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 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Officers and representatives of...
 Life of the society by Gordon...
 Warning to collectors
 Member to member adlets
 Imperial postage stamps of Russia...
 A U.S. Civil War related cover...
 Frederick Breitfuss, the greatest...
 Pre-1921 Russian imperforate stamps...
 Modern use of the diplomatic pouch...
 Further notes on the "BEZ. PLAT."...
 Consular posts in territory of...
 Printing varieties of Soviet stamps...
 Notes from collectors
 The Rossica bookshelf


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00052
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1978
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00052

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Life of the society by Gordon Torrey
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Warning to collectors
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Member to member adlets
        Page 10
    Imperial postage stamps of Russia issued in 1857-1888 by V. V. Lobachevski (translated by George Shalimoff and Robert Trbovich)
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
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        Page 24
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        Page 29
        Page 30
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        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    A U.S. Civil War related cover by Arthur Falk
        Page 95
    Frederick Breitfuss, the greatest Russian collector by Charles Phillips
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Pre-1921 Russian imperforate stamps by J. Lee Shneidman
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Modern use of the diplomatic pouch for mail to and from the USSR by Dr. Dale P. Cruikshank
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Further notes on the "BEZ. PLAT." marking by George Shalimoff
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Consular posts in territory of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Printing varieties of Soviet stamps by Andrew Medwid
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Notes from collectors
        Page 124
    The Rossica bookshelf
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
Full Text

THE JOURNAL

of the


ROSSICA SOCIETY

of


RUSSIAN PHILATELY



















AWARDS
"WIPA" 1933 BRONZE MEDAL "PRAGA" 1962 SILVER MEDAL
"PRAGA" 1935 BRONZE MEDAL "MELUSINA" 1963 SILVER MEDAL
"OSTRAPA" 1935 SILVER MEDAL "PHILATEC" 1964 -SILVER MEDAL
"ZEFIB" 1937 SILVER MEDAL "WIPA" 1965 SILVER MEDAL
"BEPHILA" 1957 SILVER MEDAL "SIPEX" 1966 SILVER MEDAL
"EFICON" 1958 SILVER MEDAL "PRAGA" 1968 SILVER MEDAL
"TEMEX" 1958 -SILVER MEDAL "APS-68" 1968 SILVER MEDAL
"INTERPOSTA" 1959 SILVER MEDAL "EFIMEX" 1968 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"SICILIA" 1959 SILVER MEDAL "SOFIA-69" 1969 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"BARCELONA" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "BUDAPEST-71" 1971 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"UNIPEX" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "CHICAGO-APS" 1974 GOLD MEDAL
"POLSKA" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "CAPEX-78" 1978 LARGE SILVER MEDAL

No 94/95 1978
















THE JOURNAL OF THE
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY

VOLUME 94/95 1978


EDITORIAL BOARD: Rimma Sklarevski, Gordon Torrey, Norman Epstein, M. Wilson
PUBLISHER: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, Va. 22043



TABLE OF CONTENTS


Life of the Society, Gordon Torrey ..................................... 3

Warning to Collectors ....................................................6

Member-to-Member Adlets ..................... ........................10

Imperial Postage Stamps of Russia Issued in 1857 1888, V. V. Lobachevski
Translated by George Shalimoff and Robert Trbovich ....................11

A U.S. Civil War Related Cover, Arthur Falk ...........................95

Frederick Breitfuss, The Greatest Russian Collector, Charles Phillips ...96

Pre-1921 Russian Imperforate Stamps, J. Lee Shneidman ................. 99

Modern Use of the Diplomatic Pouch for Mail to and from the USSR,
Dr. Dale P. Cruikshank ..............................................101

Further Notes on the "BEZ. PLAT." Marking, George Shalimoff ............113

Consular Posts in Territory of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics..115

Printing Varieties of Soviet Stamps, Andrew Medvid .....................118

Notes from Collectors .................................................124

The Rossica Bookshelf ................................. ............... 125








OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
PRESIDENT: Gordon H, Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20016

VICE-PRESIDENT: Constantine de Stackelberg, 1673 Columbia Road, N.W. S
Washington, D.C. 20009

SECRETARY: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, Virginia 22043

TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11226

LIBRARIAN: Claude Lysloff, 568 Marlborough Road, Brooklyn, New York 11226

BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Samuel Robbins, 3565 Meier Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 90066
Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Road, N.W., Washington,DC.20007
Lester Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Boulevard,
Los Angeles, California 90035


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G.B. SALISBURY CHAPTER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn, New York 11226

WASHINGTON-BALTIMORE: Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Road, N.W. D.C. 20007

ARTHUR B. SHIELDS CHAPTER: Samuel Robbins, 3563 Meier Street, L.A., Cal. 90066

GREAT BRITAIN: John Lloyd, "The Retreat," Wester Bergholdt, Colchester
Essex C06 3HE
******

Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However, acknow-
ledgement of the source and a copy of the reprinted matter would be appreciated.


The views in this Journal expressed by the authors are their own and the editors
disclaim all responsibility.

The membership dues are $12.00, due January 1st for all members. Application
forms are available upon request from the secretary or treasurer. Membership
lists will be sent annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:


ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Norman Epstein
33 Crooke Avenue
Brooklyn, New York 11226 USA


We have a number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in English and
Russian language editions (some). These may be obtained from Mr. Epstein. Mr.
Wilson, or Mr. Lysloff.

Copyright 1978
The Rossica Society

2








LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

by Gordon Torrey

A number of important events have happened during the interval since the last
Journal. I feel that these will greatly improve the Society's stature and
its service to the membership.

Of prime importance is the fact that with the appearance of this 128 page
issue, a double one, the Rossica Journal can be considered up-to-date. For
the first time in many years it will be current. Th editorial board and other
officers have worked hard to bring this about. The contributions of members
who have written articles have helped a great deal, and the persistence of
those members who have labored to translate works from the Russian language
is greatly appreciated.

With this issue we print the first installment of what we believe to be the
most comprehensive and best catalogue of Imperial Russian stamps in existence.
This excellent work, compiled by V. V. Lobachevski, was translated from Russian
by two of our members, Messers. George V. Shalimoff and Robert Trbovich. The
illustrations are the photographic work of Norman Epstein. We believe that
they are of such quality that it will be comparatively easy for the Russian
specialist to identify many varieties listed. Many of us, no doubt, will find
that we were unaware that we possessed some of these items. Publication of
the catalogue will take several issues of the Journal to complete. I wish to
express my thanks to member William Shinn of the U.S. Department of State for
facilitating the securing of permission from the Soviet Government to publish
this copyrighted translation, of which Rossica now possesses the English language
rights. While mentioning copyrights, it may interest our members that we have
now copyrighted all English language editions of the Journal.

In the coming year we plan to publish an English translation of Prigara's
classic handbook of Russian philately by member David Skipton. This will be
annotated in order to keep it up-to-date with later research. We expect to
publish this as a separate volume, the first work to be published under the
Rossica copyright. We hope that publishing costs will enable us to set a
minimal price to paid-up members.

Last spring a number of members gathered at "SCOPEX," the annual stamp exhibition
held in State College, Pennsylvania. Our annual meeting will be held at NOJEX
at Elizabeth, New Jersey on Sunday, October 28th.

Your President acted as chief of the judges at the American Philatelic Society's
annual meeting and exhibition held in Boston at the end of August. It was a
pleasure to meet several of our members from that area. In attending exhibitions
in various Eastern and Midwestern cities over the past several years I am
continually reminded of the lack of exhibits of Russian and Russian related
material. It seems that nearly every other aspect of philately is represented--
the Baltic countries, Scandinavia, Western Europe, the Far East, British Empire,
U.S., and Latin America--but no Russia. What is the problem? It cannot be
that Russian material is so valuable that it is too risky to show. Evidently,
collectors of Russia either have no interest in promoting our area of interest
or are too lazy to mount and send off their collections for others to see.



3








The Society is in the process of incorporating and also of establishing status
as a non-profit organization under the Federal tax laws. This will be advan-
tageous with regard to postal rates for the Journal and tax deductible contri-
butions.

Again I wish to remind members that they are entitled to one free expertization
per year with their paid-up membership. The only cost is the return postage
of their submission.

In closing, again I ask that members who wish to publish articles to please
send them to us. If illustrations are needed we can provide photographs of
your material. "Xeroxes" usually do not provide sufficient clarity.

A final note. Please remember to send us your changes of address; otherwise
you will not receive your Journals.


EXPERTIZATION

As noted in the Life of the Society (Rossica No. 92, page 3) one of the privileges
of membership in Rossica is one free expertization per membership year. The
referenced announcement has given rise to several questions which require
clarification. Policy on these free expertizations is as follows:

1. Only one free expertization per membership year.
2. The privilege must be used during the membership year--it cannot
be accumulated. The service was begun in the 1978 membership year,
and prior membership in the Society has no bearing.
3. The item must be submitted on the official experitzation form
available from Norman Epstein.
4. Return postage must be included.
5. Only one item per experization form.

Anyone wishing to avail himself of this service merely has to write our
Treasurer and Chairman of the Expertization Committee, Norman Epstein, at
33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11226 enclosing a legal size 4 1/4 x
9 1/2") stamped envelope for an expertization form. When submitting material
for free expertization, the owner must provide return postage for his material.
Items submitted will be expertized by Rossica members specializing in the
various aspects of Russian philately.


NOTICE
For the most recent issues of the Rossica Journal, several members have
complained that they did not receive their Journals. In order to improve
this situation, we ordered new, hardier mailing envelopes and had them printed
with a return address and guarantee of return postage. The U. S. Postal
Service will neither forward nor return undeliverable copies of our Journal
unless forwarding or return postage has been guaranteed.

As it turned out in the case of previous Journal issues, some members who
complained of not receiving journals had new addresses and had not so notified
Rossica. In order to improve this situation as well, if in the future your


4








journal is returned to Rossica because you changed address and failed to
notify us, you will have to pay an additional $2.00 for postage and handling
to get your journal remained. We will continue to make every effort to keep
* our mailing list up to date, but it is the member's responsibility to keep
Rossica informed of his correct, current address.

Volume 93 of the Rossica Journal for the following members was return be the Postal
Service as not deliverable with the last address we have. Any members knowing
their whereabouts, please notify the Secretary. If your name is on the list,
please send the Secretary your new address and include $2.00 if you wish a copy
of Volume 93 remained to you.

994 Millard W. Allen, West Patterson, New Jersey

919 Fred A. Decker, Lees Summit, Missouri

977 Irwin W. Fisk, North Hollywood, California

935 Clifford A. Moss, San Francisco, California

631 Merlynd Nestell, Arlington, Texas

1001 Robert Oldenberg, Ann Arbor, Michigan

870 William J. Spahr, Alexandria, Virginia

1017 Christer Warfringe, Sweden

866 Roy C. Zartarian, Newington, Connecticut

ADDRESS CHANGES/CORRECTIONS

40 Walter Frauenlob, Postfach 1457, CH 3001, Bern, Switzerland

631 Merlynd Nestell, 508 B-2 Cora Street, Arlington, Texas 76011

850 John H, Kress, 1236 Brainerd Avenue, Duluth, Minnesota 55811

920 Peter Barrett, 20 Stuyvesant Oval, Apt. 12E, New York, New York 10009

927 Hiroshi Yoshikawa, 91G Kennsington Court, Guilderland, New York 12084

952 Robert L. Trbovich, 307 Yoakum Parkway, Apt. 1120, Alexandria, Virginia 22304

980 David Skipton, 401 Hideaway Loop, Glen Burnie, Maryland 21061

1027 CW3 Robert Edward Spaulding, USACC Activity Inscom, Box 2158, APO New York 09458

1032 Francis R. Elliott, P.O. Box 3431, Lennox, California 90304





5








WARNING TO COLLECTORS


SOVIET 1924-1925 ISSUE

For some time most collectors of early Soviet stamps have been aware of
forged examples of the 15 kopek value yellow "small head" of the 1924-1925
issue (Scott No. 287, Gibbons 369). Forged copies of this stamp have appeared
at auction during the past several years.

In general, these forgeries have not been particularly dangerous if caution
is taken in examining them. Two basic tests pretty well assured the cautious
collector. First, the genuine stamp is not watermarked and some forgeries
were on the watermarked paper of the following issue. Second, most forgeries
were made by taking a Scott 278a (Gibbons 386), the perf 12 variety, and
reperforating it to 14 1/2 x 15. The same could be said for Gibbons 386a,
listed imperforate in a pair. In the case of the perforated 12 varieties,
the technique to detect a reperforated item was to compare its size with a
copy of one of the cheaper stamps of the set, preferably a used one with a
dated cancellation. Reperfing the perf. 12 necessitated making the fake stamp
smaller. If the stamp is smaller in size it is a faked one.



















Forgery Genuine
Figure 1

However, the art of forgery has progressed with the help of the latest techniques
in art and printing technology. A new "family" of forgeries recently has been
discovered by the Rossica Expertization Comnittee. The former criteria for
detecting a forged 287 are no longer valid in all cases. This family of
forgeries appears to have emanated from Canada. This does not imply that they
have been produced there, rather that they have been filtered through that
country. There is reason to believe that soon they will appear in the U.S.
and abroad.


6








So far three different examples have surfaced. A "new" 15 kopek (Scott 287) has
been discovered; one whose characteristicsare so close to the original that it
defies detection, except by comparison with a "pedigreed" genuine copy, and
then only with the help of instrumentation available only to a few collectors.
(see Fig. 1.) More recently the 10 and 30 kopek stamps of the series of 1924
(Scott 262 and 263, Gibbons 388 and 399) have appeared as forgeries. The
forgeries so far seen have been unused and in multiples. Use of the common
perforation guage is fruitless in detecting any appreciable difference. Also,
they practically defy visual comparison with the genuine article. These
forgeries are lithographed, just as are the genuine; the colors match well,
and the paper closely resembles that of the originals, as does the gum.
However, there are detectable differences in the fluorescense and perforations.
These findings have been concurred in by one of philately's foremost experts.

We urge our members to exercise caution when acquiring valuable stamps of
these issues. It may be well to be suspicious of the cheaper ones, too. Of
course, paid up Rossica members may exercise their privilege of availing
themselves of the free annual experitzation of an item with their annual
membership.
Gordon Torrey &
Norman Epstein



RAILWAY CANCELLATIONS

A number of scarce Russian cancellations (mainly of the Chinese Eastern Railway)
which were recently offered on sale either via auctioneers or via direct con-
tacts, have proven to be extremely dangerous forgeries.

The origin of these forgeries has now been traced to the U.S.S.R. and in the
western world they have so far shown up in France, Germany and the United
Kingdom.

The accompanying figures represent a complete set of illustrations of the
forged cancellations discovered thus far.








C t ... -. -

S -





YAOMING MAULING

7








We had thought at first that the cancellers had mobile dates, but this assump-
tion proved luckily wrong. Besides the Chinese Eastern Railway cancellations,
forged covers were offered: a) A double oval of the R.O.P.I.T.'S "PAR. KORNILOV"
and b) "ULYASUTAI MONGOLIA" addressed to "VERNYI".

Most of these have been copied from the Tchilinghirian Stephen "Russia Used
Abroad" books incorporating some of the inevitable mistakes, or imperfections
of the reproductions.









ANDA DJALAINOR













SHWANGCHENPU FULYA-ERDI


I, .








ASHIKHE EKHO











IMYANGPO MYANGDUKHE









Although we have some reasons to believe that this flow will stop, some of the
material may still be offered to western philatelists.

S If you have any doubts about the one that may be offered to you, contact any
of the well known experts:

Mr. Z. MIKULSKI Mr. Roger CALVES
Kamelenberstr. 15 8, rue Drouot
CH 39011 ST GALLEN 75009 PARIS
Switzerland France

Michel Liphschutz &
Igor Maslowski



NEW MEMBERS

1036 Terence E. Page, 101 Pymers Mead,Dulwich, London, SE21 8MJ, England

1037 Rev. William O'Hara, 14 Lakeview Drive,Penn Lake Star Route, White
Haven, Pennsylvania 18661

1038 Michael Zaitseff, 2138 Hampstead Road,Homebush West NSW2140 Australia

1039 Alan J. Uram, 561 Geneva Street Apt. 203, Aurora, Colorado 80010

S 1040 Xenophon G. Christopher, 54 Fair Avenue, San Francisco, California 94110

1041 Barry D. Hoffman, 739 Boylston Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02116

1042 Charles Rehwinkel, 59 Warren Street, New York, New York 10007

1043 Nancy Joe Weeks, 1853 St. Julian Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29407

1044 Nils Agrell, 377 Chestnut Place, Mineola, New York 11501

1045 Peter A. Michalove, 1416 N. McKinky #5, Champaign, Illinois 61820

1046 Mark K. Zilambo, 2095 Thomas Avenue, San Leandro, California 94577

1047 Dr. Charles W. Fanning, 4611 Lowell Boulevard, Denver, Colorado 80211

1048 Michael R. Gottschall, 908 Marcy Avenue #202, Oxon Hill, Maryland 20021

1049 Anthony J. Nikischer, 7 Grover Road, Dover, New Jersey 07801

1050 Robert Burnett Goodspeed, 981 Plymouth Street, Bridgewater, Mass. 02324

1051 Giamsiacomo Orlandini, c/o Philastamps Auction Co., Muhlenplatz 5,
CH 6004 Lucerne, Switzerland



9








MEMBER TO MEMBER ADLETS

The purpose of the member to member adlet section is to allow members to
advertise special requirements and interests and to make contact with fellow
collectors for the acquisition of needed material and information. The adlets
are not designed for purely commercial users, but as a service to individual
collectors in the pursuit of their philatelic inquiries. The rates have been
kept purposelynominalto cover printing costs only. Due to minimum printing
page format requirements and cut off deadlines, Rossica cannot guarantee that
such adlets will be printed in the next Journal, issue, but all ads will be
processed on a first come, first served basis. Finally, since Rossica cannot
assume any responsibility for transactions resulting from members responses
to adlets nor get involved with mediating disputes, members are cautioned to
be fair in offering and honest in responding. Any material of value sent
through the mails should be insured for each member's protection. The regu-
lations and prices for adlets are as follows:

1) Rossica adlets will be limited to 6 Journal lines, each consisting of 75
characters or spaces per line.
2) The price per adlet line is $1.00 per issue.
3. Each adlet must include the name and address of the member placing the ad.
4) No general buy or sell ads will be accepted as adlets. The Journal makes
different provisions for strictly commercial advertisements.
5) Adlet service is available to Rossica members only.
6) All adlets will be accompanied by a check for the correct amount made out
to: Mr. Normal Epstein, Treasurer, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11226
7) All adlets and checks will be mailed to Dr. Kennedy L. Wilson, Secretary,
7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, Virginia 22043.

---------------------------------------
DOTS/NUMERAL CANCELLATIONS: I would like to make contact with any collectors
of dot/numeral cancellations. I am interested in dot/numeral cancellations
of all forms for my collection. WALTER FRAUENLOB, Postfach 1457, CH 3 o o 1,
Bern, Switzerland.
-- ------------------------------------------------
WANTED: Russia 485-6 S/S, B42, C4a, C7a (mint or used). ANDREW SWATKOVSKY,
Poolville Road, Hubbardsville, New York 11335.
-- ------------------------------------------------
WANTED: RUSSIAN REVENUE, fiscal, vignette, label and cinderella stamps,
plus revenue & legal paper, paper seals, bills of exchange cutouts, and
any revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial, civil
war & Soviet. Will exchange or purchase. MARTIN CERINI, 37 Wyoming Drive,
Hunt Station, New York 11746.

-- ------------------------------------------------
WANTED: MONGOLIA, Scott #1 through 61, including perforation varieties and
errors, surcharge varieties. Please state condition and price. KENNEDY
WILSON, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, Virginia 22943.



10-----------------------------------








IMPERIAL POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA ISSUED IN 1857-1888

V. V. Lobachevski

Published in Soviet Collector No. 14, 1976 & No. 15, 1977
Translated by George V. Shalimoff and Robert Trbovich
1977


This article is a revised and condensed catalog of the postage stamps
of Imperial Russia. It covers the period of the classical stamps of the
imperial post (but not including the local posts and telegraph). In order
to limit the volume of this article, the list of the Russian numeral dot
cancellations and the Polish circled numbers cancellations are not included.

In assembling the catalog, the author used a large number of Russian
and foreign literature sources, archive materials (TsGIA USSR and the
archives of the A. S. Popov Central Museum of Communication in Leningrad),
data obtained by the study of Soviet collections, from the descriptions of
foreign collections of Russian stamps (according to foreign auction catalogs),
as well as from the study of some actual stamps by the author.

For the descriptions of the first three issues of stamps, significant
material was given in the research articles which appeared in recent years
in the journals "Philately of the USSR" and the "Soviet Collector."

Information about the special catalog and the designations used in it
are given below.
The material is presented according to the issuance of the stamps,
following in chronological order. The characteristics of each issue are
given at the beginning.

Varieties are divided into 5 groups. They are designated with capital
letters:
A color varieties

B cliche or design varieties

C paper varieties

D perforation

E typographic errors

This type of division for the varieties, in the author's view, makes
the recognition of the differences and the systematic collection of the
stamps much more easy. It also allows selection for specialization of not
all but at least the different groups of varieties. Thus for the first
stage of completion of a specialized collection, one can restrict oneself
to varieties of one group, for example, color the A varieties.



11








All the different stamps are numbered in order. The numbers of these
stamps are given first. After the number of the different stamp, the
number of its design is given.

For the designations of varieties, a code is used consisting of the
number of the basic stamp with letters added to it, designating the variety
group. Then there follows in order a small alphabet letter designating the
specific stamp in the given variety group.

Examples: lBa stamp No. 1, cliche variety a

IBb stamp No. 1, cliche variety b

ICa stamp No. 1, paper variety a

1Cb stamp No. 1, paper variety b

In this catalog only several stamp cliche varieties are included. For
a more complete classification of the many various cliche varieties a greater
investigational effort would be required which could result in the publi-
cation of a specialized monograph.

We can also say the same about the stamped cancellations. The author
attempted to classify the stamped cancellations only according to their
different types. The numerous types of cancellations used by the postal
authorities are still not completely investigated. The author admits that
several types of cancellations have been omitted. The figures of the stamped
cancellation types have their own numeration, using the letters SC before a
number.

The collection value of a stamp is expressed in a fixed number of points.
A point refers to the value of a canceled example of the most common stamp
of pre-revolutionary Russia, the 7 kopek value of the 1908 issue with the
vertical varnish line network (released after 1910).

For separate varieties, in place of points to designate their rarity,
a five level rating using the letter R (from 1-4) is used. But in the cases
where only one example of a catalogued item is known, the word "unique" (the
5th level) is used. Values are given at the right in two columns, the first
for unused, the second for stamps with stamped cancels.

In a few cases there are given premiums to the stamp values. In these
cases where in front of the premium there is a plus (+) mark, the full value
is determined by the addition of the premium to the value of the stamp. In
the case of a combination of several stamps, the addition of the premium is
to the value of all the stamps.

All values are for stamps in good condition, unused stamps with original
gum. Hinges or hinge marks are tolerated. For other means of cancellation,
comments are made in the text of the catalog.






12









The following abbreviations are used in this catalog:

Wm or wtmk watermark TC test cancel
perf perforation SC stamped cancel
imperf imperforate EZGB Printing Office for Government
Obligations

All dates are given in the old style (according to the Julian calendar of the
time). To convert time to the Gregorian calendar, add 12 days. This manuscript
was specially edited by Professor K. A. Berngard.


FIRST ISSUE

(Scott No. 1)

1857, December. Typographed two-color printing. Design of white coat of arms
in relief on a colored center of the stamp. Designed and engraved by F.
Kepler. Size of the design 16.3 x 22.4 mm. Printed by EZGB. White paper,
various thicknesses. Watermarked with numeral "1" Imperforate.























1 1 10 kop. dark brown and sky blue

a. mint with original gum 85000

al. unused without gum 25000

b. stamped cancellation 6750

c. pen and stamped cancellation 4750

d. pen cancellation 3400


13









VARIETIES



LAa 10 kop. brown and sky blue 7250

lAb 10 kop. dull grayish-dark brown
and sky blue 7500



IBa 10 kop. reengraved cliche: small "1"
in "10" in upper right corner.
The dots of the second line
of the background from the
top on the left side are
frequently substituted with
strokes 12500

lBb 10 kop. reengraved cliche: small "1"
with corrected strokes in
upper right lines of back-
ground with dots 12500

IBc 10 kop. secondary numeral "1" in
"10" in upper right corner +5001

IBd 10 kop. with "dot" after the "10"
in the line "10 KOP: ZA LOT" RRRR 15000







l* I ,,,, ,

","i' 4



IBa lBb lBc



1The values of the varieties and the premiums to be added (+) are for stamps
with stamped cancellations. The values or the premiums added to the values
of the varieties of stamps canceled with both pen and stamped cancels should
be reduced 30% and those just pen canceled should be reduced 50%.


14









1Be 10 kop. "open 0" in "10" in lower
left corner +1000

1Bf 10 kop. "keyhole shape" in place of
oval in the "0" of the "10"
in lower left corner2 RR







a. 0.075-0.08 mm +500
its, ai ., ..







lBd lBe lBf


ICa 10 kop. on thin paper (referring to
the paper thickness of this
issue)

a. 0.075-0.08 mm +500

b. 0.07 mm and thinner +2500


lCb 10 kop. on thick paper

a. 0.11-0.115 mm +750

b. 0.12 mm and thicker +2000


lEa 10 kop. inverted watermark


Covers with mixed franking, that is No. 1 and stamps of the second issue with
perforations RRR. Full sheets as well as unused blocks and strips of No. 1
are not known. Several unused pairs are known RRRR. One horizontal pair
-tv










with original white gum is found in the national collection kept in the A.S.
Popov Central Museum of Communication in Leningrad.



2This variety was discovered in 1975 by the French philatelist, M. Lipshutz,
and was described in his article "Russia No. 1," Documents philateliques,
3-e trimestre, 1975, tome XIV, N 65, Academie de philatelie, Paris.


15








Used strips of three RRR. One pen canceled strip of five is known,3 as
well as a canceled strip of four on cover with cancel SC2 (Odessa) unique.
Examples with parts of the margins of the sheet or gutter of the sheet (a
strip of around 10 mm between the panes of 25 stamps) RR. Corner examples
with parts of two margins RRR. Stamps with the complete margin edge of
a sheet (margin width of around 25 mm) are not known.


Premiums to be Added to the Value of a Stamp

Combination Stamped Cancel Stamped Cancel Pen Cancel
with Pen Cancel only

Horizontal or Vertical Pair +11000 +7500 +5500

Stamp on Cover +8500 +5000 +3250

A Complete Clear Cancel +1000 +1000

Examples with 4 margins
all around of 1 mm +1000 +500 +500


HISTORICAL DATA

On November 12, 1856 the issuance in Russia of a postage stamp was approved
for payment for ordinary private correspondence within the country. On
October 20, 1857 the specimen of the first stamp was approved. On December 10,
1857 Circular No. 3 of the Postal Department announced the issuance of three
postage stamps with the values of 10, 20 and 30 kop., corresponding to the
weights of letters of 1, 2, and 3 lot, where 1 lot (Russian) in the old
weight measurement equals 12.797 grams. This same circular urged the post-
masters to do the following:

1. to quickly place the stamps on sale as soon as they are received;

2. on January 1, 1858 (March 1 in Siberia, the Caucausus and Trans-caucausus
regions) to accept ordinary private letters with appropriate stamps corres-
ponding to weight addressed anywhere within the empire, Czarist Poland and
the Grand Duchy of Finland (Finland used its own means of postal payment,
stamped envelopes since 1845 and postage stamps since 1856);

3. to retain without change in postal circulation the stamped envelopes;

4. to accept money letters (with money enclosed), insured mail with enclosed
valuable things, parcels addressed beyond the borders, as well as mail
addressed to the Czar's home, all of which were to be paid immediately in
cash upon presentation to the post office.



3Catalog "Les Timbre-Poste de la Russie Imperiale" Cercle Philatelique
France URSS, Paris, 1964, page 47.

16








Government correspondence carried by the post was free.

The postal department ordered the Printing Office of Government Obligations
(EZGB) to prepare all the first issue stamps perforated. However, the
perforation machine ordered in Vienna arrived late to Russia and was not
operational. That is why part of the 10 kopek stamps were issued imperforate.
Distribution to the post offices was started in December 857. The earliest
date of sale was December 12, 1857 in the city of Vyatka. The statistical
date of the postal administration showed that in December the Vyatka
Government (gubernia) post office senq 328 letters and the Kazan post office
sent 473 letters franked with stamps.

Letters with the 10 kopek imperforate canceled Taurogen, December 31, 1857
are also known.o

The perforated 10, 20 and 30 kop. postage stamps (second issue) were placed
into circulation in the beginning of 1858.


SPECIAL INFORMATION


DESIGN: Oval center with the coat of arms of the Postal Department (national
coat of arms two headed eagle with the postal emblem below two crossed
posthorns) within an oval frame in which is written "POCHTOVAYA MARKA" and
"10 kop : ZA LOT." The frame is surrounded by a facsimile of the imperial
mantle with a crown. Beneath the mantle is repeated the text "10 KOP :
ZA LOT" (10 kopeks for one lot). The design is bordered with a straight
cornered frame with ornamented corners with the numeral "10." There is also
a thin delicate frame. The background between the inner frame and the
mantle consists of alternating rows of small lines and dots.

PRINTING: The stamps were printed with copper cliches in two operations.
First the paper received the relief impression of the coat of arms with the
contour line of the oval and the center of the stamp and was printed in blue
ink. Then the remaining part of the design was printed with brown ink.

PAPER: The paper is white, basically stiff. The sheets were prepared by
hand with a watermark for each stamp in the form of a numeral 1 around 15 mm
high. On the margins of the sheets appear the words "POCHTOVAYA" in the
left margin, "MARKA" in the top margin, "V 10 KOP SER" (in 10 kop. silver)
in the right margin, and in the lower margin "1857." These watermarks were



4Kaminskii, B. "The Beginning of Circulation of the First Postage Stamps
in Russia" Philately of the USSR, 1971, No. 2, page 13.

5Kaminskii, B. "All has Not Been told Yet" Philately of the USSR, 1972,
No. 7. page VI, Tables 1 and 2.
6Berngard, K. "Document, Specifying the Beginning of Circulation of the Postage
Stamp in Russia" Philately of the USSR, 1970, No. 9, page 14.

17








made by a thickening of the paper. On the 20 and 30 kop. sheets, the printing
in the right margin corresponded to the value of the stamp and the watermark
for each stamp was the numeral 2 or 3 representing the weight in lots which
the stamps prepaid.

The face side of the sheets were coated with a layer of clay solution, mixed
with Spanish whiting. This layer gave the paper a smooth surface on which
the ink adhered well and prevented curling of the sheets from temperature
and dry air. The hand preparation caused considerable variation in thickness,
from very thin to very thick. Even within one stamp the thickness can vary.
For that reason, an average thickness is obtained from measurements in the
areas of the four corners. Thickness is not measured in the area occupied
by the watermark.

There are two complete sheets of the original paper watermarked "1" RRR, as
well as separate cut pieces from a sheet in the size of one or several stamps -
R.

There are two complete sheets of paper for the 20 kop. stamps RRRR. One of
them is in the British Museum.


PRINTED SHEETS: The stamps were printed 100 to a sheet consisting of four
blocks or panes of 25 stamps (5 x 5). Sheet size is 236 x 296 mm.

Sizes of Sheet Margins (from the frame of the design)

Width of Margin, mm

Sheet Margin Horizontal Vertical

Edge Margins 25 25

Between the panes of
25 stamps (gutter) 10 10

Distance between two
stamps 1.6 1.7


GUM: The gum is white, transparent, apparently gum arabic, coated on the
reverse side of the stamp in an even layer. The use of gum with a yellowish
brown tone on the 10 kop. imperf stamps is not yet confirmed.

NUMBER ISSUED AND PERIOD OF SALE: The number issued for Stamp No. 1 was
3 million copies.7 In 1857, 10,150 stamps were sold.8 There are no data
for the number sold in later years because the statistics of the Postal
Department only took into account the number sold of each denomination. The
number of stamps sold of each issue was not recorded.

7Kaminskii, B. "Numbers Issued of the First Postage Stamp of Russia" -
Philately of the USSR, 1970, No. 11, Table 1.

8Postal Statistics," St. Petersburg Postal Department, 1879.
18









CANCELLATIONS

PEN CANCELS (FIRST PERIOD): In Circular No. 3 dated December 10, 1857, the
Postal Department ordered that stamps on letters be canceled with a pen, with
crossed strokes using black ink. Stamps that were not canceled when corres-
pondence was accepted were to be canceled before release to the addressee.
At the same time a hand stamp of the pre-stamp period was to be placed on the
letter indicating the date and place of sending and receival. Sometimes these
data were handwritten.

STAMPED CANCELS OF THE PRE-STAMP PERIOD (SECOND PERIOD): Due to the inconvenience
of pen canceling the stamps as well as the number of cases of reuse of pen can-
celed stamps, the Postal Department in Circular No. 138 dated February 26, 1858
directed that the hand stamps of the pre-stamp period be used for the cancella-
tions until the issuance of separate cancellers.

These hand stamps are divided into four basic types by form:
1. straight line cancels of one, two or three rows (SC1 and SCla);
2. straight line with text within a rectangle (SC2 and SC2a);
3. oval (SC3 and SC3a);
4. round (SC4 and SC4a).

Each type of stamped cancel depending on the context of information is, in turn,
divided into two types:
a. with the name of the office and date of sending;
b. with only the name of the sending office.

Cancellers of the latter type (SC2a, SC3a and SC4a) usually had a space to
write in the date with ink.

HAI14 A OTfPAB. rATl'.
17. hon 1859. MilTABA A s __]e


SC1 SCla SC2 SC2a







SC5 SCsa sc4 SC4a

All four types of stamped cancels of the pre-stamp period are characterized by
various forms, sizes and shapes of the letters and other details of the design.
There exist cancels with Latin letters. The post offices of Dinaburg (pre-
sently Daugavpils), K ev, Kovno (Kaunas) and Berdichev had special cancellers
to obliterate stamps. Cancels without dates simply had the name of the city
(SC5, SC6, SC7, and SC8).

9Prigara, S. V. "Russian Post in the Empire, Turkey, and China, and the Post
in Czarist Poland, a Detailed Reference Book," New York, 1941, page 77.
19








There similarly exists two diamond-shaped cancels of the pre-stamp period
(SC9) with the text in Latin letters for the use in the post office of the
port of Odessa and for the foreign correspondence forwarding office
(ekspedtsiya) in St. Petersburg.

Circular No. 138 announced that St. Petersburg and Moscow post offices would
use separate dot cancellers (circular form) with the numeral No. 1 for St.
Petersburg and No. 2 for Moscow (SC10).









SC5 sc6 sc7




SDrsA .......





SC9 SC1o

SC8

There were two types of the St. Petersburg cancel with three concentric rings
of dots: one had four additional dots within the innermost circle, two dots
to the right and two dots to the left of the numeral 1; the second simply
had the numeral 1. It is also known that in the first part of February 1858
in St. Petersburg a canceller with four concentric rings of dots and four
additional dots in the center with the numeral 1 was use RRR. The diameter
of this cancel is 26 mm instead of the 21.5 mm in SCI0.

NUMERAL DOT CANCELS (THIRD PERIOD): With Circulars No. 1817 dated May 31,
1858 and No. 157 dated August 7, 1858, the main postal administration offered
to all post offices numeral dot cancellers in place of the cancellers of the
pre-stamp period. Each post office was given a number corresponding to the
name of the local station in which it was located.

There were six types of these cancellers:
1. round (SC10) with numbers 1 to 60 for the two capitol post offices
of St. Petersburg and Moscow and 58 post offices in the governments

10Dobin, M. "First Stamped Cancels of St. Petersburg" Philately of the
USSR,5,1975, No. 3, page 30.

20








(gubernias), regions (oblasts) and miliatry region cities (use of these cancels
in St. Petersburg and Moscow were sanctioned earlier in Circular No. 138. See
the second period);
2. rectangular (SC11) with numbers 1 to 608 for the post offices in the
district (uyezd) cities. Numbers 609 to 619 were added in the period from
October 1859 to January 1861;
3. Oval shaped (SC12) with the numbers 1 to 9 for the frontier post
offices;
4. hexagon shaped with points at the top and bottom (SC13) with the
numbers 1 to 10 for the railroad stations at St. Petersburg and Moscow and
for the postal wagons of the Nikolaevski (currently Oktoberskoi) railroad
line. In 1861 the numbers 11 to 17 were added for the postal divisions of
the Warsaw station in St. Petersburg and the postal wagons of the Warsaw -
St. Petersburg railroad line;
5. hexagon shaped with the points to the sides (SC14), with numbers
1 to 82 for the post offices of the small towns and villages. From October
1858 to June 1862 the numbers 83 to 103 were added;
6. triangle shaped with the points flattened (SC15) with numbers 1 to
622 for the postal stations on the post roads. Numbers 623 to 1700 were
added after October 1858. These numbers were for the postal divisions at
the railroad stations as well as for the steamship agents of the Russian post
in Turkey.




"S...... SC12 SC1 SC14 15
0ie ..o0







CANCELLATIONS IN POLAND: The use of Imperial postage stamps (together with
stamped envelopes) for ordinary private correspondence was introduced in
Poland completely on January 1, 1858. The Russian postage stamps of the
first three issues were canceled with Polish cancellers proceeding the first
Polish stamp which was released into circulation in December 1859 (Julian
calendar).

In the Polish post offices a circular numeral canceller was used consisting
of four concentric rings with a number in the center, numbered 1 to 269
(SC16). These cancellers were introduced by order of the administrator of
the postal circle of Czarist Poland in Circular No. 5951, dated March 15,
1858. With the opening of new postal forwarding offices in 1858-1860 the
additional numbers 270 to 345 were used. The following cancels are rare:
a cancel consisting of six concentric rings with a dot in the center (SC16a),
cancels 18.5 mm in diameter (SC17) and a 25 mm diameter cancel with the
name of the city in Russian or Latin letters (SC17a).



21
















SC16 SC16a SC17 SC17a




The imperial markings of postal payment were removed from circulation in
Poland on March 20, 1860, according to Circular No. 55 of the main postal
administration, dated March 4, 1860. They were reintroduced on February 1,
1865 with the curtailment of the use of the Polish markings for postage
payment on April 1, 1865.

Premiums to Be Added to the Value
of Stamp No. 1 for Certain Cancels

SC3 +1500 SC17, black ink +3750
red ink +5000
SC4 +1000
SC17a with black or
SC2a, SC3a, SC4a red link +3750
with date in ink +1250
Other cancellations:
SC5, SC6, SC7 +1500
Red ink cancels of the
SC8 +1000 pre-stamp period +3750

SC9 +6000 Red ink dot cancels +5000

SC16 +1500 Blue ink cancels of
the pre-stamp period RR
SC16a +3750


FALSIFIED STAMPS TO DECEIVE THE COLLECTOR

1. There are crude forgeries of old origin. Printed by lithography, the
background consists of poorly resolved vertical lines instead of rows of
dashes and dots. Unwatermarked.

2. False unused stamps were made by removal of the ink from used stamps.
Traces of the indentation of the cancel may sometimes be seen with a strong
magnifying glass and in all cases they can easily be observed under a quartz
ultraviolet lamp. Stamps which have had the cancellation removed are often
found regummed.

3. Genuine uncanceled stamps have been regummed. Characteristics of
the fake are the relief embossing of the coat of arms and the lines of the
enclosing oval frame do not stand out because they are filled in with gum.
In all cases qualified expertization is needed.
22








REUSE OF STAMPS

There are separate cases of reuse of stamps to defraud the post office. Canceled
S stamps were again glued onto letters and were canceled postally a second time.
On cover or on piece RR. There are cases of the reuse of stamps with washed-
off cancels. On cover R.


ESSAYS AND PROOFS11 & 12

The projected designs, the working out of the technical details, and methods
of preparation of the first Russian postage stamp was carried out by the
Printing Office for Government Obligations together with the Postal Depart-
ment. As a result of these efforts the Printing Office released different
varieties of essays and proofs.

ROUND DESIGN ESSAYS OF 1856: The engraver was Kirkhner using a sketch by
Reikhel. Type A and Type B had design diameters of 28.8 mm, Type C had a
diameter of 27.5 mm, all with images in the center. On Type A the image was
the coat of arms of the Postal Administration (national coat of arms a
two headed eagle with two intersecting posthorns below the eagle). Type B
has the head of Mercury and Type C had the coat of arms of the Postal Admini-
stration (the design of the national eagle was different).

Type A 10 kop. typographed, printed on white,
yellowish toned paper, un-
watermarked and imperforate.

a. one color (four varieties
of color of the design)

b. two colored (light blue
with black center)




SType A

Type B 10 kop. typographed, printed on white,
yellowish and greyish toned
paper, unwatermarked and
imperforate.

a. one color (four varieties
of color of the design)

Type B b. two colored with grey-black
center and colored frame (3 color
varieties)
11Kaminskii,B. "The History of the Creation and Introduction of Postage
Stamps in Russia" Philately of the USSR, 1970, No. 7, page 11.
12Kaminskii, B. and Kristi, C. "Russian Proofs" Soviet Collector, 1974,
No. 12, page 37.
23








Type C 10 kop. typographed printing with
embossed coat of arms of the
Postal Administration with
text in the frame:
"1 KOP: ZA KONV:", meaning
1 kopek for the envelope.
Unwatermarked paper and
imperforate. :;.

a. black design on white as "
well as on colored papers '
(5 varieties of paper colors) .i

al. as above with perfo-
rations around the design of
the stamp (6 paper color ':
varieties) V 41%

b. two colored the back-
ground of the center and the
frame are different colors
(16 stamp color varieties).
Type C
All the stamp essays with the round design were not used.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: There are known stamps of Types A and B glued onto
envelopes and canceled on a press with a test cancel, TC1, in black ink as
well as indented with a dry canceller without ink. There is also known a
stamp of Type C cancelled with a hand stamp, TC2.

















TC1 TC2

One may assume that there exist additional shade varieties of the stamps,
especially on Type Ab,


24








FORGERIES: There are forgeries of stamps with the eagle on a green back-
ground, made to defraud collectors. The specific distinguishing characteristics
of the fake are vertical lines of varying thickness in the background of the
center. On genuine copies the center background is made with a fine screen.

PROOFS WITH THE RECTANGULAR DESIGN OF NOVEMBER 1856 AND ESSAYS: Trial proofs
were prepared by the Printing Office from engravings by F. M. Kepler, developed
from a project design of the Russian stamp presented to him by the Postal
Administration in October 1856. They were executed according to the demands
of the Post Department and the commission of the Post Department and Printing
Office simultaneously as specimens for the preparation of colored proofs. In








J br *; # -

O-i

." t .















Type Da Type D

working on the design of the first Russian stamp, F. M. Kepler may have
possibly used the essay Type Da prepared by the Austrian company Gottlieb
Haase's Sons. No value was indicated. It was typographed in two colors
with an embossed center of the Austrian national coat of arms. The text
was German. Unwatermarked and imperforate. Several examples of different
shades are known.

Type D 10 kop. black, rectangular design with a white oval in the center,
various kinds of white paper, unwatermarked and imperforate.
Several examples are known. In the margins of some of them
there is printed "F. Kepler" in Russian letters.
25








1857


Type E 10 kop. design of stamp No. 1. Engraved by F. Kepler.
Two colored typographed writing with white embossed coat
of arms of the Postal Administration. Prepared by the
Printing Office of Government Obligations in various
color combinations. Some of the stamps were printed on
white unwatermarked paper, some on paper watermarked
with the numeral "1". Some of the proof stamps were
printed on individual sheets of paper, imperforate.

Of the examples of proofs, three varieties were set apart as specimen of
color and polygraphic execution of the first Russian stamp. They were re-
printed and glued to a separate sheet of paper and presented for confirmation.
These were approved as specimen stamps on October 20, 1857 and are not kept
at the Goznak Museum of the USSR in Moscow (unique). These described essays
and proofs RRR.


SECOND ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 2, 3, and 4)

1858, January and February. Typographed two-color printing. The 10 kopek
value was the same design and stamp No. 1. The 20 and 30 kopek values
differed in the denomination only on the design. Engraved by F. Kepler.
Prepared by EZGB. White paper, various thicknesses. Watermarked with the
numeral "1" on the 10 kop. values, the numeral "2" on the 20 kop. values,
and the numeral "3" on the 30 kop. values. Perforated with frame perforator
14 1/2 x 15.








"1






)Oil. X .
I '





10 kopek 20 kopek 30 kopek




26








2 1 10 kop. brown and sky blue
(January 1858) 20000 600

3 2 20 kop. dark blue and orange
(February 1858) 42500 8250

4 3 30 kop. carmine and yellow-
green (February 1858) 40000 11000

ADDENDA: The values for examples of uncanceled stamps without gum are
reduced from the values given for stamps with gum as follows: No. 2 30%,
No. 3 and No. 4 50%.


VARIETIES


2Aa 10 kop. dark brown and sky blue 21000 600

2Ab 10 kop. pale brown and sky blue 21500 750

2Ba 10 kop. secondary "1" in the "10"
in upper right corner
(12th and 84th stamps on
sheet) 22500 1000

2Bb 10 kop. large "1" in "10" in upper
right corner
.(78th stamp on sheet) 22500 1250

2Ca 10 kop. on thin paper (referring
to the paper thickness of
this issue)
a. 0.075-0.08 mm +150
b. 0.07 mm and thinner +250

2Cb 10 kop. on thick paper
a. 0.11-0.115 mm +150
b. 0.12 mm and thicker +500

2Ea 10 kop. mirror impression of center
on back (penetration) RR

2Eb 10 kop. horizontal shift of the
watermark (part of the
watermark on the right,
part on the left) RRR

3Aa 20 kop. blue and orange 45000 8250

3Ba 20 kop. "straight back" of the 2
in "20" in upper right
corer of the stamp 9500


27








3Bb 20 kop. part of the upper frame
line of the design appears
as dots RR

3Bc 20 kop. part of the design frame
line in lower left corner
appears as dots RR

3Ca 20 kop. on thin paper
a. 0.07-0.075 mm +750
b. 0.065 mm and thinner +1500

3Cb 20 kop. on thick paper
a. 0.11-0.115 mm +1000
b. 0.12 mm and thicker +2000

3Ea 20 kop. horizontal shift of the
watermark (part of the
watermark on the right,
part on the left) 13500

3Eb 20 kop. inverted watermark unique

4Aa 30 kop. carmine-red and yellow-green 42500 12000

4Ca 30 kop. on thin paper
a. 0.065-0.075 mm +1000
b. 0.06 mm and thinner +2000

4Cb 30 kop. on thick paper
a. 0.11-0.115 mm +1250
b. 0.12 mm and thicker +2000

ADDENDA:
1. There exists a large piece from an envelope with half of a No. 3 stamp,
cut diagonally. It was used in place of a 10 kop. stamp, canceled in
Berdichev (SC8) RRRR.

2. On April 4, 1858 the Printing Office for Government Obligations had
printed two sheets (200 copies) of 10 kop. imperforate stamps as galley
proofs for examples of stamp No. 2. These sheets were destined for the
Postal Department as specimen stamps, printed on somewhat thin paper.


Premiums to be Added to the Values of the Stamps

Value in Kopeks
Combinations 10 20 30

Horizontal or vertical pair
used +500 +10000

Strip of three used +1500 RRR

Stamps on cover +1500 +8250 +35000

Stamps on piece with complete +250 +1500 +10000
and clear postmarks

28








In the Goznak bMseum there are incomplete sheets of uncanceled stamps No. 2,
No. 3 and No. 4 Unique. Known blocks of four include uncanceled: one
block of No. 2 and two each of No. 3 and No. 4 (outside Russia) RRRR.
Known used are one block of 4 and one block of 6 of No. 2, as well as a
vertical strip of four of No. 3 on a letter Unique.

The table below shows the numbers of stamps sold according to the statistics
of the Postal Department. In does not include the numbers sold in the
Transcaucausus region in which the post was administered by the Governmor
of the Caucausus.

10 kop. 20 kop. 30 kop.
Year (Nos. 2, 5) (Nos. 3, 6) (Nos. 4, 7)

1858 9,659,136 171,786 68,722

1859 11,233,331 214,446 91,236

Totals: 20,892,467 386,232 159,958

NUMBERS ISSUED (Ref. 5): 10 kop. 8,283,200 copies; 20 kop. 331,200 copies;
30 kop. 171,700 copies. These numbers apparently refer only to the second
issue whereas the table above includes the third issue as well.


CANCELLATIONS

Cancellations on the stamps of the second issue were mainly the same as
those on stamp No. 1 (SC10-13). Somewhat rarely found are postmarks with
cancels SC14 and SC15. At a somewhat later period, the circular cancels
(SC18) authorized by the Main Post Administration Circular No. 53 dated
April 12, 1860 were used.






C,-.. i C IT!. CEl I


SC18 SC18a
SC18b SC18c




Stamp No. 2 canceled with SC18 is rarely found since its issue, apparently,
was practically used up in 1859. Cancel SC18 is more frequently found on
stamps Nos. 3 and 4. Some of the dot cancels are quite rare. An account
of the numeral dot cancels and their rarity along with a catalog of stamps
of the city post and telegraph is planned for publication in a future issue
of the "Soviet Collector."

29








Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps for Certain Cancellations

Cancellations 10 kop. 20 kop. 30 kop.

Pen cancels only +250 +1500 +2000

Cancels of pre-stamp period +150 +750 +1500

SC2a, SC3a, SC4a with the
date written in ink +500

SC5, SC6, SC7, SC8 +750

SC16 +500 +3750 +5000

SC18 +250

Cancels in red ink +1250 +3750 +5000

Cancels in blue ink +2000 +4000

FALSIFIED STAMPS TO DECEIVE THE COLLECTOR

1. Faked stamps to defraud the collector are those with pen cancels removed
and uncanceled stamps with washed-off gum on which the gum was replaced.
The details of genuine gum are given for stamp No. 1. When the stamps are
prepared, the sheets were gummed first and later perforated. Therefore on
genuine stamps the gum cannot appear inside the holes of the teeth after their
perforation. On the regummed stamps, the gum is often seen on the teeth and
sometimes (on zrude fakes) on the face side of the stamps. Careful exami-
nation with a strong magnifier is required.

2. It is easy to distinguish the old origin of the crude fakes of the 10
and 30 kop. values. The printing was lithographic on unwatermarked paper.
The background on the 10 kop. stamp consists of vertical lines (in place of
dots and dashes). The 30 kop. value has its corner ornaments blended into
the background. The postal horns do not have the flared horns and they do
not cross. They are perfed 14 1/2 instead of 14 1/2 x 15. These fakes are
also known inperf.

PROOFS

1857. The design and printing of the accepted stamps Nos. 3 and 4 were
engraved by F. Kepler and prepared by the EZGB on white paper and perfed
14 1/2 x 15.

A 20 kop. a. dark green with violet on watermarked paper 5000

b. the same on unwatermarked paper 3750

c. violet and green on watermarked paper RRR

d. the same on unwatermarked paper RRR

30








e. orange and blue on unwatermarked paper RRR

f. blue and orange on unwatermarked paper RRR

g. olive and green on watermarked paper RRR

h. olive and green on unwatermarked paper RRR

B 30 kop. green and carmine-rose RRR

The proof Af pen canceled with a cross in the center was a specimen RRR.
Also known are impressions with a black design, white center without em-
bossing, imperf or perfed 14 1/2 x 15. These apparently are printer's
trials.


THIRD ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 8, 9, 10)


1858, October (?). Typographed two-color printing. The design and embossing
are the same as on the second issue. Prepared by KZGB. White, soft paper.
Unwatermarked, frame perfed 12 1/4 x 12 1/2.














....i ....





10 kopek 20 kopek 30 kopek

5 1 10 kop. brown and sky blue 850 35

6 2 20 kop.- dark blue and orange 1750 325

7 3 30 kop. carmine-rose and yellowish
green 2750 800


31








VARIETIES

5Aa 10 kop. pale brown and sky blue 850 35

5Ab 10 kop. dark brown and sky blue 1000 50

5Ac 10 kop. red brown and sky blue 850 35

5Ad 10 kop. dark brown and blue 1100 75

5Ae 10 kop. brown and prussic blue
with metallic sheen 2000 150

5Ba 10 kop. secondary "1" in "10" in
upper right corner +150 +30

5Ca 10 kop. stiff paper +100 +30

5Cb 10 kop. on thick paper
a. 0.075-0.09 mm +150 +100
b. 0.0095 mm and thicker R R

5Ea 10 kop. mirror impression of center
on back (penetration) RR

6Aa 20 kop. blue and orange 2000 400

6Ba 20 kop. "zero with a spot" in
upper left corner 2500 600

6Bb 20 kop. "straight back" of the 2
in "20" in upper right
corner (see 3Ba) 2500 600

6Bc 20 kop. dot in the middle of the
upper frame line R

6Bd 20 kop. dot in the frame line of the
design in lower left corner R

7Aa 30 kop. carmine and yellow-green 3000 900



Although the payment for letters with bisected stamps was forbidden by the
postal administration, there are known letters and pieces with bisects of
No. 5 and No. 6, cut diagonally or along the length of the stamps. A No. 5
bisect was used in place of a 5 kop. stamp, the No. 6 in place of a 10 kop.
stamp. Bisects are of interest only on cover or on a piece tied with a
cancellation. Such examples are RRR.




32








Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combination 10 kop. 20 kop. 30 kop.

Pair +500 +50 +2000 +600 +3000 +1500

Strip of three +1500 +140 +1750 -

Strip of four +2000 +250 -

Strip of five +4000 +410 -

Block of four +4000 +875 RRRR RRRR +8000

Stamp on cover +110 +425 +1400

Stamp tied to piece
with clear postmark +35 +75 +125

HISTORICAL INFORMATION

With the Postal Department demanding a change in the quality of the paper
for the stamps, the director of the EZGB on September 29, 1858 authorized
the printing of the stamps of the previous designs and values on a soft paper
without a watermark and with somewhat larger perforations.

On October 28, 1858 the Postal Department Circular No. 3 advised post offices
that the earlier released stamps did not quite serve their intended purpose
because the "hardness" and thickness of the paper caused the stamps to come
off the letters and that this circumstance required the Post Department to
prepare new stamps of those values on improved unwatermarked paper.

SPECIAL INFORMATION

The paper was prepared by the Prussian Government Typographic Office in
Berlin. It was white, soft, and unwatermarked. Normal thickness is 0.055 -
0.07 mm. Similar to the first issues, the sheets were coated on the face
side with a special substance. Some of the paper of this issue was coated
with a water soluble base. In the beginning, apparently, the base of the
earlier composition was used.

Beginning in 1862 as given in the early historical literature, the composition
of the base was changed and was no longer noted for its stability in water.
It was to prevent the washing off of a cancellation for a second reuse of the
stamp to cheat the post office. Stamps of the third issue that were released
in 1862 and later, fade in water, and the design washes off the paper. For
later releases of the 10 kop. stamps, different papers were used stiff as
well as soft, somewhat thick.

The sheets of stamps were printed in the same manner and the same number as
the earlier issues. Size of the sheets are 254 x 306 mm, varying approximately
+ 20 mm.

The gum is transparent, white, coated evenly on the back.
33








Numbers of Stamps Sold

Year 10 kop. 20 kop. 30 kop.

1860 10,781,025 134,566 78,983

1861 11,115,804 176,023 80,310

1862 11,307,287 173,017 78,461

1863 11,692,488 165,785 85,635

1864 12,575,159 207,296 96,819

1865 (a) 12,525,067 253,817 115,272


Total 70,006,830 1,160,504 535,480

(a) Numbers sold in 1865 include stamps of the fifth issue which were
released in June of that year.


CANCELLATIONS

Stamps of the third issue were canceled with the numeral dots types, SC10-
SC15, as well as with steel circular cancellers with changeable dates. These
were authorized to all post offices in the Post Administration Circular No. 53
dated April 12, 1860. At first the circular date stamp was authorized only
to stamp the envelope and the stamp was to be canceled with the dot canceller.

For St. Petersburg and Moscow, double circle cancellers were made, SC19,
while all the other post offices used a single circle type, SC18. On
February 11, 1863, the Main Administration of the Post Circular No. 123
ordered removal from use of the dot cancels (SC10-SC14) and to use, instead,
the circular date stamps, SC18 and SC19.

The agents of the post offices, railroad stations and steamships of the
Russian post in Turkey continued to use the numbered dot cancellers of the
type, SC15. In this catalog the stamped cancels of Russian post offices
abroad are not examined.










SC19 SS20 C21 SC22 SC22a SC22b




34








Other stamped cancels used were as follows:

1. those of the pre-stamp period;

2. the diamond-shaped cancel of the port of Odessa, SC9;

3. the oval stamp of the St. Petersburg Town Post, SC20;

4. the circular cancels of the railroad post, SC21 and SC22;
On these the date is given in the center and a number is indicated for
the station at which the letter was dropped in the mail box of the
postal wagon.

5. Polish types, SC16;

6. Polish (Warsaw), SC23 and SC23a, used in 1860;
There are three types of SC23 and two types of SC23a which differ in
the size and shape of the number. In 1865 SC24 was used.

7. Warsaw station cancels of the type SC25 with the letters "D"', "DP",
and "DB" (two types), "BW" and "DT';
Also known are railroad cancels with the small letters "DB" with
numerals "1" and "2" beneath them (in the middle).

8. the temporary post office at the Nizhni Novgorod Fair annually in July
and August used SC14 with the number 30.









SC23 SC23a SC24 SC25



The Main Administration of Post Circular No. 55 dated April 12, 1860 and
No. 18 dated May 21, 1860 and No. 22 dated January 10, 1861 ordered the use
of black ink for cancellations. However, cancellations in different colored
inks are found.


Premiums to be Added to the Value of Stamps with Certain Cancellations

Cancel 10 kop. 20 kop. 30 kop.

Pre-stamp period +100 +400 +600

SC19 +250 +500

SC16 +100 +300 +600
35








Cancel 10 kop. 20 kop. 30 kop.
SC20 +150

SC21 and SC22 +100 +200 +300

SC23 and SC23a +150 +250 +650
SC24 +300 +600 R
SC25 +300 +700 R

Temporary dot cancel
Nizhni Novgorod Fair
with number 30 +250

Nizhni Novorod Fair
SC18 +250
Red ink cancels +250 +400 +600

Blue ink cancels +400 +500 R

FAKES: Those which were given earlier for stamps of the second issue are also
found for this issue except now the perforation is 12 instead of 14 1/2 x 15.

PROOFS

A 20 kop. blue and light yellow on unwatermarked paper with perforation
12 1/4 x 12 1/2 is known.





FOURTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 5, 6, 7)

1864, July. Typographed two-colored printing. A new design with the emblem
of the Postal Administration on a background of small numerals in a checker-
board pattern. The 1 kop. has the numeral 1, the 3 kop. has Roman and Arabic
numerals 3, and the 5 kop. has Roman numeral five in the background. The
emblem appears on a background of horizontal lines. Designed and engraved by
F. Kepler. Prepared by EZGB. Paper is white and soft. Unwatermarked. Frame
perforated 12 1/4 x 12 1/2.



36

S






















1 kopek 3 kopek 5 kopek



8 4 1 kop. black and yellow 750 650

9 5 3 kop. black and light green 1600 900

10 6 5 kop. black and light lilac 1850 800

VARIETIES

8Aa 1 kop. black and pale yellow 850 700

8Ab 1 kop. black and yellow orange 900 750


9Aa 3 kop. black and yellowish- 1600 900
light green

10Aa 5 kop. black and reddish light violet 2100 850

10Ab 5 kop. black and bluish light gray RRR -

10Ca 5 kop. on thick paper (0.08 mm) 1800


Premiums to Be Added to Values Of Stamps

Combination 1 kop. 3 kop. 5 kop.

Pair +250 +300 +800 +450 +750 +400

Block of four +1500 +1250 +7500 +2500 +11500 +1750

Stamps on cover +750 +1000 +750

Stamps tied to piece +100 +150 +150
with clear postmark
37








HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Up to 1864, the sending of all postal correspondence through government post
offices beyond the frontiers was paid in cash which was inconvenient for the
sender as well as the postal workers. Thus in 1864 a system of payment with
postage stamps for international correspondence was adopted. The franking of
letters and wrappers with stamps sent to and from Russian steamship companies
and businesses in foreign eastern ports was introduced earlier, according to
Circular No. 5 of the Postal Department, dated February 12, 1862.

The rate for ordinary international letters from Russia to the countries of
the German Postal Union, Austria, Holland and Sweden was set at that time at
20 kop. for each 15 grams or part thereof. These letters could be paid with
the 10, 20, and 30 kop. stamps on hand. For letters to be sent to other
countries, depending on the conclusion of treaties with them, there were other
rates, which were not multiples of 10 kop. This circumstance required the pre-
paration of new stamps of smaller values for the payment of this international
mail, values of 1, 3 and 5 kop., somewhat equivalent to the 10, 20 and 30 kop.
stamps.

The Post Department on June 15, 1867 in Circular No. 5 announced to the post
offices that the stamps of the new type are authorized for the payment to send
beyond the frontiers ordinary letters, wrappers (with printed matter) and
sample goods. These types of mail could be deposited in the post collection
boxes. According to the wishes of the sender, the postal fee could be paid
in cash upon presentation of the correspondence to the post office.

Letters and sample goods (in envelopes or wrappers) were allowed to be sent
beyond the frontiers (excluding wrappers as well as correspondence directed
to certain countries). In these cases the mail fees were paid by the recipient.

Fees for money letters and insured letters as well as parcels were to be paid
in cash only. It was forbidden to send letters out of the country using
stamped envelopes.

The new stamps were allowed for payment of ordinary private letters within
the empire at the following rates: 10 kop. per lot for intercity letters
and 5 kop. for letters in the Town Posts of St. Petersburg and Moscow.


SPECIAL INFORMATION

The positions of the stamps on the sheets and the size of the sheets, paper
types and gum are the same as those of the stamps of the third issue. The
paper was coated with a layer of base material which apparently included zinc
whiting. The stamps fade in water and the design washes off the paper.

The numbers of stamps issued:13 1 kop. 1,000,200; 3 kop. 500,200; 5 kop. 700,200.
These numbers include 200 copies of each value which were released as a specimen.

13Kaminski, B. "The First Russian Stamp for International Mail" Philately of
the USSR, 1971, No. 9, page 41, Table 2.


38








Numbers of Stamps Sold

Year 1 kop. 3 kop. 5 kop.

0 1864 176,542 98,800 189,891

1865 306,958 164,139 653,125


ADDENDA:

1. The information of the numbers sold includes data from the post offices
of the Caucausus and Transcaucausus.

2. The numbers sold in 1865 include stamps of the fifth issue which were
released into circulation in June 1865.


CANCELLATIONS

The usual stamped cancellations are SC18, the numbered type SC15 as well as the
St. Petersburg Town Post cancel SC19 in red ink.

Premiums to be Added to the Stamps for Certain Cancellations

Cancel 1 kop. 3 kop. 5 kop.

SC16 and SC23 +100 +150 +100

SC20 +150 +150 +150

SC23 and SC25 -+150

SC21 and SC22 +100 +100 +75

SC15 and SC18 in red ink +500 +600 +500

ESSAYS

Essays of all three stamps are known imperforate, differing from the issued
stamps in a smooth colored background in plaeS of the background of small
numbers, and in details of the basic design.

Apparently, an issue of the stamps with the values 1, 3, 5 and 10 kop. using
the designs of the fourth issue but with the Russian letters "B" and "K" on
the stamps was projected for internal correspondence. Also examined was the
question of changing the manner of cancellation of the stamp by means of
tearing off a special coupon in order to prevent the possible cheating of the
post by the reuse of a stamp with a removed cancellation. These essays were
not accepted. See Types H and I.




39














o In 4#







Type H Type I


FAKES

Fakes of stamp No. 8 are known. It is a crude lithographed forgery on thin
paper. The frame of the design has defects in several places. It was perfed
12 1/4.


FIF H ISSUE








(Scott Nos. 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18)
1865, June. Typographed two-color printing. The design and the printing is
FAKES







the same as on the stamp No. 8 areas of the previous a crude lithographPrepared forgery on thinPaper
paper. The frame of the design has defects in several places. It was perfed 14 1/2
1 1/4.


























40
FIFTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18)


1865, June. Typographed two-color printing. The design and the printing is
the same as on the stamps of the previous issues. Prepared by EZGB. Paper
is white, having various thicknesses. Unwatermarked. Frame perforated 14 1/2
x 15.




















40








11 4 1 kop. black and yellow 1100 160

12 5 3 kop. black and pale yellow-green 1000 145

13 6 5 kop. black and pale lilac 1250 195

14 1 10 kop. reddish brown and sky blue 1500 50

15 2 20 kop. blue and orange 2750 245

16 3 30 kop. rose and yellow green 3250 325

VARIETIES


llAa 1 kop. black and pale yellow 1100 160

llAb 1 kop. black and orange 1250 200

llBa 1 kop. letter "F" in place of the 500
numeral "1" in oval frame

llCa 1 kop. on thin paper +100 +40

11Cb 1 kop. on thick paper +200 +130

11Cc 1 kop. on very thick paper 2500 500


12Aa 3 kop. black and light green 1100 180

12Ca 3 kop. on thin paper +100 +50

12Cb 3 kop. on thick paper +500 +175


13Aa 5 kop. black and pale violet 1500 250

13Ab 5 kop. black and lilac 1350 210

13Ac 5 kop. black and light gray 750

13Ad 5 kop. blue black and pale lilac RR

13Ca 5 kop. on thin paper +175 +50

13Cb 5 kop. on thick paper +200 +150

14Aa 10 kop. brown and sky blue 1625 60


41








14Ab 10 kop. reddish dark brown and 1625 60
sky blue

14Ac 10 kop. reddish dark brown and blue 1750 75

14Ba 10 kop. secondary "L" in "10" in +125 +25
upper right corner (see lBb)

14Ca 10 kop. on thin paper +125 +25

14Cb 10 kop. on thick paper +300 +75

14Cc 10 kop. on very thick paper +850 +150

14Ea 10 kop. mirror impression of center R
on back (penetration)


15Aa 20 kop. light blue and orange 2750 275

15Ab 20 kop. light blue and cinnabar 5000 1000

15Ca 20 kop. on thin paper +250 +100

15Cb 20 kop. on thick paper +1000 +125

15Cc 10 kop. on very thick paper +1000


16Aa 30 kop. carmine rose and yellow-green 3500 400

16Ab 30 kop. light rose and yellow green 3250 325

16Ac 30 kop. pale rose with metallic 3500 400
sheen and yellow green

16Ca 30 kop. on thin paper +250 +100

16Cb 30 kop. on thick paper +1000 +125

16Ea 30 kop. mirror impression of the R
center on back (penetration)


Bisect 20 kop. stamps cut diagonally are known. They were used in
place of a 10 kop. stamp, canceled with Polish numeral cancellers of the
type SC16 with No. 162 (Radomsk) or No. 167 (Zharki). They are of in-
terest only on cover or on piece with the cancel tying the stamp to the
cover RRR.



42








Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combinations 1 k. 3 k. 5 k. 10 k. 20 k. 30 k.

Pair unused +1100 +600 +1250 +1500 +2750 +3250

Pair canceled +130 +60 +60 +100 +210 +300

Block of four unused +4000 +1500 +5000 +5000 +16500 +17000

Block of four canceled +1000 +250 +325 +425 +1500 +2350

Stamp on cover +240 +155 +105 +100 +1050 +1450

Stamp on piece tied +25 +25 +25 +15 +50 +100
with clear postmark


HISTORICAL INFORMATION

The use of the large perforation 12 1/4 x 12 1/2 on the stamps of the third
and fourth issues did not justify itself. The stamps were often damaged upon
separation from the sheets. For this reason the Post Department returned to
issuing stamps with the smaller perforation 14 1/2 x 15 that was used earlier
for the second issue.

Rates: Ordinary internal sealed intercity letters, as before, were 10 kop.
per lot or fraction thereof; letters within the town posts were 5 kop. per
letter.

For franking international correspondence to Prussia and states of the German
Postal Union the following rates were in effect as described in the Postal
Department Circular No. 9 dated December 15, 1865; ordinary sealer letter -
14 kop. for each 15 grams or fraction thereof; wrappers and sample goods -
2 kop. for each 40 grams or fraction thereof; open card (sheets) with printed
advertisements 2 kop. for each sheet.

Correspondence to other countries cost significantly more, there being special
rates for these countries. Maximum weight of all international letters and
wrappers was 250 grams. The weight of open cards (sheets) was not limited.


SPECIAL INFORMATION

The stamps were printed on medium stiff and stiff unwatermarked paper. The
stamps fade strongly in water and the design washes off the paper along with
the base material. Paper thickness varies: the usual thickness is 0.065 -
0.08 mm, thin paper is 0.06 mm and thinner, thick paper is 0.085 0.10 mm,
very thick paper is 0.105 mm and thicker.






43








Number of Stamps Sold in 1866

1 kop. 845,290

3 kop. 482,863

5 kop. 1,434,877

10 kop. 12,909,132

20 kop. 309,250

30 kop. 131,691

Footnote: The numbers of stamps sold include the previous issues as well
as those of the next issue (sixth issue) which were placed into circulation
in August 1866.


CANCELLATIONS

The same cancellations are found on this issue as were used for the fourth
issue. But after 1866 the cancellers of the later issues were used. The
1, 3 and 5 kop. stamps canceled with the St. Petersburg cancellers with red
ink are usual.

Premiums to be Added to the Value for Certain Cancellations

Cancels 1 k. 3 k. 5 k. 10 k. 20 k. 30 k.

SC16, SC23, SC23a, +50 +50 +50 +25 +100 +150
SC24 and SC25

SC20 +50 +50 +50 +25 +150 +250

SC15 and SC18 in +125 +125 +150 +50 +200 +300
red ink

SC15 and SC18 in +250 +100 +400 +600
blue ink

SC15 and SC18 in
brown ink +250

This issue is known with the somewhat later oval Moscow Town Post cancels,
SC40 (see the stamps of the sixth issue). Premiums are 50% higher than those
given for the stamps of the sixth issue.


SPECIMEN

Stamps overprinted diagonally "OBRAZETS" in large letters are known. Each
stamp contains only a part of a letter RRR.



44








SIXTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25)

1866, August. Typographed two-colored printing. The design and the printing
is the same as on the stamps of the previous issues. Prepared by EZGB. The
paper is white with laid lines, various thicknesses. Watermarked "Ornament"
with straight and wavy lines and the letters EZGB. Prame perforated 14 1/2
a 15.





















Horizontally Laid Paper

17 4 1 kop. black and pale yellow 70 10

18 5 3 kop. black and green 120 12

19 6 5 kop. black and lilac 150 10

20 1 10 kop. reddish brown and sky blue 450 7

21 2 20 kop. light blue and orange 900 125

22 3 30 kop. rose and yellow green 1200 325


VARIETIES

17Aa 1 kop. black and lemon yellow 100 12

17Ab 1 kop. black and dark yellow 100 15

17Ac 1 kop. black and bright chrome yellow 125 15

17Ad 1 kop. black and orange 150 25

17Ae 1 kop. black and brownish yellow RR

45








17Af 1 kop. gray-black and yellow 150 50

17Ba 1 kop. numeral 1 with a dot in upper RR
left corner

17Bb 1 kop. "11" in place of Russian 75
letter "h" in word "ODNA"

17Bc 1 kop. a ring in place of a dot in the 500 150
numeral "1" in upper right
corner (91st stamp on sheet)

17Bd 1 kop. mirror image letter "L" in 250
place of "I" beneath coat of arms

17Be 1 kop. deformed "1" in lower right 500 150
corner (98th stamp on sheet)

17Bf 1 kop. deformed "1" in upper left 150
corer

17Bg 1 kop. deformed "1" in lower left 500 150
corer (26th stamp on sheet)

17Ca 1 kop. on thin paper 0.055 mm and +50 +15
thinner

17Cb 1 kop. on thick paper 0.08 mm and RR R
thicker

17Cc 1 kop. on paper with more frequent R
laid lines (25-30 lines instead of 13)

17Cd 1 kop. with part of a watermark letter +75 +50

17Ea 1 kop. imperforate (1875) 20000 12000

17Eb 1 kop. inverted background 62500 21000

17Ec 1 kop. imperforate and inverted 35000
background

17Ed 1 kop. double impression RR

17Ee 1 kop. shifted background R

17Ef 1 kop. mirror image of the design R
on the back (offset)

17Eg 1 kop. mirror impression of the R
background on back (offset)

17Eh 1 kop. shifted perfs 1/5 into the design R


46








18Aa 3 kop. black and pale yellow green 120 12

18Ab 3 kop. black and yellow green 120 12

18Ac 3 kop. black and dark yellow green 175 15

18Ad 3 kop. black and dark blue green 175 15

18Ae 3 kop. black and bright blue green 300 100

18Ba 3 kop. damaged letter "0" in "KOP" 200
at bottom

18Ca 3 kop. on thin paper 0.055 mm or thinner +50 +25

18Cb 3 kop. on thick paper 0.08 mm or thicker RR R

18Cc 3 kop. on paper with more frequent R
laid lines (25-30 lines instead
of 13)

18Cd 3 kop. with part of a watermark letter +100 +50

18Ea 3 kop. imperforate 30000

18Eb 3 hop. background contains "V" instead 8500 325
of threes

18Ec 3 kop. shifted background R

19Aa 5 kop. black and pale lilac 150 10

19Ab 5 kop. black and reddish lilac 175 12

19Ac 5 kop. black and purple 150 10

19Ad 5 kop. black and dark purple 175 15

19Ae 5 kop. black and violet 150 15

19Af 5 kop. black and dark violet gray RR

19Ag 5 kop. black and light gray 400 75

19Ah 5 kop. black and gray blue 500 100

19Ai 5 kop. blue black and pale lilac RRR R

19Ba 5 kop. broken "5" in lower left corner 500
and trace of another numeral

19Bb 5 kop. shortened bar on numeral "5" 350
in upper right corner

47








19Bc 5 kop. curl in place of dot in "5" 300
in lower right corer

19Bd 5 kop. broken letter "0" in "KOP" 175
and "b" in'iTM" at bottom

19Be 5 kop. curl in place of dot in "5" 250
in upper left corner

19Ca 5 kop. on thin paper 0.055 mm or +50 +25
thinner

19Cb 5 kop. on thick paper 0.08 mm or thicker RR R

19Cc 5 kop. on paper with more frequent R
laid lines (25-30 lines
instead of 13)

19Cd 5 kop. with part of a watermark letter +100 +50

19Ea 5 kop. imperforate (1875) 15000 5500

19Eb 5 kop. mirror impression of frame RR
on back (offset)

19Ec 5 kop. mirror impression of background R
on back (offset)

19Ed 5 kop. shifted background R


20Aa 10 kop. brown and sky blue 500 12

20Ab 10 kop. reddish brown and blue 500 15

20Ac 10 kop. brown and blue 500 15

20Ba 10 kop. "keyhole", deformed oval in 2000
place of "10" in upper left
corner

20Bb 10 kop. secondary "1" in the "10" of the 600 25
upper right corner (see lBc)

20Bd 10 kop. broken "0" in "10" in lower R
right corner

20Be 10 kop. worn embossingl in center 25

20Bf 10 kop. "fat eagle" in center 600 50

20Bg 10 kop. large "1" in "10" in upper 600 150
right corner

20Ca 10 kop. on thin paper 0.055 mm or thinner +100 +10

48








20Cb 10 kop. on thick paper 0.08 nun or R +75
thicker

20Cc 10 kop. with part of a watermark +125 +25
letter

20Ea 10 kop. imperforate (1875) 30000
20Eb 10 kop. inverted center 95000

20Ec 10 kop. shifted center RR

20Ed 10 kop. mirror impression of center
on back (penetration) R

21Aa 20 kop. blue and orange 900 150

21Ab 20 kop. blue and dark orange 900 150

21Ac 20 kop. blue and dark yellow R R

21Ad 20 kop. sky blue and orange 1150 250

21Ae 20 kop. bright blue and orange 1000 250

21Ba 20 kop. worn embossing in center RR R

21Ca 20 kop. on thin paper 0.055 mm or +100 +25
thinner

21Cb 20 kop. with part of a watermark letter +150 +75

21Ea 20 kop. mirror impression of center RR
on back (penetration)

22Aa 30 kop. carmine rose and yellow-green 1300 350

22Ab 30 kop. reddish rose and yellow-green 1400 375

22Ac 30 kop. carmine rose and green 1600 450

22Ad 30 kop. pale rose and yellow green 1400 375

22Ca 30 kop. with part of a watermark letter +150 +50

22Ea 30 kop. mirror impression of center and part RR -
of frame on back (offset)

Vertically Laid Paper
(1868-1875)

17V 4 1 kop. black and yellow 1500 325

18V 5 3 kop. black and yellow green 2000 325

49






19V 6 5 kop. black and pale lilac 12500 725

20V 1 10 kop. reddish brown and sky blue 1750 75

21V 2 20 kop. blue and orange 11000 450

22V 3 30 kop. rose and yellow green 7500 400


VARIETIES
17VAa 1 kop. black and orange yellow 1650 350

17VAb 1 kop. gray black and pale yellow 1750 375

17VAc 1 kop. black and orange 1750 375

17VEa 1 kop. imperforate 27500

17VEb 1 kop. imperforate and inverted 27500
background

18VAa 3 kop. black and pale yellow green 2000 325

18VAb 3 kop. black and green 2150 350

18VAc 3 kop. black and dark green 2750 575

18VCa 3 kop. with part of a watermark letter +250 +100


19VAa 5 kop. black and lilac 12500 725

19VAb 5 kop. black and purple 1225

19VCa 5 kop. with part of a watermark letter +1250 +250
19VEa 5 kop. imperforate 50000


20VAa 10 kop. brown and sky blue 1900 140

20VAb 10 kop. reddish brown and blue 2000 125

20VCa 10 kop. on thick paper 0.08 mm and 2500 175
thicker

20VCb 10 kop. with part of a watermarked +250 +75
letter

20VEa 10 kop. imperforate RRR -

20VEb 10 kop. mirror impression of center R
on back (penetration)


21VAa 20 kop. light blue and orange 12000 525

21VCa 20 kop. with part of a watermark letter +1000 +125
50








22VAa 30 kop. carmine rose and yellow green 7500 400

22VAb 30 kop. carmine rose and green 8500 525

S22VAc 30 kop. reddish rose and yellow-green 8500 525

22VCa 30 kop. with part of a watermark letter +750 +150

22VEa 30 kop. mirror impression of center RR
on back (penetration)


ADDENDA: 1. The values for the imperforate 1, 3 and 5 kop. stamps (17Ea,
18Ea, 19Ea, 17VEa and 19VEa) were assigned for examples with shifted back-
grounds. These stamps with normal backgrounds are rarer (+10%).

2. Values for stamps with letters of the watermark on vertical or horizontal
laid paper depend on having part of the letter on the stamp which may be
identified. Stamps with only a small portion of an indeterminate latter
are common. Premiums to be added to the value of a stamp with a letter of
the watermark is indicated for the letter in the normal position. Premiums
for other positions are as follows:

reversed position (mirror image) +50%
inverted watermark +25%
reversed and inverted +100%

For designs of the watermarks see the section titled "Special Information."

3. In compiling the above list, only a few of the design varieties (cliches)
of the stamps are known to the author.

4. The Michel 1975 catalog of Eastern Europe mentions the existence of
stamps with inverted backgrounds for No. 18 (3 kop.) and No. 19 (5 kop.).


Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combinations 1 k. 3 k. 5 k. 10 k. 20 k. 30 k. 3 k.
-- (T Eb)
[On Horizontally Laid Paper]

Block of 4 unused +120 +250 +250 +450 +900 +2150 +26000

Block of 4 used +80 +120 +120 +130 +700 +1550 +1750

Stamp on cover +140 +135 +140 +90 +875 +1175 +750

Stamp tied to piece +15 +15 +15 +10 +50 +50 +50
with clear watermark

[On Vertically Laid Paper]

Pair unused +750 +1100 +750 -

Pair used +200 +250 +600 +200 +450 +700
51








Premiums [on vertically laid paper] continued

Combinations 1 k. 3 k. 5 k. 10 k. 20 k. 30 k. 3 k.
S(18Eb)
Block of 4 unused +3000 +4500 +3000 -

Block of 4 ysed +750 +950 +2400 +750 +1850 +2900

Stamp on cover +375 +925 +1275 +175 +1350 +1600

Stamp tied to piece +50 +50 +100 +25 +100 +100
with clear postmark

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The use of unwatermarked paper did not satisfy the requirements of the Postal
Department. In 1866 EZGB prepared a new paper, somewhat soft and thin, with
laid lines and watermarks. This paper was used until 1908 for all the postal
stamps of the later issues (with the exception of the semi-postal issue of
1904'.

RATES: In 1866 it was authorized to send within the country wrappers with
printed matter for the rate of 1 kop. for 3 1/4 lots or fraction thereof,
according to Circular No. 21 of the Pnstal Department dated May 21, 1866.
From January 1, 1870 that rate was increased to 2 kop. for 3 1/4 lots,
according to Circular No. 16946 of the Postal Department dated October 22,
1869. The cost of a city letter (in cities which had a city post) up to
January 1, 1872 was 5 kop. per letter. The rate for sending printed matter
(visiting cards, international cards, etc., consisting of one sheet not
larger than the "usual" format) via the city post was 1 kop.
On January 1, 1872 new correspondence forms appeared: registered letters (in
place of insured), open letters (post cards) and it was allowed to send within
the country wrappers with sample goods in volume without value.


RATES FROM JANUARY 1, 1872

Ordinary Sealed letter 10 kop. per lot or fraction thereof.
The weight of the letter was limited to 32 lots.

Registered Letter the rate was the same as an ordinary
letter plus 10 kop. for registration and 5 kop. for a receipt
upon receival which were also payable with postage stamps.

Open Letters (post cards) 5 kop. each. The cost of a
postcard without a stamp was 1/4 kop. (a minimum of 4 were sold
for 1 kop.).

Wrappers with printed matter or sample goods 2 kop. for
3 lots or fraction thereof. Weight was limited to 32 lots.


14Temporary decree of the postal section confirmed by the Ministry of Internal
Affairs, June 12, 1871.
52








The limiting weight for ordinary and registered letters was increased to 160
lots (5 pounds) at the end of 1873, according to the 7th Circular of the Postal
Administration No. 14175 dated September 4, 1876. Note that 1 pound (Russian)
in the old measure of weights equaled 32 lots or 409.53 grams.

Correspondence Within Cities with Authorized Town Posts

Ordinary Sealed Letters 3 kop. (in St. Petersburg and Moscow 5 kop.).
Limiting weight was 32 lots.

Ordinary Sealed Letters between St. Petersburg, Kronstadt,Oraninburg,
Peterhof, Tsarskoe Selo, Pavlosk, Gatshin, Strelno and other populated
points within the St. Petersburg district 5 kop. for the first 2 lots
or fraction thereof and 5 kop. for each additional lot or fraction.

Open Letters (post cards) the rate was 3 kop.

These town post rates were authorized by the temporary decree of the postal
section confirmed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs on June 12, 1871 and
the 18th Circular of the Postal Administration No. 17893 dated December 4,
1871.

Wrappers Sent with Printed Matter

Rate in kopeks Number of Printed Sheets

To St. Petersburg To Other Ordinary Mid Newspaper Large News-
and Moscow Cities Size Size paper Size

1 1 1 -

2 2 2 or 1

3 2 3 or 2 or 1

4 2 For large number of sheets up to 21
lots in weight

In January 1875 the sending of registered letters within the city post was
introduced. The prepaid rate was 10 kop. for registry and 5 kop. for a
receipt upon receival which also was paid with postage stamps. In contrast
to these types of correspondence, money and valued packets of mail continued
to be paid for in cash upon presentation to the post office up to 1904.


INTERNATIONAL FRANKED MAIL15

To Western and Eastern Prussia and Silesia, to Austrian Silesia the ordinary
international letter rate was 10 kop. for each Prussian lot or fraction thereof;
to Moldavia and Valakhio (Rumania) via Odessa the rate was 10 kop. for each
Russian lot; to all other states in the German Postal Union, other than those
given above, to Schleswig and Holstein, to Austria (except Austrian Silesia),


15Taken from "Postal Rates of Letter Correspondence," St. Petersburg, published
by the Postal Department, 1869.
53








to Sweden via Finland the rate was 14 kop. for each Prussian lot or fraction
thereof. A Prussian lot (old) equalled 15.6 grams. The Russian postal
administrators rounded off the weight to 15 grams.


SPECIAL INFORMATION

WATERMARK: The design of the watermark "Ornament" consists of wavy lines crossing
at right angles to straight lines positioned between the wavy large letters,
which stand for the Printing Office of Government Obligations (abbreviated EZGB
here),

On an open sheet of the security paper the position of the straight relief
lines (laid lines) and the watermark is across the paper, that is, horizontal
with respect to the design of the stamp, or the position was along the length
of the paper, that is, vertical with respect to the stamp's design. The laid
lines 11 1/2 light lines and 11 1/2 dark lines per 20 mm (measured the same
way as perforations).

The stamps of the sixth issue at first were printed on sheets of paper with
horizontal laid lines, then somewhat later on vertical laid paper. On the
later issues, starting in 1889, the use of the horizontal or vertical laid
paper was carefully regulated.

The size of each letter of the watermark was somewhat larger than the area
of a kopek stamp. It is rare to find a large part of a letter on a single
stamp. More frequently the watermark letter will be found on four connected
stamps. Only on the large format ruble value stamps that were issued by the
Printing Office in 1883 does one occasionally find a complete letter of the
watermark. On many stamps of the sheet the watermark letters are not found
at all but rather only the wavy or straight lines. In some cases only the
laid lines of the paper are seen.

There are four positions of the watermark "Ornament" with respect to the
design of the stamps, printed on the horizontal or vertical laid paper. On
stamps printed on the vertical laid paper, the watermark should be observed
with the stamp turned over and the crown positioned to the right.

1. Normal position of the watermark: Letters of the watermark which appear
normal from the face side of the stamp are considered normal. On the gum
side, the letters appear as mirror images.

2. Watermark is reversed: The letters appear normal on the gum side of the
stamps.

3. Inverted watermark: The letters on the back side appear reversed and
inverted with respect to the design.

4. Inverted and reversed watermark: The letters on the gum side appear
normal but inverted with respect to the design.

The watermark, including the laid lines, resulted from a thickening of the
paper and in most cases can easily be observed with light transmitted through
the stamps. The laid lines can be usually seen with glancing light at an


54







angle. However, there are cases where the laid lines as well as parts of the
watermark are not discernable or completely invisible. This is due to the
pressing of incompletely dried paper, flattening the light laid lines and the
design of the watermark. Also known are stamps with more frequent horizontal
laid lines, which apparently occurred as a defect in the fabrication of the
paper.

On this paper the kopek value stamps have 25-30 horizontal laid lines instead of
13 as found on ordinary paper.

PAPER: The paper of the sixth issue was coated with a layer of base material. The
stamps fade strongly in water; the design washes off thepaper along with the
coating.

PRINTED SHEETS: The sheets of stamps contained four blocks (panes) of 25 stamps
(5x5). The size was 254 x 305 mm. Some deviation from this size is occasionally
found.

GUM: The gum is white or yellowish, transparent.

Numbers of Stamps Sold
Year 1 kop. 3 kop. 5kop. 10 kop. 20 kop. 30 kop.

1867 1,404,345 579,019 1,506,641 12,566,900 249,479 110,650

1868 2,457,475 905,311 1,708,183 13,332,692 262,433 117,167

1869 3,264,224 1,590,744 2,817,974 15,577,088 421,861 162,369

1870 3,951,155 1,865,904 2,826,050 17,706,293 490,998 179,232

1871 4,361,148 2,058,844 3,310,836 19,222,515 754,647 186,790

1872 5,490,869 2,874,944 7,098,812 22,239,489 1,375,341 618,343

1873 5,506,113 2,405,737 7,172,030 25,349,798 1,615,132 750,793

1874 6,159,269 2,720,939 7,821,075 27,108,291 1,714,287 814,943

1875 4,936,314 3,300,249 6,695,361 736,326

1876 3,555,212 3,505,770 4,755,296 424,245

1877 3,664,647 3,897,498 4,750,046 282,564

1878 3,938,633 4,412,249 5,035,741 176,537

1879 4,369,914 3,052,702 4,642,856 50,400

1880 4,454,232 2,534,512 4,696,906 22,390

1881 4,832,413 2,801,890 4,763,282 22,453

1882 5,378,166 2,918,394 5,028,140 21,830

1883 5,876,731 3,248,980 5,200,660 20,788

1884 13,919
[Note: The number of stamps sold include
1885 stamps of previous issues.] 2,095
55








CANCELLATIONS

As the worn-out steel cancellers were replaced with new ones, there appeared
cancellers which differed from the first used accepted type, SC18, with changes
in size, scipt and numbers or the ornamental fleuron beneath the date, SC18a
and the like. On some cancellers with the fleuron in the circle there ap-
peared two letters or numbers on each side designating the post office, SC18b.
There also appeared cancellers without the fleuron with numbers of the post
office or arabesques on the two sides within the circle, SC18c.

In the second half of 1868 on the postal wagon cancellers the route was indicated
with two numbers which indicated the train number and a station number was
placed to the left of the date and rotated 90 degrees, SC22a.

Cancels of the Tsarskoe Selo station of the Tsarskoe Selo Railroad without
date are known. These were used with variations in the script to the '90s,
SC22b. A similar canceller was used in Pavlovsk.16

Stamped cancels of the type SC26 are known for railroad stations.

Up to 1873 internal correspondence on ships was escorted by a postman, but
from 1873 it was escorted by a postal official who used a special steamship
canceller. At first these were circular cancels 26 mmn in diameter with the
designation of the beginning and ending points of the steamship route (for
example POTI KERCH ODESSA) with the date in the center in three lines
with the appropriate steamship pier number, usually to the left of the date
and rotated 90 degrees, SC27. This cancel is RR. Later SC29 was used R.





SG DG7 1175 17


SC26 SC27
SC29



Noting the large number of different cancellers, the postal department in
Circular No. 12283 dated June 2, 1872 planned to introduce a single type of
canceller for all post offices, with a design of two crossed posthorns beneath
the date, SC28, differing from the previous types. However, these cancellers
were only used for a short time, mostly in the following cities: Aleksandrov-
Pogranichnii, Vezenberg, Derpt, Dinaburg, Kutais and Odessa. Similar can-
cellers were used by the Moscow Town Post, SC28a, with variations in the text
and crossed posthorns.


16Luchnik, N. "Russian Railroad Post" Soviet Collector, 1973, No. 11,
page 62.


56








The cancel, SC28, is known on stamps issued in 1866 (the late issue of the
1, 3, and 5 kop. values) and on somewhat later issues till 1889-1892 (on
kopek values). Other than the Moscow cancels, they are infrequently found.















the Postal Administration dated October 20, 1877. They were replaced mainly
SC2 SC28a SC30




stations along the main roaws, the post offices at the railroad stations, and
the steamship agents of the Russian post in Turkey, according to Circular of
the Postal Administration dated October 20, 1877. They were replaced mainly
with the circular cancels, SC18 and SC26, which were used to mark postal
correspondence. Also known are cases of use of single line cancellations,
SC1, using ordinary typographic type.

In the latter half of the '70s, the nine divisions of the St. Petersburg Town
Post used a double circle canceller with a number of the particular station
and only the year in the center, SC30.

Two types of these are known: with a single number before the word "otdel"
on the rim of the circle, and secondly, with two numbers of the station before
the word "otdel" and after it.

In 1880 thesenine divisions of the St. Petersburg Town Post introduced new
geometric figure cancels with simply a numeral indicating the particular
division, SC31-SC39. These cancellations are found on stamps of the 1866
issue (1, 3, and 5 kop. late issues), the 1875 issue (except the 8 kop. value)
and some later issues. With modifications to the size and shapes of the numbers,
these cancellers were used up to 1905.







SC31 SC32 sc33






SC34 sc35 sc56 sc37 SC38 SC39

57








Ordinarily black ink was used for cancellation. Use of violet and blue ink
was rarer.

Apparently in the second half of the 70s, the postal division of the Moscow
Town Post used oval cancellers, SC40, with a background of square or round
dots and a number, 1-9, of the postal division in the center.

Different types of cancellers are known: The numbers 3, 6, 7, and 9 have
two types each, the numbers 2 and 8 had three types. They differ in the size
and shapes of the dots, their numeral and the size of the numeral. These
cancellations are found on the stamps of the 1865-1879 issues, as well as on
the 7 kop. gray black stamp issued in 1881. On the 7 kop. stamps of 1879 and
1881, the numbers 5, 6, 7, and 8 are known. Black ink was used.








sc40 sc41


On the territory of Czarist Poland from 1871 till 1877, SC41 was used consisting
of three lines of text within a rectangle.

A special postal cancellation for the temporary post offices of the Polytech-
nical Exhibition in Moscow, opening on May 30, 1872 is known, as reported by
Ya. Vovin in his article, "Special Cancellations of Russia," Philately of the
USSR, No. 5, 1969. The cancel was a double circle with the text "Moskva
Pocht. Otd. Polytekhn. Vistav." without a date in the inner circle. The same
cancel is known dated 12 August 1872 (in blue) RR.


ESSAYS AND PROOFS

The 1 kop., black and orange, essay stamps have cross-hatched fields (see Type J).
Imperforate, they are also known in other shades. All are RR.














Type J
58








The 5 kop. proof stamps are single colored: orange, green, red, violet, and
blue. Perfed 14 1/2 x 15, watermarked. The design is the same as the 5 kop.
stamps of 1864 valued at 1250 points.

S The 3 kop. is red, a proof, imperforate. The design is the same as the 3 kop.
of the 1864 issue, according to John Reynold's "Specialized Catalog of Russian
Postage Stamps," published in 1957 by the British Society of Russian Philately.

ADDENDA: For the Paris Fair in 1867 all the values of the sixth issue were
reprinted, imperforate on unwatermarked paper. Part were printed with colors
of different shades. The 20 kop. and the 30 kop. are also known on water-
marked paper, imperforate.

Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps for Certain Cancellations

Cancels 1 k. 3 k. 5 k. 10 k. 20 k. 30 k.

SC16, SC23, SC23a, +15 +15 +15 +10 +50 +100
SC24 and SC25

Types of SC1 +25 +25 +25 +15 +50 +100

SC20 +40 +40 +25 +25 +100 +150

SC21 and SC22 +25 +25 +25 +10 +50 +150

SC26 and SC26a +15 +15 +15 +10 +40 +100

SC28 Moscow +25 +40 +15 +50

SC28 other cities +75 +75 +75 +75 +200 +300

SC30 +25 +25 +25

SC31 +15 +15 +10

SC32 SC39 +20 +20 +15

SC40, Nos. 1, 2, 6 +5 +5 +5 +10
and 8

SC40, Nos. 3, 4, 5, +10 +10 +10 +15
7 and 9

SC40, No. 9 with dot +100 +100 +75
after the number

SC18 in red ink +15 +15 +15 +15 +40 +75
except St. Petersburg

SC20 in red ink +50 -

SC20 cinnabar color +100

Blue ink except SC31-SC39 +30 +30 +30 +30 +75 +150

Greek ink +25 +25 +25 +25 +75 +150
59








SEVENTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 26, 28, 29, 30)

1875, June 18. Typographed two-color printing. New designs: the 2 kop. is
on a background of small roman numeral and arabic twos, the 8, 10, and 20 kop.
values have a straight line of text indicating the value and with a white em-
bossed emblem of the Postal Administration in a colored center of the stamp.
Designed and engraved by F. Kepler. Prepared by EZGB. The paper is white
with laid lines. Watermarked "Ornament." Frame perforated 14 1/2 x 15.












i U




2 kopek 8 kopek 10 kopek 20 kopek


Horizontally Laid Paper

23 7 2 kop. black and rose 120 10

24 8 8 kop. gray and rose 150 12

25 9 10 kop. red brown and sky blue 500 50
(July, 1875)
26 10 20 kop. blue and orange 650 40
(July, 1875)


VARIETIES

23Aa 2 kcp. black and dark rose 120 10

23Ab 2 kop. black and red 130 15

23Ac 2 kop. gray black and rose 175 25



60








VARIETIES (continued)

23Ba 2 kop. "deformed 2," the 2 in the 180 25
hexagon background touches
the frame of the hexagon
(stamps 5, 6, 11, 15, 18 and
22 in the fourth pane)

23Bb 2 kop. "broken 2," the 2 in the 275 30
upper right corner is split
at the base (14, 74 and 79th
stamps)

23Bc 2 kop. the 2 in the upper right 175 15
corner lacks the projecting
toe at the bottom

23Bd 2 kop. lacks the upper dot of the 400 150
two dots after the word
"KOP" (49th stamp)

23Be 2 kop. "C" in place of "O" in 500 250
word "KOP" (1st stamp)

23Ca 2 kop. on paper with more frequent 750 100
horizontal laid lines
(25-30 lines instead of 13)

23Cb 2 kop. on paper without visible 250 50
watermark or laid lines

23Cc 2 kop. with part of a watermark +100 +50
letter

23Cd 2 kop. on thin paper 0.05 mm or +50 +15
thinner

23Ea 2 kop. imperforate 30000

23Eb 2 kop. inverted background 80000

23Ec 2 kop. mirror impression of the RR
frame on back (offset)


24Aa 8 kop. gray and carmine 150 12

24Ab 8 kop. light gray and rose 150 12

24Ac 8 kop. light gray and carmine 150 12

24Ad 8 kop. dark gray and rose 175 15

24Ae 8 kop. dark gray and carmine 175 15


61








VARIETIES (continued)

24Af 8 kop. silver gray, metallic 125
looking, and rose

24Ba 8 kop. "COCEMb" in place of 4500 1250
"BOCEMb" in the value text

24Bb 8 kop. "fat eagle" in the center 150

24Bc 8 kop. worn embossong in center -25

24Ca 8 kop. on paper without visible 350 100
watermark or laid lines

24Cb 8 kop. with part of a watermark +100 +50
letter

24Ea 8 kop. imperforate 32500

24Eb 8 kop. shifted center RR

24Ec 8 kop. mirror impression of center R
on back (penetration)

24Ed 8 kop. perforations shifted 1/4 RR
into the design

25Aa 10 kop. brown and sky blue 650 75

25Ab 10 kop. reddish light brown and 600 62
sky blue

25Ba 10 kop. damaged "T" in the word R R
"!E'CT" (50th stamp)

25Bb 10 kop. open "0" in "10" in upper 150
right corner (1st stamp
in the 4th sheet)

25Ca 10 kop. with part of a watermark +150 +75
letter

25Ea 10 kop. inverted center 122500

25Eb 10 kop. shifted center RR


26Aa 20 kop. light blue and yellow orange 700 50

26Ab 20 kop. blue and yellow orange 700 50

26Ac 20 kop. blue and cinnabar (vermillion) R R

26Ad 20 kop. dark blue and orange 780 60

62








VARIETIES (continued)

26Ba 20 kop. cross-like "T" in word 2000 250


26Ca 20 kop. on paper without visible 1250 150
watermark or laid lines

26Cb 20 kop. with part of a watermark +150 +75
letter

26Ea 20 kop. inverted center 162500

26Eb 20 kop. shifted center RR

26Ec 20 kop. mirror impression of center 2000
on back (offset)


Vertically Laid Paper

23V 7 2 kop. black and rose 11000 750


24V 8 8 kop. gray and rose 13500 600


VARIETIES

23VAa 2 kop. black and dark rose 11000 750

23VAb 2 kop. black and red 11500 800

23VBa 2 kop. "deformed 2," the 2 in the 11500 1000
hexagon background touches
the frame of the hexagon

23VBb 2 kop. shortened tail in number "2" 11500 900
in upper right corner

23VCa 2 kop. with part of a watermark +150
letter

23VEa 2 kop. imperforate

23VEb 2 kop. inverted background


24VAa 8 kop. light gray and rose 13500 600

24VAb 8 kop. gray and carmine 14500 750

24VCa 8 kop. with part of a watermark +250
letter

63








VARIETIES (continued)

24VEa 8 kop. imperforate

Footnote: The varieties 23VEa and 23VEb are given in the A. Cohen catalog,
"Catalog of Russian Imperial Postage Stamps," Rossica Nos. 70 and 71, 1966.
Variety 24VEa was given in John Reynold's "Specialized Catalog of Russian
Postage Stamps," Part I, 1957, published by the British Society of Russian
Philately.

Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combinations 2 kop. 8 kop. 10 kop. 20 kop.


On Horizontally Laid Paper

Block of 4 +170 +110 +400 +110 +1500 +600 +1650 +700

On cover +150 +150 +200 +210

Stamp tied to +15 +15 +50 +50
piece with clear
postmark

On Vertically Laid Paper

Pair +500 +6000 +500 -

On cover +7000 +5600 -

Stamp tied to +1000 +400 -
piece with clear
postmark
HISTORICAL DATA

The decrees of the Bern Congress of the Postal Union, which included Russia
along with other countries, in September 1874 created new postal tariffs for
the payment of internal and international postal correspondence. In connection
with this decree, Russia on January 16,1875 reexamined its postal rates and
lowered them. New stamps were issued for 2, 8, 10, and 20 kop. values. This
was announced in Circular No. 1269 of the Postal Department dated January 20,
1875. Some of the new rates were announced in the Postal Department Circular
No. 7649 dated April 26, 1875. The 8 kop. stamp was to pay for ordinary inter-
city mail, the 2 kop. was for use to pay for wrappers as well as intercity and
international open letters (using two 2 kop. stamps). The 10 kop. and 20 kop.
stampswere designated for payment of registered letters and ordinary letters
greater that one lot in weight.

The postal administration began sale of the 2 and 8 kop. stamps on June 18,
1875 and the 10 and 20 kop. values after the supply of these values of previous
issues had been used up. The remainders of the 10, 20, and 30 kop. values in
the post offices were allowed to be sold until exhausted and correspondence
franked with these stamps were to be dispatched without hindrance after June 19.


64








RATES FROM JUNE 19, 1875

Internal Intercity and International Correspondence to Countries
of the Postal Union

Ordinary closed letter 8 kop. per lot or fraction thereof
(instead of 10 kop.)

International 8 kop. per 15 grams or fraction thereof

Open letter (post card) 4 kop. (instead of 5 kop.)

Wrappers with printed matter, sample goods as well as business letters-
(new style correspondence) 2 kop. for each 4 lots or fraction thereof
for internal mail (instead of 2 kop. for 3 lots) and 2 kop. for 50
grams or fraction thereof for international mail.

The limiting weight for wrappers with printed matter and business paper was
64 lots (2 pounds) for internal correspondence and 1000 grams for international
mail. With sample goods the limit was 20 lots for internal mail and 250 grams
for international. For registered sealed letters and wrappers the weight fee
was increased, just as it was for ordinary mail. Registry was an additional
10 kop. and a receipt upon receival was 5 kop. (both payable with franked
stamps on the mail). Registered open letter (post cards) and receival receipts
had the same increases.

Correspondence to countries not belonging to the Postal Union cost considerably
more, according to many different special rates. The rates for local city open
and closed letters as wrappers were the same as those existing earlier.

SPECIAL INFORMATION

Stamps of the seventh issue, especially the 2 and 8 kop. values, were printed
with cliches having many varieties. Only the better known cliche varieties are
given in this catalog.

The paper was covered with a thin layer of base material, somewhat more water-
proof compared to the stamps of the third through sixth issues. Upon prolonged
immersion in water, the ink on some stamps will be washed off the paper. There
are known 2, 8, and 20 kop. values on paper with indistinguishable watermark
(caused by the flattening of the damp paper during preparation).

The sheets and their layout are the same as previous issues.

CANCELLATIONS

Cancellers of the types given for the sixth issue were used with this issue.

FAKES

Fakes to deceive collectors are known of the 10 and 20 kop. stamps with inverted
centers. The center was cut from a genuine stamp, inverted, and glued in. After-
wards the paper was pressed under heavy pressure. The line of the cut is not
visible to the eye. This is a dangerous fake.
65








PROOFS

2 kop.: four varieties of different colors on thick paper,
unwatermarked and imperforate.

2, 8, 10, and 20 kop.: in colors released into circulation but
on thick paper, unwatermarked and imperforate.

8 kop.: gray and carmine on thin cardboard, unwatermarked,
perforated 14 1/2 x 15.


Numbers of Stamps Sold

Year 2 kop. 8 kop. 10 kop. 20 kop.

1875 2,762,215 17,650,385 14,092,817 1,569,821

1876 5,094,501 34,798,475 1,880,120 1,688,792

1877 5,669,000 36,216,309 1,918,364 2,182,766

1878 6,237,130 42,743,331 2,136,611 2,644,682

1879 6,797,323 10,041,058 1,295,452 1,254,669

1880 7,167,386 10,348 691,195 530,743

1881 7,851,346 463,148 430,077

1882 8,654,587 352,275 361,251

1883 9,165,542 273,801 315,470

1884 156,890 131,634

1885 14,708 9,741

1886 5

Footnote: Numbers of stamps sold for 10 and 20 kop. values include
stamps of the previous issues.

Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps for Certain Cancellations

Cancels 2 k. 8 k. 10 k. 20 k.

Types of SC1 +25 +25 +25 +50

SC28 Moscow +25 +25 +75 +75

SC28 other cities +50 +50 +100 +75

SC30 +40 +30 +50 +10

SC31 +15

66








Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps for Certain Cancellations (cont.)

Cancels 2 k. 8 k. 10 k. 20 k.

SC32 SC39 +20

SC40, Nos. 1, 2, 6, 8 +5 +5

SC40, Nos. 3, 4, 5, 7, 9 +10 +10

Red ink except +15 +25 +40 +75
St. Petersburg

Blue ink (except SC31-SC39) +25 +25 +50 +100

Green ink +25 +40 +75 +150



EIGHTH ISSUE

(Scott No. 27)


1879, March 19. Typographed two-colored printing. New design with a white
embossed impression of the emblem of the Postal Administration within a
colored center of the stamp. Designed and engraved by F. Kepler. Prepared
by EZGB. Paper is white with laid lines. Watermarked "Ornament." Per-
forated 14 1/2 x 15.
















7 kopek

Horizontally Laid Paper

27 11 7 kop. black and carmine 100 7


VARIETIES

27Aa 7 kop. gray and rose 100 7
67








VARIETIES (continued)

27Ab 7 kop. light gray and carmine 115 10

27Ac 7 kop. light gray and rose 100 7

27Ad 7 kop. dark gray and carmine 110 10

27Ae 7 kop. dark gray and rose 110 10

27Af 7 kop. black and carmine (1881) 125 25

27Ba 7 kop. oval frame line broken below 150 50
second I of "VII"
(20th stamp on 4th pane)

27Bb 7 kop. line crosses part of design 200 75
(3rd stamp of 4th pane)

27Bc 7 kop. fat eagle in center -125

27Bd 7 kop. reengraved emblem (carmine -75
dots in flare of horn, etc.)

27Be 7 kop. worn embossing in center 25

27Ca 7 kop. on paper with more frequent 750 100
laid lines (25-30 lines
instead of 13)

27Cb 7 kop. on paper without visible 300 100
watermark or laid lines

27Cc 7 kop. on thick paper 0.08 or thicker R R

27Cd 7 kop. with part of a watermark letter +100 +50

27Ea 7 kop. imperforate 65000

27Eb 7 kop. inverted center (one known) unique

27Ec 7 kop. shifted center RR

27Ed 7 kop. mirror impression of center R
on back (penetration)


Vertically Laid Paper

27V 11 7 kop. gray and rose 10000 375


VARIETIES

27VAa 7 kop. gray and carmine 11000 400

27VAb 7 kop. dark gray and rose 10000 375

68








VARIETIES (Vertically Laid Paper cont.)

27VAc 7 kop. light gray and rose 10000 375


On Watermarked Paper "Elongated Hexagons"

27P 11 7 kop. gray and rose on watermarked 165000
paper "Elongated Hexagons"
(4 used copies known canceled
in 1880 in Perm, type SC18)


Premiums to be Added to the Value of the 7 kop. Stamp

Combinations Horizontally Laid Paper Vertically Laid Paper

Pair +50 +6 +2500 +375

Block of four +200 +50 RRRR

Stamp on cover +100 +3500

Stamp tied to piece -+15 -+375
with clear postmark

HISTORICAL INFORMATION

S In 1878 in Paris the second congress of the postal union met with many more
countries attending than at the founding congress in Bern in 1874. At the
Paris congress, agreements were made for all countries of the postal union,
now called the Universal Postal Union. The agreements called for a single
and obligatory rate for letters and wrappers. They were issued on April 1,
1879 (March 20 by the old style) and stipulated equal rates for internal and
international mail.

To satisfy the new rate for the payment of sending a sealed letter, a new
7 kop. value stamp was issued, as announced in the Postal Department Circular
No. 3973, dated February 14, 1879.

In connection with the release of this new stamp on March 20, 1879, the sale
of the 8 kop. stamps was forbidden and remainders were ordered returned to
the Postal Department. However, stamps already sold were allowed to be used
to frank mail, according to Circular 4035 of the Postal Administration, dated
February 14, 1879.

RATES AS OF MARCH 20, 1879

Internal and International Mail (to countries of the Universal Postal Union)

Ordinary domestic sealed letters 7 kop. per lot or fraction thereof
(in place of 8 kop.)

International sealed letters 7 kop. for 15 grams or fraction.
Letter weight was limited to 160 lots (5 pounds).

69








Open letters (postal cards) 3 kop. (in place of 4 kop.)

Wrappers with printed matter, sample goods and business papers -
2 kop. for each 4 lots or fraction thereof for internal mail
or 50 grams or fraction thereof for international mail, with
a minimum rate of 7 kop. for business papers and 3 kop. for
sample goods.

The limiting weight for wrappers with printed matter and business papers was
128 lots (4 pounds) for internal mail and 2000 grams for international mail.
Sample goods were limited to 20 lots for internal mail and 250 grams for
international mail.

For registered letters and wrappers the weight fees were increased, as they
were for ordinary mail, a plus 7 kop. (in place of 10 kop.) for registry.
The receipt upon receival of the correspondence was given free by the post
office (this earlier cost 5 kop.). Weight of registered letters was not
limited.

For registered open letters, the fee was 3 kop. plus 7 kop. for registry.
Correspondence to countries not belonging to the Universal Postal Union
cost significantly more with special rates.

City Correspondence

Ordinary sealed letters in St. Petersburg and Moscow cost 5 kop., in other
cities it was 3 kop. Maximum weight was 32 lots.

Open letters (postal cards) 3 kop.

Extra payment for registered letters and wrappers 7 kop. (in place
of 10 kop.). A receipt upon receival of registered mail was
given free (in place of 5 kop.).


Numbers of Stamps Sold

1879 43,311,204

1880 61,041,512

1881 66,286,906

1882 71,289,358

1883 77,183,103


CANCELLATIONS

Cancellers of the types used for the sixth issue were used with this issue
with the exception of SC15.


70








Premiums to be Added to the 7 kop. Stamp for Certain Cancellations

SC1, straight line +25

S SC28 Moscow +25
(other cities add +50%)

SC30 +30

SC31 SC39 +20

SC40 with Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8 +10

Canceled with red ink +25

Canceled with blue ink +50


FAKES

Fakes to deceive the collector are known:

1. Inverted centers, prepared the same way as described for the 10 and 20 kop.
stamps of the seventh issue.

2. Without center, removed chemically.


PROOFS

There are proofs of the 7 kop. in the same design as the issued stamp with
the following colors: light brown and orange, light blue and red, and lilac
and dark green.

The paper has horizontal laid lines, frame perfed 14 1/2 x 15, valued at
1250 each.



NINTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 31-40)


1884, January 25. Set "without thunderbolts." typographed. These were new
designs for the 1 7 kop. stamps which are singly colored with the frame and
background printed separately; the 14, 35 and 70 kop. stamps are two-colored
with white embossing of the mblem of the Postal Administration in the center
of the stamp; the 3 rub. 50 kop. stamp and the 7 rub. stamp are two-colored
stamps with enlarged format 24.7 x 29 mm and with a white embossed emblem.
Prepared by EZGB. Paper in white with laid lines. Watermarked "Ornament."
The kopek values are frame perfed 14 1/2 x 15 and 14 1/4 x 14 3/4, the ruble
values are line perfed.


71





















1 kopek 2 kopek 3 kopek 5 kopek
















7 kopek 14 kopek 35 kopek 70 kopek



















3 ruble 50 kopek 77 ruble








Paper with Horizontal Laid Lines

28 12 1 kop. orange (October 1884) 23 10

29 13 2 kop. blue green (March 1884) 45 10

30 14 3 kop. carmine (January 1885) 60 10

31 15 5 kop. lilac 50 5

32 16 7 kop. blue 50 5

33 17 14 kop. blue and rose 150 10

34 18 35 kop. lilac and green 200 50

35 19 70 kop. light brown and orange 275 40


Paper with Vertical Laid Lines

36 20 3 rub. black and light gray 9000 11500
50 kop.

37 21 7 rub. black and yellow 9000 11000

36H 20 3 rub. black and gray on horizontal 100000 75000
50 kop. laid paper

VARIETIES

28Aa 1 kop. reddish orange 25 10

28Ab 1 kop. yellow orange 25 10

28Ac 1 kop. yellow 30 10

28Ad 1 kop. vivid bright yellow R

28Ae 1 kop. orange with metallic sheen 35 12

28Ca 1 kop. with part of a watermark letter +35 +25

28Ea 1 kop. imperforate 9500 7000

28Eb 1 kop. inverted background 30000 30000

28Ec 1 kop. shifted background 1000 750

28Ed 1 kop. without background RR


29Aa 2 kop. dark blue green 50 10

29Ab 2 kop. green 45 10

73








29Ac 2 kop. dark green 45 10

29Ad 2 kop. blue and green with metallic sheen 50 12

29Ba 2 kop. the numeral 2 is missing in the R
left corner

29Bb 2 kop. broken letter "17" in the word 50
"I1771", appears as "'"

29Ca 2 kop. with part of watermark letter +35 +25

29Ea 2 kop. imperforate 7250 5750

29Eb 2 kop. imperforate with shifted background 6000 5000













29Eb

29Ec 2 kop. shifted background R R

29Ed 2 kop. inverted background RRRR

29Ee 2 kop. on paper without visible water- R
mark and laid lines


30Aa 3 kop. carmine rose 60 10

30Ab 3 kop. rose 60 10

30Ac 3 kop. red 75 15

30Ad 3 kop. red with metallic sheen 75 20

30Ca 3 kop. with part of a watermark letter +35 +25

30Ea 3 kop. imperforate 12500 9000

30Eb 3 kop. inverted background 60000

30Ec 3 kop. shifted background R R

30Ed 3 kop. mirror impression of frame R
on back of stamp (offset)

74








31Aa 5 kop. bright light lilac 80 12

31Ab 5 kop. dark lilac 60 10

31Ac 5 kop. brownish lilac 60 10

31Ad 5 kop. violet 80 12

31Ca 5 kop. with part of a watermark +35 +25
letter

31Ea 5 kop. imperforate 12500 12500

31Eb 5 kop. inverted background 57500

31Ec 5 kop. shifted background R R

31Ed 5 kop. double background RR


32Aa 7 kop. dark blue 50 5

32Ab 7 kop. light blue R

32Ac 7 kop. blue with metallic sheen 90 12

32Ad 7 kop. indigo 55 5

32Ba 7 kop. with a dot in the encircling 100 35
oval between the letters "/"'
and "0' in the word "70rqoWB4f'

32Bb 7 kop. broken circle with the numeral 100 35
7 in upper right corer

32Ca 7 kop. with part of a watermark +25 +15
letter

32Ea 7 kop. imperforate 5500 5500

32Eb 7 kop. inverted background 8000 7000

32Ec 7 kop. shifted background 550 450











32Ec

75








32Ed 7 kop. double frame 1350 1350

32Ee 7 kop. mirror impression of frame 250
on back of stamp (offset)

32Ef 7 kop. mirror impression of back- 250
ground on back of stamp
(offset)

32Eg 7 kop. on paper with vertical laid "unique"
lines (actually the lines are
slanted at 12 degrees)


33Aa 14 kop. blue and carmine 160 12

33Ab 14 kop. light blue and rose 150 10

33Ac 14 kop. light blue and carmine 160 12

33Ad 14 kop. pale blue and rose 160 10

33Ba 14 kop. joined letters "E" and "T" in 175 17
word "tlEmPHw4AT "









33Ba

33Ca 14 kop. with part of a watermark +50 +35
letter

33Ea 14 kop. imperforate 14500 14500

33Eb 14 kop. inverted center 82500 57500










33Eb 33Ec

33Ec 14 kop. shifted center RR RR


76








34Aa 35 kop. dark lilac and green 200 60

34Ab 35 kop. pale lilac and bluish green 225 75

34Ac 35 kop. lilac and bluish green 200 75

34Ad 35 kop. dark lilac and bluish green 225 65

34Ca 35 kop. with part of a watermark +120 +80
letter

34Ea 35 kop. shifted center 2500 2000


35Aa 70 kop. grayish brown and orange 325 60

35Ab 70 kop. brown and orange 300 40

35Ac 70 kop. dark brown and orange 500 100

35Ad 70 kop. light brown and reddish orange 600 125

35Ae 70 kop. brown and reddish orange 600 125

35Ba 70 kop. complete separation of the "7" +75 +50
and "0" in "70" in the upper
right corner















35Ba 35Bb

35Bb 70 kop. the "7" and "0" are joined +50 +15
in the lower right corner

35Ca 70 kop. with part of a watermarked +75 +50
letter

35Ea 70 kop. shifted center 2500 2000


36Aa 3 rub. black and gray 9500 12000
50 kop.
77








36Ea 3 rub. inverted center (see comment 2 below)
50 kop.


37Aa 7 rub. black and orange yellow 9500 11500

37Ea 7 rub. without vertical perforation RRRR
between stamps

37Eb 7 rub. without horizontal perforation RRRR
at the top


Comments:

1. There are two types of the kopek value stamps (Nos. 28-35): Type A has
narrow margins with fram perfs 14 1/2 x 15 and Type B has wider margins with
frame perfs 14 1/4 x 14 3/4 (see the section Special Information). Premiums:
Type B 35 kop. +500, +250.

2. The existence of variety 36Ea is given in two catalogs of Russian stamps:
John H. Reynold's Special Catalogue of Postage Stamps of Russia, published
by the British Society of Russian Philately, 1957, and Russie Imperiale
published by Cercle Philatelique France U.R.S.S., Paris, 1964.

3. Many catalogs mention a 14 kop.
-(no. 33) cut diagonally in half and
used in Kutais with a handoverprint
: ^in red ink of the numeral "7". This
is the so-called Kutais provisional,
issued August 1884, supposedly due to
the lack of 7 kop. stamps at the post
Office. Although a small number of
letters with these half stamps were
P mailed in Kutais and Tiflis, there was
.' no official authorization for their
Sl A I ; issuance. They are considered to be
of private origin.
Subsequently, fakes of this phantasy
J stamp have appeared, and can be dis-
tinguished by the shape and size of
the overprint (numeral "7") and some-
times in the color of the ink.
No. 33 Bisect

Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combinations 1 kop. 2 kop. 3 kop. 5 kop.

Pair

Block of four +90 +75 +125 +100 +150 +100 +150 +100

On cover +40 +40 +25 +45

78








Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps
(continued)

Combinations 7 kop. 14 kop. 35 kop. 70 kop.

Pair -- +150 +75 +175 +50

Block of four +100 +25 +250 +125 +750 +750 +1150 +500

On cover +25 +40 +450 +250


Combinations 3 rub. 50 kop. 7 rub.

Pair +4000 +4000

Block of four +12000 +12000

On cover -

HISTORICAL REFERENCE

To improve the control of correct payment for international mail to the
postal establishments of the countries, the members of the Universal Postal
Union agreed to use identically colored postage stamps for the most common
types of correspondence. Three colors were agreed on: for ordinary sealed
letters the postage stamps would be blue (in Russia this was the 7 kop.
stamp); for open letters (post cards) a red colored stamp was to be used,
the 3 kop.; and for wrapper mail a green color stamp was to be used, the
2 kop.

At the same time that these postage stamps appeared, it was decided to change
the designs and colors of the 1 and 5 kop. stamps currently used, as well as
to place into circulation stamps with rather high denominations.

The issue of the new postage stamps and their specimens were approved on
November 10, 1883. At the same time it was ordered that the stamps of all
previous issues were to be removed from circulation on January 1, 1885. Later,
in the decree of January 4, 1885, the duration of circulation of the earlier
stamps was extended to July 1, 1885.

In the fourth circular on postal administration, dated December 14, 1883, No.
21660, Part IV, the Postal Department informed all the postal establishments
of the empire of the forthcoming issue of new postage stamps. At the same
time it was announced that the sending of the new stamps to the postal es-
tablishments would be made after the existing supplies were used up and that
the new high denomination stamps are for payment of heavy ordinary and
registered letters as well as for wrapper mail. It was designated that the
3 rub. 50 kop. and 7 rub. stamps be sent only to St. Petersburg and Moscow
post offices, whereas the 35 kop. amd 70 kop. stamps, in addition to the
capitol's post offices, would be sent to the state (gubernia) and county
(uyezd) post offices I class A. The 14 kop. stamp was to be sent to all
postal establishments of the empire. Sale of the new stamps with denominations
previously used (that is the 1-7 kop.) should begin only after stocks of all
previous issues had been used.

79








In the January 22, 1884 issue of the newspaper "Pravitelsvennii Vestnik"
the Postal Department announced the sale of the new stamps with denominations
7, 14, 35, and 70 kop., 3 rub. 50 kop. amd 7 rub. starting on January 25,
1884.

SPECIAL INFORMATION

DESIGN: The specific differences in designs of the new stamps with values
1 7 kop. from the 1 5 kop. stamps of previous issues are in the background
which is made up of a rhombic screen of small dots and dashes and has thin
horizontal lines in the area under the emblem. The background was printed
separately from the frame with ink of the same color. However, the shades
of color of the frame of a stamp and the background do not always coincide
and that is why one finds different combinations of tones.

For the 14, 35, and 70 kop. value stamps a revised design of the first Russian
postage stamp was used. The text of the value was made in white letters. The
values in the corners of the stamps were made in white letters within a colored
circle. The background design appears as a rhombic screen (diamond pattern).

The general sizes of the stamp designs of the kopek values are about the same
as the stamps of previous issues. The 3 rub. 50 kop. and 7 rub. stamps with
the new designs are larger.

SIZE OF THE STAMPS AND PERFORATIONS: The kopek value stamps were released
in two format sizes according to the axes of the perforation holes (i.e.,
due to change in spacing of the cliches and the perforations).17

The smaller format, Size A, is known in two forms: with narrow margins on
four sides of the design, called Al, and with narrow margins on the two
sides and larger margins on top and bottom, called A2. The stamps are frame
perforated 14 1/2 x 15.

The larger format stamps, Size B, have relatively wider margins on the four
sides of the design due to repositioning of the cliches on the printing plates.
The stamps are frame perforated 14 1/4 x 14 3/4.

One can distinguish the differences in the perforations of these stamps on
unused blocks of four. It is difficult to measure with a perforation gauge
a difference of 1/4 perforation on a single stamp. Besides that, on used
copies the difference may be lost due to shrinkage of the paper. It is
recommended that individual stamps be distinguished by the size of the margins.

Paper for the stamps was coated with a waterproof base (lightly chalked paper).
Thickness was held to the range of 0.055 0.065 mm.

SHEETS: The kopek value stamps were printed in sheets of 100 in four panes
of 25 stamps (5 x 5). The size of the kopek sheets corresponded nominally to
the size of previous issues. The ruble values were printed on sheets 225-235
x 235-240 mm.

The gum is white and transparent.


17Berngard, K. "The Early and Late Issue Stamps of 1883-1888", Philately of
the USSR No. 10, 1969, page 9.

80








Numbers of Stamps Sold

Year Kopek Values (in thousands) Actual
Number

1 2 3 5 7 14 35 70 3.50R 7R

1884 7232 10721 4545 6148 76431 1972 56.3 13.4 416 227

1885 7279 10442 3910 5507 80941 3151 69.2 1.6 485 214

1886 7296 10907 3806 5345 84333 3556 84.2 16.9 463 155

1887 7893 11854 4163 5402 88147 4218 93.4 20.6 283 95

1888 8872 4421 92423 4567 96.5 20.3 410 188

1889 10571 6636 4672 93.4 21.0 877 385

1890 87.0 17.2 1042 664

1891 121.0 18.5 724

1892 19.3 -

1893 45.5 -

1894 52.4 -

1895 58.4 -

1896 65.8 -

1897 74.4

1898 72.7 -

1899 74.0

1900 78.1

1901 96.0 -

1902 104.8 -

1903 116.0

Note:

1. The numbers of stamps sold in 1884 and 1885 of the 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 kopek
values include stamps of the Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Issues.

2. On September 16, 1911, the Berlin stamp company, F. Kozak, bought the
remainders of this issue from the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph.
These remainders included 225 copies each of the 3 rub. 50 kop. and 7 rub.


81









stamps "without thunderbolts."18


CANCELLATIONS

Stamped cancels of the types given for the Sixth Issue were used with this
issue as well as new cancels with the text "POCHTOVAYA KONTORA" SC42.





5 12 -
Anp. S



SC42 SC45



In connection with the organization in 1884 of the Main Administration of
the Post and Telegraph, replacing the separate Postal and Telegraph Departments,
most of the postal and telegraph establishments were slowly reorganized into
postal-telegraphs. For canceling postage stamps, they used new cancelers
with appropriate text,SC43. At the same time the separate postal and telegraph
establishments continued in operation.

To replace the cancelers of the type SC40 which heavily obliterated the stamps,
the first three divisions of the Moscow City Post used cancelers similar to
the St. Petersburg numeral cancels with an oval form, SC44, with the numerals
1 and 3, and SC45 with the numeral 2. These cancelers were used until about
the 1900s. Other divisions of the Moscow City Post also used the canceler
SC46 which was normally used to postmark letters without tying the stamps.








SC44 SC45 SC46



There is known a 70 kop. stamp "without thunderbolts" canceled with a Warsaw
City Post cancel, SC47, used in the beginning of the 1900s. This type of
cancel with variation in the horizontal lines and the text was used until 1917.
Used copies of the 35 and 70 kop. stamps were frequently found with cancels of
a later period.

18.4 CCCP (Central State Historical Archives of the USSR), fund 1289, opis
(list) 10, ed. khr. 827 (unit of storage 827), "On the removal of current stamps
from circulation."
82








In the second half of the 80s some stations (offices) of the city telegraph
of St. Petersburg started to fulfill postal operations. In these cases, stamps
were canceled with the telegraph cancelers SC48. These cancellations on
stamps are known starting in 1887.

Besides submitting a telegram directly to a telegraph office with cash payment,
the telegram could be mailed to these offices. In these cases, postage stamps
to cover the cost of the telegram were glued on the sheet with the message.
The sheet was sealed in an envelope and placed in a postal box. This envelope
was not franked with postage stamps but was inscribed 'NA TELEGRAF," for the
telegraph. Stamps on the message sheets were canceled with the telegraph
cancelers.




.18898


sc47 sc48 sc49


Revised cancelers of the mail coaches, SC49 indicating only the number of the
station and the date were used starting in the 1880s.


Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps for Certain Cancellations

Cancels 1-7 kop. 14 kop. 35 kop. 70 kop. 3.50 rub. 7 rub.

SC28 Moscow,
SC28a 0 +10 +75 +75

SC28 other
cities +10 +20 +150 +125

SC31 +10 +15 R R -

SC32 SC39 +15 +25 R R -

SC43 R R

SC44, SC45 0 +15 R R

SC47 +150

SC48 +75 +125 -


FAKES

Forgeries to defraud the post are known for the 70 kop. stamp. They were
printed by lithography. The design was crudely made. The fakes were perforated
13 1/4 instead of 14 1/2 x 15 or 14 1/4 x 14 3/4 as found on the genuine stamps.
83








Fakes to deceive collectors are known for the 3.50 rub. and 7 rub. stamps
"without thunderbolts." Most dangerous are those made by Fournier in Geneva
on laid paper early in the 20th century.

Besides these,there are other crudely executed fakes. The ornament consists
of heavy lines.

There are also forged stamps of the 3.50 rub. and 7 rub. "without thunderbolts"
prepared from genuine stamps of the later issue "with thunderbolts" on which
the thunderbolts of the postal-telegraph emblem were painted over leaving only
the posthorns. These forgeries are easy to distinguish from the genuine copies
by the length of the posthorns which on the design of stamps "without thunder-
bolts" are 5.7 mm, whereas on stamps "with thunderbolts" the posthors are
3.5 mm long.

To make the fake stamps laid paper was used in which the lines were separate
from each other at a distance of 1.5 mm instead of 1.7 as on genuine paper.
The letters and wavy lines of the watermark are not present, but one should
keep in mind that the letters of the watermark on a sheet of genuine stamps
do not always fall on every stamp. Some of the fakes have grease-marked wavy
lines which are readily visible when the paper is dry but are not completely
invisible when the stamp is immersed in watermark detection fluid.

The catalog of Russian stamps edited by F. G. Chuchin, SFA, Moscow, 1928,
indicates that the wide margins from the sheets of genuine stamps issued in
1889-1904 were used to make fakes.

Fake cancelers were used to cancel the fake stamps.


Table I

Details of the Fake 3.50 and 7 Ruble Stamps
(Nos. 36 and 37 in this catalog)

The 3.50 Ruble
Detail I: In the design of the ornament in the upper left corner of the
right angle frame, bordering the oval with the emblem, the following details
are found:


c b a ,a

-C

__b
d a

Fi. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5



19Serrane, F. "Vademecum du Specialiste-Expert en Timbres-Poste d'Europe".
Nice, 1927.84
84








a. in the genuine, the leaf almost touches the frame line and with
the spreading of the ink, it is joined with this line, shown in
fig. la.

In the Fake Type I, the leaf stands clear from the upper frame
line with a wide space, as in figure 2a.

In the Fake Type II, it is similar to the genuine.


b. in the genuine, the inner curl of the spiral of the branch is
connected with a leaf to the outer courve as in figure lb.

In the Fake Type I, the inner curl is not connected, as in fig. 2b.

In the Fake Type II, it is similar to the genuine.


c. in the genuine, the leaf is separated from the frame as shown in
figure Ic.

In the Fake Type I, the leaf is connected to the frame as shown
in figure 2c.

In the Fake Type II, the leaf is insignificantly separated from
the frame but is usually connected due to the spreading of the ink.


d. in the genuine, the bead at the end of the branch does not touch
the enclosing oval, as shown in figure Id.

In the Fake Type I, the bead is not connected.

In the Fake Type II, the bead is connected with the enclosing oval,
as shown in figure 3a.


e. in the genuine, the leaf of the branch does not touch the enclosing
oval, as shown in figure le.

In the Fake Type I, the leaf does not touch.

In the Fake Type II, the leaf is connected to the enclosing oval,
as shown in figure 3b.


Detail II: In the design of the ornament in the upper right corner of the
right angle frame, bordering the oval with the emblem, the following details
are found:





Fig. 4 Fig. 5

85








In the genuine, the stem of the branch is not connected to the flower,
as shown in figure 4.

In the Fake Type I, the stem is not connected.

In the Fake Type II, the stem is connected to the flower as shown in
figure 5.

Detail III: Perforations

In the genuine, perforation is 13 1/4 (13.33)

In the Fake Type I, the perforation is known to be 14 and 15

In the Fake Type II, it is perforated 13 1/2.

Detail IV: Dimensions of the black design of the stamp.

In the genuine, the dimensions are 24.7 x 29 mm.

In the Fake Type I, no dimensions given.

In the Fake Type II, no dimensions given.


The 7 Ruble

Detail I: Numbers of feathers in the eagle's wings.

In the genuine, there are 14 feathers.

In the Fake Type I, there are 13-14 feathers.

In the Fake Type II, there are 12 feathers, which is the same number
found on the fake 3.50 ruble stamp.


Detail II: In the design of the ornament in the upper right corner of
the right angle frame, bordering the oval with the emblem, the following
details are found:

In the genuine, the stem of the branch is not connected to the flower,
as shown in figure 4.

In the Fake Type I, the stem is connected to the flower, as shown in
figure 5.

In the Fake Type II, the stem is connected to the flower, as shown in
figure 5.


Detail III: In the design of the ornament in the upper left corner, the
bead details are as follows:
86








In the genuine, the bead on the end of the branch does not connect with
the line of the encircling oval, as shown in figure Id.
In the Fake Type I, the bead is connected to the encircling oval, as
shown in figure 3a.
In the Fake Type II, the bead is connected to the encircling oval, as
shown in figure 3a.

Detail IV: The inscription at the left has the following detail:


T T

?ig. 6 Fig. 7


In the genuine, the letter "T' in the word "POCHTOVAYA" is printed
normally, as shown in figure 6.
In the Fake Type I, the word is printed normally, as in genuine copies.
In the Fake Type II, the top left serif if the "T' is longer and
pointed downward, as shown in figure 7.

Detail V: In the cyrillic word 'PJYBa ," meaning rubles, at the top of
the stamp, the following details are found:


t ii

rig. 8 Fig. 9


In the genuine, the curved mark above the last letter '?" is joined to
the letter or separated by a very small amount, as shown in figure 8.
In the Fake Type I, the mark is significantly distant from the letter
and has a different shape, as in figure 9.
In the Fake Type II, the mark is positioned slightly higher than on the
genuine stamp. Sometimes the left side is connected to the 'W" with a
white dash.

Detail VI: Perforation
In the genuine, the perforation is 13 1/4 (13.33)
In the Fake Type I, perforation 14 as well as 15 is known.
87








In the Fake Type II, perforation is 13 1/2.


Detail VII: Dimensions of the stamp's black design.

In the genuine, the dimensions are 24.7 x 29 mm.

In the Fake Type I, no dimensions given.

In the Fake Type II, no dimensions given.


Table of Fake Cancels20

Diameters, mm Inscription

Single Double Circle
No. Circle Inner Outer At Top At Sides At Bottom

1 26 17 "S. PETERBURG" two "III" "CHASA"

2 26 17 "S. PETERBURG" two "III" "CHASA"

3 26.5 "NOVORADOMSK" two "I" post horns

4 27 "KOVNO" fleuron

5 26 "LUBNY" fleuron

6 25 '"SKVA" 2 fleurons "NIKOL, ZH. D."
of dots

7 25.5 "RIGA" -fleuron

8 ? "MSKVA" ?

No. Date in Center in Three Lines

1 "21 MAI 1888"

2 "12 IYUN. 1889"

3 "12 NOYA. 1886"

4 "8 IYUN. 1886"

5 "7 NOYA. 1887"

6 "14 DEK. 1888"


20Vovin, Ya. "Fake Postal Cancelers of Russia," Philately of the USSR No. 8,
1969, page 14.


88







7 "1 IYUN. 1888"
8 "12 NOYA. 1886"
Note: The existence of the last fake cancel is stated in the "Catalog of
Russian Stamps" published by the Cercle Philatelique France-URSS, Paris, 1964.

PROOFS AND ESSAYS
Proof stamps are known in the design and colors of the issued stamps:
a) 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 35, and 70 kop. on paper with horizontal laid lines.
Imperforate, with 5-7 mm margins;



-.lj



I.I










b) 3 rub. 50 kop. and 7 rub. with narrow margins, imperforate;
c) the same (sic) with perfs 14 1/2 x 15 the 1 kop. canary yellow and the
2 kop. dull light green;
d) 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 35, and 70 kop. on vertical laid paper. Imperf. They
are found with various margin width.
e) the same (sic) with perfs 14 1/2 x 15 the 1, 3, and 5 kop.

89








ESSAY STAMPS: There are essay stamps printed in the colors of the issued
stamps on vertically laid paper:

a) the 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 kop. denominations have a background which differs
from the issued stamps. The background consisted of horizontal dots and
dashes alternating in a vertical direction in a checkerboard patter. Imperforate
and Perforate. See essay design Type Kl.

b) the 14, 35, and 70 kop. values exist perfed 14 1/2 x 15 with essay design
Type K2.





\-
L .



6 Type K1



Type K2







Essay stamps printed in different colors on different papers also exist:

c) the 10 kop. and the 20 kop. Imperforate;

d) the 14 kop. denomination occurs in a single color with the design Type 1 on
thin cardboard. Imperforate with 5-6 mm margins;

e) the 3 rub. 50 kop. and 7 rub. values occur as essay Types N O. They
occur perforate and imperforate.

All proofs and essays RRR.



a PM r.
% %





pe N. 0pRon.



Type N TypeO Type P Type Q
90








Comments: Certain sources indicate that stamps were specially made for the
Paris Exhibition in 1889. The denominations were:

a) the 3, 5, 10, and 20 kop. stamps were printed in the colors of the stamps
issued but they were imperforate and with punched holes;

b) the 5, 10, and 20 kop. were made in colors other than those of the issued
stamps, imperforate and the 5 and 10 kop. perforate as well;

c) the 1, 3, and 5 kop. values were made in other colors on vertical laid
paper.

All stamps issued for the Paris Exhibition RRR.


SPECIMENS

The 1 kop. to 70 kop., 3 rub. 50 kop., and 7 rub. stamps exist with the hand
overprint "specimen" (in English).

The latter two stamps also are found with a hand overprint (in Russian)
"NE GODEN K UPOTREBLEN.", meaning "not acceptable for use."



TENTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 32a, 34)


1888, March 16. Modified colors of the Ninth Issue. Paper is white with
horizontal laid lines. Watermark "Ornament." Frame perforated 14 1/4 x
14 3/4.













2 kopek 5 kopek



38 13 2 kop. yellow green 150 7

31M 15 5 kop. pale, light lilac 100 7


91








VARIETIES

38Aa 2 kop. light yellow green 175 10

38Ab 2 kop. dull yellow green 150 7

38Ca 2 kop. with part of a watermark +100 +25
letter

38Ea 2 kop. imperforate 7250 5750

38Eb 2 kop. without background RR-

38Ec 2 kop. inverted background RRR


31MCa 5 kop. with part of a watermark +35 +25
letter

Diagonal bisects of the 2 kop. stamp are known. They were used in place of
a 1 kop. They are canceled "DERPT, 2 POCHTOVAYA KONTORA, 1890". They are of
interest only where the cancellation properly ties the stamp to the cover
across the diagonal cut R.


Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combination 2 kop. 5 kop.

Block of four +650 +120 +400 +70

On cover +40 +40


HISTORICAL REFERENCE

There were many complaints from post offices and private individuals that under
artificial light it was difficult to differentiate the blue color of the 7 kop.
stamps from the green color of the 2 kop., and similarly the red color of the
3 kop. from the 1 kop. orange stamp. The Main Administration of the Post and
Telegram proposed to the Printing Office the use of inks for the stamps such
that the colors could be differentiated under artificial light.

Sample stamps with the changed colors that were presented by the EZGB were
approved by the Misnister of Internal Affairs on December 30, 1887.


SPECIAL INFORMATION

The approved stamp colors were:

for the 1 kop. yellow instead of orange;
for the 2 kop. yellow green instead of green;
for the 5 kop. light lilac instead of the other shades of lilac;
and for the 7 kop. blue with a metallic sheen instead of other shades of
blue.

92








The 1, 3, and 7 kop. stamps in the approved shades were found in circulation
earlier. So in reality, the new shades were approved for the 2 and 5 kop.
stamps.


CANCELLATIONS

The same cancels employed for the Ninth Issue were used with this issue. For
premiums for certain cancellations, see the table listed under the Ninth Issue.

Number of Stamps Sold (in thousands)

Year 2 kop. 5 kop.

1888 12,864 5,520

1889 13,626 6,194

1890 14,484

Note: The numbers sold include stamps of these denominations of the ninth
issue as well.
[to be continued]

Translator's Notes


Any and all errors in translation are mine. As I am not an expert in the
Russian language, any misinterpretations or grammatical inconsistencies are
my fault. However, I did try to make the text readable and usable and at the
same time I tried to keep to the original as closely as possible which may
account for seemingly awkward sentences at times.

The author's style varied from section to section. His descriptions of the
issues were brief words or phrases rather than sentences. However, his his-
torical information and data were typical long multi-clause sentences.

I cannot vouch for the accuracy of the data given. One must assume that the
author has given us the facts correctly as given, barring typographical
errors.

There are some inconsistencies which are noted below.

The original Russian letters for the varieties were the initials of the words
of the varieties and were all different, that is, a different letter for color,
cliche, paper, perforation, and typography (printing). Unfortunately, this
doesn't work out nicely in English. Thus I simply used A, B, C, D, and E for
the five groups. However, the author designated a perforation variety (D in
my code) but never used it in this article except erroneously in the color
varieties of the vertical laid paper of the 7 kop. value of the eighth issue.
I corrected this to code B in this listing.



93








Similarly the author used the additional letter A in his codes for the vertical
laid paper varieties of the seventh and eighth issues. I replaced his letter
A with V, for vertical. See 27VBa, 27VBb, and 27VBc.

In the original text, there was no variety labeled 20Bc although there were
the following varieties 20Bd, etc. I assume this indicates an omission of the
variety in printing.

On some of the tables, the columns are left blank or with a dash. It sometimes
is unclear whether the author means the variety is unknown, does not exist, or
if a value is unknown.

Under the Tenth Issue, readers will see in parenthesis the Scott #34 repeated.
This Scott number also appears under the Ninth Issue. The 5 kop. stamp in
the Tenth Issue is a definite new color which is unlisted by Scott but in all
other details is like Scott #34.

In addition, in the original Russian article, this modified color 5 kop. is
listed as No. 31A. Since we use the letter A to indicate another type of
variety, in the list we have translated 31A to 31M for modified as indicated
in the text.

Although all typographical errors that Lobachevski noted in the subsequent
issue of the "Soviet Collector" have been made in this translation, there are
apparently others which the author did not catch. Under the Tenth Issue
varieties, the first two varieties are color varieties and have been so
designated with the letters A for color variety, see 38Aa and 38Ab. These
two varieties in the original for some reason were designated with the letter
designating a frame perforation which, of course, makes no sense.

Finally, as most Americans who use Scott numbers, one is tempted to code
Lobachevski's list using the equivalent Scott number. However, he correctly
gives the issues in chronological order and Scott, unfortunately, groups the
stamps according to type rather than in order of issue. Therefore the numbers
for the stamps are given in this translation in their chronological order,
exactly as they appeared in the original article. The equivalent Scott
numbers appear only in parentheses beneath the issue number title.

George V. Shalimoff
















94








A U.S. CIVIL WAR RELATED COVER

by Arthur Falk


Although Imperial Russia's friendly policy towards the United States during
its Civil War (1861-1865) is generally recognized, no philatelic evidence
of this policy is known to the writer. He has, however, turned up an interes-
ting philatelic item of this great struggle with a Russian "angle," a cover
with two letters enclosed.

As the illustration shows, it is
a letter addressed to the Russian
Consul General in New York mailed
"on 2 May 1861. The contents con-
Scern the position of the Russian
(be Vice-Consul at Mobile, Alabama.
At this point it is necessary to
-c give some philatelic background
? -) i on the Civil War for those un-
LC ., acquainted with that war's postal
"//r- .i2 / history.


__ 11 January 1861 and was admitted
to the Confederacy on 4 February.
However, until 31 May 1861, U.S.
stamps continued to be valid, a total of four months and twenty-one days. No
Confederate stamps were put into use until 16 October 1861. During the interim
provisionals were issued by many postmasters in the Confederacy. Mobile had
two, a 24 black and a 54 blue; both are rare. Since this cover was sent before
31 May, a U.S. red stamp of the 1857 issue was used.

The letter to the consul-general states that a Mr. Kichen will soon pay a
demand (draft) from the consul-general. The Russian vice-consul, Joseph
Mussell, further states that "I shall be happy at all times to protect Russian
interests in this quarter and to serve in any way in my power. But as I wrote
on the 15th of January last, I cannot consider that I am holding my exequater
from the government in Washington, which I no longer recognize. However, as
I have said, I shall perform the duties here of vice-consul for the Empire
of Russia with pleasure.

An exequater is the official document which a government issues to a consul
of a foreign government authorizing him to carry out his duties. This official
does not, necessarily, need to be a citizen of the country that he represents.
Since Mr. Russell no longer recognized the United States government's juris-
diction in Alabama and gave his loyalty to the Confederacy, his commission
as consul was invalid. Since the Russian government never did recognize the
Confederacy (although Great Britain did) its consuls there no longer were
official representatives. It is interesting to note, however, that the mails
went through. War did not start until 12 April 1861 when the Federal Fort
Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina harbor was fired on by Gen. Beauregard,
the Confederate Commander.


95








FREDERIC BREITFUSS
THE GREATEST RUSSIAN COLLECTOR

by Charles J. Phillips

Reprinted from Stamps Magazine, September 23, 1933


I think that very few of the present day American collectors can know anything
about the late Frederic Breitfuss of St. Petersburg, Russia, and yet only some
twenty years ago he was considered to have the third largest collection in the
world, ranking after Ferrary of Paris, and Tapling of London, and before the
period that the Worthington collection had attained the position it had in
later years when it was dispersed.

As Breitfuss is so little known here I think a few particulars of his life,
and of his collection should prove of interest.

Frederic Breitfuss was born Sept. 16, 1851, and commenced collecting stamps
when at school, about 1865.

In 1872 he entered a business house in Marseilles, and there bought several
collections which had been pawned by French officers on leaving Marseilles
in 1870 to go and fight in the Franco-German war. Breitfuss told me that these
collections were sealed up, and the pawnbrokers would sell them only unopened;
only one of these turned out a real bargain.

In December 1873 Breitfuss moved to London and remained there about two years.
While there Dr. Viner persuaded him to join the London Philatelic Society (now
The Royal). There he met the then leading collectors such as Judge Philbrick,
V. de Ysasi, M. de Johannis, Sir D. Cooper and T. K. Tapling.

Mr. Breitfuss told me many interesting anecdotes of those days. He stated that
about 1874 Senf sent him the first copy he ever saw of a circular Moldavia--the
27p. As the copy was not pretty he sent it to Sir Daniel Cooper at $12.50 who
kept it. Mr. Philbrick, at the next meeting of the Society, on hearing of
this, said "Oh, if stamp collectors will pay such prices, collecting will be
impossible, and that will be the end of Philately!!"

In 1875 Mr. Breitfuss moved to Odessa and met a few collectors there and added
to his already great collection. In 1877 he leftOdessa and returned home to
St. Petersburg.

The father of Mr. Breitfuss was the Court jeweler, and had much influence,
which he used to obtain stamps for his son. He also made him some good presents--
for instance, in 1866 he ordered from Herr Ernst Paul Wuttig, of Leipzig, all
stamps he could supply at 10 silbergroschen (about 25 cents) each and under,
and received a large parcel; among them were the British Guiana 1862 typeset
Ic and 2c.

Breitfuss bought many collections and added the cream of these to his own.
Among the most famous of these were the collections of Prince Galitzin-Ostermann,
for which he gave $7500 in 1887 and the famous collection of Thodor Notthafft
director of the Russian-Chinese and International Banks,which he bought in 1848
for over $35,000.

96








Breitfuss collected on the broadest lines of general collecting. He included
essays, trials, proofs, issued stamps both unused and used, forged stamps
used postally, errors, stamps on covers, bisected stamps used for a portion
of their original value. Also envelopes, postcards, Locals, etc. He also
specialized in stamps that could be plated such as New South Wales, Tasmania,
Victoria, Nevis, British Guiana, Mauritius, etc. etc.

In European countries he had wonderful specialized collections of Switzerland,
France, German States, etc. etc.

About twenty-five years ago it appeared likely that the Breitfuss collection
would be purchased intact and given to the Russian nation. At this period
one of his good friends and a great client of my old firm, was the late Grand
Duke Alexis Michaelovitch. His Highness intimated to Mr. Breitfuss his wish
to purchase the collection and to give it to the nation, placing it, under
the charge of Mr. Breitfuss, in one of the great museums of St. Petersburg.
Unfortunately the Grand Duke died before this arrangement could be carried out.
A little later some collectors in Russia approached Mr. Breitfuss and offered
him $165,000 for his collection; this however was declined.

Early in 1907 Breitfuss wrote to me
and asked if my firm would care to
purchase his famous collection. In
May 1907 I went to St. Petersburg,
accompanied by the late G. Hamilton-
Smith, and spent ten days in making
a thorough valuation.

We found that Breitfuss valued his
envelopes, postcards, and locals at
such high figures that were was no
chance of coming to terms on these;
also Breitfuss decided to keep a
few countries of little commercial
value, such as the Central American
group, as he wished to have a few
books to keep up his interest in
Philately.

With these exceptions, I bought the
whole of this great general collec-
tion contained in seventy large
volumes mostly crammed full almost m u
to the point of bursting the backs. RE UREMt

Mr. Breitfuss had the habit of marking
on the hinge of almost every stamp
he bought separately, price paid and date and from whom he bought it. I made
a number of notes of these prices as I think there is much interest in showing
where famous stamps came from and prices paid.

Switzerland, Zurich, 4rp. mint pair bought in 1881 for $20.00. Saxon. Error,
1/2 ngr. in blue, from Dr. Kloss in 1879 for $15.00. New Zealand. Colonial
print, 1/-green on blue, unused, from J. W. Palmer in 1873 for $2.50.

97








About 1874 Breitfuss wrote Bassett Hull and asked him to send him all dated
copies of old New Zealands in exchange for Russian Locals. In due time he
got a nice parcel all at one penny each. In these Breitfuss found a penny
brown, perforated and watermarked N.Z. This copy was dated July 1873 and is
the only dated copy of which I have any record.

Victoria. 5/- blue on yellow, mint, from J.B. Moens in 1881 for $7.00.

Spain. 1865, 12c rose and blue, a mint horizontal pair, one stamp having the
frame inverted. This unique piece was sold by J.B. Moens in 1882 for $1.25.
Probably the inverted frame was not noticed.

Turks Island. 2 1/2d. on 1/- prune, a block of nine from Stanley Gibbons in
1881 cost $1.50.
2 1/2d. on 1/- blue, strip of three with the rare type from Dr. Viner for 504.
1879, 1/- prune, unused, from Pemberton Wilson & Co. in 1880 for 504.

Nevis. Engraved 4d. uncut mint sheet of 12 types, Moens, Oct. 1883, $3.00.
Lithographed 6d. uncut mint sheet of 12 types, Jan. 1885, from Schmidt de
Wilde, for $6.00.

St. Vincent. 5/- Star, unused, Whitfield King & Co., 1881, $2.00.
4d. on 1/- vermillion, Dr. Viner, $2.50.

Western Australia. 2d. Indian red, used, from J. W. Parker, 1870, 604.
2d. error in color of 6d. used and dated Jan. 28, 1879, from Stanley Gibbons,
$10.00.

British Honduras. "TWO" in black on 50c gray, dated 3 May 1891, from
Theodor Buhl, $75.00.

Saxony. 1850, 3pf. red, mint, from Dauth of Frankfurt in June 1881, $2.50.

Roumania. Sept. 1877, block of four stamps used, postmarked FOLTI-CENI
18 Nov. 1879. Three stamps were the 10c blue, one the error 5c blue. From
Moens, Nov. 1880, cost $1.00.

New Caledonia. 1859, Two sheets of the 50 types of the 10c from Moens,
1887, $21.25 each.

Tuscany. 60cr, unused, from Dauth, 1881, $20.00. 3 lire, full gum, from
Moens, $30.00.

The above are most of the special stamps of which I happened to make a record
of the prices. I have records of many stamps in this famous collection, and
I note a few that may be of interest to American collectors.

United States. 1847, 5c, unusedblockof six.
1857, 24c red-lilac, two copies unused. Breitfuss told me that he got one of
these in 1880 from the Post Office Department in St. Petersburg.
The Aug. 1861 were not known to Breitfuss as a separate issue, but he had some
of them, mixed with the later issue, as shades, among them a superb 30c red-
orange.
U.S. 1867, grill all over, a mint pair bought from Moens for $1.50.


98








In German States stamps on covers he had a wonderful lot of rarities, such
as Lubeck, Bergdorf, Oldenburg, etc. I think an outstanding cover was a
Baden franked with Landpost, four of Ikr., one 3kr., and three 12kr.; also
S another rare item in Baden, was a cover franked with half a 12kr. used as a
6kr. rate.

I sold many rare stamps of the F.W. Ayer collection, especially British North
American and British Guiana to the St. Petersburg banker, T. Notthafft, and
as Breitfuss bought the Notthafftcollections two years after the owner's death--
I had many of the rare items from that collection on sale a second time.
Through our then agent in the United States--Eustice B. Power--we resold
many of these stamps back to Americans especially to the later G.H. Worthington,
the Hon. E.R. Ackerman and F. Hermann.

Breitfuss died at Carlsbad, after two operations on a frozen foot, on
September 7, 1911.


PRE-1921 RUSSIAN IMPERFORATE STAMPS

by J. Lee Shneidman


Imperforate stamps are a nuisance. Postal authorities and consumers prefer a
perforated stamp. Imperial Russian authorities issued only one imperforate--
Russia number 1. Very quickly, however, they reissued the stamp in perforated
condition, creating Russia number 2. All other Imperial imperforates are
errors, proofs, essays, or printer's waste. Local Zemstvos and Wenden and
Finland were permitted imperforate stamps long after Imperial authorities
rejected their use.

A combination of events in 1917 forced the provisional government to resort
to issuing imperforate stamps. Having forced the abdication of Nicholas II
and refusing to permit the enthronement of the Emperor's brother and heir, the
Provisional Government determined to replace the current Romanov Tercentenary
Issue with the previous Imperial Arms issue of 1909-1912. The Imperial Govern-
ment, in order to save paper, had already put some of these stamps into pro-
duction. The Provisional Government also decided to reissue the 5 and 10
ruble stamps of 1906. The reissues were to match the old issues as closely
as possible. There was some problem with the inks, and none of the stamps
matched the originals perfectly. At the same time the government made another
decision; since the 7k and 14k stamps served no postal rate and therefore were
not to be reissued, the 3.50R and 7R stamps of the 1902 issue were to be
reissued, but in different colors.

Soon after the stamps were put into production, a problem arose. The machine
for producing the 14 x 14.5 perforation was broken and the other perforating
machinery available was concentrating on producing the currency stamps. This
forced the government to issue all the stamps, except the discarded 7k and 14k
stamps in imperforate condition.

The Kerensky Government was not pleased with this and was preparing an alter-
native. Essays for a new set, Scott type A33, were being made.


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