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 Cover
 Table of Contents
 Honored Members
 Officers of the society
 Representatives of the society
 John Lloyd obituary
 Life of the society by Gordon...
 From the colonies - Northern California...
 From the colonies - Midwest chapter...
 Minutes of the 1986 annual Rossica...
 Ukrainian philatelic and numismatic...
 The best of the worst by George...
 Riding the post roads in 19th century...
 Private registry books by David...
 Early Russian philatelic journals...
 From the history of philately in...
 The latest Rossica journal by R....
 Collecting Russian railway mail...
 19th century Russian postal ministries...
 Soviet railroad mailcar routes,...
 The 1937 issues commemorating A....
 Member-to-member adlets
 Corrections by Kennedy Wilson
 The origin of airmail in Russia...
 Imperial Russia's temporary post...
 Notes from collectors
 Rossica library acquisitions by...
 The Rossica bookshelf


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00045
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1986
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00045

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Honored Members
        Page 2
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
    John Lloyd obituary
        Page 3
    Life of the society by Gordon Torrey
        Page 4
    From the colonies - Northern California chapter by Alex Sadovnikov
        Page 5
        Page 6
    From the colonies - Midwest chapter by James Mazeppa
        Page 7
    Minutes of the 1986 annual Rossica business meeting by Kennedy Wilson
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Ukrainian philatelic and numismatic society
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The best of the worst by George Shalimoff
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Riding the post roads in 19th century Russia by Paul Shott
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Private registry books by David Skipton
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Early Russian philatelic journals and writers by Ian Roberts
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    From the history of philately in the USSR by R. Polchaninov
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    The latest Rossica journal by R. Polchaninov
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Collecting Russian railway mail by Patrick Campell
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    19th century Russian postal ministries and officials by Ian Roberts
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Soviet railroad mailcar routes, 1927-1928 by David Skipton
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    The 1937 issues commemorating A. S. Pushkin by George Shalimoff
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Member-to-member adlets
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Corrections by Kennedy Wilson
        Page 104
        Page 105
    The origin of airmail in Russia by A. Shabunin
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Imperial Russia's temporary post offices, Vremennoe IV by David Skipton
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
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        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Notes from collectors
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Rossica library acquisitions by David Skipton
        Page 151
        Page 152
    The Rossica bookshelf
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
Full Text




ROSSICA
No. 108-109 1986












"The Journal of the

Rossica Society of Russian Philately


ISSN 0035-8363











THE JOURNAL OF THE
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY

No. 108/109 for 1986

EDITORIAL BOARD: George Shalimoff, M. E. Wilson
MANAGING EDITOR & PUBLISHER: Kennedy L. Wilson



TABLE OF CONTENTS


JOHN LLOYD OBITUARY ................................................... 3
LIFE OF THE SOCIETY, Gordon Torrey ...................................... 4
FROM THE COLONIES
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA CHAPTER, Alex Sadovnikov ....................... ... 5
MIDWEST CHAPTER, James Mazeppa ...................................... 7
MINUTES OF THE 1986 ANNUAL ROSSICA BUSINESS MEETING, Kennedy Wilson ...... 8
UKRAINIAN PHILATELIC AND NUMISMATIC SOCIETY .............................. 14
THE BEST OF THE WORST, George Shalimoff .................................. 17
RIDING THE POST ROADS IN 19TH CENTURY RUSSIA, Paul Shott ................. 30
PRIVATE REGISTRY BOOKS, David Skipton .................................. 35
EARLY RUSSIAN PHILATELIC JOURNALS AND WRITERS, Ian Roberts ............... 43
FROM THE HISTORY OF PHILATELY IN THE USSR, R. Polchaninov ................ 46
THE LATEST ROSSICA JOURNAL, R. Polchaninov ......................... .. 53
COLLECTING RUSSIAN RAILWAY MAIL, Patrick Canpbell ....................... 56
19TH CENTURY RUSSIAN POSTAL MINISTERS AND OFFICIALS, Ian Roberts ......... 75
SOVIET RAILROAD MAILCAR ROUTES, 1927-1928, David Skipton ................. 79
THE 1937 ISSUES COMMEMORATING A. S. PUSHKIN, George Shalimoff ............ 94
MEMBER-TO-MEMBER ADLETS ................................................ 102
CORRECTIONS, Kennedy Wilson ............................................. 104
THE ORIGIN OF AIRMAIL IN RUSSIA, A. Shabunin ........................... 106
IMPERIAL RUSSIA'S TEMPORARY POST OFFICES, VREENNOE IV, David Skipton .... 108
NOTES FROM COLLECTORS ...................................... ........ 143
ROSSICA LIBRARY ACQUISITIONS, David Skipton ............................. 151
THE ROSSICA BOOKSHELF...................................................... 153

*







HONORED MEMBERS

Joseph Chudoba Constantine de Stackelberg


OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethesda, MD 20016

VICE PRESIDENT: George V. Shalimoff, 20 Westgate Drive, San Francisco, CA 94127

SECRETARY: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, VA 22043

TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11226

LIBRARIAN: David Skipton, 50-D Ridge Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770

BOARD OF DIRECTORS:
Lester Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90035
Samuel Robbins, 3565 Meier Street, Los Angeles, CA 90066
Howard Weinert, 500 Stoneleigh Road, Baltimore, MD 21212


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY


WASHINGTON-BALTIMORE CHAPTER: Gordon Torrey, 5118 Duvall Dr., Bethesda, MD 20016

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA CHAPTER: George V. Shalimoff, 20 Westgate Drive,
San Francisco, CA 94127

MIDWEST CHAPTER: James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park, IL 60304

GREAT BRITAIN: Raymond Ceresa, Pepys Cottage, 13 High Street,
Cottenham, Cambridge CB4 4SA


All material published in the Rossica Journal is protected by copyright
and may not be used without the written permission of the Editor.
Philatelic use of the articles, such as their reprinting in other
Journals, is encouraged. However, acknowledgement of the source and
a copy of the reprinted matter would be appreciated. Commerical use
of copyrighted material without authorization is prohibited. The views
in this Journal expressed by the authors are their own, and the editors
disclaim all responsibility.

The membership dues are $20.00, due on January 1st for all members.
Application forms are available upon request from the secretary or treasurer.
Membership lists will be sent annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue,
Brooklyn, New York 11226 USA

We have a number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in English
and Russian language editions (same). These may be obtained from Mr. Wilson.

Copyright 1986
The Rossica Society







HONORED MEMBERS

Joseph Chudoba Constantine de Stackelberg


OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethesda, MD 20016

VICE PRESIDENT: George V. Shalimoff, 20 Westgate Drive, San Francisco, CA 94127

SECRETARY: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, VA 22043

TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11226

LIBRARIAN: David Skipton, 50-D Ridge Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770

BOARD OF DIRECTORS:
Lester Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90035
Samuel Robbins, 3565 Meier Street, Los Angeles, CA 90066
Howard Weinert, 500 Stoneleigh Road, Baltimore, MD 21212


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY


WASHINGTON-BALTIMORE CHAPTER: Gordon Torrey, 5118 Duvall Dr., Bethesda, MD 20016

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA CHAPTER: George V. Shalimoff, 20 Westgate Drive,
San Francisco, CA 94127

MIDWEST CHAPTER: James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park, IL 60304

GREAT BRITAIN: Raymond Ceresa, Pepys Cottage, 13 High Street,
Cottenham, Cambridge CB4 4SA


All material published in the Rossica Journal is protected by copyright
and may not be used without the written permission of the Editor.
Philatelic use of the articles, such as their reprinting in other
Journals, is encouraged. However, acknowledgement of the source and
a copy of the reprinted matter would be appreciated. Commerical use
of copyrighted material without authorization is prohibited. The views
in this Journal expressed by the authors are their own, and the editors
disclaim all responsibility.

The membership dues are $20.00, due on January 1st for all members.
Application forms are available upon request from the secretary or treasurer.
Membership lists will be sent annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue,
Brooklyn, New York 11226 USA

We have a number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in English
and Russian language editions (same). These may be obtained from Mr. Wilson.

Copyright 1986
The Rossica Society







HONORED MEMBERS

Joseph Chudoba Constantine de Stackelberg


OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethesda, MD 20016

VICE PRESIDENT: George V. Shalimoff, 20 Westgate Drive, San Francisco, CA 94127

SECRETARY: Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, VA 22043

TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11226

LIBRARIAN: David Skipton, 50-D Ridge Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770

BOARD OF DIRECTORS:
Lester Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90035
Samuel Robbins, 3565 Meier Street, Los Angeles, CA 90066
Howard Weinert, 500 Stoneleigh Road, Baltimore, MD 21212


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY


WASHINGTON-BALTIMORE CHAPTER: Gordon Torrey, 5118 Duvall Dr., Bethesda, MD 20016

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA CHAPTER: George V. Shalimoff, 20 Westgate Drive,
San Francisco, CA 94127

MIDWEST CHAPTER: James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park, IL 60304

GREAT BRITAIN: Raymond Ceresa, Pepys Cottage, 13 High Street,
Cottenham, Cambridge CB4 4SA


All material published in the Rossica Journal is protected by copyright
and may not be used without the written permission of the Editor.
Philatelic use of the articles, such as their reprinting in other
Journals, is encouraged. However, acknowledgement of the source and
a copy of the reprinted matter would be appreciated. Commerical use
of copyrighted material without authorization is prohibited. The views
in this Journal expressed by the authors are their own, and the editors
disclaim all responsibility.

The membership dues are $20.00, due on January 1st for all members.
Application forms are available upon request from the secretary or treasurer.
Membership lists will be sent annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue,
Brooklyn, New York 11226 USA

We have a number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in English
and Russian language editions (same). These may be obtained from Mr. Wilson.

Copyright 1986
The Rossica Society






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 3




JOHN LLOYD

























John Lloyd passed away in March. He was born in France and, except for the
period 1915-1919, he lived in France where he worked as a customs officer until
1934. After moving to England, he was engaged in farming and market gardening
until 1963, and then he became a security officer until his retirement in 1976.

John started collecting stamps in the early twenties and began specializing
in Russian and Soviet philately in 1957. He won many medals at various
international exhibitions, served as secretary of the British Society of Russian
Philately for many years, and was a Fellow of the Royal Philatelic Society,
London. John was also the Rossica representative in the United Kingdomn.

I am indebted to John's daughter, Mrs. Jo Everitt, for supplying me with
much of the above information. But facts like these, however noteworthy, tell
only a small part of the story. I knew John for sane dozen years, starting with
a visit to Colchester, at which time he extended unprecedented hospitality to
my wife and me. He drove us around nearly all of East Anglia at breakneck
speeds, showing us many delightful things that most tourists would never see,
including his own magnificent gardens. His friendliness and honesty were
evident from the start. Over the years, with the debilitating effects of
emphysema gradually restricting his activities, his courage and determination
became equally visible.

One of the benefits of any hobby is the opportunity to meet interesting
people outside of one's own profession. It was a pleasure and an honor to have
known John Lloyd. Rest in peace.

Howard Weinert






Page 4 1986 ROSSICA 108/109







LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

by Gordon Torrey


Many things have happened since Rossica No. 106/107 was published in the
spring of 1986. Vice-President Dr. George Shalimoff's newsletters have kept
Rossica members informed of the Society's events. Editor-Publisher Dr.
Kennedy Wilson now has a computer to produce the Journal, and Librarian David
Skipton, returned from abroad, has acquired a photocopier in order to fill
member requests for copies of articles contained in our comprehensive library.

There was very encouraging attendance by Rossica members at AMERIPEX '86
in Chicago, and a Chicago chapter has been organized under the leadership of
Dr. James Mazepa. During the exhibition Norman Epstein and Kennedy Wilson put
in long hours and many days manning the Rossica booth which we shared with the
Polonus Society.

While Russian and related exhibits were comparatively few at this
enormous exhibition, same very fine material was on display. Zbigniew
Mikulski (Switzerland) won a large gold medal, and a special prize, for
"Russia--A Selection from a Specialized Collection 1845-1900." Rossica
members garnered a number of fine awards against strong competition. Dr.
Raymond Casey won a large gold medal for his "The Russian Post in the Far
East." Dr. Mazepa took home a gold medal for his exhibit "Kingdom of Poland:
1858-1870," and Per-Andrus Erixon received a gold medal for "Russia
1812-1912." Josef Kuderewicz won a large vermeille medal for his "Poland
Postal History: The Pre-Stamp Period." Both the Rossica Journal and David
Skipton's translation of Prigara published by Rossica gained silver medals in
the literature competition. Rossica member Bill Welch won a large vermeille
medal for editing the American Philatelist. As a member of the jury I had the
opportunity to meet numerous Rossica members during my stay in Chicago.

At STOCKHOUMIA '86 two of our members participated as jurors--Michael
Liphschutz and Per-Andrus Erixon. Several members won awards here, too.
Victor Kent earned a vermeille medal with an exhibit of "Livonian Postal
History During 180 years of Wenden and Wenden District." Large silver medals
were won by Josef Kuderewicz for "Siege of Premsyl Mail" and Moshe Shmuely
with an exhibit of "Russia: Civil War 1917-1923." The writer was awarded a
large vermeille medal for "Russian Offices Abroad."

The R. S. Blomfield, Boris Shishkin, and Rimma Sklarevsky Russia and
related material will be sold at auction by Robson Lowe in May or June 1987.
Interested members should be alert and watching for the catalog announcements.

Our annual meeting will be held at BALPEX '87 over the Labor Day weekend,
September 5, 6, and 7, 1987.






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 5



FROM THE COLONIES


NORTHERN CALIFORNIA CHAPTER

The Northern California Chapter of the Rossica Society held its first
meeting of 1986 on Sunday, February 23, in conjunction with Filatelic
Fiesta '86, the annual show of the San Jose, California Stamp Club. Once
again, there was a fine bourse and many frames of exhibits. Admission to the
bourse and to the exhibit area continues to be free.

For the meeting, we though it would be timely to review some of the
Soviet semi-postal issues. We updated our previous presentations and combined
them into one for this meeting. The resulting slide show highlighted same of
the varieties and fakes of these issues.

The photo below shows eight of the thirteen who attended the meeting at
Filatelic Fiesta '86.
























Standing: (left to right) Dave Waterman, George Shalimoff,
Michael Ann Gutter, Kennedy Wilson, Edward Laveroni
Kneeling: Alex Sadovnikov, C. Bogorodsky, Mike Renfro
[Photo courtesy of George Shalimoff and a willing passer-by]


Following the formal presentation, there was a show and tell session
which engendered same lively discussion.

The second meeting of the year was held at WESTPEX '86 in San Francisco
during April. Sane of the attendees at that meeting are shown on the top of
the next page.






Page 6 1986 ROSSICA 108/109


























Standing: (left to right) Stuart Kremsky, Tom Harper,
George Woodley, James Goodwin, and Mike Ercolini
Seated: Gary Cruse, C. Bogordosky, David Waterman, and
Alex Sadovnikov
[Photo by George Shalimoff]


The third and last meeting of the year was held on Sunday, September 7 at
the East Bay Collectors Club Stamp Show at the Oakland Convention Center.
Admission was also free at this fine show, complete with a large bourse of
your favorite stamp dealers.

For the meeting there were reports from those who attended AMERIPEX '86
in Chicago. Also, the slide show presented by Rossica (Alex Sadovnikov)
at AMERIPEX was shown. It includes some of the rarities and varieties,
cataloged and uncatalogued, of Soviet Air Mail Stamps.

Following the slide show, a show and tell session was held, and
nominations for officers to be elected at the first meeting of 1987 (Filatelic
Fiesta '87) were made.

The Northern California Chapter of Rossica is alive, well and active at
the end of 1986!

Alex Sadovnikov

0






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 7



MIDWEST CHAPTER

On November 8, 1986 the first meeting of the Midwest Chapter of ROSSICA
was held at CHICAGOPEX. Notice of the meeting was sent to all ROSSICA members
in the Midwest and six attended the meeting while interest but regrets were
sent by seven other members.

Members who attended were: Jim Mazepa (Coordinator), Tom Chastang, Peter
Bylen, Bob Pauk, David Canter, and Len Buzyna.

The following organizational procedures were discussed and adopted:

1. The group will call itself the "Midwest Chapter of Rossica" (MCR).

2. The MCR will meet three times a year at the major midwest stamp
exhibitions, viz., CHICAGOPEX, MILCOPEX, and INDYPEX. Other meetings
may be considered by groups such as the Chicago area members or
Milwaukee area members.

3. The meetings will be scheduled for two hours and include a
presentation by one of the members or a slide presentation. Time
will be allowed after the presentation for informal exchanging of
material and socializing.

4. The meetings will be open to Rossica members and all others
interested in scme area of Russian Philately.

5. A contribution of $5.00 is asked to cover postage and paper supplies.
Additional collections will be taken as needed.

6. This is a joint effort undertaken by interested collectors of Russian
area material and no "officers" as such will be elected. Jim Mazepa
has agreed to be the coordinator for the first year and will call
upon others to assist as needed.

The members present having agreed to the above procedures, the following
announcements were made:

1. The next meeting of MCR will be held at MILCOPEX, on Sunday,
March 8th, at the MECCA Center in downtown Milwaukee. Tom Chastang
will discuss his collection of the "Workers Issue."
(12:00 noon, but check at the desk first)

2. Your contribution of $5.00 should be send to Jim Mazepa at
P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park, Illinois 60304. If you do not send the
contribution, your name will be dropped from the rolls of the MCR.
Please help by sending a bank note or $5.00 in stamps.

James Mazeppa


0






Page 8 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
1986 ANNUAL MEETING

MINUTES

BALPEX '86 31 August 1986

The Annual Business Meeting of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately was
held at 12:00 noon, 31 August 1986, in conjunction with BALPEX '86 at the Hunt
Valley Inn, Cockeysville, Maryland.

Roll Call of Officers

President: Gordon Torrey present
Vice President: George Shalimoff excused; unable to attend
Secretary: Kennedy Wilson present
Treasurer: Norman Epstein present
Librarian: Howard Weinert present
Directors: Sam Robbins excused; unable to attend
Lester Glass excused; unable to attend

Members present: George Shaw, Denys Voaden, David Skipton, Rosalyn Winard,
Clyde North, Jim Gorton, Tom Waters, Joseph Taylor, Quin Shea, Robert Minkus,
William Welch, Hy Lovitz, Lee Gordon

Visitors Present: Patti Gordon, Arno Winard

The President, Mr. Torrey, opened the meeting by asking persons present to
stand and introduce themselves.

Mr. Torrey then made a few remarks regarding the state of the Society. He
pointed out that for the first time in many years, the Journal was up-to-date
and current. He publicly commended the editor and publisher for catching up
with the three year deficit which the Journal had when its publication moved
from New York to Washington. He stated that we were attempting to include
more Soviet material in the Journal in a effort to attract new members and
recent emigrees. He asked the opinion of the membership regarding whether
they wanted to return to a single number issue of 64 pages each, twice a year,
or continue with the double numbered issues of 128 pages as in the past few
years. There was a small preference for two issues a year, and the Editor
agreed to try and return to that schedule. However, he pointed out that the
next issue was well under way and contained two long articles which would be
difficult to split. As a result, it was agreed to have the 1986 issue be a
double issue, Rossica 108/109.

Mr. Torrey remarked that the membership had remained fairly static for the
past few years, with significant numbers of new members joining for a year and
then dropping out. However, he noted that there had been a significant drop
this past year, as would be detailed in the Secretary's report. He solicited
comments from the membership about how to keep new members and how to retain
older ones. There was same discussion, with several members stating what they
thought were the reasons: dues too high, rigid application of the $5.00
reinstatement fee, content of the Journal too technical, content of the
Journal not technical enough, etc. No consensus was reached except that we
would all try harder to obtain and keep new members.






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 9



0 Mr. Torrey then commented on AMERIPEX frma his vantage point as a member of
the International Jury and named the members of Rossica who had exhibited and
won medals.

Mr. Torrey reported that the Society's Board of Directors had several
proposals for future publications under consideration. Specifically he
mentioned the publication of a catalog of Imperial Russian stamps based on an
expanded version of the Shalimoff/Lobachevskii catalog published serially in
the Journal; publication in a book form of a Skipton translation of The
Nineteenth Century Russian Post (Pochta v Rossii v XIX Veke) by K. V.
Bazilevich; publication of a book currently being written by Dave Skipton and
Peter Michalove on Russian and Soviet Censor Markings; and re-publication of
pertinent parts of early issues of the Rossica Journal.

Secretary's Report:

The Secretary reported that the current membership of the Society was down to
236 active, dues-paying members. This corresponds to 281 members at this time
last year, a decrease of 45 members. After some discussion of this fact, it
was moved and seconded that the annual dues to the Society be retained at
$20.00 but that members be given a discount of $2.00 if their dues were paid
on or before 1 January of each year. The motion carried by a vote of 12 to 5.
This change will go into effect when it is published in the next Journal.

There was also some discussion of discontinuing the $5.00 reinstatement
fee. However, the Treasurer noted the reinstatement fee was a provision of
the Constitition and would require a constitutional amendment.

The Secretary pointed out that we are actively seeking articles for the
Journal on Soviet material in order to make the Journal have broader appeal
among the membership and that following the next issue, Rossica 108/109, it
was planned to return to two single issues of no less than 64 pages a year.

The Secretary indicated that sales of back issues of the Journal were going
well and that with very few exceptions, we were ccmpletly sold out of Journals
prior to Rossica 70 of the English language edition. The Secretary noted also
that there was a fairly complex pricing schedule for back issues, which had
grown up over time due to the costs of reprinting individual issues, etc. At
the present time, back issues cost $5.00 each to members and $7.50 to
non-members, EXCEPT double issues beginning with Rossica 94/95 which are
$12.50 and $15.00 resepctively, and EXCEPT for copies of Rossica 82, 87 and 92
which are $7.50 and $10.00 respectively (due to the cost of reprinting).

The Secretary requested that a new, uniform price be set for all back issues
of the Journal. After same discussion of the quality of the Journal as it had
evolved over the years, it was unanimously agreed that the prices of back
issues of the Rossica Journal should be as follows:
All issues prior to Rossica 94/95 and any single issue published
after that, $7.50 to members and $10.00 to non-members.
All double issues after Rossica 93, $15.00 to members and $18.00
to non-members.
These prices are to go into effect as soon as they are published for the
membership in the next issue of the Journal.






Page 10 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Treasurer's Report:

The Treasurer reported that the treasury was "healthy." He did not have exact
figures available of either the general operating account, the savings
accounts, or the current values of the certificates of deposit owned by the
Society.

Librarian's Report:

The Librarian, Mr. Weinert, noted that he had accepted the appointment to the
job only during the absence of the previously elected librarian (Dave
Skipton). Since Mr. Skipton had now returned, with some joy and alacrity he
was relinquishing the job back to Mr. Skipton.

Mr. Skipton began by thanking Mr. Weinert for giving the Rossica Library a
home during his absence overseas. He stated that the boxes of material would
be removed from the Weinerts' within a month or so and thereafter take up
residence in the Skiptons' new townhouse in Greenbelt, Maryland. In the
future, any requests for information or reprints from the library should be
forwarded to Mr. Skipton at his address there. [Ed. Note: see Librarian's new
address on page 2.]

Mr. Skipton stated that the Library received approximately 10 requests for
copies of articles per year, and since many of our holdings were either too
rare or too delicate to send out to members, the Board of Directors had
authorized the purchase of a copy machine for the Librarian's use.

The Librarian then presented a written report of the status of the Library as
of 1986 which is reproduced below:

I. General review.

In the past three years, the Rossica Library has expanded in number of
titles several times over. Total holdings now exceed 10,000 items, at a
conservative estimate. For the purpose of this count everything, from short
squibs in Vestnik Svyazi 4 sentences long to the 4-volume, 2,800-page Baughman
Zemstvo Collection, has been included. The reason for this accounting will be
discussed a bit later.

The library has grown very strong in 3 areas: zemstvo (lacking only the
big Schmidt, and that is on order), official imperial-period publications, of
which we have numerous examples from 1777 to 1916, and 1950s Soviet issues.
Those areas which are expected to balloon are: early Soviet (from 1923-1940),
modern Soviet (from 1960 to the present), and imperial-period secondary
sources.

II. Procurement means.

About 80% of the recent increase has come through inter-library loans and
library searches. The two most lucrative sources have been the US Army
Russian Institute in West Germany and the Slavic Reference Service at the
University of Illinois. The Library of Congress is expected to produce a
large number of additions to the Rossica Library over the next two years.
About 15% of the accumulation is due to the society exchange program. We now






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 11



exchange journals with the BSRP, the Bundesarbeitsgemindschaft
Russland/UdSSR, Harry von Hofmann's Philatelia Baltica, and purchase the
CSRP's Yamshchik. The remaining 5% has came from individual donations.

III. Membership use of the library.

In the past three years, the library has averaged about 10 requests or
inquiries per year from the membership. Part of this is attributable to a
lack of a published list of library holdings, which will be addressed as soon
as possible, but apathy or no interest in expanding personal libraries also
appears to be a reason. In any event, highlight articles on recent library
acquisitions will continue in the journal.

IV. Problems facing the library.

Due to the librarian's transfer to Europe while the library remained in
the United States, a compilation of the holdings into a subject catalog was
impossible. We have a fairly complete author catalog, but this is of
secondary importance. To make a comprehensive subject index of a library
holding over 10,000 titles is a large undertaking for one individual, a
project which could easily last several years. Any volunteers who might be
interested in helping out would be very welcome. We need people able to read
German and/or Russian who could make up bibliographies for German and Russian
publications.

Another problem which we'll be facing soon is lack of space. While
microfilm is much easier for the librarian to store and reproduce, most
members seem to prefer hard copy-xerox, copyflo, or the originals. As a
result, the overwhelming majority of the library is on paper, and that will
continue for a long time. Many binders, folders, albums and dividers have
been purchased or donated, at no cost to the Society, to house this pile, but
good-quality material of this nature is always needed. In addition, the
library desperately needs a xerox machine to save on the tremendous amount of
copying to be done in the next two years.

V. Future projects.

1. The most urgent project is compiling a subject index; we've already
covered that subject.

2. A continuous effort is being made to extract everything relating to
Russian and Soviet postal matters in the Library of Congress. Currently,
we've identified over 40 books, pamphlets and journals that the Rossica
Library doesn't have. This is the primary reason why a xerox machine is
necessary.

3. Another continuous project is inter-library loan with the University
of Illinois. Anything which has ever been published on the Russian or Soviet
posts can be obtained, if the item still exists. All that is needed is a
complete or nearly complete title, author name, place and date of publication,
and the name of the source where the cite was found. This is a lengthy
process, often taking 8-14 months, but well worth the effort. Only the Soviet
archives are closed to us.






Page 12 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



4. We hope to establish ties with the APS Library in the near future and
perhaps to integrate the British Society and Rossica Libraries to save on
reproduction costs.

5. Finally, the Rossica Library will have to be insured against fire,
flood, or theft as the cost and time necessary to replace it is already in the
thousands of dollars and thousands of hours. This is one of the primary
considerations behind plans to build up both the BSRP and Rossica Libraries
together. In the event one of them is destroyed, the other can help to
rebuild it.

Old Business

There was no old business to be brought before the meeting, most of it having
been discussed in the various officers' reports.

New Business

Appointment of a Representative in Great Britain:

The Secretary tabled a letter frcm the Secretary of the British Society of
Russian Philately requesting that Rossica appoint another member to fill the
now-vacant place of the Rossica Representative in Great Britain. This
position had been vacant since the death of John Lloyd earlier in the year.
The President, Mr. Torrey, stated that the Board of Directors had considered
this request and suggested the name of Dr. Raymond Ceresa to the membership as
an individual well qualified to fill the position. Dr. Ceresa was unanimously
approved by the members present, and the President instructed the Secretary to
inquire of Dr. Ceresa if he would be willing to accept the position.
Subsequently, Dr. Ceresa did accept and is now carried on our rolls as the
Rossica Representative in Great Britain.

Proposal of Constitutional Amendments:

Mr. Skipton presented the following proposed amendments to the Rossica
Constitution:

Article II, Section 2b: To be amended to read as follows:

"Junior membership is open to all individuals 10 to 17 years of age. Junior
Members shall enjoy the privileges of regular members except that of voting on
any proposal put forth on the floor. They shall receive the Rossica Journal,
any Bulletins, and other issues of the Society sent free to the membership."

[Last sentence previously read: "... and they shall not receive the Rossica
Journal as part of their membership."]

Article II, Section 2c: to be amended to read as follows:

"Applicants for membership shall fill out application forms provided by the
Society and shall return same to the Secretary or Treasurer, with such current
amount in U.S. currency (or equivalent) as is prescribed for the current
year's dues."

[Replaces Chairman of the Membership Camnittee with Secretary or Treasurer.]






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 13



Article II, Section 2d: to be amended to read as follows:

"Applicants shall be notified by the Secretary of their acceptance..."

[Replaces "Membership Conmittee" with "Secretary."]

Article II, Section 3: to be amended to read as follows:

"Dues to the National Society shall be payable on or before January first of
the year for which dues are to be credited. There shall be no initiation fee.
The payment of National dues is independent of local Chapter dues."

[Deletes the intitiation fee of $5.00.]

Article II, Section 3a: to be amended to read as follows:

"Any member failing to pay the National Dues within the first three months of
the then current year shall be dropped automatically from membership and shall
not thereafter be entitled to further benefits, until such time as dues are
paid."

[Changes grace period for paying dues from 6 to 3 months and deletes
requirement for delinquent dues payers to reapply for membership and pay a new
initiation fee.]

Article II, Section 3b: to be added as follows:

"Dues notices shall be sent to the membership by the Treasurer the first week
in October. Members whose dues returns are postmarked before January first
shall be entitled to a 10% reduction in dues. Those members whose dues
returns are postmarked after January first must pay the full amount."

[Establishes the requirement for dues notices to be sent out and establishes a
10% discount for dues paid before the due date, as is the case with many other
philatelic societies such as the APS and APRL.]

Article III, Section 4:

Change the sentence "He shall prepare and submit a formal written and detailed
report of the Society's finances at the last meeting of each year" to read "He
shall prepare and submit a formal written and detailed report of the Society's
finances at the Annual Meeting."

Article III, Section 5: Delete in its entirety.

[Deletes the position of Chairman of the Membership Camittee to more
accurately reflect how the Society is actually run today.]

Article III, Section 7: Amend to read as follows:

"The Librarian of the Society shall have custody of copies of all literature
collected by or donated to the Society. He shall be responsible for the
lending and recovery of all material taken out on loan by the members."






Page 14 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



[Removes the responsibility for maintaining the back issues of the Journal and
responding to orders for same from the Librarian. This change more accurately
reflects what is now done (i.e., the entire responsibility for the Journals
rests with the Editor/Publisher). ]

Affiliation with American Philatelic Society:

The Secretary tabled a letter from the American Philatelic Society inviting
Rossica to become an affiliate of the APS. The advantages of this action were
increased publicity for Rossica in APS publications and the use of their
facilities for any assistance we might need. The responsibilities associated
with this action would be that Rossica would be obligated to publish the fact
that it was an APS affiliate somewhere on its masthead in the Journal and on
other publications.

There followed some discussion regarding the appropriateness of a philatelic
organization which advertises itself as an "International Society of Russian
Philately" being affiliated with a national organization of a single country.
Presumably it could be inferred if we were affiliated with the APS that we
supported the APS stand in various matters in the international philatelic
arena. It was also pointed out that other philatelic organizations interested
in Russian philately had affiliated with their national philatelic
organizations; examples were the British Society of Russian Philately and the
Canadian Society of Russian Philately. Someone else pointed out that although
the British Society had a large number of non-British members, it made no
pretense to being an international society; likewise the Canadian Society was
really not a society at all but a commercial venture on the part of the
Canadian journal editor and a couple of assistants.

The issue was left unresolved as the Rossica Society had used more than its
allotted two hours in the meeting room, and the Society which had the room
reserved for the next period was beating down the doors.

The meeting was adjourned at 2:15 p.m., subject to the call of the President
at Balpex 1987.
Respectfully submitted,
Kennedy L. Wilson, Secretary


THE UKRAINIAN PHILATELIC AND NUMISMATIC SOCIETY

The International Society for Ukrainian Philately and Numismatics was
founded by a well-known collector Dr. Ivan Turyn, in Vienna, Austria on
January 25, 1925. The society began to publish a philatelic journal named
Ukrayinskyi Philatelist (The Ukrainian Philatelist) the same month. Mr. K.
Lissiuk, the owner of K. Lissiuk stamp company located on the famous Nassau
Street in New York City was the principal benefactor and financial founder of
the journal. A number of famous collectors united to bring out the
journal; among them were Mr. E. Vyrovyi, Mr. A. Stohman, Prof. A. Yakovliv,
Mr. A. Arnold, Mr. J. Maksymchuk, Mr. S. Gela, Mr. O. E. Peters, Dr. G.
Seefelder, Mr. C. Svenson, and Dr. R. Seichter. The publication was
originally printed in Ukrainian but as more and more foreign collectors joined
the society, principally from Germany and Austria, it became bilingual:
Ukrainian and German. Membership, however, also included collectors from
Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, United States, Soviet Ukraine, Latvia,






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 15



Romania, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Guatelmala, China, Estonia, and Lithuania.
The Ukrainian Philatelist was published until December 1939 when its
publication was discontinued as a result of the political situation in
occupied Austria. The life of our philatelic society was interrupted.

After the end of World War II a number of Ukrainian collectors including
members of the original organization found themselves in the Unted States.
The society of Ukrainian collecting was reestablished in New York City on
December 17, 1950 when a group of collectors created an initiative committee
to form Soiuz Ukrainskykh Philatelistiv (Society of Unkrainian Philatelists).
On February 25, 1951 this society was officially formed. Twenty five persons
founded the organization. All members were of Ukrainian origin and resided in
the United States with the exception of Dr. D. Buchynskyi of Madrid, Spain.
Dr. Evhen Kotyk was elected president. The first annual treasury report
showed $101.01 income and $78.79 outgo leaving the new organization $21.22 to
manage its new life. The first issue of Philatelist was printed in 300
copies. It was published in June 1951 and was edited by an Editorial Board.
Once again it was in Ukrainian. As the Society grew, Dr. E. Kotyk became the
first editor of the Philatelist. In 1953 an English Column was introduced.
Under Dr. Kotyk's management truly attractive journals appeared in 1953-1955.
The Society struggled financially during the 1960s and in 1971 a new era began
with election of Dr. G. Slusarczuk to the presidency.

The new executive carmittee and president-editor Dr. G. Slusarczuk
insured that a journal was published annually and introduced the English
language in the Ukrainian Philatelist. In 1972 an auction became a part of
the society. Initially it was to take place twice a year, but in 1973 the
auction was scheduled on January 15, May 15 and September 15. This practice
continues until the present. The auctions are managed by Mr. Val Zabijaka.
In 1972 the society changed its name from the Society of Ukrainian
Philatelists to the Ukrainian Philatelic and Numismatic Society to reflect the
numismatic interests of its members. In 1980 another era began when a new
publication made an appearance. A regular bimonthly newsletter Trident-Visnyk
edited by Mr. Wes Capar proved to be a fountain of news, member ccaments, ads,
and interesting stories--a real fun publication. At about the same time it
was decided to hold annual convention-exhibits. The first two conventions
(1982-83) took place at the beautiful Verkhovyna resort at Glen Spey, New
York. The third convention site was Springfield, Virginia (suburb of
Washington, D.C.).

The 1983 elections signaled a drive of the newly-elected executive
committee to become an international society with the election of a Board of
Vice-Presidents for the United States, Canada, Europe, and Australasia. The
membership grew to about 300 members in more than 18 countries. The Ukrainian
Philatelic and Numismatic Society has become one of the most significant and
successful specialized organizations in the United States. A number of new
publications are scheduled by members of the Ukrainian Philatelic and
Numismatic Society including a comprehensive catalog of Ukrainian Philately by
our expert Mr. John Bulat. In addition, another catalog of Cinderella stamps
prepared by Mr. B. Fessak is expected to make its appearance shortly.

The general goals of the Society are to unite all collectors of Ukrainian
material and to stimulate further research. The Society is strictly
non-political and welcomes all collectors dedicated to promotion of Ukrainian
philately and numismatics. The membership benefits are many: a






Page 16 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



well-illustrated Journal, the Trident-Visnyk newsletter, interesting auctions,
conventions, expertizing service by world-recognized expert of Ukrainian
philately Mr. John Bulat, trident course, and contact with all members
including the world's leading collectors and specialists of Ukrainian
philately and numismatics. Ukrainian philately and numsmatics have been void
of commercial speculation and the interest in and prestige of this collecting
area has been continually rising. In addition, our field offers all of us
opportunities to possess truly unique material at a reasonable cost. The
opportunities for serious research in our area is unlimited. If you are
interested in belonging to the society, send an application with $11.90 ($9.50
annual dues and $2.00 one-time address fee) to: Mr. Ihor Procinsky, 8820
Charles Hawkins Way, Annandale, Virginia 22003.

RECENT NEWS FROM THE UKRANIAN PHILATELIC AND NUMISMATIC SOCIETY

Ukrainian Diplomatic Cover Exhibit Wins Best of Show at UKRAINPEX '86.
Dr. Wolodemer Klisch was the winner of both Best of Show and the President's
Award at UKRAINPEX '86 held November 1-2, 1986 in Kerhonkson, New York. The
show and convention was sponsored by the Ukrainian Philatelic and Numismatic
Society (UPNS) which is made up of collectors of Ukrainian philately,
numismatics, and memorabilia. UPNS is APS Affiliate No. 134. UKRAINPEX '87
is planned for Vienna, Austria. Golds were awarded to Andrij Solczanyk of
Media, Pennsylvania for "Christianity in Ukraine" and Val Zabijaka of Silver
Spring, Maryland for "Ukrainian International Mails". Vermeil was awarded to
Bohdan Duma of Montreal, Canada for "SS Cyril and Methodius". Mr. Duma was
also awarded the Best Novice Award for his first time exhibit. The highest
award in Ukrainian Philately, The Golden Trident, was given to Wesley Capar of
Springfield, Virginia for his award winning exhibit of "Tridents of Ukraine".
The third annual Julian G. Maksymchuk Award went to Bohdan Pauk of Chicago,
Illinois for his work for Ukrainian philately at AMERIPEX '86.

The banquet speaker on November 1 was Dr. John Flis, President of the
Ukrainian National Association and noted writer, who spoke on the life and
meaning of Taras Shevchenko, Ukrainian poet, artist, and writer. A special
United States Post Office cancellation featuring the 125th anniversary of the
death of Taras Shevchenko was used during the show. A souvenir card featuring
Shevchenko was issued at the show. A limited number of cachets with the First
Day of Show cancellation and mint copies of the souvenir card may be ordered
by sending U.S. $1.50 per item to Paul B. Spiwak, 58 Burrstone Road, New York
Mills, New York 13417.

The remaining awards for UKRAINPEX '86 by award, title, and winner were:

SILVER: "Ukraine 1918-19 Trident Overprints" Lubamyr Hugel, "POW Mail" -
Orest Horodyskyj, "Taras Shevchenko" Andrij Soloczanyk, "1683 Relief of
Vienna and Kulchytsky" Ingert Kuzytch
BRCNZE: "Ukrainian Currency Stamps Michale Shulewsky, "Ukrainian National
Republic" Osyp Kokil, "Ukrainian DP Camps" Val Zabijaka, "Ukrainian Money"
- Stefan Webowyj, "Taras Shevcnhenko" Wesley Capar
BEST JR. EXHIBIT:"Ukrainian Postmarks on U.S. & Canadian Covers"- Chris Spiwak

Certificates of the Golden Trident were issued to Val Zabijaka and David
Belesky for their entries. The Best of Shevchenko Award was given to Andrij
Soloczanyk. One page exhibit awards were given to Michael Shulewsky, Borys
Fessak and Osyp Kokil.






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 17



"THE BEST OF THE WORST"

THE 1927 ISSUE COMEMORATING
THE 10TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION

by George V. Shalimoff


When we think of sets of stamps issued to ccmnemorate same event or
person, we usually expect to find stamps of the same size with repetitious
formats and frames. The subjects, too, can repeat or, if different, they at
least appear related in a recognizable manner.

In the period roughly from 1925 to 1932, many of the Soviet sets issued
to commemorate sane event include stamps quite dissimilar from one another.
Not only are the stamps often of different size, the graphics and frames of
each stamp can be completely different front any other stamp in the series.
One of the interesting sets of this period is the seven stamp series issued to
comnanorate the 10th anniversary of the 1917 October Revolution.

The seven dissimilar stamps are shown in figures 1-7. They were made
using four different printing methods and include numerous varieties. We
shall list and show as many as we can later, but first let us look at the
background of this issue.







m ....m ...........

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3





Figure 4 Figure 5









Figure 6 1 Figure 7






Page 18 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



In January 1926 the NKPiT (an abbreviation for Narodnii Komissariat Pocht
i Telegraph, or the Peoples Comnissariat of the Post and Telegraph) announced
a contest for designs of postage stamps to ccanemorate the 10th anniversary of
the 1917 October Revolution. Contestants were to submit not less than 3 nor
more than 21 designs which did not duplicate themselves, showing the author's
impressions of the meaning of the 10th anniversary. Designs had to
incorporate the word "POCHTA" (Post) and a numeral for the stamp's value. Ten
cash prizes would be awarded for the best designs. First prize would be 1000
rubles with lesser amounts for the others.

There were 101 participants in the contest and around 450 designs were
submitted. The entries were judged by a jury consisting of representatives of
the NKPiT, the philatelic organizations and various art organizations.

The jury felt the submitted designs poorly represented the idea of the
10th anniversary and that the designs were unsatisfactory in their technical
treatment. There was poor execution of the designs or executions that would
be difficult to adopt to massive reproduction. However, since the contest
rules indicated prizes would be awarded to the best designs, the jury
reluctantly had to choose the prize winning designs on the principle "the best
of the worst."

The selected designs are shown in Figure A which is made from a xerox copy
of a 1926 Soviet periodical (Ref. 1). Although much of the detail is lost due
to this reproduction, the following description should help the reader
identify the designs that were eventually used on the issued postage stamps.

The first prize of 1000 rubles was awarded to N. A. Tyrs of Leningrad for
two designs:

1. The first design is a geographical map of Europe and Asia with the
U.S.S.R. in bright red (Fig. A-l). This design was used for the
14 kopek value of the issued stamps.

2. The second design shows a worker with an extended hand and
outstretched arms of workers of other nations on a red field;
a steamship at sea is shown at the left (Fig. A-2).

The second prize of 750 rubles went to I. F. Smirnov of Moscow for two of
his drawings:

1. A Red Army soldier is shown with a rifle over a background of the
Moscow Kremlin towers (Fig. A-3).

2. Profiles of a worker, Red Army soldier and a peasant are shown in the
center of an eight-sided medallion with the numeral "10" in the
background. At the top are the dates "1917-1927" and at the bottom is
a troop of youths with a banner (Fig. A-4). An adaptation of this
design, the profiles, were used for the 3 kopek value of the issued
stamps.

The third prize of 500 rubles was given to P. I. Kazakevich of Tiflis for
two designs also:

1. A bold arch shows the dates "1917-1927"on a background of factories,
industrial and electrical installations. A banner with the






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 19










Pce. 2. Pc. 3. Pac. 4.









Pe. 5 Pc 6. Pa 7. PC. 8. P.c. 9.



I "TA '





PAe. 10. Pic. 11. P.c. 12. Pue. 1.









Pxc. 14. Pa. 15. Pnc. 16.

Figure A



numeral "10" is part of a demonstration pictured at the bottcn. At
the top electrical wires appear in the form of a musical scale with
notes (Fig. A-5).

2. The second design shows a lighthouse with the letters "COCP". The
light beam is split into rays separated with the words "POST" in six
different languages (Fig. A-6).






Page 20 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



The fourth prize of 300 rubles went to S. V. Ivanov of Moscow for two
designs:

1. A forest is shown at the left, a factory at the right with a radio
station in between (Fig. A-7).

2. A peasant and worker are holding a numeral "10" made of assembled
bricks. Above them is the sun (Fig. A-8).

The fifth prize of 200 rubles went to V. O. Gessner of Moscow for two
designs also:

1. A ray of light beams from a lighthouse made of the letters "CCCP"
(Fig. A-9).

2. A second design shows a wall made of the letters "CCCP". At the left
there is a crane which has just placed a buttress "10 Years" against
the wall. The background shows a disk (earth?) (Fig. A-10).

The sixth prize of 150 rubles went to V. P. Korzun, also of Moscow. His
drawing showed the earth breaking its binding chain; at the bottom lies the
broken emblem of the two-headed eagle (Fig. A-11).

The seventh prize of 100 rubles was also awarded to V. P. Korzun for two
additional designs:

1. A worker at the left points to the anniversary dates at the bottom of
an obelisk of freedom. A wreath of grain, hammer and sickle complete
the design (Fig. A-12).

2. Another obelisk of freedom is shown atop a background of a huge
hammer breaking the attributes of the previous government
(Fig. A-13).

The eighth prize of 75 rubles was given to D. S. Galyadkin of Moscow for
his design showing three typical faces of the eastern populations with a
medallion over a background of the Moscow Kremlin (Fig. A-14). This entry was
chosen for the 28 kopek value of the issued stamps.

The ninth prize of 50 rubles went to N. A. Mikheev of Moscow for a design
showing a worker breaking a chain fettering him to the soil; at the left there
is a banner with a slogan "All Power to the Soviets" (Fig. A-15).

The tenth prize of also 50 rubles was awarded to A. N. Vinogradov of
Moscow for a drawing of a sheaf of grain with a sickle and a hammer on an
anvil (Fig. A-16).

Thus the 10 prizes were awarded to nine participants for a total of 16
designs. Only three of the winning designs of this contest were ultimately
used for the issued stamps.

The NKPiT was dissatisfied with the results of the contest. Many of the
designs submitted were made by people inexperienced in grahic art and difficult
to adopt as postage stamps. The NKPiT agreed to hold a second contest as
proposed by the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia. This contest






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 21



Swas limited to members of the Artists' Association and prizes totalling 3000
rubles would be awarded by the NKPiT if the designs were better than those of
the first contest and acceptable to the NKPiT.

The jury of the second contest consisted of two representatives of the
NKPiT and two from the Artists' Association under the chairmanship of
F. G. Chuchin of the philatelic association.

The second contest attracted 19 participants with a total of 55 new
designs. The jury found the entries satisfactory and three prizes were
awarded. The winning designs are shown in Figure B.










Pc. 2. 5








Pac. 3. PHc. I. PMc. 4.


naaIm.





PHC. 6.

Figure B


The first prize of 1500 rubles was awarded to N. G. Kotov of Moscow for
three designs. The three designs were similar allegorical impressions of the
October 1917 Revolution in the form of a huge cargo truck loaded with
revolutionaries (Fig. B-l). With same modification, one of these was
ultimately used for the 5 kopek value of the issued stamps.

The second prize of 1000 rubles went to K. I. Makismov, also of Moscow.
He supplied two drawings:

1. An enthused sailor is shown with a worker loading a rifle (Fig. B-2).






Page 22 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



2. A banner with the letters "CCCP" is carried by peasants representing
five nationalities of the USSR (Fig. B-3).

These two designs were both used for the 8 kopek and 18 kopek values
respectively of the issued postage stamps.

The third prize of 500 rubles was awarded to P. I. Kotov of Moscow for a
design showing a meeting with Lenin; a row of tractors ready for plowing; a
medallion with a portrait of Lenin (Fig. B-4).

The jury recommended the NKPiT acquire two additional designs that were
submitted by branches of the Artists' Association. A design by N. D. Kazeev
of Tambov showed a scene of the October Revolution on a background of the
five-point star (Fig. B-5). Another design by M. V. Ruzheinikov of Krasnodar
showed a worker with a banner containing the anniversary dates with Lenin's
mausoleum in the background (Fig. B-6).

This second contest yielded three more designs which with the three from
the first contest provided six of the seven issued stamps. It isn't clear
from the literature if the 7th design for the 7 kopek value came from among
the contest entries. That design was made by V. Kupriyanov. His design was
then steel engraved by P. Ksidias for the issued stamp.

In 1926 a comprehensive statistical analysis was made of the principal
themes of all the submitted designs in both contests (Ref. 2). The purpose
was to determine what specific things represented the October Revolution in
the minds of the artists. The results of the first contest showed nearly 75%
of the themes involved living images of the revolution, 25% were inanimate
symbols of the revolution, 22% represented workers, 10% showed representations
of Lenin, less than 10% each showed workers and peasants, agriculture, the
world, the five-point star, construction, etc. The statistical analysis of
the second contest which was limited to members of the Artists' Association
showed essentially the same percentages. Thus there was no significant
difference in ideas by trained artists in the second contest, artists
presumably more able to meet the needs of a message on a postage stamp. Frcm
the illustrations of these "essays" shown in Figures A and B, one cannot
really say the second contest produced any great improvement over the first.

Eventually seven designs were chosen to be printed as stamps. Special
attention was paid to assure that the designs did not duplicate one another
and that each design showed a different facet of the rmmentous event. Values
were assigned and the word "POCHTA" (post) in two or more languages of the
peoples of the USSR were incorporated into the designs. Modifications were
also made to the designs, both large and small.

On September 15, 1927 the NKPiT announced in Postal Circular No. 67/346
that the series would be placed into circulation on November 1, 1927. A two
month supply would be printed and circulated until completely used up. At the
same time other current Soviet stamps of the same values were to be withdrawn
from circulation. Another circular, however, indicates the stamps were issued
ahead of time of October 15, 1927 in Leningrad, but used examples with this
date have not been found yet. The question of actual date of issue of each
stamp remains open (Refs. 5 and 7).






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 23



A listing is given below with descriptions of each stamp issued for the
10th anniversary. Included are sate known varieties or errors with
illustrations where available.




10th Anniversary of the 1917 October Revolution

(Scott Nos. 375-381)


1. 3 kop. Profiles of a worker, peasant and Red Army soldier.

Carmine red, typographed on unwatermarked white chalk surfaced
paper with a background of fine horizontal wavy yellowish lines;
frame peforated 13 (Fig. 1). 1,000,000 copies issued.

a. Imperforate (Fig. 8)

b. Missing background (Ref. 4)

c. Displaced background (Ref. 4)

d. Carmine, instead of carmine red



















Figure 8 Figure 9



Note: The yellow wavy line background is difficult to see in artificial light.
It is best observed in bright daylight. When the stamp is photographed with a
blue contrast filter, the fine background lines become readily visible (Fig. 9).
The missing or dispaced background varieties were caused during the printing
and are not to be confused with stamps having weak backgrounds. The carmine
color variety was given in the Cercle Philatelique France-URSS Catalog 1969.






Page 24 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



2. 5 kop. An allegorical design of the revolution showing hordes of
uprisers with a banner and slogan "All Power to the Soviets."
Lenin appears in the center with an outstretched arm.

Brown, photogravure on unwatermarked white chalk surfaced paper;
line perforated 10 (Fig. 2). 700,000 copies issued.

a. Imperforate (Fig. 10)

b. Line perforated 12

c. Line perforated 12 x 10

d. Pair with double perforations vertically, perforated 10

e. Annulled with a line of perforation through the center,
perforate and imperforate (Ref. 6)

f. Misperfed (Fig. 11)














Figure 10


- - - ---- - -- -













Figure 11


Note: The gum on the perforated 10 stamps has been reported as 1) white and
smooth, 2) yellowish and rough.







ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 25



3. 7 kop. Design shows the Smolny Istitute in Ieningrad, the staff
headquarters during the October Revolution.

Dark green or myrtle green, engraved on unwatermarked white chalk
paper; line perforated 10, (Fig. 4). 500,000 copies issued.

a. Line perforated 11l

b. Imperforate (Fig. 12)

c. Imperforate on watermarked paper ("Greek border with rosettes"),
called an essay in the Cercle catalog (Fig. 13).

d. Imperforate on unwatermarked thick paper (essay in the Cercle
catalog)

e. Pair with double perforations horizontally (Ref. 4)

f. Annulled with a line of perforations through the center,
perforate and imperforate (Ref. 6)












Figure 13





Figure 12


4. 8 kop. Two Red Guards, one holding a rifle, the other, a sailor, with
outstretched arm.

Dark brown center and brown frame, typographed on unwatermarked
white chalk surface paper; line perforated 13 (Fig. 3).
1,000,000 copies issued.

a. Line perforated 10 x 12

b. Gray brown center and light brown frame

c. Imperforate with annulling line of perforations in the center
(Fig. 14) (Ref. 6).







Page 26 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



d. Perforated, displaced center, annulled with perforations through
the center (Fig. 15)












Figure 14 Figure 15


Note: In Rossica Journal No. 19, 1932, S. Manzhulei states that a perforation
12 variety "exists without question." No mention of such a perforation was
found anywhere else.


5. 14 kop. Design shows the eastern part of the Northern Hemisphere with a
bold red map and white letters "COCP."

Dull blue and red, lithographed on unwatermarked white chalk
surfaced paper; frame perforated 12 x 12.
500,000 copies issued. (Fig. 5)

a. Dull blue and brick red (Ref. 4)

b. Missing red color on the northern tip of Sakhalin island
(Fig. 16)

c. Red map inverted, annulled (Fig. 17)

d. Red map displaced, annulled (Fig. 18)

e. Annulled with perforations through the center,
perforate and imperforate (Ref. 6)










Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18


Note: Some bleeding or penetration of the red color to the back is observed,
especially on used examples washed off paper.







ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 27



6. 18 kop. An allegorical picture showing unity of the USSR represented by
six nationalities of the union: a Russian, Ukranian,
Belorussian, Azerbaijani, Armenian and Georgian. The figure
at the right is carrying a banner with the letters "CCCP."

Blue, typographed on unwatermarked white chalk surfaced paper;
frame perforated 12 x 12. 500,000 copies issued (Fig. 6)

a. Pale blue color

b. Imperforate at top (fantail) (Ref. 9)

c. Imperforate at left (fantail) (Ref. 8)

d. Imperforate at right (fantail) (Ref. 8)

e. Imperforate annulled with perforations through the center
(Fig. 19)

















Figure 19


Note: The inperforate stamp of this value mentioned in the 1948 Soviet catalog
was said to be a fake made from a fantail with perforations removed from the
remaining three sides. Fantails with large selvedge at the top have a blue
line in the margin (Ref. 7).


7. 28 kop. The faces of three different races appear within a medallion
over a faint background of the Moscow Kremlin.

Olive brown, photogravure printed on unwatermarked while chalk
surface paper; line perforated 10. 300,000 copies issued
(Fig. 7)

a. Line perforated 10

b. Line perforated 10 x 10






Page 28 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



c. Imperforate (Cercle catalog)

Note: The design of the three faces in the medallion on the 28 kopek value has
been interpreted differently by several Soviet writers. The Soviet catalog
says they are workers of the world representing the union of nations. An
early Soviet article said the three figures represent workers of the USSR,
China, and India with the slogan "Workers of the World Unite" around the
medallion encircling the figures. This may have been true for the contest
"essay" (Ref. 3) but on the issued stamp there is no slogan around the
medallion. A more recent Soviet writer cites the Postal Circular No. 67/346
of 1927 where it states the figures represent a Russian worker and eastern
people (a Hindu and a Chinese man). That author felt this design meant the
unity of Russians with the eastern peoples of the USSR, ccupleting the unity
theme of the 18 kopek stamp which represented six nationalities of the USSR
(Ref. 5).

Most of the modern popular stamp catalogs list only the perforate and
imperforate varieties of this issue and none of the annulled varieties.
Whereas there appears to be agreement about the different perforate and
imperforate varieties, one should mention that through the years Soviet
catalogs listed no imperforate varieties for the 18 and 28 kopek stamps. The
1980 Soviet catalog also states that the 3 and 7 kopek imperforates were not
in postal circulation and lists them only unused. The 5 kopek imperforate
stamp is listed both unused and used, presumably meaning this imperf did reach
post office windows or the CTO cancellers.

Stamps with annulling perforations are primarily stamps that had same
production defect, such as misperforation, lack of perforations, or displaced
printings. The main reason for annulling is to prevent placing these
defective stamps into circulation. The defect may have been only part of a
sheet but because accounting is usually made on whole sheets, one finds
seemingly normal stamps annulled as well. Stamps may also be annulled because
they were removed from circulation or did not quite meet printing requirements
such as color, multiple impressions or lack of impression.

In most cases annulled stamps were placed on sale at philatelic stores.
Whether such stamps should be included in a catalog of postage stamps involves
the question and philospohy of whether only postally issued stamps should be
catalogued or anything and everything that comes out of a government printing
office. That argument is beyond the scope of this article.

The listing above of this 10th anniversary issue should not be considered
complete. There undoubtedly are other varieties, misperfs, misprints, or
annulled stamps that will crop up in auction sales now and then. All of these
hold considerable interest for the collector, even if their designs are only
"the best of the worst."



Acknowledgements


Figures 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 17, and 18 are from the A. Sadovnikov collection.

Figures 11, 15, and 19 are from the N. Volovets collection.






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 29



References


1. B. R., Sovetskii Flatelist, No. 10, 1926.

2. A. Larionov, Sovetskii Filatelist, No. 11, 1926.

3. F. G. Chuchin, Sovetskii Filatelist, No. 9, 1927.

4. S. Kristovnikov, Sovetskii Kollektsioner, No. 2, 1928.

5. V. Karlinskii, Sovetskii Kollektsioner, No. 3, 1965.

6. M. Kabanov, Filateliya SSSR, No. 9, 1985.

7. V. Karlinskii, Filateliya SSSR, No. 8, 1968.

8. V. Kropina, Filateliya SSSR, No. 3, 1982.

9. V. Aloits, Filateliya SSSR, No. 3, 1983.




ROSSICA MEMBER ADDRESS CHANGES



190 J. V. WOOLLAM, 27 Sandford Walk, Exeter EX1 2ES, England
488 HANS IRMANN-JACOBSEN, Vaekeroeveien 28, 0281 Olso 2, Norway
574 C. ANGUS PARKER, Argyll Etkin Ltd., 48 Conduit Street,
London W1R 9FB, England
698 REV. L. L. TANN, 61 Wheeleys Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham,
West Midlands BI5 2LL, England
735 MARTIN CERINI, 21 W. 12th Street, Huntington Station, NY 11746
790 GEORGE B. SHAW, 7596-J Lakeside Village Drive, Falls Church, VA 22042
843 PHILATELISTISCHE BIBLIOTHEK, Rosenheimer Str. 5, 8000 Munchen 80,
West Germany
917 LEE GORDON, 3404 Terrapin Road, Baltimore, MD 21208
923 ROBERT W. STUCHELL, 1027 Valley Forge Road #211, Devon, PA 19333
937 PAUL SHIROCHENSKY, 1220 Johnson Drive #60, Ventura, CA 93003
961 ELIZABETH L. BLAKE, 185 Haight Street, San Francisco, CA 94102
1033 RONALD A. CZAPLICKI, P.O. Box 1812, Bellflower, CA 90706
1038 MICHAEL ZAITSEFF, 77 The Crescent, Hamebush West, NSW 2140, Australia
1049 ANTHONY NIKISCHER, 14 Leigh Court, Randolph, N.J. 07869


(continued page 101)






Page 30 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



RIDING THE POST ROADS IN 19TH CENTURY RUSSIA

by Paul Shott


Public use of state operated post roads was common in 19th century Russia.
The traveler rented from the authorities a vehicle, driver, and horses in order
to travel from station to station. Where railroads were absent, public posting
or traveling with post-horses was utilized as an important means for
transportation. By surveying the experiences, recollections, and attitudes of
travelers in the 19th century, interesting insights into the difficulty of long
distance travel can be ascertained.

It required 17 years, frma 1817-1834, to pave the 500 mile Moscow-St.
Petersburg Post Road. When ccTpleted in 1834, it was Russia's first
weatherized highway. (Ref. 1) Several thousand more miles of post road were
stoned over, but the vast majority were unpaved. At the end of the 1880s,
more than 112,000 miles of postal routes traversed the Russian Empire. (Ref.
2) Post roads were everywhere, but their efficiency was questionable. Many
post roads near large cities were also public highways where private carriages
were allowed. An English merchant in the last half of the nineteenth century
characterized Russian post roads in general as "Looking-glass slipperiness in
the winter; inaffordable mud in spring; simonms of dust in summer; lakes of
slippery horrors in autumn..." (Ref. 3)

Since most post roads were bare earth and maintenance poor, the overall
consensus by many travelers was that they were terrible and riding over them
was difficult and treacherous. Once you started out there was no assurance
you would arrive at your chosen destination, or with your body in the same
physical condition. Some foreign tourists were so terrified that they
prepared their last will and testament. (Ref. 4) The Russian saying, "You can
travel on them for forty days, but won't get anywhere," was close to the
truth. (Ref. 5) Another assessment of the post road network was "...not via
mala [but]...via diabolica." (Ref. 6) The "complaint book," required by law
to be available at all post stops, contained a variety of riding vexations.
The majority of entries were regarding bad road conditions and physical
discomforts. (Ref. 7)

Every conceivable hardship was endured by passenger and driver, including
horses, in all seasons. Drowning and death by collision were frequent.
(Ref. 8) Winter travelers might never be seen again. In the winter of 1866,
for example, on the Moscow-St. Petersburg road, between 250 and 300 bodies
were found in the spring strewn along the route. (Ref. 9) Passengers were
known to lose noses, ears, cheeks, toes, and feet due to frostbite. Careless
postillions and riders were found frozen in their vehicles. Post-drivers were
particularly vulnerable to physical injuries. Horribly scarred faces and
frostbite maladies were their trademarks. They developed spinal disorders and
"mental paralysis" because of constant jolting. (Ref. 10) Dusty roads caused
a range of unhealthy maladies. Inflammation of the eyes, or opthalmia, was
the most serious. This disability was virtually impossible to prevent unless
passengers were to sleep or keep their eyes shut for long periods of time.
(Ref. 11)

It was not unusual for individuals to break bones, or to injure skulls due
to severe bouncing. (Ref. 12) Passengers suffered loose teeth, joint






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 31



dislocations, bruises, and fractures. (Ref. 13) Some even arrived in a
semi-camatose state. (Ref. 14) One frequent traveler to Russia said, "...you
should possess a well-knit muscular frame and good tough sinews" to ride over
these roadways. (Ref. 15) Coping mile after mile was unbearable to the
American scholar George Kennan over a section of the Trans-Siberian Post Road
in the late 1800s:

"a bad, rough road...will jolt a man's soul out in
less than twenty-four hours. I was so exhausted that
I could hardly sit upright and my spine ached so
violently and had become so sensitive to shock, that
I had tried to save my head by supporting my body
on my bent arms until my arms no longer had any
strength." (Ref. 16)

It was argued that constant violent shaking affected the digestive system,
and was recommended that passengers avoid rich foods and limit all forms of
alcohol. (Ref. 17) Many intrepid tourists, however, were convinced rocking and
bouncing was invigorating and therapeutic. The noted Russian writer, Anton
Chekhov, believed his hemorrhoids, headaches, bloodspitting, and coughing
vanished. (Ref. 18) The French diplomat Pares found it gave him his daily
exercise needs and aided in hypochondria. (Ref. 19) Another said it relieved
her rheumatic pains and increased appetite. (Ref. 20)

A significant contributing factor to bodily injury and death was excessive
speed and reckless driving among the professional post-drivers. Fast and
furious galloping over broken roads was the norm. "The trot is a pace despised
by postillions and nothing but a breakneck gallop will serve them" was an
assessment. (Ref. 21) Pushing horses and vehicle to the utmost was the single
greatest cause of deaths on the post roads. (Ref. 22) Bolts, clamps, screws,
and wheels were replaced routinely at every stop. (Ref. 23) An explanation for
this behavior was that there was little sport in Russia and driving
tempestuously was a form of national recreation. (Ref. 24)

The full agony of cross-country travel occurred on post roads at the
fringes of the Empire that were nothing more than broad clearings and required
postillions to have topographical knowledge of the countryside. (Ref. 25)
They would pick their way from station to station. The following was typical
of road blazing in the 1860s:

"I want to go to Evanofsky." "Well," said the yeamshick
postillionn), "that is the road." "Where? I see no road."
"Ah, yes! But I'll find one." And with that he turned
the horses' heads at right angle to the straight road we
were on, lashed, screamed, and succeeded in plunging us
across a deep, wide ditch into what appeared to me to be
an endless, pathless expanse of stubbled and unstubbled
ground; tree, shrub, fence, post-house, or hut, there was
none to mark the route as far as the eye could reach. (Ref. 26)

Mental distress and psychological punishment was no less frequent
than bodily injury. Depression and hysteria were commonplace as a result of
mingled feelings of pain, fear, and fatigue. It was suggested that nervous
people should never ride over post roads for extended distances. (Ref. 27)






Page 32 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Many routes acquired sinister reputations because of dangerous conditions.
The stretch between Achinsk and Krasnoyarsk, for example, on the Trans-Siberian
road, a distance of 15 miles, had such notoriety. It was known as Kozoolka
after the post-station Kosulskaya, and the utterance of Kozoolka brought terror
to the hearts of travelers. (Ref. 28) Suffering from psychological trauma over
this run, Anton Chekhov said in 1890, "One becomes so depressed that the
mysterious Kozoolka begins to appear in one's dreams in the form of a bird with
long beak and green eyes..." (Ref. 29) In 1888 Governor-General Ignatiev,
riding over Kozoolka, found the ride excruciating and ordered the arrest of the
contractor responsible for the upkeep. (Ref. 30) The frequency of these
physical and mental disorders can be better understood with the knowledge that
it was the practice to ride night and day on post roads, stopping only for
change of driver and horses. (Ref. 31) In the 1840s, for example, the journey
between Moscow and St. Petersburg could be accomplished in about 48 hours of
posting. (Ref. 27)

The post-vehicles also intensified physical and mental anguish. The
tarantass, a springless but functional contraption, was the summer conveyance.
It was called by one, "a four-powered horror." (Ref. 4) Count Pahlen named it
a "horse-powered liver-massaging device." (Ref. 23) Kate Marsden referred to
it as, "Tarantass rheumatism, perpetual internal and external suffering."
(Ref. 14) One figure composed a colorful tune from the cadence of the jolting
and sang to the rhythm: "A man must be an errant ass to drive in a
tarantass." (Ref. 32) F. Burnaby in 1878 described his winter posting-sled
like being in a coffin:

There is in the Tower a singular instrument of torture,
invented by some diabolical genius of the Middle Ages.
It is called the "Scavenger's Daughter." The victim
who was wedded, as it was termed, to this fiendish
contrivance could not make the slightest movement, his
limbs and body being compressed into the smallest of
space. Of such a nature was the sleigh in which I was
travelling. If Dante had ever been placed in a similar
predicament, he undoubtedly would have added yet another
way of punishing the ungodly to the long list of torments
in his "Inferno." (Ref. 7)










S- .4, I ,




A TARANTASSLF






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 33



Aware that posting was a dangerous undertaking, even for the most rugged
individual, same people prayed and made the sign of the cross before setting
out, or drank a toast. (Ref. 33) Russians were wont to say after road travel,
"ne dai Bog" God grant that we shall never see the like again.


REFERENCES

1. Golovine, I. Russian Under the Autocrat Nicholas The First. 2 Vols.
London: Colburn, 1846, p. 106.

2. Zaborsky, K. and Gudanov, E. "Internal Transport in Russia," Russia: Its
Trade and Commerce (A. Raffalovich, Ed.), London: Orchard House, 1918,
p. 264.

3. Sala, G. A Journey Due North. London: Bentley, 1859, p. 170.

4. O'Donovan. Memories of a Traveler in Russia. London: R. Anderson, 1883,
pp.4-5.

5. Collins, D. P. Overland Explorations in Siberia, North Asia and the Great
Amur River Country. New York: Appleton, 1864, p. 5.

6. Seebohn, H. The Birds of Siberia. London: Murray, 1901, p. 29.

7. Burnaby, F. A Ride to Khiva: Travels and Adventures in Central Asia.
London: Casswell, Peter and Galpin, 1878.

8. Holderness, M. Journey from Riga to the Crimea by Way of Kiev.
London: Sherwood and Jones, 1823, p. 86.

9. Morley, H. Sketches of Russian Life. London: Chapman and Hall, 1866,
p. 21.

10. "Siberia," Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine 54 (July-December 1848),
p. 76-91.

11. "Travel to the Crimea," The Edinburgh Review 35 (August, 1844) p. 298-368.

12. Custine, A. The Empire of the Tsar. 2 Volumes. London: Longman, 1839.

13. Sears, R. An Illustrated Description of the Russian Empire.
New York: Hurst, 1881.

14. Marsden, K. On Sledge and Horseback to Outcast Siberian Lepers.
London: Record Press, 1892.

15. Wallace, D. Russia. 2 Volumes. New York: Cassell, Peter, and Gallpin,
1877.

16. Kennan, G. Siberia and the Exile System. 2 Volumes. New York: Century,
1891.

17. Wohl, O. The Land of the Czar. London: Chapman and Hall, 1875.






Page 34 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



18. Simons, E. Chekhov, A Biography. Boston: Little and Brown, 1962.

19. Pares, B. My Russian Memoirs. New York: AMS Press, 1961.

20. Dashkaw, E. Memoirs of the Princess. 2 Volumes. London: Colburn, 1840.

21. Abbott, John. Narrative of a Journey from Herat to Khiva, Moscow and St.
Petersburg. 2 Volumes. London: Allen, 1884.

22. "Tours in the Russian Empire, The Quarterly Review Magazine 68
(December-March, 1841): p. 411-22.

23. Pahlen, K. K. Mission to Turkestan. London: Oxford Press, 1964.

24 Kohl, J. G. Russia and the Russians in 1842. 2 Volumes.
London: Colburn, 1844.

25. Miche, A. The Overland Siberian Route from Peking to St. Petersburg.
London: Murray, 1849.

26. Morley, H. Sketches of Russian Life. London: Chapman and Hall, 1866.

27. Murray, J. A Handbook for Travellers in Denmark, Sweden, and Russia.
London: Murray, 1849.

28. Chekhov, A. The Unknown Chekhov. Translated by A. Yarmolinsky.
New York: Noonday Press, 1954.

29. St. George, G. Siberia. New York: McKay, 1969.

30. Gowing, L. Five Thousand Miles in a Sledge. London: Chatto and Windus,
1889.

31. Cottrell, C. Recollecting Siberia in the Years 1840 and 1842.
London: Parker, 1842.

32. Whishaw, F. Out of Doors in Tsarland. London: Longman and Green, 1893.

33. Graham, S. Peter the Great. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1913.







Notes from: "Khronika" in "Zhizn i Tekhnika Svyazi," 1924
(translated by David Skipton)

MAIL BY HYDROPLANE. It is proposed to begin an air route between Sevastopol',
Yalta, and Evpatoriya on June 4th. It would connect Sevastopol' and Yalta
twice daily and Sevastopol' with Evpatoriya once daily. Mail would also be
sent with the planes, thus speeding up delivery to those towns by a day.
(May, No. 5, 1924, p. 157.)






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 35


PRIVATE REGISTRY BOOKS

by David Skipton


For most of its existence the Russian Post kept very detailed records of
transactions, especially those dealing with official correspondence, insured,
money or registered mail, and royal mail. Such careful bookkeeping and
copymaking kept many clerks employed for years, writing or re-writing records
in longhand. Precise accounts were necessary in the event of lost or damaged
mail, not to mention the oarpilation of statistics. As long as mail volume
was relatively low, the Post could afford to keep its own records in this
manner.

Tremendous industrialization and the dramatic increase in numbers of
private firms from the 1860s on put mounting pressure on the Post. More
businesses meant more business mail, whether it was from one firm to another
or firm to customers. Those enterprises often amassed great amounts of
registered letters at a time, and when a ocmpany's agent appeared at a post
office with a bulging sack of mail, the unlucky postal clerk would have to
enter each one in a registry book, and that would take hours, if not days.
This was hard on the Post, as it slowed down other mail operations, and it was
most inconvenient for business. Something had to give.

WpM"m nI f acTU. kun.rt.
"Carl Ferrein, Moska B













eMoscoumm ndr





1 369





Figure 1






Page 36 1986 ROSSICA 108/109


Something did, around the turn of the 20th century. (This surmise is
based on the fact that Khrenovskii's 1892 publication on postal regulations
for private mail contains no mention of private registry books, and the 1885
"Compendium of Postal Regulations and Instructions for the Postal
Administration" also says nothing about them. Therefore, the change in policy
had to came between 1892 and 1902, the earliest recorded year for this marking
thus far (See Figure 1).) The Post-and-Telegraph Adminstration decided to let
firms or individuals who frequently sent registered mail maintain their own
registry books. Philatelic proof of this can be seen in Figures 1-2.


3AKA3HOE. '
G. Koeppen & CO
M osc w.& TINSCHR El BEN.
Moscow.















So ooo. IR '=-.






Figure 2

The firm of Carl Ferrein in Moscow used a one-line handstamp reading
"Received [and entered] in private logbook" (lPMIT 170 HALCTHOFI KHITE) It
was applied with pink ink on this registered cover to London of 9 March 1902
(Figure 1). The handstamp was for the Post's benefit, not the Ferrein firm's,
as it was the Post that needed to know where the records were kept in case of
complaint. Figure 2 shows a G. Koeppen & Co. registered letter to Zeulenroda,
Germany, posted on 18 September 1905. The 3-line handstamp at top has the
word "registered" in Russian and German, with the third line the phrase
"Received [and entered] in private logbook".






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 37



What follows is a translation of the salient articles in the 1909
Compendium of postal regulations.

"Article 131: Registered mail may be presented to the Post [using] special,
private "registry logbooks" (7VOABATFJ7CHAH CIfFA) which have been prepared
by the senders themselves according to the established procedure (see
Appendix 1). Using such logbooks, senders may present their registered mail
not only to the post office which issued or approved the logbook, but also to
all other establishments where registered mail is accepted for dispatch.

Note: Private registry logbooks may be prepared by postal establishments
at the sender's expense.

Article 132: An individual or firm wishing to present registered mail to the
Post using these private registry logbooks must give notice to the proper
postal establishment and present the logbook itself. Each logbook must be
numbered and bound [to prevent pages from being surreptitiously removed or
switched DMS]. The logbook will be signed by the chief of that postal
establishment and an official seal applied to it.

Article 133: Registered mail intended for presentation to the Post using
private registry logbooks must be properly entered in the logbooks by the
senders themselves, in accordance with the columns' designation. The postal
official who accepts the registered mail must make sure that it is correctly
franked and entered in the logbook, and then attest to that by applying a
postal handstamp in the necessary column of the logbook.

Artcile 134: If the senders so desire, special columns may be added to these
registry logbooks on the left-hand side of the pages for the senders' private
notations and business bookkeeping. Such entries are not to be checked by the
postal official, and therefore at the top of the aforementioned columns there
must be an inscription "The Post-and -Telegraph Administration is not
responsible for the content of these columns".

Article 135: Special receipts for registered mail presented to the Post by
firms using these private registry books shall not be given out, because the
postal official's handstamp in the logbook column takes the place of a
receipt. (Art. 133)

Article 136: A private registry logbook will be used until all pages are
filled. At the end of the calendar year a line shall be drawn across all the
columns. Under the line the new year's date will be entered and the same date
[sic] put on the top of every left page thereafter.

Article 137: In the event that a large amount of registered mail entered in
these private logbooks is presented to postal branch offices at railroad
stations all at once, the Post-and-Telegraph Administration will not take upon
itself the obligation to send that mail out with the next departing post
train."



"* "Podavatel"' literally means "he who gives, turns over to", here rendered as
"registry" since that was the book's function. [DMS]






Page 38 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Appendix 1 is shown in Figure 3, the "title" page of a logbook. From top
to bottom it reads "Private [Registration] Book / for keeping records of
registered correspondence, turned / in by (such and such individual or firm)
to / establishments of the Post-and-Telegraph Administration. / This book was
issued at (name of office) / (to such and such) / (binding) / Patron's
address.

Figures 4-5 represent what the pages should look like when filled out.
The first three columns on the left page are for the registration number, when
the C.O.D. amount (if any) was received, and the value of the item sent. For
these entries the Post-and-Telegraph Administration refused responsibility.
Columns numbered 1 through 10 were for: 1) The one-up sender's identification
number; 2) month and date; 3) type of mail (i.e., registered letter, wrapper,
postcard, etc.); 4) addressee's name; 5) address (city); 6) weight; 7) C.O.D.
amount; 8) place for postal datestamp; 9) "receipt" of the postal clerk, i.e.,
his signature and what he accepted from the patron; 10) remarks (by the postal
clerk).

Finally, Figure 6 shows the rules of use printed in each private registry
book. Points 1-7 are essentially a rehash of the preceding instructions.
Point 8 informs the logbook owner that he must present the book to the clerk
who originally signed for a registered item in the event that item is returned
undelivered, and the owner wishes to reclaim it. The same thing held true if
the item was lost and the sender wanted to collect his 10 rubles (the amount
for any registered item regardless of actual worth). Point 10 forbade the
owner of such a logbook to send registered items in the normal fashion, i.e.,
simply presenting a registered letter to a post office without entering it in
his records, and point 11 prohibited making corrections or erasing anything on
his own. Erroneous entries had to be marked out and the correction entered
above it in red ink, then taken to a postal clerk for his attestation that the
correction was legitimate. Changes to the C.O.D. amount were completely out
of the question.

From the writer's experience, such private registry book notations are
not easily found. Given the large number of firms operating in Moscow alone,
however, they should be more easily obtained. Thus far only firms in Moscow
have been noted with these handstamps, but other cities should also produce
them. More examples are needed to determine when this policy came into
effect.


Sources Consulted:

1. "Sbornik postanovlenii i rasporyazhenii po Pochtovo-Telegrafnamu
vyedcmstvu", v dvukh chastyakh. Chast'pervaya. Pochtovaya. Izdanie
Glavnago Upravleniya Pocht i Telegrafov, S. Petersburg, 1885.

2. Khrenovskii, A. Ya., "Pochtovyya pravila dlya chastnoi Korrespondentsii",
3-e izdanie, ispravlennoe i dopolnennoe, S. Petersburg, 1893.

3. "Postanovleniya po Pochtovoi chasti", Chast'I., "Pravila pochtovykh
snoshenii," utverzhdeny Ministrom Vnutrennikh Dyel 9 Yanvarya 1909 r.,
Izdanie Glavnago Upravleniya Pocht i Telegrafov, S. Petersburg, 1909,
pp. 31-32 & 265-268.







ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 39








f ^-- .- .. .. ..*- '
Zia.



"I p (o. za eN2 1.




-t ^
ACTHAHO ABATEEKAZ ...
!:;. ,.'- :.-->

a 3anicKIL 31amabix o0TIIpaBmemii, IIoaBa-
e-)Ix (mamiu.m mo.tapot. uau ympeciedenie.w / ,
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Page 40 1986 ROSSICA 108/109




3a coAepzaaie s3Tax rpabrii no'rloBo-Teaerpaf-
Hoe Bt!OMCTBO He oTBr;ilae. .
SPoAl HanMenoBa-
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ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 41






:Mtcro aome- IloroTBD PocnacBa noqo-
....~. itfaro maa-
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Page 42 1986 ROSSICA 108/109




S- I4. ; '- '- -, -..,:z





P A B II J A.
.L RYr O -.pameia
'" ,ay ry 9anciua oca To.IbO ;asuaL Opaena,
- :. BT TOMS cri H oTnpaBjenia c. HaTooeHars aaaTe;eMls.
.., 2) IIozxejanmia cAaTs a noqry saasma8r oTnpaBAenlia Ao.XIn;U
r- 6 npe;aapHre.Ho sanmcan noasaeTe.ie a 3Ty Knnry cor.macno
HaHMeHoBaHiio rpasi om 1-R go 7-2 BI:.'iioqITe.TIo. rpaq)H 8-a n 9-a
"3aO".AiH O TCH IIOTOBLTMI nIpieM HE OMT.
.3) B' rpa$# 3-1 o6o3HaiaeTca poAS ornpaBimeHii: unncbbo, 6an-
A epo. UnoTOBTaJ EapToqKa.
4) Bi rpa# 6-fi npocrTameaeTca Bs'C ua;-Aaro oTnpaBieHia n
". oTaxL, npn ieun qsacTb IoTa upunmiaeTc 3a la nrmi .ior; nanp., ecan
UICLMO BCHTBh 1'/I2 OTa, (O.IJKHO nICaTm 2 .OTa U T. A.
S5. "" 5) B, rpa4't 7-' no6onamaeTca nrf)paiiH cyyma na-omennaro
a 3ananoe OTmpaBsenie njaTema, ecin me anaa3noe oTr[panenie oezn
J naxoenHaro nIaTema, TO Ba 3TOf rpaifrl np noBAiTcn epTa. '
".;. ... 6) 3anncannrn ni rnry oTnpaE.iJenia nojarI(nTC Ha IRnoTy InIp
"3TOl InnrII IIo'ITOUilf npiemnUkIIi, npOBtpuH, upaBiLtbnnoc onj.aTIm
a.'aH. S uxS orTnpaBeCHiil n SanIIICH uxII pocnncuiaeTcn bI rpaq(lt 9-i
cb HazoseHiewsI noIToBaro mTeMnc.n Bsi rpa)l 8-i1i.
"; 7) Osna'ieHnaa Bs npeA)iii;yuikemIB ny"ynTI pocunrc;a noqTonaro
pieMmHnasa saauEnael r BsuaBaeBiymo no~aBaTeammre norronylo pocnncay,
f.'.:. noseMy BO BctxT, TJxB c.yvaaxi, iorla Tpe6yeTcn npelaazx enie poc-
n.ca., B3aM'BHI TanOBoml oxmna fium npeACTaBaaeMa aTa .nnra.
I8) =.a o6paTHaro noayqenia cd nor no3BpaineaHaro n e Mcra ..
,.-.::. **'. HasnaeHia samaasnoro OTInpiBTeHi, noganHaro no aTOjH ar, O.aLo ..
'npefasanaT TaiOTsypo HmoHanwKy, BuAaiouHeCy 3sa8Ia3H ornpanBenin,.
N.-.OTOp.ift Xjaenr Ba rpac -10-A eaAeanisanyo orTTrsy. IIe3aBH-
o c-' CO ero, orTnpInTe.isb oJaen, pocnucnuaTaca odnieycTaHOBaeIumIu :: ..
IOPa. nopar031' BS nomnaTelacofl. KHnr. BI qaCTHOIl HOAaBaTeJcRKOfi
l.*HHI AsaeTca oTM-tTra Ba cyqiaf sBaasi BsonHapam;eHia sa rTpa-
qeHHoe Ha noqrT' 3aasnuoe br6paBaeHie.. .- .
., 9) B% c.iyia'B yrpaTr ceii aHnra. A3 noj.TyeHia o6paTHO 3ara3-
SHoro ompasBeHia air B"sHarpaaefeia sa yTpareneoe na noq'r or-.
apawBenie npumlEHaeTca TOTr Me nopaAOas, maroni co6.1xoaieTCH npi
yTparT noIToToia poencKc -
S"10) OmipanIiTeo, HMtiroIuemy ay anry, He BoapaHneTca no .::a-'..
SaTb tra norry sanalsHa ornpaB.Temia H ouon BeLoseHia nopa;oai. -.:',
,11) IIofncrTn n nomapsn BI aDTof nnrir He gonycraiocn. Omn- .,
.osqHaI saannc O.HHs I 6U nepeCepKHyTLi, acnpaBaeHie nanicano
csBepxy xp)acHEm iepnaHHaaM H cna6feno oroBoploi, 3a noniriac ..."
." nosTOBaro npieMtnrnEa. IIcnpan.eHie B6 o6o3HarieHi cyMMa naIo,ea-
i aro n.aTema BOBCe He eO YycI;aeTca.





: Figure 6.

Figure 6






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 43



EARLY RUSSIAN PHILATELIC JOURNALS AND WRITERS

by Ian W. Roberts


It was the great Dr. Johnson who once said: "Knowledge is of two kinds.
We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information about
it." This remark applies to stamps and postal history as much as any other
subject. This article sets out same data about early Russian philatelic
journals and writers which has not previously been collated in the hope that
it will help readers to know where to look for information.

Nineteenth-century Russia produced a number of specialist journals, the
so-called "fat magazines" (tolstye zhurnaly); for example, both the army and
navy had their own periodicals with an official and non-official section.
The postal and telegraphic department was no exception, and its magazine was
one which is familiar, by name at least, to serious students of Russian
postal history. It was called the Pochtovo-Telegrafnyi Zhurnal and was
published by the Chief Directorate of Posts and Telegraphs from 1888 to 1916.
The journal's immediate ancestor was a miscellany (sbornik) of instructions
published first by the Telegraph Department from 1873 and subsequently by the
joint Postal and Telegraph Administration from July 1884. The first editor
was one of the department's officials, N. E. Slavinskii. He also wrote the
section on the Telegraph Department in the official history of the Postal and
Telegraph Department which forms an appendix to the history of the Ministry
of Internal Affairs published in St. Petersburg in 1902. This history was
one of a series commemorating the centenary of the various ministries
established by Alexander I in 1802 shortly after his accession to the throne.

From 1882 to 1892 both parts appeared in one volume and there were 24
issues a year. Beginning in 1892 it was decided to publish the official part
every week, while the unofficial part appeared every month until 1913. With
the outbreak of World War I the number of issues dropped to ten in 1914 and
six in 1915 and 1916. None was published in 1917. After the revolution the
magazine lingered on for a short time until 1919.

The magazine is a mine of information on Russian postal matters and has
been used extensively by writers on Russian postal history, both Soviet and
foreign. The Rossica library contains a useful bibilographical tool, a
photostat copy of an index of articles published in the journal which was
compiled and issued in Moscow after the revolution in 1929.

One of the most prolific contributors to the journal was Nikolai
Ivanovich Sokolov, an official member of the Postal Telegraph Department who
wrote the section on the Russian Posts in the official history published in
1902 mentioned above. His first article entitled "A Short Sketch of the
History of the Postal Administration in Russia" appeared in two parts in
April and May 1893. Thereafter he was a regular contributor until 1911 on a
variety of historical subjects. Two of his articles were reprinted as small
books. The first on the early Russian post in Russian literature was
published in St. Petersburg in 1900; the second entitled "The St. Petersburg
Post in the Reign of Peter the Great" appeared in 1903.






Page 44 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Another author who continued to write after the revolution was M. Yu.
Shedling whose first article on the International Postal Congress in
Washington appeared in July 1897. Shedling is also the author of a short
book on the Russian Postal and Telegraph Museum published in Leningrad in
1926 to camoemorate the 50th Anniversary of its foundation. A copy of this
book may be found in the British Post Office Archives.

Mention should also be made of two other official journals published for
postal and telegraph officials. These were the Pochtovo-Telegrafnyi Vestnik
(published in Kishinev from 1910 to 1913) and the Pochtovo-Telegrafnoe Ehkho
(published in St. Petersburg from 1913 to 1916). Both journals contain an
occasional historical article. In addition, there appeared in Kharkov four
volumes of translations from the UPU journal called Pochtovyi Soyuz (Postal
Union). These were published on a monthly basis from 1875 to 1876, 1877,
1883, and 1884.

Besides the official journals, there were a number of commercial
publications. The first to be published was called Marki (Stamps) which was
an illustrated monthly with a Russian and French text published in Kiev. The
editor/publisher was a dealer called S. D. Solamkin who issued a price-list
of stamps of the world in 1897. The first issue appeared on 12/24 March
1896. In 1897 the journal became the official organ of the Moscow Society of
Stamp Collectors and then ceased to be written in French as well as Russian.
Publication ceased in 1901. The contents of the magazine include articles on
a variety of subjects, including the detection of many forgeries which were
found at that time.

The Moscow Society of Stamp Collectors had its first meeting in
September 1883 and had a troubled existence in its early years since the
authorities, in the years immediately following the assassination of
Alexander II in 1881, believed that its meetings were a pretext for other
activities. In 1887 the Governor General of Moscow imposed a ban on
meetings, rescinded it the following year, only to reimpose it in January
1889. However, the Society continued to meet, and it was not until after the
1905 Revolution that it was able to publish its first official rules in 1907,
to be followed by a special jubilee edition in 1908.

In January 1897 a second monthly appeared in St. Petersburg entitled
Vsemirnaya Pochta (Universal Post). Its editor was I. I. Kreving who had
published a catalogue of zemstvo stamps in 1889. It did not last long and
ceased publication in May 1898. As with Marki, articles were on a variety of
topics, including a long series on zemstvo stamps in 1897.

In the 20th century there appeared another magazine in St. Petersburg
called Marki i Kollektsioner (Stamps & the Collector). This was published
twice a month from 1903 and once a month from 1905 to 1908. 1909 saw only
nine issues and the last issue was that of March/April 1910. The text was in
Russian and German and the editor/publisher was Yu. Yu. Shtauf.

1913 saw the appearance in St. Petersburg of an illustrated monthly
called Filateliya. This ran until 1916 when only ten issues appeared. The
original editor's name was V. V. Shvamberg and the publisher was a dealer on
the Nevskii Prospekt called E. Kh. Eikhental'. The contents were of the same
general nature as in the previous magazines.






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 45



Finally, in February 1914 another periodical appeared in Kiev called
Illyustrirovannyi Zhurnal Marok Russkii Filatelist (Illustrated Stamp
Journal Russian Philatelist). It was a bi-monthly and appears to have
lasted only until September 1914. Besides articles on stamps, there was same
material on postcards.

All these publications, with the exception of the Pochtovo-Telegrafnyi
Zhurnal, are not easy to find, although the Library of the British Society of
Russian Philately contains a fine collection of the early ccmnercial journals
donated by J. H. Reynolds. They provide a valuable insight into Russian
philately and postal history before 1917.



NEW ROSSICA MEMBERS

1233 GARY L. CRUSE, 3631 Dunbar Court, Freemont, CA 94536
1234 RICHARD R. SCHNEIDER, 9215 Hidden Creek Drive, Great Falls, VA 22066
1235 IAN W. ROBERTS, 20 akwood Ave., Purley, Surrey CR2 1AQ, Great Britain
1236 SEMYON BRAYMAN, 28023 Berkshire, Southfield, MI 48076
1237 STEFAN KARADIAN, 7127 Brookridge Drive, West Bloamfield, MI 48033
1238 ROBERT W. MURDOCK, 50 Cleveland Avenue #7, San Jose, CA 95128
1239 HENRY KNIPERS, P.O. Box 5846, Bellingham, WA 98227
1240 MICHAEL ANN GUTTER, 3447 Hcmestead Road, Santa Clara, CA 95051
1241 RICHARD DALLAIR, 435 James Court, Falls Church, VA 22046
1242 DR. BARUCH HURWICH, 31 Shmaryahulevin Street, 96-664 Jerusalem, Israel
1243 BARBARA A. ROHRBAUGH, 125 Russell Avenue, Rockport, ME 04856
1244 JUDITH MEEK, 6845 W. Crandall, Worth, IL 60482
1245 PETER BYLEN, P.O. Box 411238, Chicago, IL 60641
1246 DR. GEORGE B. LOAN, 1306 So. Barclay Street, Bay City, MI 48706
1247 BILL WELCH, 706 Sunset Road, State College, PA 16803
1248 DAVID M. GARY, P.O. Box 928, Mercer Island, WA 98040
1249 NATHAN DRUET, 428 Ridgefield Road, Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514
1250 GERMAIN R. TREMBLAY, 2826 Redwood Avenue, Thunder Bay,
Ontario P7C 1Z2, Canada
1251 BORIS LERNER, 1332 So. Cape Way, Lakewood, CO 80226
1252 ANATOLY KOVALEFF, 5 Dawkins Ave., Seaton 5023, So. Australia, Australia
1253 HEINZ FINCKE, c/o Jorge Freese, 74 Heiler Str., D527 Gummersbach,
West Germany
1254 LLOYD C. KANNENBERG, 279 Winter Street, Weston, MA 02193
1255 PHILLIP R. SHAFER, 14208 N.E. 75th Street, Redmond, WA 98052
1256 IVO JEROEN STEYN, Loosdrechtseweg 4, 1215 S W Hilversum, The Netherlands
1257 LEON SELLARDS, 310-B Ayesbury Circle, Deland, FL 32720






Page 46 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



FROM THE HISTORY OF PHILATELY IN THE USSR

by R. Polchaninov

[Reprinted from 'Novoye Russkoye Slovo',
New York, 27 July 1986,
in the column 'Collector's Corner']

translated by George Shalimoff and David Skipton


In Russia prior to the October Revolution there were many philatelists,
among whma were sane great experts. There were philatelic societies,
journals and bulletins published, and, of course, stamp dealers prospered.
Philately in Russia lagged a bit behind that of Western Europe, but no one
interfered with philatelists' international correspondence, exchanges of
stamps and knowledge, or subscriptions to journals and catalogs. Philately
was seriously pursued by people who were more or less well-off, namely
townspeople and scholars of the population's upper strata.

To the Bolsheviks who seized power, philatelists were an 'alien class
element', and the blows inflicted by the new power on the so-called
bourgeoisie turned out to be especially heavy for collectors in general and
philatelists in particular.

In spite of the preconceived attitude of the communists toward stamp
collecting, philatelists somehow managed to obtain legalization of philately
in Soviet Russia. Some philatelists pointed out to the nation's new landlords
that stamps of Imperial Russia and the newly-formed governments of the civil
war period could be sold abroad, thus obtaining hard currency for them. A
decree of the All-Union Central Executive Carmittee's (VTsIK) Central Famine
Relief Committee (POMGOL) followed soon thereafter. Izvestiya VTsIK #72 of 20
March 1922 announced the appointment of Comrade Chuchin as "the POMGOL Central
Committee's representative in Russia and abroad for stamp donations."

Fedor Grigor'evich Chuchin was never a philatelist, but he was an old
Bolshevik, and at that time this was the most important and decisive
consideration in appointing someone to this or that post. On 21 September
1922 he was appointed the Representative for Philately and Scripophily, and
also Editor of Soviet Philatelist, the first issue of which came out that same
month.

Quite a number of journals and pamphlets for collectors appeared in 1922.
Russkii Kollektsioner, for instance, began publication in Novocherkassk, and
others appeared, too. In 1985, Filateliya SSSR (No. 9), under the heading
"Turning Faded Pages," printed several paragraphs from Russkii Kollektsioner
and chose the following extract from an old note entitled "On the First Issue
of Priural'skii kollektsioner":

"... Instead of dissipating our forces, wouldn't it be better to rally
all Russian collectors around one banner, the outline of which is already
sufficiently drawn, and produce monthly handbooks containing articles of a
serious nature? This rather than subsisting on themes such as "all possible
stamps of Tibet," or some such? This is an important question, and as far as






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 47



the journal we are contemplating is concerned, its external and internal
appearance should be more pleasing than Krymskii Kollektsioner (Crimean
Collector)."

Whether the Soviet philatelists heeded this advice to "rally around one
banner," or whether pressure was exerted on them, all of these Crimean, Ural,
and other journals closed down, and the only philatelic journal that remained
was Chuchin's Soviet Philatelist. I don't know who did his editing or who
actually compiled the stamp and paper money catalogs than even today
collectors call "Chuchin catalogs."

On May 4, 1923 the VOF (Vserossiiskoe obshchestvo filatelistov--
All-Russian Society of Philatelists) was founded; the name was changed to the
All-Union Society of Philatelists in August 1924, but the initials remained
unchanged. These events went unnoticed by A. A. Mil', the author of the entry
in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE), 1977, who asserted that the All-Union
Society of Philatelists was founded in 1966.

From 22 to 30 June, 1924, Moscow hostea a conference on the creation of
the Filintern (Filatelisticheskii international)--an international philatelic
society of collector-workers. Its appearance was welcomed by all branches of
the VOF and at the same time by the Soviet Esperantists. According to
Sovetskii Filatelist No. 7 (23) of June 1924, Chuchin opened the conference
and gave the main address, declaring that "within the Filintern and through it
we will not only adhere to all the rules of international philatelic ethics
but also watch to make sure others uphold them." It was in this spirit that a
program for the Filintern's central organ was developed, the first point of
which advocated "propaganda of the international union of philatelist-workers
of all nations for the struggle against organized philatelist-dealers." Later
in the program it spoke of the "wide popularization of ideological philately,"
about "introducing Esperanto into philately and thus the establishment of
lively communication between philatelists around the world."

Philatelists, scripophilists and Esperantists achieved their goals. They
were allowed to collect stamps and paper money, publish bulletins, journals
and catalogs, and, most important, to conduct foreign exchange. Seeing that
hard currency could be obtained for stamps and paper money, the Soviet
authorities also hoped to spread communist propaganda among the foreign
proletariat via philately, scripophily and Esperanto. A statement about
profits from the sale of stamps and paper money is found in Sovetskaya
Kultura dated 10 March 1983 ("In those distant years"): "In the financial
report for November 1922 it was indicated that the finance office of the VTsIK
received deposits worth 2,970,00 rubles on the organization's account."

After the aforementioned philatelic societies were begun in July 1924, an
"All-Union Philatelic Association of Socialist Soviet Republics" was formed;
it too was entrusted to Chuchin. According to an article on the creation of
the Filintern in Sovetskii Filatelist No. 7, 1924, this association was called
the "State Philatelic Organization," to distinguish it from the other two,
which worked as public entities. Its fate and functions are obscure and
mysterious. The fact of the matter is that the SFA (Soviet Philatelic
Association) was created to replace the Organization of the Representative for
Philately and Scripophily, by decree of the VTsIK and RSFSR Sovnarkcm, on
25 October 1926. Meanwhile, the All-Union Philatelic Association ceased to






Page 48 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



exist, that is to say, faded away by itself without any published VTsIK and
Sovnarkam decree to that effect.

The First All-Union Philatelic, Scripophilic and Numismatic Exhibition
was held in Moscow from 15 December 1924 to 15 February 1925. Organized by
the Presidium of the All-Union Philatelic Association and Board of the
All-Russian Society of Philatelists, this combined exhibition was intended to
lay the groundwork for creation of the All-Union Society of Collectors, which
turned out to be under the total control of the very same Chuchin, the
Representative for Philately and Scripophily.

All went according to plan, and on 25 December 1925 the First All-Union
Congress of Collector-Philatelists, Numismatists and Scripophilists was held
in Moscow. This congress saw the creation of the All-Union Society of
Collectors-VOK-into which were merged the All-Union and All-Russian
Societies of Philatelists.

As near as one can judge, by 1924 all the tiny, independent journals had
ceased to exist. The only ones remaining were Sovetskii Kollektsioner,
established in January 1924 (or earlier?) and edited by V. A. Bessonov and
F. G. Chuchin's Sovetskii Filatelist, which first saw print in September 1922.
In January 1925 the first issue of the Philatelic International's organ
appeared--Radio de Filintern-under the editorship of L. K. Eichfuss.

In 1926 all three journals started to be published under one cover, while
still preserving the numeration of each and same semblance of independence
from one another. On the cover of the January issue (1926), the three titles
were placed in a column; they retained their lettering style from previous
issues. Several reasons were given in the editor's article explaining to the
readership why it was necessary to combine the journals, but I think the main
reason was a desire to subordinate all Soviet collectors (and even the foreign
ones through Filintern) to their own man--Chuchin.

The last combined issue with all three titles came out in December 1927.
It contained Sovetskii Filatelist No. 12 (76), Sovetskii Kollektsioner
No. 12 (48), and Radio de Filintern No. 12 (36) with articles in German and
English. One can imagine how surprised the readers were when they received
the January 1928 issue. With no explanations whatsoever the coexistence of
the three journals was ended. The cover bore only one title--Sovetskii
Filatelist-and while one section still contained articles in English and
German under the old Radio de Filintern rubic, there was no mention of editor
Eichfuss.

For contemporaries, though, it may be that the end of co-existence was
not so unexpected. In December 1927 the Third Regular Congress of the
All-Union Society of Collectors was held in Moscow. The course of the
Congress and the general situation in which preparations for it were made
showed signs of conflict and even fights among collectors. The lead article



Ed. note: This is not quite correct. The first issue of Sovetskii
Kollektsioner was dated January 1925, and thereafter the journal was published
biweekly, so that the December 1925 issue was a joint one, numbers 23-24 for
1925. See editor's note at end of article.






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 49



of the January 1928 issue of Sovetskii Filatelist alluded to some kind of
"non-party foursome" which had convened a so-called June plenum of the VOF
Board, using the VOF opposition to "strengthen petit-bourgeois ideology." A
few lines later, "The VOF opposition, perhaps in general not even wanting to
do so, slid into friendship and cooperation with a third force (i.e.,
anti-cammunist elements--TR], consciously violating Soviet laws and
regulations and disrupting Soviet society."

The lead article concluded with the hope that with the "efforts of the
small cadre of the Society of Collectors and the most conscientious members of
the VOK," they would succeed in dealing with the opposition. The author's
wish (he was the journal editor) came true: "the small cadre" dealt with its
numerous opposition. True, during all this, Chuchin himself couldn't hold on
to his high titles. On 15 February he was relieved of the journal editorship
and management of the Soviet Philatelic Association "at his own request" and
vanished without a trace. That his exit was not at his own request is evident
from the attacks on Chuchin after his fall.

For instance, an article entitled "Ringing the church bells [and]
ignoring the religious calendar" by Gviana Mavrikieva (a pseudonym) in
Sovetskii Kollektsioner, No. 1 (101), 1930, answered the satirical article in
the January issue of Prozhektor and quoted from it: "One day at the back of a
5-kopeck school notebook I happened to read a declaration of the Society of
Soviet Philatelists. It was printed in bellicose and pathetic [sic] terms;
beating their breasts, the authors swore their devotion to the ideas of
October and Leninism, and recalled the terrible days of the old regime, when
the tsarist jailkeepers, having driven philately underground, mercilessly
strangled everything new and beautiful until after the bloody days of 1905.
Finally, we read on the cover, came the dawn of a new life and, having been
released from the convict's clanking fetters, philatelists could do some real
full-scale work among the masses! Finally, taking a deep breath, they could
spread their wings and escape the gendarme's grasp! Finally, for the first
time in history, fearing no devilish repressions, philatelists could openly
build a renewed concord of stamp collectors on Marxist lines! ... This
pathetic document was published about a year ago." Gviana Mavrikieva replies:
"This is all correct if we do not consider the fact that this whole classic
delirium was written eight years ago, not one, and not by the "Society of
Soviet Philatelists," but by one of its avowed ill-wishers (see the editorial
"Our Tasks" in Sovetskii Filatelist No. 1, 1922, by F. G. Chuchin. Not only
was he never a philatelist, but he regarded philately with unconcealed
prejudice.) And if comrade A. Zorich (the author of the critical article--RP)
had approached the matter more conscientiously and less negligently, he would
have noticed that on the 1924 notebooks repeating this pseudophilatelic babble
it was not the "Society of Soviet Philatelists" that published them, but the
very same F. G. Chuchin, Representative for Philately and Scripophily."

We do not know why Chuchin was removed or what happened to him, but it is
difficult to believe what is said about him in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia
(GSE) (1978): "... died on 15 January 1942 in Moscow... the organizer and
editor of the journal Sovetskaya Filateliya ... Beginning in 1924 he was
involved with pedagogic and scientific work in Moscow. A private pensioner
from 1931."






Page 50 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



First, the journal edited by Chuchin was called Sovetskii Filatelist, not
Sovetskaya Filatelia. Let's assume that was an inadvertent error; but what
follows in GSE is patently false.

From all that I've said and on the basis of documents in my possession,
one can see that Chuchin left philately on 15 February 1928, so that he could
not have been in "pedagogic and scientific work ... beginning in 1924." And
"a private pensioner from 1931" can hardly be true. If one believes the GSE,
Chuchin was born on 17 February 1883; thus it seems unlikely that he would
have retired at the age of 48.

In 0. Ya. Basin's Filatelisticheskii slovar' (Philatelic Dictionary--
published by Svyaz', Moscow, 1st ed., 1968, 2nd ed. 1976) it says "Sovetskii
Filatelist-a monthly magazine issued in the USSR from 1922 through 1927 by
the All-Russian Society of Philatelists. When that society was renamed the
All-Russian Society of Collectors, the journal's name was also changed in 1928
to Sovetskii Kollektsioner. It was issued until 1932."

One cannot entirely agree with this information either. Sovetskii
Filatelist was not published "through 1927," but up until June 1928 inclusive,
and the last issue of Sovetskii Kollektsioner was put out not by the VOK but
the Soviet Philatelic Association and the All-Russian Society of Philatelists.
On the last issue's cover it says the 1933 subscription period for Sovetskii
Kollektsioner is now on, and the journal is referred to as the organ of the
All-Russian Society of Philatelists and the Philatelic International.
Obviously, the end of Sovetskii Kollektsioner in 1932 came suddenly and
unexpectedly.

The year 1933 was the last for organized philately. It was also the last
for many philatelists. The only thing that continued to exist was the Soviet
Philatelic Association--a state commercial enterprise selling Soviet stamps to
foreign dealers, those Soviet philatelic veterans still alive, and schoolboys.
Due to a lack of stamp albums, these latter were forced to glue their stamps
into school notebooks.

In the first edition of GSE (Moscow, 1936) there is an entry for
"Filateliya." Only after the death of Stalin did it finally appear in the
second edition of GSE, 1957. The entry is short and primitively written,
stating that philately encompasses not only the collecting of postage stamps,
but also "revenue stamps and so on. Philately used to include collecting
paper money (scripophily)." Only in the third edition of the GSE (1977) is
there an article on philately that will not make one blush with shame.

It is known that a gathering for school children-collectors (and that
only for Ukrainians) was held in Kiev on 20-22 September 1936. The next year,
on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the October Revolution, adult
philatelists were allowed to hold an exhibition at the A. S. Popov Central
Museum of Crnmunications.

Interest in stamps rose noticeably in the USSR after the end of WWII when
a large number of veterans returned home with, as they say, "trophies" of
stamp collections.






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 51




From 10-15 August 1946 an "Exhibition of Soviet Postage Stamps" was held
in Leningrad to ccmnemorate the 25th anniversary of the first Soviet issues.
Later it was shown with great success in Kiev, Moscow, Minsk, Tbilisi, Erevan,
Baku, and Tashkent.

For a long time Soviet philatelists believed that the first Soviet issues
had come out in August 1921. So it was thought under Chuchin, and so it was
reinforced in the 1955 and 1968 catalogs published by the Main Philatelic
Office in Moscow. Then Soviet philatelists discovered that the first stamps
were based on a design by R. Zarins--a hand with a sword cutting a chain--and
issued in 1918. Yu. Parmenov was the first to write about this in an article
entitled "The First Soviet Postage Stamps," published in Sovetskii
Kollektsioner No. 3, 1965.

Just by this discovery alone, perhaps, can we judge the progress of
philately in the USSR over the past two or two and a half decades.





[Ed. Note: This article discussed the rather convoluted history of the three
primary philatelic journals published in the Soviet Union in the years shortly
after the revolution. There is, however, a common thread throughout the
publication of these journals which does not came out in the article. As a
consequence, I have prepared the following "road map" to indicate the
historical sequence of events in the publication of these journals as they
traded names back and forth, coalesced into a single journal, then changed
names twice more, and finally just simply went belly up following the
December 1932 issue.

Each of the journals can be identified by a year and issue number which
appears on its masthead, such as No. 1, 1924, which indicates the first issue
published in 1924, generally January 1924. However, there is also a lineal
number associated with each issue after the first few, and this number is
listed in parentheses after the issue number, so that No. 1 (17), 1924
indicates the January 1924 issue, the first issue in 1924, and the 17th issue
in the entire sequence. What is particularly interesting is that this lineal
number continues in the sequence fran the first issue of Sovetskii Filatelist
in September 1922 (No. 1 (1), 1924) through three name changes, a combination
of three journals into one, a renaming of that combined journal and finally to
the last issue in the entire sequence, Sovetskii Kollektsioner No. 12 (136),
1932, issued in December 1932.

Listed below in chronological order are the issues of these journals,
showing the first issue of each year and the last issue of each year, with the
issue numbers, lineal number and dates as they appear on the journal masthead.
The lineal number itself did not appear until January 1924, when it began with
(17), the proper number if the previous two years had been assigned lineal
numbers. Double issues, such as No. 11/12 (27/28), 1924 also carry two lineal
numbers to maintain the one to one relationship between lineal numbers and
issue numbers.






Page 52 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Title Year Start Issue End Issue
(lineal number) (lineal number)
and (date) and (date)

Sovetskii Filatelist 1922 1 (9/22) 4 (12/22)
1923 1 (1/23) 12 (12/23)
1924 1(17) (1/24) 11/12 (27/28)
(12/24)

(Name change to):

Sovetskii Kollektsioner 1925 1(29) (1/25) 23/24 (51/52)
(12/25)

(Ccmbination of three journals published under one cover):

Filatelist 1926 1(53) (1/26) 12(64) (12/26)
Kollektsioner 1926 1(25) (1/26) 12(36) (12/26)
Radio de Filintern 1926 1(13) (1/26) 12(24) (12/26)

Filatelist 1927 1(65) (1/27) 12(76) (12/27)
Kollektsioner 1927 1(37) (1/27) 12(48) (12/27)
Radio de Filintern 1927 1(25) (1/27) 12(36) (12/27)


(Nam change to [still three unique journals, just one masthead]):

Sovetskii Filatelist 1928 1(77) (1/28) 6(82) (6/28)


(Name change to):

Sovetskii Kollektsioner 1928 1(83) (7/28) 6(88) (12/28)
1929 1(89/91) 10/12(98-100)
(1-3/29) (10-12/29)
1930 1(101) (1/30) 12(112)(12/30)
1931 1(113) (1/31) 12(124) (12/31)
1932 1(125) (1/32) 10/12(134/136)
(10-12/32)

Note that in 1926, when the three journals were first published under one
cover, the Sovetskii Filatelist masthead continued the lineal number sequence
which began in 1922 and changed name to Sovetskii Kollektsioner in 1925. At
the same time, the masthead of the Sovetskii Kollektsioner in the combined
journal began to carry a new lineal number sequence whose origin can be traced
back to the first issue of the old single journal published under that name -
January 1925, (lineal number 29 in the other sequence). Similarly, the
masthead of Radio de Filintern adopts a new sequence number beginning with
13, implying that there was an independent journal bearing that name which
began publication with its lineal number 1, probably in January 1925.

Likewise, when the combined journal was renamed Sovetskii Filatelist in
1928, it continued the lineal number of the original journal by that name; and
when this journal again changed name to Sovetskii Kollektsioner in mid-1928,
the same lineal number sequence was maintained.]






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 53



""THE LATEST ROSSICA JOURNAL"

by R. Polchaninoff

Reprinted frame Novoye Russkoye Slovo, New York, January 28, 1986
in the column "Collector's Corner"

translated by George V. Shalimoff


[Ed. note: The following item is a review of Rossica 106/107 written by our
member R. Polchaninoff and published in his column "Collector's Corner" which
regularly appears in Novoye Russkoye Slovo, a Russian language newspaper
printed in New York. It is reprinted here because it contains scme
interesting information on the early history of the Society. Mr. Polchaninoff
holds #27, the second oldest member currently active in the Society.]


The latest issue of The Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian
Philately came out in December 1985. The journal in principle comes out twice
a year, but double numbers, issued at the end of the year, have became the
usual.

Upon examining No. 106/107 we find 128 pages with many illustrations; a
membership -list was enclosed.

SThe Journal is published under the editorship of George Shalimoff and
M. E. and K. L. Wilson. In addition since May 1982 George Shalimoff started
to publish a Bulletin of the Society (No. 2 December 1984, No. 3 December
1985). Like the Journal, the Bulletin is in English. Although there are
Russians among the members of the Society who still speak Russian, with each
year there are less and less.

The Rossica Society was founded by the late Eugene Mikhailovich
Arkhangelskii on April 14, 1928 under the name "Russian Society of
Philatelists in Yugoslavia," and in April of the following year, the first
issue of the Rossica Journal appeared.

Just as soon as this journal began to appear, Russian philatelists in
different countries began to join the only foreign society of Russian
philatelists. By the end of 1930 it already had representatives in Poland,
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, France, Germany, Romania, Greece, Persia (Iran),
and the USA (according to data in Rossica No. 4, December 1930). At the end
of 1931 added to them were representatives from Czechoslovakia, Finland,
Holland and Bulgaria and by the end of 1932, from Brazil, Argentina, Morocco,
and Palestine.

There were also members of the Society in the USSR, but on June 5, 1930,
the All-Union Society of Philatelists prohibited Soviet collectors from
becoming members (Rossica No. 2, August 1930). This prohibition remains in
effect even now, although "Rossica" has become an international organization
and since 1967 is officially called the "International Society of Russian
Philately."






Page 54 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



It is interesting to mention that although in the USSR reference to the
Journal, or even the Society itself, was not permitted, in other Soviet-bloc
countries the "Rossica Journal" continually received awards; in Warsaw in
1960, in Prague in 1962 and 1968, in Sofia in 1965, and in Budapest in 1971.
Now since Rossica has become an international society, it is sometimes
mentioned in Soviet philatelic literature, but very rarely, sort of in
passing, and only then when it simply is impossible not to mention it.

Rossica was from the beginning a very respectable philatelic journal. It
won its first award, a bronze medal, in 1933 at the Vienna International
Philatelic Exhibition. I should mention, however, that it was not the first
foreign Russian philatelic journal. The first was Filateliya published in
Prague in 1929 by a certain Yudenkov. This journal was harshly called an
incompetent and illiterate little journal (in Rossica No. 3, October 1930) and
to everyone's delight perished after the second issue.

The first ten issues of Rossica up to October 1932 were printed in
Yugoslavia, Nos. 11-23 (December 1932-July 1936) printed in Latvia, Nos. 24-40
(November 1936-July 1940) printed in Estonia, and Nos. 41-43 printed in
Shanghai during the war.

During 1948 in "DP" camps in Germany the first attempt was made to revive
the existence of the Society by A. N. Lavrov and A. A. Chebotkevich, who upon
arriving in the USA published on October 15, 1952 the first issue of the
"Information Bulletin of Foreign Philatelists of the Rossica Society." The
last issue (the 20th) of the bulletin came out on September 15, 1954, after
which the Journal reappeared. The bulletin was issued in Russian but since
there were many others in the Society of other nationalities who did not
understand Russian, the Journal starting with No. 44 was issued in both
Russian and English editions. The last issue in Russian was No. 69 (1965).
Starting with the 70th, the Rossica Journal was issued only in English.

The Journal is interesting not only for philatelists. Many articles are
of interest to historians and sociologists interested in Russia, the USSR or
events directly or indirectly connected with them.

In Rossica No. 106/107 there is a whole series of real research work.
For example, lan Roberts writes an article about the Russian field post in the
1849 Hungarian campaign. It was shown that the Austrians promised to deliver
Russian military mail on its territory but did not fulfill its promise. The
article's author cites Russian and Austrian documents concerning the post and
recollections of the chaos that prevailed in the Austrian field post offices.

William Lesh writes an article about the "Asoby Atrad" of Bulak-
Balachovic, his stamps, stamps of the North-West Army and the Special Corps of
the Northern Army. Among the number of various sources, even my article about
the fake stamps of Bulak-Balachovic is mentioned, published in Novoye Russkoye
Slovo on April 24, 1973. The article includes much detail about Bulac-
Balachovic himself as well as about his corps.

There is a short interesting article about the beginning of postal
communication between Germany and Soviet Russia in the period of the truce
proceeding the conclusion of peace at Bresk-Litovsk. It belongs to a
specialist in this area, August Leppa, as does another short note about






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 55



letters sent from Siberia to Finland by Estonians, Finns, Latvians, and
Swedes. In Siberia they lived in colonies according to nationality
characteristics and they gave their colonies unofficial names, reminding them
of their far-off homelands.

A. Leppa also writes a small article on "Russian" (more accurately,
Soviet) Field Posts in the Baltic in 1939-1941. It examines the period from
the creation of the Soviet bases to the beginning of the war with Germany. M.
Shmuely writes in this issue about Soviet civil post to Western Ukraine from
1939, also to the beginning of the war with Germany.

A short note--a description of a card sent by a Russian serviceman in
1905 from a Japanese P.O.W. camp to Paris--was submitted by Rossica President
Gordon Torrey. It says in the note that this is the first such card the
author has ever seen.

A short note about American letters from Murmansk during the years of the
Second World War comes from Peter Michalove. A little known book Murmansk in
the Flames of War published in Murmansk in 1979 is indicated in the
bibliography.

Further on there are articles of a strictly philatelic nature, partly
written by Rossica members and partly borrowed from the Philately of the USSR
and others.

As always the "Notes from the Collectors" are interesting where members
of Rossica share their knowledge and announce their interesting finds and
discoveries.

A small note was devoted to the exhibition of the Society of Ukrainian
Philatelists and Numismatics held October 12-14, 1985 in Montreal, Canada.

Rossica members hold meetings in New York, Washington, Los Angeles, and
San Francisco. Meetings are held in English.







Notes from "Khronika" in "Zhizn' i Tekhnika Svyazi," 1924
(translated by David Skipton)

POSTAL COMMUNICATIONS WITH FINLAND. Representatives of the USSR People's
Commissariat of the Post and Telegraph left for Helsinki on March 20th, to
negotiate and sign an appropriate treaty on establishing a direct exchange of
packages between Leningrad and Finland. Currently packages are routed through
Estonia. In Addition, the treaty will open a "closed transit" of
international packages and letter mail through Finland to Norway and other
Western European countries. At present such packages and letters take a
roundabout path through Latvia and Estonia, while Leningrad has direct postal
exchange with Finland of ordinary and registered mail only.
(April, No. 4, 1924, p. 132).






Page 56 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



COLLECTING RUSSIAN RAILWAY MAIL

by Patrick Campbell


Introduction

Once your stamp collection has grown to the point where you have one copy
of every stamp you can afford, there comes a time where you look around and
wonder what to do next. Assuming you do not have access to unlimited funds,
one field well worth considering is that of Russian railway mail. Start by
going through your own collection and trading material, then start on dealers
and friends. There is lots of material available, often at low or relatively
low prices, and there is a broad range of literature to guide you.

The above sequence describes my own interest in the field and probably
that of many others. My method was to learn from the literature what to look
for, then to place all the material in a stock book until there was enough to
make sense. Most of the material was obtained at little or no premium over
that of the stamp itself because the majority of dealers don't even look at
postmarks. Lots of interesting finds can be made on low-value stamps of the
Russian Empire between 1875 and 1917 and in the first few years of the Soviet
period. I say "low value" because we are looking for loose stamps, cards, and
covers in domestic use, and used stamps in that period are currently priced in
Scott from 10 cents to a dollar.

This article was begun in response to an invitation from George Shalimoff
and following my successful exhibition of this type of material at Canada '84
in Montreal and Espamer '85 in Havana. It will commence with a little
background, gleaned from a number of sources, which will be acknowledged in a
bibliography at the end of the article.

Before even beginning, I would like to make it clear that the material
described is almost all from my own collection; the discussion excludes all
sorts of fine and expensive material which exists elsewhere. The sole purpose
of this article is to classify the various basic fields, to show you what to
look for, and to give some sort of chronological sequence in which the
material can be placed, with some considerable overlapping to be expected, of
course, as new cancelling devices replaced old. As a final note, to collect
railway cancels of Russia you will need to learn to read Cyrillic (Russian)
script; the article "Russian in Fifteen Minutes" in Rossica #85 will tell you
all you need to know.



Brief History

The first Russian railway was opened on 4 April 1838, from St. Petersburg
to the Imperial Court's summer residence at Tsarkoe-Selo, and soon began
carrying court mail. The second was the "Nicholas Railway" from St.
Petersburg to Moscow, then the Petershofskaia, and railways from Riga to
Dunaburg, Volga to Donskaya, Moscow to Nijni-Novgorod and also to Yaroslav
(see Fig. 1). In 1862 the railway from St. Petersburg to Warsaw opened, and
the network expanded rapidly thereafter (see Fig. 2).







ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 57






Fig.l. Russian Railroads; 1838 to 1873.

-Miles

8000
Cumulative
7000 Trackage.

6000

5000

-4000

3000
3000/ Periodic

-2000

-1000


1838 1848 1858 1868 1878






Fig.2. Trackage and Mailcars: 1837 to 1910


400

300

200
Mailcars in Use
100



Trackage,Miles x 000.
60

40 Trackage

20


1840 1860 1880 1900







Page 58 1986 ROSSICA 108/109




Fig.3. Key Events; 1838 to 1917.



I 1
Crimean War Russo. Runso. World
Turkish Japanese War 1
War War
Mailcars
Introduced
UPPZD UPPZD
Founded Reorg.
First First
Russian Russian UPPZD Revolution
Railway Stamp Reorg.





S4 t I I I I
1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920




The Nicholas line began carrying general mail in 1851, using special mail
cars which soon had to be made larger. Both state and private funds were
raised. After 1857 all mail had to be carried without charge. In 1869, the
Railway lMail Administration was formed (as will be described later). Railways
boomed as capital poured in, and impassable roads and frozen rivers were
forgotten. As time went on the percentage of state ownership increased, and
more and more mail traveled by rail. Fig. 3 shows the key events for 1838 to
1917 in graphical form, and Fig. 4 shows the Russian railways opened between
1838 (Tsarsko-se'skaia) and 1870 (Baltijskaia) and the approximate year of
opening. The total trackage to that point was 9834 verts, or 6,520 miles.

The development of Russian railway routes through the Imperial and Soviet
periods will now be segregated and described in four basic periods, and a
brief study and analysis prepared based on loose stamps, cards, and covers in
my own collection. While this represents only a tiny sample in a vast field,
there is sufficient to illustrate the four fields as follows:

Forerunners

Three-line dates

Cross-shaped dates

Single-line dates







ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 59






Tavastahus o0 1862 Railways opened betweenl838
T s 1870 (Tsarsko-sel'kaya)and 1870
(Baltijskala) with approx.
Helsingfors Oranienbaum St.Petersburg year of opening.

-_-0o 1870 8o7 \ Rybinsk
Baltic Port Reval 1838'\ 1870 ,o
Pavlovsk \ I- Yaroslav
(Tsarskosiel f Ivanov
Pskov skaya Railway) \ 1870 1
\ / \1868 Nijni-
Shula a Novgorod
Riga 1851 /
o oa \ o Sergeev
18681
Libava 186 1861 Dvnsk(Dunaberg) 18
N Mitava / Vitebsk --- 0os
\ / '' Moscow
1862 1866 os1864
Kovnoo- o Smolensk 1868 \ Riazan
Grajavo / Vilno 7 y \
Bromberg 1872/ 1873 Tula Ryazhsk
"o 1862 e Bielostok 1868 8670 Morshansk
Warsaw -o0 Orel 7 0 I --.9 Tambov
Lodz ./ Brest-Litovsk l "-"o .Ta.
o 1866 Teraspol Yelets o Gryazi 1870
0 1870
Kolu \ 1868 1869 Sarotov>\
Koluszki 1868\ .oro
16 IBoriso
I848 K 7 1869 oVoronezh \ glyebsk
a Kiev 1871 ,- Kharkov 1871 1870
0 Granitsa Poltava o 1872
Z Krem 1187
S1869 1869/ enchug
\ Yelizo I 1862/ Tsar
to Vienna 186 vetograd \Grushevsk itsin
to 1868 1869 -- 1869
Kishinev o 1 Birzula o1/ Rostov-on-Don
Bender Razdyelnaya Azov
"1870\ 0 azdyelnaya
Tiraspol Odssa Fig.4. Opening of Railways.







Forerunners

Before issue of the first adhesive postage stamps of Russia on
10 December 1857, only two railway postmarks are recorded, one for each of the
two terminal stations of the Nikolaevskaia Line.




MOC.CT.XEJAOPR C. n. .cT.X.T.

Z6 MAie 185R5 a1 HOS 185s



Fig.5. Earliest Railway Cancellations.







Page 60 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



By a General Order of the Main Postal Administration, Postal Circular
No. 147 was issued on 31 May 1858, assigning a hexagonal pattern of dots, with
straight sides and a central cipher, for the use of railways (See Fig. 6).











Fig.6. Hexagonal Dot Cancels.



The numbers 1 to 17 were assigned, but authorities do not agree on specific
assignments. No. 1 was certainly allocated to the St. Petersburg end of the
Nikolaevskaia Railroad, and authorities agree that No. 2 was allocated to the
Moscow end of the same railroad. Numbers 3 to 8, or perhaps 3 to 9, were
allocated to this line also, but numbers 9 (or 10) to 17 are uncertain,
although recorded on loose stamps in some cases. It is certain that some of
these were allocated to the Warsaw to St. Petersburg line, which was opened
entirely only on 15 December of 1862. One number that is certain is Number
11, which was used at St. Petersburg "Warsaw" Station, as many covers attest
(See Fig. 7). Numbers 10, 13, and 17 are most uncertain of all, several
authorities claiming they may have been "assigned," but were never actually
allocated to any specific use. These cancels, particularly 1, 2, and 11, are
readily found on loose copies of Russia No. 8 (over my $1.00 limit, but these
are forerunners). At first these hexagonal "dot" cancels were used alone, but
after about April of 1860 a circular date stamp was added (see Figure 7).
The hexagonal dot cancels were officially withdrawn from use by Postal
Circular No. 123 on 11 February of 1863 but remained in use for a while
afterwards.

Another railway "forerunner" is the "straight-line" cancel that can be
found on any of the earlier, and more expensive, Russian stamps. The thing to
look for here is a normal "straight-line" cancel with the letters CT in front
of a name in the upper line; the lower line will be the date of usage (See
Fig. 8 for typical example).

The letters CT in Cyrillic stand for ST (in Roman letters), and are short
for "Stansiya" meaning station, or railway platform. The problem with these
are that they may be railway stations or postal stations for horse-drawn
coaches. It would be really necessary to have a cover with a clear date to
see if there was a railway line open at that place at that time. The best
advice would be to hang onto any of these "straight-line" cancels and get some
advice or dig into the literature. Don't worry too much about condition of
the stamps; it is postal history we are studying.







ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 61























*A *
b,.'. '* **


S'



































Fig.7. A Forerunner Cover. ****
















CT 3C '4'T'
.










5 1 I.'2.1
































St.Zegevold 31 ac



Fig.8. Straight-line Railway Cancels.
'- .
1-











5.-.. T1..H.




















Fig.8. Straight-line Railway Cancels.






Page 62 1986 ROSSICA 108/109


A final type of forerunner cancel to look for, although slightly out of
the general scope of this article, is the multi-circle cancels of the Kingdom
of Poland, particularly those with the letters "BW" (Brcnberg-Warsaw) or "DP"
(Droga Petersburska) in the center. These were used at Warsaw Railway
stations. They are scarce but well worth watching for (see Fig. 9).





ST DP

Bromberg-Warsaw Droga-Petersburska
Fig.9. Kingdom of Poland Railway Cancels.



Three-Line Date Railway Cancels
With the forerunners passing into history, the first of the three major
categories of railway mail cancellations to be considered is the circular
postmark with a three-line date (see Fig. 10). These came into general use in
1869 with the new UPPZD (Upravlenie Perevozki poch po Zheleznym Dorogam) or
Railway Mail Administration, and this type of cancelling device was used both
to cancel the stamps and to mark the envelopes to record transit.

Type 1. Type 2. Type 3.



0 IRZA. oA <),91 Z3
+1688s 1875 .. 1FoJ?
\f. to /(4) UJ1887L


Fig.10. Three-line-date Railway Cancels.


There were two basic types of three-line-date cancels; they were always
in black and varied from 25 to 27 nm in diameter, usually 26 mm. Some were
locally manufactured, which probably accounts for the different sizes. The
Type 1 cancel had the name of the city above, and the name of the railroad
below; the example shown in Fig. 10 is one of the Nicholas Railroad
(HMGoCUI.J.J.) which ran from St. Petersburg to Moscow and back.






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 63



The Type 2 cancel had the words Postal Waggon No. 1-2 (for example) or,
in cyrillic script, 170TOlB l BA4OHv No. 1-2. In this case, Line 1 ran from
St. Petersburg to Moscow, and Line 2 ran frcm Moscow to St. Petersburg. You
would need a postally-used envelope to decide which way the train was
traveling, of course.

Frequently, you will find a number placed just in front of the day in the
first line; this number is sometimes upright and sometimes on its side, and it
denotes the number of the station on the line (a 3 denoting the third station
on the line). It is generally agreed that the number at the bottom of the
circle is the cancelling device number (although in some cases there may be
another explanation, according to same opinion). The Type 2 cancels continued
with these double numbers 1-2, or 5-6, etc. until some time in 1880 (my last
double-number is 5 February 1880) and thereafter gave only a single number (my
earliest single number is dated 21 March 1880), so it is now possible to
determine which way the train was going.

The lettering on Type 1 and Type 2 cancels was serified from 1868 to
1879, but baton (sans-serif) lettering was introduced in 1880, and you will
find examples of both serifed and baton letters from 1880, 1881, 1882, and
1883. By 1884, the cancellers with serifed letters seem to have been phased
out, and all cancels have baton letters. I am sure someone will find earlier
uses of the baton lettering (my earliest is 26 April 1881) and later usage of
serifed lettering (my latest is 2 July 1883).

There was also third type of three-line-date railway cancel, Type 3,
octagonal in shape, used only briefly, and relatively scarce. These octagonal
three-line dates were used between 1887 and 1904 (probably) and were employed
on only a few, widely-separated lines. They bear the words 17iOTOBOE OTi-fTEFIE BA&4HA
meaning postal section waggon. It probably indicated a section or ccmpartment
of a passenger coach set aside for postal use rather than an entire waggon
devoted exclusively to postal use, which is the normal understanding of the
term "postal waggon;" authorities differ on this, or there may have been same
of each. As far as the number at the bottom of the cancel is concerned, there
is again disagreement; some say that the number denotes the type of train
while others claim that it is the serial number of the canceller.

The three-line date material in my collection, and remember this is only
a tiny sample, is plotted on a chart (Fig. 11) over the period 1868 to 1913.
Thre three-line date of 1868 is actually a little earlier than one would
expect, but the year is very clearly legible. Thereafter, it can be seen that
the two basic types were used concurrently, with no pattern evident.

Reference to Fig. 12 shows the same information collected and plotted as
a frequency distribution. Of my 110 examples of three-line date cancels, 45
are Type 1, 63 are Type 2, and only 2 are Type 3. Reference to Fig. 12
indicates the dramatic rise in usage after introduction. The phase-out is
more gradual because, although the three-line date cancels became obsolete in
1890, many cancellers were still in use right up to 1900, and my collection
even includes one in 1904; one cancel of the Kostroma Railroad, on a 7-kopek
Romanov stamp, is clearly cancelled 10 May 1913!











0'i



Fig.11. Distribution of Three-line-date Material.



15
Types 1,2 and 3(see Fig.10)


10 -
2
2
1 212
2 2 21 3o
5-
2 221 0
2 22 2 2 2 2 1 3 2
-2 -2 2 12_ 1121 2 -2 21 21
2 22 2 221 1 21 212 2 2
2[ll1-21212122 212111J22 22122 22
[ 12i. 21211 12!11211 11 21 1 T_ 11I
1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 11211 1 11 2 1221L 1 21












C>



0) 0 0
Oo 03 0
03 m ~D\D O -






\0


*






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 65





40
Fig.12. Distribution of Data.
Three-line-dates.



30--
First Replaced
Use



20-






10--





\-
-- -- -- i I i l -- i T -1- -
r i i lr i i I
O O O O O O O
0 O 0 0 0 0



Before leaving the three-line date era, it is time to keep the premise
made in the "Brief History" at the beginning of the article and to say
something about the Railway Mail Administration.

The Upravlenie Perevozki poch pa Zheleznym Dorogam (UPPZD) of 1869
divided Russia into nine postal departments, regions or "otdelenie," each with
a regional headquarters. This was later increased to 11 regions, reduced to
eight in 1891, and increased to 12 in 1900. These various regions had their
own postal cancellations (see Fig. 13). In the 1870s and 1880s, the first and













Fig.13. UPPZD Regional Cancels.






Page 66 1986 ROSSICA 108/109





Fig.14a. UPPZD Regional Map No.l. Section headquarters are
shown in capital letters
ST.PETERSBURG

Revel 0- 9 Vologda



1
Dept.10 in PERM
Riga O0
SDunaburg Vyazma MOSCOW

Wirballen '
Vilna RYAZHSK
Smolensk R
Grazevo o / Tula
Mlava O \/
a 0 Byelostok to Orenburg
Warsaw \ OREL Veletz -e4
\ Kovel --- \ 0
"-0- Kursk o Saratov
S --^ Q3
N Bachmach
SKIEV \

I Khartzuish
\ 0
Note.Maps No.l and No.2 must be O Tzaritsin
superimposed to get a true picture /
They have been separated here /
for clarity. 0 Nikolaev Mariopol





second otdelenie were both based in St. Petersburg, at the Warsaw and the
Nicholas railroad terminals respectively, while the 3rd, 4th, and 8th were all
based in Moscow, at the Riga, Kursk, and the Smolensk stations respectively.
Others were based in the regional cities underlined on the map, Fig. 14. As
time passed, there were a number of other changes, well described in N.
Luchnik's fine article in Rossica No. 92. Figure 14 shows the data presented
for the first time as a map, rather than a list, as least as far as I know,
and the regional distribution becomes quite clear. Some regions are compact,
like 7 and 9, but scme, like 6 and 8, ramble all across Russia. Try to obtain
cancels of as many of the regions as you can.

This completes our study of three-line dates, which were in general use
for about 34 years, and are found sporadically afterwards.







ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 67





Fig.14b. UPPZD Regional Map No.2. Section headquarters are
shown in capital letters

ST.PETERSBURG



Bologoe
Bologoe Ruibinsk


Libava Staraya Russa 2\ Nijni-Novgorod
0.*
N Msco_

Vilna Vyazma
'o o
.,- Smolensk
o Alexandrovo o Minsk Tula

WARSAW // Or
Y if--" Orel
Brest-Litovsk
S\ Kursk
Bachmach o

Granitsa Volochisk Kazatin \ Kharkov
o
Sosnowicki Kremenchug
Sinelnikovo uish
Khartzuish

9

Ungeni Rostov-on-Don
Bender



Reni ODESSA Sevasapo
S----- dSevastapol




Cross-Shaped Date Railway Cancels

The second major category of railway cancels of Russia was the circular
postmark with the cross-shaped date, as illustrated in Fig. 15, showing the
three sub-categories. The cross-shaped date cancels were required by Postal
Circular No. 13 of 5 March 1890 from the Main Post Office and Telegraph
Administration, which ordered the change throughout the Russian Empire, with
the new style to replace the three-line dates as the postal cancellers wore
out. These new cancels also indicated the month with a Roman numeral, as
suggested by the Postal Congress that had just taken place in Lisbon.






Page 68 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Reference to Fig. 15 shows that there were two basic types of these new
railway cancels, all with baton (sans-serif) lettering. (In case you are not
familiar with the term, a serif, or seriph, is a little cross-line finishing
off the stroke of a letter. Here is the word MAJOR with serifed
letters and here is [1IJOR in sans-serif, from the French,
sans=without. The other word is also French were "baton" means "a stick" or
"a staff.") There was also a scarce third type, octagonal in shape, but with
a cross-shaped date, used on certain lines; perhaps only on line 135/135 or
135 to 142.


Type 1. Type 2. Type 3.











S5 pel 52







Type 2 16
Type 3 1902

23



10-
Fig.15. Cross-shaped-date Railway Cancels.



Figure 16 shows twenty-three cross-shaped dates as follows:

Type 1 5

Type1 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2

23

Fig.16. Distribution of Cross-shaped-date
Mater ial.
10-






3




co 00 \o \0 \0
0 'n 0 Ln 0







ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 69



"These cross-dated railway cancels were in use for only a short time, to be
replaced by the oval cancels introduced by Postal Circular No. 9 in February
of 1903; see Fig. 17 for frequency distribution. Note that the Type Is were
gradually replaced by the Type 2, which were in time superseded by the ovals
(see next section). But also observe that my material shows a gap from 1896
to 1900; this may not be significant because my collection of cross-shaped
dated is limited. Reference to Fig. 11 shows that the 3-line dates overlap
the cross-shaped dates. Note finally that all the cross-shaped date cancels
indicate the month by a Roman numeral.




Fig.17. Distribution of Data.
(in 5-year lots)



10 o
1 Postal
Circular
No. 13. / Postal
Circular
5 No. 9.










Single-Line Date Railway Cancels

The third major category of railway cancels is that of the single-line
date. They are generally oval in shape, but a few were circular; we will deal
with the ovals first as they are by far the most numerous and finish up with
the single-line date circular cancels.

The single-line date oval cancels were introduced by Postal Circular
No. 9 of the Main Post and Telegraph Administration on 3 February of 1903 but
came into use on a replacement basis from 1905 onwards. The date, in Arabic
numerals, was framed between two lines (which sometimes don't show clearly),
and then surrounded by a double oval, always in black. Individual cancellers
were identified by a serial letter, rather than a number, and all lettering
was baton (sans-serif).

There were two basic sub-type oval cancels, the first being used for
traveling mailcars (Type 1 in Fig. 18). There are 41 of these in my
collection; I recommend placing them in numerical sequence, which will work
fine until you discover that there are some unnumbered mailcar ovals. The
latter are very scarce, and you could send them to me to save confusion!






Page 70 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Type 1. Type 2. Type 3.


*17*4 A










Fig.18. Single-line-date Railway Cancels.



The other basic sub-type of oval cancel, of which there are 87 examples
in my collection,is the one used in railway stations; they can be identified
by the word BOISAJ7r (vokzal or vauxhall) meaning railway station (see Type 2
in Fig. 18). This name is said to have derived from a Monsieur Vaux who had a
restaurant and music hall near the start of the first railway, which sounds as
good an explanation as any. This is sometimes shortened to BOH3 to save room
in the oval. I suggest classifying these alphabetically by the name of the
town. Remember, however, that some towns have several stations, and sometimes
the name of the station is also in the oval, sometimes shortened to save room.




Fig.19. Datespan for Single-line-date Cancels.



Railway Stations (circular).






Numbered Railway Ovals.



Railway Station Ovals,



1900 1910 1920 1930 1940

Summary of Straight-line date
cancels included in this study







ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 71




The single-line date circulars (Type 3 in Fig. 18) were used by several
cities and will be covered separately after the ovals.

The three basic sub-types noted above were in use more or less
simultaneously, as shown in Fig. 19 which illustrates the range of dates of
the material of each type in my collection. These ranges may be extended
either way if more material were available.


Type 1 Ovals

Figure 20 shows the distribution of my Type 1 material, with the number
of the square indicating the number of the mailcar (and the line). For a
complete list of railway lines, see Rossica No. 92 but note that some lines
changed numbers and gradually grew longer--watch the date as well as the
number. As you go into the Soviet period, many cities changed their names,
which adds further confusion. Observe that these ovals continued well into
the Soviet period, my latest being 1930. Note that it is possible to get
Route 197 (Krasnoyarsk to Irkutsk) and 198 (Irkutsk to Krasnoyarsk). Perhaps
one of the best budget-priced sources for this type of cancel is the 1913
Rcmanov set because they are large enough to have a substantial portion of a
cancel. It is nice to get a few covers too because then you have the whole
cancel.






Fig.20. Distribution of Type-i Single-line-date Oval Railway Cancels.




10

6
10 1] Numbers show mailcar/route.
51 26

66 31
5-
96 45 7

7 103 49 29
40 105 91. 85 17 188
24 110 233 162 150 41 198

S100 212124 128 260 224 197 218 108 292 28113113

0o 10 0 D
0n P 0I O M







Page 72 1986 ROSSICA 108/109






As far as the unnumbered ovals, there were some 200 minor railways by
1917, sane narrow-gauge, some local and suburban, that were not subordinate to
the UPPZD and were not allocated route numbers by the Imperial Post. Many of
these routes did not carry mail so, naturally, there were no special cancels.
Some did carry mail, however, and cancels are known, both oval and circular.
Some are locally made, and they are known in all three date styles
(three-line, cross-type and single line). bMre data and research is needed in
this relatively little-known area.


Type 2 Ovals

The late Dr. Wortman said that the word vokzal was introduced into the
Russian language by Pushkin, or, there is the explanation given above. In any
case, the word seems to have been accepted as a generic term by 1885, and
Postal Circular No. 9 of 3 February 1903 authorized railway stations to handle
mail. By 1903 there were 23 stations handling mail, 572 by 1913. The oval
vokzal cancels were very canyon, as evidenced by same 87 examples in my
collection and more being added. Fig. 21 shows the distribution of these, and
I suggest arranging them in alphabetical order by name of town. Note that the
greatest number seem to be from the wartime period but that they are still
regularly found long into the Soviet period. Be sure to collect the various
stations within a town where they can be identified. An old Baedeker or other
travel guide will often list the stations within a given town.





Fig.21. Distribution of Type-2 Single-line-date
Oval Railway Cancels.

to 27


10





5--





_L F 9

t l C l 0






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 73



Type 3: Circular Railway Cancels with Single-Line Dates

Fig. 22 shows the distribution of the 22 such cancels in my collection.
It seems that certain towns decided to use circular, rather than oval, cancels
at their town station, for reasons I have been unable to discover. These
include:
Alexsandrovsk-on-Dnieper Sebezh
Gamel Samara
Kharkov Tashkenv
Kiev Vilna
Proskurov



Fig.22. Distribution of Type-3 Single-line-date Circular Cancellations.


5 L.












In Rossica No. 92, N. Luchnik lists several others and gives some rather
conflicting views. The problem is that several of the above are large towns
which are capitals of Gubernia, and yet we find a circular station cancel for
Sebezh with a population under 10,000. These circular cancels were used on
various railroads and come under various postal departments. The only thing I
have found them to have in common is that all are on rivers, but that doesn't
seem sensible. I believe that the circular railway station cancels are still
not clearly understood and that there my be several explanations. My early
examples are from Kharkov and Vilna, all the rest are Soviet 1923 to 1937.
Perhaps it's nice that there are still some areas for research.

Fram time to time you may find a very small oval railway cancel on a
cover with the word/40P1ZArh7Th above and the words POWT BA!MH) or the name of a
town and the word vokzal below (see Fig. 23). These are "postage due" marks


21

Ir, rv o
Fig.23In Rossica No. 92, N. Luchnik lists several others and gives sos.e rather






Page 74 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



and are often acccapanied by a blue-penciled letter "T." I have an example
from 1904 and one as late as 1933 on the same card as a circular
The 1904 example is of Postal Waggon 218 on a card from Simbirsk to Inza on
the way to Holland, with a circular Postal Waggon 218 and a cross-shaped date.
Watch for such anomalies.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


1. The Russian Post in the Empire, Turkey, China, and the Post in the Kingdom
of Poland: S. V. Prigara, New York, 1941 (in Russian) or the English
translation by D. Skipton, Rossica Society, 1981.

2. Russia's Railroad Mails: N. Luchnik, Soviet Collector, Vol. II, 1974
(in Russian) or English translation by R. Trbovich, Rossica Journal,
No. 90/91 of 1976.

3. Les Timbres Poste de la Russie Imperial: Cercle Philatelique,
France-URSS: Paris, 1964.

4. Journal of the Rossical Society of Russian Philately (1954-present) -
articles by W. E. C. Kethro, J. Barry, I. L. G. Bailie, Kurt Adler,
W. S. E. Stephen, found in Volumes 46, 48, 49, 52, 58, 59, 61, and 65.

5. Journal of the British Society of Russian Philately (1964 to present) -
articles by Dr. A. H. Wortman, J. Barry, Kurt Adler, W. E. C. Kethro,
A. Cronin, I. L. G. Bailie, P. Ashford, M. A. Bojanowicz, N. C. Warr,
W. S. E. Stephen, and Dr. E. Kossoy in Volumes 3, 4, 6, 10, 14, 16, 18,
19, 20, 22, 25, 26, 27, 29, 38, 39.

6. Guide to the Great Siberian Railway, reprinted by David & Charles of
Newton Abbot, England.

7. Die Poststempelformen in St. Petersburg von 1766-1914 by H. Imhof
(in German), 1976.

8. Baedeker's Russia, 1914. Original by Karl Baedeker, reprinted by David
and Charles.

9. World Postal Stationery: Higgins & Gage, U.S.A.





Notes from "Khronika" in "Zhizn' i Tekhnaika Svyazi," 1924
(translated by David Skipton)

TRANSPORTING MAIL ON PASSENGER TRAINS IN THE NORTHWESTERN COMMUNICATIONS
DISTRICT. This is developing rapidly in the Northwest Oblast': for the
previous fiscal year, the number of passenger trains carrying mailbags
increased from 24 to 52. The number of places which exchanged bags with
passenger trains on these lines rose from 61 to 125.
(April, No. 4, 1924, p. 133.)






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 75



19TH CENTURY RUSSIAN POSTAL MINISTERS AND OFFICIALS

by Ian W. Roberts


On 23rd March 1801 the Emperor Paul I was murdered. One of the
conspirators was the Governor General of St. Petersburg, Count P. A. von
Pahlen (1745-1826) who had been appointed Chief Director of Posts only a short
time before on 18th February 1801. The new Emperor, Alexander I, relieved von
Pahlen of all his duties for health reasons on 17th June 1801; his successor
as Chief Director of Posts was D. P. Troshchinskij (1754-1829), who had joined
the Postal Department in 1793 during the reign of Catherine the Great.

In 1802 Alexander I introduced a new system of ministries as part of his
reform of the Russian system of government. The Postal Directorate was
theoretically incorporated in the newly created Ministry of the Interior
headed by V. P. Kochubej (1768-1834). In practice, Troshchinskij, who had
been appointed Minister of the Crown Domains continued to run the postal
directorate and report to the Tsar until he gave up the post in 1806. For the
next three years the new Minister was Prince A. B. Kurakin (1759-1829) who was
succeeded in 1811 by O. P. Kozodavlev (1754-1819). Kozodavlev died of
consumption in 1819 and control of the Ministry of the Interior passed for a
short period to Prince A. N. Golitsyn (1773-1844), the Minister of Religious
Affairs and Public Education. This arrangement did not last long. When
Golitsyn handed the Ministry of the Interior back to the new Minister (once
again V. P. Kochubej) he did not relinquish control of the Postal Directorate
which he continued to supervise until 1841. During this period the Postal
Directorate was formally constituted as a ministerial department.

As Minister of the Interior, Golitsyn's supervision of the Postal
Department was nominal, and most of the work was carried out by his senior
officials. One of the first to be appointed shortly after the end of the
Napoleonic Wars was K. Ya. Bulgakov (1782-1835). The son of a diplomat,
Bulgakov was born in Constantinople. In 1797 he joined the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs and because of his linguistic ability, soon found himself
employed in a diplomatic capacity during Russia's wars with Turkey and France.
He worked closely with Alexander I and the Foreign Minister at the Congress of
Vienna in 1815. The Tsar wanted him as ambassador in Copenhagen but Bulgakov
had other ideas. Eventually he persuaded the Tsar to agree to his appointment
as Director of Posts in Moscow in February 1816. He soon made his mark and on
23rd December 1819 he transferred to St. Petersburg to work with Prince
Golitsyn who, as we have mentioned, had been placed in charge of the Postal
Department in that year.

One of Bulgakov's first innovations was the introduction of passenger-
carrying mail-coaches between the major towns of Russia and the Baltic
provinces. These services began in 1821 and were to last until 1868 when they
yielded to the railway. In 1825 the first detailed list of post-roads in
Russian was compiled and published. Construction of paved roads had begun in
1817 and by the 1850s there were over 1,500 miles of paved roads. This
enabled Bulgakov to institute a system of express posts, the so-called "extra"
posts between the major towns. On 29th December 1821 Bulgakov signed a postal
treaty with Prussia and in 1832 a steamship service was set up between St.
Petersburg and Lubeck. All these innovations led to an improvement in the






Page 76 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



delivery times for mail; for example, mail from Berlin reached St. Petersburg
in five days instead of nine. The Dowager Empress Mariya Fyodorovna, the
widow of Paul I and a former German princess, was delighted. Bulgakov was
soon promoted and decorated and in 1831 he became Director of the Postal
Department. The following year his younger brother A. Ya. Bulgakov
(1781-1863) gave up his diplomatic career and became Director of Posts in
Moscow. The elder Bulgakov, however, suffered two strokes in 1835 as a result
of overwork and died. Both he and his brother were much respected by their
staff, especially because they did much to improve working conditions for
postal workers.

In 1825 Nicholas I had succeeded his elder brother Alexander I after the
ill-fated Decembrist revolt. In 1824, shortly before his succession, another
able official had joined the Postal Department; this was F. I. Pryanishnikov
(1793-1867) who was ultimately to run the department on an equal footing with
ministers. Nicholas I wished to reform the department and instructed Golitsyn
to send a suitably qualified official to Prussia and Great Britain to study
their postal systems. Pryanishnikov, who knew English, was selected for this
task. He left Russia in May 1827 and returned in June 1828. Unfortunately, a
search in the British Post Office archives has failed to show any record of
this visit. However, a search in the British Public Record Office has
revealed a debate between the Post Office and the Foreign Office about the
desirability of giving Pryanishnikov access to a department dealing in
confidential matters. After an initial refusal, the Postmaster General
relented and on 14th November 1827 the Post Office informed the Foreign Office
that Praynishnikov could be provided with all such information as can with
propriety be afforded relative to the performance of the service of this
department."

On his return to Russia, Pryanishnikov submitted a detailed report with
proposals for reforms. A special carmittee of which K. Ya. Bulgakov was a
member examined these and, in due course, the Tsar approved them. In 1830 the
reforms were put into effect and Pryanishnikov replaced Bulgakov on his
promotion in 1831 as Director of Posts in St. Petersburg. In 1841 when
Golytsyn gave up supervision of the Postal Department, Pryanishnikov was
formally appointed Director of the Postal Department. Supervision was
exercised by a close personal friend of Nicholas I., Count V. F. Adlerberg
(1791-1884) who had been one of his adjutants since 1817. Adlerberg was to be
appointed Minister of the Imperial Court in 1852 but continued to supervise
the Postal Department until 1857. Pryanishnikov had to give up work for
health reasons in 1854 but, in 1857, he was recalled to duty and was made
Camoander-in-Chief of the Postal Department with direct responsibility to
Nicholas' successor, Alexander II. In 1863 he retired and died four years
later after a long illness. Pryanishnikov's replacement during the years
1854/1857 was an official called D. M. Prokopovich-Antonskij (1802/1870). He
started his career in the Treasury and joined the Postal Department in 1831.
He organized a Postal Training establishment in Moscow in 1836. When
Adlerberg gave up his overall charge of the Postal Department in 1857, he took
Prokopovich-Antonskij with him to assist at the Ministry of the Imperial
Court.

After the death of Bulgakov, Pryanishnikov continued his work of
improving the postal services. Town posts were set up in St. Petersburg in
1835 and Moscow in 1844, to be followed by other towns. In 1843 a uniform






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 77



rate of postage of 10 silver kopecks for one lot was introduced. In 1845
stamped envelopes were brought into use for the town posts; this use was
extended throughout Russia in 1848. The same year saw the introduction of
mail-boxes. At the end of December 1857 the first stamp (10 kopecks) went on
sale to the public. The steamship services which had begun under Bulgakov
were expanded. In 1838 Russia's first railway between St. Petersburg and
Tsarskoe Selo was used for carrying mail. In 1851 the first special
mail-coaches were introduced for service on the newly-opened railway between
St. Petersburg and Moscow which also made use of the electric telegraph. A
postal subscription service for newspapers and journals was also established.
Post office buildings were modernized and there was a considerable expansion
in the size of the department. Finally, Pryanishnikov signed postal treaties
with Austria (1843), Greece (1848), Prussia (1843), and Sweden (1846).

Thus when Pryanishnikov retired in 1863 at the beginning of the reign of
Alexander II the modernization of Russia's postal service was well under way.
These developments were to continue for the rest of the century, but because
of the deteriorating political situation within Russia during the late '60s
and '70s the Postal Directorate was to cease to be independent and returned to
the control of the Ministry of the Interior.

Pryanishnikov's immediate successor was Count I. M. Tolstoj (1806-1867)
who had worked in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs until 1860. After a brief
interval as Chief Steward of the Imperial Household, he became Head of the
Postal Department in 1863. In 1865 he became the first Minister of Posts and
Telegraphs when an attempt was made to amalgamate the two organizations. The
attempt was not successful and only later in 1884, during the reign of
Alexander III, was the amalgamation achieved, an event which is reflected in
the addition of thunderbolts to the posthorns depicted on Russian postage
stamps.

Tolstoj died in 1867 and was replaced by a General who had worked for
Nicholas I's secret police, the Third Department. This was A. E. Timashev
(1818-1893) who was to replace P. A. Valuyev (1814-1890) as Minister of the
Interior the following year. Timashev had been recalled to duty in the
aftermath of the Polish revolt of 1863. He was adamant that control of the
Postal Department should rest with the Ministry of the Interior and arranged
to have a daily audience with the Tsar during which he submitted the more
interesting items of intercepted correspondence. His successor was L. S.
Makov (1830-1883) who replaced him in 1878. Two years later Alexander II was
compelled to appoint General M. T. Loris-Melikov (1825-1888) to deal with
security affairs, and it was not possible for Makov to continue as Minister of
the Interior. The decision was taken to combine the Postal Department with
the Department of Religious Affairs for Foreign Faiths, and Makov was put in
charge of both. This experiment did not last long as Makov insisted on
exercising his right to have a daily audience with the Tsar to show him items
of intercepted mail. The final outcome was that Loris-Melikov took over
control of the Postal Department as part of his responsibilities as Minister
of the Interior. On 13th March 1881 Alexander II was assassinated by a Polish
student. Shortly afterwards Loris-Melikov resigned as Minister of the
Interior because of a disagreement with the new Tsar Alexander III.

While these organizational changes took place, the work of improvement in
Russia's postal services continued. In 1872 postcards were introduced. In






Page 78 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



1874 Russia became a member of the newly established Universal Postal Union.
A further series of postal treaties with European countries was negotiated.
The Russian Steam Navigation and Trade Company which had assumed
responsibility for carrying mail to the Levant issued its special stamps for
correspondence under wrapper in 1863. Following the creation of provincial
councils (zemstva) in 1864, the '60s were to see the beginning of the local
posts to supplement the Imperial Post; by 1870 the zemstvo postal service was
functioning in 65 separate districts (uyezdy) in the various provinces
(gubernii). The Russian railway system continued to expand, leading to the
intensive industrialization of the '80s and '90s. By 1878 all inhabited
places in Russia had some kind of postal service.

The following figures illustrate the growth of the Russian post office in
the reigns of Nicholas I and Alexander II:

1854 1878

Postal Income 5,686,000 r. 13,394,000 r.
Postal Expenditure 8,743,000 r. 14,217,000 r.
No. of items of 33,864,000 198,775,000
correspondence
No. of postal 1,645 2,437
installations

But the problems of the division of responsibility between the imperial post
and the zemstvo posts, as well as the Russian Steam Navigation and Trade
Company with its offices in the Levant, were to continue for the rest of the
century.

Russia was well served by officials such as Bulgakov and Pryanishnikov
who conformed to Nicholas I's ideal of service to the state. It was, however,
inevitable that the deteriorating internal political situation in the last
years of the reign of Alexander II prevented the Post Office from functioning
as an independent organization. There was to be no further organizational
change until the revolutions of 1917.





Notes from "Khronika" in "Zhizn' i Tekhnika Svyazi," 1924
(translated by David Skipton)

LETTER DELIVERY TIME. Letters are received in Leningrad from Germany in 3-4
days, from France in 7-9, Finland 1-2, Sweden 4-6, Bulgaria 8-11, England 7-9,
America 21, Norway 5-7, Italy 7-10, Spain 8-10, Brazil 3 weeks or more, and
Greece 9-12. Domestic mail reaches Leningrad from Moscow in 1-2 days, from
Kiev in 2-3, Khar'kov 2-3, Odessa 3-4, Rostov-na-Donu 3-4, Tiflis one week,
Irkutsk 7-10 and Vladivostok 13-16. Local correspondence taken from mailboxes
is delivered on the same day from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. if the letters were dropped
in the boxes before 7 a.m. Letters put in before 11:30 a.m. are delivered the
same day from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m.; i.e., in 6-8 hours, and those put in mailboxes
up to 4 p.m. are delivered the next day from 9 a.m. to noon; i.e., 17-20 hrs.
(May, No. 5, 1924, p. 155.)






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 79



SOVIET RAILROAD MAILCAR ROUTES 1927-1928

by David Skipton


Russian railroad enthusiasts have long been forced to guesswork on mail
routes after 1917. It was known that same of the routes hadn't changed in
spite of the revolutions and civil war, but the overall picture was hazy due
to considerable reshuffling of and additions to the rairoad network from 1923
on. Thanks to the discovery of two outstanding sources in the Library of
Congress, we now have a clear idea of what that network looked like. The list
below was gleaned from the 1928 "Traktovyi ukazatel' pochtovykh vagonov -
gazatnykh traktov SSR" (Guide to Railroad Mailcar Routes [and] Newspaper
Routes of the USSR), compiled by M. M. Sokolov (a relative of N. I. Sokolov,
perhaps?), and the 1927 "Geografiya Pochtovoi Svyazi SSSR" (Geography of
Postal Communications in the USSR) by R. Yu. Zonnenburg and I. N. Ilinich.

Soviet mail sorters and postmasters limped along in their work for over
5 years, lacking any comprehensive list of what routes functioned, which ones
connected and which didn't. The situation must have been chaotic enough to
force postal authorities in the NKPiT (People's Commissariat of Posts and
Telegraphs) to issue the Guide, Soviet Russia's first, but not sufficiently so
to warrant a printing of more than 4,500. This number would not have landed a
copy on every postmaster's desk.

The "Geography," on the other hand, enjoyed a whopping 7,000-copy run in
late 1927. It was intended as an instruction book for postal workers,
informing them of all means of postal transportation-air, rail, water and
road--as well as the topographic, climatic, and industrial aspects of the
areas served by the NKPiT. As such, railroads were only part of the book, but
it did contain a list of numbered and unnumbered routes. Both it and the 1928
list agree on all but a few lines.

For the philatelist, cancellations from unnumbered cars may remain
"unfindable," for the reason set forth in Zonnenburg's definition: "...
railroad routes have two variants: one has an orderly numeration and the
names of the beginning and endpoints, while the other has only the beginning
and endpoints named, with no numbers.

The difference in designating these railroad lines...depends on the kind
of operation conducted on each separate mailcar route.

Those lines on which all postal opeartions are conducted (sorting,
bagging, and recording), where the mailcar plays the role of a moving post
office, have their own distinctive number.

Where there are no such operations and mail is transported in closed
postal containers distributed at given points according to prepared
documents, there is no numeration." (p. 31)

These unnumbered lines, then, should yield no cancels, but exceptions
there were. "In certain instances, namely suburban rail links at large
junctions (Leningrad, Khar'kov), unnumbered mailcars do conduct postal
operations, but these are out of the ordinary." (p. 31)






Page 80 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Line numbers were assigned as the routes were constructed (or
reestablished), not according to any regional scheme. The book acknowledged
the difficulties this caused for postal workers struggling valiantly to make
sense of a system in which the Leningrad Pskov Ostrov line was 3-4, but
Pskov Gdov was 353-354, and hinted that plans to renumber everything were
being considered. But in the meantime, they had to soldier on and master the
mess.

Railroads at that time were assigned to 3 categories:

1) Main lines (magistrali), running between the USSR's center and outlying
areas, "intersecting or connecting large administrative and industrial
cities." (p. 33)

2) Secondary lines, connecting the cities above (but not running back to
the center).

3) Minor branch lines and dead-end routes having only local importance.

All numbered lines were category I or II, unnumbered category III.






The list of numbered lines below was correct from 1 October 1927 to same
time in 1928, and the unnumbered route list from 1 October 1927.






Railroad From: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:




1-2 Leningrad Chudovo, Moscow
Bologoe

3-4 Leningrad Pskov Ostrov

5-6 Leningrad Batetskaya, Staraya Russa
Novgorod

7-8 Orel Bryansk, Smolensk, Polotsk
Vitebsk

9-10 Orsha -Unecha






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 81



Railroad From: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:



11-12 Moscow Vladimir, Novki, Nizhnii
Kovrov Novgorod

13-14 Moscow Ryazhsk, Bogoyav- Rostov-on-Don
lensk, Kozlov,
Gryazi, Voronezh
Liski, Likhaya

15-16 Moscow Tula, Gorbachevo, Khar'kov
Orel, Kursk,
Belgorod

17-18 Moscow Sukhinichi, Kiev
Bryansk, Bakhmach

19-20 Khar'kov Krasnyi Liman, Rostov-on-Don
Nikitovka


21-22 Kiev Kazatin, Zhmerinka Odessa

23-24 Rybinsk Yaroslavl' Kostrcma

25-26 Kazan' Agryz, Druzhinino Sverdlovsk

27-28 Kanash Krasnyi Uzel

29-30 Minsk Negoreloe*



31-32 Zverevo Debal'tsevo, Poltava
Nikitovka,
Konstantinovka,
Lozovaya

33-34 Moscow Yaroslavl', Vyatka
Danilov,
Volgoda, Bui

35-36 Leningrad Zvanka, Murmansk
Petrozavodsk

37-38 Khar' kov Poltava, Kremen- Odessa
chug, Znamenka,
Pamoshnaya

39-40 Leningrad Kingisepp



*with connection to Stolbtsy, Poland






Page 82 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Railroad Fran: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:



41-42 Moscow Vyaz'ma, Smolensk, Minsk
Orsha

43-44 Moscow Kremlevo, Kozlov, Saratov
Tambov

45-46 Minsk -Radoshkovichi

47-48 Zmerinka Proskurov Kamenets-
Podol'sk

49-50 Leningrad Mga Krasnyi Kholm



51-52 Tiflis Telav

53-54 Kazatin Berdichev, Krivin
Shepetovka (Zdolbunovo)

55-56 Agryz -Votkinskii
Zavod

57-58 Chudovo -Novgorod

59-60 Khar'kov Lozovaya, Sevastopol'
Sinel'nikovo,
Aleksandrovsk



61-62 Ryazhsk Kremlevo Uzlovaya, Vyaz'ma
Tula

63-64 Ryazhsk Penza, Syzran' Samara

65-66 Rostov-on-Don Tikhoretskaya, Baku
Kavkazskaya,
Prokhladnaya,
Gudermes

67-68 Kiev Fastov, Znamenka, Rostov-on-Don
Sinel'nikovo,
Ilovaiskaya

69-70 Samara Kinel', Orenberg, Tashkent
Arys'






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 83



Railroad Fran: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:



71-72 Moscow Mytishchi, Monino
Shchelkovo

73-74 Vorozhba Basy, Lyubotin Khar'kov

75-76 Mokhovye Gory Kotel'nich
(Nizhnii Novgorod)

77-78 Muran Novki, Ivanovo- Nerekhta
Voznesensk

79-80 Mariupol' Yasinovataya, Khar'kov
Konstantinovka,
Lozovaya


81-82 Vyatka Perm', Kuzino Sverdlovsk

83-84 Vyaz'ma Rzhev Likhoslavl'

85-86 Sverdlovsk Boghanovich Shadrinsk

87-88 Tula -Likhvin

89-90 Shepetovka Lepesovka



91-92 Elets Volovo, Uzlovaya Tula

93-94 Gcmel' Kalinkovichi Zhitkovichi

95-96 Baku Tiflis Batum

97-98 Samtredi -Poti

99-100 Znamenka Dolinskaya, Kherson
Nikolaev


101-102 Shoropani Sachkheri

103-104 Minsk Zhlobin, Gcmel', Kremenchug
Bakhmach

105-106 Khashuri Borzhom

107-108 Orel Elets, Gryazi, Stalingrad
Povorino
109-110 Zhlobin Kalinkovichi Korosten'*

*mailcar not yet running on this line






Page 84 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Railroad Fram: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:



111-112 Tiflis Ehrivan' Dzhul'fa

113-114 Okulovka Lyubytino

115-116 Sverdlvosk Bogdanovich, Omsk
Tyumen'

117-118 Gomel' Unecha, Bryansk, Moscow
Sukhinichi

119-120 Lev Tolstoi Elets, Kastornoe Valuiki


121-122 Stalingrad Torgovaya Tikhoretskaya

123-124 Samara Kinel,Chishmy,Ufa Chelyabinsk

125-126 Orekhovo-Zuevo Kurovskaya Il'inskii
Pogost

127-128 Kazatin Khristinovka Uman'

129-130 Vapnyarka Zyatkovtsy, Tsvetkovo
Khristinovka


131-132 Kerch' Dzhankoi

133-134 Pyatikhatki Aleksandrovsk, Ilovaiskaya
Pologi, Volnovakha

135-136 Moscow Murom, Arzamas Kazan'

137-138 Tashkent Arys' Pishpek
(Frunze)

139-140 Kislovodsk Mineral'nye Vody Prikumsk


141-142 Chernigov Nezhin

143-144 Bryansk Navlya L'gov

145-146 Moscow Serphukhov Tula

147-148 Zhmerinka Mogilev-
Podol' skii

149-150 Tambov Tavolzhanka, Kamyshin
Balashov






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 85



Railroad Fran: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:



151-152 Saratov Urbakh Ural'sk

153-154 Rostov-on-Don Bataisk Torgovaya

155-156 Atkarsk Vol'sk

157-158 Krasnyi Kut Aleksandrovsk-
Gai

159-160 Penza Rtishchevo, Khar'kov
Balashov, Povorino,
Liski, Kupyansk


161-162 Kupyansk Debal'tsevo, Millerovo
Rodakovo

163-164 Talovaya Kalach

165-166 Krasnodar Kavkaz Stavrapol'

167-168 Chelyabinsk Petropavlovsk Crsk

169-170 Perm' Chusovskaya, Chelyabinsk
Sverdlovsk


171-172 Khar'kov Lozovaya, Nikitovka Rostov-on-Don

173-174 Tatarskaya Slavgorod Pavlodar

175-176 Vorozhba Pirogovka

177-178 Voronezh Kastornoe, Kursk, Kiev
L'gov, Vorozhba,
Konotop, Bakhmach

179-180 Stravropol' Blagodarnoe*


181-182 Semki Kalinovka,Gumennoe, Gaivoron
Vinnitsa, Zyatkovtsy

183-184 Pskov Dno, Staraya Russa, Rybinsk
Bologoe

185-186 Omsk Tatarskaya Novosibirsk

187-188 Novosibirsk Yurga, Achinsk Krasnoyarsk
189-190 NOT IN USE

*Listed as Stavropol' Vinodel'naya in "Geografiya"






Page 86 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Railroad From: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:



191-192 Leningrad Batetskaya, Dno, Zhlobin
Novosokol'niki,
Nevel', Vitebsk,
Orsha

193-194 Moscow Egor'evsk

195-196 Verkhov'e Livny Marmyzhi

197-198 Krasnoyarsk Nizhneudinsk Irkutsk

199-200 Bransk-MBB Dyat'kovo Pesochnaya



201-202 Achinsk Abakan

203-204 Khar'kov Merefa,Krasnograd, Kherson*
Dnepropetrovsk,
Dolgintsevo,
Apostolovo

205-206 Krasnovodsk Ashkhabad, Merv, Tashkent
Kagan

207-208 Tashkent Kokand, Andizhan Dzhalalabad

209-210 Moscow Novoierusa- Sebezh
limskaya, Rzhev,
Velikie Luki,
Novosokol' niki



211-212 Rudnitsa Gaivoron, Ol'viopol'
Podgorodnaya

213-214 Leningrad Oranienbaum Krasnoflotsk**

215-216 Moscow Ryazan', Ruzaevka, Samara
Syzran'

217-218 Inza Ul'yanovsk

219-220 Vyatka Murashi Kotlas



*Listed as Dnepropetrovsk Kherson in "Geografiya"
"**Listed as Leningrad Oranienbaum in "Geografiya"






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 87



Railroad Fran: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:



221-222 Dnepropetrovsk Sinel'nikovo, Berdyansk
Chaplino

223-224 Moscow Aleksandrov, Kineshma
Ivanovo-
Voznesensk

225-226 Chusovskaya Solevarni

227-228 Merv Kushka

229-230 Torzhok Selizharovo



231-232 Korosten' Shepetovka Grechany*

233-234 NOT IN USE

235-236 Smolensk Sukhinichi, Kozlov
Gorbachevo,
Raneneburg,
Bogoyavlensk

237-238 Likhaya Krivcmuzginskaya Stalingrad

239-240 Atkarsk Balanda



241-242 Irkutsk Verkhneudinsk, Manchuria
Chita, Karymskaya

243-244 Chita Karymskaya, Bochkarevo
Priiskovaya,
Kuehnga

245-246 Moscow Savelovo, Sonkovo Krasnyi Kholm

247-248 Nizhnii Novgorod Arzamas, Penza
Krasnyi Uzel,
Ruzaevka

249-250 Vladimir Tumskaya Ryazan'



*At the present time, the mailcar runs fran Zhlobin.
"Geografiya" carried it as "Zhlobin Korosten' Grechany."






Page 88 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Railroad Fran: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:



251-252 Belgorod Volchansk Kupyansk

253-254 Kiev Grebenka, Romodan, Khar'kov
Poltava

255-256 Novozybkov -Novgorod-
Seversk

257-258 Belgorod Gotnya, Basy Sumy

259-260 Moscow Ryazhsk, Penza, Samara
Syzran'


261-262 Vladivostok Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk Pogranichnaya

263-264 Vladivostok Ugol'naya Kangauz

265-266 Bochkarevo Khabarovsk, Vladivostok
Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk

267-268 Kiev Krosten',Berdichev Kazatin

269-270 Bochkarevo -Blagoveshchensk



271-272 Chudovo -Zvanka

273-274 NOT IN USE

275-276 Vernadovka Kustarevka Sasovo

277-278 Krasnyi Liman Rodakovo, Lugansk Likhaya

279-280 Leningrad Zvanka, Tikhvin, Vologda
Cherepovets


281-282 Goroblagodatskaya Nadezhdinsk

283-284 Bologoe Velikie Luki, Polotsk
Nevel'

285-286 Pskov Idritsa Polotsk

287-288 Saratov Urbakh,Krasnyi Kut Astrahkan'

289-290 Krotovka -Surgut







ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 89



Railroad Fran: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:



291-292 Tikhoretskaya Krasnodar Novorossiisk

293-294 Pogrebishche -Zhashkov*

295-296 Sosyka Starcminskaya Eisk

297-298 L'gov Gotnya Khar'kov

299-300 Kashira -Venev


301-302 Osipovichi -Slutsk

303-304 Ul'yanovsk Chishny Ufa

305-306 Kustanai Poletaevo Chelyabinsk

307-308 Sverdlovsk Egorshino, Turinsk Tavda

309-310 Bakhmach Grebenka, Birzula
Bobrinskaya,
Pamoshnaya


311-312 Kokand Namangan Andizhan

313-314 Pologi Verhknii Tokmak Fedorovka

315-316 Polotsk Bigosovo

317-318 Armavir Tuapse, Soci Adler

319-320 Groznyi Gudermes, Kizlyar
Chervlennaya-
Uzlovaya


321-322 Vologda Arkhangel'sk

323-324 Korosten' Olevsk

325-326 Orsha -Lepel'

327-328 Novosibirsk Altaiskaya, Semipalatinsk
Barnaul

329-330 Barnaul Altaiskaya Biisk


*"Not in use," according to "Geografiya."







Page 90 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



Railroad Fran: Through: To:
Mailcar Route:



331-332 Yurga Topki Kuznetsk

333-334 Zelenyi Dol Krasnokok-
shaisk*

335-336 NOT IN USE

337-338 NOT IN USE**

339-340 Rostov-on-Don Kushchevka, Krasnodar***
Timashevskaya


341-342 Berdyaush Druzhinino Kuzino

343-344 Orenburg -Orsk

345-346 Kagan Karshi Termez

347-348 NOT IN USE

349-350 _NOT IN USE



351-352 NOT IN USE

353-354 Pskov Gdov Polya

355-356 Voronezh Grafskaya Anna



*I"Not in use," according to "Geografiya."
**Krasnodar Timashevskaya Akhtari, according to "Geografiya."
"***Rostov-on-Don via Kushchevka, Starmainskaya, Timashevskaya, and Krymskaya to
Novorossiisk, in "Geografiya."


UNNUMBERED RAILROAD MAILCAR LINES

Alexsandrov Kirzhach Baku Goradiz

Aleksikovo Uryupino Baku Surakhany

Arzamas I Arzamas II Belorechenskaya Kcmsol'skaya
Apsheronskaya
Akhal-Senaki Zugdidy Belorenchenskaya Maikop

Beloostrov Royanoki Beloretsk Zigazinskii zavod






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 91



UNNUMBERED RAILROAD MAIICAR LINES
(continued)



Berdyaush Bakal Bryansk MKV Bryansk MBB

Beslan Vladikavkaz Valdai Kresttsy

Bogoyavlensk Bol'shaya Sosnovka Vasilevichi Khoiniki

Borzhom Bakuriani Vertunovka Bekovo

Borcmlya Lebedinskaya Verkhnii Baskunchak -
Vladimirovskaya pristan'




Vladislavovka Feodosiya Golutvin Ozery

Volosataya Khrapovitskaya II Gorchakovo Skobelevo

Vyska Vili Grafskaya Ramon'

Vyska Doschatoe Grishino Rutchenkovo -
Stalino
Vyazovaya -
Katav-Ivanovskii zavod Gorozhaani Tsnoris Tskhali




Danilov Bui Durovo Nikitinka

Debal'tsevo Ilovaiskaya Dyat'kovo Bytosh

Debal'tsevo Yasinovataya Ershov Pugachev

Dnepropetrovsk Konstantinograd Zheleznovodsk Beshtau

Dolgintsevo Dolinskaya Zhukovka Kletnya




Zaprudovka Beloretskii zavod Kanavino Sormovo Balakhna

Zelenyi Dol Ilet' Karshi Kitab

Zikeevo Zhizdra Kem' Kem' pristan'

Kagan Bukhara Kingisepp Narva

Kalino Lys'va Kirikovka Akhtyrka






Page 92 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



UNNUMBERED RAILROAD MAILCAR LINES
(continued)


Kirsanov Inzhavino Kuntsevo Usovo

Klin Vysokovskaya Kurganskaya Labinskaya

Korenevo Ryl'sk Kutais Tkvibuli

Krasnyi Kholm Ves'egonsk Kuehnga Sretensk

Kuntsevo Rublevo Kyshtym Karabashskii zavod




Leningrad Beloostrov Liski Korotoyak

Leningrad Borisova Griva Lokhvitsa Gadyach

Leningrad Vaskelovo Lukhovitsy Zaraisk

Leningrad Sestroretskii Kurort Makhach-Kala Buinaksk

Leningrad Sheremet'evka Minsk MBB Minsk Zap (adnyi)
Dubrovka



Mironovka Boguslav Nadezhdinsk Moroskovo

Mordovshchik Kulebaki Nadezhdinsk Shakhta -
Bogoslovskii zavod

Vyksa Mordovshchik Nadezhdinsk Samskii Rudnik

Moscow Golitsino Zvenigorod Nakhabino Pavlovskaya Sloboda

Nadezhdinsk Vagran Nevinamysskaya Psyzh



Nizhnii Novgorod Kozhevennaya Odessa Ovidiopol'

Nizhnii Tagil Alapaevsk Oranienbaum Lebyazh'e Kopor'e

Nizhnii Tagil Visimo Osipovichi Zavishin -
Utkinskii zavod Grodzyanka

Novo-Alekseevka Genichesk Okhochevka Kolpna

Notanebi Ozurgety Pavlovskii Posad Ehlektroperedacha






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 93



UNNUMBERED RAILROAD MAILCAR LINES
(continued)


Perm' Chaikovskaya Nytva Proskurov Volochinsk
(This line wasn't in operation (Podvolochisk)
during river navigation season.)
Prokhladnaya Kotlyarevskaya -
Petropavlovsk Borovoe Nal'nik

Polotsk Orekhovno Razdel'naya Tiraspol'

Poplel'nya Skvira Reutovo Balashikha

Priiskovaya Nerchinsk Rzhavo Oboyan'



Rion Kutais Slavyansk Kramatorskaya -
Popasnaya
Rostov-on-Don Azov
Slobodka Rybnitsa
Ryazhsk Ukholovo
Suchanskii Rudnik Derzhavino
Sereda Upino -
Bol'shoe Yakovlevskoe Taiga Tomsk

Simferopol' Evpatoriya Tikhonova Pustyn' Kaluga



Topki Kemerovo Khar'kov Kovyagi

Troitsk Bredy Khar'kov Likhachevo

Uglovka Borovichi Khashuri Suram

Unecha Starodub Cherusti Roshal'

Khar'kov Kazach'ya Lopan' Shterovka Krindachevka



Shchetovo Antratsit

Yarmolintsy Zakutnoe

Yaroslavl'-gorod Vestingauza zavod

Yaroslavl' Tutaev

Yasinovataya Larino Makeevka






Page 94 1986 ROSSICA 108/109




THE 1937 ISSUES CCMIMQRATING A. S. PUSHKIN

by George V. Shalimoff


For collectors of Soviet issues, there is one that provides quite a
challenge for completion. Although the 1937 issue of stamps ccmmmorating
the 100th anniversary of the death of poet Alexander S. Pushkin consists of
only 6 values of two designs, there are at least 31 different perforation
varieties alone for this issue.

Whereas most sets are issued in one or possibly two different
perforation combinations, there are no less than six different combinations,
although not all values are found in all combinations. To find the stamps of
the various perforation combinations can be a rather difficult search.

The three low values of the set show a portrait of Pushkin as taken from
an engraving by the Englishman Thomas Wright (Fig. 1). It was the last
portrait of Pushkin before his death in a duel. It isn't known if the
engraving was originally done from life or from paintings by 0. A. Kiprenskii
made in 1827. The pose on the engraving is similar to Kiprenskii's paintings
although sane details are not. (Ref. 1, 2).

The design on the three high values shows the monument of A. S. Pushkin
in Moscow, sculpted by A. M. Opekushin in 1880 (Fig. 2).


U I S 71Ac nim ii iii s ;



s'o






Fig. 1 Fig. 2


The stamps were printed on chalk surfaced paper (white, smooth and
slightly glossy) as well as on unglazed or ordinary paper, slightly off
white. The difference in the two paper types is readily apparent when
compared side by side. There are no significant color varieties of the
stamps except those due to the different paper surfaces.

It is, however, the number of different perforations that make this
series so interesting. None of the few articles in Soviet philatelic
literature gives any indication why so many different perforations were used
for this issue, but one can make a guess from the information given in the
1980 Catalog of Postage Stamps of the USSR.






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 95



We note the following information:

Value Color Number Issued

10 kop. light brown 7.5 million

20 kop. blue green 18.1 million

40 kop. lilac 16.7 million

50 kop. blue 980,000

80 kop. red 6.2 million

1 rub. green 810,000


The stamps on the chalk surfaced paper were issued in February 1937.
Those on ordinary paper were released in July 1937. No breakdown in numbers
issued for the two papers was given.

When scanning the Soviet catalog, we note that of the commemoratives
issued prior to 1936, only a few had a million or more copies. For instance,
the two value Popov set of 1925 has three and two million copies respectively.
The Aid-to-Children semi-postals also reached three million copies. Although
the definitive stamps were issued in massive quantities of many millions,
they were released over long periods of time as needed. Even the Lenin
commemorative issues of 1925, 1918-29 had numbers issued of one million or
less, as were most other commemoratives.

In 1936 we find the stamp commemorating the 100th anniversary of the
birth of literary critic N. A. Dobrolubov issued in ten million copies, the
largest quantity issued to date for a commemorative stamp. This was followed
by the 1937 Pushkin issue of six values with more than 50 million copies
total, all released within a five month period.

It is conceivable that this huge number of commemoratives taxed the
perforating facilities to the extent that nearly all combinations of
perforations available were used in this short time to get this issue
perforated and into circulation. This is just a guess, but whatever the
reason, philatelists can enjoy the search for all the combinations.

A similar conclusion was reached in an earlier article on this issue but
the number issued for each value given in that article was considerably
greater, about 125 million total. The source of that information was not
given (Ref. 3).

Although the total number issued for each value is given in the Soviet
catalog as shown above, there is no breakdown for the number of each
particular perforation. One can get a feeling for the relative number from
how each stamp was valued in that catalog, shown in Table I. Readers are
cautioned that these values may reflect relative scarcity in the Soviet
Union, and this may not necessarily be true for stamps exported for sale.
Nor should readers try to equate Soviet ruble values with other currencies or
other catalog values.






Page 96 1986 ROSSICA 108/109



TABLE I
(Values for used and unused in rubles, 1980)

Chalk Surfaced Paper

Value Line Perforated 12 Line Perforated 14 x 12

10 k. 1.50 0.50 1.00 0.30
20 k. 1.50 0.50 2.00 0.70
40 k. 3.00 1.00 3.00 1.00
50 k. 5.00 1.50 5.00 1.50
80 k. 4.00 1.50 3.00 1.00
1 r. 15.00 3.00 6.00 1.50


Line Perforated 11 x 12 Line Perforated 12h x 14

10 k. 5.00 1.50 100.00 40.00
20 k. 10.00 3.00
40 k. 10.00 3.00
50 k. 10.00 3.00
80 k. 5.00 1.50
1 r. 10.00 3.00


Line Perforated 11 Line Perforated 14

10 k. 30.00 5.00 8.00 2.50
20 k. 15.00 5.00
40 k. 50.00 15.00 15.00 5.00
50 k. *

Ordinary Paper

Value Comb Perforated 12 x 12

10 k. 1.50 0.50
20 k. 1.50 0.50
40 k. 3.00 1.00
50 k. 15.00 5.00
80 k. 4.00 1.00

There is mention of a 10 kop. stamp on chalk surfaced paper line
perforated 14x14x11x14 with the perforation 11 at the bottom as being very
rare (Ref. 3, 7). No other mention of this variety was found in Soviet
literature.






ROSSICA 108/109 1986 Page 97



The two stamps indicated in Table I with the asterisk (*) come frn what
the Soviet literature calls "proof" sheets of the accepted design and color.
These proof sheet stamps differ only in the perforations from the stamps
placed into circulation.

As might be expected, sheets of stamps exist with missing lines of
perforations, creating stamps with imperforate margins fantailss) or pairs
imperforate in between. Table II is a compilation of such perforation
varieties from several sources (Ref. 4-7). Examples with imperforate upper
and lower margins are shown in Figures 3 and 4.


TABLE II

Chalk Surfaced Paper

Line Perforated 12h Line Perforated 14 x 12h

10 k. imperforate at the top 10 k. imperforate at the top
10 k. imperforate at bottom 10 k. imperforate at bottom
50 k. imperforate at the top 10 k. vertical pair -
imperforate in between
80 k. imperforate at bottom
Line Perforated 11

10 k. imperforate at right

Line Perforated 11 x 12 Line Perforated 14

10 k. imperforate at right 10 k. imperforate at bottom
10 k. vertical pair 10 k. imperforate at right
imperforate in between 10 k. inperforate at left


3




3
'IA '











Fig. 3 Fig. 4