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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Officers and representatives of...
 Life of the society by Gordon...
 Obituaries
 The earliest Kyakhta and Yakutsk...
 Kitai overprint forgeries by George...
 The field post in the caucasus...
 Imperial postage stamps of Russia...
 Plate flaws in the arms issue of...
 Imperial Russian postage stamps...
 Post St. Olga by Dr. Alfred H....
 Azerbaijan: Forgeries of phantasies...
 Private mail-order forms of the...
 A Bessarabian Octagon by David...
 Alaska - Hawaii - Russia: The search...
 Some examples of censor markings...
 An historical review of Wenden...
 The ancient rider by William...
 New listings of 1877-1879 Russian...
 Counterfeits of Karelia bear stamps...
 Russian postal establishments -...
 Member-to-member adlets
 Rossica library relocates by David...
 The Rossica bookshelf


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00050
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1980
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00050

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Life of the society by Gordon Torrey
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Obituaries
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The earliest Kyakhta and Yakutsk handstamps by David Skipton
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Kitai overprint forgeries by George V. Shalimoff
        Page 14
        Page 15
    The field post in the caucasus during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878 by S. M. Blekhman (translated by David Skipton)
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Imperial postage stamps of Russia issued 1905-1923 by V. V. Lobachevski (translated by George V. Shalimoff)
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Plate flaws in the arms issue of 1909-1922 by Edward Wisewell, Jr.
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Imperial Russian postage stamps of the 1908-1917 issues on ribbed laid paper by O. K. Basov (translated by David Skipton)
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Post St. Olga by Dr. Alfred H. Wortman
        Page 98
    Azerbaijan: Forgeries of phantasies by Gordon Torrey
        Page 99
    Private mail-order forms of the Moscow City Post by S. M. Blekhman (translated by M. Tihomirov)
        Page 100
    A Bessarabian Octagon by David Skipton
        Page 101
    Alaska - Hawaii - Russia: The search begins by Dale P. Cruikshank
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Some examples of censor markings from Austrian POW's interned in Russia during WWI by Henry Hahn
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    An historical review of Wenden and its postal service by Victor Kent
        Page 109
    The ancient rider by William Lesh
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    New listings of 1877-1879 Russian Field Posts in Bulgaria, etc. by R. L. Trbovich
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Counterfeits of Karelia bear stamps by R. Sklarevski
        Page 118
    Russian postal establishments - 1881
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Member-to-member adlets
        Page 121
    Rossica library relocates by David Skipton
        Page 122
        Page 123
    The Rossica bookshelf
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
Full Text

THE JOURNAL ISSN 035-363

of the

ROSSICA SOCIETY

of


RUSSIAN PHILATELY



















AWARDS
"WIPA" 1933 BRONZE MEDAL "PRAGA" 1962 SILVER MEDAL
"PRAGA" 1936 BRONZE MEDAL "MELUSINA" 1963 SILVER MEDAL
"OSTRAPA" 1936 -SILVER MEDAL "PHILATEC" 1964 -SILVER MEDAL
"ZEFIB" 1937 SILVER MEDAL 'WIPA" 1965 SILVER MEDAL
"BEPHILA" 1967 SILVER MEDAL "SIPEX" 1966 SILVER MEDAL
"EFICON" 1968 SILVER MEDAL "PRAGA" 1968 SILVER MEDAL
"TEMEX" 1958 SILVER MEDAL "APS-68" 1968 SILVER MEDAL
"INTERPOSTA" 1959 SILVER MEDAL "EFIMEX" 1968 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"SICILIA" 1959 SILVER MEDAL "SOFIA-69" 1969 SILVER CERTIFICATE
"BARCELONA" 1960 -SILVER MEDAL "BUDAPEST-71" 1971 -SILVER CERTIFICATE
" UNIPEX" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "CHICAGO-APS" 1974 GOLD MEDAL
"POLSKA" 1960 SILVER MEDAL "CAPEX-78" 1978 LARGE SILVER MEDAL
"WIPA" 1981 SILVER MEDAL
No 98/99 1980






ROSS CA SOCIETY
THE JOURNAL OF THE LI 8RARY / 1982
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY ,. ........ ...

VOLUME 98/99 1980
EDITORIAL BOARD: Rimma Sklarevski, Gordon Torrey, Norman Epstein, M. E. Wilson
MANAGING EDITOR AND PUBLISHER: Kennedy L. Wilson

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Life of the Society, Gordon Torrey .........................................3

Obituaries ............................................................ 5

The Earliest Kyakhta and Yakutsk Handstamps?, David Skipton ................. 9

Kitai Overprint Forgeries, George V. Shalimoff ............................14

The Field Post in the Caucasus During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878,
S. M. Blekhman (translated by David Skipton).... 16
Imperial Postage Stamps of Russia Issued 1905-1923, V. V. Lobachevski
(translated by George V. Shalimoff)....21
Plate Flaws in the Arms Issue of 1909-1922, Edward Wisewell, Jr. ..........90

Imperial Russian Postage Stamps of the 1908-1917 Issues on Ribbed Laid Paper,
O. K. Basov (translated by David Skipton) .....96

Post St. Olga, Dr. Alfred H. Wortman ......................................98

Azerbaijan: Forgeries of Phantasies, Gordon Torrey ........................99

Private Mail-Order Forms of the Moscow City Post, S. M. Blekhman
(translated by M. Tihomirov) ....100
A Bessarabian Octagon, David Skipton .................................... 101

Alaska Hawaii Russia: The Search Begins, Dale P. Cruikshank ..........102

Some Examples of Censor Markings from Austrian POW's Interned in Russia
During WW I, Henry Hahn ....104
An Historical Review of Wenden and Its Postal Service, Victor Kent ....... 109

The Ancient Rider, William Lesh ..........................................110

New Listings of 1877-1879 Russian Field Posts in Bulgaria, etc.
R. L. Trbovich....115
Counterfeits of Karelia Bear Stamps, R. Sklarevski ........................ 118

Russian Postal Establishments 1881 .................................... 119

Member-To-Member Adlets ................................................ 121

Rossica Library Relocates, David Skipton ................................ 122

The Rossica Bookshelf ..................................................124








: OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20016

VICE PRESIDENT: Constantine de Stackelberg, 1673 Columbia Road, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009

SECRETARY: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, Virginia 22043

TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11226

LIBRARIAN: David M. Skipton, 6212 Breezewood Court, Apt. 202, Greenbelt,
Maryland 20770
BOARD OF DIRECTORS:
Samuel Robbins, 3565 MNier Street, Los Angeles, California 90066
Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
Lester Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles, California 90035

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G. B. SALISBURY CHAPTER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11226

WASHINGTON-BALTIMORE CHAPTER: Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Road, N.W., D.C
20007

ARTHUR B. SHIELDS CHAPTER: Samuel Robbins, 3563 Meier Street, L. A., CA 90066

SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA CHAPTER: George V. Shalimoff, 20 Westgate Drive
San Francisco, California 94127

GREAT BRITAIN: John Lloyd, "The Retreat," West Bergholdt,
Colchester, Essex 006 3HE


Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However, acknow-
ledgement of the source and a copy of the reprinted matter would be appreciated.

The views in this Journal expressed by the authors are their own and the editors
disclaim all responsibility.

The membership dues are $12.00, due January 1st for all members. Application forms
are available upon request from the secretary or treasurer. Membership lists will
be sent annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Norman Epstein
33 Crooke Avenue
Brooklyn, New York 11226 USA



We have a number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in English and
Russian language editions (some). These may be obtained from Mr. Wilson.
Copyright 1982
The Rossica Society
2








LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

by Gordon Torrey


With this issue we bring you the third installment of Lobachevski's "Imperial
Postage Stamps of Russia." A fourth and concluding part is planned for the
next Rossica Journal.

I am happy to state that the English translation of Prigara's "The Russian Post
in the Empire, Turkey, in China and the Post of the Kingdom of Poland" was
published in March. Rossica members are entitled to a discount of $5.00 off
the published price of $40.00, plus $2.00 postage, making a net of $37.00 to
members. David Skipton, the translator and proof reader, and Norman Epstein,
the photographer and general manager for this first book published by Rossica
are due a great debt of gratitude.

Your President served on the jury of WIPA 81 and found the exhibition fascinating
and Viennese hospitality charming. A number of Rossica members attended the
exhibition but, unfortunately, I was able to meet only a few. Notable among
those present was Michel Liphschutz from Paris, who is to be congratulated
for his recent elevation to the Presidency of the French Academy of Philately.
Other Rossica members I met in Vienna were Melvin Kessler and Roger Koerber.
I am certain there were others present.

I am delighted that the Rossica Journal won a silver medal in the literature
competition. This placed it among some better known journals such as The
Collectors Club Philatelist, The American Philatelist, and The Philatelic
Journal of Great Britain. Our editor, publisher, and contributors are to be
congratulated.

Of special interest at WIPA were the fine exhibits of Russian philatelic
material which I looked at. These exhibits did quite well and gained the
awards listed.

Large Gold Medals: Russia, A Specialized Study of No. 1 exhibited under the
pseudonym of "Terre Neuve"; The Russian Post in the Danubian Principalities
and the Ottoman Empire, with special prize, by Michel Liphschutz (France);
Russia and the Soviet Union, including the City Post of St. Petersburg and
Moscow 1846-65, the issues of 1884-1904 and the Romanov's of 1913 by Zbigniew
Mikulski Switzerland. Gold Medals: Poland 1851-70 by Stanislav Dolinski
(Poland); Imperial Russia by Norman Epstein (USA); Imperial Russia and the
Soviet Union, with special prize, by Samuel Blekhman (USSR); Russia 1822-1922,
with special prize, by Per-Anders Erixon (Sweden); Aus Russland: Mail from
Russia and Poland, with special prize, by James Van der Linden (Belgium).

Not to be overlooked are several other exhibits: Finland 1856-85 by Veijo
Mannelin (Gold with special award), Finland 1856-85 by Christian Sundman (Large
Gold plus special award), and Finland 1856-85 by Arnold Nyman (Gold) all of
Finland. Another Gold Medal was a topical one by Julie Lurie of the Soviet
Union. The subject was 1418 Days and Nights, a history of the USSR in the
War 1941-45.

Vermeille Medals: Russia to 1917 by Boris Stenchinski (USSR); Russian Mute
Cancellations and Field Post Offices 1914-1917 by Rudolph Dedsis (USSR); Soviet


3








Russian Stationery by Juri Brejha (Czechoslovakia); Russian Locals 1920-1922
by Wolfgang Schlunz (West Germany);USSR 1917-1941 by Dimiter Diamandiev (Bulgaria).

There were a number of exhibits with Russian related material which I noticed.
In the Honors Class was Russia Used in the Kingdom of Poland by Miroslav
Bojanowicz of England. In the Competetive Class there were: Estonian Fore-
runners 1636-1914 by Vambola Hunt of Sweden (Vermeille); Lithuanian Fore-
runners by Harry V. Hoffman of West Germany (Gold); Lithuania with Foreunners
by Sven Kraul of West Germany (Vermeille with special award); Postmarks of the
Kingdom of Poland 1815-70 by Andrzej Olecki, Poland (Bronze); Poland 1858-1922
by Zbigniew Mikulski of Switzerland (Gold); Ukraine 1918-20 by Eugen Kobylanski
of Austria (Vermeille). I was pleased to note that a Junior Exhibitor, Paul
N. D. Lewin of England showed Cancellations of St. Petersburg in the age 18-21
class and received a Silver Bronze.

Your President displayed Russian Offices Abroad in the Non-Competitive Class.


NEW MEMBERS

1097 Kenneth James Collins, Coffee Creek, P.O. Box 1, Trinity Center, CA 96091

1098 Francis J, PineIII, P.O. Box 1292, Oak Brook, Illinois 60521

1099 Dr. Soren Knudsen, Frederiksborgvej 88A, DK 4000 Roskilde, Denmark

1100 Carmelo Palumbo, Via Castello 4, 28010 Bogogno (Novara), Italy

1101 David Cornelius, c/o Robson Lowe Ltd., 39 Poole Hill, Bournemouth,
BU2 5PX England

1102 David S. Canter, 4730 South Kimbare Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60615

1103 Francis A. Timoney, RD #2 Box 18, Valatie, New York 12184

1104 William Apsit, 68 Sparkhall Avenue, Toronto, Canada M4K 1G6

1105 Valentin M. Gladstone, 1793 N. Tiffany Court, Camarillo, California 93010

1106 John Scarchuk, 73 Geraldine Drive, Coventry, Connecticut 06238

1107 William R. Nickle, 11201 Montgomery Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705

1108 Alexander Safonoff, 5064 Las Cruces Court, San Jose, California 95118

1109 Thomas P. Harper, 707 Pierino Avenue, Sunnyvale, California 94086

1110 Bohdan 0. Pauk, 644 W. Briar Place, Chicago, Illinois 60657

1111 Neal P. Carey, 38F Squire Village, Sunderland, Massachusetts 01375

1112 Charles J. Chesloe, 8300 So. Wolf Road, Willow Springs, Illinois 60480
1113 Marc Szwajcer, 2 Rue Jean Mace, 78360 Montesson, France
(continued on page 15)

4








OBITUARIES


Rossica has lost several members this year including two of its oldest stalwarts,
S Emile I. Marcovitch and Col. Eugene Prince.


Emile I. Marcovitch

Emile I. Marcovitch's membership number 20 clearly indicates his pioneer role in
the formation and growth of Rossica. He passed away at the home of his son
Jacques at the age of 88 years.

Born in Moscow just before the turn of the century, Mr. Marcovitch lived in Russia
until the mid-1920s, then went to Poland, and thence to France where he became a
leading photographer. He moved on to Venezuela in 1950; there he stayed until
he came to New York in 1960 with his faithful wife and son. It was at this point
that I first met him at a Rossica gathering in New York City.

Mr. Marcovitch stood out in the group. He looked distinguished and dignified, yet
he was most cordial. In the years following we had many interesting discussions
on various aspects of Russian philately and errinophilia (non-postage stamps).
In 1971 he published a catalog of these, "Vignettes of Russia: The Non-postage
Stamps of Imperial Russia Issued Prior to August 1914." The publisher was William
Ittel of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. By any measure he was among the foremost
collectors of zemstvos stamps in the world. Fortunately, this collection is
being continued by his son Jacques. Although ailing in recent years, he continued
his interest in philately and actively kept up his zemstvos collection with the
help of Jacques.

Col. Eugene Prince

Eugene Prince was born in St. Petersburg in 1890 and died in Darien, Connecticut
in early September 1981. He was the grandson of Willian Henry Prince, who had
left Salem, Massachusetts in 1838 for St. Petersburg to assist in building war
ships for the Russian Navy. He then turned to helping to build the first railway
in Russia along with the American Col. Whistler, the father of the famous painter,
and Mr. Winans, the locomotive builder of Baltimore, Maryland. After the govern-
ment took over the management of the railway Col. Prince's grandfather went into
the import-export business, as did the Colonel's father. Eugene prepared to
follow in his father's footsteps; however, the First World War intervened.

He had gone to the German School in St. Petersburg where he learned German and
French, in addition to English and Russian, the latter of which was.spoken at
home since his mother was Russian. When World War I broke out in 1914, he was
taken on at the United States Embassy as vice-consul since he was a U. S. citizen,
and in 1915 he was appointed assistant military attache because of his knowledge
of Russia and the Russian language. After the Revolution he continued in his
attache capacity as captain and maintained unofficial contact with the Communist
Government led by Lenin. In 1918 he was ordered to Arkangel to assist the
American ambassador, Mr. Francis; the embassy had been moved there as the Germans
kept advancing into Russia prior to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. It was during
this period (1918-20) that Allied troops landed in North Russia,and Captain
Prince remained there until U. S. troops were withdrawn in 1920.


I)








Between the wars Eugene Prince was engaged in business in Europe, but he was
recalled to militaryservice in 1940 and continued in military intelligence and
liaison duties until the end of the Korena War. From 1940 on he was stationed
in New York, with some duty in Washington, D.C. Among his many medals, Russian,
American, British, Serbian, and others, was the British Military Cross. Col.
Prince's philatelic interests were widespread, with special emphasis on covers S
and cancellations. With his extensive knowledge of the language and Russian
history and geography he was able to acquire many interesting items.

Gordon Torrey




Alexander V. Von Reimers

Rossica member Alexander V. Von Reimers of San Francisco, California passed away
on January 12, 1981 after nearly a year-long illness. He was 71 years old. Born
in St. Petersburg, Russia he came to the United States in the early 1920s. He
attended the University of California in Berkeley, earning a Master's degree.
He worked until retirement as a Transportation Rate Expert with the California
Public Utilities Commission. Also he was a founder of St. Peter and Paul Russian
Orthodox Church in Santa Rosa, California.

For many years Von Reimers conducted a stamp auction and had bourse tables at
many west coast philatelic shows under the name Avon Stamp Auctions. He was one
of the few stamp dealers on the west coast that stocked Russian material. In
addition, he had an excellent collection of postal history of St. Petersburg,
Petrograd,and Leningrad which he titled "A Tale of Three Cities." This exhibit
was quite successful in competition here. His pride and joy, however, was his
exhibit of Romanov stamps which won a Silver at Interphil '76 as well as numerous
other awards at local exhibitions.
G. Shalimoff



Xenophon G. Christopher

A kindly old gentleman, Mr. Xenophon G. Christopher, passed away at the age of
77 in San Francisco last April 1981. Though only a recent member of Rossica, he
had a lifelong interest in philately, collecting many countries in a general
way. He joined the Rossica Society when he learned of the Northern California
Chapter and enjoyed our Rossica meetings and comraderie of fellow stamp collectors.
He would often share his thoughts and experiences of his youth in his native Russia.
Though a man's passing causes sadness for his family and friends, those who knew
this gentle friendly man even only fleetingly have had their lives enriched.

G. Shalimoff







6





ENGLISH TRANSLATION
of Sergei Vasil'evich Prigara's "The Russian Post in the Empire, Turkey, China
and the Post in the Kingdom of Poland," covering postage stamps, entire, post-
marks and postal history of Imperial Russia, is now available to members of
Rossica for $35 plus $2 postage, or $40 plus postage to non-members. It is the
only work of its kind in Russian philatelic literature which encompasses these
subjects under one cover and is a must for any serious student of the Russian
post. Orders may be placed with the President, Treasurer or Librarian of the
Society.













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7








EXPERTIZATION

One of the privileges of membership in the Rossica Society is one free experti-
zation per membership year. Policy on these free expertizations is as follows:

1. Onlyone free expertization per membership year.
2. The privilege must be used during the membership year--it cannot
be accumulated. The service was begun in the 1978 membership year,
and prior membership in the Society has no bearing.
3. The item must be submitted on the official expertization form
available from Norman Epstein.
4. Return postage must be included.
5. Only one item per expertization form.

Anyone wishing to avail himself of this service merely has to write our Treasurer
and Chairman of the Expertization Committee, Norman Epstein, at 33 Crooke Avenue,
Brooklyn, New York 11226, enclosing a legal size 4 1/4 x 9 1/2" stamped envelope
for an expertization form. When submitting material for free expertization, the
owner must provide return postage for his material. Items submitted will be
expertized by Rossica members specializing in the various aspects of Russian
philately.

NOTICE

For the most recent issues of the Rossica Journal, several members have complained
that they did not receive their Journals. In order to improve this situation, we
ordered new, hardier mailing envelopes and had them printed with a return address
and guarantee of return postage. The U.S. Postal Service will neither forward nor
return undeliverable copies of our Journal unless forwarding or return postage
has been guaranteed.

As it turned out in the case of previous Journal issues, some members who com-
plained of not receiving Journals had new addresses and had not so notified
Rossica. In order to improve this situation as well, if in the future your
Journal is returned to Rossica because you changed address and failed to notify
us, you will have to pay an additional $2.00 for postage and handling to get
your Journal remained. We will continue to make every effort to keep our mailing
list up to date, but it is the member's responsibility to keep Rossica informed
of his correct, current address.

Volume 96/97 of the Rossica Journal for the following members was returned by the
Postal Service as not deliverable with the last address we have. Any members
knowing their whereabouts, please notify the Secretary. If your name is on the
list, please send the Secretary your new address and include $2.00 if you wish a
copy of Volume 96/97 remained to you.

#968 Gene Post, Flushing, New York

#1034 Del P. Newman, Houston, Texas






8







THE EARLIEST KYAKHTA AND YAKUTSK HANDSTAMPS?
by David Skipton

In a recent day-long browsing session in the Library of Congress, I came across
several fascinating letters in the Manuscripts Division where a part of the
Figure 1





ex-Yudin collection is preserved. This part is comprised mostly of correspon-
dence between officials of the Golikov-Shelikhov Company and its successor,
the Russian-American Company, and ship manifests and registers. One of the
three boxes inspected contained a series of 24 letters written by Matvei Lapatin,
an employee of the Golikov-Shelikhov Company, to his superior, Gregorii Ivano-
vich Shelikhov. All of the letters originated either in Kyakhta or Yakutsk,


7i 6/D









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/.,'io ^te-, ,, cffw ,,,, aIs i^^ ..o 2,:c ,cs ^z<,


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Figure

10








and the correspondence spans a period of a little over 3 years, from 1792-1795.
After Shelikhov formed the Golikov-Shelikhov Company in 1781, based in Irkutsk,
the Company traded furs for tea from the Chinese at the border-point of Kyakhta.
This continued until 1785, when the Chinese closed it. Trade was not resumed
until 1792, which explains why the correspondence starts at that time. Shelikhov
died in late summer of 1795, and his son-in-law Nikolai Rezanov, formed the
United American Company with Shelikhov's wife and their business competitors under
Imperial orders in 1797. It didn't take long for this arrangement to develop
problems, and in 1799 Tzar Paul signed the charter for the Russian-American
Company with Rezanov at its head. Figure 1 is a copy of the upper part of the
charter stamped with a revenue marking dated 1802, also from the Yudin collection.

The paper of the folded
letters is of a heavy,
dark blue material, and
all of the letters are
in an excellent state of
preservation. Lapatin's
6th letter in the series
(Figure 2) was written on
November 22, 1792 (all
dates are Old Style),
and was sent from Kyakhta
to Irkutsk. The item
which commanded immediate
';,/0 C ;/dO^ 1( ,,A'v/ I attention is a 2 x 16 mn.
handstamp which reads
"Kyakhta" followed by a
7,y/1 ; / 0i 0 ^/ O manuscript "No. 1". (See
"Figure 3.) The handstamp
C_ has been darkened in the
(/477,-) / / 1 /1/ <1/0 Y ""Op illustration for greater
"' clarity--the original has
/////0,/. il the letters deeply impressed
into the paper, but little
of the ink remains.

"- i t y^ 2 The question that arises
from this letter is: "Did
an Imperial Post Office
operate in Kyakhta approxi-
Smately 60 years before the
time of the heretofore
Earliest known handstamp
From there?" Tchiling-
hirian and Stephen in their
S "Stamps of the Russian
.: Empire Used Abroad,"
S ..- Part 6, p. 567 present an
illustration of a straight-
line handstamp dated 16
November 1854, from the
Snegireff collection (Figure
4). This is cited as the
earliest known handstamp
Figure 3 from Kyakhta.
11








The following points are, in the writer's opinion, strong evidence that the
handstamp in Figure 3 can now he considered the earliest:

1.) It is quite certain that a postal system was in operation in that part of
Siberia well before the end of the 18th century. Even in 1692, the Hollander
Everard Isbrant Ides, in his journey to the Manchu Court encountered a postal
service there. According to Harold Lamb in the "March of Muscovy", p. 278,
"Here also, along the Ob, was some evidence of a post service, because the
villagers were paid to transport government officials by water in summer, by
sled in winter." Better still, a number of handstamps from that area and era
have been recorded. In M. Dobin's article "K Istorii Pochtovogo Shtempelya v
Rossi" (History of the Postmark in Russia) in "Sovetskii Kollektsioner" #18
pp. 18-19, handstamps of Tobol'sk (1783), Simbirsk (1785) and Irkutsk (1785-
1813) are illustrated, among others. Thus, an Imperial Postal Establishment
was operating in Irkutsk 7 years before the date of the Kyakhta letter.

2.) The style of the letters and straight-line format of the Kyakhta marking
corresponds exactly with that of the "Irkutsk" handstamp. (See Figure 5). Notice
especially the similarities in the "t" of "Tabolsk:", "Irkutsk:", and "Kyakhta",
and the same height of the letters.



%PKYmcK:
SXTA. I maoAcK:
16 1ORAB. 1854
CYM6HPCK


Figure 4 Figure 5 0

3.) Also in the Shelikov correspondence were two letters from Lapatin to
Shelikhov mailed in Yakutsk, a town on the route from Irkutsk to Okhotsk. Both
of these have handstamps very much like the Kyakhta item. (See Figure 6.) This
marking too has been darkened for the sake of clarity. The original is faded
on the one letter and blurred on the other. Letter #11 is followed by a manu-
script "No. 4" and is dated 5 March 1794. Letter #20 (The blurred one, not
illustrated) is dated 5 March 1795.

The fly in this ointment is the "relative scarcity" of the 3 postmarks out of
a total of 24 letters. There are letters addressed to Shelikhov from Kyakhta
both before and after the 22 November 1792 marking, but none of them bear this
handstamp. All of the Yakutsk letters but two are also unmarked. Some letters
of the correspondence have apparently been sent inside a package or parcel which
would explain the lack of a marking, but the majority appear to have been sent
by themselves. Did the Kyakhta office close down after only a brief period of
operation, or was it so small or unreliable that in all but one instance Lapatin
chose to use couriers in the Company's employ to convey his letters? Why some
were stamped and others not is a matter of conjecture for the present.

The opening date of the Kyakhta PO, if such it was, should be no earlier than
1781, when the Golikov-Shelikhov Company began trading with the Chinese. It


12





























^0/W^/10 /1"a,/d












Figure 6


could conceivably have opened at any time between then and 1785, and if so,
most probably would have ceased operations until 1792. Until more covers come
to light, or official sources dealing with this matter can be found, the history
of the Kyakhta PO will remain fragmentary.

[My thanks to Dr. Howard Weinert, who supplied the background information on
Gregorii Shelikhov from the book 'Tussian America" by H. Chevigny.]








13








KITAI OVERPRINT FORGERIES

by George V. Shalimoff


Nearly 20 years ago in Rossica No. 62, Dr. A. H. Wortman carefully described
the first issue of the "KITAI" overprints on Russian stamps for use in the
Russian offices in China. At that time he had not seen forgeries of the
overprint on this first issue which used the stamps printed on horizontally
laid paper, though he assumed some might show up. Sure enough, in Rossica
No. 62 0. Farberge reported a forged overprint on the 3 kop. stamp and in
Rossica No. 65 Dr. Wortman wrote that he found another 3 kop. stamp with
forged overprint and forged cancellation as well. In addition, he described
an obvious forged KITAI on the 1 kop. value of the series. To their list we
can add another value.

I report here 3 examples of the forged KITAI overprints on used 10 kop. values
on horizontally laid paper. The quality of the overprints range from poor to
atrocious. In all cases the color is decidedly red instead of the orange-
vermillion shades. The angle of the overprint word is wrong in all cases, the
crispness of the letters is lacking and under close examination the overprints
can be seen to be atop the cancellations.























Figure 1 Figure 2


The overprint in Figure 1 appears typographed with ridges of built-up ink out-
lining the letters. The cancellation is a postal wagon postmark with only the
number "25" visible. The overprint in Figure 2 appears to be made with a rubber
stamp. The letters are smudged and poorly aligned. In Figure 3 the KITAI over-
print is barely visible due to black ink smeared over the word. The letters are
very poorly executed. However, the cancellation appears to be the circle with

14








with box and the numeral 1 of the St.
Petersburg Town Post. (One might call
this a used-abroad in reverse!)

Dr. Wortman pointed out that it was
surprising to find these forgeries
because in all these reported cases,
no great gain in values of the stamps
was achieved. The genuine stamps have
always catalogued quite low. However,
in the case of these 10 kop. overprints,
the forgers may have been practicing to
make fake overprints on the vertically
laid paper in 10 kop. stamps of the
subsequent issue which is a rare and
valuable stamp.



Figure 3


NEW MEMBERS (continued)

1114 David M. Montanye, 83 Linden Street, Schenectady, New York 12304

1115 W. Thomas Waters, Warwick County Park, RD #4, Pottstown, Pennsylvania
19464

1116 F. Ray Miller, P.O. Box 46383, Seattle, Washington 98146

1117 Ronald G. Kunavich, 8234 Flanders Drive, San Diego, California 92126

1118 Richard Nanson, 1806 16th Street, Moline, Illinois 61265

1119 James R. Simon, 2108A Crosby Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19112

1120 George M. Magura, 12515 69th Avenue S., Seattle, Washington 98178

1121 John Barefoot, 5 Bootham, York, Y03 7BN England

1122 Dr. Hans B. Krensler, Guisanstrasse 43, CH 4010 St. Gallen, Switzerland

1123 Derek E. Monk, 1045 Bridgeport Drive, Ellisville, Missouri 63011

1124 David Jay, 3963 1st Avenue N.E., Seattle, Washington 98105

1125 Lisa K. Miller, 1312 7th Street S.E., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414

1126 Bernard W. Kapeller, P.O. Box 10494, Corpus Christi, Texas 78410

1127 Diana W. Johnson, c/o Cheltenham Garage, RD 7, Feilding, New Zealand

(continued on page 97)

15








THE FIELD POST IN THE CAUCASUS DURING THE
RUSSO-TURKISH WAR OF 1877-1878

by S. M. Blekhman

[Translated by David Skipton]


The activities of the Russian Field Post in Bulgaria during the Russo-Turkish
War of 1877-1878 have often been covered in philatelic literature. Postal docu-
ments from this heroic period of Bulgaria's liberation by the Russian army are
very rare although some are known. The opposite is true, however, about another
front in this war--military operations in the Caucasus.

Indeed, postal documents dealing with this fascinating aspect of-the Russian
Field Post cannot be found at international philatelic exhibitions, in philatelic
literature or in private collections and museum holdings. On the one hand, this
testifies to the exceptional rarity of such documentation, and on the other, to
the fact that not all the blank spaces in our postal history have been filled in.

The Caucasus Corps was active in the Caucasus-Asia Minor theater of military
operations beginning from the day hostilities were declared until war's end and
the peace treaty (12 April 1877 19 February 1878).

The major portion of traffic along the corps' lines of communications with Tiflis
moved on the highway through Akstafa and Delizhan to Aleksandropol' (Leninakan)
on one side to Ehrivan (Erevan) on the other.

The author knows of only one cover sent via the field post from the operational
front a registered letter (Figure 1) with a report addressed to the Sukhumi
Chief Court by the translator Grigorii Shervashidze. Thirty-one kopeks worth
of Russian stamps are affixed to the envelope: two 1 kop. and five 3 kop. stamps
of the 1864 issue plus seven 2 kop. stamps of the 1875 issue. The stamps have
been canceled with a black handstamp with the inscription "iOeJTeOE 17.0.
ABHA3CKaR k1PnI." (Field Post Section Caucasus Corps) and a date of 24 February
1878 (Figure 2).










Figure 2

Several curious items on the activities of the post during the period preceding
military operations, and also on the field post serving the needs of the front,
are contained in the first issue of "Collection of Materials on the Russo-Turkish
War of 1877-1878 in the Caucasus-Asia Minor Theater," published by the military
historical commission of the general staff in 1913.


16











U r S^ U
/: *




(, 4 '





f ,/2 y / ,
""-^___ ^








During the time when the field corps' troops were being concentrated in the cities
of Aleksandropol', Akhaltsykh, and Ehrivan, mail of any kind was transported in
the usual way through the existing civilian postal establishments. Then for
military correspondence and sending private, ordinary letters between detachments
and the various headquarters of the Russian Army Corps, a "Flying Post" (JyETYA94
DJOTA" was organized in November. It ran from all the military units along
the following three routes (Figure 3):

1) Through the villages of Illi, Kizyl-Koch, Gorelovka, and Dzhigrashen to
Akhalkalaki;
2) Through the villages of Amamly and Karaklis to Ehrivan;
3) Through Karaklis to Khorum.

Only ordinary official packets and private letters were sent with the "Flying
Post." There was also express mail, which was delivered by special messengers
sent insurgent situations. In accordance with special regulations then in effect,
envelopes sentwith such a messenger bore one of the following inscriptions:
"i IPnP10 4AAHw IOMAqHi4YKWAE O DPOM' (by order of the corps commander),
"n7 I0 PM43AHO HA4bHA E4 OTPW4" (by order of the detachment commander) or
"0 F1OMHCICTBMLX!" (incidents report).

At the end of 1876 there were civilian postal establishments in the following
towns in the Caucasus: Tiflis Postal Administration, Alexsandropol'- 4th-
Class District Post Office, Ehrivan'- 2nd-Class District Post Office, Akhaltsykh -
4th-Class District Post Office. Postmasters accepted and handed out correspon-
dence at the Novo-Akstafinskaya, Delizhanskaya, Karaklisskaya, Akhalkalakskaya,
Borzhomskaya and Vagarshapatskaya stations.

The following times were establishedfor mail transportation: for all days of
the week except Sunday, mail was carried from Tiflis through Delizhan to Alek-
sandropol and back, from Delizhan to Ehrivan'and back, from Mikhailovo Station
to Akhaltsykh and back. It went twice weekly from Ehrivan'to Vagarshapat and
back, from Aleksnadropol'through Akhalkalaki to Akhaltsykh and back.

On 10 January 1877, field post administrations were opened at the main concen-
trations of the corps, in the Ehrivan' and Akhaltsykh detachments.

Postal Section #1 (FDY7oBOE 07TEZEHzE)began operations on 14 April 1877. The
rules for receiving and sending mail remained the same as those for Russia in
general, with the exceptions that ordinary letters weighing up to 2 lots were
accepted free of charge, and on the back of each it was necessary to put down
the inscription "H3 EERCTBi fnTO I-OPyCA A 4 BA4H3CHD-TYPE- WTAHfMiV' (from
the field corps on the Caucasian-Turkish border). Letters of the same weight
addressed to the field corps from any place in Russia also didn't need any
postage stamps.

On 23 June 1877, postal section #1 followed behind the corps, re-locating in
Matsra, and on 31 July the acceptance of ordinary and registered letters was
established in the Bash-Kadyklyarskii advance camp. The field post section
remained in Matsra until 14 October, when it moved to Veran-Kale. Mail was
sent to Kars in pack-loads, while packages were conveyed in vans of the Corps
headquarters.With the fall of Kars to Russian troops, the postal section set
up in that city.




18








BAAAAMKABKA3-b



Figure 3 y



IyaU ra



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0 Jom0 7n,16 41 tauemw"
""4e"dayp Uc 0 -it,
F~dern'",oo

d \m p o u s e d ./- -cU'^ Kt & o

ATYMb py a 14 t0 M




ff ^od .? ^v^ ^^ ^ \ k ^ \.r^


/ c n a 3 eu







cac ccM cck TS 3
C^i ~ ~ Uuu7Lcrr Hcap 7


















,aP3EPYMb '
o> kyi / "s -^^- \

J \ -J\c C ^i1


r e.e) -Jerzacer a ocB- eC/LB

r \ v- /c/r { .hr- v
3 3E PY M oJ> o^\^u ^epne V^












em em-


19







Postal Section #2 began operations on 20 April in Igdyr'and participated in all
movements of the Ehrivan detachment, together with its headquarters, through
Chingil'to Bayazit. Beginning June 6th, during the siege of Bayazit, the
Ehrivan'detachment's contact with the rear was cut, and communications were
thereafter maintained by occasional dispatches carried by special messengers.
With the advance of the Ehrivan" detachment in October 1877, postal section #2
began working in Hasan-Kale to support the troops of the combined Soganlug and
Enrivan'detachments. When the units departed on November 1st for winter quar-
ters in the Alashkertskaya and Bayazitskaya valleys, Postal Section #2 went
first to Batazit and then to Igdyr, where it remained until the end of the
campaign.

Postal Section #3 was opened for the Akhaltsykh detachment in Akhaltsykh, where
there were always military operations. Later this section also received mail
from the Ardagan detachment.

The local postal branch office in Ozurgety was reorganized to form Postal Section
#4. Postal links with the Rion area were maintained along the railroad to
Orpiri. From Orpiri the mail went to Ozurgety and Zugdidy via the post roads.
From Zugdidy it was sent by pack-loads for the the Sukhumi detachment, and then
on to the Ingur detachment. When Batum was occupied by Russian forces, the 4th
postal section was moved there.

At the start of October 1878, in view of the cessation of hostilities, the field
post sections received instructions to "cease their operations and close down."
However, field post sections #s 1 and 4 continued working until November 16,
when Ist-class district post offices in Batum, Kars and Ardygan and postal branch
offices in Artvin and Sarykamysh were formed to replace them. The Kars postal
administration was disbanded by order #685 of the Caucasus Military District
on 27 November 1878.

On the Caucasus corps field post cancel described above, a "5" is situated on
both sides between the words "T'JEBOE 17.0." and "KHAB4A3C4- IPIDP." ascertaining
which field post section used this cancel and what the number signifies is at
present, however, impossible.

On 1 November 1877, the Kars territory oblastt') was formed on Turkish territory
in accordance with order #409 for the Caucasian Army and Military District.
With the advance of Russian troops in October 1877 to Soganlug and the occupation
of a significant portion of the Bayazit and Erzerum "Sanjaks" (a Turkish admin-
istartive unit), the Erzerum Territory was formed. It was in existence for only
eight months. On 8 September, Russian troops pulled out of Erzerum. When
Russian forces withdrew from Turkish territory after the Berlin peace treaty
with the Ottoman Porte, all Russian establishments of the Erzerum Territory,
with the exception of the Kherosan and Ol'shinsk Districts, were abolished on
1 November 1878. The two districts were absorbed into the Russiam Empire. In
November 1878, the Batum and Kars Territories were formed from those areas of
Asiatic Turkey annexed to Russia by the treaty mentioned above.

The Soviet-Turkish treaty of 16 March 1921 established new borders, by which
the Kars Territory reverted to Turkey and the Batum Territory remained Russia's.






20








IMPERIAL POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA ISSUED 1905-1923

V. V. Lobachevski

SPublished in Soviet Collector No. 16 1978 & No. 17 1979

Translated by George V. Shalimoff 1979


This article is a continuation of a revised and condensed catalog of the postage
stamps of Imperial Russia. It covers the period of the classical stamps of the
imperial post (but not including the local posts and telegraph). In order to
limit the volume of this article, the list of the Russian numeral dot cancella-
tions and the Polish circled number cancellations are not included.

In assembling the catalog, the author used a large number of Russian and foreign
literature sources, archive materials (TsGIA USSR and the archives of the A. S.
Popov Central Museum of Communication in Leningrad), data obtained by the study
of Soviet collections, from the descriptions of foreign collections of Russian
stamps (according to foreign auction catalogs), as well as from the study of
some actual stamps by the author.

Information about the special catalog and the designations used in it are given
below.

The material is presented according to the issuance of the stamps, following in
chronological order. The characteristics of each issue are given at the
beginning.

Varieties are divided into 5 groups. They are designated with capital letters:

SA color varieties
B cliche or design varieties
C paper varieties
D perforation
E -typographic errors

This type of division for the varieties, in the author's view, makes the recog-
nition of the differences and the systematic collection of the stamps much more
easy. It also allows selection for specialization of not all but at least the
different groups of the varieties. Thus for the first stage of completion of
a specialized collection, one can restrict oneself to varieties of one group,
for example, color the A varieties.

All the different stamps are numbered in order. The numbers of the stamps are
given first. After the number of the different stamp, the number of its design
is given.

For the designation of varieties, a code is used consisting of the number of
the basic stamp with letters added to it, designating the variety group. Then
there follows in order a small alphabet letter designating the specific stamp
in the given variety group.




21








Examples: IBa stamp No. 1, cliche variety a
1Bb stamp No. 1, cliche variety b
ICa stamp No. 1, paper variety a
1Cb stamp No. 1, paper variety b

In this catalog only several stamp cliche varieties are included. For a more
complete classification of the many various cliche varieties a greater inves-
tigational effort would be required which could result in the publication of
a specialized monograph.

We can also say the same about the stamped cancellations. The author attempted
to classify the stamped cancellations only according to their different types.
The numerous types of cancellations used by the postal authorities are still
not completely investigated. The author admits that several types of cancel-
lations have been omitted. The figures of the stamped cancellation types have
their own numeration, using the letters SC before a number.

The collection value of a stamp is expressed in a fixed number of points. A
point refers to the value of a canceled example of the most common stamp of
pre-revolutionary Russia, the 7 kopek value of the 1908 issue with the vertical
varnish line network (released after 1910).

For separate varieties, in place of points to designate their rarity, a five
level rating using the letter R (from 1-4) is used. But in the cases where
only one example of a catalogued item is known, the word "unique" (the 5th level)
is used. Values are given at the right in two columns, the first for unused,
the second for stamps with stamped cancels.

In a few cases there are given premiums to the stamp values. In these cases
where in front of the premium there is a plus (+) mark, the full value is
determined by the addition of the premium to the value of the stamp. The
premiums for certain cancellations found in combinations of several stamps
apply to each cancellation which is found on these stamps.

All values are for stamps in good condition, unused stamps with original gum.
Hinges or hinge marks are tolerated. For other means of cancellation, comments
are made in the text of the catalog.

The following abbreviations are used in this catalog:

Wm or wtmk watermark TC test cancel
perf perforation SC stamped cancel
imperf imperforate EZGB Printing Office for
L perf line perforations Government Obligations
C perf comb perforations CM control marks in the margins
of sheets

All the dates are given in the old style (corresponding to the Julian calendar
in use in Russia at that time) and apply to the dates on the cancellations as
well. To convert the dates to the Gregorian calendar, in use in western
countries at that time, add 12 days to the date of the XIX century and 13 days
for the XX century (beginning in 1900).





22








EIGHTEENTH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 73-87)


0 1908-1923. Typographed printing. New designs for the 1-10 kopek values
printed in single colors. The format is 15.3 x 21 mm. The artist was R.
Zarrinsh. The remaining values had designs of previous issues. The 14, 15,
25, 35 and 70 kopek stamps are two-colored, the 20, 50 kopek and 1 ruble are
two-colored but with separate printing in two shades of the background and
frame with the center in another color. All the two-colored stamps have a
white embossed emblem of the post-telegraph administration in the center of
the stamp. The cliches were prepared by EZGB. The stamps were printed by
EZGB and other printers. A transparent control chalk network (varnish lines)
in the form of criss-crossing lines appearing as vertical diamond patterns
was applied to the surface. The paper is white, unwatermarked. Kopek values
are frame perforated 14 1/4 x 14 3/4, the 1 ruble is line perforated 13 1/4.

Note: There are two values for used stamps. The second value is for a legible
date cancellation of the first year of use.












----------------------

2 kopek 3 kopek

1 kopek 4 kopek












5 kopek 14 kopek


7 kopek 10 kopek

23



















25 kopek 35 kopek
15 kopek 70 kopek












20 kopek .. 50 kopek

1 ruble


76 45 1 kop. pale light yellow-orange 25 3/10
(1909)

77 46 2 kop. bright yellow green (1909) 100 5/20

78 47 3 kop. rose (bright) (1909) 50 3/20

79 48 4 kop. pale rose-carmine 50 5/15
(starting in 1909)

80 40 5 kop. lilac with violet shade (1912) 5 3/30

81 50 7 kop. sky blue (December 1908) 25 1/1000

82 51 10 kop. light blue (December 1908) 500 100/2000

83 32 14 kop. light pale blue and pale 50 5/15
rose (1909)

84 37 15 kop. light pale lilac and pale 50 5/15
blue (1909)

85 24 20 kop. pale sky blue and pale rose 60 5/100
(1911)
24








86 38 25 kop. pale light green (bluish shade) 50 5/20
and pale violet (1909)

87 33 35 kop. pale lilac-violet and green 50 5/20
(1909)

88 25 50 kop. pale violet-lilac and green 80 10/30
(1909)

89 36 70 kop. light lilac-brown and orange 50 8/30
(1909)

90 26 1 rub. lilac-brown (chocolate) and 150 10/30
light orange (1910)


VARIETIES

76Aa 1 kop. yellow-orange (starting in 2 2/10
1909)

76Ab 1 kop. dark yellow orange (shades) 2 2/15
(starting in 1909)

76Ac 1 kop. pale orange (starting in 1909) 2 3/25

76Ad 1 kop. light yellow orange on very 5 3
white paper (1911)

76Ae 1 kop. orange (shades) (starting in 1 1
1915)

76Ea 1 kop. double impression R

76Eb 1 kop. without chalk lines (varnish 30
lines)


77Aa 2 kop. pale bluish light green (1909) 50 5/20

77Ab 2 kop. deep green (shades) (starting 2 1/20
in 1909)

77Ac 2 kop. light green on very white 3 3
white paper (1911)

77Ad 2 kop. dark green (bright) (1912) 3 2

77Ae 2 kop. gray green (shades) (starting 1 1
in 1917)

77Ea 2 kop. double impression 750

77Eb 2 kop. without chalk lines (varnish 30
lines)


25








78Aa 3 kop. dark rose red (starting in 1909) 2 1/20

78Ab 3 kop. red (starting in 1909) 1 1/20

78Ac 3 kop. bright rose red on very white 3 2
white paper (1911)

78Ad 3 kop. carmine (starting in 1915) 2 2

78Ae 3 kop. bright red (shades) (starting 1 1
in 1917)

78Af 3 kop. brick red (starting in 1917) 1 1

78Ag 3 kop. pale rose (starting in 1917) 1 1

78Ba 3 kop. a "C" in place of an "O" in the 75 25
word "KOP" (48th stamp on the
sheet) (1909)

78Ca 3 kop. with yellowish chalk (varnish R
lines) network

78Ea 3 kop. without the chalk lines (varnish 30
lines)


79Aa 4 kop. rose-carmine (starting in 1909) 5 2/15

79Ab 4 kop. dark rose carmine (1910) 2 2

79Ac 4 kop. red (shades) (starting in 1917) 1 1

79Ad 4 kop. brick red (starting in 1918) 1 1

79Ae 4 kop. raspberry red (1922-1923) 1 1

79Ea 4 kop. without chalk lines (varnish lines) 30


80Aa 5 kop. lilac (shades) (starting in 1912) 3 1/30

80Ab 5 kop. brown-lilac (shades) (starting in 2 1
1917)

80Ac 5 kop. reddish-lilac (1922-1923) 2 1

80Ea 5 kop. double impression 500 -

80Eb 5 kop. without chalk lines (varnish lines) 30


81Aa 7 kop. sky blue (1909) 25 1/5

81Ab 7 kop. dark sky blue (after 1910) 25 1


26
26








81Ac 7 kop. bright sky blue (bright ultra- 25 5/10
marine under a quartz lamp
(starting in 1909)

81Ba 7 kop. "three round pearls instead of 20000
four" (a pair with a normal
stamp)

81Ca 7 kop. with yellowish chalk (varnish R
lines) network

81Ea 7 kop. imperforate with the chalk line 7000 8000
(varnish lines) network









0 0


t ON 4





81Ea



81Ba

81Eaa 7 kop. imperforate, dark blue with 7000
chalk (varnish line) network
(1911)

[0. A. Farberge reports a block of 10 of this
variety 81Eaa]

81Eb 7 kop. without the chalk lines 50
(varnish lines)


82Aa 10 kop. blue (with bluish cast) 5 3/15
(starting in 1909)

82Ab 10 kop. blue (with violet cast) 5 2
(starting in 1910)


27








82Ac 10 kop. dark blue (with blue cast) 3 2
(starting in 1915)

82Ad 10 kop. dark blue (with a violet cast) 2 2
(starting in 1915)

82Ae 10 kop. black-blue (starting in 1918) 1 1

82Af 10 kop. gray-blue (starting in 1919) 5 2

82Ea 10 kop. double impression 1000

82Eb 10 kop. without chalk lines 30
(varnish lines)

82Ec 10 kop. with bluish chalk lines 500
(varnish lines)

83Aa 14 kop. blue and rose (starting in 1909) 5 2/15

83Ab 14 kop. dark blue and rose (starting 3 2
in 1911)

83Ac 14 kop. blue and carmine (starting 3 2
in 1912)

83Ad 14 kop. dark blue and carmine 2 1
(starting in 1915)

83Ea 14 kop. without chalk line (varnish 30 -
line) network


84Aa 15 kop. light reddish violet and sky blue 3 2
(starting in 1911)

84Ab 15 kop. lilac and light blue (starting 3 2
in 1912)

84Ad 15 kop. dark lilac and blue (starting 3 1
in 1915)

84Ae 15 kop. lilac-red and blue (shades) 2 1
(starting in 1919)

84Af 15 kop. pale rose and blue (starting 5 2
in 1919)

84M 15 kop. modified design, format enlarged 125 125
16.75 x 22.75 mm instead of
16.3 x 22.4 mm (1919)

84Ea 15 kop. missing center 2000


28








84Eaa 15 kop. center missing, later issue 1000
(starting in 1917)

84Eb 15 kop. double center 700

84Ec 15 kop. center shifted 300

84Ed 15 kop. double frame 1000

84Ee 15 kop. without chalk lines 30
(varnish lines)


85Aa 20 kop. light blue and rose-carmine 3 2/20
(starting in 1912)

85Ab 20 kop. blue and rose-carmine 3 2/20
(starting in 1912)

85Ac 20 kop. dark blue and rose-carmine 3 2
(starting in 1914)

85Ad 20 kop. blue and red (starting in 1912) 3 2

85Ae 20 kop. dark blue and red (starting 3 2
in 1914)

85Af 20 kop. blue and bright red 2 1
(starting in 1917)

85Ea 20 kop. missing center 1500













85Eb 85Ed 85Ee


85Eb 20 kop. double center 400

85Ec 20 kop. shifted center 200

85Ed 20 kop. missing background 150

85Ee 20 kop. shifted background 75

29








85Ef 20 kop. missing background and 250
shifted center

85Eg 20 kop. without chalk lines 40
(varnish lines)


86Aa 25 kop. light green and pale violet 40 2/20
(1909)

86Ab 25 kop. light green and violet 3 2
(starting in 1911)

86Ac 25 kop. green and violet 2 1
(starting in 1912)

86Ad 25 kop. dark green and violet 2 1
(starting in 1912)

86Ae 25 kop. bright green and violet 2 1
(starting in 1912)
86Af 25 kop. green(shades) and brownish- 2 1
violet (starting in 1917)

86Ea 25 kop. missing center 1500

86Eb 25 kop. double center 450

86Ec 25 kop. double frame 1000

86Ed 25 kop. shifted center 250

86Ee 25 kop. without chalk line(varnish 40
line) network



86Ed 87Eb






86Ee 25 kop. without chalk line (varnish 40
line) network

87Aa 35 kop. lilac and green 5 3
(starting in 1910)

87Ab 35 kop. purple and green (1911) 5 4

87Ac 35 kop. pale lilac and bright green 5 3
(starting in 1912)

30







87Ad 35 kop. dark lilac and green (1912) 5 3

87Ae 35 kop. reddish lilac and green 2 1
(starting in 1913)

87Af 35 kop. brownish-red (shades) and green 2 1
(starting in 1918)

87Ag 35 kop. brownish red (shades) and 3 2
dark green (starting in 1918)

87Ah 35 kop. chestnut and green 3 3
(starting in 1918)

87Ea 35 kop. double center 500

87Eb 35 kop. shifted center 250

87Ec 35 kop. without chalk lines 40
(varnish lines)


88Aa 50 kop. violet-lilac and dark green 5 3/30
(starting in 1909)
88Ab 50 kop. violet-lilac and light green 3 2
(starting in 1912)

88Ac 50 kop. lilac and green 3 2
(starting in 1913)

88Ad 50 kop. pale lilac and green 3 2
(starting in 1916)

88Ae 50 kop. brownish lilac and green (shades) 2 1
(starting in 1917)

88Af 50 kop. brownish red and green (shades) 7 3
(1919)

88Ag 50 kop. chestnut brown and green (1917) 10 10

88Ea 50 kop. missing center 1200

88Eb 50 kop. double center 500

88Ec 50 kop. shifted center 250

88Ed 50 kop. missing background 1500

88Ee 50 kop. double background 250

88Ef 50 kop. shifted background 150

88Eg 50 kop. without chalk lines 40
(varnish lines)
31


















88Eb 88Ed 89Eb


89Aa 70 kop. light lilac-brown and yellow 500
(starting in 1909)

89Ab 70 kop. lilac brown and orange 5 3
(starting in 1911)

89Ac 70 kop. dark lilac brown and reddish orange 2 1
(starting in 1912)

89Ad 70 kop. light brown and orange 2 1
(starting in 1913)

89Ae 70 kop. brown and reddish orange 5 3
(starting in 1912)

89Af 70 kop. reddish brown and dark reddish 5 3
orange (starting in 1918)

89Ag 70 kop. gray-brown (shades) and reddish 2 1
orange (starting in 1917)

89Ah 70 kop. brown and red 15 15
(starting in 1917)

89Ai 70 kop. brown and dark brownish orange 1000
(starting in 1917)

89Ea 70 kop. missing center 1500

89Eb 70 kop. double center 500

89Ec 70 kop. shifted center 250

89Ed 70 kop. without chalk lines 40
(varnish lines)

90Aa 1 rub. brown and light orange (1910) 150 10/30

90Ab 1 rub. brown and reddish orange 3 3
(starting in 1911)

32








90Ac 1 rub. dark brown and reddish orange 2 2
(starting in 1912)

90Ad 1 rub. dark brown and orange red 2 2
(starting in 1917)

90Ae 1 rub. dark brown and dark red 2 2
(starting in 1919)

90Af 1 rub. brown (shades) and ochre (1919) 3 3

90Ag 1 rub. brown and orange red 50 50
(background reddish brown)
90Ba 1 rub. worn center (without embossing, 2 2
emblem is not sharp)
(starting in 1919)
90Ca 1 rub. yellowish chalk line R
(varnish line) network
90Da 1 rub. perforations completely dull 2 2
(ragged perfs) (starting in 1918)
90Db 1 rub. perfed 12 1/2 (1918) 225 300

90Ea 1 rub. missing center 500 500

90Eb 1 rub. double center 300 300














90Eb
90Ec 1 rub. inverted center 400 400

90Ed 1 rub. shifted center 100 100

90Ee 1 rub. double frame 300 300

90Ef 1 rub. missing background 500 500



33








90Eg 1 rub. double background 200

90Eh 1 rub. inverted background 300 300

90Ei 1 rub. shifted background 50 50

90Ej 1 rub. without chalk lines 40
(varnish lines)

90Ek 1 rub. horizontal pair imperforate 250
in between

90E1 1 rub. vertical pair imperforate 250
in between

90Em 1 rub. horizontal pair imperforate 250
in between and at right between
the margin of the sheet

90En 1 rub. horizontal pair imperforate in 250
between and at left between the
margin of the sheet

90Eo 1 rub. missing perfs at top row of sheet 50 50
(with the sheet margin)

90Ep 1 rub. missing perfs at bottom row of 50 50
sheet (with the sheet margin)

90Eq 1 rub. horizontal pair with double 300
perforation in between


Notes:

1. The values for the basic unused stamps were set for the stamps of the first
year of issue. The 5 and 7 kop. stamps are excluded because it is not possible
to designate the issue date for those stamps torn from the sheet.

2. Two values are found for some of the canceled stamps. The second values
are for stamps clearly postmarked with a date of the first year of issue.
The first values are indistinct postmarks and postmarks of later periods.

3. The 7 kop. stamp No 81a "three pearls" 27 occurred when three cliches of
these proof stamps accidentally were included in the printing plate. Several
sheets of the EZGB printer's waste were placed into circulation at post offices
with these stamps, printed with the proof cliches. At the present time, these
are only known unused. A small number of proofs were printed from these cliches
in sheets of twenty. They differ from those that go into circulation in the
following manner:

a. though printed in the sky blue color (the color of the issued usual stamp,

27Berngard, K. "Three Pearls," Philately of the USSR, No. 6, 1972, p. 38.

34








they lack the control chalk line (varnish line) network;

b. on those printed with the control chalk line (varnish lines) network, the
color is light blue instead of sky blue;

c. proofs of this type are known on very thick paper.

4. The additional following stamps are known:

a. mirror impressions: designs on the gum side all values 1-10 kop., frames
of the stamps 15 kop. to 1 rub., the 14 kop. stamp is omitted;

b. mirror impression of the center on the gum side 15 kop. to 1 rub., the
14 kop. stamp is omitted.

c. with the chalk line (varnish lines) network on the gum side all values.

5. Significant shifts in perforations are known. Most frequently found are
shifted perfs on the 7, 10, 15 kop. and 1 rub. values. For canceled copies, the
premium is +15.

6. The values given in the list for examples without the chalk lines (varnish
lines) should be increased 5 times for issues up to 1914 and 2.5 times for the
1915-1916 issues.

7. Stamps are known with double chalk line (varnish lines) network. They are
valued the same as stamps without the network.

8. S.V. Prigara in his reference "The Russian Post in the Empire, in Turkey
and China and the Post of Czarist Poland (New York, 1941, page 42) states the
existence of all the stamps of these issues with a yellow chalk line (varnish
lines) network R.


Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps

Control Mark Control Mark Description Valuation
Designation
Stamps with sheet margin containing
the control mark:

CMN Number of the cliche setup
A. Issues up to 1915 +50 RR
B. Issues from 1915 +25 R

CM3a Denoting the printer and year
Kopek values:
A. Issues of KREDIT printer +200
B. Issues of private printers +300
1 Ruble "KRED. TIP. 1919" in
orange ink +2000

CM6 Colored lines along the length of
the sheet (values are for stamps
with the sheet margin)
Kopek values:
A. Values up to 7 kop. +15
B. Value 10 kop. anup +50
35

















lKpe,. Tun. 1910. a


CM3a

CM6 1 rub. with one vertical orange +1000
line in margin

CM6 1 rub. with one vertical brown +150
line in margin

CM6a 1 rub. with three vertical brown +25
lines in margin

CM7 1 rub. in combination with the +10 +100
mark "double V's", the overlapping
roman numerals V.

WM6 Stamp with sheet edge margin
containing the watermark
"interwoven lines":
A. Issues to 1915 +30 -
B. Issues 1915 and on +5 +100










CM7 WM6
Notes:

1. Stamps in combination with control marks in the margins of the sheets are rare
on cover and are indicated with a dash in the above table.

2. Canceled pairs with margins in between from the panes of issues up to 1915
are valued +150.

3. The premium for stamps on cover is +200% to the value of the most valuable
stamp of those used to frank the letter.


36








BOOKLETS

(See the article on Russian postage stamp booklets by K. A. Berngard in Soviet
Collector, 1977, No. 15 titled "Booklets".)

The St. Petersburg and Moscow Post Offices prepared postage stamp booklets from
blocks of stamps of various denominations. They were composed with covers with
printed text made from thin cardboard 87 x 40 mm.

The following booklets are known:

a. the St. Petersburg Post Office prepared the following in 1919:
1. a small booklet containing 5 blocks of 6 stamps in each. (three blocks
of the 1 kop., one block each of the 3 and 7 kop.); the covers were
green. The face value was 78 kopeks, price of the booklet was 80 kopeks
R.

2. a large booklet (Booklet A) containing 9 blocks of 6 stamps, (three blocks
each of the 1, 3 and 7 kop. stamps); the covers were yellow. Face value
was 1 ruble 98 kopeks, the sale price of the booklet was 2 rubles R.





C.-IIETEPBYPrCeAFO IIOTTA TA MOCOOBCKAIro IIO'TAMTA
0 e9onu mr pa 1 96 U I1 P, 9C amoaD pon wp U8 KS E
sa 2 pyGML 0M o80 I





Booklet A Booklet B


b. the Moscow Post Office in 1911 prepared two types of booklets identical to the
booklets of the St. Petersburg Post Office. The covers of the small booklet
(Booklet B) were olive, the covers of the large booklet were colored ultra-
marine. Only one booklet of each type is known unique.




01TANTA
cepw y'S Unm xapon BI 78 x





Booklet C

37








c. The Petrograd Post Office in 1915 prepared small booklets as indicated in "a"
above with a rubber handstamp overprint of the word "PETROGRADSKOGO" and lines
which ruled out the old printed letters of the old name of the post office.
See Booklet C Illustration. Only one example is known unique. It is
possible that in 1915 the Petrograd Post Office had a reserve of other booklets
which were similarly overprinted on the covers.


HISTORICAL REFERENCE

In order to make it difficult to fake stamps and to prevent the possible second use
of a stamp with a washed-off cancellation the Main Administration of the Post and
Telegraph decided to change the designs of the current 1-10 kop. stamps and to
replace the paper used for all postage stamps. A special chalk line (varnish lines)
network was applied to the stamps on the side with the design. A watermark was
kept only along the margin of the stamp sheet.

Specimens prepared by the printing office were approved by the Main Administration
of the Post and Telegraph and confirmed by the Minister of Internal Affairs as
follows:
October 25, 1907 the 7 and 10 kop.;
August 13, 1908 the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 14, 15, 20, 25, 35, 50 and
70 kop. as well as the 3.50, 5, 7, and 10 ruble
values.

The following changes in the colors of the designs were approved for the following
stamps:
3.50 ruble brown and yellow green;
7 ruble green and rose.

The colors of the remaining stamps were kept the same as previous issues.

The introduction of the new stamps into circulation and the removal from circulation
of the earlier issues was carried out over a period of several years as shown below.

1. the 7 and 10 kop. the date of the order for introduction into circulation,
etc. was December 1908 ("carry out at the end of the
current year")
the date of removal of previous issues was January 1, 1910
as given in the "Postal-Telegraph Journal" official section,
December 1908, No. 50.

2. the 35 kop. and 1 rub.
the date of the order for introduction into circulation, etc.
was April 13, 1910.
the date of removal of previous issues was January 1, 1911,
as given in the newspaper "Pravetelstvennii Vestnik",
dated April 13, 1910, No. 82.

3. the 1, 2, 4, 7, the date of the order for introduction into circulation, etc.
10, 14, 15, 25, was December 12, 1909, in the order for the removal of the
50, and 70 kop. old issues from circulation.

4. the 20 kop. the date of the order for introduction into circulation, etc.
was December 1911.
the date for removal of earlier issues was March 1, 1912,
as given in the Post-Telegraph Journal", official section,
December 1911, No. 51.
38








5. the 5 kop. the date for introduction into circulation, etc.
was April 1912 (concerning the simultaneous
circulation of the new stamps and the old issues
"in the course of 1912").
date of removal of the earlier issues was not
given. Reference is "Postal-Telegraph Journal"
official section, dated April 1912, No. 14.

The order announced that previously purchased stamps of the earlier issues would
not be exchanged for cash or for the new stamps. In spite of the order for the
introduction of the 35 kop. in 1910, the stamp appeared in circulation at the end
of 1909. As shown above under no. 3, those values were released in 1909. Nothing
was stated at that time of the issuance of the 3.50, 5, and 7 amd 10 ruble stamps.
The 5 and 10 ruble stamps were released much later and the 3.50 and 7 ruble after
the revolution.
RATES FROM MARCH 15, 1909

Starting March 15, 1909 the current rate of 5 kop. for local (city) mail in St.
Petersburg and Moscow (the current rate in other cities was 3 kop.) was changed
and a new uniform rate for all cities was established for local sealed mail.
For letters up to 4 lots in weight, the rate was 3 kop., for 4 to 8 lots the
rate was 4 kop. Above 8 lots in weight it was an additional 2 kop. for each
additional 4 lots or fraction thereof. This was given in the "Pravitelstvennii
Vestnik", dated February 24, 1909 as a decree of the Minister of Internal Affairs
on February 21, 1909. Similar rates of weight charges were established for local
valuable packets.

Stamps of the Eighteenth Issue were used for a long period of time, including the
post revolutionary years. A number of the values were released in large numbers
of issues up to 1923.
SPECIAL INFORMATION

Paper: The Printing Office for Government Obligations prepared new paper for the
stamps with a watermark "Interwoven Lines" (WM6). This watermark was located in
one of the white margins of the stamp sheet. The stamps were printed on the
remaining parts of the sheet and do not have the watermark. On the sheets of the
stamps issued in 1908-1911, the watermarked appeared at the top or bottom margins
of the sheet. On sheets of later issues, the watermark was on one of the sides.

In tracing the issues, the paper can be divided into three types. In the first
period the paper is plain with visible spots, thin and numerous, on the surface
of the stamps. The second period (approximately 1911-1916) paper is more smooth
with visible spots, thin and numerous with transmitted light. In the third
period (part of 1916 and the post revolutionary years) the paper is yellowish,
significantly poorer quality with visible spots in transmitted light. However,
one must keep in mind that the stamps were printed as well on paper of earlier
types from stocks on hand.

Chalk network: The face side of the stamp sheets had a
chalk line (varnish line) network as a control. The
network (fig. 10) consisted of intersecting diagonal
lines appearing as a pattern of rhombs (diamonds) on
the stamp designs. The width of chalk (varnish) lines
on various issues of the stamps ranged from 0.75 to 1.5 mm.
Fig. 10



39








in the later years. The chalk (varnish) lines are visible in glancing light,
if one looks at an angle of 45-60 degrees. Stamps are found with a weak appearance
of the chalk (varnish) network. The absence of the network can be determined for
certain only on unused examples.

Stamp sheets: The kopek value sheets had 100 stamps in 4 panes of 25 stamps
(5 x 5). The sheet size was approximately 245 x 305 mm. The 1 ruble stamp up
to 1917 had 40 (5 x 8) stamps per sheet. Control marks in the color of the
stamps were printed in the margins of the sheets. The control marks on the stamp
sheets for the kopek values were as follows:

1. The text was of the type CM3a, consisting of the name of the printer and the
year of preparation of the stamps.

F. Julius Fohs (Houston, Texas, USA) in his study "The Printing and Place Charac-
teristics of the Russian Stamp Issues With Emblem 1908-1923)" gives the following
forms of the control mark CM3a:
a. "KREDIT. TIP. 1908"
b. "KRED. TIP. 1909 g."
c. "KHUD. TIP. 1909 g."
d. "KHUDOZH. TIP. 1911 g."
e. "4 KREDITN. TIP. 1911"
f. "KHUDOZH. PECH. MASTER VIKTOR"
g. "KHUD. TIP. AMERIKA"
h. "KHUDOZH. PECHATN. AMER."
i. "2-YA MOCKOVSKAYA FABRIKA TIP. AMERIKA"

2. Numbers, printed in large type, of the type CM1 represent the number of the
type setting cliche. Sheets are known with these control numbers only as well
as with the additional mark CM3a.

3. Lines, of the type CM6, along the length of the sheet margins served as color
control of the ink by means of comparing with the standards of the sheet. The
vertical lines were along the sides of the sheet; the horizontal were at the top
and bottom margins. These sheets are also found with an additional third line
in the center of the sheet along the inner margin (gutter) between the panes of
25 stamps. Also known are sheets of some of the two-colored stamps with combina-
tion vertical and horizontal lines. Sheets of the two-color stamps exist with
single color lines as well as with two colors, including compositions of alter-
nating short length of one and the other color (a part of the values of the two-
color stamps).

Control marks in the form of two horizontal parentheses in the lower margin of
the 25 kopek stamp sheets are known. They are valued at 500.

Issues of the kopek values without any control marks in the sheet margins are
known.

On the stamp sheets of the 1 ruble value (in sheets of 40 stamps) the following
control marks are known:
In the early period there is type CM6 with orange lines on the side
margins of the sheet. In the lower margin there was printed in the
same color the control mark CM3a, "Kred. Tip. 1910". Later sheets
were printed with one brown line on each side margin without the
control mark CM3a. In the later period (1912-1916) three brown lines
(CM6a) are found along the side margins.

40







Starting in 1917, the number of ruble stamps in the sheets was increased to
50 copies with a corresponding change in the positions of the stamps (there
were 8 horizontal rows with 4 stamps in the top and bottom rows and 7 stamps
in the remaining rows). Instead of colored control lines in the margins of
the sheets, three control marks occupied spaces in the upper and lower rows
of stamps. Each was a crossed roman numeral V (crossed V's). The colors were
brown (the frame color of the stamp) and the other brown (the background color
of the stamp).

In the sheet margins of the kopek and ruble value stamps there were usually
printed control dots in the colors of the stamp designs. They had technological
(printing) designations.

Varieties in the stamp's cliche: The one ruble stamps of the later issues are
known in which the print type of the numeral "1" under the post-telegraph
administration emblem differs in various forms. The differences are in the
thickness and height. The valuations are the same as for the ordinary stamps.

Note: In this article we only discuss the one ruble stamp with the vertical
chalk line (varnish line) network.

The gum of the stamps is white, with a yellowish shade. The use of yellowish
gum is also known, apparently in the first years following the revolution.

Up to 1915 stamps with different printing faults were only accidently and very
rarely passed by the EZGB control. Starting in 1915 the quality of the stamps
decreased. Starting in 1917, especially, a large number of typographic errors
appeared in circulation in the form of double printings of the design, with one
step of the typographic process omitted such as printing of the background,
the center, placing the chalk line (varnish line) network, or printing the
design on the gum side, making poorly punched perforations or other defects.

Due to the war and revolution and the lack of large amounts of aniline colors,
the stamps were released with changed colors starting in 1915. The violet and
lilac colors were gradually changed to practically red or brown. Other colors
became lighter or darker shades, with the addition of a gray tone. In this
catalog, only the main colors are given.

Stamps of the Eighteenth Issue require additional serious study.
Numbers of Stamps Sold (in thousands)

Year 1 kop. 2 kop. 3 kop. 4 kop. 5 kop.
1908 -

1909 79430 86772 103127 12172

1910 84157 97367 125716 14982

1911 83728 101916 167642 14691

1912 100480 112420 157275 17364 4887

1913 101403 120089 170492 25787 402

1914 92319 112917 198936 15528 1210

1915 66846 78201 172989 7512 28993
41








Numbers of Stamps Sold (in thousands) continued

Year 7 kop. 10 kop. 14 kop. 15 kop. 20 kop.

1908 ? ?- -

1909 291416 25667 17323 21427

1910 316375 29519 21223 25355

1911 300777 29394 23115 28007 8089

1912 360944 34191 26741 30966 7827

1913 372654 36259 30034 33310 8727

1914 325727 59027 24092 38323 13543

1915 79891 211845 11024 48189 27383


Year 25 kop. 35 kop. 50 kop. 70 kop. 1 rub.

1909 8843 3510 5132 2350

1910 11508 4122 5937 2921 4101

1911 11878 3576 6120 2984 4294

1912 14045 4331 6386 3922 4597

1913 15948 4973 7097 3557 4403

1914 18802 5023 8208 3699 4678

1915 23561 5059 12853 4051 5913


Notes:
1. The numbers of stamps sold in 1909-1910 include stamps of earlier issues.
The first numbers of the 5 and 20 kop. stamps include the numbers sold up to
1912 inclusive.

2. Starting in 1913 the numbers of stamps sold include all the current stamps,
excluding the charity-postal stamps of 1914-1915.


CANCELLATIONS

In addition to the cancelers used for canceling the stamps of the Thirteenth and
later issues, cancellation by means of perforation came into wide use. The stamps
which were attached to forms were punched. In addition the stamps were obliter-
ated with ink of the usual cancelers. It was forbidden to punch stamps on
envelopes with letters of other enclosures in order to avoid damage to the
contents. Postal office punching of stamps began around 1911, first in Moscow
and later in other cities. See the article "Punches of the Moscow Postal

42








Otdelenie on Prerevolutionary Stamps of Russia" by P. Mazur, Philately of the
USSR, 1973, No. 5, page VIII. Perfins are known in the form of codes of the
post-telegraph offices made of various letters and numerals, punched in the
form of small holes (SC76). Punches with larger holes in the shapes of circles,
triangles and other forms were also used, mainly with one hole on a stamp.


***
S* *.
S











parcels. They are valued as follows:
** -





b. ruble values with the above perforation +15






c. stamps with holes, punched holes, deduct 90%
SC76

The punch stamp cancellation was also used in the first years of the revolution
and guaranteed the complete elimination of the possible reuse of the stamps with a
washed-off cancellation. Basically the ruble value stamps were punch canceled,
since they were used in large numbers for payment of transfers and valuable
parcels. They are valued as follows:
a. kopek value stamps with a perforated postal code +25
b. ruble values with the above perforation +15
c. stamps with holes, punched holes, deduct -90%

The use of special cancelers is known.

1. The temporary postal otdeleniya at the South Russia district oblastt) fair
in Ekaterinoslav (presently Dcieperpetrovsk) existed from July 1 to September 25,
1910. The cancel had two circles with the text on the rim "EKATERINOSLAV-
VYSTAVKA", the known date in the center in one line "26.6.10", as given in the
article "The Search Continues" by 0. Forafontov, Philately of the USSR, 1969.
No. 12, pages 9-11.

2. The temporary postal otdeleniya at the Kostromskoi gubernia rural fair,
which was held from May 19 to September 1, 1913. had cancels of the type SC69
with the text "KOSTROvA-VYSTAVKA", two stars and a cursive letter "a". In the
center a known date between two parallel lines is "1.7.13", according to 0.
Forafontov, cited above.

3. The temporary postal otdeleniya at the All-Russia Congress of Doctors used
cancel type SC69 with the text on the rim "MOSKVA PO(OT. OTD. PRI. CYEZD VRACHEI"
and a star. In the center, a one line date reads "31.12.09", according to Ya.
Vovin in his article "Special Cancellations of Russia", Philately of the USSR,
1975, No. 1, page 29.

All of the above mentioned special cancellations are R.

In the "Postal Telegraph Journal" (1910, No. 8) an inserted announcement told
of the opening of a temporary post-telegraph otdeleniya in Odessa at the manu-
facturing, industrial, art and agricultural fair with the name of the station
"ODESSA-VYSTAVKA". The fair ran from May 15 to October 10, 1915. The special
postal cancellations of this fair have not yet been found, according to 0.
Forafontov, cited above.

43








In Finland, the Russian postage stamps of the Eighteenth issue were used simul-
taneously with the Finnish stamps. They were canceled with the Finnish cancelers
using basically the circular type with Latin as well as Latin and Russian letters
in the text.

Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps with Finnish Cancellations

Kopek Value 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 14 15
Premium 50 2 16 40 160 20 12 40 50

Kopek Value 20 25 35 50 70 1 rub.
Premium 25 100 400 60 600 80

On letters and transfers add +100% (with 35 and 70 kop. add +200%)


FAKES

Four types of fakes of the 7 kop. and one type of the 10 kop. are known, made
to defraud the post.

The main characteristic details of the fake 7 kopek stamps are as follows:

First 7 kop. fake














Genuine Fake


a. In the design of the stylized shield with the cyrillic words "CEMb KOP" the
corners at the lower side of the shield at both ends are cut at about 90 degrees
on the fake. On the genuine stamp the corners are cut around 50 degrees and the
sides of the shield resemble the shape of a swallow's tail;

b. There is no dot after the word "KOP". A genuine stamp has a dot after the
word "KOP. ".

c. On genuine stamps the ornamental decoration on top of the design of the shield
with the cyrillic words "CEMb KOP" has two curls, both of which end with branches
of two spiraling lines. On the fake the branches, directed to the sides of the
stamps, are not curved and appear as straight lines;


44








d. The fake has a chalk line (varnish line) network similar to the genuine. The
design is heavily printed and in significantly darker ink than on the genuine
stamp;

e. The characteristic details of frame perforation found in the corner teeth of
a genuine stamp are missing in most cases on fake stamps and the cornerteeth appear
as they do in line perforation.

Second 7 kop. fake













Genuine Fake

a. On the genuine stamp the ornamental decoration on top of the design of the
shield with the cyrillic words "CEMb KOP." has two curls, branching into two
spiraling lines at the ends. On the fake each curl ends in a single spiral and
the second branch towards the sides of the stamp is missing;

b. On the fake, on the design of the shield with the words "CEMb KOP" there are
two panels on which these words are found. The sides of these panels which
enclose the medallion with the numeral "7" are cut evenly at an angle. On
genuine stamps these sides are curved, as if forming the outer frame line of
the medallion.

c. On the fake the ribbon on the left eagle head is located significantly
higher than the ribbon on the right head and practically touches the line of
the enclosing oval with the emblem. On a genuine stamp both ribbons on the
heads of the eagle are positioned at the same height;

d. The printing "PO(CTOVAYA MARKA","CEM KOP." and the numeral "7" as well as
the post-telegraph emblem are noticeably different from the genuine. The latter
has the two thunderbolts lifted upward and do not touch the flared ends of the
horns.

e. The fake is perforated 11 1/2.


Third 7 kop. fake


a. The fake is printed on thin paper, without the chalk line (varnish line)
network, or the stamp is printed with a bluish network. Fake is perforated 15;
45





















Genuine Fake

b. The branches of the curls on the ornamental decoration on the shield design
with the text"CEMb KOP." directed towards the sides are practically straight, as
they were in the first fake, item c.

c. Differing from the first fake (see item a) each of the endings at the sides
of the shield appear as swallow's tails as they do on genuine stamps;

d. In the post-telegraph symbol under the eagle the right thunderbolt at the
top does not touch the flared end of the right trumpet. On a genuine stamp
the thunderbolts almost touch the flared end. The heads of the eagle do not
resemble the genuine design, the wings of the eagle are poorly separated;

e. All of the printed words and the numeral "7" differ greatly from the genuine
stamp. The impression of the entire design is not precise.

Fourth 7 kop. fake

[Taken from the description of fakes in the "Postal-Telegraph Journal", official
section, 1914, No. 22]

a. The safeguarding network is printed in blue ink. The color of the stamp is
more blue than the genuine;

b. The feathers of the wings are poorly separated, the tail is somewhat
narrower. There are intermittent lines in the scepter;

c. The post-telegraph emblem does not have thickened arrowheads at the ends of
the zig-zag lines. These are thickened on the first, second, and third fakes as
well as on the genuine stamp;

d. The letters of the printed text do not have the sharp contours and are
incorrect. The printing of the entire stamp design is not precise.

10 kop. fake
The main distinguishing details of the fake 10 kop. stamp are as follows:
[Taken from the description of fakes in the "Postal-Telegraph Journal", official
section, 1913, No. 29]

a. The printing is typographic, the paper is ordinary, the safeguarding network
is thinner than on genuine stamps;
46







b. The design is made and printed more crudely. Both lines enclosing the
medallion with the national emblem are broken and completely missing in place;

c. The shield with the ornamental decoration in which the national emblem is
* positioned is crudely executed without shading details;

d. The printed letters are not correctly executed and are positioned incorrectly.

Note: John Reynolds in his Special Catalog of Russian Postage Stamps (Part 1,
published by the British Society of Russian Philately, 1957) indicates two
different fakes of the 10 kop. stamps:

a. blue on grey porous paper with thick yellow gum;
b. blue on white paper with a break at the bottom of the design of the crown.

The 7 kop. fakes to defraud the post are valued R, the 10 kop. fakes RR.


There are also fakes made to deceive the collector:

1. 35 kop. stamps with the center blue instead of green. The color of the
center was changed my means of application of an acid.

2. There is a one ruble stamp with a yellow center instead of orange or red-
orange, made as described above.

3. The "imperf" 7 kop. stamps resulted from stamps with the perforations cut
off, new margins glued on and pressed. This is a dangerous fake and should be
examined under a quartz (ultra-violet) lamp.

PROOFS AND ESSAYS

Proofs of the 1, 5 and 7 kop. stamps with the designs as issued into circulation
butwith different colors are valued RR. The 15 kop. proof in sky blue color
is valued R.

The 7 kop. sky blue stamp with the design as issued into circulation exists
imperforate on paper without the chalk line (varnish line) network. The
valuation is 2500.

There are essays of the perforated 7 kop. stamp with "three pearls". The main
details are as follows:

1. On the ribbon at the left of the inscription "POCHTOVAYA MARKA" there are
two curls instead of shading lines as on the ordinary stamp.

2. There are three pearls instead of four on the two sides atop the stylized
shield with the inscription"CEMb KOP.".

3. There are two dots after the word "KOP" instead of one as is found on the
ordinary stamp.

The details of the differences in the "three pearl" stamp found in sheets which
were placed into circulation are indicated at the end of the stamp list of this
issue.

47








Also known are essays of the 7 kop. stamp with four pearls but with curls at the
left portion of the ribbon instead of the shading lines.

The 7 kop. proof stamp imperforate with "three pearls" is known in a pair with a
stamp of the ordinary design. Its valuation RRRR. It differs from the
perforated "three pearl" stamp in the lack of perforations and the dark blue
color instead of the light blue color of stamp no. 81Ba. (M. V. Liphshutz
informed the author of this horizontal pair of imperforate 7 kop. stamps, one
with the "three pearls".)

Essays of the perforated 10 kop. stamp are as follows:

a. One has curls at the left portion of the ribbon with the inscription
"POCTfOVAYA MARKA" instead of shading lines and it has three encircling lines
of the oval with the national emblem instead of the two as found on the stamps
placed into circulation. (See Figure 11)

b. The other has shade lines in the left portion of the ribbon with the
inscription "POCITOVAYA MARKA" as those issued into circulation but there are
three encircling lines of the oval with the national emblem instead of two.
(See Figure 12)













Figure 11 Figure 12


Essays of the 7 and 10 kop. stamps are known printed on small sheets of paper in
the form of two blocks of eight stamps (4 x 2), inverted with respect to each
other and with a separating margin (gutter). As a consequence the two inside
rows of stamps yield horizontal tete-beche pairs with a gutter between the two
stamps.

All of the described essays are valued RRR.

SPECIMENS

A typographed overprint of the word OBRAZETS in large letters in black ink is
known on imperforate blocks of 10 stamps (5 x 2). Similar blocks are known with
the word "OBRAZETS" perforated on the block.





48








NINETEENIH ISSUE

(Scott Nos. 88-104)

1913, January 1. Jubilee issue 300 years of the Romanov Dynasty. The stamps
have totally new designs. Deep recess typography printing was used for the kopek
values, and metallographic printing was used for the ruble values. The 35, 50,
and 70 kopek values are two-colored. Stamps were prepared by EZGB. The paper
is chalk surfaced without a watermark. The kopek values were comb perforated
13 1/4. Some are also known frame perforated 13 1/4 (the 1, 2, 3, 7, and 70 kop.).
The 1, 2, and 3 ruble values are frame perforated 13 1/4 x 13 1/2, the 5 ruble
value is frame perforated 13 1/2 x.13 1/4.













1 kopek 2 kopek 3 kopek


fO4TA










4 kopek 7 kopek 10 kopek













14 kopek 15 kopek 20 kopek 25 kopek
49





















35 kopek 50 kopek 70 kopek
















1 ruble











2 ruble 3 ruble









5 ruble

50








91 52 1 kop. brownish-orange 8 3

92 53 2 kop. yellowish green 8 3

93 54 3 kop. rose red 8 2

94 55 4 kop. carmine-red 8 3

95 56 7 kop, brown 25 1

95M 56 7 kop. blue, line perforated 13 1/2 RRR
(not placed into circulation)

96 57 10 kop. blue (with a violet cast) 10 2

97 58 14 kop. bluish green 10 4

98 59 15 kop. light brown 25 6

99 60 20 kop. light olive green 35 8

100 61 25 kop. dark lilac 45 15

101 62 35 kop. bluish violet and dark green 50 20

102 63 50 kop. brown and blue-gray 45 25

103 64 70 kop, yellow green and brown 90 35

104 65 1 rub. dark green on weakly 200 30
colored green paper

105 66 2 rub. brown red on weakly 250 90
colored yellowish paper

106 67 3 rub. dark violet on weakly 300 120
colored gray paper

107 68 5 rub. black brown on weakly 400 240
colored yellowish paper


VARIETIES

91Aa 1 kop. dark brown orange 15 7

91Ea 1 kop. imperforate 3500 4500

91Eb 1 kop. double impression R -


92Aa 2 kop, green 20 10

92Ea 2 kop. double impression 750



51








93Aa 3 kop. red 10 5

93Ea 3 kop. imperforate 5000 6000

93Eb 3 kop. double impression 3750 -

93Ec 3 kop. missing perforation in RR RR
upper row of stamps with
sheet margin (fantail top)

















93Ea 95Ea


95Ea 7 kop. imperforate 2500 3000

95Eb 7 kop. double impression 500














95Eb


96Aa 10 kop. blue (with bluish cast) 12 2

96Ea 10 kop. imperforate 3000 4000

52























Si









96Ea

98Aa 15 kop. reddish brown 40 10


99Aa 20 kop. dark olive green 100 25


100Aa 25 kop. violet lilac 120 50


103Aa 70 kop. light green and brown 150 50


104Aa 1 rub. light yellowish green on 300 50
weakly colored green paper

104Ab 1 rub. green on weakly colored 200 30
green paper


106Aa 3 rub. pale violet on weakly 500 200
colored grayish paper


107Aa 5 rub. dark lilac-brown on weakly 600 350
colored pale rose paper





53








Notes:

1. The imperforate 1, 3, 7, and 10 kop. stamps were not officially placed into
circulation. However, they are found used. The 1 and 3 kop. stamps are known
on cover having gone through the mail. They are in the A.S. Popov Central
Museum of Communication in Leningrad RRR.

2. Imperforate stamps with values 2, 14 kop., 1, 2, 3, and 5 rub. are known
unused, but they were never placed into ciculation. Value of the 2 and 14 kop.
1 and 5 rub. 7500 each, the 2 ruble 4000, and the 3 ruble 5000.

3. The following varieties are known:

a. double vertical perforations on the 2 and 3 kop. values; with double
horizontal perforations on the 2, 3, 4, and 50 kop. values. Valuations
are 400, 600.

b. shifted perforations into the design of the stamps with values 2, 3, 4,
7, 20, 25, and 50 kop. Valuations are 150, 250.

c. with a mirror impression of the design on the gum side of the stamp,
"offset", on the 2, 3, 10, and 14 kop. values. Valuations are 250, -

d. with printed design on the gum side in the 1 and 4 kop. values.
Valuations are 1000, .


Premiums to be Added to Values of Stamps


Values Combinations

Stamp (stamps) on Stamp with sheet Stamp with sheet
cover or a blank margin with control margin with control
kop. mark colored lines mark printing
CM6 cliche number CM1

1, 2, 4 +10 +20 +100

3, 7, 10 +5 +15 +50 +100 +300

14, 15, 20 +20 +20 +200

25 +50 +100 +300

35 +100 +150 +500

50, 70 +75 +125 +400

rub.

1, 2 +100

3 +125

5 +150

54







BOOKLETS
[This section was written by K. A. Berngard]

The St. Petersburg, Kiev, and Riga Post Offices prepared booklets from blocks
of the jubilee stamps of various denominations. They had thin cardboard
covers measuring 101 x 52 mm.
a. Booklets of the St. Petersburg Post Office:
Small booklets were made in 1913 with 5 blocks of 6 stamps in each (3 blocks
of the 1 kop. and 1 block each of the 3 and 7 kop.). The covers were
bright orange in color. The stamp face value was 78 kop. The booklet
sold for 80 kop. R.
Large booklets (Booklet D) were prepared in 1913 with 9 blocks of 6 stamps
in each (3 blocks each of the 1, 3, and 7 kop. values). The covers were
gray. The stamp value was 1 ruble 98 kop. The booklet sold for 2 rubles R.







I




Booklet D

Small booklets prepared by the St. Petersburg Post Office in 1914 for all
the postal-telegraph districts (okrugs) of the country. They had rose
colored covers with a rubber handstamp text "P. T. KONTORA" SERIYA POCHTOVIKH
MAROK NA .. TSENA .." meaning "post telegraph office series of postage
stamps for ... (face value), price ..." The name of the post-telegraph
office, the total value of the stamps and the cost of the booklet were
handwritten. Only one example is known, valuation unique.
Large booklets with the same covers have not been found.
b. Booklets of the Kiev Post-Telegraph District, prepared in 1913:
Small booklets were made the same as the St. Petersburg small booklets.
The color of the covers was grayish R.
Large booklets were also made which were the same as the large St. Petersburg
Post Office booklets. The cover color was sand yellowish R.

S55








c. Booklets of the Riga Post Telegraph District, prepared in 1913:

The small booklet had 8 strips of 3 stamps each (2 strips of the 1 and 3 kop.
values, 1 strip each of the 2, 4, 7, and 10 kop.). The face value of the
stamps was 93 kop. The booklet sold for 95 kop.

A large booklet had 12 strips of 3 stamps each (4 strips of the 7 kop.,
2 strips of the 1 and 3 kop. values, and 1 strip each of the 2, 4, 10, and
14 kop.). The face value of the stamps was 1 ruble, 98 kopeks. The cost
of the booklet was 2 rubles.

On order of the Riga Post Telegraph District, booklets were made by a private
Riga printer, L. B. Brankenstein, with an extra payment of 15 rubles by the
printer for putting his advertisement on the covers. The Riga booklets
have not been found. The size and color of the covers as well as the printed
text on them are not known.



HISTORICAL REFERENCE

The stamps were placed on sale January 1, 1913. They were removed from
circulation by a decree of the Council of the Peoples' Commissars of the
RSFSR "On the revaluation of postage stamps in connection with an increase
in the postal rates."

The official date of circulation is January 1, 1913 but separate cases are
known of stamps placed into circulation at the end of 1912. (This was re-
ported by L. P. Volynsk of Moscow and A. P. Kulkov of Perm. The author has an
open letter with birthday greetings with a 3 kop. stamp. The card and stamp
were postmarked with stamped cancel SC69 with the inscription "KATAISKOE
PERM.", date "23.12.12".)


RATES

On October 9, 1913 the Minister of Internal Affairs established 15 grams (1.17
lots instead of 1 lot) as the weight unit of an intercity letter. This was
indicated in the "Pravitelstvennii Vestnik", 1913, No. 222. The weight unit
for registered letters and letters with a declared value (included valued
letters containing silver rubles and money post packets) was changed accordingly.
The total fees for the weight unit remained the same without any change,
according to the circular of the Chief of the Main Administration of the Post
and Telegraph, No. 60, dated October 11, 1913.

Due to the start of the War and the increased budget expenses, the rates on
certain forms of correspondence were increased.


RATES FROM SEPTEMBER 21, 1914

[A decree of the Minister of Internal Affairs to post and telegraph sections,
dated September 15, 1914]

The rate for an ordinary sealed intercity letter was 10 kop. for each 15 grams
or fraction thereof (instead of 7 kop.).


56








The rate for a local (city) letter was 3 kop. for each four lots or fraction
therof (instead of 2 kop.) with a minimum weight charge of 5 kop. for each
letter (instead of 3 kop.).

The minimum amount of weight charge for wrapper mail with business papers was
10 kop. for intercity mail (instead of 7 kop.) and 5 kop. for local mail
(instead of 3 kop.).

The charge for registered mail was 10 kop. for each mailing (instead of 7 kop).

The charge for forwarding and delivery of separate orders of ordinary letters
with enclosed cash money was 10 kop. for each letter (instead of 7 kop.).

Private mail, sent to the name of military personnel up to February 1, 1917,
were paid with stamps at the usual rates. Starting in February 1917 the postal
charge for a letter addressed to military personnel of the army in action, its
administrative offices and schools was lowered to 5 kop. for each 60 grams or
fraction thereof. On private post cards the rate was lowered to 2 kop. This
was announced in a circular decree of the Main Administration of the Post and
Telegraph in the "Post-Telegraph Journal", official section, 1917, No. 2.

Letters weighing up to 30 grams and post cards sent by military personnel in
the active army were sent free by post up to the beginning of 1917.

SPECIAL INFORMATION

The kopek value stamps were printed by deep recess printing, the ruble values
by metallographic printing. The plates for the ruble value stamps were com-
pletely engraved in steel, while on the kopek values, only the medallions with
the czars portraits were engraved on steel. The size of the kopek value stamps
is 24 x 30 mm; the size of the 1, 2, and 3 ruble stamps is 33 x 27 mm; the
size of the 5 ruble stamp is 27 x 33 mm.

The paper is chalked (it was imported). The kopek values were printed in
sheets of 100 stamps (10 x 10), the ruble values had 50 stamps per sheet. The
1 and 5 ruble stamps were positioned 10 x 5, the 2 and 3 ruble were positioned
5 x 10. Control marks (CM6) are found in the margins of the sheets, printed
in the same color as the stamp. In the margins of the two color stamps, there
are two lines of different colors.









g : .- ..-.. --..........



CM6

57








Both frame and comb perforation were used. On the kopek value sheets with
comb perforations, either the upper or lower margin of the sheet or both have
an additional row of perforation holes in the vertical direction. With frame
perforation these margins were not vertically perforated.

The gum is transparent and has a yellowish shade.

There exists a 7 kop. stamp in light blue color (95M) which was not placed into
circulation. The Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph did not approve
the reference sample of this stamp in the brown color in the presentation of
the EZGB. The 7 kop. stamp was designated for the payment of ordinary internal
sealed letters. On the cardboard sheet on which the 1-70 kop. reference stamps
were glued, there is added the decision "Confirmed, with the exception of the
7 kop. stamp. February 8, 1912, Chief of the Main Administration of the Post
and Telegraph, Sevastyanov". This is presently in the A.S. Popov Museum of
Communication (Leningrad) in the National Postage Stamp Collection, Reference
Stamps of the Jubilee Series. The refusal to confirm this stamp in the brown
color (the design had already been approved earlier) was due to the obligation
of Russia, as a member of the Universal Postal Union, to issue stamps for the
payment of internal ordinary letters in a blue color only. To fulfill the
order of the Main Administration, the printing office began to prepare the
7 kop. stamp in the light blue color.

A second discussion of the color of these stamps occurred during the process of
the preparation of these stamps. The issuance into circulation of a blue 7 kop.
stamp would coincidentally make two stamps with similar color and design in
the series: the 7 kop. and the 10 kop., which was approved February 8, 1912.
The latter value was designated for ordinary international letters. The identi-
cal colors of these two stamps would cause difficulty in the sorting of letters
into internal and international mail. It would also make difficult as well the
control of the correct payment for international letters. The Main Adminis-
tration had to make a new decision: keep the blue 10 kopek stamp for international
mail corresponding to the agreement of the member countries of the Universal
Postal Union on the colors of stamps and confirm (contrary to the agreement)
for internal letters the brown 7 kopek stamp which was rejected earlier. A
reference copy of it was approved by the Chief of the Main Administration of
the Post and Telegraph on February 21, 1912. An insignificant small number of
the blue colored 7 kop. stamps were printed by the EZGB but were not placed into
circulation.

Numbers of Stamps Sold

Year 2 rub. 3 rub. 5 rub.

1913 222,527 132,345 167,739

1914 397,288 214,446 157,714

1915 616,054 290,079 277,990

Notes:
1. The number of stamps sold of the other denominations of the jubilee series
are included in the number of stamps sold of the previous issue.

2. The numbers of 5 ruble stamps sold include the stamps of the Seventeenth
Issue (1906).

58







CANCELLATIONS
On order of the High Command to all the post and post-telegraph administrators
along the front lines of the Western Front at the beginning of the first world
war, it was directed to remove the usual calendar cancelers with the name of
the office sending the letters and to replace them with "mutes", without the
designating name and calendar date. The mute cancelers were used on the vast
territory of Russia, including all the states (gubernias) of Czarist Poland,
the West and Southwest gubernias. They were also placed in use in large
Russian ports.
Hundreds of different handmade cancelers in the form of circles, crosses, lines,
dots, squares, stars and other figures were made by the postal managers.
Ya. M. Vovin in his article "Mute Russian Cancels of 1914" in Philately of the
USSR, 1970, No. 1, pages 15 and 17, extracts of which appear in this section,
gives a scheme of classification of the mute cancelers into 10 basic classes
according to the outline of the figure:









I. Circular II. Crosses III. Stars
and Oval and Rossettes


I 1 ,






IV. Interwoven V. Interrupted VI. Various Geometric
Lines Lines (Dotted) Figures








"VII. Cut-up VIII. Symbols and IX. Other different
Figures Emblems designs

59

















X. Official Cancels, Printing, Damaged Cancels,
and other subjects used for cancellation

The mute cancels were used at the front line in 1914-1915 but are known as
well on letters which passed through the mails in 1916-1917. They are found
on stamps of the Nineteenth Issue, on the Jubilee Issue, and, rarer, on the
postal-charity stamps of 1914-1915.

Black ink was used for the cancellation. Colored cancellations are rarely
found.

In the beginning of the First World War, mail from the military up to 30 grams
in weight and postcards were exempt from the postal charges. Instead of
franking with postage stamps, the markings of the military unit or hospital
was placed on the correspondence beforehand. 0. V. Forafontov and P. V.
Florenski in their article "Postal Markings of the First World War" in
Philately of the USSR, No. 7, 1971, pages 41-42, give a scheme of classification
of these printings according to their designations:

I Fighting formations, sections, units

II Reserve training sections and units

III Calvalry units

IV Artillery sections and units

V Ships of the war fleet

VI Other military sections and units, aeronautic and
automobile companies

VII Rear commissary service: commissary service, railroad
battalions, post-telegraph and others

VIII Military medical units: hospitals and infirmaries
attached to fighting units, military-sanitary trains
for wounded, convalescent commands

IX Red Cross organizations: hospitals and infirmaries,
supply services, food, etc., correspondence with
war prisoners

With the war, the field postal offices greatly increased in the territory of
the front. They used their own postalcancelers for marking mail of military
personnel and military installations free from postal charges. The field post
cancelers were used for the receipt of mail as well as for the cancellation
of postage stamps in the case of forwarded mail franked with postage stamps.
60








Cancellers of the type SC77 were used with the number of the field post office,
the number of the reserve post office, the return field post offices at the
front and the main field post offices. Stamps canceled with these cancelers
are rather rarely found. This catalog does not examine the field of post
cancellation used in the period of the Russo-Japanese war since these cancelers
belong territorially to the Russian postal offices abroad.










SC77


On January 19, 1917 the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph published
new rules for the sending of free mail by military personnel. These were
announced by the Main Staff of the Military Command and were in the circular
of the Main Staff, No. 186, dated December 5, 1916. The free sending referred,
as previously, to letters up to 30 grams in weight and postcards which were:


a. handed in person to officers in postal offices regardless of whether or
not these letters had the impression of the government emblem;

b. letters and postcards of soldiers serving in war units as well as in
military offices within the empire, which were submitted to postal
offices through authorized delivery people with the required applied
impression of the emblem of the military unit, staff, or other military
offices;

c. letters and postcards of wounded and sick servicemen, located at recovery
clinical institutions, which were submitted through authorized delivery
people with the applied impression of the emblem.


It was forbidden to place free franked private military mail into postal
boxes. If such mail was found in the boxes, it was required to place a
postage due marking on the letter for collection from the addressee at twice
the rate for sending.

Thousands of different imprints were used for the cancellation of mail from
war servicemen. Various color inks were common.









61








FAKES

One can mistake for imperforate stamps cutouts from the 1 and 2 kop. wrappers
(on yellowed and gray paper), stamped envelopes with values of 3, 7, 10, 14,
and 20 kop. (paper has a watermark in the form of zig-zag lines) and letter
cards (bluish gray paper).

There exists a fake 3 kop. imperforate stamp. It was made from a perfed stamp
with the upper perforation missing between the stamp and the sheet margin
(fantail top). It is necessary to measure the width by comparing with an
ordinary perforated stamp. One should take into account that the top portion
of the fake stamp may be no larger than usual, since the margin of the sheet
was not perforated. The fundamental detail of a genuine stamp is that the
width of the imperforate stamp should somewhere on the stamp be greater than
the total width of a perforated stamp between its perforation holes.



ESSAYS AND PROOFS

There are hundreds of different essays of the jubilee series. The kopek
values are valued R, the ruble values RR. There are also detail designs
executed in different variations (medallions with portraits, frames, etc.).
These are valued R.

Proofs are known with the design and color of the stamps placed into circulation,
as well as printed in other colors on small sheets of paper. There exist
proofs of the stamps with the signatures of the artist and engraver in print
type under the designs.


SPECIMENS

The following specimen stamps are known: perforated stamps with the typo-
graphed overprint of the word "OBRAZETS" in red ink in large letters across
the horizontal row of stamps on the sheet, amd imperforate stamps with the
words "OBRAZETS" perforated across a horizontal row of stamps. Strips of
stamps with the complete word "OBRAZETS" either overprinted or perforated are
valued R. Separate stamps with the overprint are valued 250, separate
stamps with the perforated letters are valued 500.















62








TWENTIETH ISSUE

[Scott Nos. B5-B8]

1914, November 19. Postal-charity stamps to aid members of the armed forces.
and their families. It is an issue of the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society.
Typographed printing in two colors. The stamps have a new design in large
format 29 x 38 mm. (approximately). The artist and engraver was R. Zarrinsh.
Prepared by the EZGB. The paper is colored, chalk surfaced, and unwatermarked.



















1+1 kopek 3+1 kopek




















7+1 kopek 10+1 kopek


63








Line Perforation 11 1/2


108 69 1+1 kop. red and dark green on pale 10 8
yellow paper
Depicts an ancient hero

109 70 3+1 kop. carmine-pink and gray-green 10 8
on pink paper
Depicts the farewell of a
Cossack

110 71 7+1 kop. dark brown and dark green 10 8
on straw colored paper
Allegory: Mother Russia
watches over the children
of the war fighters

111 72 10+1 kop. dark blue and brown on sky 50 35
blue paper
Depicts George, the Victor,
and the defeated dragon


VARIETIES

108Aa 1+1 kop. red and green on pale yellow 12 10
paper

108Da 1+1 kop. with sharp pointed perforation 8 5
teeth 11 1/2

108Ea 1+1 kop. with missing perforations 400
between stamp and lower margin
of sheet (fantail bottom)


109Aa 3+1 kop. carmine and gray-green on 15 10
pink paper
109Ea 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 500
between stamp and right margin
of sheet (fantail right)

109Eb 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 500
between stamp and left margin
of sheet (fantail left)


11OAa 7+1 kop. black-brown and dark green on 15 12
straw colored paper

llODa 7+1 kop. with sharp pointed perforation 10 8
teeth 11 1/2, brown and dark
green


64








110Db 7+1 kop. with sharp pointed perforation 15 10
teeth 11 1/2, black-brown and
dark green

ll0Ea 7+1 kop. with missing perforations 500
between stamp and lower margin
of sheet (fantail bottom)

11OEb 7+1 kop. with missing perforations 750
between stamp and right margin
of sheet (fantail right)

11OEc 7+1 kop. mirror impression of medallion R
with background on gum side
(offset)


lllAa 10+1 kop. blue and brown on pale blue 70 40
paper

lllBa 10+1 kop. "broken lance" 200 140

















"-*****"*'* fAAAAjAAA
lllBa


lllDa 10+1 kop. with sharp pointed perforation 50 35
teeth 11 1/2

lllEa 10+1 kop. with missing perforations 500
between stamp and left margin
of sheet (fantail left)

lllEb 10+1 kop. with missing vertical perfo- 500
rations on two sides, pair





65








Line Perforation 12 1/2


108D 69 1+1 kop. red and dark green on pale 20 15
yellow paper

109D 70 3+1 kop. carmine-pink and gray-green 30 20
on pink paper

110D 71 7+1 kop. dark brown and dark green 60 90
on straw colored paper

111D 72 10+1 kop. dark blue and brown on 50 35
pale sky blue paper


VARIETIES

108DEa 1+1 kop. with missing perforations 250
between stamp and bottom
margin (fantail bottom)

108DEb 1+1 kop. with missing perforations 500
between stamp and left margin
and bottom margin


109DAa 3+1 kop. carmine and gray-green on 45 30
pale pink paper

109DDa 3+1 kop. perforated unique -
12 1/2 x 12 1/2 x 12 1/2 x 11 1/2

109DEa 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 250
between stamp and lower margin
of sheet (fantail bottom)

109DEb 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 500
between stamp and right margin
of sheet (fantail right)


110DAa 7+1 kop. black-brown and dark green on 80 120
straw colored paper

11ODEa 7+1 kop. with missing perforations 250
between stamp and upper margin
of sheet (fantail top)


111DBa 10+1 kop. "broken lance" 200 200

111DEa 10+1 kop. with missing perforations 400 -
between stamp and lower margin
of sheet (fantail bottom)


66








111DEb 10+1 kop. with missing perforations 500
between stamp and left margin
of sheet (fantail left)

111DEc 10+1 kop. with missing vertical perfo- 500
rations on two sides, pair


Line Perforations 13 1/4


108D1 69 1+1 kop. red and dark green on pale 10 8
yellow paper

109D1 70 3+1 kop. carmine and gray-green on 750 750
pink paper

110D1 71 7+1 kop. dark brown amd dark green 10 8
on straw colored paper

11D1 72 10+1 kop. dark blue and brown on 250 190
pale sky blue paper


VARIETIES

108D1Aa 1+1 kop. red and green on pale 15 12
yellow paper

108DlEa 1+1 kop. with missing perforations 500
between stamp and lower
margin (fantail bottom)

108DlEb 1+1 kop. with missing perforations 250
between stamp and upper
margin (fantail top)

108DlEc 1+1 kop. with missing perforations 400
between stamp and right
margin (fantail right)

108DlEd 1+1 kop. with missing vertical 500
perforations on two sides
of a stamp, pair


109DlEa 3+1 kop. with missing perforations R
between stamp and lower
margin (fantail bottom)


11OD1Aa 7+1 kop. black-brown and dark green 15 12
on straw colored paper

11ODlEa 7+1 kop. a pair with double vertical R
perforations in between

67








11ODlEb 7+1 kop. with missing perforations R
between stamp and upper
margin (fantail top)


11lDIAa 10+1 kop. blue and brown on pale sky 250 190
blue paper

1IlDlBa 10+1 kop. "broken lance" 1000 700

11lDlEa 10+1 kop. with missing perforations 750
between stamp and lower margin
(fantail bottom)


Imperforate


108D2 69 1+1 kop. red and dark green on 2000 1500
pale yellow paper

109D2 70 3+1 kop. carmine and gray on 2000 1500
pink paper

110D2 71 7+1 kop. dark brown and dark green 2000 1500
on straw colored paper

111D2 72 10+1 kop. dark blue and brown on 2000 1500
pale sky blue paper


VARIETIES

lllD2Ba 10+1 kop. "broken lance" 5000 3000

Notes:

1. On the order of the Imperial Women's Patriotic
Society, the EZGB officially issued 1000 inper-
forate copies of the 1, 3, 7, .and 10 kop. stamps
on colored paper. These were not sold at post
office windows but were purchased from the society
by a St. Petersburg stamp dealer named Eichental
for resale to collectors. Eichental presented a
certain number of these stamps to the 33rd
Otdelenie (division) of the Petrograd post and
they were canceled in sheets with the postal
marking "PETROGRAD 33" and the date "6.9.15".
Stamps were also found with other dates (rare),
made upon request by collectors. It is possible
that individual letters, which were franked with
these stamps by collectors, passed through the
post. The values given in this catalog are Co the
used imperforate stamps having the marking
"PETROGRAD 33" and the date "6.9.15". ,


68








2. Only one example is known of the stamp 109DDa 3+1 kop. with the combination
perforation. It is in the Atate Collection in the A. S. Popov Museum of
Communication (Leningrad).

3. The valuations given in this catalog for the basic stamps Nos. 108-111 with
perforations 11 1/2 are for stamps with perforation hole diameters 0.9-1.1 mm.
The stamps with the sharp pointed teeth have a perforation hole diameter 1.3 mm. 29


Premiums to be Added to the Values of Stamps

On Cover
with Perfs: 1+1 kop. 3+1 kop. 7+1 kop. 10+1 kop.

11 1/2 +25 +25 +25 +25

12 1/2 +30 +40 +75 +30

13 1/4 +50 +1250 +50 +125

HISTORICAL REFERENCE28


At the beginning of the First World War, the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society,
according to its charter, was allowed to issue "patriotic" postage stamps with
part of the receipts deducted for the creation of a fund to aid the wounded and
the families of killed members of the armed forces. Upon the order of the society,
the EZGB prepared specimens--trial prints of these stamps, which were approved
by the society on October 7, 1914.

Previously, on September 18, 1914 the Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph
had notified the postal and telegraph establishments of the empire of the
issuance of "patriotic" stamps with values 1, 3, 7, and 10 kopeks and informed
them of the following:

a. the sale price of the stamp is designated with an additional
1 kopek for each stamp to the nominal value of the stamp;

b. the postal and telegraph levies, which according to the current
regulations are payable with stamps, could be paid with the
patriotic stamps;

c. The acquisition of the patriotic stamps and the payment for
mail with them was not obligatory and left to the discretion of
the buyer.



28Rudnikov, Yu. "To Aid the War Fighters and Their Families", K. Berngard
(additions) Philately of the USSR, 1972, No. 1, page 37.
29Aloits, V. "To Aid the War Fighters and Their Families", Philately of
the USSR, 1972, No. 9, page 42.


69








The sale of the patriotic stamps was ordered to cease on March 19, 1917 (decree
of the Minister of the Post and Telegraph No. 62338 dated August 19, 1917).
However, these stamps were found in postal circulation for a long time.


SPECIAL INFORMATION

The original designs of the stamps were made by the artist and engraver R.
Zarrinsh. The stamp format was about 33.5 x 42 mm. Chalk-surfaced paper was
used with a special coloring on the face side.

To hasten the issuance, the stamps were perforated on several machines. The
first stamps to appear in circulation on November 19, 1914, were the 1, 7, and
10 kopek values perforated 13 1/4 and, apparently, the 3 kopek value perforated
11 1/2. The 3 kopek value perforated 13 1/4 and the remaining values perforated
11 1/2 appeared later. The perforation 11 1/2 stamps "with values 1, 7, and
10 kopeks exist with three different perforation hole diameters, 1.3 mm., 1.1 mm.
and 0.9 mn The 3 kopek stamp exists with only one size perforation hole,
1.1 mm." 29

There are 100 stamps to a sheet, laid out in rows (10 x 10), without the usual
separation of the sheet into four separate panes. The printing form was made
up of plates with 25 stamps (5 x 5). In each plate of the 10 kopek stamp there
was onecliche (the 23rd stamp) with the variety "broken lance" (the lance on
the design is cut by a dash).

The gum is white and transparent.

The number of stamps prepared by the EZGB in 1914 and deliverd to the society
was 1,920,000 stamps on colored paper and 160,000 specimens.

FAKES TO DECEIVE THE COLLECTOR

The 3+1 kop. stamp is known on orange colored paper. It was chemically altered
from stamps on the pink paper. It is also known on sky blue paper.
ESSAYS28

There exist essay stamps, made in various colors with designs in various sizes.
Single color impressions are known 20 x 25.5 mm in size on thick paper and
22 x 28.5 mm in size on chalk paper (Types KK, LL, W1). These are RR.







A


KK Lt _

There is another type on ordinary grayish colored paper, printed in red, green,
brown, and orange colors RRR.

70








SPECIMENS

Specimens were issued to introduce the stamps for sale. Stamps with line perfo-
rations 13 1/4 and the 7 kop. value with line perforations 11 1/2 are known with
the overprinted word "OBRAZETS" (meaning specimen) in black ink on each stamp.

















-----"--*- -^-------i r

Valuations are 1 kop. 100, 3 kop. -75, 7 kop. perfed 13 1/4 100, 7 kop.
perfed 11 1/2 500, and the 10 kop. 75.

Specimens are known with a mirror impression of the overprint on the gum side
(offset). Valuation +150.

There is a 7 kop. "specimen" line perfed 13 1/4 with missing perforations at
the top between the stamp and the upper margin of the sheet (fantail top) R.

Imperforate stamps with the word "OBRAZETS" perforated on the stamps are also
known. T e 4eth of the perforated word is 96 m. The height of the letters
is 15 mm. Valuation for the stamp 250.



TWENTY-FIRST ISSUE

[Scott Nos. B9, B10, B12, B13]


1915 (March ?) Second issue of the postal-charity stamps to aid members of
the armed forces and their families. The designs are the same as the Twentieth
Issue with some changes in the colors. Paper is white, chalk surfaced,
unwatermarked.




30Rudnikov, Yu. "Specimens of the Postal-Charity Stamps of Russia", Philately
of the USSR, 1973, No. 7, p.33.


71
















1+1 kopek 3+1 kopek 7+1 kopek 10+1 kopek


Line Perforation 12 1/2


112 69 1+1 kop. brown-orange and gray 10 8

113 70 3+1 kop. dark rose and brownish gray 10 8

113U 71 7+1 kop. brown and blue-green (not 100
placed into circulation)

114 72 10+1 kop. dark blue and light brown 10 8


VARIETIES

112Ea 1+1 kop. horizontal pair with missing 400
perforations between and at
right between stamp and margin
of sheet

113Aa 3+1 kop. dark rose and gray 150 150

113Ea 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 250
between stamp and lower
margin (fantail bottom)

113Eb 3+1 kop. with missing horizontal 400
perforations on two sides
of the stamp, pair

113Ec 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 400
between stamp and right
margin of sheet (fantail right)

113Ed 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 250
between stamp and left margin
(fantail left)

113Ee 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 400
vertically on two sides of
the stamp, pair

113Ef 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 400
between stamp and left margin
and between stamp and lower
margin of sheet
72








113Eg 3+1 kop. with missing horizontal 400
perforations on top and
in between, pair

113Eh 3+1 kop. with double vertical perfo- RR
rations to right of stamps


114Aa 10+1 kop. blue and light brown 15 12

114Ba 10+1 kop. "broken lance" 75 50

114Ea 10+1 kop. with missing perforations 400
between stamp and lower
margin (fantail bottom)

114Eb 10+1 kop. with missing perforations 400
between stamp and left margin
of sheet (fantail left)


Line Perforation 11 1/2


112D 69 1+1 kop. brownish orange and gray 12 12

113D 70 3+1 kop. dark rose and brownish gray 8 8

113UD 71 7+1 kop. brown and blue-green RRR
(not placed in circulation)

114D 72 10+1 kop. dark blue and light brown 8 5


VARIETIES

112DAa 1+1 kop. yellow-orange and gray 75

112DDa 1+1 kop. with sharp pointed 10 8
perforation teeth 11 1/2


113DAa 3+1 kop. dark rose and gray 15 10

113DDa 3+1 kop. with sharp pointed 8 5
perforation teeth 11 1/2

113DEa 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 400
between stamp and left
margin (fantail left)

113DEb 3+1 kop. with missing horizontal 400
perforations on top and
later between stamps, pair



73








114DAa 10+1 kop. blue and light brown 12 8

114DBa 10+1 kop. "broken lance" 75 50

114DDa 10+1 kop. with sharp pointed 8 5
perforation teeth 11 1/2


Line Perforation 13 1/4


112D1 69 1+1 kop. brown-orange and gray 15 13

113D1 70 3+1 kop. dark rose and brownish-gray 18 15

114D1 72 10+1 kop. dark blue and light brown 10 10


VARIETIES

112DlEa 1+1 kop. with missing perforations 400
between stamp and upper
margin (fantail top)


113DlAa 3+1 kop. dark rose and gray 30 20

113DlEa 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 400
between stamp and lower
margin (fantail bottom)

113DlEb 3+1 kop. vertical pair imperforate 250 -
in between

113D1Ec 3+1 kop. with missing horizontal 400
perforations on two sides
of a stamp, pair

113DIEd 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 250
between stamp and right
margin (fantail right)

113DlEe 3+1 kop. with missing perforations 250
between stamp and left
margin (fantail left)

113DlEf 3+1 kop. with missing vertical 350
perforations on two sides, pair

113DlEg 3+1 kop. with missing vertical 250
perforations on left and
between stamps, pair

113DlEh 3+1 kop. with missing vertical perfo- 250
rations at right and between
stamps, pair

74








113D1Ei 3+1 kop. with missing horizontal 400
perforations at top and
between stamps


114D1Aa 10+1 kop. blue and light brown 10 10

114DIBa 10+1 kop. "broken lance" 100 75

114DlEa 10+1 kop. center shifted to the top RRR
and to the right


Imperforate


112D2 69 1+1 kop. brown-orange and gray 2500 2500

113D2 70 3+1 kop. carmine and dark gray-green 2500 2500

113UD2 71 7+1 kop. brown and blue-green 2500 2500

114D2 72 10+1 kop. dark blue and light brown 2500 2500


VARIETY

114D2Ba 10+1 kop. "broken lance" 6000 4000

Notes:

1. The EZGB officially released 500 imperforate stamps of each value on white
paper. Just as in the case of the imperforate stamps on colored paper, they
were purchased from the society by the dealer Eichental and later resold to
collectors. Some of these stamps were similarly presented to the 33rd Otdelenie
(division) of the Petrograd post and canceled with the markings "PETROGRAD 33"
with the date "15.12.16"28

2. Stamp No. 113UD, the 7 kop. on white paper perforated 11 1/2, is given in
J. Reynolds Special Catalog of Russian Postage Stamps, Part 1, 1957, published
by the British Society of Russian Philately.

3. In this catalog the valuations given for stamps 112D 114D with perforations
11 1/2 are for stamps with perforation holes 1.1 mm in diameter. The stamps29
with the sharp pointed perforations have a perforation hole diameter 1.3 mm.

Premiums to be Added to the Values of the Stamps

Combination 1+1 kop. 3+1 kop. 10+1 kop.
On Cover with perfs:

12 1/2 +20 +20 +10
11 1/2 +20 +15 +5
13 1/4 +30 +25 +10

Stamp with margin having +150 +150 +100
date of issue "1915 Yanvar"
(January 1915), CM 3b
75








HISTORICAL REFERENCE28

In December 1914 due to a shortage of colored paper at the EZGB and the incon-
venience associated with producing the paper, the Imperial Women's Patriotic
Society gave its approval to the EZGB to issue the patriotic stamps on white
paper.

All four values on white paper were approved by the society on December 18, 1914.

SPECIAL INFORMATION

The EZGB first prepared the 1, 3, 7, and 10 kopek stamps on white paper, but the
7 kopek stamp perforated 12 1/2 was not placed into circulation. Apparently,
due to a change in postal rates on September 21, 1914 from 7 to 10 kopeks for
an intercity letter and the subsequent decreased use of the 7 kopek stamps from
that date, the stock of the patriotic stamps on the colored paper appeared
adequate.

The perforation 11 1/2 stamps with value 1, 3, and 10 kopeks are known with
different perforation teeth. The blunt perfs have hole diameters 1.1 mm. The
sharp pointedperfs have hole diameters of 1.3 mm.

The number of stamps and their position on the sheets were the same as on the
previous issue. A small number of sheets were released with 50 stamps per sheet.

In the margins of most sheets the number of the typesetting cliche was printed
in the form of an arabic number -CM1, as well as the date of issue (month and
year) CM3b, in the color of the stamp's frame.

The number of cliches with the "broken lance" variety is four per sheet of 100,
and two in the 50 stamp sheet (23rd stamp in the printing form of 25 stamps).

In 1915 and 1916 th EZCB prepared 9,070,000 stamps on the white paper and
210,000 specimens.


SPECIMENS

Stamps are known with the word "OBRAZETS" (meaning specimen) overprinted in3lark
blue ink. The 1, 3, and 10 kopek values exist with all three perforations.
The most common are the 1, 3, and 10 kopek values perforated 12 1/2, the valuation
75 for each copy. Those perforated 11 1/2 have a valuation 350 per copy. The
specimens perforated 13 1/4 R. The 7 kopek stamp with the "OBRAZETS" over-
print is known only with perforation 11 1/2, its valuation 250. Imperforate
stamps are known witr the3word "OBRAZETS" perforated in a line 96 mm. with
letters 15 mm. high. Valuation of one stamp 250.


31
Prigara, S.V. "Russian Post in the Empire, Turkey, and China, and the Post
in Czrist Poland, a Detailed Reference Book," New York, 1941.





76








TWENTY-SECOND ISSUE

[Scott Nos. 108, 109]


1915-1923. Typographed printing. This is a repetition of the three-color design
stamps Nos. 74 and 75, with an embossed relief of the emblem of the postal-
telegraph administration. Printed by EZGB. On the face of the stamps there is
a chalk line (varnish line) control network of diagonally crossing lines (appearing
as vertically positioned diamond shapes). The paper is white and unwatermarked.
The stamps are line perforated 13 1/4.
















5 ruble 10 ruble


115 43 5 rub. dark blue, light green, 5 5
and sky blue (starting
in 1915)

116 44 10 rub. red, yellow, and gray 30 10
(starting in 1915)


VARIETIES

115Aa 5 rub. indigo, light green, and sky 5 5
blue (starting in 1918)

115Ba 5 rub. wide "A" in the word 50 50
"POCHTOVAYA", 13th stamp in
the sheet (starting in 1917)

115Da 5 rub. perforated 12 1/2 (1918) 50 50

115Db 5 rub. with odd perforation 13 1/4 5 5
"rough perfs" (starting
in 1918)

115Ea 5 rub. double center 800 1000


77








115Eb 5 rub. shifted center 300 300

115Ec 5 rub. shifted background 200 200






I U*









115Eb 115Ec

115Ed 5 rub. with missing vertical perfo- 200 200
rations on right and left
side of stamp

115Ee 5 rub. without chalk line (varnish 500
line) network (blue stamp)

115Ef 5 rub. without chalk line (varnish 200
line) network (indigo stamp)

1Eg 5 rub. missing perforations at top 300
of stamp

115Eh 5 rub. perfed 12 1/2 with a double 2000
center

116Aa 10 rub. carmine, yellow, and gray 5 5
(starting in 1917)

116Ab 10 rub. dark carmine, yellow, and 5 5
gray (starting in 1918)
116Ac 10 rub. dull carmine-rose, yellow 5 5
and gray (starting in 1919)
116Ba 10 rub. letters "B" and "L" in the 50 50
word "RUBLEI" are joined,
2nd stamp on sheet

116Bb 10 rub. open "O" in "10" at right of 50 50
the design, 7th stamp on sheet

78








116Da 10 rub. odd perforations 13 1/4 "rough 5 5
perfs" (starting in 1918)

116Ea 10 rub. with gray-sky blue center 5000
(printing error)
















116Ea


116Eb 10 rub. double center 1500 1500

116Ec 10 rub. shifted center 300 300

116Ed 10 rub. inverted background 1000 1000

116Ee 10 rub. shifted background 250 250

116Ef 10 rub. horizontal pair imperforate 600
in between

116Eg 10 rub. imperforate at top of stamp 300 300

116Eh 10 rub. imperforate at bottom of 300 300
stamp

116Ei 10 rub. without chalk line (varnish 50
line) network

Notes:

1. The 5 and 10 ruble stamps are known with a mirror impression of the frame
on the gum side. The 5 ruble No. 115 and No. 115Da are known with a mirror
impression of the center. Valuations are +50 Stamps with the perforations
shifted into the design are known, valuations +15 +15.

2. One sheet of the printing error No. 116Ea was found with the control mark
CM7. The sheet was unused.




79








Premiums to be Added to the Values of the Stamps

Combination 5 ruble 10 ruble

Stamp or stamps on letter +150 +125
or transfer form dated
prior to March 1917

Stamp with margin and +500 RRR +250 RRR
control mark CM5a

Stamp with control mark +25 R +25 R
CM7


HISTORICAL REFERENCE

The 5 and 10 ruble stamps were issued in 1915, on the order of the Minister of
Internal Affairs, on unwatermarked paper with a control network of chalk lines
(varnish lines) to replace the stamps of the 1906 issue with the same values.
Apparently, the supply of the 1906 issue was exhausted even though 1 million
were issued.


SPECIAL INFORMATION

The printing of the stamps was done in three steps: the background was printed
first (green for the 5 ruble and yellow for the 10 ruble stamp), the frame was
printed next and finally the center with the embossed relief of the emblem.
The sheets issued in 1915 were-printed with 25 stamps (5 x 5). In the wide
margins of the sheets control marks were printed in the form of a 'V (CM5a)
in the color of the stamp's background. The line thickness of the control mark
is 2.7 mm. This is significantly thicker than the marks on the 1906 sheets.

Beginning in 1917 the number of stamps on the sheets was increased to 50 copies.
These sheets were printed with 6 control marks inserted in the place of a stamp
cliche. The marks consisted of two opposite superimposed "V's (CM7). One of
the '""s is in the color of the background, the other in the color of the frame.
Three control marks were in the upper row, three in the bottom row of the sheet.
The positions of these marks correspond to those on the 1 ruble stamp sheet of
the 1917 issue (see the Special Information under the Eighteenth Issue).











CM5a CM7



80








The relief impression of the emblem in later issues gradually flattened and
became hardly noticeable.

The gum on the stamps is transparent, having a yellowish shade. Stamps of the
post revolution issues are also found with yellowish gum. Initially the perfo-
rations were sharp but in later periods the perforations appear as crude punctures.

The stamps were in circulation for a long time including the first years after
the Great October Socialist Revolution. They were used in great quantities in
the post revolutionary period.

An unused 5 ruble stamp of the 1915 issue can only be differentiated from the
post revolutionary issues on examples with sheet margins having the control
mark (M5a. The 10 ruble stamp of the 1915 issue has a characteristic bright
red color and is easily distinguished from the stamp of the revolutionary issue,
which was printed with carmine toned inks.

FAKES

Fakes of the 10 ruble stamp on paper with horizontal lines have been made from
stamps without the chalk line (varnish line) network (No. 116Ei). This forgery
of the rare proof stamp of 1906 (Seventeenth Issue) is readily betrayed by the
carmine color. Other forgeries with various fantastic watermarks were similarly
made from other stamps without the chalk line (varnish line) network.



TWENIY-THIRD ISSUE

[Scott Nos. 110-111, 117-118]


1916, September 10. Stamps of the Nineteeth Issue, the 7 kopek No. 95 and the
14 kopek No. 97, were typograph overprinted with new values in black ink.










KO:

10 on 7 kopek 20 on 14 kopek


117 73 10 on 7 kop. brown 5 3

118 74 20 on 14 kop. bluish-green 6 4

81








VARIETIES

117Ea 10 on 7 kop. inverted overprint 750 750














117Ea


117Eb 10 on 7 kop. shifted overprint 100 150

117Ec 10 on 7 kop. pair, one without the 7500
overprint


lSEa 20 on 14 kop. shifted overprint 150

Note: A 10 on 7 kopek stamp is known with only one "10" on the right. One
used copy was found, canceled "...OPOL 20 2 17".



1917, January 1. Stamps of the Eighteenth Issue, the 7 kopek No. 81 and the
14 kopek No. 83, were typographed overprinted with new values in black ink.











-- -- --^--l~------------~f
10 on 7 kopek 20 on 14 kopek


119 75 10 on 7 kop. sky blue 4 2

120 76 20 on 14 kop. dark blue and carmine 5 3


82








VARIETIES

119Aa 10 on 7 kop. light sky blue 5 3

119Ea 10 on 7 kop. inverted overprint 750 750

119Eb 10 on 7 kop. pair, one without the 6250
overprint

119Ec 10 on 7 kop. double overprint 1000

119Ed 10 on 7 kop. double overprint, one 3500
is inverted

119Ee 10 on 7 kop. shifted overprint 100

119Ef 10 on 7 kop. mirror impression of 50
overprint on gun side












119Ea 119Ef


120Aa 20 on 14 kop. blue and carmine 10 5

120Ea 20 on 14 kop. inverted overprint 1250 1250

120Eb 20 on 14 kop. shifted overprint 150 150


Premiums to be Added to the Values of the Stamps

Combination No. 117 No. 118 No. 119 No. 120
10 on 7 kop. 20 on 14 kop. 10 on 7 kop. 20 on 14 kop.

Stamp on cover +15 +20 +10 +15

Stamp with sheet +15 R +25 R +15 R +25 R
margin and control
mark (CM6)

HISTORICAL REFERENCE

"Due to the change in postal rates on September 21, 1914, the usage of the 7
and 14 kopek stamps subsequently diminished. It was therefore decided to

83








overprint the earlier printed 7 and 14 kopek stamps, revalued to 10 and 20
kopeks to correspond to the rates for ordinary and registered letters" (excerpted
from a circular of the Main Administration of the Posta and Telegraph, Official
Section, 1916, No. 36).

FAKES

Two types of fakes are known to defraud the post. They are overprints "10 10"
on the 7 kop. stamp of 1913 (No. 117). In both cases the overprint is made with
a handstamp. The numerals do not resemble the genuine.

An imperforate fake No. 117 stamp to deceive collectors has appeared in other
countries (outside the Soviet Union). The perforations were cut off and wider
margins were glued on and the connecting joint pressed. The place of gluing
is not noticeable by eye but is visible under an ultraviolet lamp. It is a
dangerous fake.

PROOF STAMPS

Proof stamps of 1916 are known with the overprint 10 on 7 kop. with the design
and color of the stamps placed into circulation. They are imperforate RR.


SURROGATES OF POSTAGE STAMPS

(MONEY-STAMPS)

[Scott Nos. 105-107]


1915, October. Money-stamps. Typographed printing. The designs on the face
side are the Jubilee stamps Nos. 96, 98, and 99. The reverse side is gumless
with the State Emblem and a text printed in black ink within a double frame.
The paper is thin cardboard. Comb perforations 13 1/4.














I II III



84















HNterT xoaAe-
Hie HapaeuH Cb
pa3MtHHoA ce.
pe6panHoA MOHe-
TON.



Reverse Side of Nos. I, II, III


I 57/77 10 kop. blue 20

II 59/77 15 kop. red-brown 20

III 60/77 20 kop. olive-green 20


VARIETIES

IAa 10 kop. dark blue 30

IAb 10 kop. gray-blue 30


IIAa 15 kop. lilac-brown 30


IIIAa 20 kop. green 30

IIIAb 20 kop. yellowish green 30

Notes:

1. Uncanceled money-stamps are considered symbols of money. Most of the
postally canceled stamps were canceled by request of collectors. The interesting
examples are those on covers which did pass through the mail Valuation is +500
for each letter.

2. The 10, 15, and 20 kopek stamps are known imperforate. They are printer's
waste from the EZGB. They were circulated among collectors in post revolutionary
times, when the money-stamps were removed from monetary circulation. Some were
canceled by request of collectors.

3. Forged 15 and 20 kopek stamps are known, made to defraud the government.
Forgeries of the same values were made in Germany during the war for anti-
Russian propaganda purposes. On the back of the forged 15 kopek value the



85








printed text reads "Has the circulating equivalent of a robbingdeceitful ruler".
On the back of the 20 kopek value, it reads, "Has the circulating equivalent with
bankrupt silver coins". The use of forged money symbols for postal payment is
not known.

HISTORICAL REFERENCE

Due to the shortage of silver coins during the war in 1915, new money symbols
were issued in the form of stamps with perforations, printed on thin cardboard.
The cliches of the 10, 15, and 20 kopek stamps of the 1913 Jubilee series were
used. On the reverse side of the money-stamps, the State Emblem and a text were
printed within a double frame (Design 77). The text reads "Has the circulating
equivalence of silver coins".

Letter writers occasionally used the money-stamps in place of postage stamps to
frank letters, which were delivered through the post. The use of money-stamps
for the payment of postage charges was officially allowed (Telegraph Instructions
of th2Main Administration of the Post and Telegraph, No. 8907, dated October 18,
1915).W However, it was recommended that those submitting such letters be in-
formed that the money-stamp is designated for use in the capacity of coin12and
for that reason they should not be used for the payment of postal levies.


MONEY-STAMPS

[Scott Nos. 112-116]


1916-1917. Money-stamps. Typographed printing. The designs of the Jubilee
stamps Nos. 91, 92, and 93 were used on the face side. The reverse side is
gumless with the State Emblem and value with text printed within a frame. The
paper is thin cardboard. Comb or frame perforations 13 1/4.







KO I. 1 8On.
H-A teT-
xoMAeHie Hapas-
"Ht Cb MUAHO
MOHeTOA.

IV Reverse of IV & VII VII


32Kuznetsov, D. "Postal Circulation of the Money-Stamps", Philately of the
USSR, 1974, No. 8, page 37.


86















ion- 3 io.
NiteTm
xomAenie HapaB-
Ht Cb Et AHoN
monerok.
IIO]TA CllA


VI Reverse of VI










xomAeaie Hapas-
moHeTol.


V Reverse of V & VIII VIII

IV 52/78 1 kop. orange R

V 53/78 2 kop. green R

VI 54/78 3 kop. red 30

Two of the above stamps were overprinted with a numeral of the value on the face
side in black ink.

VII 79 "1" on 1 kop. orange 30

VIII 80 "2" on 2 kop. green

Notes:

1. The text on the reverse side in four lines now reads, "Has the circulating
equivalence with copper coins".

2. Letters which passed through the mail with Nos. IV and V RRR; letters with
Nos. VI, VII, and VIII 1500 per cover.

87








FAKES

Numbers IV and V are found with cancellations which were not in use at that time
but rather much later. The valuation "R" is for a clear postal marking with
names of various places of cancellation and dated 1916-1917.

[to be continued]


Translator's Notes

Any and all errors in translation are mine. As I am not expert in the Russian
language, any misinterpretations or grammatical inconsistencies are my fault.
However, I did try to make the text readable and usable, and at the same time I
tried to keep to the original as closely as possible, which may account for
seemingly awkward sentences at times.

The author's style varied from section to section. His description of the issues
were brief words or phrases rather than sentences. However, historical information
and data were typically long multi-clause sentences.

I cannot vouch for the accuracy of the data given. One must assume that the
author has given us the facts correctly, barring typographical errors.

There are some inconsistencies which are noted below.

This third part of Lobachevski's excellent work was translated without the benefit
of the author's errata which should appear in a subsequent concluding article in
"Soviet Collector." Consequently there are numerous typographic errors, some
quite obvious, others less so though suspected.
For some unknown reason the author began to use another symbol to indicate color
varieties in one of the issues. The translation corrects this to the previously
defined and used symbols.

Some color varieties are listed as principal or basic stamps with modified colors
rather than as stamp color varieties. These have been noted with the symbol M,
for modified. A similar situation exists for some perforation varieties. When
they were given as principal stamps, the chronological number is followed by the
letter D, but when listed as a variety, the chronological number is followed by
a D plus a lower case letter, such as Da, etc.

In all cases of the above, the translation follows the original text. No attempt
was made to change it.

Soviet writers continue to use the expression "chalk line network" to define the
nearly invisible pattern of lines on the issues of 1908-1923. Most western
catalogs call this a "varnish line network." Both terms are used in this
translation.

The reader will be surprised at the lack of detail given the Romanov jubilee
issue compared to previous issues. Although design numbers are given for each
value, only a few designs are given. There are no descriptions of the stamps,
portraits or structures depicted on these stamps. No czar is mentioned by name.
This is in great contrast to the very lengthy description given for the semi-
postal issues, foi example.

88








Some varieties of the jubilee issue are given in the lists, others are simply
mentioned as part of the notes following the lists, for some reason. The
translation follows the original.

s Variety 84Ac is missing from the list although both 84Ab and 84Ad are given.

Stamp designs 37 and 38 both had the same illustration which was incorrect for
design 38. Consequently only stamp design 37 is given here.

Under the Twenty First Issue, readers will find No. 113U following No. 113.
For some reason Lobachevski did not assign a separate number to this unissued
stamp, the 7+1 kop. postal-charity on white paper, as other catalogs do. He
simply repeated the previous number with a suffix letter. To change this would
have required changes for all subsequent issues, with increased chance for
mistakes. Consequently it was left as it appeared in the original.


Editor's Note

The translation of the Lobachevski catalog of Russian Imperial postage stamps
will be completed in the next issue of the Rossica Journal. It is also planned
to publish in that issue an extensive listing of errata and corrections.

Lobachevski's original publication of the catalog was in four sections and,
beginning with section two, he provided corrections and additions to previously
published sections. In some cases we were able to incorporate these into the
translation before we went to press. In other cases, we could not. Mr.
Lobachevski has also kindly provided us with an extensive list of corrections
to his original article, apparently made on the basis of his readers' responses.

Likewise, through ignorance or carelessness, we have added errors of our own in
the publication of the Shalimoff translation. Some we already know about; there
may be others. If members would do us the courtesy of dropping the editor a
postcard detailing any other errors they find in the Rossica publication of the
translation, we would be most grateful.

All corrections known will be collated and printed following the concluding
section of the Shalimoff translation of the Lobachevski catalog in the next
issue of Rossica. As it is anticipated that this issue will go to the printers
in midsummer, we would appreciate hearing from you in the near future.

NOTICE: COLLECTORS BEWARE

Moscow philatelist Professor K. Berngard warns collectors that 1979-1981
imperforate stamps of the USSR were not officially released and that their
origin is unknown.

He also warns that a 1966 4 kop. definitive, Scott #3260, with the "4 kop."
missing was offered at auction in Germany as a proof stamp. This was not a
proof but rather a fake made by chemically removing the "4 kop." from an
ordinary stamp. Announcement of this fake will appear in "Philately of the
USSR" shortly.




89








PLATE FLAWS IN THE ARMS ISSUE OF 1909-1922

by Edward Wisewell, Jr.


Over the years I have been interested in the plate flaws of the 1909-1922 Arms
Issue. For a long time my business kept me from doing as much as I would like
to have done with my collection. However, now that the business has been
sold, I have more time to devote to assembling examples of this specialty.

In the process I have developed the following data and publish it here in the
hope that others may add to what I have found. In the paragraphs below, the
flaws are located by the stamp position on the sheet, with the stamps being
numbered in the standard manner, i.e., serially across each row of the sheet
starting at the upper left and ending at the lower right. Thus in a sheet
composed of 4 pieces of 25 stamps each, with each pane being 5 stamps by 5
stamps (the arrangement of the varieties described below), the upper left frame
contains stamps number 1 5 in row one, 11 15 in row two, 21 25 in row
three, 31 35 in row four, and 41 45 in row five. The pane in the upper
right contains stamps 6 10, 16 20, 26 30, 36 40, 46 50 in its five
rows etc.

Plate Flaws of the 35 Kopek Stamp

Flaw No. 1: Broken "3" in upper right corner
(See Figure 1) has been found on
the following:

I Perforate sheets:
a) Kred Typ. 1910, stamp #94
b) Plate No. 5 (1) stamps #23, 73
and 78
Plate No. 5 (2) stamps #51 and 60
c) Plate No. 6 stamps #3, 5, 23, 51
and 78
d) No plate no. stamps #78 and 80

II Imperforate sheets: Figure 1
a) No plate no. stamps #78 and 80


Flaw No. 2: "The Cronin retouch" in upper
right corner (See Figure 2)

I Perforate sheets:
a) Plate No. 5 stamp #9
b) Right upper pane, stamp #10
(Stackelberg collection)
c) No plate no. stamp #57

II Imperforate Sheet
a) No plate no. stamp #57

Figure 2



90








Flaw No. 3: Broken "3" in lower right corner
(See Figure 3)

I Perforate sheets:
a) Plate No. 5, stamp #69
b) No plate no., stamp #85

II Imperforate sheet
a) No plate no., stamp #85


Flaw No. 4: "Thin 3", lower left corner
(See Figure 4)

I Perforate sheets:
a) Plate No. 5, stamp #40
b) No plate no., stamp #20 Figure 3

II Imperforate sheet:
a) No plate no., stamp #20


Flaw No. 5: Double flaw, a white line connects
"5" to white circle and a white
line from "P" in "TPH4" to back-
ground (See Figure 5)

I Perforate sheet:
a) Plate No. 6, stamp #14


Flaw No. 6: Short top of "5" in lower left corner
(See Figure 6)
I Perforate sheet: -
a) Plate No. 5, stamp #85
Figure 4
II Imperforate sheet:
a) No plate no., stamp #11














Figure 5 Figure 6



91








Flaw No. 7: "3" and "5" slightly touching and
"3" is deformed near middle in lower
right circle (See Figure 7)

I Perforate sheet:
a) No plate no, stamp #40

II Imperforate sheet:
a) No plate no., stamp #40

Figure 7
Flaw No. 8: Broken "3", lower left circle
(See Figure 8)

I Perforate sheet:
a) Plate No. 6, stamp #41

Flaw No. 9: Broken "3" in top left and
right circles (probably in late
printings of perforate sheet)
with plate No. 6, on stamp #3


Flaw No. 10: 3 and 5 joined in top right
circle

a) Perforated sheet, No plate no.,
grayish paper, no watermark on Figure 8
margin, III period 1917-1922,
on stamp #21 (in Stackelberg
collection)


Flaw No. 11: 3 and 5 joined in lower right
corner on imperf sheet, No plate no.,
no watermark, III period 1917-1922,
on stamp #12 (in Stackelberg
collection


Plate Flaws of the 70 Kopek Stamp


While checking sheets of the 70 kopek arms-type, I noticed a small but consistent
flaw on both perf and imperf sheets of printing III (printing period from infor-
mation by Dr. de Stackelberg). The flaw (Figure 9) occurs three times on each
sheet. It occurs in the same position on the upper right, upper left and
bottom right panes, or on stamps #3, 8, and 58 of the entire sheet.

The flaw consists of a white blob in place of the left leg of the first "A"
in "MAPKA" in the top curved inscription. This is consistent on two full sheets
perforated roughly, also ona block of 16 with #3, a block of 18 with #3 and #8,
and a block of 24 with #8 and #58, these blocks perforated but much more
cleanly than the full sheets. I have also 2 full sheets of the imperforate
stamps on which all three of the flaws appear.

92




























Figure 9


When I checked with Dr. de Stackelberg, he confirmed my findings from his own
material and in addition noted another consistent flaw which I missed (Figure 10).













Figure 10


This is on stamp #53 in the lower left pane and is the same "A" as the flaws
I noticed. In this case, instead of the white blob, both legs of the "A" are
heavy in contrast to the thin and thick legs of the normal "A". This flaw
was also consistent on all my material.


Plate Flaws of the 3.50 Ruble Stamp


Sheets of all printings of the 3.50 ruble stamps show the following three
flaws. However, their position on the sheet varies in each printing.



93








Flaw No. 1: The top stroke of the "5" at the top of the stamp
is thicker than normal and the ball at the bottom
of the "5" is deformed into an oval shape. (See Figure 11)

















Figure 11

Flaw No. 2: There is a distinct dot in the vertical stroke of
the "0' of "!YI70BA"' on the left side of the stamp.
(See Figure 12)

















Figure 12 Figure 13


Flaw No. 3: The top stroke of the "5" again is deformed. This
time it has the appearance of a white triangle with
a dot in the lower left part. (See Figure 13)

In the first printing, 1917, on perforate 13 1/2 and imperforate sheets with
vertical watermark, no plate number, copper brown and pale green or green, the
flaws appear in the following positions:
Flaw No. 1 is on stamp #46
Flaw No. 2 is on stamp #29
Flaw No. 3 is on stamp #13
94








In the secondprinting, 1919-1920, on perforate 13 1/2 and 12 1/2 sheets, no
plate number, vertical watermark, the flaws appear in the following positions:
Flaw No. 1 is on stamp #5
Flaw No. 2 is on stamp #22
Flaw No. 3 is on stamp #40

In the third printing, 1920, on perforate 13 1/2 and imperforate (very scarce)
sheets, no plate number, horizontal watermark and varnish lozenges, the cliches
are very tightly spaced, leaving just enough room for the perforations, the
flaws appear in the following positions:
Flaw No. 1 is on stamp #19
Flaw No. 2 is on stamp #12
Flaw No. 3 is on stamp #5

Based on the positions of the flaws, the printings can easily be determined.





Plate Flaws of the 7 Ruble Stamp

This flaw, a thin vertical white line extending from the bottom of the right
leg of the "' in POCHTOVAYA on the left side of the stamp to a point just
short of the dots along the inner border (See Figure 14) appears on the following
sheets:
1) of the second printing, 1919-20, perforate 13 1/2
and 12 1/2 on stamp #31

2) of the third printing, 1920, with horizontal chalk
net, on stamp #40



















Figure 14





95








IMPERIAL RUSSIAN POSTAGE STAMPS
OF THE 1908-1917 ISSUES ON
RIBBED LAID PAPER

by 0. K. Basov

[translated by David Skipton ]


A. M. Rosselevich, the great connoisseur of Russian stamps, wrote several articles
in the pages of the "Rossica" Journal (#'s 45 & 52/53) and the "Russian Philatelist"
(#1) on the puzzles of Russian philately. He described in particular "the 1-kopek
value of the 1913 Jubilee issue (Scott #88, Yvert #77) on shiny paper covered by
dull parallel diagonal lines extending from the upper right corner to the lower
left. The lines are regular and quite distinct, about 1 mm thick with an equal
space between them. They are completely colorless and can best be seen with the
stamp held in glancing light. I found only one such stamp, cancelled among
manythousands of this issue."

Not long ago, while sorting through a large number of cancelled stamps of the
Russian Empire, quite by accident I discovered a Scott #78 with a chalky network
on paper with parallel-lined ribbing, extending diagonally from the upper left
corner to the lower right. The characteristics of these lines coincide completely
with A. M. Rosselevich's description of the Scott #88 rare variety. They are
indeed more easily observed with the stamp held at an angle to the light. Careful
study of the stamps' paper--application of benzine and observation under a micro-
scope--leads to the conclusion that these are not the dull, colorless lines of
the transparent, chalky control network on Imperial Russian stamps of the 1908-
1917 issue, but lines forred as a result of the paper having been laid, like
the lines of ribbing found on stamps of the 1866-1906 issues. This unexpected
find prompted me to more throughly check a number of 1908-1917 issue stamps
on hand. As a result I was able to discover the following stamps on laid
paper:

1. Scott #73, 1-kopek, type A 2 copies, cancels illegible
2. Scott #73, 1-kopek, type B horizontal strip of 3 stamps, cancelled
"S. Peterburg-Nikol. vokzal," serial "a", dated 1-1-10
3. Scott #75, 3-kopek, type B 4 examples with St. Petersburg cancellations
of 1912, 1913, and 1914
4. Scott #75, 3-kopek, type A 1 stamp, St. Petersburg cancellation
5. Scott #75, 3-kopek, type C 1 stamp, St. Petersburg cancellation with
no visible date
6. Scott #77, 5-kopek, type B 3 stamps with 1915 Petrograd cancel
7. Scott #77, 5 kopek, type A 1 stamp cancelled in 1911
8. Scott #78, 7-kopek, type A 1 stamp cancelled in 1911
9. Scott #78, 7-kopek, type B 3 stamps, one cancelled "Gatchina 1911"
and the other two dated 1910 and 1911.
10. Scott #79, 10-kopek, type B 1 stamp cancelled in Petrograd, 1915
11. Scott #84, 35-kopek, type B 1 stamp cancelled in 1912
12. Scott #85, 50-kopek, type B 1 stamp cancelled in 1912

96








Ratio of stamps by type:

Type A 5 stamps

Type B -15 stamps

Type C 1 stamp .
Total: 21 stamps Type A Type B Type C
(inclination
of 10-12)

Thus, 21 Imperial Russian stamps of the 1908-1917 issue were found with
diagonally-laid paper. All the examples have the transparent control network.
Comparing these stamps by their cancellations, it may be concluded that all
the stamps noted above belong to the first issues of 1908-1911 and that laid
paper from earlier stocks was used for part of their printing. The great
majority of the stamps found had cancellations of Petrograd or St. Petersburg
or of places near it. This gives us reason to suppose that the sheets of stamps
with diagonal laid paper were in use in just that area.

I think that this intriguing variety, which up to the present has remained un-
known to the wide circle of philatelists, will interest Russian stamp researchers
and prompt new information to come out.



NEW MEMBERS (continued)

1128 Richard C. Rohnert, 9 Fox Hill Road, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821

1129 Naum Volovets, 611 Argyle Road Apt. 3B, Brooklyn, New York 11230

1130 William H. Littlewood, 6220 Rockhurst Road, Bethesda, Maryland 20817

1131 Ms. Francis Adams, P.O. Box 23656, San Diego, California 92123

1132 JoAnn Harvill, Star Route Box 45, Radford, Virginia 24141

1133 Jeanne Ann Fox, 649 Park Drive, Greenwood, Indiana 46142

1134 Dr. Thomas M. Poulsen, 6672 S.W. Canyon Drive, Portland, Oregon 97225

1135 Richard Wolffers, 127 Kearny Street, San Francisco, California 94108

1136 John J, Missenis, Route 4 Box 72, Hagerstown, Maryland 21740

1137 Nancy Murray, 143 Clarkson Drive Apt. 45, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701









97








POST ST. OLGA

by Dr. Alfred H. Wortman


One would not normally expect to see so disreputable an item as an unaddressed
unused postal stationery card with its impressed stamp bearing a cancellation
reproduced in our worthy Journal. This is, however, a special case because it
does have a rare and unusual cancellation. As may be seen, it reads POST SV.
OLGA PRIM. OB. with a cross-type date 14 IX 1901 and POCHT. OTD. handstamp 1.
It is struck very clearly in black with a bluish tinge, obviously from a hand-
stamp which had had little use. (Figure 1)



BCEMITPHLIft IIO'ITOBblft C0O03T,. POCCIl .
UNIONN POSTALE UNIVEI'SELLE. HUSSIE. ?

";8 O-(TKPITOE iH lIMO. CARTr I'OtIT iE.PiT












i!at s t-'i 'it ..,. t p b nu tf ,a r'ue ,ttfj.ia ht/ rjLai'fcf. w- ( '6 '/Y r'tr', excl,'tAtepem ,t it vI'u'art. ..


Figure 1

It is, then, from the Post named St. Olga in the Maritime Region of Eastern
Siberia. This in only the second example of a "Post" cancellation seen by the
writer. The first was reported in the British Journal of Russian Philately
No. 51 of May 1975, being that of Aleksandrovski Post on Sakhalin Island.
"Post" was the name given to a military post. Many of the military posts
established in Siberia later became villages and towns; Vladivostok started as
a military post in 1858.

Consulting the map in the Offical Guide to the Great Siberian Railway, 1900,
we see that there is a St. Olga Zaliv (Gulf) marked on the coast at about a
quarter of the distance north to Nikolaevsk and there is a line showing a
steamer route to it from Korsakovsk Post in the bay which forms the South Coast
of Sakhalin Island, but there is no Post St. Olga. The Post is marked, however,
on the Post and Telegraph map of Asiatic Russia, 1914. The cancellation is of
a pochtovii otdiel, the smallest type of post office, and it may be that it
was newly established in 1900-1901.



98








Ice made navigation between Sakhalin Island and the mainland impossible in the
winter months, but mail was carried by steamers of Sheveliov and Co. once a
month from May to October inclusive on the Korsakov-Vladivostok route, calling
at Post St. Olga on the way. We may imagine some philatelically-minded official
returning to Vladivostok from a mission in Sakhalin and calling at the little
post office in St. Olga requesting an example of its cancellation. The post-
mark has been struck once only, not twice as required by the regulations, perhaps
to assuage a little twinge of conscience on the part of the compliant post-
master. He may have been afraid to refuse and, after all, he did sell a
postcard. He actually sold two cancelled as there were two of these discovered
in a mixed lot by a Mr. E. G. Peel who kindly let the writer have one of them.


AZERBAIJAN: FORGERIES OF PHANTASIES

by Gordon Torrey


In 1921-22 there appeared in Europe a series of 6 pictorial stamps purporting
to have been issued by independent Azerbaijan. Most stamp collectors have seen
these from time to time. They have the following scenes: 500 r. dark red,
a bearded old man; 1000 r. gray-green, a stone bridge; 2500 r. green, a bear
in a tree; 5000 r. orange, a peasant with sheep; 1000 r. blue, a winter scene
in the mountains; 25,000 r. olive, an oil field scene (?). Up to recently
these have been plentiful, although in recent years they have not popped up
quite as often as before. Recently the writer came across a 25,000 r. value
that looked a little different. Upon comparison with the set in my collection
of Russian related phantasies, I found that the "new" stamp was printed in a
much coarser fashion than the previous set with the lines in the design much
more blurred than the originals, which have fine lines and lettering. Both
are perf. 11 1/2. but the paper of the "new" one is somewhat thicker and the
perforation a bit ragged, possibly due to the difference in paper. Perhaps
readers of this note will run across other values of the "forgery of a phantasy."













Original Forgery









99