenir sheet was set. The types are based on
variations of text "27/I-1944 year" found at the top portions of the sheet,
and indicated by arrows and numerals "2" and "3".

Type Ia Dash between "I" and "1944" is in the center, and the diagonal
is very close to "I" at the top.

Type Ib Same as Ia, except the top line is shorter and the space at
the bottom between "/" and bottom of "I" is also shorter. The
diagonal is likewise not as much inclined as in "Ia."

Type II Dash is to the left of center.

Type II is subdivided into four subtypes, as there are minor variations in the
positions of the two lines of inscription found on the bottom of the sheet.
These subtypes concern the position of the last letter of the third word, i.e.
the Russian "U" with respect to the "K" in the last word of the second line
and are described below.

a. Vertical strokes of "'0 and "K" are over each other.
b. Vertical stroke of "K" is to the left.
c. Vertical stroke of "K" is to the right.
d. Vertical stroke of "K" is over the Oval of ""J'.

All of the types listed are known to me. It is possible that subtypes I, i.e.
Ic and Id exist, but I have never heard of anyone possessing them. Type Ia
is scarcest, followed by Type Ib.

V. Olunin in the "Soviet Philatelist" gives measurements of various elements
of the text, which are reproduced in the table below under columns 1, 3, 4,
and 5. Olunin likewise states that there is a variation in color between
Type I and Type II; namely Type I is blue-black, while Type II is dark gray.


Bibliography

1. Soviet catalogues 1958 and 1970.
2. Rare block by G. Bakalinsky Soviet Philatelist, 1971 (1).
3. Variations in one block by V. Olunin Soviet Philatelist, 1973 (9).



-26-











TABLE I

1 2 3 4 5 6

TYPE Length of Position Distance Length of Length of Position of vertical
top line of dash between top line at 2nd line at strokes of "K" in 2nd
diagonal at bottom bottom line at bottom with
mm. "I" at mm. mm. respect to Russian "'"
bottom in 1st line at bottom
mm.

Ia 27 in center 2 79 56 Over each other


Ib 26 in center 1.6 79 56 To the left


IIa 27 to the 2 79 56 Over each other
left of
center


IIb 27 same as
IIa 2 79 56 To the left



IIc 27 Same as 2 79.5 56 To the right
IIa



IId 27 Same as 2 79 56 Over the oval of
IIa 'r






2 TYPE IQ




27-1944 roAa












ropoA AenmaHrpaA noAnocmblo ocwaodoAen
om BpaikeckoR 6AokaAl.





32 6Tg




27 -1944 roAa











ropoA AeitHrpaA noAnocmblo ocBo5o*kAen
om npajkeckoii cAokaAbl






-28-






STr T PE IC
























Var; a+ins
in "k over
I,

27l 1944 roAm




















Sove

2 7 s ,




C
K




ropoA AenumrpA nanoAmcmba ocbodokAcn
om apikeckoR (xokaOAk.





-29-









SWINDLES

Translated from Russian philatelic journal
"MARKI", #10, 30 November 1896
by D. W. Levandowsky

CLEANING OF POSTAGE STAMPS


In Vilno, in the house of Lange, on Kvasnoy passage, according to "Vilno
News" (Vilenskiy Vestnik), the police discovered a workshop of stamps. This
happened as follows: Dvornik (a janitor responsible to the police) of the
house of Lange learned that in the apartment rented by Guilel and Berko
Barkan, used postage stamps are being cleaned and are secretly sold. He
reported this to the Police Sargeant (Okolotochniy Nadsiratel) Pomazanski
who invited several assistants to act as witnesses and entered the Barkan
apartment where, in effect, he saw on the table a sheet of paper with stamps
which were already cleaned. Pomazanski sent someone to bring the Pristav
(police captain) of the First Precinct.

On arrival to the Barkan apartment, Pristav Snitko, in presence of witnesses,
searched the apartment. Arresting the occupants of the apartment Berko
Barkan and his servant, Snitko started to examine the apartment and in the
last room, separated by a wooden partition, he found a table on which were
tins with chemicals, smooth metal sheets, pieces of soft white bread, glue,
brushes and other paraphernalia for eating away the inks of the postal
cancellations. In the cupboard and dresser were found several cardboard
boxes with over 2,500 ungummed cleaned stamps. In addition there were found B
more than one thousand cleaned and gummed stamps and some ready for cleaning.
In a secret drawer was found a notebook from which were taken out more than
500 stamps completely ready for use. The cleaning of stamps was done so
skillfully that it was impossible to tell that these stamps were once
cancelled.

One of the participants of this cleaning operation, Guilel Barkan, disappeared.
All the items which could serve as evidence of the stamp cleaning activity
were confiscated and the case was turned over to the court authorities.




HIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS GRAND DUKE ALEKSEY MIHAILOVICH

Translated from "MARKI", #1, 12 March 1896
D. W. Levandowsky

A year ago, on 18 of February 1895, untimely departed from this world one of
the most eminent amateur-collectors of postage stamps, His Imperial Highness
Grand Duke Aleksey Mihailovich. The departed was the youngest son of the
Grand Duke Mihail Nicolayevich; hence, he was an uncle twice removed of our


-30-









SWINDLES

Translated from Russian philatelic journal
"MARKI", #10, 30 November 1896
by D. W. Levandowsky

CLEANING OF POSTAGE STAMPS


In Vilno, in the house of Lange, on Kvasnoy passage, according to "Vilno
News" (Vilenskiy Vestnik), the police discovered a workshop of stamps. This
happened as follows: Dvornik (a janitor responsible to the police) of the
house of Lange learned that in the apartment rented by Guilel and Berko
Barkan, used postage stamps are being cleaned and are secretly sold. He
reported this to the Police Sargeant (Okolotochniy Nadsiratel) Pomazanski
who invited several assistants to act as witnesses and entered the Barkan
apartment where, in effect, he saw on the table a sheet of paper with stamps
which were already cleaned. Pomazanski sent someone to bring the Pristav
(police captain) of the First Precinct.

On arrival to the Barkan apartment, Pristav Snitko, in presence of witnesses,
searched the apartment. Arresting the occupants of the apartment Berko
Barkan and his servant, Snitko started to examine the apartment and in the
last room, separated by a wooden partition, he found a table on which were
tins with chemicals, smooth metal sheets, pieces of soft white bread, glue,
brushes and other paraphernalia for eating away the inks of the postal
cancellations. In the cupboard and dresser were found several cardboard
boxes with over 2,500 ungummed cleaned stamps. In addition there were found B
more than one thousand cleaned and gummed stamps and some ready for cleaning.
In a secret drawer was found a notebook from which were taken out more than
500 stamps completely ready for use. The cleaning of stamps was done so
skillfully that it was impossible to tell that these stamps were once
cancelled.

One of the participants of this cleaning operation, Guilel Barkan, disappeared.
All the items which could serve as evidence of the stamp cleaning activity
were confiscated and the case was turned over to the court authorities.




HIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS GRAND DUKE ALEKSEY MIHAILOVICH

Translated from "MARKI", #1, 12 March 1896
D. W. Levandowsky

A year ago, on 18 of February 1895, untimely departed from this world one of
the most eminent amateur-collectors of postage stamps, His Imperial Highness
Grand Duke Aleksey Mihailovich. The departed was the youngest son of the
Grand Duke Mihail Nicolayevich; hence, he was an uncle twice removed of our


-30-









Sovereign Emperor. He was born in Tiflis on December 16, 1875 where is father
was Vice-Roy (Namestnik) of Caucasus. At the time of his death he was not
even 20 years old. The late Grand Duke was a cadet in the Naval Academy from
which he graduated as a midshipman (in Russia Lt. Jg.) in October 1894.
Soon after graduation, while on a sea trip from Gange in Finland to Libava,
during the stormy weather, Grand Duke Aleksey Mihailvich caught cold and this
sickness had sad consequences. The last months of 1894 the Grand Duke spent
in a fruitless hope to improve his health at the estate of his father, in
Borzhom in Caucasus, and in the beginning of 1895 he went to San Remo. Death
came to him in this salubrious corner of Italy.

The Grand Duke started his collection of postage stamps about 5 years before
his death. From one experienced stamp collector His Higness received a good
advice one can recommend to all who are interested in stamps and want to
become good stamp collectors. This is what was said to the Grand Duke: "If
you want to become a good stamp collector and collect stamps not for enter-
tainment but with an educational goal, then start collecting stamps of one
selected country; learn about this country all you can, to the smallest
possible details, and then only start working on another country."

Being from nature an exceptionally gifted and intelligent person, Grand Duke
Aleksey Mihailovich quickly became familiar with the new to him field of
endeavor, and with great facility he studied the minute characteristics of
stamps of those countries that interested him and on many occasions he
surprised with his observations the most experienced of stamp collectors. His
Highness was one of the most serious stamp collectors and was even in a
position to teach some of the old men. There is no doubt he could have become
in the future, a leader among the stamp collectors. He was in contact with a
number of collectors of the Capital and also with a few outstanding ones in
foreign countries, among them the well known Moens and Lindberg, Director
of the Berlin Postal Museum, as well as Diena, a well known writer and
contributor to philatelic journals, and others.

In his last years, His Highness was busy with the study of all Russian postal
revenue items, but his death interfered with the conclusion of this study.

The departed was the honorable member of the St. Petersburg branch of the
Dresden International Philatelic Society and of London Philatelic Society
into which he was introduced by the Duke of York.

In conclusion we will inform our readers that after the passing away of the
Emperor Alexandre III, who also was a stamp collector, the Grand Duke
inherited a magnificent stamp collection in which there were many rarities.




In his reminiscences, the old collector E. Lentz (Russian Philatelist #11
May 1969) tells about his visiting weekly the Grand Duke and giving him the
news of the Society. The Grand Duke could not participate in the meetings
because they were held unofficially (against the then existing rules) in a
restaurant under pretext of a friendly get-together for a dinner. The Grand
Duke intended to procure an official permission for the formation of the
Russian National Philatelic Society with its own club building, but his sickness
and death interfered with this project.
-31-









AN INTERESTING OFFICES ABROAD POSTAL CARD

by Gordon Torrey

One evening the editor and president of Rossica were looking over some of
the latter's material when the piece of stationery illustrated below was
handed to the president for conment. At first glance it appears to be quite
an ordinary Romanov 20 paras on 4 kopec postal card cancelled at the Russian
Post Office at Constantinople and addressed to Monastir, another town in
the Ottoman Empire. The message is in Turkish.

However, when inspected more closely ,i ",
it immediately became apparent that
it was a Balkan War item. The heavy
cancel in the middle at the top is
the datestamp of the Bulgarian Post -* O20
Office at Salonika during the joint
Bulgarian-Greek occupation of that / .
city in the Second Balkan War in /
1913. The date reads 4 April 1913.
The question of routing arises W4i
immediately. Since Turkey and Bul-
garia were at war, how could this
ever reach Monastir? This is partly___
answered by the indistinct handstamp
beneath the Salonika handstamp. It
is that of Roustchuk, a Bulgarian town on the Danube 170 miles northeast of
Sofia and nearly the same distance from Salonika, which is about 135 miles
south and east of Monastir. Apparently, as was so often the case during
wars in which the Ottoman Empire participated, mail was exchanged between
the belligerents, probably'by means of nonbelligerent steamers. This card
apparently went by sea from Constantinople to Varna, a Bulgarian port on
the Black Sea. From here it went via railroad to Roustchuk and then again
by mail south to Salonika under Bulgarian-Greek occupation at the time.
From there it was forwarded to Monastir.
In closing, an outline of these two Balkan Wars may be of interest. As long
as the Turks dominated the Balkan area, the small Balkan states' aspirations
for aggrandizement were relatively dormant. However, once the Young Turks
seized power in 1909, Balkan territorial rivalries awakened. The situation
began to change in 1912 (March) when Serbia and Bulgaria signed a defensive
alliance guaranteeing each other's territories and agreeing on a division of
Macedonia should it ever be divided. Two months later Greece and Bulgaria
reached a similar agreement, but with nothing said about Macedonia. The
importance of this alliance was to gain the Greek fleet in a possible war
against Turkey. It could dominate the Aegean Sea. In 1912 the Albanians
rebelled against Turkey and made territorial demands that impinged upon Greek
and Serbian aspirations. Also the Albanians had massacred many Macedonian
Bulgarians. Now Montenegro reached an agreement with Bulgaria and urged an
immediate war. In October Bulgaria agreed, and Serbia declared war on
Turkey on 8 October. This was followed by ultimatums to Turkey by the other


-32-









allies (Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia). On the 18th, Turkey declared war
on Bulgaria, and Serbia and Greece declared war on Turkey the next day.
Bulgaria's true political objective was Salonika, thus giving it an Aegean
port. Bulgarian military success was immediate. The Serbs were equally
victorious and invaded Albania, while driving other Turkish forces into the
hands of the waiting Greeks who also captured Salonika from the retreating
Turks just as the Bulgarians arrived at the city gates. Meanwhile the Greek
navy was sweeping the Aegean Sea. The European Powers now intervened and
an armistice was declared on 3 December 1912. But no agreement could be
reached. So,.on 29 January the armistice was denounced by the Balkan States
and the Bulgarians attacked Arianople, while Greek and Bulgarian troops
fought each other for Janina. Disagreeement between Greece and Bulgaria
ended in a war on 29 June in which Serbia joined Greece against the attacking
Bulgars. It lasted only a month. During this period Roumania intervened
to gain its irredentist claims against Bulgaria, and then the Turks reopened
hostilities against Bulgaria, who was beaten to the earth. An armistice was
signed on 31 July and a peace on 10 August. Bulgaria lost a good part of
the Dobridja to Roumania, the greater part of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece
while Turkey regained Thrace. However, none of the countries remained
satisfied and this dissatisfaction came to fruition during the course of the
First World War, which is another story.




SOME FURTHER NOTES ON THE FORGERIES
OF THE SOUTH EAST FAMINE ISSUE OF 1922
(SCOTT'S 830-833)

by Dr. R. J. Ceresa


Rimma Sklarevski, in his excellent article in No. 88 of our Journal,
leaves the question of the existence of double impressions in some doubt. A
set of pairs of the double impression in my collection showed a uniform shift
of about 2.5 mm. sideways. A set of singles, however, showed varying displace-
ment with a twist of about 2 degrees so that a 2T green from the top left of
the sheet showed only a slight displacement, less than 0.5 mm. while a 2T red
from toward the lower right showed a displacement of more than 1 cm. The
angular displacement was the same indicating that at least two sheets with a
double impression existed, one with a 2.5 mm. regular shift and the other
with a 2 degree angular shift.

The Narkompochtel order of May 2, 1922 sparked off some philatelic
activity in Nakhichevan since the 4,000 R and 6,000 R values are known
cancelled to order in that town with the 'zhe' chancellor dated 5.5.22. (A
2T green in my collection has a partial c.t.o. strike dated 15.5.22 showing
...AKOPYH...). The tint of the paper is not in itself an infallible guide
since varying degrees of yellowing occur with the genuine stamps due to
exposure to light. Yellowing is, however, more common with the two families
of forgeries described by Sklarevski.



-33-








The bogus Gomel cancellation, (T.C. on page 58, Rossica Journal 88), occurs
on all four values im my collection as follows:

2T green (Type FI), 2T red (Type FII), 4T red (Type FII) and 6T green (Type FI). 0

This suggests that these four forgeries may belong to the same family. The
forged NW Army cancellation (Sklarevski's T.B.) occurs additionally on some
of the values but in all cases my copies are the same stamp forgery types so
it is likely that this bogus cancellation belongs to the same family. The
bogus cancels TA and TD are often seen dealers' stockbooks in the USA (at
full catalogue) but are seldom seen in Europe; my collection, therefore,is
devoid of these. It would be helpful to know the distribution of these cancels
on the forgery types so as to definitely establish which forgeries and which
bogus cancels belong to which family, if indeed they represent two forgery
families or only one.

A third forgery type, probably that referred to by F. H. Kreuter, is some-
times met with in Europe, and I have a complete sheet of the 4T red which
is printed in six rows of five such that all values are tete-beche to one
another and so that the corners of the stamps fall together unlike the
genuine printing (two rows of 12). The paper is very similar to the genuine
but the quality of the printing is superior to the genuine, the lines being
finer and the impressions clearer. There is practically no variation between
any of the 30 stamps on the sheet. Since only single copies of the other
three values have been identified, it is not yet confirmed that the salient
differences are constant for all plate positions on the forgery sheets. It
is probable that the sheets of the other values were printed in 6 by 4 or
4 by 6 in order to give the forger complete sets. (The genuine sheets were
made up of blocks of 6 by 9 (2T green), 2 by 14 (6T green), 3 by 9 (2T red)
in addition to 12 by 2 (4T red).

A number of large covers bearing this issue appear from time to time in the
market in Europe-all overfranked and obviously philatelic by the wide selection
of RSFSR stamps used and cancelled with a Moscow '1923' cancellation which
seems to have been reserved for philatelic mail. I have handled three of
these covers in the last fifteen years and in each case this Charity Issue
included had not been cancelled except in one case where it was just clipped
by the postal official. Some postal officials may have been more obliging,
however, and this would account for the set in my collection cancelled
Moscow 28 Odt. Tel, (serial a), 4.11.23.



NOTICE

The secretary is in the process of updating the membership list. If your
name has been mispelled or your address written incorrectly in the lists of
new members or changes of address in recent journals, please notify the
secretary by postcard before November 1.




-34-









ARMENIA: NOTES ON THE DESIGNS OF THE
FIRST ESSAYAN PICTORIAL ISSUE

by Roy C. Zartarian


Perhaps one of the most accurate descriptions of Armenian philately appeared
in the notice of the 1974 auctions of Russian material in the last issue of
the Rossica journal where the article's author evaluated Armenia as a
"treacherous country with its many shoals of forgeries to be watched for."
To be sure, anyone who enters this difficult area must be constantly wary of
the overprinted material that appears before him, but the obstacles erected
by forgers have been made easier to overcome by the extensive research of
Peter T. Ashford and the late Simon Tchilinghirian in their five part work,
Postage Stamps of Armenia. Yet, the stamps with which this article deals, the
first Essayan pictorial issue, can be authenticated, in one aspect, by a quick
glance.

These stamps in question (Scott #278-294) were the first pictorials to have
been ordered by the Soviet authorities who had seized control of Armenia
temporarily in December 1920. The lithographed set consists of sixteen values
whose denominations range from one ruble to 25,000 rubles. The designs include
urban and rural scenes of Armernia as well as representations of classical
and medieval Armenian art and architecture.

The actual printing of the stamps was done in Constantinople by the Essayan
Printing Works. According to Tchilinghirian and Ashford, the order for the
stamps came from the Soviet authorities late in 1920 during their first period
of power in Armenia. As payment for his work, the printer Essayan received
40% of the total production that he was allowed to sell outside the borders
of the republic. The stamps apparently did not reach Armenia until almost
a year later. They were used for postal purposes during 1922 and 1923 but,
because of the currency situation at the time, only after having been sur-
charged with new values in gold kopeks. For the most part, metal or rubber
handstamps were used in the surcharging operation, but some values were also
converted with manuscript surcharges as well.

Because the printer had a substantial number of un verprinted stamps which he
was free to sell, numerous copies of the genuine basic stamp entered the
philatelic market. However, as seems to be the fate of all Armenian stamps,
forgeries appeared even of these relatively common items.

In their comparison of the genuine and counterfeit Essayan pictorials, the
authors discuss the differences in paper and color. The genuine stamps are
printed on a "thin smooth white paper of good quality with a slight mesh"
(p. 191), while the fakes appear on a "white crisp smooth paper without mesh"
(p.194). An actual comparison will show the paper of the forged stamps
to be a brighter white than that of the genuine. In addition, the authors
have included a list of colors of both the genuine and fake stamps, noting
that the colors of the fakes do not match the shades of the originals. These
points are quite useful to the collector when he is able to compare a given
stamp with genuine examples. However, when dealing with an isolated stamp,


-35-








he can rely on a unique feature in Armenian philately, the secret mark added
to the original design of almost all of the values which was not reproduced
in the counterfeits.

In their treatment of the secret marks, Tchilinghirian and Ashford described
and depicted the marks on six of the sixteen values of the set. On three
values, the 3 ruble, 25 ruble, and 500 ruble, the left frame line has been
extended beyond the intersection with the bottom frame line at the lower
left corner of the stamp design. On the 100 ruble, the horizontal lines of the
inscription blockat the bottom of the design have both been extended beyond
the right vertical frame line; however, a rather obvious design difference
between the genuine and counterfeit of this value will be described below.
The secret mark of the 15,000 ruble is a short diagonal mark from the bottom
outer frame line under the collar of the fish. On the genuine 20,000 ruble,
the horizontal frame line at the top of the design extends beyond the upper
right corner.

The extended frame line serves as a secret mark on five other values of this
set. On the 2 ruble, 5 ruble, and 1000 ruble the bottom frame line of the
2000 ruble passes beyond the upper left corner, and the bottom frame line of
the 10,000 ruble is extended beyond the lower right corner. (See fig. 1.)

Fig. 1 Enlarged representations of A) secret marks described
by Ashford and Tchilinghirian and B) other secret marks created
by an extended frame line.

A.

3r. and 25r. lOOr. 500r.


L- -^,L_
lower left corner lower right corner lower left corner




15,000r 20,000r.



lower right corner upper right corner


In determining the authenticity of the remaining values, the matter of secret
marks is not so easy, for the corners of the genuine designs do not offer any
clear evidence. Yet, a comparison of genuine and fake examples, determined
by such factors as paper or overprints, has produced the following conclusions:

-36-









1 ruble: On the genuine design, the bell-shaped flower to the right
of center at the top of the stamp has a jagged edge marked by several small
indentations. The same line on the fake is unbroken. (See fig. 2).














FORGERY GENUINE


Figure 2


50 ruble: The genuine copies which were examined offered nothing
definite in the way of secret marks. However, some differences between
genuine and fake designs were noted. The vispr of the soldier's helmet on
the genuine stamp has been represented by a definite horizontal crescent ('-),
open side up, while on the counterfeit the line at the bottom of the helmet
from its ower right point to the point above the soldier's left eye (as the
stamp is viewed) is shaped like an elongated, horizontal "S". Also, on the




















Figure 3 -37-









genuine, one or two horizontal shading lines of the sky appear in the small
space where the hilt of the bayonet joins the stock of the rifle, while this
space has been left blank by the forger. It should be noted that on the
genuine examples that were examined, the frame lines invariably did not join
cleanly at the upper right corner, as on the counterfeit. Rather, in a
majority of cases, the horizontal line fell short of the vertical line by
about 1/2 mm., but in one case, the horizontal line extended beyond its
intersection with the vertical line. (See fig. 3.)

100 ruble: This value has been discussed by Tchilinghirian and Ashford.
However, examples have been observed where the extension of the two horizon-
tal frame lines which creates the secret mark does not appear clearly,
especially in later printing stages, due to the wear of the stone. A feature
of the design aids authentication in such cases. The winged creature is
framed by a vertical column on each side. The column consists of three
vertical lines filled with horizontal shading lines. On the genuine stamp
the top of the column is rounded where it meets the value block, while on the
fake the top is squared. (See fig. 4.)














FRGERY NUINE



Figure 4

250 ruble: The secret mark of this stamp is to be found between the
inner and outer frame vertical frame lines about 1 1/2 mm. above the lower
left corner of the design. The bottom tip of the left leaf of the left vine
decoration in the value block has been extended between the two frame lines.
On the counterfeit, the same leaf is ended at the inner frame line. A design
difference also serves to evaluate this stamp. On the genuine, the head of
the bird on the right just barely touches the top frame line directly above the
eye, while there is a discernible gap of about 1/2 mm. on the fake. (See
fig. 5.)

5000 ruble: The secret mark is an extension of about 1 mm.of the left
inner frame line into the horizontal shading lines of the inscription block
at the bottom of the stamp. (See fig. 6.)


-38-





















FORGER Y GENUINE


Figure 5

25000 ruble: On the genuine stamp a solid line of color about 3 mm. long
appears at the upper left corner of the design between the top of the outer
circle enclosing the hammer and sickle and the outer horizontal frame line.
The outer circle at the upper left touches the top frame line on the counter-
feit. (See. fig. 7.)

















FORGERY GENUINE



Figure 6

It cannot be emphasized too strongly that the points presented in this article
are meant to be used only as a first step in judging stamps of the first set
of Essayan pictorials. After the question of whether the basic stamp is
-39-









genuine, has been resolved, there remains the problem of the overprint, and
it cannot be assumed that a genuine stamp bears a genuine surcharge. Forgers
had access to that part of the original printing which Essayan himself
marketed and have adorned these items with their own surcharges and cancel-
lations. At this point the work of Ashford and Tchilinghirian becomes
invaluable. On the other hand, it is hoped that some basis has been provided
for the initial examination of this set and a preliminary culling of the
forgeries that cross the collector's path.
















GENUINE


Figure 7

Bibliographical note: The magnum opus of Armenian philately is The Postage
Stamps of Armenia by S.D. Tchilinghirian and P.T. Ashford, published in ive
parts by the British Society of Russian Philately 1953-1960. For this
article, use was made primarily of Part Four, The Pictorials (1960).

Of the standard catalogues, the most useful is that of Stanley Gibbons whose
Armenian section was rewritten in the late 1950's and contains, unlike the
efforts of Michel and Scott, illustrations of genuine overprints and surcharges.

For information about Armenia during the period as an independent and as a
Soviet Republic, see 0. Baldwin, Six Prisons and Two Revolutions (London, 1924),
and R.G. Hovanisian, Armenia on the Road to Independence (Berkeley, 1967) and
The Republic of Armenia, vol. 1 (Berkeley, 1971). The last work deals with
Armenia in the year 1919; studies of the subsequent years are in preparation.
Also, a memoir of Soviet Armenia in its earliest years appears in Beginning
Again at Ararat (New York, 1925) by Mabel Evelyn Elliott, M.D., medical
director of the Near East Relief in both Turkey and Soviet Armenia. A broad
account of Armenian history as well as a presentation of modern Armenia will
be found in Michael Arlen's Passage to Ararat (New York, 1975).



-40-









GEORGIA COUNTERFEITS OF SCOTT'S 26 TO 30 and B1 TO B4

by Rimma Sklarevski


In February 1922, the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic issued its
first stamps. Like many of the early Soviet stamps, these were counter-
feited.

The differences between the genuine and forged stamps are described
below.

Scott's No. 26 and 27 (500 r. and 1000 r.)

Genuine Counterfeits

1. Perf. 11 1/2 Perf. 11 1/2

2. Paper verging on Smooth
horizontal laid

3. Size 500 r. 23.5 x 30 mm. 24 x 30.5 mm.
1000 r. 24.0 x 30 mm. 25 x 30.5 mm.

4. Frame lines thicker

5. Ornamental lines at sides Uneven, and often broken (500 r.)
are of even thickness (500 r.)
Thicker and smoother (1000 r.) Thinner and irregular (1000 r.)



Scott's Nos. 28-30 (2000 r., 3000 r., and 5000 r.)

1. Perf. 11 1/2 Perf. 11 1/2

2. Size 21 x 30 mm. 21.5 x 30.5 mm.

3. 2000 r. slate gray
3000 r. brown dirty grayish brown

4. Details of design and Uneven. Coat of arms cannot
inscription clear and be detailed and the star is
sharp. Details of broken.
coat of arms and star
very clear.






-41-









Scott's Bl thru B4 at the end of 1922

Genuine Counterfeits


1. Perf. 11 1/2 Perf. 11 1/2

2. Paper medium thickness Thicker

3. Size -
1000 r. 19.75 x 24.25 mm. 20 x 24.75 25.0 mm.
3000 r. 20.00 x 24.75 mm. 20.25 x 25.0 mm.
5000 r. 20.25 x 23.5 mm. 20.50 x 23.75 mm.
10000 r. 18.50 x 24.0 mm. 19.0 x 24.25 mm.

4. 1000 r. Letters at bottom Letters are thicker and the
are sharp and there is a top and top of left letter is
wide space between them and joined.
the bottom frame line.

5. Overprint
a. 1st line 3rd and 4th Joined
letters are separated
at the top.
b. 3rd line Last letter, At a 45 angle.
top element are parallel










S5b






I am assuming that complete sets of both perforated 11 1/2 and imperfs
exist counterfeit, since I have only the following:
Perf. 11 1/2 Imperf.
B1 X
B2 X
B3 X
B4 X
To conclude, it is interesting to note here that the Soviet Philatelic
Association in Nbscow in their price list for 1935 still listed for sale
Bl through B4, both perforated and inmerforate in 1000 sets. The price
for imperforate sets was slightly over double those that were perforated.
Evidentally, there were no remainders of Scott's No. 26-30 because they
are not listed in their catalogue.
-42-









REMAINDERS OF GEORGIA & TRANSCAUCASIA

by Rimma Sklarevski


To set the record straight, we are listing below the Georgian and Transcaucasian
stamps that were sold in quantity by the Soviet Philatelic Association, Moscow,
as late as 1935. This is the reason that they are scarcer cancelled. The re-
mainders included the following: *

Georgia

Scott's Numbers 10 sets 100 sets 1000 sets

12 to 20 (imp.) 2.50 15

12 to 20 (perf.) 5.00 40

Bl 4 (perf.) 1.0 7.50 65

Bl 4 (imp.) 20.00 50

43 47 2.0 15.00 125

50 -54, 54a, 37 20.0 15.00


Likewise, there were remainders of Transcaucasia, which also ended in Moscow
for sale. They consisted of the following:

Scott's Numbers

1 8 50.0

14 21 2.0 17.0 160

22 23 6.0 50.0

25 31 2.0 17.0 160


"* The prices in the table are in gold rubles, and on January 19, 1935, 100
gold rubles was the equivalent of $89.29.









-43-








MAILS TO RUSSIA *

by Charles J. Starnes


As an introduction, the author would first like to inflict upon the reader
"a compilation of U.S. letter rates to Russia, in a format he is using for
"a projected general rate collation. For that purpose, a compact presentation
showing all rates applicable at any given period is considered necessary.

Fortunately for the collector, a moderate number of covers to Russia have
been preserved, largely letters addressed to Josiah Pierce at St. Petersburg.
A sampling of the "floating population" of covers (from auction and other
sources of the past 20 years) shows the Prussian closed mail system was
by far the most popular:
37c, PCM-14 (including 4 dbl. and 1 sextuple rate)
35c, PCM-14 (including 1 dbl. rate)
30c, PCM paid to border-1
PCM, unnaid-1
29c, B-H -2
30c, Fr.-2 (1 dbl. rate)
12c, NGU, d.-l
15c, NGU, d.-l quadruple rate
10c, NGU, d.-l
H, unpaid-1
Br., oB-2
Br., oA-1
fwd. from England-1

The following four covers illustrate operation of the Prussian, Bremen-
Hamburg, and North German Union mail systems:












*. ..









Figure 1 Reprinted from The Chronicle
-44-August 1975, Vol. 27, No.3
EAJgust 1975, Vol. 27, No. 3









RATES TO RUSSIA


Rates expressed as c per 1/2 oz., except where 1/4 / 1/2 oz. used. Dates of rate changes are within one
month of the official notification, except where "e" (earlier than) precedes the date. A dash indicates
previous rate continued.

Abbreviations:

B Bremen oB open mail, Br. Pkt. to England
B-H Bremen and Hamburg d. direct
Br. British cm. closed mail
Fr. French u unpaid
NGU North German Union (a) to St. Petersburg or Kronstadt, U.S.
PCM Prussian prepayment optional. postage paid only.
oA open mail, Am. Pkt. to England nc no charge to 1 Jul. 75.



RUSSIA
3/48 7/49 6/51 10/52 8/53 4/57 7/57 8/63 2/67 1/68 7/70 8/70 11/70 10/71

B 24(a) 20(a) *29 omit

Br.
oA-oB 21-5 omit

PCM *37 35(37u) omit

Fr. *30/*60 omit

B-H *29 *20 omit


1/68 7/70 8/70 11/70 10/70 8/72 10/74

NGU. d. 15(18u) *12 omit *12 *11 10 *10 nc

NGU. cm. 20(23u) *15 *12 11 *11 nc









Figure 1 shows an unusual combination of a pair of 10c 59 type 5, 5c brown
59 type 1, 3c 57 type 2, and Ic 57 type 5 to pay the 29c Bremen (and Hamburg)
rate. The stamps are pen-cancelled and the 10c pair also has a ms. "Meyersville,
Sept. 14 '59 Texas." At the New York Exchange office, the magenta "26," 26c W
credit to Bremen, was applied (3c inland only retained by U.S. on Bremen
mail after June 58). At the Bremen office, the familiar blue AMERICA/UBER
BREMEN/FRANCO was handstamped, a red crayon "f6" (14c the excess over the
15c GAPU rate) credit to Prussia applied, and the letter turned over to the
Prussian Post Office in Bremen for further transit. That office marked over
the "f6" and added the blue "3f" (3 silbergroschen franco--7c--the Prussian
foreign postage portion ), presumably paid to Russia. The Russian backstamp
shows arrival at Dorpat, now Tartu, Estonia, U.S.S.R., 10 October in their
Julian calendar, 22 October Gregorian.


















Woshington, DC New York C ity,2 Jut Aochen, 17 Jul. St. Petersbrg. The
371 per hoIf-02. prepaid Prussion Closed Moot rote to Russo (Oct 1852-May 163).
The mogenta "14" is the credit to Prussio 7t Rolann tmnnet *. r a i 11 I ncm

Figure 2


Figure 2: A strip of three 12c 57 plate 1 and a Ic 57 type 5 prepay the 37c
Prussian closed mail rate. No year dates. The letter originated in Washington,
D.C. At New York the letter was backstamped with the red NEW YORK AM. PKT.
JUL. 2 and on the front the magenta "14"--14c credit to Prussia (2c Belgian
transit, Sc GAPU, 7c foreign postage). Arriving at Aaachen 17 Jul.--red AACHEN
16/7 FRANCO--the letter was marked with blue "f3" (franco 3 silbergroschen--7c),
the foreign portion of the postage. Note this is the same notation as on the
Bremen cover of figure 1.

Figure 3: Two 30c 61 and a 10c 61 type 2 prepay the double 35c Prussian
closed mail rate. The letter left Portland, Maine 13 March 66 and was
processed the next day at the Boston office, with red BOSTON BR. PKT. PAID
MAR 14 and red crayon "28/2"--2 x 14c credit to Prussia. The rate change


-46-




















I/ / &







Figure 3


from 37c to 35c in May 63 did not affect the Prussian credit. When the letter
arrived at Aachen 29 March--blue AACHEN 29 3 FRANCO--the Prussian foreign
postage was marked "f4" (franco 4 silbergroschen, 10c). Since some single
rate covers of this period show 3 sgr. foreign postage, Prussia evidently
made a little extra on this double rate cover. The letter arrived at St.
Petersburg 1 April ( docketed on back "rec'd March 20/April 1.") our calendar.





















Figure 4



-47-









Figure 4: A 12c National ungrilled stamp prepays the 12c North German Union
direct mail rate. The letter, originating from Providence, Rhode Island,
27 September, was credited at New York the next day with the red NEW YORK
SEP 28 5--5c credit to the NGU for its foreign postage. By terms of U.S.-NGU
treaty, the international postage (in this case, 7c), was retained by the
dispatching office.1

On the letter's arrival at Bremen--blurred BREMEN date FRANCO--the foreign
postage was restated--WEITERFR. 2SGR. (forwarding paid 2 silbergroschen--5c).
A backstamp shows arrival at St. Petersburg 5 October 1871, 17 October our
calendar, and the front boxed ANK 17/10 may indicate arrival at Wynburg,
Finland.

lGeorge E. Hargest, Letter Post Communications, etc., 150-151.





A SOUVENIR SHEET SIZE VARIETY

by George V. Shalimoff


In 1965 the Soviet Union issued a souvenir sheet commemorating the 70 years
of radio development (Scott #3040). This is a one rouble sheet with six
labels depicting various radio events. The overall dimensions given in most
catalogues as well as the 1970 Soviet catalogue are around 145 x 100 mm. I
have three copies ranging 142.5 to 146 mm. in the horizontal direction and
98.5 to 101 mm. in the vertical direction. The paper is white with an almost
indiscernable wove pattern. One sheet has a CTO cancel MOSKVA 55 GOR 7 5 65,
the day of issue.

I recentlyfound a copy of this sheet that was noticeably larger. The sheet
size was 151 x 106 mm., or around 6 mm. larger in both directions. The paper
is white but with a smoother, more uniform and finer wove pattern in the
vertical direction. This sheet has a CTO cancellation MOSKVA POCHTAMT 26 5 66.

All other details of this sheet are identical with the earlier CTO and mint
sheets, even to the slightly wavy lines of perforations in both directions
about the labels.

Since none of the labels has a denomination or the words POCHTA CCCP, it
seems improbable the labels could have been used for postage. Only the
entire sheet which has the denomination in the left selvedge could have been
used for postage. Like most Soviet souvenir sheets, postally used examples
are difficult to find unless one has a correspondent who would paste one on
the back of an envelope and post it. The CTO copies are fairly common.




-48-









AIRMAIL LABELS OF OSOAVIAKHIM

by P. Campbell

In Rossica No. 88 there was an interesting article translated by E. Wolski
from M. Lyakhovetski's original piece in Grazhdanskaya Aviatsia. While the
article mentions the Il'ich Squadron, and illustrates two of the postal
labels (Figures 5 and 6 on page 62), perhaps some more details might be of
interest.

In March 1923, a series of clubs was formed in Russia to conduct a nation-
wide campaign to foster interest in aviation, and to undertake construction
of aircraft and engines with financial help from the public. The clubs were
called OSOAVIAKHIM, which is an acronym for "Society for the Defense of the
Soviet Union and for the Development of Aviation and Chemical Industries".
The name was sometimes shortened to 'ODVE' or described as the "Society of
the Friends of the Air Fleet".

One of the club activities was to sell postal labels to finance a squadron
of military aircraft and on 1 June 1924, the ODVF presented nineteen new
Polikarpov R-l biplanes to the Thirteenth Congress at Moscow Central Aero-
drome. The attendant publicity aroused a lot of interest and other squadrons
of R-l aircraft were formed later in the same manner. The first squadron,
however, was named the Il'ich Squadron in honor of Lenin, whose picture is
shown on the labels described below.

The R-l aircraft was a fine, sturdy biplane, built as a copy of the British
de Havilland D.H. 9A, but with the American 400-horsepower Liberty engine.
The R-1 aircraft were produced in the old DUX factory in Moscow, using
reconditioned American-built engines. Later, engine designer Mikulin made
a set of drawings of the Liberty, and continuing production of the R-l used
Russian-built engines, designated as the M-5. A total of 2860 of the R-l's
were built at Factory No. 1 (ex-Dux) and at Factory No. 31 over the period
1920 to 1923.

It is interesting to look back to see why the Societ Union chose the D.H. 9A
as the first "work-horse" aircraft to be built in their first aircraft
factory. The choice was made prior to the revolution when the DUX factory,
after manufacturing the Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutter and the Avro 504K under
license, began plans to build the D.H. 9, but the revolution effectively
stopped the venture. Both the D.H. 9 and the D.H. 9A were used in the
later stages of the intervention by the North Russian Expeditionary Force,
and some were captured by the Red Army, or left behind when the Force
withdrew in September 1919. The D.H. 9A was also used by the Allied Expe-
ditionary Force in South Russia in 1920, and by the Polish Air Force between
August and October of 1920 as the Red Army retreated from the gates of Warsaw.
Such extensive use by all sides involved must have convinced the Soviet Union
of the serviceability of the D.H. 9A, and it stayed in production until 1923
when it was replaced by the R-2,which was based on the Junkers A.20 mailplane.





-49-









The designations R-l and R-2 represented the word Rasvetchik meaning
Reconnaissance. One interesting modification of the R-l was a floatplane
version, designated PM-2, engineered by a German named Muenzel, and 400 of
these were built.

There were five labels in the set as follows:
a. A 10-kopek, lithographed in green on white paper, 39 x 49 mm.,
imperforate. The design shows Lenin, hatless, facing right, while
three high-wing monoplanes fly over, caught in searchlights. The
word "H/inouid' (ILYICH) and the words HA3CKA4iPWhO (toward the
escadrille, or squadron ) suggest raising funds for a squadron in
honor of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin).

b. A 15-kopec value, in red, 38 x 46 am, shows Lenin, again hatless,
standing in front of a bomber-type aircraft, while an observer, or
gunner, in a forward cockpit points at a line of high wing mono-
planes flying by. Words are same as the 10-kopek, and the stamp is
imperforate, with no gum.

c. The 25-kopek, 38 x 45 mm., brown, shows Lenin in a fur cap, looking
to the right while a biplane flies by, and echelons of monoplanes
appear in the background, as well as a factory.

d. It is said that a 5-kopek value exists in blue, but details are
unknown.

e. A final large design 63 x 40 mm.; design shows a four-bladed propeller
superimposed on a star with the letters CCP (SSSR or USSR) in the
points, all superimposed on a set of wings. The words HA n7OCTPOiWY
CaMOJETA B 3CK4J01MHO "HitAwuu" (toward construction of aircraft
squadron Ilyich) appear. The stamp was typographed on heavy green
paper, imperforate, and may also be found on rose, carmine and orange
paper. The label has been illustrated with a superimposed "stamp"
in the corner, with FPCCP and A3M41W- (Aviakhim) and a figure 5.
The 10, 15, and 25-kopek labels have a small panel in the bottom
left-hand corner showing the value.

On the 25-kopek values the letters "OAVUK" are seen on the wall just above
the large notice; these letters according to Reference 1 below stand for
Ukzkryrnvozdukh, the Ukranian and Crimean Association for Aviation and
Aeronautics. Now it seems unlikely that the entire cost of the Ilyich
Squadron was raised in the Ukraine and the south, and I have seen reproductions
of the 25-kopek label which do not appear to show these letters. Perhaps
different copies exist with no such letters, or with letters of other chapters
of Osoaviakhim. Please write to your editor if you have any such variants.

The one unfortunate aspect of this type of labels is that most of them
represent aircraft which are merely "artists impressionss" and on only a few
is it possible to identify the actual aeroplane type. Labels (b) and (c) above
are shown as Figures 5 and 6, respectively, on page 62 of Rossica Journal No. 88,
although Figure 5 is incorrectly described in the text as a 25-kopek value
instead of a 15-kopek.



-50-









The comparative rarity of these labels is due to the short time they must
have been on sale. The ODVF was formed in March 1923, and it must have taken
some time to get the labels designed, printed, and distributed. It is doubtful
if item (e) above would have stayed in circulation very long as its design
included the letters RSFSR, and the Russian Socialist Federal Socialist
Republic ceased to exist 5 July, 1923 when it was superseded by the USSR. There
would have been a lively sale upon Lenin's death in January 1924, and the
squadron was formed in June of the same year. It therefore seems probable
that the labels were on sale for less than one year.

The last word has still not yet been written on this interesting, and much
sought after set of labels.


Bibliography

1. Rossica Journal No. 88, 1975. "An Airmail Label as a Record of History,"
by M. Lyakhovetskiy, translated by E. Wolski from Grashdanskaya
Aviatsia.

2. The Aerophilatelist Annals."Russian Air Fleet Labels," by Fred Speers.
Volume XV, Nos. 3 & 4 of January and April 1968, and Volume XVI,
Nos. 1 2 of July and October 1968.

3. Russian Civil & Military Aircraft 1884-1969: H.J. Nowarra and G.R. Duval,
Fountain Press, London.



INTERESTING NOTES RELATING TO RUSSIA
FROM U.S. POSTAL-BULLETINS


From time to time as time and space permit, notes of interest culled from
official or other records will be published for the information of Rossica
members. From: "Daily Bulletin of Orders Affecting the Postal Service.
Post Office, Wednesday, August 1917."

Postage Stamps Cancelled or Uncancelled
Prohibited Importation Into Russia

Office of the Second Assistant Postmaster General,
Washington, August 27, 1917


The Department has been advised that the importation by mail into Russia of
cancelled or uncancelled postage stamps is prohibited. Postmasters and other
postal officials will please take due notice of the foregoing.
-- Otto Praeger
2nd Assistant Postmaster General


Do any of our readers have an explanation of this order by the Imperial
Russian authorities? Of course, there have been stories of postage stamps
being used to carry secret communications of spies. Was it this reason or
some other?
-51-









THE 1955 SOVIET AIRMAIL OVERPRINTS
(SCOTT'S C95-96)

by George V. Shalimoff

In 1955 two Soviet airmail stamps were overprinted in three lines which
translates "North Pole Moscow 1955." It wasn't long after their issue that
some foreign catalogs mentioned a second type of overprint with words of
caution but no specific details were given. Below are some data concerning
these overprinted issues (Scott's C95 and C96) as they appeared in the Soviet
philatelic press.

In issue No. 4 of the Soviet Collector, 1966, V. Ustinovskii stated that the
overprint issue was released in three parts, initially on November 26, 1955.
The overprints were typographed on the 1 ruble and 2 ruble values (Scott's
C91 and C92) issued earlier that year. The same cliche was used for both.
The color of the overprint on the 1 ruble value was lilac-brown, on the 2
ruble it was shiny red. Both values were comb perfed 12 x 12 1/2.

In December, a second portion was released into circulation differing slightly
only in the colors of the overprints. The color on the 1 ruble was slightly
darker, on the 2 ruble it was a bit brighter but dull.

After some time, the stamps reappeared again and detailed examination showed
that they were overprinted with a new cliche, easily distinguishable from the
first part of the issue. In addition, a small number of the 2 ruble value
were line perfed 12 1/2. The perf variety is not listed in western catalogs.
Overprint color changes, if any, were not given in the article for this third
part of the issue.

The major cliche differences between the earlier releases and the last release
was the length of the top line on the overprint and the length of the dash in
the second line. On the first part of the issue, the length of the top line
was 13.7 mm. and the dash 2.2 mm. On the second part of the issue, the top line
is 14.2 mm., and the dash is 2.5 mm.

In addition, two new overprint varieties are found in this part of the issue.
On one stamp per sheet, the length of the top line is 15 mm. On another stamp
per sheet, the dash before the word 'MOCKBA" is missing. Positions of these
two varieties on the sheets were not given.

Nowhere is the quantity issued of this set given. Western catalogs list this
set for use at the scientific drifting stations, but Ustinovskii's article
implies the set was placed in general postal circulation in three parts. However,
the stamps used at the scientific drifting stations North Pole 4 and North Pole 5
received a special cancellation, a nice item for polar specialists as well.

It was probably inevitable that fake overprints should appear since there was
a significant difference in most catalog values between the original stamps
(Scott's C91 and C92) and the overprints (Scott's C95 and C96).



-52-









In the July 1969 issue of Philately of the USSR, there appeared a report about
faked overprints from the Expertizing Commission of the All-Union Society of
Philately (VOF). The principal distinguishing details between the original
and faked overprints are given in the table below. This same report was the
basis for Ya. M. Vovin's description of the fake overprints in his Handbook
for Expertizing Soviet Postage Stamps, Moscow 1972. I have been able to
confirm the details with sets of both the originals and fakes in my collection.

There can be slight deviations in details and dimensions given in the table
due to the quality of the impression. Slightly heavy overprints tend to
lengthen the dimensions a bit as well as fill in the letters more. Detail #3
apparently is measured from the foot of the numeral 1 to the period, i.e.,
the bottom of the line. As with any check lists, all salient features should
be checked to distinguish the genuine items from the forgeries.

The 1969 report stated the fake overprints were found in the USA and West
European stamp markets. A copy of the 2 ruble value with fake overprint was
illustrated in the Soviet article showing a corner cancellation, similar to
CTO cancels. The Soviet expertizing committee claimed this was a fake cancel-
lation as well because the date of cancel was 1963. This date was impossible
because the stamps were no longer valid for postage after April 30, 1961 due
to the 1960 currency reevaluation. With that the article ended.

It seems unlikely that both the overprint and the cancellation were forged on
the 2 ruble stamp. Even if one looks at 1966 catalog values, to falsely over-
print and cancel a mint copy of C92 to create a used copy of C96 would only
double its value. But to overprint a used copy of C92 to create a used C96
would increase its value nearly ten times, a seemingly more profitable thing
to do.

I believe a canceled-to-order copy of C92 was used for the fake overprint that
the Soviet article illustrated. In my own collection, I have a full gum block
of six of C92 with two CTO cancels dated 8 8 63. The cancel date is more than
2 years past the date the stamps were declared void. So the error was made
at the printing plant where sheets of the stamps were canceled for philatelic
sale. Perhaps it is moot to distinguish between a fake cancel and an unreal
CTO cancel. But the latter is not usually made by a forger but rather by the
Soviet bureau that prepares the stamps this way for the used stamp markets.

As you can see from the table, one of the details of the fake overprint is the
lack of connecting dash in the vowel 'W" in the first line of the overprint.
An illustration of this easily visible feature appeared in Scott's catalog
from 1957 to 1970. When I brought this to the attention of Scott's editors in
late 1969, they were at a loss to explain how the wrong illustration was used
since their reference material matched the correct description and not the one
illustrated. In 1971 Scott published a more correct illustration. One is
tempted to speculate whether the original incorrect illustration in Scott's
served as the forger's guide.

Vovin's handbook also illustrates another rather crude faked overprint which
he describes as local origin. All details are carelessly done. At first
glance it appears homemade and handstamped. The forgeries were found on mint



53 -






and CTO stamps (philatelic cancellations as they are called there). The obvious
details of this forged overprint are as follows:
1. The color of the overprint is red.
2. Length of the upper line including the quotation marks is 17 mm.
compared to the 13.7 and 14.2 nm. on the genuine overprints.
3. Length of the second line including the dash is 13.5 mn.
4. Length of the lowest line is 8.75 to 9.0 mm.
Overall the letters of the printing appear larger on his illustration. I have
not seen a copy of this fake overprint whereas the ones described in the table
are fairly common.
Distinguishing Detail Genuine Forgery

1. Color of Overprint
1 ruble Lilac-brown Dull red

2 ruble Carmine-red, shiny Dull red
red (also described
as carmine-brown
and bright red)

2. Length of line 2 10.3 mm. 10.0 mm
3. Length of bottom line 8.7 mm. 9.2 mn.
including the period
4. Length of dash in line 2 2.2 2.5 mm. 2.0 nn.
5. Print Crisp Less crisp, some
letters filled in.

6. Letter "M'. Angle made Left angle is Right angle is
between the outside legs smaller than right smaller than left.
and middle portion.
(Figure 3)
7. Letter "V0" (Figure 3) Letter is correct Connecting horizontal
dash is missing.

8. Position of letter "r" Below letter "B" Midway below letters
(Figure 3) "BA"







B Ba
%1





r r


Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3
54 -









TWO INTERESTING MILITARY PICTORIAL COVERS

by Gordon Torrey

Several months back, one of our older members loaned me a fascinating
military cover for the information of our membership. Recently I was able
to obtain a similar cover in Stockholm. It would be interesting to know
if any other members possess similar items.

The first of these covers is printed in red on both front and back, apparently
just after the turn of this century. The cover illustrates the various stages
through which Russian army recruits passed during their term of service.
(Figure 1) On the reverse are
pictured the four periods of the
recruits' service period. *
i (Figure 2) At the left the raw
Recruits are shown being mustered
into service. The scene is entitled
"the arrival at the induction
Centerr" Next, at the top, is
9ryk If,yA4 "second year formation," and at the
S/ right is "inspection during the
third year of service." At the
Sf bottom is pictured "at the railroad
S\ station, discharged to the reserves."
w/ /The address side shows the drilled
troops in field uniform on parade.
This cover was sent from Alexandropol
"in the Tiflis Gcvernate to Kolo in
'" .... the Kalish Governate in Poland. The
S- date is 1907 and also illustrates
the Russian military practices of
Figure 1 the period, that of having troops
serve away from their home regions.
The "red" cover has printed in the
lower left corner '"wn publishing .s,
house of G. Berniker & Co. Vilna." j |
The second cover, printed in brown-
violet (Figure 3) has exactly the
same scenes but in the lower left
corner the inscription "Lithography
--K. Matz & Co.Vilna Below this
is "No. 1. Own publishing company
for special military matters of the
commercial house of G. Berniker and
G. Cinaja, Vilna." This one is nc-- c .a
dated 1912 and apparently came from -'
a series of such envelopes, hence
the "No. 1" designation. On this

"* Note: Figure 2 is the back of
the second, brown-violet cover because
it photographed better. Figure 2
-55-












;-t ''''/ifiByB- one inscriptions have been altered 9
somewhat to read "Arrival for
service," "Teaching the lower
ranks," "Congratulations for
"promotion, and "Discharge to the
reserve." This second cover was
-o aseo a postmarked at Tsarskoe Selo
2 December 1912 and it arrived
in the village of Annapol in Lubin
SProvince on 5 December.



Figure 3
-. *--f--*,--J-





"The Postal Bulletin," Friday, February 13, 1942

DISPOSITION OF MAILS FROM AXIS AND AXIS CONTROLLED COUNTRIES
Second Assistant Postmaster General
Washington, February 12, 1942

In connection with previous instructions, postmasters and others concerned shall
forward promptly under cover Lo the nearest censorship station in care of the
postmaster at that place, all mails reaching them without United States or
British censorship endorsements that originated in Axis countries or countries
under their control.

There are given below a list of countries mentioned and a list of the censor-
ship stations.
Axis Countries

Japan, Chosen (Korea), Taiwan (Formosa), Bokoto (Pescadores) Islands, Karufuto
(Japanese Sakhalin), Marianne (Ladrone) Islands, Marshall Islands, Caroline
Islands (Mandates under Versailles Treaty), Leased Territory oF Kwangtung,
Manchuria, occupied China, Thailand, French Indo-China, Hong Kong, Germany,
Italy, and all other countries of continental Europe except Gibralter, Portugal,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,and
unoccupied France.
Censorship Stations

New York, New York Seattle, Washington
Miami, Florida Chicago, Illinois
San Antonio, Texas New Orleans, Louisiana
San Francisco, California Los Angeles, California
Honuolulu, Territory of Hawaii San Juan, Puerto Rico


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Does this mean that mail from the "excepted" countries was not censored
when it arrived in the United States? This is hard to believe when one
realizes the role of neutral countries in the espionage networks of the
various warring countries. Do any of our readers have covers from the
Soviet Union (other than the diplomatic pouch) or the other enumerated
countries that were not censored? ...... Gordon Torrey



NEW MEMBERS


#918 Ronald C. Petrusha, 318 2nd Avenue, New York, New York 10003

#919 Fred Allen Decker, 323B Melody Lane, Lee's Summit, Missouri 64063

#920 Peter Barrett, 21 Stuyvesant Oval, Apt. 9C, New York, N.Y. 10009

#921 John R. Iacovino, 8 Harbor Road, Westport, Connecticut 06880

#922 Millard L. Kopatch, 4 South Rogers Street, Aberdeen, Maryland 21001

#923 Robert W. Stuc/ell, 940 Cloverly Road, Berlyn, Pennsylvania 19312

#924 Claude Lysloff, 568 Marlborough Road, Brooklyn, New York 11226

#925 Alexander von Reimers, 551-46th Ave., San Francisco, California 94121
#926 Joy Madonna Stadther, 1245 College Avenue, Racine, Wisconsin 53403

#927 Hiroshi Yoshikawa, 379 Conner Street #3, New Haven, Connecticut 06511

#928 James W. Moran, Sunrise Hill Road, Fishkill, New York 12524

#929 William N. Rearis, 5910 Pflumm Road, Shawnee, Kansas 66216

#930 Arthur Gottfried, 560 Clinton Road, Paramus, New Jersey 07652

#931 J. G. Moyes, 292 Rundells, Harlow Essex CM18-7HJ, United Kingdom

#932 John L. Bates, 86 Durand Road, Maplewood, New Jersey, 07040

#933 Raymond J. DeCorte, P.O. Box 38, Warminster, Pennsylvania 18974

#934 Robert L. Tessier, 78 Alan Avenue, Portsmouth, Rhode Island 02871

#935 Clifford A. Mon D.D.S., P.O. Box 516, San Francisco, California 94101

#936 Walter Borowski,13913 Bauer Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20853

#937 Paul Shirochensky, 252 N. Crimea Street, Ventura, California 93001

#938 Laurence Gordon Loveless, Rt. 3 Box 435, Fort Worth, Texas 76134

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New Members (continued) :

#939 Alexander Krassowsky,610 W. 150th Street, Apt. 5B, New York, N.Y. 10031

#940 Dr. Alan York, 1 Main Street, East Hampton, New York 11937

#941 Augustinus Vandervorst, 17 Trinwykstraat, Zarentem 1930, Belgium

#942 William C. Ives, 5743 South Grant Street, Apt. H, Hinsdale, Illinois 60521

#943 Andrew Meedwid, 16 Woodfield Terrace, Tarrytown, New York


Changes of Address:

#126 Joseph F. Chudoba, R.D. 2, Box 112a, Windber, Pennsylvania 15963

#206 Raymon S. Ehrman, 201 Kinvara Drive, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15237

#387 Irwin Oriskes, 670 West End Avenue, New York, New York 10025

#444 Robert H. Golden, 7135 14th Street South, St. Petersburg, Florida 33705

#582 Mrs. Diane K. Ward, 12927 Avenida La Valencia, Poway, California 92064

#734 James K. Martins, M.D., 9216 Cedar Forest Road, Eden Prairie, Minnesota
55343
#877 George Alevizos, P.O. Box 5159, Santa Monica, Cal. 90405

#889 Barry Hong, 50 Jerome Cres. Apt 806, Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada LE 1K6

#904 Don Heller, 830 Cricklewood Drive, Apt. 207, State College, Pa. 16801

#911 Douglas R. Potter, 5927 Hickory Trail, North Ridgeville, Ohio 44039



"... USED AS SAVINGS STAMPS"

from PHILATELY SSR #3, 1976, p. 24
Translated by E. Wolski


It is known from catalogues that savings stamps issued in pre-revolutionary
Russia were in circulation. They were used primarily for pasting into
special savings booklets valid for savings up to 99 kopecs. When stamps
totalled the sum of 1 ruble, then the owner of the booklet received a regular
savings book and a regular bank account was opened in his name.

From my own experience I know that such savings booklets, as a rule, were
owned by school children. Usually, it never reached the point of getting a
regular savings book, since kids very often returned their booklets for
which they received their "deposits," mostly not more than a few kopecs.

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When the currency became worthless, which began during World War I, savings
banks in our country terminated their services. Therefore, savings stamps
became useless, and it was decided to use them as postage stamps. Such
usage continued from January 1918 to the 15th of September 1922.

Postal usage of savings stamps at face value of 1, 5, and 10 kopecs had
officially three periods.
1. From the 12th of January 1918 they were used at face value.
2. From March 1921 they were in usage at 100 times of face value
(1 kopec equaled 1 Ruble).
3. From August 1921 they were officially revalued and sold at a
rate of 250 Rubles for one stamp regardless of its face value.

At the present time, these postage stamps--unused and cancelled--are owned
by many philatelists who collect Soviet postage stamps. They are also to be
found on various types of correspondence: ordinary and registered, opened
and closed letters, money orders, various parcel address cards, and other
documents.

Such is the brief history of the use of prerevolutionary savings stamps by
the Soviet postal services.

The practice of using Soviet postage stamps as savings stamps is a unique
one that took place in our country during the late twenties.

The philatelic press devoted only one comment on this subject published in
the journal "Soviet Collector" (Sovetsking Kollertsioner) No. 1, January
1925, in which there is a brief mention of a circular issued by the Main
Administrator of Savings Banks of 20 November 1924, No. 146.

This circular had been published in full in the Bulletin of Posts and
Telegraph (N.K.P.I.T.) No. 7/1098, 11 December 1924. It contains detailed
instructions for the performance of all operations, accounting and controls
for the organization of this new form of small savings.

Since the state savings banks were not very popular during the first year of
their existence, the finance authorities searched for new forms and methods
to attract deposition. At that time, poet V.V. Mayakovski's lofty words
appeared saying: "People go places, I go to the savings bank." The text of
circular No. 146 is also of interest, especially where it mentions that:
"In order to give workers a possibility to save without feeling embarrassed
by small amounts, sometimes very insignificant, that workers are able to
save from their budget, the Main Administration of Savings Banks, after
consultation with N.K.P.i.T., approved for this purpose the use of postage
stamps which are used for the franking of mail. Postage stamps, which can be
purchased at any sales point, are affixed to a piece of paper or to special
cards provided they are available at savings banks as leftovers from earlier
times. When 70 kopecs worth are accumulated, the stamps can be deposited
at a savings bank as cash. This way of saving frees the worker from
frequent trips to the savings bank. To deposit small (kopec) amounts, con-
tributes to the gradual increase of savings and teaches the habit of
necessary proletarian economizing. "


-59-









Later on, the minimum amount for a deposit was raised to 1 Ruble. Therefore
the cards and sheets of paper were filled with stamps totaling the value of
1 Ruble.

According to the circular, the acquired postage stamps can be affixed to
separate sheets of paper or to "special cards where such are available at
savings banks as remainders from earlier times." It is clear that the term
"earlier times" refers to prerevolutionary times.

One such card with postage stamps totaling 1 Ruble exists in the collection
of B.N. Shirin, a Moscow philatelist. He also has a "separate sheet of paper,"
half of a page from an ordinary school copybook with Soviet postage stamps
amounting to 1 Ruble stamped with a rectangular single line cancellation:
"The Tula Provincial Savings Bank No. 5" (Tul'skaya gubernskaya gostrudsberkassa
No. 5).

After a certain period of time special cards were prepared made of thin
yellowish cardboard measuring 11 x 18 xm. The obverse of the cards shows on
the right hand side the Soviet state emblem and the text:






roCTpyAcOepxacca ... rocTpyaCOepKaCCa-TpyAUBar onHHa
........... CdeperaTb ... 3ano H
npuHHto noiTOBuMH wapKaIm Ba IIH'Ky W
.OA..........N......- onw py6Ar A H.r MO HO
N n NoTSBUM paccKamr
.......................-.. ....-- 192... apKa H iy
K6wrTpBABs *apKaun. M3AONJ.
IPABHAA CBE PKACCbI
AA 3APOqHIWX CSE'RZEHHfl. floor. T ..o. T r no-T nrnA. -ory.
XVsKST % A3eonacKo H -npMKocHoeete.
MIapKr (nomrBble) aMIensIBIOTC U oas & aWMr npnu.WA oT 5 1o 9 npourn.ros ro*.
U:o cyMuy 1 py6. B IaO ccyly nol s.or Aroclauo.
Kap'ro 3noHe nHa3 nooqTOhiMu Map- np. .M.a MT as e.Cyt. cerl.
KrMH UH CyUMy 1 p., npHHHM8eTCf BO BKAIUU BuI.rOT no it pejslruiM KeSbr. K C6epKcc M as6w
e6epqlcc-KcaK HNmim9bte neaRbr. opib u.C
Heranbj HNKAeOmSTb MPKH, 6lU. a lp0. uaT ynA.a -Abixo3 or.
"yjoTpe6Re ,HH p3opa3OHfWC 3arp3mebe. COBHJ1IOAETC fl OJHAn n TAAHA BKIAAOB
"KiaprqKy C MapKam a c6epraccy uo.Ho H OAMIHI BKJIAI1HMKOB.
.,pMHecTH ca3ouy HAH npHcaa no noMre, I BKJIAAbi RMbi1AOTC5 BECnPEInRTCTBEHHO
TaxIce nnpynHTb cfeneaT 3TO apyrooy nlHuy. no nEPBOMV TPEBOBAHHIO.
Mocry6dan '354. TipA. 3.. 3.o. 3., 3A LEJIOCTb BKJIAA.OB OTBEHAET nPABH-
Tonorp>s" rocTpyIc6epX cc HK0.CCCP.Ky>omoi 1. TEJ]bCTBO CCCP.






Figure 1

Title: "State Savings Bank ------"
To the left of the emblem: "You can save with postage stamps."
To the right of the emblem: "Remember and tell everybody."
Below the emblem: "Savings bank -- money box helps save money little by little."
It holds it safely and inviolably. It gives interest of 8 to 9% yearly.



-60-








It transfers money to other places.
It accepts deposits for current accounts.
Savings banks in all cities pay cash on a letter of credit.
They accept payment for farm tax.
The complete confidentiality of the deposits and of the depositor's name is
fully preserved.
Deposits are paid out without restrictions on first request. The USSR
government is responsible for the safety of the deposits.
(See right side of card in Figure 1.)

The inscription:

The left side of the card face carries "Instructions for Stamp Savings."
1. Stamps are affixed for the total value of 70 kopecs (7 kopec stamps or
of various denomination).
2. The price of the stamps is entered as deposited at the Savings Bank.
3. It is prohibited to affix used, damaged, or soiled stamps.
4. The card with stamps can be brought to a savings bank personally, or
can be sent by mail.

The reverse side of the card, with space for stamps, carries the following
Text: "The State Savings Bank No. ...(Gosndarstvennaya trudovaya sberezat
Kassa No.).

The savings book is better than a treasure: in a difficult moment you'll
be glad to have it."

The cards were printed in a quantity of 600,000 at a Moscow printing plant.

Later new savings cards were prepared. They were slightly larger, 12 x 18 cm.
The rules for stamp savings were also changed, as follows:

"Stamps (postage) are affixed for a total sum of 1 Ruble.
Cards filled with stamps for the sum of 1 Ruble are accepted for deposit
at savings banks on par with cash.
Cards with stamps can be brought to savings banks personally, sent by mail,
or delivered by a third person."

Some of the text on the reverse was also changed as follows:
a. Savings banks teach us how to spend our means economically.
b. It is inconvenient and dangerous to keep money at home. Take it
to a savings bank.
c. The savings bank is your mighty ally in the struggle for improved
economic life.
d. (Savings banks are found at post offices, banks, railroad stations,
factories, etc.) (See figure 2)

The new cards contained the inscription "1 Ruble accepted in postage stamps
entered in book No. ...," the date, and signature of the controller (Figure
1, left side, top).

The cards were printed at the printing shop of the state savings banks
N.K.F.S.S.S.R., in the amount of 3,000,000 (see Figure 1, bottom lines of
left side).

-61-





















CE








Figure 2


One such card which is in my collection shows the following information.
"State Savings Bank No. 11, accepted 1 Ruble in postage stamps entered in
book No. 8148. 7 April 1928. ...Controller (signature)"

The 19 (?) stamps affixed to this card were:
1 kopec 8 copies 8
3 kopecs 1 copy 3
5 kopecs 2 copies 10
8 kopecs 4 copies 32
10 kopecs 1 copy 10
18 kopecs 2 copies 36
99 18 (sic) 99 (sic)

for the total sum of 1 Ruble (sic). All stamps were cancelled with a one
line rectangular stamp "Bogoroditskoe a-vogosbanka" and date.

"Another card with stamps shows: "State Savings Bank No. 324 accepted 1 Ruble
in postage stamps for book No. 311. 9 Feb 1928." All 25 stamps affixed to
this card (at face value from 2 to 10 kopecs) were cancelled with a blue
pencil.

The third card has 20 stamps totaling 1 Ruble face value. The stamps are
cancelled with a one line stamp: "Tul'skaya gubernskaya sberegatch' naya
kassa." There is a handwritten note: "Tatasova Khavdia Vasil'evna 9 years.
Pupil of the Khatush Primary School, village Khatush."

The line (face, left, top) for entering the 1 Ruble has not been filled on
this card. It should be noted that in most cards known to me, this line had
not been completed. Evidentally owners of these cards received cash instead
of savings books.
-62-









All savings cards which are in my collections and in collections of other
known philatelists have postage stamps of various face value and series,
issued between 1924 and 1928, with the exception of 1 Ruble stamps and higher
values. Obviously, those who could afford a stamp of 1 Ruble face value
had no reason to affix it to a piece of paper. They could open an account
at a savings bank without waiting and receive a proper savings book. Any of
the postage stamps currently in circulation could be used for savings deposits.
Nevertheless, it should be stressed that most of the stamps on all the known
savings cards are stamps of the so called gold standard.

The way these stamps are cancelled is also of interest. In addition to the
ones mentioned earlier, I have known of the existence of the following
cancelling: with a roller stamp tracing a rhomboid network; with a circular
stamp of the Central State Savings Bank No. 231 (Tsentral'naya gosudarstven-
naya sberegatel'naya trudovaya kassa); with a stamp of one word "otpusk"
(remittance); and pen cancelled.

Let us try and add up the quantity of postage stamps used as savings stamps.
On the average, there were 20 stamps affixed to each card. And as was
mentioned before, there were 3,600,000 cards printed. To this amount we have
to add blank sheets of paper and prerevolutionary cards used for the affixing
of stamps. It can be estimated that there were about 4 million savings
documents (cards) carrying Soviet postage stamps. This amount multiplied
by 20 will give the impressive number of 80 million stamps.

(signed) P. Mazur



BOOK REVIEWS


POLAR POST by E. P. Sachenkov

Printed in Russian. 296 pages.

This is a very interesting and well illustrated handbook. It is divided
into 9 sections which are described briefly below.

The first section is entitled "The Polar Post and Polar Philately." It
describes the Post on the pole, the particulars of the Polar Post, functions
and types of stamps,and functions and types of cancellations.

The second section concerns the beginnings of the North Pole Post. This
includes stamps of the Westeralen steamship line (Norway), stamps of the
expeditions of Captain Wilhelm Bade, stamps of the dog sled post, and the
geographic classification of the Post of the North.

The third section covers Russian Arctic Expeditions. It begins with memories
of discoveries of the 18th and 19th centuries and goes on to explain the
sources of the Russian Polar Post. Also included are a Czarist Order "6351
(Order to Captain Bering regarding the Siberian and Kamchatka Expedition -
March 16,1733) and the explorers of the beginning of the 20th century.

-63-









The fourth section is about Cook, Nausen, Perry, Amundsen, and others.
It describes the search for the Northwest Passage, Perry's discovery of
the North Pole of April 6, 1909, a philatelic odyssey of Nausen, the
Amundsen Post (1918-1924), the stamps of Amundsen (1925), and the expedition
of Nobile, an Italian.

The fifth section concerns Zeppelin, Malygin, and philately.

The sixth section reviews the Soviet polar stamps of the 1930s. These
include the 10th Polar Post Anniversary, the series for the Second Inter-
national Polar Year and the series for the rescue of members of the
Cheluskin Expedition. Also mentioned are the overprint "Moscow-San Francisco
Flight," the first non-stop flight Moscow-USA, the second non-stop flight
Moscow-USA and the polar drift of icebreaker George Sedor.

The seventh section covers the Post of the Russian North. It describes
the 60th parallel yesterday and today, the European North of the USSR,
the western-Siberian North, the Yennisei North and Taimyr, Yakutia, and
Chukhotka and North Kamchatka.

The eighth section tells of polar stations and USSR expeditions in the
Arctic. Here the author describes a little bit of history, ship posts,
airmails and routes of the Polar Post.

The ninth section is entitled "Drifting Stations of the USSR." It begins
with an introduction, post offices on ice, characteristics of the Polar
Service, stamps, entire, official envelopes, delivery markings, and
stations "North Pole."

The handbook concludes with a glossary of specific terms and abbreviations
used in Polar Philately, both in Russia and abroad. At the end is a two
page bibliography of philatelic and other literature on this subject.

This handbook contains tremendous amounts of philatelic and polar postal
history information, much of which has never been published before, and to
cover it all thoroughly would require page after page.


--Rimma Sklarevski














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