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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Officers and representatives of...
 Life of the society by Gordon...
 Minutes of the 1979 annual meeting...
 Warning to collectors by Norman...
 Early Rossica application by Kennedy...
 American aircraft of Soviet stamps...
 The dot variety of Russia number...
 Imperial postage stamps of Russia...
 Money order cards by Rimma...
 Airmail stamps of the Soviet Consulate...
 Counterfeit of 10 k. imperforate...
 Agathon Faberge by Dr. Imre Vajda...
 1877-1879 Russian military field...
 Member to member adlets
 Rossica Library
 Proposed plan to send Anglo-Indian...
 Notes from collectors
 The Rossica bookshelf


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00051
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1979
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00051

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Life of the society by Gordon Torrey
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Minutes of the 1979 annual meeting by Kennedy L. Wilson
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Warning to collectors by Norman Epstein
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Early Rossica application by Kennedy L. Wilson
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    American aircraft of Soviet stamps by Patrick J. Campbell
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    The dot variety of Russia number one by Dale P. Cruikshank
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Imperial postage stamps of Russia issued 1889-1906 by V. V. Lobachevski (translated by George V. Shalimoff)
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Money order cards by Rimma Sklarevski
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Airmail stamps of the Soviet Consulate in Berlin by S. M. Blekhman (translated by David M. Skipton)
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Counterfeit of 10 k. imperforate of the arms issue by Rimma Sklarevski
        Page 102
    Agathon Faberge by Dr. Imre Vajda (translated by Arthur Rydquist)
        Page 103
        Page 104
    1877-1879 Russian military field post update by R. Trbovich
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Member to member adlets
        Page 108
    Rossica Library
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Proposed plan to send Anglo-Indian mail via Russian railroads (translated by David M. Skipton)
        Page 112
    Notes from collectors
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    The Rossica bookshelf
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
Full Text

THE JOURNAL
of the

ROSSICA SOCIETY
of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY

50TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

















AWARDS
"WIPA" 1933 BRONZE MEDAL "PRAGA" 1962 SILVER MEDAL
"PRAGA" 1936 BRONZE MEDAL "MELUSINA" 1963 SILVER MEDAL
"OSTRAPA" 1935 SILVER MEDAL "PHILATEC" 1964 SILVER MEDAL
"ZEFIB" 1937 SILVER MEDAL "WIPA" 1965 SILVER MEDAL
"BEPHILA" 1957 SILVER MEDAL "SIPEX" 1966 SILVER MEDAL
"EFICON" 1968 SILVER MEDAL "PRAGA" 1968 SILVER MEDAL
"TEMEX" 1968 SILVER MEDAL "APS-68" 198 SILVER MEDAL
"INTERPOSTA" 1959- SILVER MEDAL "EFIMEX" 1968 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"SICILIA" 1959 SILVER MEDAL "SOFIA-69" 1969 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"BARCELONA" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "BUDAPEST-71" 1971 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"UNIPEX" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "CHICAGO-APS" 1974 GOLD MEDAL
"POLSKA" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "CAPEX-78" 1978 LARGE SILVER MEDAL
No. 96/97 1979








THE JOURNAL OF THE
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY

VOLUME 96/97 1979


EDITORIAL BOARD: Rimma Sklarevski, Gordon Torrey, Norman Epstein, M. Wilson
MANAGING EDITOR AND PUBLISHER: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice Street
Falls Church, Virginia 22043


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Life of the Society, Gordon Torrey......................................... 3

Minutes of the 1979 Amual Meeting, Kennedy L. Wilson..................... 5

Warning to Collectors, Norman Epstein ......... .............. ........... 9

Early Rossica Application, Kennedy L. Wilson.............................14

American Aircraft on Soviet Stamps, Patrick J. Campbell................... 19

The Dot Variety of Russia Number One, Dale P. Cruikshank.......... .......22

Imperial Postage Stamps of Russia Issued 1889-1906 by V.V. Lobachevski
Translated by George V. Shalimoff.................................... 26

Money Order Cards, Rimma Sklarevski...................................... 91

A Cliche Mark and a Retouch, George V. Shalimoff.........................95

Airmail Stamps of the Soviet Consulate in Berlin by S.M. Blekhman
Translated by David M. Skipton........................................97

Counterfeit of 10 K. Imperforate of the Arms Issue,
Rimma Sklarevski.....................................................102

Agathon Faberge by Dr. Imre Vajda
Translated by Arthur Rydquist.........................................103

1877-1879 Russian Military Field Post Update, R. Trbovich................105

Member to Member Adlets................................................108

Rossica Library ........................................................ 108

Proposed Plan to Send Anglo-Indian Mail via Russian Railroads
Translated by David M. Skipton....................... ............112

Notes from Collectors..................................................113

The Rossica Bookshelf.......................................... ...... 124







OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20016

VICE PRESIDENT: Constantine de Stackelberg, 1673 Columbia Road, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009

SECRETARY: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, Virginia 22043

TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11226

LIBRARIAN: Claude Lysloff, 568 Marlborough Road, Brooklyn, New York 11226

BOARD OF DIRECTORS:
Samuel Robbins, 3565 Meier Street, Los Angeles, California 90066
Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
Lester Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles, California 90035


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G. B. SALISBURY CHAPTER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11226

WASHINGTON-BALTIMORE CHAPTER: Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Road, N.W., D.C
20007

ARTHUR B. SHIELDS CHAPTER: Samuel Robbins, 3563 Meier Street, L. A., CA 90066

SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA CHAPTER: George V. Shalimoff, 20 Westgate Drive
San Francisco, California 94127

GREAT BRITAIN: John Lloyd, "The Retreat," West Bergholdt,
Colchester, Essex 006 3HE


Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However, acknow-
ledgement of the source and a copy of the reprinted matter would be appreciated.

The views in this Journal expressed by the authors are their own and the editors
disclaim all responsibility.

The.membership dues are $12.00, due January 1st for all members. Application forms
are available upon request from the secretary or treasurer. Membership lists will
be sent annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Norman Epstein
33 Crooke Avenue
Brooklyn, New York 11226 USA


We have a number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in English and
Russian language editions (some). These may be obtained from Mr. Epstein, Mr.
Wilson, or Mr. Lysloff.
Copyright 1979
The Rossica Society
2







LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

by Gordon Torrey

S Since the publication of Rossica Journal 94/95 with the first part of the
translation of V. V. Lobachevski's catalogue of "Imperial Postage Stamps of
Russia 1857-1888," we have continued with our translation program. With this
issue we publish the second part of the catalogue. The third section will
appear in the next issue of the Journal.

David Skipton has finished translating Prigara and we are making the illustra-
tions. It is expected that this work will appear in early 1981. The price
will depend on our publishing costs.

Several Rossica members, including your President and Treasurer, attended
"London '80," where a joint meeting was held with our British Society
colleagues on Saturday, May 10th. Rossica members from the United States
included Norman Epstein, Jacques Marcovitch, and myself. Other Rossica
members there (aside from the British members) were Derek Palmer of Chile,
Pers A Erixon from Sweden, and Michel Liphshutz over from France. Both
Messrs. Liphshutz and Palmer were overseas commissioners for their countries
at London '80. Among the British members present were Dr. A. Wortman, P. T.
Ashford, John Lloyd, Boris Pritt, Eric Peal, and Dr. Casey.

During the joint Rossica-
BSRP meeting our British
colleagues displayed album
pages with interesting
Sites from the Russian area,
many old friendships were
renewed, and new ones formed.
Conversation was wide ranging
and lively. Pete Ashford
brought the latest section of
his "Imperial Russian Stamps
Used in Transcaucasia--Part IV."
Other Rossica members seen in
London were Melvin Kessler,
George Alevizos, Bob Lyman,
Angus Parker, and the Serebrakians.
William Solomon and his son John
were there too. I apologize if
Gordon Torrey and Lt. Col. Allen visiting I have overlooked mentioning
in the "London '80 Club" any others.

Compared to many other major countries, exhibits of Russian philately in
London '80 were meager. For example, there were 8 regular exhibits, plus one
of Russian airmails and a junior exhibit. This compared to 14 Turkish and 1
junior Turkish exhibit. Awards, in my estimation, did not equal the quality
of some of the Russian material shown. However, I must emphasize that the
quality of all exhibits throughout the exhibition was exceptionally high. Over
half of the requests for frames were denied, so that London '80 had the "creme



3







de la creme." In the Russian area the following awards were given: Large
Gold to M. Liphshutz for "Russian Post in the Danube Principalities and
Ottoman Empire." Gold to P. A. Erixon "Russia 1822-1922." Vermeil to Norman
Epstein "Imperial Russia," B. Kaminski "Russia 1858-1912," B. Stenschinski
"Zemstvo Post of Russia." Silver to R. L. Thomas "Rural Post of Imperial
Russia," E. Kobylanski "Ukraine 1918-1920." Silver-Bronze to A. Presterud
"Russia 1857-1933." In the airmails I. Morosov won a gold for his "USSR
Airmail 1922-1935." In Thematics a gold was given to V. Snegirev for
"Foreign Policy of the USSR 1917-1941." In the Youth section P. N. D. Lewis
garnered a silver for "Cancellations of St. Petersburg 1878-1922."

Numerous exhibitors in all
fields of philately dropped
a notch lower from their
awards won at previous in-
ternational exhibitions,
such as Toronto and Phila-
delphia. Unfortunately,
in the Russian area there
was no judge with particular
expertise, except in
Thematics, so it is
possible that had there
been one,Russian exhibits
might have fared better. r o
However, the jury may have
consulted outside experts.
Your president was asked to
exhibit Ottoman Turkey and
won a silver, plus a
special award. Michael Liphschutz London '80
It was also my privilege to
attend a British Society of
Russian Philately meeting at
the home of Boris Pritt on
May 4th, where a small group
of enthusiastic collectors
showed material, passed on the
authenticity of items and
enjoyed delicious sandwiches
and pastries. I also had the
opportunity to spend a couple
of evenings with Dr. A. Wortman,
and Norman Epstein paid the
doctor a visit. Both of us
went away amazed at the fasci-
nating material that he has,
and very impressed at the depth
Dr. Alfred Wortman London '80 of his knowledge.

Back on the home front, member David Skipton has been digging into the Russian
holdings of the Library of Congress. In the famous Yudin collection of books,
purchased before the First World War, he has discovered a number of very interest-
ing and very useful items going back as far as 1824. There are annual reports
4







of the Imperial Post Office
and postal guides, dating
from as early as 1860. There
are not complete runs, but
there are guides of 1875, 1881,
1893, 1911, and postal statis-
tics for the years 1877-78,
with place names. We intend
r--- to make copies of these
available to our members.
Some of these are so fragile
that they are falling apart.
Some will disintegrate within
the next five years or so.
Rossica intends to arrange
for the microfilming of these.
We will keep you informed about
the progress of this project.
As a beginning we can offer
Dr. Casey London '80 photocopies of the "Postal

Handbook for Moscow
Residents, 1836" by
Sostavil Pelskii.
This gives the names
of places where mail
could be sent, the 1
day on which the post
left for these towns,
the amount per letter
per "lot" and the
amount of postage
for packages per pound.
It is 61 pages long.
We can supply copies
for $3.00 each post-
paid first class.
Overseas would be
about a dollar more.
Please send any orders
to Gordon Torrey,
5118 Duvall Drive, Per Anders Erixon and Mrs. Serebrakian
Washington, D.C. 20016. London '80

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
1979 ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING
MINUTES

NOJEX '79 25 October 1979

The annual Business Meeting of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately was
held at 10:00 A.M., 25 October 1979 in conjunction with NOJEX '79 at the
Airport Holiday Inn, Newark, New Jersey. The business meeting was preceded
by a meeting of the Board of Directors.

5







Roll Call of Officers: President: Gordon Torrey present
Vice President: Constantine de Stackelberg absent
Secretary: Kennedy L. Wilson present
Treasurer: Norman Epstein present
Editor: Rimma Sklarevski present
Librarian: Claude Lysloff absent
Directors: Boris Shishkin excused
Sam Robbins excused
Lester Glass excused

Members Present: A. Medwed, V. Popov, H. Rappaport

Reading of Minutes of Previous Meeting:

MVS/C Epstein, Rappaport: To dispense with the reading of the minutes of the
1978 Business Meeting since they appear in Rossica 93 for the benefit of all
members.

Secretary's Report: Mr. Kennedy L. Wilson

The Secretary reported that the issue of Rossica 94/95 was currently at the
printer and would be mailed to all members within a week or two. It is the
largest issue of the Journal ever published and contains 128 pages. The lead
article is a translation by G. Shalimoff and R. Trbovitch of Lobachevskii's
Catalog of Imperial Postage Stamps of Russia 1857-1888, originally published
in Soviet Collector. He noted that since the copyright laws had been modified
in 1975 to the effect that the U.S. government would enforce copyright of
Soviet published materials, Rossica had utilized the good offices of member
William Shinn to obtain the permission of the Soviet government to reprint a
translation.

There followed some discussion regarding the cost of publishing and mailing
such a large Journal issue, and also anticipated requests from literature
dealers for wholesale lots of this issue.

M/S/C (6-1) Epstein, Rappaport: That the price of Rossica 94/95 be:
a. $15.00 per copy to non-members
b. $12.00 per copy to members requesting an additional
copy (each member gets a free copy with his dues payment)
c. $12.00 per copy to dealers ordering 10 or more copies
for resale, not to exceed 25 copies
d. cost of all other journal issues to remain as before
($7.50 to non-members, $5.00 to members)

Treasurer's Report: Mr. Norman Epstein

As of 28 October 1979, the Rossica savings account reflected a balance of
$3553.81, and the checking account showed a balance of $3,132.05.

Old Business: Mr. Gordon Torrey

The President reported that papers had been found which indicated Rossica had
been granted non-profit status in the State of New York in 1971. He indicated
that papers for federal non-profit status were being filed. He also indicated
that the incorporation of the Society was being actively pursued and that he
expected final incorporation papers would be filed by the end of the year.
6








New Business

Purchase of Savin reproduction machine: Mr. Norman Epstein

Mr. Epstein recommended that the Society purchase a SAVIN Model 220 repro-
duction machine for the use of the Librarian. He estimated such a machine
could be procured for approximately $500 and that copies made from it would
cost about 3 1/2 per page. He proposed that copies of documents from the
Rossica Library would then be provided to members at 10C/page and to non-
members at 20*/page. He stated that the Librarian was frequently called
upon to reproduce articles from past Journals, and he felt this expense was
fully justified. There followed a long and heated discussion.

M/S/C (4-2) Rappaport/Medwid: To accept the recommendation of Mr. Epstein
and authorize him to purchase a SAVIN Model 220 reproduction machine for
the use of the Librarian.

Prigara Translation: Mr. Gordon Torrey

Mr. Torrey noted that member David Skipton was translating Prigara and that
Rossica intended to publish it as a monograph. He estimated it would be ready
after the first of the year, and the cost would be determined by publication
costs to Rossica. There was considerable discussion regarding the layout of
the book, and it was finally agreed to let Mr. Torrey, Mr. Skipton, and Mr.
Epstein, who is making the illustrations, determine the best layout.

From the Provinces: Mr. Kennedy Wilson

The following motions were made on behalf of member George Shalimoff by the
Secretary.

Membership Renewal Notices: Mr. Shalimoff noted that all other societies
send out annual renewal notices. This allows one to know that his member-
ship is about to expire unless payment is made. Secondly, it is hoped that
such notification would prompt members to maintain their membership as well
as provide the society its operating capital in a reasonable period of time.
It appears quite foolish to rely upon an announcement in the journal for
membership renewal because the journal does not arrive at fixed time
intervals and not everyone reads the section on the Life of the Society,
etc. We live in an environment of monthly or annual bills and payments.
Rossica should use the same procedure.

The motion as originally proposed required the Treasurer to send out dues
notices annually. The Treasurer, Mr. Epstein, stated emphatically that
such notices were time consuming, expensive, and would not materially increase
the number of members paying their dues on time. After more heated discussion,
the Secretary volunteered to mail out the dues notices.

M/S/C (6-0) Sklarevski/Rappaport: That the Secretary mail out annual
dues notices to all the members.

Inventory of Journal Back Issues Available: Mr. Shalimoff stated the
impression has been made that the excess back issues of Rossica journals
are kept in various places. There is nothing wrong with that if the
custodians of each batch would tell what is exactly available and from
whom. As it is now, one writes to ask if a certain number is available,
7







then waits to hear a reply before writing again to order, if at all. Let's
make at least a one time effort to let members know exactly what numbers
are available and how many.

M/S/C (6-0) Sklarevski/Rappaport:. That an inventory of back issues be
made and that it be published in the next issue of the Rossica Journal for
the benefit of the membership.

Rossica Library Accessions List: Mr. Shalimoff stated that to his know-
ledge Rossica has never published a list of the contents of its Library.
The librarian must have a working list of the material in the library. He
suggests that list be published and made available to all members. He
further suggests that borrowing procedures such as those of the APRL be
established.

M/S/C (6-0) Epstein/Rappaport: That the Librarian prepare a list of the
contents of the Rossica library and that it be published in the next issue
of the Rossica Journal, along with instructions for borrowing such material.


Membership List: Mr. Norman Epstein

Mr. Epstein stated that the Membership List, as prepared by the Secretary,was
frequently late and erroneous in that it carried as active members individuals
who had not paid dues for the most recent year. The Secretary pointed out
that he published the list annually in accordance with the requirements in
the Rossica Constitution. According to that constitution, a member is not
delinquent in his dues until 30 June of any given year. Consequently, he
dates the list 1 July each year, and sends it as an enclosure with the next
Journal issue to save postage. A heated and prolonged discussion followed
regarding the six months delay before a member was declared delinquent. The
Treasurer said he would impose a reinstatement fee on any member not paying
his dues by 31 March. He was reminded this was in violation of the constitution.
Considerable discussion attended this issue, but no amendment to the consti-
tution was proposed.

M/S/C (6-0) Sklarevski/Rappaport That the Secretary continue to prepare and
mail the annual membership list as has been done in the past.

Next Meeting: Mr. Gordon Torrey

The President requested suggestions for the place and time of the next annual
meeting. It was decided to try and arrange for the 1980 Annual Business Meeting
in conjunction with NAPEX in Washington, D.C. 4-6 July 1980.

There being no further business to come before the meeting, and those members
present being all argued out and hungry, the meeting was adjourned at 1:30 p.m.


Respectfully submitted,

Kennedy L. Wilson
Secretary



8







WARNING TO COLLECTORS


RUSSIA #1 TIED/ON PIECE

With the advent of higher prices for Russian material, the stamp collector is
once again being besieged by a barrage of fake, bogus, and worked-over stamps.
Here are two of the latest examples to be brought to the attention of the
expert committee.





























Figure 1

The first purports to be a Scott #1 tied on piece by a dotted cancel in the
upper left corner (Figure 1). This copy was dangerous enough to fool several
dealers to whom it was shown. It is a fake created by someone who cut a
10 kopeck of later date along the outer edge of the outer frame line. The
stamp was then glued to a piece of margin paper and trimmed to have large
margins on all four sides. This was then glued back onto the sheet from
which the stamp was first removed. The net result--a Scott #1 with a beautiful
dotted cancel on piece. Most people who saw it took it for granted and never
really closely examined the stamp.

Another dangerous item is one that purports to be a Scott #1 tied to piece by
a beautiful example of dot cancel #165 (Figure 2). Once again because of the


9







cancellation it was taken for granted without a closer examination. Actually
this is a copy of a 10 kopeck stamp of later issue which has been closely
trimmed and then fitted to a piece of paper which has part of a dotted box
cancel on it.





ll 11 IIt'llt 1411 o l



























all collectors of Russian material to be extra cautious of material being
offered for sale, particularly the more expensive items. If you have any
oil. II
I Ii i f ill


.4.ll. ill






Figure 2

The members of the Expertization Committee and the Officers of Rossica warn
all collectors of Russian material to be extra cautious of material being
offered for sale, particularly the more expensive items. If you have any
doubts, we suggest you refer the item to the Expertization Committee.

Norman Epstein



NOTICE FROM THE TREASURER

When remitting dues or other payments to the Rossica Society, please remember
that all payments must be in U.S. dollars and in checks drawn on U.S. domestic
banks; otherwise an extra U.S. $2.50 will have to be included to cover bank
charges.





10







EXPERTIZATION

One of the privileges of membership in the Rossica Society is one free experti-
zation per membership year. Policy on these free expertizations is as follows:

1. Onlyone free expertization per membership year.
2. The privilege must be used during the membership year--it cannot
be accumulated. The service was begun in the 1978 membership year,
and prior membership in the Society has no bearing.
3. The item must be submitted on the official expertization form
available from Norman Epstein.
4. Return postage must be included.
5. Only one item per expertization form.

Anyone wishing to avail himself of this service merely has to write our Treasurer
and Chairman of the Expertization Committee, Norman Epstein, at 33 Crooke Avenue,
Brooklyn, New York 11226, enclosing a legal size 4 1/4 x 9 1/2" stamped envelope
for an expertization form. When submitting material for free expertization, the
owner must provide return postage for his material. Items submitted will be
expertized by Rossica members specializing in the various aspects of Russian
philately.


NOTICE

For the most recent issues of the Rossica Journal, several members have complained
that they did not receive their Journals. In order to improve this situation, we
ordered new, hardier mailing envelopes and had them printed with a return address
and guarantee of return postage. The U.S. Postal Service will neither forward nor
return undeliverable copies of our Journal unless forwarding or return postage
has been guaranteed.

As it turned out in the case of previous Journal issues, some members who com-
plained of not receiving Journals had new addresses and had not so notified
Rossica. In order to improve this situation as well, if in the future your
Journal is returned to Rossica because you changed address and failed to notify
us, you will have to pay an additional $2.00 for postage and handling to get
your Journal remained. We will continue to make every effort to keep our mailing
list up to date, but it is the member's responsibility to keep Rossica informed
of his correct, current address.

Volume 94/95 of the Rossica Journal for the following members was returned by the
Postal Service as not deliverable with the last address we have. Any members
knowing their whereabouts, please notify the Secretary. If your name is on the
list, please send the Secretary your new address and include $2.00 if you wish a
copy of Volume 94/95 remained to you.

762 Herbert Dreimanis, Southfield, Michigan
704 Hyman Lovitz, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1034 Del P. Newman, Houston, Texas
1001 Robert Oldenburg, Ann Arbor, Michigan
870 William J. Spahr, Alexandria, Virginia
1038 Michael Zaitseff, New South Wales, Australia
866 Roy C. Zartarian, Newington, Connecticut



11







NEW MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY


1052 Joseph E. Zupan, 32 Prentice Road, Painesville, Ohio 44077

1053 Theo Van Dam, Box 26, Brewster, New York 10509

1054 Michael L. Tihomirov, 5470 Lighthouse Lane, Burke, Virginia 22015

1055 William D. Farber, 42 Crestview Drive, San Rafael California 94903

1056 Gustav H. Newton, RD #2, Box 61, Ovid, New York 14521

1057 Gordon Russell, 180 West End Avenue, New York, New York 10023

1058 Paul Kruger, 819 Allardice Way, Stanford, California 94305

1059 Baltimore Philatelic Society, 1224 No. Calvert Street, Baltimore, MD 21202

1060 Ivars Rozentals, P.O. Box 5403, San Mateo, California 94402
1061 Leonid Buzyna, 6907 N. Algonquin Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60646
1062 Gustaf G. Lindstrom, Route 2 Box 184-36A, Millington, Tennessee 38053

1063 Mrs. Rose Sylvester, 183 Ridley Blvd., Toronto, Ontario, Canada MSM 3M4

1064 Frank A. Stevens, Sr., 5813 S. 4th Street, Arlington, Virginia 22204

1065 Gregory G. Satzuk, 285 Main Street D-2, Farmington, Connecticut 06032

1066 Peter Haubner, Zobelstreuther Str. 27, D8670 HOF, West Germany

1067 Dr. Michael D. Smith, 1555 Great Falls Road, McLean, Virginia 22101

1068 Miss Karma Darane, 705 Maldoon Road, Trailer Space #51, Anchorage,
Alaska 99504
1069 Alex Artuchov, P.O. Box 5722, Station A, Toronto, Ontario M5W 1P2, Canada

1070 Tertius De Wet, 5 Beadlestreet, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa

1071 Jack Klein, 80 E. 116th Street, New York, New York 10029

1072 Dr. Melvin Kahn, 44 West 77th Street, New York, New York 10024

1073 Salvador Bofarull, Av. Bruselas, 70, Madrid 28, Spain

1074 Horst Gebel, Mundelheimerstrasse 61, D4150 Krefeld-Herdingen, Federal
Republic of Germany

1075 Lee Melford Corrigan, 800 Adair Place, Del Rey Oaks, California 93940

1076 Harry Dennis Hatcher, 508 Ocala Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37918

1077 George Bronson, #4-1701 Goodyear Boulevard, Picayune, Mississippi 39466

1078 Robert J, Bannan, 8600 Marie Street S.E., Olympia, Washington 98501

1079 William Uzanski, R.R. #5, 130th & Archer, Lemont, Illinois 60465

1080 Dr. Daniel C. Warren, Post Office Drawer E, Aberdeen, Maryland 21001

12







ADDRESS CHANGES/CORRECTIONS


628 Michael J. Carson, RR 2 Box 27, Tuscola, Illinois 61953

665 Jacques Lambert, 6 Ancien Chemin de Salses, 66530 Caira, France

736 James Mazepa, 1042 Wenonah Avenue, Oak Park, Illinois 60304

751 V. Bukinik, 539 20th Avenue, San Francisco, California 94121

903 Gary L. Kling,Rothsville Road R.D. 2, Ephrata, Pennsylvania 17522

905 Howard Waitzman, 5700 Etiwanda #253, Tarzana, California 91356

922 Millard L. Kopatch, 2233 W. Joppa Road, Lutherville, Maryland 21093

933 Raymond J. De Corte, P.O. Box 1188, North Wales, Pennsylvania 19454

942 William C. Ives, c/o Keck, Mahin & Cate, 8300 Sears Tower, 233 South
Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60606

949 Edward Freeman, 1095 Lake Street, Silver Springs, Nevada 89429

962 Fredrick G. Bean, 1500 E. 79th Street, Bloomington, Minnesota 55420

967 Shawn Carmack, 219 Pike Road, San Antonio, Texas 78209

1014 Norman Katat, P.O. Box 208, Wantaugh, New York 11793

1033 Ronald A. Czaplick, P.O. Box 4039, Inglewood, California 90309

1036 Terrence E. Page, 7 Cronam Close, South Croydon, Surrey CR2 ODA, England

1037 Rev. William O'Hara, 9 No. 9th Street, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania 18360

1038 Michael Zaitseff, 66 Remley Street, McCulluns Hill NSWZ19S, Australia

1043 Nancy Joe Weeks, 124 Wentworth Street #4, Charleston, South Carolina 29401

1045 Peter A. Michalove, 807 Oakland #102, Urbana, Illinois 61801

1048 Michael R. Gottschall, 4085-4 Edgebrook Drive, Andrews Air Force Base,
Maryland 20335

1058 Paul Kruger, 819 Allardice Way, Stanford, California 94305

1067 Dr. Michael D. Smith, 1555 Great Falls Road, McLean, Virginia 22101







13







EARLY ROSSICA APPLICATION

by Kennedy L. Wilson


Recently, Walter Frauenlob of Bern, Switzerland, one of our oldest members,
sent the Society's Secretary the application form for Rossica membership
shown on the following pages. It appears to be the application form in use
during the earliest years of our society, when the Society was trying to
unite the Russian philatelists who had been spread around the world during
the Revolution.

Recall, the Society was founded in 1929 by E. Arkhangelsky in Yugoslavia.
In 1930, the Society began to publish a small, quarterly philatelic journal
which was to become today's Journal of the Rossica Society. Shortly after
this application formwas printed, publication of the Journal and effective
functioning of the Society ceased due to the upheavals of the Second World
War. In 1940, the last three of the pre-war issues of the Journal were
published in Shanghai (Volumes 41, 42, and 43). It was not until 12 years
later that the Society began functioning again.

It was restarted in New York in 1952 under the leadership of A. A. Chebotkie-
vich, a Russian emigre to the United States who had been an old friend of
Arkhangelsky. Chebotkievich began to publish modest monthly bulletins and
was soon made president of the Society. Arkhangelsky was elevated to the
post of honorary president and still contributed articles and supervised
the life of the Society from his modest dwelling place in Yugoslavia.

More and more members of both Russian and non-Russian origin joined the
Society, among them Dr. Gregory Bondarenko-Salisbury of Philadelphia to
whose initiative we may ascribe the revival of the Rossica Journal in 1954
(Volume 44). Dr. Salisbury became its Editor-in-Chief and was elected
president of the Society after the death of A. A. Chebotkievich. Under
Dr. Salisbury's aegis the Society and its Journal grew in both quantity and
quality. The Journal won many prizes at philatelic exhibitions during the
1960s. It came to be published twice yearly in roughly 100 page editions
and grew to encompass material about every phase of Russian philately be-
ginning with the pre-stamp period and including all aspects of Russian and
border states philately and postal history.

The original editions of the Rossica Journal, through Volume 43, were pub-
lished in Russian. Beginning with the first New York edition, Volume 44,
it was published in both Russian and English editions. In the early 1960s
the Russian edition was abolished, and since that time only an English
language version has been published.

In 1968, Dr. Salisbury, who had done so much for the post war development
of Rossica and the quality of its Journal, met with a tragic and untimely
death. Almost simultaneously, A. N. Lavrov, the Society's secretary re-
signed for personal reasons. Again there was danger that the Society would
fall apart. However, the New York branch accepted the challenge of leader-
ship and decided to continue both the Society and its journal without inter-
ruption. A revised Constitution was approved which stresses the completely
apolitical character of the Society. A. S. Cronin, who was already one of



14







N g ............. I .......

.............................................. 19 r. _....................................................................... 19 ...... r.


SFJABHOMY PYKOBOLITEJIIO

PyccKaro 061ecTBa M1nHjaTejnCTOB'b ,,PoccnKa".
BELA CRKVA, Kr. Petra 40, Yougoslavie.
pHaraa npH ce'b ....................... qnencKii BaHOC'I, npoiny lnpHHnaTb MeHR Bab Hcn.O AMfiCTBHTeabHM X-b
qnelt)B- 06mecTBa ,,PoccHKa". IaBaa o ce6t HumecA;tayouia CBts tHi5f o65Isyrocb BbInOIHRTb Bct npa-
BHs a O-Ba, nonaepaHBarb O-BO MopanbHo, HeMealeHHno npoH3BOnLHTb BcKie aeHeaKHbie paaceTru, aKKypaTHo
OTCbnaarb KpyroBb1I nocubnuK, He 3aAep)HBaTb OTBITtb O-By i ero qaeHaM- H T. n.
1. aM ia .......................................... .........................................--
2. MM H oTecTBo .................................... .............-------.
3. M CTO H ara po e i .... .................................................... ...................
4. flpo( eccia ............................ .. ....... ...... ..... .......
5. To' bIi a pecb .......................................................................................
6. Co6apaio: A. noqTdBbla MapKH: a. npo6Hnii (acce); b. o6pa3ub; c. nosoatnbr; d. oneqaTKc H OUH6IKH; e. noa.t.iH;
f.- AOHn)aTrenacTHqecKiR nHCbMa; B. rep6osBbI MapKH; C. utasbnib BeLun; D. nOqTOBbie mruLTeneas; E. -
IlOiTOBblfl BHaOBbI KapToaKH; F.: -- 6ylMaKHbla aeHbrH (6oHbu); G. pasnaro poaa KoaneKuioHnpoBanie; H. -- apy-
EecTBeHHaa nepenacKa.
A.-nowr. MapKl: 1. BeraweHbim; 2. rameaHb; 3. EBPOnIA; 4. POCCIf (a. HMnepaTopcKaa Poccia no 1918 r.; b. Co-
sBr. Poccia c- 1918 r.; c. IOKHaa Poccia; d. CtB.-3an. Ap.ia; e: 3an. apMin; f. .aabHe-BocT. Pecn.; g. CH6Hpb; h. BeuaeHL;
i. PycccKaA norlia Ba Typuin; j. PyccKaR no4Ta Bs KHTat; k. PyccKaa norqa na o. KpHri; 1. PyccKaa nolIbma; m.
Aaep6efewanc;H n. ApMeHia: o. BaryMi; p. 3aKaBKa3cCKaa H ropcKaa Pecn.; q. rpy3is; r. YKpaRna; s. McTHbie
BbinycKH pa3Hbix-b ropoaOBs; t. TyIa; u. MoHroaia). 5. flpn6aATHKa (a. ilaTBia, b. JlHTBa, C. acTOHIa, 6. 4'HH-
anjain); 6. BanKaHbl (a. IOroc.laBia, b. Cep6is, c. BOcmaH, d. LepHoropia, e. Bonrapic, f. Pymbins, g. rpeuia, h.
Anj6alHi, i. Typuin); 7. CnaBRHCKii rocyaapcTBa (a. llonbtua, b. LMexoc.noBaKi); 8. BECb MIP'b; 9. BO3,YllHAF
InOqTA (a. MapKH, b. asporpaMMbi, c. 3THkeTKH); 10. 3EMCTBO; 11 MtCTHabM MapKH H BbInycKH; 12. CtBepsaa
Espona (a. Useuia, b. Hopeeria, d. jania, e. Vcnaania); 18. 3anaanaa H CtB.-3an. EBpona (a. Anrai, b. Mp-
naHuai, c. ronnaniai, d. Benbria, e. JloKceH6vrprL; f. 4patuia; g. MoHaKo); 14. UeHTpanbaa Eppona (a. repuaia,
b. BaBapiai c. ,aanursr; d. Caapi; e. ABCTpia, f. UIaeefuapia; g. JixTeueatIrefia, h. Benrpin); 15. IOcaaa
Espona (a. HTanli, b. 4iyMe, c. Ma.IbTa. d. Knnpi,, e. Mcnania, f. AHnoppa, g, flopTyrani., h. BaTHKaaH. Fl6pan-
Tapa, j. CaHa-MapiHo). 16. AHmincKia KoaoHiH; 17. ('paHuy3CKia KOIOHiH; 18. McuaHCKia KO.nOHi; 19. flopTyra.b-
CKiff KOJoaiHj 20. repMaHCKia KononiH; 21. ron.iaaaCKin KO.oaiH; 22. MTanbsaHCKia Kiononi; 23. A3ia (a. KrTaf, b.
5InoHia, c. MaHq>yro, d. CiaM,, e. flepcin); 24. AQpHKa (a. Ernnerb, b. A6nccnHia, c. Jln6epis); 25. A.MepaKa
(a. USA, b. HeHrp. AMepmHa, c. MeKCHKa, d. Bpasania, e. ApreHTnna, f. flaparaaf).
7. HiaTerIHCT'b: a. nasunaaoumil, b. cpeanaif, c, nepeaooft, cs-nepeaoaof cneuianHcb,, d. ToproBeum.
HMt lK KOnJIAeuio .........-..... 9K3.; 3aHHMaIOCb KOA;IeKIiQHHpOBaHie-b .......................... ...........................--..
8. C ne ianH py o cb ....................... ................ ............ .....................................................................
9. a B'b o6MH'b.............................................................; Oa--no npeaBapHT. sanpocy; o-B-no MaaHKOnHCTy.
10. )Kenaio InoKynaTb MapKH OT'b O-aa: 1. nyTemb KpyroBbux nocubOK'b......---- .......- ; 2 no MaHKOJHCTy.
11. }Kenaio npoAaBaTb CBOH MapKH ....................................................................................................................... ............
12. Cocroto qAeHOM-b )HJar O-ab ..................................... .......................................... coTpyAHHKOMI, (HnaaT. m cyp janioBb.
13. 1nonb3ylOCb KaTaJoraMH: Y. HBep; Mi. Mnxejb; Sf. 3enep4,; Z. lyumrTenas; Gi. rH66oHca ; St -
CKOTb; Bo. BopeK; Fr. Froede; For. Q(op6eHb; Air BOsaIymAHfl (Sanabria); Zem. 3eMcKifl (CQA
JMHlTar); CQA cotTCKift.
14. Bjaaibo fablKaMH: r. pyccKifl; d nhteumi4; e. anrniflcKifl; f. 4#paHuy3CKifi; i. HTlan, cKifl: esp -
ncnaHCKil; s cep6o-xopaaTcKitl; b. 6onrapcKifl; p. noJbCKifl; eto acnepanro; lat. naaTbiuCKiti; lit .AH-
ToBCKift; ee. acTOacKitl; ch. KilTanCKifi; 1. JnaTHHCKifl.
15. J H HbIaq a nomenaHia ...................................................................................................................... .. ....... ...... ....
(Boc HeaHyiHoe aaaepxayTL)
P e K O M e a tU i H..................................................................................... ......................................... ..... ... ..... ......

So p y q T e a H .................................................................................................................................................................................

noflaHCb 15
utbris" trk.













,,P 0 C C H K A"

PyccKoe O6muecTBO tHniaTejnCTOB'b.


PyccKoe O6iuecTBo QHunarenHcroBL7 ,PoccHKa" OCHOBaHO 14 anp-na 1929 roaa EareHieMw Mixafino-
BHseM'b ApxaHreAbcvKM-b, KOTOpbIi n no cie BpeMs FBnBJercs ero FnaBHM'bM PyKoBolrHTeneM-b.
IUtablt O 6mecTaa 6uno n eCTb o6'beanHeuie actx'b PyccKHx, 4mHnaTenaicTOB'b, pa3acHHabI'b no BceMY
Mipy, H AaTb HMb BO3MO)KHOCTb, nyTeM1- B3saMHaro o6mueHia, nononiHHTb CBOH KonnexiWi H CBOH 4)uaTe-
aICTHqecKia no3HaHiH.
CoBepmeHHo oco6oAi 3a6rofi O06uecrBa asBeTrcr HM3anie cBoero co6cTBeHHaro mnnaren. KypHana,
noa'b 3arnaaieMb ,PoccHKa", eaHHcTBeHHaro B HacTosuiee BpeMH, BbixoaDsaro Ha PyccKOM- HsbnKB.
)KypHan7b peaaKTHpyeTcH rnaBHaIMa PyKOBOznHTeneM' npH corpyaHHnecTBt JysmNx'b 3HaTroKOB'b 4naTeniH.
B- mKypHan$ HMb-eTCR TaiKce jleHe)KHO-6oHHhIfi OTa'Znb. HeepBbri HOMepb aypHana Bbiumeje Bb anpInt
1930 roAa; c' TX'b nopb O-b BobXO HxoaTh upHMpHO 4 pasa B-b roan H pascblnaeTes 6esnarHo BCtf'b
qaeHaMi 06mecTBa.
KaK'b 06ueorBo PyccKoe ,PoccHKa" o6pamaeTb oco6oe BHHMaHie Ha co6HpaHle H HsyqeHie 6e3qH-
cnjeHHbIXb BbIaycKoaB- PyccKuX'b Mapox-b, KaKb aoBoeHHaro nepiona TaKI H co3aaaHHbixb BealHoi BOihlHO. H
PeBomoniie. B'i maypHant ony6auKOBaHo He ManAo opHrMHanbHbIX'b H3ca'oBaHifi no pa3HbiM'b BonpocaMb
dmnaTeniH H HaIm'b )ypHa-b 6bi-b aBmaKb HarpaxaeH-b Ha MeKaVLYHaPOAIHIX'b 4rmn. BbacraBKaxb, a HMeHHO:
B 1933 r. Bb BHbt 6poH30Boai Meaanbio H B'b 1935 roay Bab KeHnrc6epr- cepe6pSHHOi. Ho H Ha-
qHHaiommfi KOJIJieKLioHepa' HafineTr Bab XypHant He MBano HnTepecHaro H noyqHTeabHaro B'b cTaTbHX'b
o6tiaro xapaKrepa.
O-BO ,,POCCHKa" HaCHTbIBaeTb OKOJIO 300 qneiiOBb,, npo)HBaIOIUHX'b BO BCt-b WISTH qacTflHb CBtTa.
Kaxiaubfi Jienwb noayqaeT-b 6eannaTHo xypuan-, ycTasBb HI CICOK'b BC+X'b JneHOB-b 0 Ba 'b yKas3aieM'b
HX'b TOqHbIXb aapecoB'b, KonneJjIioHIipOBaHiS H o6MitHa, noqeMy KamabiH BCTynHBtiri qjieH'b HMterTb BO3-
MO)KHOCTb BeCTH ImeaeMbifi O6MtH'b MapKaMH. 3aITMlb KaHanlbi qaeHb,, ,no caoeMy aejnaHiio, Mo)meTrb po-
.aaBTb CBOH MapKH HJIH noKynarS TaKOBbia nyTeM' yqacTin B'i ,KpyroBbIx'b nocbnKuax'b" O-Ba; ,PoccHKa"
TaKKe HMTerI CBOHX'I sKcnepreBb ana onpeatneHi noIJanwHHHocTH MapOK'b.
TnIeHbI O-Ba, nporHsaoinie B'b oaHOM,- ropoat, o6pa3yloT'b MtCTHbIe orTb, rzh perynspHo co6H-
paIOTS ann aB3aHMHaro o6uneHia
flpiewMb HOBbIXIb neHOB'b npOH3BOIIHTCH nyreM'b sanonHeHig sasgBeHiR, orneqaTraHaro Ha oSoport H
nepecbiKH ero rnaBHomy PyKoBoaHTe.Io (no anpecy: E. M. Arkhanguelsky, Bela Crkva, Ul. Kralja
Petra 40, Yougoslavie) Han me oAUOMy H3'b fpeacTaaHTeneefi Oi6ecTBa B'b OTaBbHbIX'b rocyAapaTBax-

25/III 1937 r.
Bela Crkva.











16






the most active members and writers,was made Editor-in-Chief of the Journal.
In world-wide elections Kurt Adler, conductor and chorus master of the New
York Metropolitan Opera and a close personal friend of the late Dr. Salisbury
was elected president, Dr. Gordon Torrey was elected vice-president, and
Mr. Joseph Chudoba, secretary.

The Society continued to grow, and its Journal continued to earn top awards
at international exhibitions. The Rossica Society has become one of the most
significant and successful specialized societies in America. Philatelists
in Eastern European countries are increasingly interested in the research
work and articles printed in the Rossica Journal, particularly in the field
of Russian philately of imperial times and of Russian Post Offices Abroad.

In 1973, Mr. Adler resigned from the presidency of the Society for reasons of
failing health. He was succeeded by Dr. Torrey while the editorship of the
Journal was taken over by Mr. Rimma Sklarevski. With this change of officers,
the leadership of the Society transferred to Washington, D.C. where it now
resides.

On the reverse of the application is a short history of the Society as it
stood in 1937, and a statement of purpose. R. Trbovitch has kindly translated
this for us, and it is quoted below.

ROSSICA
(SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELISTS)

The Society of Russian Philatelists "Rossica" was founded on April 14, 1929
by Evgeny Mikhailovich Arkhangelsky, who is still president at the present
time.

The Society's purpose is to unite all Russian philatelists scattered across
the world, and provide them with a means of broadening their collections and
philatelic knowledge through intercommunication.

A special aspect of the Society is the publication of its own philatelic journal,
"Rossica," which is presently the only such periodical published in the
Russian language. The Journal is edited by the President in cooperation with
top-notch philatelists. The Journal also contains a numismatic-paper money
section. The first issue of the Journal appeared in April, 1930, and since
then has appeared quarterly. It is sent gratis to all members.

As a Society, "Rossica" concentrates on matters related to collection and
study of the numerous issues of Russian stamps, covering the pre-war period,
the Great War, and the Revolution. A considerable amount of original research
has appeared in the Journal which, in turn, has been awarded medals in inter-
national competition: Vienna, 1933 (bronze); Konigsberg, 1935 (silver).
Yet even the beginner can profit from reading articles of a general nature.

The Society consists of 300 members, residing on all the five continents.
Every member receives gratis the journal, by-laws, and a list of members with
their address and areas of interest, for exchange purposes. Members can sell
or buy stamps via the Society's circulating books. The Society also has an
expertization service.


17






Members of the Society residing in a given city may organize a local chapter
and hold regular meetings.

New members are accepted upon filling the application on the reverse of this
page and mailing it to the President (E. M. Arkhangelsky, Ul. Kralja Petra,
Bela Crkva, Yugoslavia) or to any president of a local chapter.

March 25, 1937
Bela Crkva





NEW MEMBERS (continued)

1081 Bruce Meyer Weisman, P.O. Box 471, Madison Heights, Michigan 48071

1082 John M. Snedeker, 48C Park Drive Box 241, Oakland, New Jersey 07436

1083 John D. Myke, 222 Ash Street Apt. 211, New Westminster, British Columbia,
Canada V3M 3M4

1084 Dr. John M. Buckner, 2560 N.W. 13th Street, Gainesville, Florida 32601

1085 Ray Hafaas, P.O. Box 963, Vashon, Washington 98070

1086 Kathleen Knight Allen, 1004 N.E. 5th Avenue, Gainesville, Florida 32601

1087 Thaddeus W.Brezinski, 944 W. Gilbert Road, Palatine, Illinois 60067

1088 Edward J. Laveroni, 180 Surmont Court, Los Gatos, California 95030

1089 John Edward Day, 19134 Cherry Creek Road, Auburn, California 95603

1090 Teddy J. Uldricks, Route 3 Box 263, Candler, North Carolina 28715

1091 Joseph Sedlar, RR 1 Box 54, Vestal, New York 13850

1092 G. Adolph Ackerman, 629 Sanbridge Circle E, Worthington, Ohio 43085

1093 Maurice Michael Cook, Foreign Service Lounge, State Department,
Washington, D.C. 20520

1094 John Lechtanski, 1603 West 8th Street, Brooklyn, New York 11223

1095 Mark Gordon, 800 Riverside Drive Apt 51, New York, New York 10032

1096 Ronald F. Young, 27 Coxhill Gardens, River Near Dover, Kent, Great Britain





18







AMERICAN AIRCRAFT ON SOVIET STAMPS

by P. J. Campbell














C61 S.A. Levanevski C62 M.G. Slepnev

The first philatelic article I ever wrote was a fairly detailed study of the
Chelyushin expedition of 1935. Somehow publication got pushed back, and it
was finally printed as my seventh article in Rossica 90/91 of 1976. One of
the most intriguing aspects of the research was a reference to an aircraft
called "the American" in one of the accounts. You must remember that there
is a tendency in all Soviet writings to cut out almost all technical details,
and it is very difficult indeed to do research in any depth. Persistence
paid off, however, and the aircraft were identified as of the Consolidated
17AF "Fleetster" type,for there were two of them.

As the article pointed out, the Soviet government pulled out all the stops
to rescue the 104 people left on the Polar ice when the Chelyuskin sank. One
of the rescue attempts was to send a group to the U.S.A. to buy suitable air-
craft, then to fly them across the Bering Sea to join the other would-be
rescuers. It must be understood that, while the Soviet Union had a number
of aircraft available, many were of dubious reliability, and most had to be
transported thousands of miles by rail or sea to be near enough to attempt
a rescue. To have flown them to the rescue area would have worn out both
aircraft and crew. Certainly the least reliable part of Soviet aircraft was
the engine, and most were water-cooled, not the best answer to sub-zero
temperatures of the north.

The aircraft chosen were the two Fleetsters, which had reliable 9-cylinder,
radial air-cooled, Wright "Cyclone" R-1820 engines of 600 horsepower. Structure
was all-metal, and there was room for nine passengers, so they were ideal for
the job.

There were three Model 17A aircraft built by Consolidated in Buffalo, all
covered by Approved Type Certificate No. 486, and they are more fully
identified as follows:

Constructor's U.S. Register Ludington Air- Date of
Number Number lines Number Manufacture Engine
1 NC 703Y 34 21 May 1932 Cyclone #17883
2 NC 704Y 35 21 May 1932 Cyclone #17360
3 NC 705Y 36 21 May 1932 Cyclone (# unknown)
19







All three of these aircraft were sold, for $24,500 each, to Ludington Airlines
of Washington, D .C. in 1932, and were identified as Ludington number 34, 35,
and 36. Ludington had started a Washington to New York daily service in
September of 1930, with 16 round trips a day, and a Norfolk to Washington
daily service in 1931. In 1932, they made the Washington to New York round
trips four times a day with the Fleetsters, for a round trip fare of $22.50.
On one occasion, all nine seats were booked, and paid for, so that Douglas
Fairbanks and Mary Pickford could fly without any other passengers.

In 1933, the three Fleetsters passed to Eastern Air Transport, and then to
Pacific Alaska Airways Inc. In September of 1933, they were overhauled in
Pan-Am's shop at Miami, Florida, where new engines were installed and they
were sent to Alaska, where they were fitted with skis.

When the Amtorg Trading Corporation of New York (the Soviet trading organization)
started looking for two aircraft suitable for the Chelyuskin rescue, they
purchased NC 703Y and NC 704Y.

















THE CONSOLIDATED "FLEETSTER" TYPE 17-A




Meanwhile, back at the Kremlin, orders went out to Sigismund Levanevski and
Mavriki Slepnev, both experiences pilots, to fly to Berlin and on to London,
then take the ship for New York, accompanied by G.A. Oushakov, Vice-Director
of the Chief Administration of the Northern Sea Route. Levanevski and
Oushakov flew to Fairbanks, Alaska and took over the two aircraft, painting
them red with black markings, USSR-SL for Levanevski's machine and USSR-MS
for Slepnev's; but I have never been able to determine which aircraft was
allocated to which pilot. Levanevski took off first, on 26 March, with an
American mechanic, Claud Armistead, and Oushakov on board and flew to Nulato
on the Yukon River. On the 28th, after a delay for weather, they reached
Nome and next day proceeded across the Bering Strait (and the International
Date Line) to enter Soviet airspace. Then onwards to Cape Dezhnev (see Scott
Nos. 1323/1324), to Uelen (or Wellen),and on toward their destination of
Vankarem. At this point, Levanevski, whose whole career seems to have been

20







dogged by misfortune, or bad judgement, ran into clouds and snow and, trying
to keep in visual contact with the surface, finally got down to an altitude
of 65 feet! At this point, he finally found Cape Orman by practically running
into it! This is the dramatic moment portrayed on Scott No. 61. Levanevski
was able to climb away, however, and then ran into severe icing at 5000 feet;
at this point the engine started cutting out, almost certainly carburetor
icing, and they went down to a crash landing on the ice. All survived and
were taken to Vankarem, center of the rescue effort, by some local Chukchi
tribesmen, but that was the end of URSS-SL!

Mavriki Slepnev did better, but he had flown over the Bering Strait before.
In 1930 he had located the bodies of the well-known American pilot, Ben Eielson,
and his mechanic, Borland, who had been killed while trying to rescue the crew
of the American schooner, Nanouk. Slepnev had flown the bodies back for
interment. Now, on March 31, 1934 Slepnev was going the other way, this time
with the American mechanic, Bill Lavory, and he flew across to the Siberian
side, but the area was fog-bound, so he returned to the Alaskan side. A
second attempt at the crossing failed, so he returned and landed at Terrer,
alive for another try! Next day, Slepnev crossed the strait and reached Cape
Stone Heart, but fog dictated a return to Uelen where he landed safely. On
April 7th, he took Lavory and another pilot, Lyapidevski, who had damaged his
ANT-4 on landing, and they flew up to Vankarem where they unloaded their cargo,
left Lavory behind, and loaded eight sleigh dogs. At Camp Schmidt he picked
up Oushakov and was able to reach the survivors on the ice and unload the dogs.
Slepnev was only the second aircraft to reach the camp, and he damaged his air-
craft during an attempted take-off, finally taking off with six survivors to
Vankarem on April 10th.

It was decided to take Professor Schmidt to the hospital in Nome, so Slepnev
with Oushakov and the two American mechanics flew back across the the Bering
Strait again. The picture on Scott C63 shows the Fleetster on the ice near
the camp of the Chelyuskin survivors, the sleigh dogs on the left and a sick
or injured survivor being taken off the sleigh for the flight to safety; the
day was 10 April 1934.

That's the end of my story of American aircraft on Soviet stamps. As you'll
find by re-reading the Chelyuskin story in Rossica 90/91, all the survivors
were saved, and the last flight brought out the eight dogs. I've never been
able to determine whether Slepnev brought URSS-MS back to Siberia or whether
it stayed in Alaska. The fate of URSS-SL is almost certain, for there was
little chance of repairing it so far from civilization; all thoughts were
concentrated on the survivors themselves. I have no further news on Mavriki
Slepnev.

Scott C61 was overprinted for a 1935 attempted flight to California by
Levanevski, and it is listed as Scott C68. This flight was a failure, as
an oil leak forced the aircraft to return to Moscow. Any used copies of the
stamp were sent to North America by more prosaic means.

In 1937 Levanevski tried again in a Tupolev ANT-41, numbered N.209. This
was a big bomber aircraft with four Russian-built M-34 engines. Somewhere
beyond the Pole they radioed a distress call, indicating engine failure, and
nothing was ever heard of Levanevski or his crew in spite of an exhaustive
search.



21







THE DOT VARIETY OF RUSSIA NUMBER ONE

by Dr. Dale P. Cruikshank

The new catalog of Imperial Russian stamps by Lobachevskii lists an interesting
variety of No. 1 with a period between figure 10 and the K of Kop at the lower
left of the central design on the stamp. Lobachevskii indicates that M.
Liphschutz of Paris discovered the variety, denoted B d in the new catalog,
but in his valuable article on No. 1, Mr. Liphschutz attributes the discovery
to Moscow collector, A. G. Feldmanis, in 1957. I have a copy of this stamp
(Figure 1) but my copy has the additional unusual feature that the "0" in the
"10" in the upper right-hand corner is smaller than those in the other corners.
Lobachevskii does not mention this aspect of the 1 B d, from which we conclude
that either he overlooked it, or that the stamps of the 1 B d variety that he
examined do not have it. The latter possibility is the most probable.

An important question is the actual
rarity of this variety. Lobachev-
skii lists it as RRRR unused and at
a value of 15000 "units" used. This
is a little more than twice the
value of 6750 "units" shown for a
used normal copy of No. 1 cancelled
with a handstamp. Lobachevskii's
"units" for the valuation corres-
pond to the value he attributes to
the 7-kop Imperial issue of 1908/
1910, the least valuable Imperial
stamp. In 1978, good quality used
No. 1 stamps sold unofficially for
about 150 rubles, but they are
rarely available.

The period between the 10 and K in
Figure 1 could be mistaken for a
part of the black cancellation in
a black-and-white reproduction,
but on the stamp the period is
clearly the same rich brown color
as the rest of the printed frame
design. The dot is quite round,
and is the same size as those in
the colon following Kop. ;-

We do not know, of course, how
many individual plates were used
in printing No. 1, but it is un-
likely that this cliche is re- Figure 1
peated on each of the plates of
100 subjects. Clearly, if it is repeated on each plate, one in a hundred copies
of No. 1 should show the period. The fact that the variety has scarcely been
noticed argues against the presence of this variety on each sheet of the stamps.
Wilson3, for example, makes no mention of this variety in his detailed descrip-
tion of No. 1, nor does Dr. Wortman4. Rachmanov states flatly that no major
printing varieties of No. 1 occur.
22







Dr. Wortman notes that 30,000 sheets of the 10-kopek stamp were printed,
probably from soft copper electrotyped plates, each of which were used for a
limited number of impressions. Of course, the same plates were used for the
perforated edition of the 10-kopek stamp as well, the only difference between
No. 1 and No. 2 being the perforations on the latter. The total edition of
No, 2 is unknown to me, but Lobachevskii reports no comparable variety in his
catalog. It appears likely that the plate used in the production of the first
part of the total printing of the 10-kopek stamp had the variety included, and
that it wore out and was replaced very early in the printing run. Either no
copies of the sheet containing the error were perforated,or the period variety
remains to be discovered on No. 2.

I can only guess that each copper electrotyped printing plate might have produced
5000 impressions before it was replaced because of wear. Dr. Wortman remarks
that no significant plate wear 'is noted on any copies of No. 1, so frequent
replacement appears certain, but the actual lifetime of a copper plate in those
days is difficult to ascertain. If 5000 impressions were made of each of six
plates, the first 3,000,000 stamps, corresponding to the total imperforate
edition, can be accounted for, but the implication would thus be that 5000
copies of th 1 B d variety were produced, and their apparent rarity is then
unexplained.

Lacking access to a large quantity of No. 1, I have searched among the auction
catalogs in my collection for illustrations of this stamp that might show the
variety. Some catalogs show no illustrations of No. 1, and in some cases the
illustrations are of insufficient quality to reveal details the size of the
period. Some catalogs are so well produced that even small scale reproductions
of the stamp on cover can be scrutinized.



Auction Catalogs Searched for the lBd Variety

Catalog Auction Dates Number of No. 1 Number of Number
Copies Illustrated IBd Found Obliterated
Siegel 24-27 March 1971 89 2 23
(Baughman)
Siegel 14-15 August 1974 9 0 1
(Adler)
Cherrystone 4-5 December 1974 15 0 0
Cherrystone 25-27 June 1975 3 0 0
Koerber 17-19 July 1975 2 0 1
Cherrystone 12-14 November 1975 9 0 1
Siegel 20-22 November 1975 12 0 1
(Polon)
Harmer 24-25 November 1975 20 0 1
Cherrystone 8-9 June 1976 9 0 0
Cherrystone 29-30 Spetember 1977 10 0 0
Gibbons 20-21 June 1978 59 0 4
Cherrystone 9 December 1978 15 0 0
Cherrystone 28 Feb 1 March 1979 1 0 0
Harmer 9 March 1979 23 0 1

Totals 276 2 33


Table I
23






Table I lists the catalogs searched, the number of No. 1 stamps illustrated,
the number which could not be seen because of heavy cancellations in the region
of interest, and the number of suspected 1 B d varieties found. Of the same
276 stamps illustrated, only 243 could be studied, and only two probable
occurrences of the period were found. These are lots 67 and 90 of the Baughman
collection auctioned by Siegel in 1971. Another item, lot 26 in the Baughman
collection, clearly shows the period. This item is a trial color die proof
of the frame only of No. 1, and is described as black on thick glazed paper,
a second impression, with the imprint of the engraver, F. Kepler. It is ex-
Faberge. The preceding lot (25) is listed as the first impression, again with
Kepler's imprint, and again ex-Faberge, but the illustration shows no period
between 10 and the Kop. The present owner of lot 26 has verified that the
period is clearly there, but the zero in the upper right-hand corner is the
normal size. Through the courtesy of the present owner, a photograph of the
trial die proof is shown in Figure 2.









1f















Figure 3
The impressions for the pieces in lots 25 and 26 came from different cliches.
Lot 31 of the Baughman collection consisted of nine different trial color proofs
of No. 1, two of which are illustrated, but neither shows the 1 B d variety.

Mr. Lipschutz illustrated a copy of the 1 B d variety in his 1975 article2
and has kindly provided a photograph of another copy (Figure 3). That which
is illustrated in his article is in fact lot 90 of the Baughman collection.
Mr. Liphschutz also noted in private correspondence with me that he knows of
one more copy in Sweden. Further, Lobachevskii illustrated his catalog with
another copy presumably in a collection in the USSR (perhaps that of Feldmanis?).
My own copy described here is that used to illustrate the variety in the
recent Rossica reprint and translation of the Lobachevskii catalog.

24







Thus, the inventory of known copies of the variety include the two illustrated
here, one more in France, one in Sweden, Baughman lot 67, and the copy of
Feldmanis (perhaps the same used to illustrate Lobachevskii's catalog), for a
total of six or seven, plus the die proof in Figure 2.

Of the 243 legible illustrated copies of the stamp examined, only two copies
of the variety were found, and this is quite close to the one-in-a-hundred
that would be expected if it were a constant plate variety. Unfortunately,
the sample studied is not statistically significant, and it would be necessary
to examine over a thousand stamps before any firm statements on the frequency
of occurrence could be made.

Collectors with holdings of Nos. 1 and 2, or with access to large quantities,
could help in the pursuit of the frequency of occurrence of the 1 B d variety,
which is perhaps the most significant variety of Russia No. 1. It is rather
interesting that this variety apparently went unnoticed for 100 years until
its discovery in 1957.

I thank Dr. G. H. Torrey, Mr. Norman Epstein, and Mr. M. Lipschutz for helpful
comments.

References

1. V. V. Lobachevskii. 1976. General Govermental Postal Stamps of Russia,
Issues of 1857-1879. Sovietskii Kollektsioneer, No. 14, p. 14.
Reprinted and translated in Rossica No. 94/95, 1978.

2. M. Lipschutz. 1975. No. 1 de Russie. Documents Philatiques, No. 65,
Publication of the Academie de Philatelie, Paris, p. 138.

3. Sir John Wilson. 1975. The 19th Century Issues of Imperial Russia.
Rossica, No. 88, p. 6.

4. A. H. Wortman. 1958. The First Adhesive Postage Stamp of Imperial Russia.
British Journal of Russian Philately, No. 23, p. 701.

5. V. Rachmanov. 1957. Russia Number One. Rossica, No. 51, p. 9 (reprinted
from Collectors Club Philatelist, 32, no. 5, p. 229).

















25













IMPERIAL POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA ISSUED 1889-1906

V. V. Lobachevski

Published in Soviet Collector No. 15, 1977 & No. 16, 1978

Translated by George V. Shalimoff 1978


This article is a continuation of a revised and condensed catalog of the postage
stamps of Imperial Russia. It covers the period of the classical stamps of the
imperial post (but not including the local posts and telegraph). In order to
limit the volume of this article, the list of the Russian numeral dot cancellations
and the Polish circled number cancellations are not included.

In assembling the catalog, the author used a large number of Russian and foreign
literature sources, archive materials (TsGIA USSR and the archives of the A. S.
Popov Central Museum of Communication in Leningrad), data obtained by the study
of Soviet collections, from the descriptions of foreign collections of Russian
stamps (according to foreign auction catalogs), as well as from the study of
some actual stamps by the author.
Information about the special catalog and the designations used in it are given
below.

The material is presented according to the issuance of the stamps, following in
chronological order. The characteristics of each issue are given at the beginning.

Varieties are divided in to 5 groups. They are designated with capital letters:

A color varieties
B cliche or design varieties
C paper varieties
D perforation
E typographic errors

This type of division for the varieties, in the author's view, makes the recognition
of the differences and the systematic collection of the stamps much more easy. It
also allows selection for specialization of not all but at least the different
groups of the varieties. Thus for the first stage of completion of a specialized
collection, one can restrict oneself to varieties of one group, for example color -
the A varieties.'

All the different stamps are numbered in order. The numbers of the stamps are
given first. After the number of the different stamp, the number of its design
is given.

For the designations of varieties, a code is used consisting of the number of
the basic stamp with letters added to it, designating the variety group. Then




26







there follows in order a small alphabet letter designating the specific stamp
in the given variety group.

Examples: 1Ba stamp No. 1, cliche variety a

lBb stamp No. 1, cliche variety b

ICa stamp No. 1, paper variety a

1Cb stamp No. 1, paper variety b

In this catalog only several stamp cliche varieties are included. For a more
complete classification of the many various cliche varieties a greater investi-
gational effort would be required which could result in the publication of a
specialized monograph.

We can also say the same about the stamped cancellations. The author attempted
to classify the stamped cancellations only according to their different types.
The numerous types of cancellations used by the postal authorities are still
not completely investigated. The author admits that several types of cancellations
have been omitted. The figures of the stamped cancellation types have their own
numeration, using the letters SC before a number.

The collection value of a stamp is expressed in a fixed number of points. A
point refers to the value of a canceled example of the most common stamp of pre-
revolutionary Russia, the 7 kopek value of the 1908 issue with the vertical
varnish line network (released after 1910).

For separate varieties, in place of points to designate their rarity, a five
level rating using the letter R (from 1-4) is used. But in the cases where only
S one example of a ctalogued item is known, the.word "unique" (the 5th level) is
used. Values are given at the right in two columns, the first for unused, the
second for stamps with stamped cancels.

In a few cases there are given premiums to the stamp values. In these cases
where in front of the premium there is a plus (+) mark, the full value is de-
termined by the addition of the premium to the value of the stamp. In the case
of a combination of several stamps, the addition of the premium is to the value
of all the stamps.

All values are for stamps in good condition, unused stamps with orginial gum.
Hinges or hinge marks are tolerated. For other means of cancellation, comments
are made in the text of the catalog.

The following abbreviations are used in this catalog:

Wm or wtmk watermark TC test cancel
perf perforation SC stamped cancel
imperf imperforate EZGB Printing Office for
Government Obligations

All dates are given in the old style (according to the Julian calendar of the
time). To convert time to the Gregorian calendar, add 12 days. This manuscript
was specially edited by Professor K. A. Berngard.


27







ELEVENIH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 41-45)

1889, May 2. First set "with thunderbolts." Typographed. New designs for the
4 and 10 kopek stamps which are singly colored, though the frame and background
were printed separately. The 20, 50 kop. and 1 ruble stamps are two-colored
with the frames and backgrounds also printed separately as well as with a colored
center and value below. The center contains a white embossed emblem of the
postal-telegraph administration. The designer was Nabokov. Prepared by EZGB.
The size of the kopek stamps design is 18.3 x 24.5 mm, the 1 ruble is 26.8 x
31.2 mm. The paper is white with horizontal laid lines. The paper is watermarked
"Ornament" (WM4). Frame perforated 14 1/4 x 14 3/4 for the kopek values, the
1 ruble is line perforated 13 1/4.














4 kopek 10 kopek













20 kopek 50 kopek







1 ruble

28







39 22 4 kop. carmine rose 20 2

40 23 10 kop. dark blue 10 2

41 24 20 kop. pale blue and carmine 60 3

42 25 50 kop. lilac and green 70 7

43 26 1 rub. brown and orange 325 12

VARIETIES

39Aa 4 kop. carmine 20 5

39Ab 4 kop. brownish-red 25 5

39Ac 4 kop. light rose R -

39Ca 4 kop. with part of a watermark +35 +15
letter

39Ea 4 kop. shifted background R R

39Eb 4 kop. double background RR RR

39Ec 4 kop. inverted background RR


40Aa 10 kop. blue 200 10

40Ab 10 kop. light blue R -

40Ac 10 kop. indigo 15 5

40Ba 10 kop. with the ribbon intersecting 750 250
the inside frame

40Ca 10 kop. with part of a watermark +35 +15
letter

40Ea 10 kop. inverted background RRR

40Eb 10 kop. double background RR

40Ec 10 kop. shifted background RR

40Ed 10 kop. shifted perforations 250

40Ee 10 kop. mirror impression of frame R
on back of stamp (offset)


41Aa 20 kop. pale blue and rose 70 7

41Ab 20 kop. blue and carmine 80 10

29







41Ac 20 kop. dark blue and carmine 80 12

41Ca 20 kop. with part of a watermark
letter +50 +15

41Ea 20 kop. missing colored center and RRR -
numeral (the embossed emblem
exists in the white center)

41Eb 20 kop. inverted center RRRR

41Ec 20 kop. shifted center and value RR RR
below

41Ed 20 kop. shifted background 750 750

41Ee 20 kop. inverted background RR

41Ef 20 kop. missing horizontal perfs on RR
top and bottom of stamp

42Aa 50 kop. lilac and light green 60 5

42Ab 50 kop. dark lilac and green 70 7

42Ca 50 kop. with part of a watermark +50 +15
letter

42Ea 50 kop. shifted center and value 1500

42Eb 50 kop. mirror impression of R
center and value on
back of stamp (offset)


43Aa 1 rub. dark brown and orange 350 15

43Ab 1 rub. reddish brown and orange 600 100

43Ac 1 rub. brown on a dark brown 400 25
background and orange

43Ad 1 rub. brown on a rose-brown 1000
background and orange

43Ca 1 rub. with part of a watermark +75 +20
letter

43Ea 1 rub. missing center and value RRR

43Eb 1 rub. inverted center and value RRRR

43Ec 1 rub. shifted center and value 2500 2500
(into 1/3 of the oval)

43Ed 1 rub. horizontal pair imperforate 6000 7500
in-between
30








43Ee 1 rub. vertical pair imperforate 6000 7500
in between
43Ef 1 rub. imperforate on top of stamp 4000
from top row of sheet
(fantail on top)

43Eg 1 rub. imperforate on bottom from 4000 -
bottom row of sheet
(fantail on bottom)
43Eh 1 rub. imperforate on left with 4000
sheet margin
(fantail left)


Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combination 4 kop. 10 kop. 20 kop. 50 kop. 1 rub.

Block of 4 +90 +90 +110 +90 +200 +90 +260 +130 +800 +250

On cover +22 +22 +22 +50 +150


HISTORICAL REFERENCE

In 1885 at the Congress of the Universal Postal Union in Lisbon, Russia was
S allowed to increase the rate for international correspondence. The rate increase
was due to the change in the value of the ruble. The rate of 25 French centimes
for ordinary international letters among members of the Universal Postal Union
was not equivalent to 7 kopeks, but rather to 10 kopeks.

On March 6, 1889 the Misnister of Internal Affairs approved the specimens of
postage stamps with the new values.

In March 1889 the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph informed the
post offices of the increased rates for international mail and also informed
them of the preparation of new stamps with values of 4, 10, 20, and 50 kopeks
and 1 ruble, which could also be used for payment if internal mail. This was
in Circular No. 16 of the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph dated
March 17, 1889. Any other stamps which were in use at that time were also
allowed to be used for payment of international mail.

In the official section of the Postal Telegraph Journal No. 9, 1889, page 298,
the main administration announced the issuance of the new stamps and the start
of their sale in Moscow and St. Petersburg on May 2, 1889 and in other postal
offices of the empire when they are received.

In connection with the unification in 1884 of the Post and the Telegraph
Departments into the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph, on July 11,
1885 the Postal-Telegraph Administration replaced the postal emblem with a new
emblem in the form of the national two-headed eagle with two posthorns beneath
on a background of the telegraph symbol--two zig zag lines ending in arrows,
symbolizing electricity. The introduction of the post-telegraph emblem on
postage stamps was approved by the Minister of Internal Affairs on November 5, 1885.
31







The stamps of the Eleventh Issue were printed with the new emblem design.


RATES FROM APRIL 1, 1889

The rate was 7 kop. for each lot of ordinary internal inter-city sealed letters
or fraction thereof and 10 kop. (instead of 7 kop.) for each 15 grams of
international sealed letters or fraction thereof.

The rate was 3 kop. for each local sealed letter, except in St. Petersburg and
Moscow where it was 5 kop. for a local letter.

The rate was 3 kop. for internal and 4 kop. for international open letters
(postcards). For paid reply cards the cost was doubled.

The rate was 2 kop. for each 4 lots of fraction thereof of internal wrapper
mail and for 50 grams or fraction thereof for international wrapper mail. The
lowest rate was for wrapper mail containing business papers set at 7 kop. for
inter-city mail, 3 kop. for local mail, and 10 kop. (instead of 7 kop.) for
international mail. With samples, the rate was 3 kop. for inter-city and
4 kop. for international mail.

The rate was 1 kop. for city wrapper mail with printed matter weighing less
than 1 lot, but for those greater than 1 lot, the rate was 2 kop. for each
8 lots or fraction thereof.

There was an added 7 kop. charge for internal registered letters and 10 kop.
(instead of 7 kop.) for registered international mail.


SPECIAL INFORMATION

The frame design of the kopek stamps surrounded the field of a background which
appeared as a screen made up of small rhombuses (diamonds) consisting of dots
and dashes. There are two dots within each rhombus. The frame of the ruble
value stamp is surrounded by a background of small interwoven loops. Beneath
the frame of each stamp there is a partial background of horizontal lines. On
the kopek values the background beneath the frame consists partially of small
diamonds as well.

The paper was made by EZGB. It was covered with a thin layer of waterproof
base (lightly chalked paper).

Sheets of the kopek values had 100 stamps in four panes of 25 (5 x 5); the ruble
value had 25 stamps (5 x 5). The sheets had wide white margins.

Number of Stamps Sold (in thousands)

Year 4 kop. 10 kop. 20 kop. 50 kop. 1 rub.

1889 516 3143 297 21.1 7.0

1890 1191 6304 558 46.6 12.6

1891 1434 6824 639 49.4 15.5

32








Number of Stamps Sold (continued)

Year 4 op. 10 kop. 20 kop. 50 kop. 1 rub.

1892 1673 6939 683 51.6 15.1

1893 1917 7690 917 91.6 41.4

1894 2340 8424 1014 107.9 53.3

1895 2799 8833 1165 113.0 58.0

1896 3519 8735 1513 143.8 62.7

1897 3241 10315 1220 136.5 68.0

1898 3753 11420 1429 137.4 74.7

1899 4612 13200 2156 143.6 85.5

1900 5486 14430 2702 142.8 104.8

1901 6180 15669 3288 158.9 125.2

1902 6780 17471 3956 163.4 133.6

1903 7530 19171 4454 626.7 144.4


CANCELLATIONS

At the Lisbon Congress of the Universal Postal Union it was proposed to indicate
the time of mailing and receipt of international mail on the postmark, with the
month indicated in Roman numerals. In connection with this, the Main Adminis-
tration of the Post and Telegraph, in its Circular No. 13, dated April 5, 1890,
required that the month be designated in Roman numerals when worn cancellers
were replaced with new ones (SC50, SCSOa).


1 PLs- Mi t- V
l's1917 '1 8 1 J 19-0 22 v 2
is0vI8iI 1 9 25 v9


sc50 SC50a SC51 SC52 3C53

For the railroad post offices and on steamships, similar types of cancellers
were prepared, SC51 and SC52.

For. St. Petersburg and Moscow, cancellers were introduced with the date shown
in one line. The month was indicated in Roman numerals, SC53.

The replacement of cancellers with new ones began in 1890.



33








Steamshippost cancellers with a design of crossed posthorns are known used in
this period, SC54 RR.

Newly opened otdels of the St. Petersburg City Post introduced numeral cancellers,
which designated the number of the otdel in Roman numerals, with the exceptions
of the 13th and 14th, which used Arabic numerals--SC55 -SC60.

The markings SC61 and SC62 are the cancels of the city telegraph office, No. 31,
which handled postal correspondence.



21 *
3 thn95 X



sc54 sc55 sc56 sc57 sc58 sc59





TXXX 12



Sc6o sc61
SC62 SC32a SC63 sc64 S


A second issue of St. Petersburg numeral cancellers included the types SC31,
SC32 and SC39 of the early otdels with the designating number in arabic numerals.
However, there were changes in the design, in particular:

the numeral "1" was 11.5 mm high (the height on previous issues was
smaller);

the numeral "2" now had an open head SC32a (the earlier issue had
a closed loop "o" on the head);

and the numeral "9" now had a dot following it (the dot was absent
on previous issue).21

Various types of cancellers of the second period are known, which differ
slightly among themselves.

Various shades of ink were used to stamp with these numeral cancellers: Black,
lilac and violet.

21Prigara, S. V. "Russian Post in the Empire, Turkey and China, and the Post
in Czarist Poland, a Detailed Reference Book," New York, 1941, page 77.


34







In the 1890s at the St. Petersburg and Moscow City Posts new cancellers were
being used with the date and indicated time of forwarding the mail for delivery
given in one line, SC63.

At the end of the 1880s, eight sided (octagon) cancels, SC64, were used by the
post office cars of passenger trains. There are known later cancels with
different characteristics of the designated date, with the month given in Roman
numerals such as the following: "19 19 04 "


The octagon cancellers were also used by the mail coaches (route No. 136).21

Premiums to be added to the value of a stamp for certain cancels are given in
the respective section of the Twelfth Issue.


FAKES

E. Bochman in his monograph "Postal Stamps of the Russian Empire," Leipzig 1895,
mentions the existence of fake 1 ruble stamps made from colored illustrations
of this stamp published as a supplement to the No. 13 issue of the German
Journal "Illustrated Stamp News" for 1889. An inscription cautioning that this
is a fake was cut from the top of the picture and new perforations were made.

The fake stamp is smaller than the genuine; the perforations are poorly made
(size is not given); the emblem has practically no relief embossing. It was
printed in two operations: the brown frame together with the background and
then the orange oval with the numeral beneath it.. There is no horizontal line
background beneath thenumeral as there is on genuine stamps. The paper has no
watermark or laid lines.
PROOFS AND ESSAYS

The following proofs are known: a) 4, 10 and 20 kop. with the design and color
of the stamp placed in circulation. Imperforate; b) trial colors of the 10 kop.
stamp. Printed in thick striped paper. Four colors known. Perforate; c) 1 ruble -
brown and orange with white relief image of the emblem of the post-telegraph
administration. Printed on a small sheet of ordinary paper.

Essays are known made by A. Baldinger, partly hand colors: a) the 4 and 10 kop.
appear as Type V; b) the 10, 20, and 50 kop. appear as Type W; c) the 1 ruble
appears as Type X and Type Y.

Essays of the ruble stamp were printed on small pieces of paper in different
color inks with a white image of the post-telegraph administration emblem,
Type Z Type DD. These proofs and essays are RRR.










Type V Type W Type X Type Y
35 Type AA





TWELFTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 46-54)


1889-1892. The designs of the stamps are with the new emblem. Typographed.
The 1-7 kop. values were monocolored but with the frame and background printed
separately. The 14, 35 kop., the 3 rub. 50 kop. and 7 rub. stamps were two-
colored with a white relief impression of the post-telegraph emblem in the
center.

The stamps were prepared by EZGB. Paper was white with horizontal laid lines.
Watermarked "Ornament" (WM4). The kopek values are frame perfed 14 1/2 x
14 3/4, the ruble values are line perfed 13 1/4.
































44 27 1 kop. orange (Dec. 1889) 10 3

45 28 2 kop. green (Dec. 1890) 10 3

46 29 3 kop. rose (May 1890) 15 3

47 30 5 kop. lilac (June 1890) 15 3


36








48 31 7 kop. dark blue (May 1889) 15 2

49 32 14 kop. blue and rose (June 1890) 50 3

50 33 35 kop. lilac and pale green (1892) 160 15

51 34 3 rub. 50 kop. black and gray 300 150
(October 1890)

52 35 7 rub. black and yellow 600 200
(December 1891)


VARIETIES

44Aa 1 kop. dark orange 12 3

44Ab 1 kop. pale orange 20 5

44Ac 1 kop. yellow 25 5

44Ad 1 kop. orange with metallic sheen 50 10

44Ca 1 kop. with part of a watermark +35 +15
letter

44Ea 1 kop. imperforate 10000 10000


















44Ea




44Eb 1 kop. inverted background RRRR RRRR

44Ec 1 kop. shifted background 750 750

37







44Ed 1 kop. mirror impression of R
background on back
of stamp (offset)

44Ee 1 kop. shifted perfs (at least 1/8 100
of a frame size)


45Aa 2 kop. dark green 20 3

45Ab 2 kop. yellow green 12 3

45Ac 2 kop. dark yellow green 12 3

45Ad 2 kop. green with metallic sheen 50 10

45Ba 2 kop. open top of letter "0" 150 25
in word "KOP"

45Bb 2 kop. open bottom of letter "0" 150 25
in word "KOP," 54th
stamp on sheet

45Bc 2 kop. open bottom of letter ,s" 150 25
in word "B" 97th
stamp on sneet

45Ca 2 kop. with part of a watermark +35 +15
letter

45Ea 2 kop. imperforate 3750 3750

45Eb 2 kop. inverted background RRRR PRRR














45Ea 45Eb 45Ee

45Ec 2 kop. double frame RR RR

45Ed 2 kop. double background R

45Ee 2 kop. shifted background 750 750

38








45Ef 2 kop. mirror impression of frame R
on back of stamp
(offset)

45Eg 2 kop. mirror impression of back- R
ground on back of
stamp (offset)


46Aa 3 kop. carmine 30 5

46Ab 3 kop. red 30 5

46Ac 3 kop. dark red 30 5

46Ad 3 kop. rose with metallic sheen 50 10
46Ba 3 kop. open bottom of letter 100 25
"0"t in word "KOP"

46Bb 3 kop. open top in letter 100 25
"0" in word "KOP"

46Bc 3 kop. open at top and bottom 150 50
of letter "0" in
word "KOP" in place
of normal "0"

46Ca 3 kop. with part of a watermark +35 +15
letter

46Ea 3 kop. imperforate 2500 2500

46Ec 3 kop. missing background RRR RRR

46Ed 3 kop. double background RR RR

46Ee 3 kop. shifted background R R

46Ef 3 kop. mirror impression of part R -
of the background on
back of stamp (offset)

46Eg 3 kop. shifted perforation (at 100
least 1/8 of a frame
size)


47Aa 5 kop. pale lilac 30 10

47Ab 5 kop. dark lilac 22 5

47Ac 5 kop. red lilac 22 5

47Ad 5 kop. pale lilac 22 5
47Ba 5 kop. deformed outside frame 150 50
at left opposite the
letter "T" in word
"POCHTOVAYA"
39








47Ca 5 kop. with part of a watermark +35 +15
letter

47Ea 5 kop. missing background RRR RRR

47Eb 5 kop. inverted background RRRR RRRR

47Ec 5 kop. shifted background R R

47Ed 5 kop. mirror impression of part R
of background on back
of stamp (offset)
48Aa 7 kop. blue 15 3

48Ab 7 kop. pale dark blue 30 5

48Ac 7 kop. indigo 30 5

48Ad 7 kop. blue (shades) with 30 7
metallic sheen

48Ba 7 kop. missing numeral "7" R
in lower left corner

48Bb 7 kop. open bottom in letter 100 25
"b" in cyrillic
word "CEMb"

48Bc 7 kop. open bottom in letter 100 25
"0" in word "KOP"

48Bd 7 kop. open top in letter "P" 100 25
in word "KOP"

48Be 7 kop. open bottom of letter 150 25
"0" and open top of
letter "P" in word
"KOP"














48Bb 48Bc 48Be


40






48Bf 7 kop. without a serif dot 150 25
in the numeral "7"
in lower right corer

48Bg 7 kop. with only one lower 250 50
dot after the word
"?KOP"

48Ca 7 kop. with part of a water- +25 +12
mark letter
48Ea 7 kop. imperforate 10000 11000

48Eb 7 kop. inverted background 17500 26500

48Ec 7 kop. missing background 10000

48Ed 7 kop. shifted background 600 450

48Ee 7 kop. mirror impression of
design on back of
stamp (offset) 300

48Ef 7 kop. mirror impression of 300
background on back
of stamp (offset)


49Aa 14 kop. dark blue and rose 75 3

49Ab 14 kop. light blue and rose 100 5

49Ac 14 kop. blue and carmine 50 5

49Ad 14 kop. dark blue and carmine 75 5

49Ba 14 kop. letters "E" and 'T' 110 7
are joined in
cyrillic word
tqTI wPHAWg4AT "


49Ca 14 kop. with a watermark +35 +15
letter

49Ea 14 kop. inverted center 45000 37500














48Ed 49Ba 49Ea
41







49Eb 14 kop. missing center 30000

49Ec 14 kop. shifted center RR RR

49Ed 14 kop. mirror impression of R
frame on back of
stamp (offset)

49Ee 14 kop. frame not sharply 100 25
printed


50Aa 35 kop. lilac and bright green 250 20

50Ab 35 kop. brown and lilac green 250 20

50Ac 35 kop. lilac and blue green 250 20

50Ca 35 kop. with part of a water- +50 +25
mark letter


51Aa 3 rub. black and yellowish-gray 300 150
50 kop.

51Ab 3 rub. grayish-black and 350 175
50 kop. yellowish gray

51Ac 3 rub. intense black and 400 200
50 kop. dark gray

51Ca 3 rub. with part of a water- +50 +35
50 kop. mark letter

51Ea 3 rub. shifted center RRR
50 kop.


52Aa 7 rub. grayish-black and yellow 600 200

52Ab black and light yellow 750 250

52Ac 7 rub. grayish black and 750 250
light yellow

52Ad 7 rub. black and orange 600 200

52Ae 7 rub. light black and orange 600 200

52Ca 7 rub. with part of a water-
mark letter +50 +35

52Ea 7 rub. shifted center RRR

52Eb 7 rub. double frame RRRR

52Ec 7 rub. double perforation RR
at bottom
42







Comments:

1. The 3 rub. 50 kop. and 7 rub. stamps exist with blunt and pointed perfora-
tions, 13 1/4; the 3 rub. 50 kop. is known with the blunt Perforation A as
well as compound blunt Perforation A x pointed Perforation B. The premium for
the latter example is 50, and 25. This stamp probably exists with pointed
Perforation B also. The 7 rub. is known with blunt Perforation A and with
pointed Perforation B. The premium for the pointed Perforation B is 100 and 25.

2. In 1892 in St. Petersburg instead of a 1 kop. stamp, a bisected 2 kop. stamp
cut diagonally was used. The known cancellations were of the type SC31 of the
first otdel of the St. Petersburg City Post.

The necessity for use in St. Petersburg of a bisected 2 kop. stamp is suspicious.
This is confirmed by an item sold at auction in London in 1958. The item was
a piece of a cover from the Goss collection on which was glued a whole 1 kop.
stamp and the bisect 2 kop. stamp. In place of such franking, it would have
been simpler to glue on the cover a whole 2 kop. stamp not cut in half.

There was no official authorization to use stamps cut in half.

3. In this and in subsequent issues the positions of stamps with design varieties
on the sheets (stamp number on the sheet) are given only for sheets examined by
the author. One should bear in mind with the issuance of stamps of the lower
denominations numbering in the millions of copies, the positions of similar
varieties on a sheet may be different and that these varieties may be absent
altogether.

Premiums to Be Added to Values of Stamps

S Combinations 1 kop. 2 kop. 3 kop. 5 kop.

Block of four +85 +40 +85 +40 +65 +40 +65 +40

On cover +12 +12 +12 +12

Stamp with control +500 -
mark CMD in sheet
margin


Combinations 7 kop. 14 kop. 35 kop. 3 rub. 50 kop.

Block of four +65 +20 +200 +65 +400 +150 +1150 +750

On cover +10 +17 +75 +600

Stamp with control +400 -
mark CM1 in sheet
margin


Combinations 7 rub.

Block of four +1200 +650

On cover +600
Stamp with control mark -
CM1 in sheet margin 43







HISTORICAL REFERENCE

Up to 1897, money postal operations were limited to the transfer of credit bills
and valuable papers in money and valuable packets, and coins in money bundles
(bags). Payments for these operations were made in cash.

In 1897 in addition to the given postal operations, there was introduced the
transfer of money by the post and telegraph using a separate form without markings
and with markings similar to postage stamps. The money transfer operations were
introduced on January 1, 1897, in Siberia on March 1, 1897. In the beginning
there was placed a single tax of 15 kop. on each transfer, which was limited to
100 rubles. For transfer by telegraph, there was an added payment equivalent to
the cost of 20 words.

In 1899 authorization of the Minister of Internal Affairs allowed the transfer
of money with privately prepared forms, using postage stamps for the payment of
the transfer. This was announced in the newspaper "Pravitelstvennii Vestnik"
1891, No. 221. The limit sum of transfer was increased to 200 rubles. In con-
nection with this, new sliding rates were established:

up to 25 rubles -- 15 kop.
25 to 100 rubles -- 25 kop.
100 to 125 rubles -- 40 kop.
125 to 200 rubles -- 50 kop.

As a result of the unification of the postal department of the Grand Duchy of
Finland with the postal department of the empire, by authorization of the Minister
of Internal Affairs on April 19, 1891, a new postal tariff was established for
Finland which was equal to that in use throughout the rest of the territory of
the country. New postage stamps valued in rubles and kopeks were also introduced.
This was announced in the official section of the Post-Telegraph Journal No. 7,
page 99, 1891. At the same time stamps valued in Finnish currency were allowed
to be used for payment of internal Finnish mail and mail addressed beyond the
borders.

This authorization did not allow the Finnish postal establishments to sell
imperial (Russian) stamps, but mail that was franked with these, stamps and
placed in postal boxes was to be delivered to the addressees unhindered. In
these cases the Russian stamps were canceled with Finnish postmarks.

An order of the Main Administration of the Post Telegraph dated January 14, 1901
required the payment of mail sent from Finland to Russia and to foreign points
be made only with stamps valued in Russian currency. With this they became
equivalent to the Finnish postage stamps and were allowed to be used for mail
addressed within Finland. Along with this the postal establishments on the
territory of Finland began to sell the Russian postage stamps of the Eleventh
and Twelfth Issues.


SPECIAL INFORMATION

The paper used for the stamps is lightly chalked. The format of the sheets and
the positions of the stamps are like those of the Ninth Issue. The gum is trans-
parent, with a yellowish shade.



44







Control marks are known for separate sheets of the kopek values. They appear
as numbers in the margin of the sheet (CM1), printed in colored ink.








10




Gil

Numbers of Stamps Sold

In thousands Number

1 2 3 5 7 14 35 3.50 7
Year kop. kop. ko. op. k. kop. kop. rub. rub.

1889 92967 -

1890 11621 6205 5549 93600 4703 -

1891 12353 14941 6545 5649 97792 5107 1304 -

1892 13776 16380 7145 5898 104141 5546 126 1108 880

1893 15296 18634 8059 6149 109612 6388 165 3508 7616

1894 17195 20733 9049 6319 114728 6782 193 3099 5888

1895 19272 22552 9976 6713 121068 6927 195 3921 6918

1896 21412 24464 10794 7607 124432 9030 301 4568 7917

1897 25047 28625 13044 7967 136606 8197 259 5092 8822

1898 29318 32022 15587 8992 148838 9264 246 5008 9490

1899 32459 35816 18720 10943 160848 9956 286 4396 10279

1900 34782 39117 22478 12505 170112 10599 321 4350 11624

1901 38611 43381 28107 14180 178810 11449 359 5633 13091


Note: The number of stamps sold include stamps of the Ninth and Tenth Issues
"without thunderbolts".

45







CANCELLATIONS


The same types of cancellers were used as for the previous issues. During the
time of military maneuvers, temporary field post offices were opened; the main
one was in St. Petersburg, later in Krasnom Sele, and in each corps there were
two offices (six altogether). All mail that was sent through these offices was
stamped with their own oval shaped marking, SC65 R. Violet ink was used for
the marking. Sometimes the date and place of sending was hand written in the
oval.


(p vus5
"AHEBPPO

SC65

Markings of the temporary post offices of the French Fair in Moscow in 1891 and
the Riga Anniversary Fair in 1901 are known. The post marker has two circles with
text between them "M1SKVA POCHT. OTDEL. NA FRANTSUZSK. VYSTAVK" meaning "Moscow
Postal Otdel at the French Fair." The date was in the center. Known example is

18 5 91 "
VIII

The cancel of the Riga Fair, commemorating the 700th anniversary of the founding
of the city of Riga, consists of one circle with the text curved within it "RIGA -
VYSTAVKA I VR. P.-T. OTD. I", meaning "Riga Fair I Temporary Post and Telegraph
Otdel I". The date in the center was

19 10 01 "
"VIII .

Also known are cancels for the International Congress of Doctors in Moscow. It
consists of a single circle with the text along the curve, at top 'MOSKVA", and
below "VREM. P. O. XII MEZHDUN. CVYAZ. VRACH." meaning "Moscow","Temporary
Postal Otdel for the XII International Meeting of Doctors." A three line date
in the center reads "8 AUG 1897". All of the listed cancellations of temporary
post offices are R. See the article on cancellations by Ya. M. Vovin in
Philately of the USSR, 1969 No. 5 and 1975, No. 1.

The Moscow City Post used "mute" cancellers to cancel stamps. These cancels
are found on stamps beginning in 1889. Two types are known: the first has
concentric circles SC 66; the second also has concentric circles but the
smallest circle consists of dashes SC67.







SC66 SC67

46







Cancels of the first type consist of two or three concentric circles. The
second type has four circles with the innermost consisting of dashes. Oval
cancelers of the types SC44 and SC45 with a modified designation number were
used by the Mbscow City Post.

S There is a St. Petersburg cancel consisting of three concentric circles with text
within three lines "OTD. EKSP. GOR. PO(HTY" meaning "Otdel Ekspeditsiya of the
City Post" SC68. It was used in 1903. There is an analogous cancel of the
same appearance with text "OTD. L KONT. POCHTY' meaning "Otdel I Office of the
Post." It is known to be used on stamps of the 1902 issue R.




3Kcn.ro!.



SC68

All the Russian stamps of the 1889 issue were in circulation in Finland. Finnish
post cancelers were used having the basic circular form with text in Latin
letters as well as Latin and Russian letters. There are known single circles
with the date in 2 or 3 lines, double circles with the date in a single line, and
other types as well, including "mutes."


Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps for Certain Cancellations

Denomination in kopeks

Cancellation 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 4, 10, 14 20, 35

SC28, SC28a +10 +15 +25

SC31 +10 +15 +25

SC31 with numeral "1" +15 +20 +60
11.5 nm high

SC32 SC39 +15 +25

SC32a +50 +75

SC39 with dot after the "9" +15 +20

SC48 +50 +50

SC52 +75 +100

SC55 +15 +20

SC56, SC57 +30 +50


47







Premiums to be Added (continued)

Denomination in kopeks

Cancellation 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 4, 10, 14 20, 35

SC58 +75 +100 -

SC59 +100 +150

SC60 +250 +300

SC61 +125 +175

SC62 +300 +400

SC64 +15 +20

SC66, SC67 +15 +25

SC68 +50 +75


Note: Cancellations of the above types on high value stamps are R. The
premium is +100% for stamps tied to letters with St. Petersburg numeral cancels.


Premiums for Finnish Cancellations


1 kop. 2 kop. 3 kop. 4 kop. 7 kop. 10 kop. 14 kop.

+70 +20 +100 +60 +30 +40 +40


20 kop. 35 kop. 50 kop. 1 rub. 3.50 rub. 7 rub.

+120 RR +150 +1000 +750 +900


Note: 1. Premiums for letters and transfers with kopek value stamps obliterated
with Finnish cancels +100%, for ruble values +200%.

2. Finnish cancellations on Russian stamps of the somewhat earlier
period R.

FAKES

Fakes to defraud the post office are known, representing the 5, 7 kop. and 3.50
ruble stamps.

5 kop: John Reynolds in his Special Catalog of Russian Postage Stamps, Part I
pub ished by the British Society of Russian Philately, 1957, as well as the Cercle
Philatelique FRANCE-URSS, Paris 1964, gives evidence of a rather well made fake
5 kop. stamp and advises it was printed on unwatermarked maper, perforated 14 1/2 x
14 3/4.
48







7 kop.: There are several types of fake 7 kop. stamps. Details are given in
Table II, immediately following the Essays section of the Thirteenth Issue.

3.50 rub.: There are two types of fakes for this stamp. One was made during
the period of circulation of the Twelfth Issue.22 The post-telegraph emblem
was crudely made which is especially noticed in the post-telegraph symbol under
the eagle. The embossing is very weak. In the oval frame surrounding the
emblem with the ornamental decorative pearls, the dots are not well-shaped
(they are not perfect circles) and they do not have the half circle shading
line. The interior and lower lines enclosing the oval frame are incorrect.

In the wide rectangular frame with text, on genuine stamps, the rows of pearls
(beads) along the inside and lower perimeter of the frame do not touch the
encircling lines and the shading lines of the stamp's background are seen in
the separation at intervals. In the fake, these rows of pearls along the
frame's perimeter are found on its solid black background without the encircling
frame of inner and outer lines. In addition, the circles of the beads are not
well shaped with different spacing between them.

Fakes of the 7 kop. stamp RR, the 5 kop. and 3.50 rub. RRR.


PROOFS


Proofs of the 2 kop. stamp as placed into circulation are known: there are
four variations printed in different color inks, imperforate. Proofs of the
3, 5, and 7 kop. stamps in the colors as placed into circulation are known,
printed on various papers, perfed and imperforate.



THIRTEENTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 55-57, 58-59, 61, 65, 67, 69-70)

1902-1905. Designs and denominations of the stamps are the same as the previous
issue with the additional stamp valued at 70 kop., printed in two colors with
a white relief impression of the emblem of the post-telegraph administration
positioned in the center of the stamp. There are two types of cliches for
the backgrounds of the 1 7 kop. stamps; background A (1902) has corners,
background B (1905) is without corners. Typographed. Prepared by EZGB. Paper
is white with vertical laid lines. Waternarked "Ornament" (WM4). The kopek
values are frame perfed 14 1/4 x 14 3/4. The ruble values are line perfed
13 1/4.


22p4ly CCCP (Central State Historical Archives of the USSR) fund 1289, opis
(list) 9, ed. khr. 984 (unit of storage) list 18. "Description of one type of
fake 3.50 ruble stamps."



49

































53 27 1 kop. orange 10 3

54 28 2 kop. green 10 3

55 29 3 kop. carmine-rose 10 3

56 30 5 kop. lilac 15 3

57 31 7 kop. dark blue 15 2

58 32 14 kop. blue and rose 40 3

59 33 35 kop. lilac and green 135 10

60 36 70 kop. light brown and orange 325 17
(1904)
61 34 3 rub. black and yellow-gray 150 50
50 kop.

62 35 7 rub. black and yellow 75 40


VARIETIES

53Aa 1 kop. reddish orange 12 3

53Ab 1 kop. yellow orange 15 5


50







53Ac 1 kon. brownish orange 12 3
(1905)

53Ad 1 kop. orange with metallic sheen 20 7

S 53Ba 1 kop. open bottom of letter "0" 40 15
in word "KOP"
(100th stamp on sheet)

53Bb 1 kop. "II" in place of "H" in the 40 15
cyrillic word "OHlA"
(12th stamp in 4th sheet)

53Ca 1 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +10

53Ea 1 kop. imperforate R













5 53Ea 53Ec

53Eb 1 kop. inverted background 12500

53Ec 1 kop. missing background 3500

53Ed 1 kop. shifted background 500 500


54Aa 2 kop. dark green 250 25

54Ab 2 kop. yellow green 10 3

54Ac 2 kop. heavy yellow green 12 3

54Ad 2 kop. light bluish green 12 3
(1905)
54Ba 2 kop. open bottom of letter "0" in 40 15
word "KOP"
(66th stamp on sheet)

54Bb 2 kop. open bottom of letter S"" in 40 15
cyrillic word "'65"
(88th stamp on sheet)

54Ca 2 kop. with part of a watermark +25 +10
letter
51





54Ea 2 kop. imperforate RRR RRR

54Eb 2 kop. inverted background RRR RRR

54Ec 2 kop. missing background 4000 5000

54Ed 2 kop. double background 1000

54Ee 2 kop. shifted background 500 500


55Aa 3 kop. carmine 10 3

55Ab 3 kop. pale rose 50 10

55Ac 3 kop. bright rose 15 3
(1905)

55Ad 3 kop. red 10 3

55Ba 3 kop. open bottom of letter "O" in 40 15
word "KOP"
(1st stamp on sheet)

55Bb 3 kop. "II" instead of '"' in the 40 15
cyrillic word "TPM'

55Bc 3 kop. "7ITR instead of "7PM" 40 15
(54th, 79th, and 91st stamps
on sheet)

55Ca 3 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +10

55Ea 3 kop. imperforate RRR RRRR

55Eb 3 kop. double frame 1500













54Ec 55Ed 55Ee 55Ef

55Ec 3 kop. inverted background -RRRR

55Ed 3 kop. missing background 6000 5000

55Ee 3 kop. double background 1000 1000

55Ef 3 kop. shifted background 500 500

52







56Aa 5 kop. reddish lilac 15 3

56Ab 5 kop. dark lilac 15 3

56Ac 5 kop. violet 25 7

56Ad 5 kop. pale lilac 15 3
(1905)

56Ba 5 kop. open bottom of letter "0" 40 15
in word "KOP"
(38th and 71st stamps on sheet)

56Bb 5 kop. open bottom in letter "b" in 40 15
cyrillic word "129"
(92nd stamp on sheet)

56Ca 5 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +10

56Ea 5 kop. imperforate RRR RRR

56Eb 5 kop. inverted background 10000

56Ec 5 kop. missing background 6000 6000

56Ed 5 kop. double background 1750 1750

56Ee 5 kop. shifted background 500 500


57Aa 7 kop. blue 17 3

57Ab 7 kop. light blue 15 3

57Ac 7 kop. very light blue, 500
almost pale blue

57Ad 7 kop. indigo 15 3

57Ae 7 kop. blue with metallic sheen 30 5

57Ba 7 kop. open bottom of letter "O" in 40 15
word "KOP"
(1st stamp on sheet)

57Bb 7 kop. open bottom in letter "b" in 40 15
cyrillic word "CEMb"

57Ca 7 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +5

57Ea 7 kop. imperforate 3000 3000

57Eb 7 kop. inverted background 6000




53







57Ec 7 kop. missing background 8000 6000

57Ed 7 kop. shifted background 400 400












57Ea 57Eb 57Ed

57Ee 7 kop. double background RR RR

57Ef 7 kop. normal design printed on 2250
the gum side on the gum

58Aa 14 kop. light blue and rose 50 5

58Ab 14 kop. dark blue and rose 40 3

58Ac 14 kop. blue and red 75 7

58Ba 14 kop. letters "E" and 'T" are 85 10
joined in the cyrillic
word "tEPH4LP ATb "
58Ca 14 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +15

58Ea 14 kop. inverted center 60000 35000

58Eb 14 kop. missing center 12500 12500









58Ba 58Eb

58Ec 14 kop. shifted center 1000 1000

58Ed 14 kop. double center, RR -
one without ink


54







59Aa 35 kop. dark lilac and green 135 10

59Ab 35 kop. lilac and yellow green 175 17

59Ac 35 kop. dark lilac and dark green 150 15

59Ad 35 kop. violet and dark green 175 25

59Ae 35 kop. lilac and green with a 250 100
metallic sheen

59Ca 35 kop. with part of a watermark letter +35 +25

59Ea 35 kop. inverted center unique













59Ea

59Eb 35 kop. missing center 50000


60Aa 70 kop. brown and orange 350 25

60Ab 70 kop. olive brown and orange 750 -

60Ba 70 kop. completely separated numerals 450
"7" and "'" in "70" in upper
right corner,
(59th stamp on sheet)

60Ca 70 kop. with part of a watermark letter +50 +25

60Ea 70 kop. inverted center RRRR -

60Eb 70 kop. missing center 15000

60Ec 70 kop. shifted center RR

60Ed 79 kop. double frame RR -


61Aa 3 rub. gray black and yellow-gray 150 50
50 kop.

61Ab 3 rub. black and gray 175 60
50 kop.
55







61Ac 3 rub. gray black and gray 160 65
50 kop.

61Ad 3 rub. black and dark brownish-gray 225 100
50 kop.

61Ae 3 rub. gray black and dark 225 100
50 kop. brownish-gray

61Af 3 rub. black and greenish-gray 175 75
50 kop.

61Ag 3 rub. gray black and greenish-gray 175 75
50 kop.

61Ca 3 rub. with part of a watermark letter +35 +25
50 kop.

61Ea 3 rub. inverted center 62500 52500
50 kop.

61Eb 3 rub. imperforate 15000
50 kop.

61Ec 3 rub. imperforate at top and bottom 7500
50 kop.

61Ed 3 rub. double vertical perforation RR
50 kop.

62Aa 7 rub. gray black and yellow 75 40

62Ab 7 rub. black and orange 100 50

62Ac 7 rub. gray black and orange 90 40

62Ca 7 rub. with part of a watermark letter +35 +25

62Da 7 rub. perf. 11 1/2 x 13 1/4 RRR -

62Db 7 rub. perf. 13 1/4 x 11 1/2 RRR

62Dc 7 rub. perf. 13 1/4 x 13 1/4 x RRR
13 1/4 x 11 1/2
62Dd 7 rub. perf. 11 1/2 x 13 1/4 x RRR
13 1/4 x 13 1/4

62De 7 rub. double perforation RR -

62Ea 7 rub. inverted center 52500 62500

62Eb 7 rub. shifted center and 4000 4000
background


56
























62Ea 62Ed





"62Ec 7 rub. imperforate RRR RRR

62Ed 7 rub. horizontal pair imperf 6000 -
in between

62Ee 7 rub. vertical pair imperf in 6000 -
between

62Ef 7 rub. horizontal pair imperf in 6000
between and imperf on right
edge of sheet

Comments:

1. The 3 rub. 50 kop. and 7 rub. stamps are found perfed 13 1/4 with two types
of perforations, with blunt Perforation A and with pointed Perforation B.


2. Bisects of the 2 kop. stamps used in Revel (3-5 April 1909) in place of a
one kopek stamp are known. The bisects are cut either diagonally or vertically.
They are of interest only on cover or piece with the cancel tying the stamp to
the paper.

3. There are known examples of mirror impression of the design on the backside
of the stamp (offset): impressions of the frame occur on the 1, 2, 3, 5,
7 and 14 kop. stamps; impressions of the center occur on the 14 and 70 kop.
stamps; impressions of the background occur on the 7 kop. stamp. These are valued
at 150.

4. There are known examples with significant shifts in the perforations in the
vertical and horizontal directions on stamps with denominations 1, 2, 3, 5, 7,
and 14 kop. These are valued at 75 and 75.

57







5. A single copy of the 35 kop. stamp with inverted center (No. 59Ea) is known.
The place of origin on the cancel of the stamp is incomplete. The date is
"18-10-10". The 1976 Yvert catalog values this stamp at 70000 francs.

6. The imperforate 3 kopek stamp (No. 55Ea) was disclosed to the author of this
catalog in a collection in the USSR. The one known copy was cancelled "BAKHMIUT
30.12". The year was not visible.


Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combinations 1 kop. 2 kop. 3 kop. 5 kop.

Block of four +35 +30 +35 +30 +35 +30 +40 +30

On Cover +12 +12 +12 +12

Stamp with control +125 +125 -
mark CM3

Stamp with control +100 +100 -
mark CMG

Combinations 7 kop. 14 kop. 35 kop. 70 kop.

Block of four +40 +20 +190 +50 +350 +135 +800 +180

On Cover +10 +12 +50 +35

Stamp with control +100 +150 -
mark (CM3) (CM2)

Combinations 3 rub. 50 kop. 7 rub.

Block of four +525 +340 +150 +280

On Cover +150 +150

Stamp with control +200 +200 -
mark CM2


HISTORICAL REFERENCE

In 1902 EZGB changed the direction of the laid lines on the paper of the current
stamps. Instead of the lines being horizontal on the open sheet with respect
to the stamp design on the sheet, the laid lines were now vertical. The position
of the watermark WM4 correspondingly changed too. On the new sheets of paper,
the watermark appeared lengthwise with respect to the stamps on the sheet.

During the period of circulation of the stamps of the Thirteenth Issue, there
were changes in some postal regulations. By authorization of the Minister of
Internal Affairs dated October 31, 1903, the sum of each money transfer was
enlarged to 500 rubles starting January 1, 1904. The postal charges for transfers
up to 200 rubles remained unchanged, according to Circular No. 103 of the Main


58







Administration of the Post and Telegraph, dated November 3, 1903. For sums
greater than 200 rubles, the charges were as follows:

200 to 225 rubles -- 65 kop.
225 to 300 rubles -- 75 kop.
300 to 325 rubles -- 90 kop.
325 to 400 rubles -- 1 rub.
400 to 425 rubles -- 1 rub. 15 kop.
425 to 500 rubles -- 1 rub. 25 kop.

On July 1, 1904, payment for money and valuable packets with postage stamps
was introduced. The stamps were glued on the address side of the packet cover.
It was recommended that large denomination stamps be used to save space, accor-
ding to Circular No. 82 of the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph,
dated May 1904.

The cost of the consignment included the weight charges (7 kop. per lot), the
insurance charges, depending on the stated value of the contents, charges for
registration (7 kop.),charges for delivery and sealing wax charges for enclosures.

A decree of the Minister of Internal Affairs dated January 13, 1904 introduced
the sending of private parcels and bundles within the country with an accom-
panying address. The charges for this operation were prepaid with postage
stamps. The stampswere to be glued on the accompanying address form, according
to Circular No. 7 of the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph dated
January 29, 1904. This service was to begin April 1, 1904.

On July 1, 1904 this regulation was extended to parcels and bundles sent beyond
the borders, according to Circular No. 108 of the Main Administration of the
Post and Telegraph dated July 8, 1904.

The insured charges in percent were established in 1879 for money and valuable
packets in general as well as for parcels and bundles at declared value:

up to 600 rubles 1/2% of the insured sum for all materials sent;

between 600 and 1600 rubles 1/4% of the insured value and an
added 1.50 rub. for all material sent;

over 1600 rubles 1/8% of the insured value and an added 3.50 rub.
for all the material sent.

Starting January 1, 1905 these rates for insured charges were replaced with
new ones. For the declared value of the mail:

to 10 rub. 10 kop.;

from 10 rub. to 100 rub. 25 kop.;

for each additional 100 rub. or fraction 15 kop.

The insured sum was not limited.



59







The rates for weight charges for parcels depended upon the distance sent and
the weight:

up to 500 verst (a verst equaled 1.06678 km in the old measuring
system 5 kop. for each pound (a Russian pound equaled 409.5
grams in the old measuring system);

between 500 and 000verst 10 kop.;

1000 to 2000 verst 20 kop. and for each additional 1000 verst or
fraction 10 kop. per pound. The minimum rate for parcels
was 20 kop.

Starting July 1, 1904 the rates of the weight charges for parcels were changed
and new rates were established according to zones:

first zone European Russia and Trancaucasus;

second zone Western Siberia, Turkestan region, Transcaspian and
Turgaiskaya oblasts;

third zone Eastern Siberia and the postal administration of the
Kvantunskoi oblast and Manchuria.

Parcels were divided into four categories by weight.


Category Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3

First category (up to 2 pounds) 25 kop. 35 kop. 45 kop.

Second category (2 to 7 pounds) 45 kop. 65 kop. 85 kop.

Third category (7 to 12 pounds) 65 kop. 95 kop. 1 rub. 25 kop.

Fourth category (over 12 pounds) 5 kop. 10 kop. 15 kop.
for each pound or fraction over
12 pounds

Between Across
Adjacent Zones One Zone
First category 45 kop. 65 kop.

Second category 85 kop. 1 rub. 25 kop.

Third category 1 rub. 25 kop. 1 rub. 85 kop.

Fourth category 15 kop. 20 kop.


SPECIAL INFORMATION
Stamp Background: Up to 1905 the designs of the stamps of the Twelfth Issue
were used without change. In 1905 in order to improve the quality of the design
on the 1 7 kopek values, the cliche of the background was changed, which was

60







printed separately from the frame. On the new cliches the four corners were
eliminated on the stamp which bordered the white circles with the value numeral
and which upon shifting deteriorated the appearance of the design.

S Stamps with backgrounds, which have the corners and those which do not have
corners, are easily distinguished on examples with slight shifts of the background.

Shades: From 1905, the 2 and 5 kop. stamps, which were often printed with ink
having darker tones than were approved by the Minister of Internal Affairs for
the Tenth Issue, were again issued in lighter shades.

Paper: The paper was prepared by EZGB. It was covered with a thin layer of
waterproof base (lightly chalked paper). On the sheets of the kopek values,
there were 100 stamps in 4 panes of 25 (5 x 5). The ruble value sheets had
25 stamps (5 x 5) There were wide white margins on the perimeter of the sheets.
The gum is transparent, with a yellowish shade.

Control Marks: Sheets are known with control marks in the form of a numeral
of the issue printed in the sheet margins, CM2 and CM3. On some of the sheets
along the length of the sides there are two colored stripes.





IrT



CMla CM2 CM3

Sheets are also found with control mark (C1. This latter one is also found
with a large letter beneath the numeral, CMla.

Numbers of Stamps Sold

(in thousands)

1 2 3 5 7 14 35 70
Year kop. kop. kop. kop. kop. kop. kop. kop.

1902 43672 48951 35043 16634 190741 12502 374

1903 47977 53085 43651 17851 202205 13497 498

1904 52984 56781 52466 20832 215731 16465 1580 880

1905 56138 59619 56486 23480 226794 18433 2011 1118

1906 59557 62306 65515 19607 235268 15683 2807 1806



61







Numbers of Stamps Sold (continued)

(in thousands)

1 2 3 5 7 14 35 70
Year kop. kop. kop. kop. kop. kop. kop. kop.

1907 67400 69300 75200 19900 252000 16200 2500 2000

1908 67900 74400 83800 18300 262300 16760 2800 2190

1909 13471 -

1910 9659 -

1911 8217 -

1912 through 1917 No numbers given for these values


Year 3.50 rub. 7 rub.

1902 7.6 14.6

1903 10.2 15.3

1904 132.7 130.7

1905 194.3 188.0

1906 146.4 70.0

1907 139.8 39.8

1908 163.0 43.0

1909 161.4 48.6

1910 163.9 57.6

1911 154.6 51.2

1912 158.0 59.9

1913 111.4 42.3

1914 90.6 45.6

1915 82.2 55.2

1916 ? ?

1917 ? ?


Note: Numbers of stamps sold include stamps of the Twelfth Issue and 70 kop.
stamps of the Ninth Issue. 62








CANCELLATIONS


Because of the different types of postal cancellers in use,the Main Administration
of the Post and Telegraph in its Circular No. 9 dated February 3, 1903 directed
the post offices of the empire to replace the old cancellers as they wore out
with new circular and oval shaped types.

The circular cancel, SC69, was designated for all post offices except on rail-
roads and steamships. They were to use the oval shapes types, SC70 and SC71.


-0





SC69 SC70 SC71

Prior to the introduction of the new cancellers, it was ordered that the
following conditions be fulfilled.

Each post and post-telegraph office should have markers in two sizes: a large
one for correspondence, a smaller one for stamping receipts.

The inserted numerals in the markers, designating the day, month, and year were
to be placed in one line across the center of the marker. The year was to be
indicated only with the last two numerals.

On the cancellers of the St. Petersburg and Moscow post offices (SC72), it was
required that the time at which the mail was received for delivery be designated.
This was to be done on the cancellers of large post offices of other large cities
only as needed.







SC72 SC73

In cities where there were several post offices, the central post office adopted
cancellers without a distinctive number, but in other cities offices and divisions
the cancellers could have the number of that office. The number must be indicated
at the bottom of the cancel in arabic numerals.

To distinguish the separate types of mail (money, parcels, registered, ordinary)
and for the organization of control, cancellers with different letters in alpha-
betical order were to be used indicating the type of mail. (In spite of this
order, some cancellers were made with numbers instead of letters, SC73). Later,
upon replacement of worn cancellers the letters on the canceller were not to
be changed, but in the case of the loss of a canceller, a new one was to be
adopted.
63







The word "TELEGRAF" was to appear around the bottom on the cancellers of the
independent telegraph offices.

Two oval cancellers were to be made for each postal wagon. On one of them the
name of the starting point was to be on the left and the ending point on the
right. Between these was inserted the number of the train line. On the second
canceller the names were to be positioned in the same manner but between them
was placed the number of the train corresponding to the return route.

For the postal wagon offices, similar oval markers were to be made with the
word "OTD," meaning otdel, across the bottom of the oval.

The railroad post offices at terminals (voksals) were furnished with oval markers
with the name of the station and city across the top and the abbreviated cyrillic
word "BOKZ," meaning voksal, on the bottom.

An oval marker with the word "PARAHOD," meaning steamship, across the bottom of
the oval was to be used in the post offices aboard steamships.

A circular cancel with the designation "VOL.PR" was introduced for use by the
postal divisions of the district governments (volostnykh pravlenii).

Similar forms of cancellers were adopted for railroad stations, which accept
and deliver different mail. They had the added Russian abbreviation "CT" and
following the name of the station there was the name of the railroad route.

Cancellers of these types were useduntil 1917 as well as in the post revolutionary
years.

Cancellers of the type SC69 were known to be used in post offices at hotels,
credit companies, drug stores, pharmacies and rural stores as well as as the
temporary post offices at health resorts and fairs.

To prevent the possible postal reuse of used stamps with removed cancellations,
a canceller was introduced for the cancellation of mail received at the capital's
post offices and all large offices up to class II which had points to penetrate
the stamps SC74. This was announced in Circular No. 75 of the ain Adminis-
tration of the Post and Telegraph, dated October 16, 1908.









SC74 SC75

It was explained that for this objective one could use the existing cancellers to
which points could be fitted above and below the designation of the day, month,
and year. These points would puncture the stamp and at the same time would soak
the puncture holes with ink.




64







The cancellers with the puncturing points were used on open letters, address
change cards and addressee cards which accompanied parcels. These cancellers were
first introduced in Moscow.

On September 18, 1907 the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph allowed
ordinary and registered letter mail, including wrappers with printed matter,
sample goods and business papers, addressed to foreign places to be franked with
punctured stamps made with the initials, numerals or other symbols of the sender.

This was announced in Circular No. 60 of the Main Administration of the Post and
Telegraph, dated August 2, 1907. The size of the outline was not to exceed 1/3
the size of the stamp and was not to damage the numerals designating the stamp
values. It was stipulated that on the envelope corner of the item mailed which
was franked with punctured stamps, there must be printed the name and address of
the sender. If these rules were not followed, the stamps with the punctured
holes were considered void.

Many of the numeral cancellers of the St. Petersburg City Post used earlier for
canceling stamps of the Eleventh and Twelfth Issues were useduntil 1905 to
cancel stamps of the Thirteenth Issue.

In 1905 machine cancellation replaced the hand cancellation in the St. Petersburg
and boscow City Posts. A cancel of the type SC75 with extensions on both sides
consisting of straight lines or wavy lines was first used.

Later machine cancellations were used for all types of mail including the postal
offices of many gubernia cities. Cancels of the types SC69 and SC75 with various
numbers of lines at the sides were used.

Three different machine cancel types are known: with straight lines on both
sides; with wavy lines; with wavy dashed lines.

Machine cancels without the side lines are also known. In setting the type on
the cancellers, usually two sets were placed in a row with a few centimeter
space between them.

In the Grand Duchy of Finland, the Russian stamps of the Thirteenth and later
the Fourteenth Issue (1904) were used in addition to Finnish stamps. The
denominations used were 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 20 kop., 1 and 7 rub. Finnish
post office cancellers were used.

Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps for Certain Cancellations

Cancel 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 kop. 4, 10, 14 kop.

SC31 +30 +50 (14 k)

SC31 with numeral "1", +50 +100
11.5 mm high

SC32a +75 +125

SC33 SC39 +40 +75 (14 k)

SC39 with dot after "9" +40 +75

65







Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps for Certain Cancellations
(continued)
Cancel 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 kop. 4, 10, 14 kop.

SC48 +50 +50

SC55 +40 +75

SC56, SC57 +60 +100

SC58 +150 +200

SC59 +200 +250

SC60 +250 +300

SC61 +200 +300

SC62 +350 +450

SC66, SC67 +15 +25

SC68 +50 +75

Note: Stamps with values 4, 10, and 20 kop. above belong to the Fourteenth
Issue (1904).

Used stamps having a high canceller number R. Stamps canceled with St. Petersburg
numeral cancellers on cover +100%.


Premiums for Finnish Cancellations

1 kop. 2 kop. 3 kop. 4 kop. 5 kop. 7 kop. 10 kop. 14 kop. 20 kop.

80 10 30 100 400 20 20 110 30

Finnish cancels on the 1 rub. RR, on 7 rub. RRR.

Note: letters and transfers with kopek value stamps and Finnish cancellations
+100%, with ruble values RRR.


FAKES

Fake 3 kop. stamps made to defraud the post are known RRR. These are described
in several foreign catalogs such as Cercle Philatelique FRANCE URSS 1964,
Paris and others.

There are 12 types of fakes of the 7 kop. stamp, made to defraud the post RR.
The distinguishing characteristics are found in publications of the Testing
Laboratory of the EZGB.23 Extracts of these articles are given inTable II,
immediately following the Essays section of the Thirteenth Issue.


2314 CCCP (Central State Historical Archives of the USSR) fund 1289, opis (list) 8,
ed. khr. 1030 (unit of storage 1030). lists 8-11; opis 9, ed khr. 225, list 15;
opis 9, ed khr. 980, lists 12, 42, 47; opis 10, ed khr. 330, list 24. "Descriptions
of 12 types of fake 7 kopek stamps". 66







Two types of rather crude fakes of the 70 kop. stamp are known. They too were
made to defraud the post. Both R.

Fake 1: The background screen is made of dots which in separate places only
S approximately resemble the rhombic screen made of dots on the genuine stamps.
The letters printed within the frame around the emblem differ from the genuine
letters; similar differences exist for the letters in the cyrillic text
"CEM.CFHT AVH." (seventy kop.). Both necks of the eagle are significantly
longer and thinner. Other details of the emblem also differ from genuine copies.
The white line circles in the corners are thickened. The paper is rippled with
vertical lines.

Fake 2: The background screen does not correspond to that of a genuine copy
and does not cover the entire background. The letters within the oval frame around
the emblem are significantly thicker and uneven. The letters "K" and "b" are
joined together at the top. In the printed text "CEMIT W T I1H." (seventy kop.)
the letters are different from the genuine copies and their position is uneven
along the radius with the upper line of the "E" strongly shifted upward. The
heads of the eagle and other details in the emblem do not agree with genuine copies.
The numerals in the corners of the stamp have a different shape, especially the
numeral "7" in the lower left corner which has an almost flat upper line of the
head (in the genuine stamp the upper line has an additional curve). The white
line circles in the stamp's corners are thickened. The fake is perforated 13 1/4.

The first fake is easily distinguished from the second by the letter "E" in the
word "CEM4 'ECZ" and by the numeral "70" in the lower left corner of the stamp.

In 1913 there appeared a fake 3.50 rub. stamp, made to defraud the post RRR as
well as a 7 rub. RRRR. These were indicated in Circular No. 43 of the Main
Administration of the Post and Telegraph, dated June 13, 1913.

3.50 rub.: On each wing of the eagle in the emblem, there are 12 feathers instead
of 13 as on the genuine stamps. The text along the perimeter of the stamp's
design is crudely made. The embossed post horns in the emblem are long, the
relief lines in the center are shorter. The beads around the frame in many
places blend into the contour lines. The entire embossing of the emblem is not
centered in the oval, but more to the right.

7 rub.: The letters of the text in the frame are somewhat thinner and broken.
The embossed emblem is incorrect. The eagle has 12 feathers instead of 13. The
embossed post horns are longer, the relief details in the center are shorter.
The background color of the stamp is significantly lighter and yellowish. The
beads around the frame are joined to the contour lines in many places. The
entire embossed emblem is not centered in the oval but more to the right.


ESSAYS

Essays, Types EE through JJ were released in 1896,both perforate and imperforate.
They were typographed on different kinds of paper in various colors. They were
not approved and the designs of the stamps of the Twelfth Issue (1889) were
kept unchanged.




67



















Type EE





Type II Type JJ


Essays, Types EE through JJ


Table II

Details of the Fake 7 kop. Stamps of the 1889-1902 Issues
(Nos. 48 and 57 in this catalog)

Detail I: Paper


Genuine : Laid paper with watermark (WM4)

Fake 1 :Ordinary letter paper

Fake 2 :Ordinary letter paper

Fake 3 :Thin wrapper paper (thick cigarette type paper)

Fake 4 :Thin postal

Fake 5 :Ordinary letter paper

Fake 6 :Ordinary letter paper

Fake 7 :Ordinary letter paper

Fake 9 :Ordinary letter paper

Fake 10 :Postal paper (laid) with a similar watermark printed with the
aid of drying oils.

Fake 11 : Postal paper (laid lines)

Fake 12 : Ordinary letter paper

68








Detail II: Printing

Genuine : Typographed in two operations (background and frame)

Fake 1 : Printed with a wooden cliche.

Fake 2 : Lithographed, dull ink.

Fake 3 : Typographed from one cliche in one shade of dark blue.

Fake 4 : Typographed in two operations (background and frame) using a
cliche of 25 stamps.

Fake 5 : Typographed in two operations. The frame is printed in blue
ink, the background is pale dull blue.
Fake 6 : Lithographed from stone or zinc plate. Printed in two
operations; the frame blue, the background pale dull blue.
Fake 7 : Printed from flat cliches in two operations, the background
in pale dull blue, the frame in blue.

Fake 8 :Lithographed in two operations. The frame is blue, the
background is greenish pale blue.
Fake 9 :Printed in several forms, 25 at a time. Design of each
stamp was made separately.

Fake 10 : Printed in sheets from cliches which differ in design.

Fake 11 : Printing on the stamps flows together.

Fake 12 :


Detail III: Background of the stamps excluding the area under the emblem

Genuine : A network of rhombs (diamonds), made up of dots.

Fake 1 : Has the appearance of random scattered droplets.

Fake 2 : Has the appearance of random scattered droplets, barely visible.

Fake 3 : Has the appearance of dark blue droplets, appears darker
than on genuine stamps.

Fake 4 :

Fake 5 : Instead of a network of diamonds, the background has an
incorrect system of hexagons with a dot in each center.

Fake 6 : Network does not resemble the genuine in any way.

Fake 7 : Made of incorrectly placed dots, somewhat larger and lighter
than on genuine stamps.

69







Fake 8 :

Fake 9 : The network is either random placed dots or in rows and does not
resemble genuine stamps. Generally no network visible.

Fake 10 : The blue network is not formed in the correct design as on the
genuine stamps. The dots of the network are crude and heavy.

Fake 11 :The background network is blue and made of heavy and crude dots
compared to genuine stamps.

Fake 12 :The background network consists of closely placed dots of some-
what larger size. Does not resemble genuine design.


Detail IV: Background of oval beneath the emblem

Genuine : Even horizontal thin lines.

Fake 1 : Has the appearance of uneven lines (frequently intersecting).

Fake 2 : Lines are weakly printed and broken.

Fake 3 : Lines are heavy of varying thickness in a dark color. Entire
background appears darker than genuine stamp.
Fake 4 :

Fake 5 :Same as Fake 3

Fake 6 -

Fake 7 : Made of wide horizontal diffuse lines, greenish pale blue color.
Oval width is 1/3 mm less than the genuine.

Fake 8 -

Fake 9 :Crudely made non-parallel lines. On some stamps the background
is completely missing.

Fake 10 : -

Fake 11 : Made of diffuse lines, not correctly placed as on a genuine
stamp, at varying intervals.
Fake 12 : Made of diffuse lines, not as correctly placed as on a
genuine stamp.

Detail V: Emblem of the post-telegraph administration

Genuine :Comparatively sharp. Eagle's wings have approximately the same
shape.

Fake 1 :

Fake 2 :Does not agree with that on the genuine stamp.
70







Fake 3 :Crudely made, the eagle's wings are significantly closer to
the oval.

Fake 4 :The shield of St. George, the Victorious,does not have vertical
Lines. The post-telegraph mark is crudely made. The feathers and
wings are strongly separated.

Fake 5

Fake 6 : Differs strongly from the genuine stamp. The right wing touches
the line of the oval. The post-telegraph mark is not like the
genuine design.

Fake 7 :Both eagle heads are crudely made, appear odd. The small crowns
are nearly invisible on the heads. The shield on the breast of
the eagle is different. The scepter is not angled correctly.
The orb is crooked instead of straight, the eagle's tail is
different. There are 12 feathers in each wing instead of 14.

Fake 8 :The shield on the breast of the eagle does not resemble the
genuine. The white wavy lines in each wing of the eagle have
different shapes. The eagle's neck is thick. The post-telegraph
mark does not resemble the genuine.

Fake 9 : Crudely made and varies on different stamps. The position of
the post-telegraph mark in relation to the tail is different.
Fake 10 :The eagle's heads and the two white wavy lines in each wing do
not resemble the genuine designs.

Fake 11 : The design is oddly clean and clear. The tail of the eagle and
and the white zig-zag lines differ from the design of the
genuine stamp.

Fake 12 :Both heads of the eagle are made differently from a genuine as
does the shield on the breast.


Detail VI: The Crown in the oval frame

Genuine :The background has dots forming a diamond pattern. Details of
the design are divided into three rows of pearls. The cross at
the top is in the center.

Fake 1 : The pearls are missing. The cross is shifted to the left.

Fake 2 : The cross is covered with round dots instead of diamonds.

Fake 3 :Crown is crudely made and positioned closer to the oval.

Fake 4

Fake 5

Fake 6

71







Fake 7 Differs strongly from the genuine stamp.

Fake 8

Fake 9 : Differs strongly from the genuine stamp.

Fake 10

Fake 11

Fake 12


Detail VII: The cyrillic inscription '"i7DWDBA4 MAPIA"

Genuine : The letters are even and clear.

Fake 1 : The letter "B" is open at the top and appears like a "K"

Fake 2 :

Fake 3 :The letters are significantly thicker, including the Roman
numerals "VII."

Fake 4 :

Fake 5 :

Fake 6 : Letters are crudely made as well as the Roman numeral "VII"
along with the ornamental leaves within the oval frame.

Fake 7 : Letters are incorrectly made and flow together.

Fake 8 : All the letters are thinner and not correctly made,
especially the letters 'IM, "P" and "K" in the cyrillic
word "MAPKA."

Fake 9 : The oval frame of the emblem is enclosed by inner and outer
oval lines, which are not correct. The Roman numeral 'VII"
is crudely made. This is one of the most characteristic
details of fakes of this type.

Fake 10 : All the letters are crudely made and all are incorrect.
Especially different is the first letter "A" in the cyrillic
word "MAPKA" in which the left leg is a thin line instead of
the correct thickness.

Fake 11 : All the letters are different, especially the "71", "A", "'R"
in the word "7OITOBAH" and the "A", "P" and "K" in the word
"MAPKA. "

Fake 12 : All the letters are incorrectly made. The Roman numeral "VII"
is especially different. The inner and outer oval lines
encircling the frame are uneven and are not the same thickness
all around.

72







Detail VIII: The cyrillic inscription "CEM5 IDT'

Genuine : The letters are even and clear. Two dots follow the
inscription.

Fake 1 : The letter "C" is joined at the top to the letter "E",
the letter '"M" is joined to the letter "b." In the
cyrillic word "mAD," the letter ""f' is higher than the
rest. There are three dots instead of two after the
inscription.

Fake 2 : Script is incorrect. Letters have the wrong configuration
than that on a genuine stamp.

Fake 3 :

Fake 4 :

Fake 5 : The inscription is lower than on the design of a genuine
stamp. The lower dot of the two following the inscription
touches the first lower circle with the numeral.

Fake 6 : The letter "b" in the cyrillic word "CEMb" and the letter "K"
in the word "ZD7]7' differ greatly from those on genuine copies.
There is a wide space separating the two dots from one another.

Fake 7 : The letters are printed somewhat thicker. The letters "b" and
"IK" especially differ from

Fake 8 : All the letters are incorrectly made, especially the letters
"C', "E", 'b", and "17'.

Fake 9 : The letters are crudely made and differ on different stamps.

Fake 10 : All the letters are crudely made. Letters "b" and "K" differ
greatly.

Fake 11 : All the letters differ, especially the letters '"M and "K."

Fake 12 : All the letters are significantly fatter than on the genuine
stamp.


Detail IX: Numerals in the corners of the stamps

Genuine : All are practically the same.

Fake 1 : Numerals in the corners are different and differ from those
on a genuine stamp.

Fake 2

Fake 3 :

Fake 4 :

73







Fake 5 : -

Fake 6 : The numerals "7" in the stamp's corners vary differently on
different stamps.

Fake 7 : Numerals are made differently. s

Fake 8 :

Fake 9 : Numerals are crudely made and differ on different stamps.

Fake 10 : The numeral "7" in the upper right corner of the stamp almost
touches the upper right edge of the circle.

Fake 11 : The numeral "7" in the upper right corner and lower left corner
differes greatly from a genuine stamp.

Fake 12 :

Detail X: Perforation

Genuine Stamps are perforated 14 1/2 x 14 3/4.

Fake 1

Fake 2 Perforated 11 1/2.

Fake 3-6 :

Fake 7 There are 11 horizontal perfs, 18 vertical, 12 x 11 1/2.

Fake 8-12: -


FOURTEENTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 57C, 60, 63, 66, 68)

1904. Denominations and designs of the stamps are identical to the Eleventh
Issue. Typographed. Prepared by the EZGB (Printing Office for Government
Obligations). Paper is white, vertically laid. Watermarked "Ornament" (WM4).
Kopek values are frame perforated 14 1/4 x 14 3/4; the ruble value is line
perforated 13 1/4 and line perforated 11 1/2.









4 kopek 10 kopek 20 kopek 50 kopek

1 ruble

74







63 22 4 kop. rose 10 3

64 23 10 kop. dark blue 10 3

65 24 20 kop. pale blue and rose 60 3

66 25 50 kop. lilac and green 160 7

67 26 1 rub. brown and orange-red 325 10

67D 26 1 rub. brown and orange-red 5000 1450
perf. 11 1/2

VARIETIES


63Aa 4 kop. red 10 3

63Ab 4 kop. carmine red 30 5

63Ac 4 kop. brown red 50 7

63Ad 4 kop. claret red 50 15

63Ca 4 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +15

63Ea 4 kop. inverted background RR RR

63Eb 4 kop. double background impression 800 800

63Ec 4 kop. shifted background 400 400

63Ed 4 kop. without background RR RR

63Ee 4 kop. double frame impression 1500 1500

64Aa 10 kop. indigo 20 3

64Ab 10 kop. light blue 150 20

64Ca 10 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +15

64Ea 10 kop. inverted background 500 250

64Eb 10 kop. double background 800 800

64Ec 10 kop. shifted background 400 400

64Ed 10 kop. without background 3000 3000


65Aa 20 kop. pale blue and carmine 60 3

65Ab 20 kop. blue and rose 60 3

75







65Ac 20 kop. blue and carmine 60 3

65Ad 20 kop. dark blue and carmine 60 5

65Ae 20 kop. blue and red 75 10

65Ca 20 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +15

65Ea 20 kop. shifted background R R














64Ea 65Ea

65Eb 20 kop. shifted center RR RR

65Ec 20 kop. missing center and value RRR
numeral

65Ed 20 kop. without background RRR -


66Aa 50 kop. dark lilac and green 160 7

66Ab 50 kop. lilac and yellow green 200 10

66Ac 50 kop. dark lilac and blue green 200 7

66Ca 50 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +15


67Aa 1 rub. dark brown and orange red 325 10

67Ab 1 rub. brown and orange 600 25

67Ca 1 rub. with part of a watermark letter +35 +25

67Cb 1 rub. on paper without visible RR
watermark or laid lines

67Da 1 rub. perfed 11 1/2 x 13 1/4 10000 7500

67Db 1 rub. perfed 13 1/4 x 11 1/2 15000 10000


76







67Dc 1 rub. perfed 11 1/2 x 13 1/4 x RR
13 1/4 x 13 1/4

67Dd 1 rub. perfed 13 1/4 x 11 1/2 x RR
13 1/4 x 13 1/4

67De 1 rub. perfed 13 1/4 x 13 1/4 x RR
11 1/2 x 13 1/4

67Df 1 rub. perfed 13 1/4 x 13 1/4 x RR
13 1/4 x 11 1/2

67Dg 1 rub. perfed 13 1/4 x 11 1/2 x RR
11 1/2 x 13 1/4

67Ea 1 rub. missing center and value 10000
numeral

67Eb 1 rub. inverted center and value 20000
numeral

67Ec 1 rub. shifted center and value 1500 1500
numeral

67Ed 1 rub. shifted background 1250 1250

67Ee 1 rub. imperforate 10000

67Ef 1 rub. horizontal pair imperf in 4000 5000
between

67Eg 1 rub. vertical pair imperf in 4000 5000
between

67Eh 1 rub. fantail, imperforate at the 1500 3000
bottom of the sheet in lowest
row on the sheet

67Ei 1 rub. fantail top, imperforate at 1500
top from top row of sheet

67Ej 1 rub. double row of perfs at 2000
bottom

Notes:

1. The one ruble stamp exists with dull perforations and with sharp pointed
perforations 13 1/4 (see note under the Twelfth Issue).

2. Examples of the 10 and 20 kop. and 1 rub. stamps are known with a mirror
impression of the frame on the back (offset) and also a one ruble stamp with a
mirror impression of the center. The kopek stamps are valued at 150, the ruble
stamps at 500.

3. Strong perforation shifts are known on the 4, 10 kop. and one ruble stamps
in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The kopek stamps are valued at
75 75, the ruble stamp at 500 150.
77







Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combinations 4 kop. 10 kop. 20 kop.


Block of four +90 +40 +90 +40 +200 +65

On cover +12 +12 +12

Stamp with control mark -
CM4 on sheet margin

As above, 1CM +200 -+200 -+200

As above, CM2 +250 +250 +300


50 kop. 1 rub.

Block of four +400 +80 +800 +70

On cover +20 +42

Stamp with control mark +2500 -
(44 on sheet margin

As above, CM1 +200 -

As above, CM2 +400 -


SPECIAL INFORMATION

Analogous to the stamps of the Thirteenth Issue, the 4, 10, 20, 50 kop. and
1 rub. stamps were printed on vertical laid paper covered with a water soluble
base (lightly chalked paper).

The kopek values were printed in sheets of 100 stamps in four panes of 25
(5 x 5). The ruble value stamps at the beginning of the issue were printed in
sheets of 25 (5 x 5) with wide margins along the perimeter. Sheets are known
with the control marks (CM4) located opposite the end stamps of the sheet.
These control marks (Andrew's crosses) are printed in the color of the stamp's
center. Later sheets were released with 40 stamps (5 x 8). On some issues
there is a control mark in the form of a numeral CM2 in the sheet margins.
Sheets of the kopek value stamps are known with the cliche number (C1.

The gum is transparent with a yellowish shade.








(84

78







Number of Stamps Sold (in thousands)

Year 4 kop. 10 kop. 20 kop. 50 kop. 1 rub.

1904 9111 23131 9279 2226 1376

1905 10182 27540 11533 2394 2123

1906 10808 25663 6824 3630 2816

1907 10600 24530 6227 4000 3160

1908 11800 27230 6300 4440 3585

1909 7151 3557

1910 8000 -

Note:

The number of stamps sold in the period 1904-1910 also include stamps of the
Eleventh Issue.


FIFTEENTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 62, 64)


1904. Typographed, two color printing with a white embossed emblem of the
postal telegraph administration in the center of the stamp. Stamps were
prepared by EZGB. Paper is white, vertically laid. Watermarked "Ornament"
(IM4). Frame Perforated 14 1/4 x 14 3/4.










15 kopek 25 kopek


68 37 15 kop. pale lilac and pale blue 60 3

69 38 25 kop. yellow green and lilac 85 3


VARIETIES


68Aa 15 kop. lilac and pale blue 60 3

79







68Ab 15 kop. lilac and light blue 70 5

68Ca 15 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +15

68Ea 15 kop. inverted center 50000 30000

68Eb 15 kop. shifted center 2000 200C










68Ea 68Eb

68Ec 15 kop. missing center RRR

68Ed 15 kop. design printed on back of 2500
stamp on the gum

69Aa 25 kop. green and pale lilac 85 3

69Ab 25 kop. dark green and lilac 100 5

69Ca 25 kop. with part of a watermark letter +25 +15

69Ea 25 kop. inverted center 75000 50000










69Ea 69Eb 69Ec

69Eb 25 kop. shifted center 1250 1250

69Ec 25 kop. missing center 25000 25000

Note:

Examples are known with mirror impressions of the frame on the back of the stamp
(offset) on the 15 and 25 kop. stamps, and mirror impression of the center on
the back of the 25 kop. stamp. Valuation 150 each.

80







Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combination 15 kop. 25 kop.

Block of four +100 +90 +150 +90

On cover +22 +22

Stamp with control mark +150 +150 -
CM2 on sheet margin

As above, CMI +100 -

HISTORICAL REFERENCE

In 1904 the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph informed the offices
under its administration of the new 15 and 25 kop. stamps issue "COn the
issuance of new postage stamps with 15 and 25 kop. denominations" Postal-
Telegraph Journal, official section, 1904, No. 47, page 925). It also informed
the offices of the confirmation by the Minister of Internal Affairs on July 13,
1904 and the intended use of these stamps for the payment of money transfers
(instead of the stamped transfer forms established in 1896) as well as for the
payment for other correspondence. The postal charge forms continued to be
used until the supply was exhausted.

Transfers of money by post and telegraph were allowed to be dispensed on
privately prepared forms with the fees paid in postage stamps, as this was
permitted by a decree of the Minister of Internal Affairs in 1889, as well as
on the unstamped money transfer forms which were sold at post-telegraph offices
for 1/2 kop.

Originally the introduction of the new stamps into circulation was to be
January 1, 1905. However, they appeared for sale earlier than this date
because the estimates of receipts and expenditures of the Main Administration
of the Post and Telegraph for 1906, addenda No. 10 k 5 in the A. S. Popov
Central Miseum of Communication library show the sale of the 15 and 25 kop.
stamps in 1904.

SPECIAL INFORMATION

The designs of the 15 and 25 kop. stamps were taken from the 14, 35 and 70 kop.
stamps of the Twelfth Issue of 1902. The difference in these stamps lies in
the two dots following the word "KOP, instead of the single dot as found on
the 1902 issue stamps.

There are 100 stamps per sheet, in blocks of 25 (5x5). Numerals designating
the year of issue (CM2) are typographed in the sheet margins in the color of
the stamp's center. There are sheets with control mark CM( as well as sheets
without control marks.

The gum is transparent, with a yellowish shade.



81







Numbers of Stamps Sold

Year Units 15 kop. 25 kop.


1904 each 50287 16967

1905 in thousands 5099 2237

1906 11489 6096

1907 15200 6700

1908 20600 8300


PROOFS

The 15 and 25 kop. stamps are known printed on small sheets of unwatermarked
paper. Imperforate. The design and color are the same as those placed into
circulation. Valuation RRR.



SIXTEENTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. B1-4)


December 18, 1904. Postal-charity stamps for the benefit of war orphans of the
fighting army. The set was issued by the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society.
Typographed in high relief in three colors: the frame background, the frame
and the center background. The design artists were E. Franka (3 + 3 kop.) and
R. Zarrinsha (remaining values). Paper is unwatennarked.





N--










uBi6CAni bS Y I sa nofinny
CoMrN CHPOTAII BOHMnOB CHPorh BaoHNom
ILI, cnnlfnoe



3 kopek 5 kopek 7 kopek 10 kopek

82







Frame or Comb Perforation 12 x 12 1/2


70 39 3 + 3 kop. rose, brown and olive green 110 75
Depicts the monument of the
hero of the Sevastopol
defenses Vice Admiral V. A.
Kornilov (from a drawing by
fleet lieutenant A. Bilderling,
sculpture by I. Shreder).
Erected in Sevastopol in 1895.

71 40 5 + 3 kop. lilac, violet and straw 90 75
yellow
Depicts monument of the leaders
of the peoples' militia 1611-
1612 K. Minin and Prince D.
Pozharski (sculpture by I.
Martos). Erected in Moscow's
Red Square in 1818.

72 41 7 + 3 kop. light blue, dark blue and 90 75
pale rose
Depicts monument of Peter I
Sculpture by E. M. Falcon).
Erected in St. Petersburg's
Senate Square in 1782.

73 42 10 + 3 kop. light blue, dark blue and 110 75
orange-yellow
Depicts a view of the
Moscow Kremlin.


Line Perforation 13 1/4


70D1 39 3 + 3 kop. rose, brown and olive-green 550 550

72D 41 7 + 3 kop. light blue, dark blue and 1100 1100
pale rose

73D 42 10 + 3 kop. light blue, dark blue and 125 125
orange-yellow


Line Perforation 11 1/2


70D2 39 3 + 3 kop. rose,brown and olive-green 100 100

VARIETIES

70Da 3 + 3 kop. line perfs. 13 1/4 x 11 1/2 5000 4000

70Db 3 + 3 kop. line perfs. 11 1/2 x 13 1/4 RR RR

83






73Ba 10 + 3 kop. "step on the wall is 250 250
broken" (second from
right), sixth stamp
on sheet

73Bb 10 + 3 kop. "bulge on bell tower," 300 300
eleventh stamp on sheet

73DBa 10 + 3 kop. "step on the wall is 300 300
broken" (second from
right), sixth stamp
on sheet
Notes:

1. The catalog of P. Kol (Issue 10, Hemnitz, 1915, Vol. 1) mentions a 3 + 3 kop.
stamp perforated 13 3/4 x 13 1/4.

2. J. Reynold's catalog (British Society of Russian Philately, 1957) mentions
the 3 + 3 kop. stamp with the following perforations:

a. 11 1/2 x 13 1/2 x 13 1/2 x 13 1/2
b. 13 1/2 x 11 1/2 x 13 1/2 x 13 1/2
c. 13 1/2 x 13 1/2 x 13 1/2 x 11 1/2
d. 11 1/2 x 13 1/2 x 13 1/2 x 11 1/2
J. Reynolds rounds off the perforation 13 1/4 to 13 1/2.

3. The variety 73Ba was discovered by Professor A. S. Georgeski, and variety
73Bb was discovered by Professor K. A. Berngard. The positions of these stamps
on the sheets were established by the French philatelist M. Lipshitz in 1975.


Premiums to be Added to the Values of Stamps

Block of four +100% of the value of the stamp

On cover +250 for each stamp


HISTORICAL REFERENCE

In 1904 during the Russo-Japanese war, the Main Administration of the Post and
Telegraph notified the offices under its administration that with the permission
of the Minister of Internal Affairs the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society is
issuing special postage stamps. The additional charge from the stamps will
be used for the benefit of war orphans of the fighting army who were sheltered
by the society. This was announced in the Circular No. 184 of the Main Admini-
stration of the Post and Telegraph, dated November 21, 1904.

Several conditions which were special for the issuance of these stamps and
regulations for their sale were as follows:

the sale price of a stampwas 3 kopek above the denomination value
for each stamp which was indicated on each stamp;


84







for the accounting of the payment of postal charges, only the
denominational value is to be used, not the sale price of the
stamps;

the acquiring of the designated stamps and the franking of corres-
pondence with them was not obligatory for anyone and the choice was
left to the discretion of the sender.

Specimen stamps were approved by the Minister of Internal Affairs on November 18,
1904. The stamps were placed into circulation on December 18, 1904, according
to F. L. Breitfus and Heinigen von Hune, "Deutsche Briefmarken Zeitung," 1905.
No. 1. Use of the stamps was allowed up to December 31, 1913, but in
actuality it was no longer possible to obtain them in post offices even earlier.


SPECIAL INFORMATION

Size of designs: 3 + 3 kop. 20.2 x 39.8 mm
5 + 3 kop. 20.2 x 40.2 mm
7 + 3 kop. 20.5 x 40.5 mm
10 + 3 kop. 20.2 x 39.8 mm

Stamps were printed in sheets of 40 (8 x 5). Gum is white and transparent.

The total number of stamps received by the Society from the printing office
(from November 18, 1904 to February 1, 1907) was 3 + 3 kop. 278,000; 5 + 3 kop.
- 208,000; 7 + 3 kop. 332,000; and 10 + 3 kop. 191,000.

Note: Remainders of the prepared stamps were destroyed by the EZGB on December 20,
1911. The numbers were: 3 + 3 kop. 308,800; 5 + 3 kop. 78,800; 7 + 3 kop. -
404,88; and for the 10 + 3 kop. 145,800.


ESSAYS AND PROOFS

Essays of all four values with designs of the stamp placed into circulation but
bordered with thin lines are known. They were printed on separate sheets of
paper with black ink. The 5, 7, and 10 kopek stamps were also printed in the
same way with red ink. All are imperforate.

Proofs are known (designs of the issued stamps) for all four values. They were
printed on separate sheets of paper, imperforate. Values of the essays in
black ink and the proofs 3000 each. The essays printed in other colors RR.


SPECIMENS

Specimens were issued for the establishments which sold these stamps. They have
the typographed overprint "OBRAZETS." The word "OBRAZETS," which in the cyrillic
form is 8 letters long, was printed in a line across 8 stamps such that one
letter appears on each stamp. Overrints of two different scripts are known,
with different heights of letters. All values of these stamps were issued
with the overprint, perforated 11 1/2, 12 x 12 1/2, and 13 1/4.

24Berngard, K. "For the Aid of War Orphans," Philately of the USSR, No. 1,
1973, page VII.

85







Altogether the Society received 7226 stamps of each value with the "OBRAZETS"
overprint from the EZGB. 5

Value for a strip of 8 stamps with the overprint 1750. Value for a single
stamp with a letter 175.



SEVENTEENTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 71-72)


1906. Typographed. New three color stamp designs. Center has a white embossed
emblem of the postal-telegraph administration. The designer was R. Zarrinsh.
Prepared by EZGB. Format is 24.75 x 29 mm. The paper is white, vertically
laid. Watermarked "Ornament" (WM4). Line perforated 13 1/4.



AR MAPq BA PMAR









5 ruble 10 ruble

74 43 5 rub. dark blue, light green and 200 40
pale blue

75 44 10 rub. red, yellow, and gray 500 35

74D 43 5 rub. perforation 11 1/2 4000 3000


VARIETIES

74Ca 5 rub. with part of a watermark letter +50 +25

74Ea 5 rub. missing perforation at the 7500 7500
bottom of the stam (the lower
margin is 21 1/2 mm, ending
in a perforation


25. LF7H4 CCCP(Central State Historical Archives of the USSR), fund 1289, opis 7,
ed. khr. 68, "On patriotic stamps".

86







74Eb 5 rub. missing vertical perforation RR RR
between stamps

74Ec 5 rub. missing horizontal perforation RR
between stamps


75Ca 10 rub. with part of a watermark +100 +35
letter

Notes:

1. In addition to varieties 74Eb and 74Ec mentioned above, a 5 rub. perforated
13 1/4 x 13 1/4 x 11 1/2 x 13 1/4 is mentioned in the catalog of Russian stamps
published by the France-USSR Cercle (Paris, 1964) and in J. Reynold's catalog,
Part 1, 1957 published by the British Society of Russian Philately. The Cercle
catalog also mentions an imperforate 5 ruble stamp. One should be very cautious
of these last two varieties since they can be made from the variety type 74Ea.

2. The same catalogs mention a 10 ruble stamp perforated 11 1/2.


Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Combination 5 rub. 10 rub.

Block of four +300 +150 +750 +260

On cover or form +50 +100

S Stamp with control mark CM5 +100 RRR +500 RRR

Note: The envelope of an open valued letter for the sum of 700 thousand rubles
sent from St. Petersburg is known. It was franked with eighty 10 ruble stamps.
Valuation RRRR. It is kept in the State Collection in the A. S. Popov Central
Museum of Communication.


HISTORICAL REFERENCE

With the establishment of the regulation for the payment of insurance and
weight charges on money and valuable correspondence with postage stamps starting
July 1, 1904, large numbers of stamps had to be glued on the packet on mail
insured for large sums. In order to reduce the number of stamps in these cases,
upon the solicitation of the Moscow Post Office, the Main Administration of the
Post and Telegraph decided to issue stamps with the high values of 5 and 10
rubles.

In the May 17, 1906 issue of the newspaper "Pravitelstvennii Vestnik," there was
an announcement by the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph that starting
June 1, 1906 new postage stamps with the values of 5 and 10 rubles would be
placed into circulation for the payment of all types of correspondence and that
the sale of these stamps in postal and postal-telegraph establishments would
begin even earlier. The stamps were prepared by EZGB and approved by the Main
Administration on April 8, 1906.


87







SPECIAL INFORMATION

Each sheet had 25 stamps (5 x 5). There were wide margins with control marks
opposite all the edge stamps in the form of a Roman numeral ((15). The mark
was in the color of the background of the stamp, yellow green for the 5 ruble
stamp and yellow for the 10 ruble stamp.


















CM5

The gum is transparent, with a yellowish shade. The issue was one million of
each value."O

Numbers of Stamps Sold

Year 5 ruble 10 ruble

1906 38870 45405

1907 75115 78515

1908 78000 82000

1909 80989 79100

1910 104533 88349

1911 106016 97303

1912 116994 102758

1913 86255

1914 96191

1915 118216



26.Lt4M CCCP (Central State Historical Archives of the USSR), fund 1289, opis 8,
ed. khr. 255, "On the high value postage stamps".
88







CANCELLATIONS

The stamp cancels designated for the previous issues were used. In Finland the
use of 5 ruble stamps perforated 13 1/4 x 11 1/2 as well as 10 ruble stamps are
known. Finnish cancellers were used.

Premiums for Finnish Cancellations

5 rub. with perf. 13 1/4 +5500

5 rub. with perf. 11 1/2 +3000

10 rub. with perf. 13 1/4 +2000

Covers and money transfers with stamps having Finnish cancellations +200%.


PROOFS

Proofs with the design and colors of the stamps placed into circulation are
known. They were prepared on paper with horizontally laid lines instead of
vertically laid lines. They were perforated 13 1/4 RR.


Translator's Notes

Any and all errors in translation are mine. As I am not expert in the Russian
language, any misinterpretations or grammatical inconsistencies are my fault.
However, I did try to make the text readable and usable and at the same time I
tried to keep to the original as closely as possible which may account for
seemingly awkward sentences at times.

The author's style varied from section to section. His descriptions of the
issues were brief words or phrases rather than sentences. However, his historical
information and data were typical long multi-clause sentences.

I cannot vouch for the accuracy of the data given. One must assume that the
author has given us the facts correctly as given, barring typographical errors.

There are some inconsistencies which are noted below.

Although all typographic errors that Lobachevski noted in subsequent issues of
"Soviet Collector" have been made in this translation, there are apparently
others which the author did not catch.

Under the Twelfth Issue in the original list there was no variety given for
46Eb although varieties 46Ea and 46Ec are given. Similarly in the same list,
there were two 46Ee although it was obvious that the second one should be 46Eg
and has so been designated.

There are several other similar typographic errors which were quite obvious and
have been corrected in this translation.

For some unknown reason the author began to use another symbol to indicate color
varieties in one of the issues. The translation corrects this to the previously
defined and used symbols.

89







Some color varieties are listed as principal or basic stamps with modified
colors rather than as stamp color varieties. These have been noted with the
symbol M for modified. A similar situation exists for some perforation varieties.
When they were given as principal stamps, the chronological number is followed
by the letter D, but when listed as a variety, the chronological number is
followed by a D plus a lower case letter, such as Da, etc.

In all cases of the above, the translation follows the original text. No
attempt was made to change it.

Soviet writers continue to use the expression "chalk line network" to define
the nearly invisible pattern of lines on the issues of 1908-1923. Most western
catalogs call this a "varnish line network." Both terms are used in this
translation.

Two interesting cliche varieties and plate positions are given for the 10 kop. +
3 kop. 1904 semi-postal (No. 73 in this catalog) with the perforation 12 x
12 1/2. But only one of these varieties is given for the same stamp perforated
11 1/2. One isn't quite sure if this means the variety doesn't exist in this
case or was simply omitted.

Stamp designs 37 and 38 both had the same illustration which was incorrect for
design 38. This has been corrected in the illustrations of the fifteenth issue.

George V. Shalimoff

NOTICE
As indicated in the Life of the Society in this issue of the Rossica Journal,
our member David Skipton has completed a translation of the classic handbook
in Russian philately known as "Prigara." (full title, The Russian Post in the
Empire, in Turkey, in China and the Post of the Kingdom of Poland, by S. V.
Prigara; originally published in 1941 in New York. Prigara was an honorary
member of Rossica at that time.) This translation, including all the illus-
trations of the original as well as supplemental illustrations not available
for the original will be available to the membership in 1981.

At the present time, it is estimated that this translation will cost a minimum
of $30.00 per copy, depending upon the number of copies printed. It is the
intent of the Board of Directors of the Society to make this translation of
Prigara available on a pre-publication basis for $25.00 each. IF YOU ARE
INTERESTED IN OBTAINING A COPY AT THIS PRE-PUBLICATION PRICE, notify Gordon
Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethsda, Maryland 20016 by postcard. YOUR NOTIFI-
CATION OF THE PRESIDENT CONSTITUTES A COMMITMENT TO PURCHASE ONE OR MORE COPIES
OF PRIGARA AT THIS PRE-PUBLICATION PRICE OF $25.00!

Our pre-publication subscriptions will determine the size of the printing order.
All pre-publication orders must be received by Mr. Torrey no later than
31 March 1981. It is estimated that the books will be available to be mailed
out in late summer/early fall of 1981.





90







MONEY ORDER CARDS

by R. Sklarevski

S bney Order Cards of Russia first appeared in 1896 and were widely in use with
small changes in their format.

No. 1 15 kop. blue on light buff cardboard

Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the front and back of the 15 kop. cards, which were
issued in 1896. The background of the imprinted stamp has brown dots.

Figure 1 illustrates the front of the card, which is divided into two parts by a
fancy border of the stamp. This border is made of circles, dots, lines, and semi-
circles. The larger right portion of the card, after being separated, was used
by the post office to receive the money from the sender and later on to pay the
money to the recipient. The smaller portion of the card was kept by the sender.

The inscriptions on the front of the card translate as follows (see Fig. 1):

Left portion of the card
Line 1 Detachable coupon
Line 2 "rub" "kop"
Line 3 Sum transfere- or sent
Line 4 From
Lines 5 & 6 (The name and exact address of the sender)
Lines 7 & 8 Written message on the reverse side of the coupon

Right portion of the card
Line 1 transfer
Line 2 by
Line 3 Post or Telegraph
Line 4 For amount "rub" "kop"
Line 5 Repeat the sum in rubles-in writing (This is for the lined
rectangle above the inscription.)
Line 6 To (name)
Line 7 To (address)
Line 8 Place of destination and the exact address of the recipient
Line 9 Postal service remarks

The inscriptions on the back of the card translate as follows (see Fig. 2):

Right portion of the card
Line 1 Detachable coupon

Left portion of the card
Line 1 Postal service remarks
Lines 2 and 3 Paid rub. kop., by signature in
receipt book,-Fy article No. (Lines 2, 3, and
4 on card types 2 through 5)
Line 4 (Signature of the head of the post office) (Line 5 on
card types 2 through 5)




91





















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92








A similar card, without imprinted stamp, was likewise issued. In the upper right
hand corner, in place of the stamps, is imprinted a vertical rectangle 17.5 x
44.5 mm. in size, made of dashes. Inside of the rectangle is a three line inscrip-
tion reading "place for the stamps."
No. 2 15 kop. blue on light buff
No. 3 25 kop. carmine on light buff

In 1898-99, the second issue consisting of 15 and 25 kop. cards made its appearance.
The cards are 205 x 104 mm. in size and have the same inscriptions on the back and
front. Other differences between card No. 1 and later cards are as follows:
on the latter two cards, the left portion was widened and the right portion
shortened. Likewise, the two bottom inscriptions on the left portions of the
card were printed in one line instead of two lines, and the center inscription
on the back was printed in three lines instead of two.

The imprinted 25 kop. stamp has red dots in the background.

No. 4 15 kop. blue on light buff
No. 5 25 kop. carmine on light buff

The last two cards were issued in 1901. They are of the same size and color as
Nos. 2 and 3 but have an inscription reading '"no marks or corrections in the text
are permitted" added at the bottom on the front of the right portion of the card
(Line 10, shown at the bottom of Fig. 3).

Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the front and the back of the cancelled right portion
of the card of type No. 4. The space between lines 9 and 10 usually has the
registry and the cancellation of the sending office. Of course, some cards do
S not have the registry labels. Some of the cards have at the top a cancellation
giving the name of the "gubernia" where the money transfer originated.

Also, on the front across the card is a cancellation reading, "Paid."

Figure 4 illustrates the back of the right portion of the card.

Between lines 1 and 2 is the date the card was received by the receiving office.
Another cancellation, usually below the receiving cancellation, signifies the
date when the money was paid to the recipient.

On most of the used cards, lines 2 through 4 are never completed. Neither is the
name of the head of the post office. On some of the cards, one will find the
amount of money paid out by the post office and the signature of the recipient
in long hand.

From the punched out holes frequently found on the right portion of the card, one
may safely assume that the right portion of the card, after the transaction was
completed, was kept as a record in the post office. From the material I have on
hand, it seems that the post office record copies are much more abundant than the
senders left portion of the card.

There are numerous complementary money order blanks without imprinted stamps.
They were printed for use locally and were not valid for use throughout Russia.



93







Figures 5 and 6 illustrate the front and back of the left portion of a money
order card. This is the portion given by the post office to the sender. The
illustrations are not of card types No. 1 through 5, but of a similar unfranked
card, of which there are many varieties. Evidently this portion was sent by mail
to the main office of Holy Synod in St. Petersburg for transfer of money to
Jerusalem. On the front portion of the card in Fig. 5 is shown the name and
address of the sender and the post office "paid out" cancellation. The back
portion has the name of the recipient, the message and the signature of the
sender.


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Figure 3 94 Figure 4







A CLICHE MARK AND A RETOUCH

by George V. Shalimoff


In reviewing earlier issues of the Rossica Journal as well as the British
Journal of Russian Philately, I have found many notes concerning flaws or
cliche marks on Imperial stamps. Although many of the marks are minute and
difficult to see without a magnifier, others are readily visible with the
unaided eye which allows their quick discovery.

I have observed one such mark on three different issues of the 14 kopek stamp
as well as on an overprinted issue. Although this mark was unreported on
these particular issues, it was reported, apparently, for the earlier first
issue of the 14 kopek Imperial stamp.

There is a round spot of blue color, readily visible by eye, in the area be-
tween the upper right corner of the mantle surrounding the center and the
value circle in the upper right (NE) corner, shown in Figure 1.





















Figure 1

This spot was found on Scott No. 51, the 1890 issue printed on horizontally
laid paper. The spot also appears on Scott No. 61, the 1902 issue on vertically
laid paper. A third example was found on a pane of 25 of Scott No. 80, the
1909 issue printed on wove unwatermarked paper with the varnish line network.

On the pane of 25, the stamp is located at position number 13, the exact center
of the pane. This pane was the lower right corner of the original sheet of
100. Therefore, the stamp position on the full sheet is 78. Using the plate
characteristics given by F. Julius Fohs in BJRP No. 7, 1951 and No. 29, 1961,
the pane is described as the first printing of the 1909-1923 issue.


95







The stamp with a spot in the same area reported for the 1883 first issue of
the 14 kopek stamp, Scott No. 36 without thunderbolts, by Prof. O. Winterstein
in BJRP No. 46, 1971, also occupied position number 13 in a pane of 25. Although
I have not seen this stamp, its description would indicate it to be the same
as those above. If this is so, then every issue of the 14 kopek stamps shows
this characteristic mark.

On a full sheet of 100 of the 1908-1923 issue with a red plate number 3,
described as the fourth printing by Fohs, the spotted stamp was found at posi-
tions 25 and 95. This sheet was overprinted "K 20 K", Scott No. 118. The
spotted 14 kopek stamps should probably exist with other overprints as well.

In examining full sheets or panes of stamps, numerous unreported marks can
be observed. Usually this requires the use of a magnifier and are not as
obvious as the spot described above.

On another copy of the 1890 14 kopek stamp,Scott No. 51, there is a prominent
retouch in the background in the area between the left frame line and the end
of the curved tablet with the words "CHETYRNADTSAT KOP." (fourteen kop.).
There are several strong strokes in place of the delicate diamond-shape back-
ground, shown in Figure 2. The stamp was used, dated 1903.





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Figure 2

I have not found other examples of this retouch on the 14 kopek stamps of the
earlier or later issues.

Although these stamps have been around for 70 to 90 years, there still are
new things to find on them and to learn from them.





96







AIRMAIL STAMPS OF THE SOVIET CONSULATE IN BERLIN

by S. M. Blekhman
[Translated by D. M. Skipton from "The USSR-GDR in the Mirror of Philately"]

Over a half-century has gone by since the printing and issuance of the rarest
series of official Soviet airmail stamps, known to collectors as "the consular
airmail" set. However, up to the present time not all the "blank spots" connected
with this fascinating emission have been filled in for catalogs and philatelic
monographs. Official documents concerning the issue and use of these legendary
stamps have not been found or printed in the philatelic press. Until now re-
searchers have been lost in conjecture over whether these stamps were affixed
to the packet itself, or whether they were put on special forms accompanying the
dispatches, since the denomination of the last stamps in the series--1200 German
marks--would have been sufficient to pay postage for a letter weighing 1 kg!
Also, copies of these stamps have been sold at auction with primitive cancellations
in the form of black bars, creating doubts about their authenticity. Stamps
have even appeared on cutouts of French newspapers, supposedly sent from Berlin
to Moscow in official wrappers.







12 repM. Mapo $ 24 repM. Map I 120 repM. mapOK


Scott 001 Scott G02 Scott 003




----- -------l


$00 repoL o1apm

Scott C04 Scott 005







1200 repi. wape 200 repm. Mapou ,2 repM. ka

Scott C06 Scott 007 Scott (08
Figure 1. Soviet Consular Air Mail Set
97







Although the history behind the issue of these stamps is insufficiently elucidated,
it is possible to reconstruct, by means of the materials preserved in the Central
State Archives of the National Economy of the USSR, all the circumstances pre-
ceding their issue.

On 8 September 1921, V. I. Lenin signed a decree of the Council of People's
Commissars concerning the organization of an air service between Moscow and
Germany. The "Russo-German Air Services Company"(Deruluft) was founded by
November of the same year. The shareholders in the company were the People's
Commissariat for Foreign Trade of the RSFSR and a group of German firms: A.O.
Aerounion, the Hamburg-American Packetboat Joint-stock Company (HAPAG), the
Universal Electric Compny (AEG), Meyalbank, and the Zepplin concern. The
affairs of the company were directed by a supervisory council and a board con-
sisting of four directors, two from each side.

"Deruluft" bought ten six-seater 1922-model "Fokker FIII" monoplanes in Germany;
each of the planes were capable of lifting 450kg of paying load.

The company was given the exclusive rights of organization and services for the
flights between Soviet Russia and Germany, with ground equipment in the form of
aerodromes, hangars, radio installations, etc., provided.

Delivery of diplomatic couriers, official personnel and mail of the People's
Commissariats for Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and other departments of the
RSFSR at least twice a week was stipulated in a contract concluded in the
period up to 1926. Regular flights between Moscow and Germany commenced on
1 May 1922.

The first plane from Koenigsberg arrived in Moscow on 30 April, but the first
diplomatic mail to be delivered was carried on the third plane which landed at
the Moscow airfield during the day on 2 May. From Moscow, the first mail left
on the morning of 3 May 1922.

In the beginning this line was served by four planes, with their number reaching
ten later on. On the territory of the RSFSR, (from Moscow) to Smolensk the
flights were conducted by Soviet pilots in aircraft belonging to the Soviet side.
In Smolensk there was a transfer of passengers and mail to planes flown by
German pilots. This procedure was established to conform to the terms of the
Treaty of Versailles, which denied Germany the right to set up airlines beyond
its own borders. Over RSFSR territory the flights followed railroad lines to the
Soviet-Latvian border, from whence they continued over Latvian and Lithuanian
territory to Koenigsberg. There the mail was transferred to a train running to
Berlin. Planes were sent from Moscow twice per week, landing in Koenigsberg
8-9 hours after takeoff. Correspondence was delivered to the addresses only
on the 4th day much time was spent in processing it. Even so, airmail was
quicker by train delivery took a week.

At first the planes from the Soviet side carried only official mail of the
People's Commissariats for Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade. Later, other
Soviet establishments in Berlin had their mail sent by couriers of the Soviet
Consulate there, free of charge. The diplomatic courier section of the Narkomat
(short for Narodnyi Kommissariat Peoples' Commissariat TR) for Foreign Affairs
received and processed all correspondence. However, in connection with the
introduction of self-supporting operations for Soviet establishments, and also
with the considerable increase in the volume of correspondence sent by various
Soviet organizations in Berlin, it was decided to institute a regular charge
for mail delivery by the Narkomat for Foreign Affairs.
98







Special official postage stamps were introduced on the instructions of the
Soviet consul in Berlin, N. N. Krestinskii, on July 15. By means of these
stamps, it was supposed that the amount of correspondence each institution
sent could be established and a regular monthly payment for its delivery intro-
duced. Only mail sent from Berlin to Moscow was paid for--in the reverse
direction, correspondence was delivered free, as before. A special tariff
expressed in German paper marks of the 1922 standard was established in 1922.
Postage for each 10 grams cost 12 German marks, which was equivalent to 0.12
gold marks of 1914. As a result of inflation, after 31 July 1922 these 12
stamps became equivalent to a total of 0.074 gold marks. For the printing of
these official airmails, surcharges were applied to lithographed Russian con-
sulate duty stamps issued in 1913, which were on hand in the Soviet Embassy
in Berlin. The surcharge was executed typographically on sheets of 25 stamps,
applied on a background of interwoven colored lines. The various denominations
(of the surcharges) differ slightly from one another by size. The stamps are
line-perforated 13 1/2, and the entire series consists of the following eight
stamps (See Figure 1):

1. 12 German marks on 2 rubles/25 kopecks blue on green and rose background.
2. 24 German marks on 3 rubles dark green on violet and pale green
background.
3. 120 German marks on 2 rubles/25 kopecks blue on green and rose
background.
4. 600 German marks on 3 rubles dark green on violet and pale green
background.
5. 1200 German marks on 10 kopecks brown-lilac on green and rose background.
6. 1200 German marks on 50 kopecks dark green on violet and yellow
background.
7. 1200 German marks on 2 rubles/25 kopecks blue on green and rose
background.
8. 1200 German marks on 3 rubles dark green on violet and pale green
background.

The surcharge was applied at a private printing firm in Berlin. Totals for
each of the stamps were never officially published, but they are small. Only
a few sheets of the high denominations were prepared, while the surcharge "1200
German marks" on the 50 kopeck value, which collectors usually call the
"consular 50 kopecks" (konsul'skii poltinnik), apparently was applied to only
50 stamps in all (2 sheets).

The typographic setting used to surcharge 25 stamps--one sheet--had a number of
varieties which, with the exception of the "R.S.F.S.R." line, were insignificant.
(Each stamp is slightly different.) There are three sharply defined types of
the (2nd) line:
Type I. -The letters "R.S.F.S.R." are thick, and the C's (cyrillic "S")
are closed. The periods are large squares Length of the
"R.S.F.S.R." line 33.5 mm.
Type Ia. -The same, but with the line length 32.9 mm.
Type II. -The letters in "R.S.F.S.R." are thick, but the C's are open.
The periods are large squares, and the line length is 33.5 mm.
Type IIa. -The same, but with the line length at 32.5 mm.
Type III. -The letters in "R.S.F.S.R." are thin, with the C's open.
Periods round. The second line is 29 mm. long.



99