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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Officers and representatives of...
 Editorial
 Errata
 Life of the society by Dr. Gordon...
 Chapter roundup
 Stamp world London '90 by David...
 Cholera duty: The post and its...
 The Russian field post offices...
 Russian deltiology by Dr. William...
 Zemstvo look-alikes by Dr. George...
 Russian military pictorial covers:...
 Additional Raz"yezd marking by...
 Trans-Siberian TPOs - points to...
 Notes from the Belkin books, translated...
 Streamer mail to and from Tsuruga...
 A tale of two censors by Ivo...
 The repatriation of prisones of...
 Mail between fighting enemies -...
 The postage stamps of Siberia -...
 "Khronika"
 New forgeries of Nikolaevsk-na-Amurye...
 Revenue stamps in place of postage...
 A Variety of the first Soviet stamp...
 Airmail update by Dr. G. Adolph...
 ODVF revisited
 Soviet naval mail 1941-1945 by...
 Soviet varieties by Norman...
 Soviet Censorship: Some additional...
 The rehabilitation of stamps in...
 Lithuania, where have you been?...
 The Rossica library
 Reviews of recently published...
 New members
 Member to member adlets
 Advertising


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00040
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1990
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00040

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page 3
    Editorial
        Page 4
    Errata
        Page 5
    Life of the society by Dr. Gordon Torrey
        Page 6
    Chapter roundup
        Page 7
    Stamp world London '90 by David Skipton
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Cholera duty: The post and its disease control problems under Nicholas I by David M. Skipton
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    The Russian field post offices during the Austro-Hungarian campaign in Hungary in 1849 by Ian W. Roberts
        Page 14
    Russian deltiology by Dr. William R. Nickle
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Zemstvo look-alikes by Dr. George Murdoch
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Russian military pictorial covers: further information by August Leppa
        Page 32
    Additional Raz"yezd marking by J. G. Moyes
        Page 33
    Trans-Siberian TPOs - points to ponder by P.E. Robinson
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Notes from the Belkin books, translated by Dave Skipton
        Page 35
    Streamer mail to and from Tsuruga by Ed Rasmussen
        Page 36
    A tale of two censors by Ivo Steyn
        Page 37
        Page 38
    The repatriation of prisones of war from Russia 1917-1921 by Horst Taitl, translated by Dr. Peter A. Michalove
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Mail between fighting enemies - 1918 by August Leppa
        Page 44
    The postage stamps of Siberia - additional comments and illustrations by George G. Werbizky
        Page 45
    "Khronika"
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    New forgeries of Nikolaevsk-na-Amurye by George G. Werbizky
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Revenue stamps in place of postage stamps by V. Mogil'nyi, translated by Richard Dallair
        Page 55
    A Variety of the first Soviet stamp by B. Rodinov, translated by Gary A. Combs
        Page 56
    Airmail update by Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman
        Page 57
    ODVF revisited
        Page 58
    Soviet naval mail 1941-1945 by Peter A. Michalove
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Soviet varieties by Norman Epstein
        Page 63
    Soviet Censorship: Some additional notes by Ivo Steyn
        Page 63
        Page 64
    The rehabilitation of stamps in the USSR by R. Polchaninov, translated by Scott Allen
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Lithuania, where have you been? by Ivo Steyn
        Page 67
        Page 68
    The Rossica library
        Page 69
    Reviews of recently published material
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    New members
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Member to member adlets
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Advertising
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text




ROSSICA

No. 115 October, 1990












The Journal of the

Rossica Society of Russian Philately

ISSN 005-836







THE JOURNAL OF THE
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


Journal No. 115 for October 1990

Co-Editors : Gary A. Combs and David M. Skipton
Editorial Board: Norman Epstein, Leon Finik, George Shaw, Denys Voaden,
Howard Weinert
Bulletin Editor: Paul Spiwak


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Article Page

Editorial 4
Errata from issue 113/114 5
Life of the Society, Dr. Gordon Torrey 6
Chapter Roundup 7
Stamp World London '90, David Skipton 8
Cholera Duty The Post and its Disease Control Problems 11
under Nicholas I, David M. Skipton
The Russian Field Post Offices during the Austro-Hungarian 14
Campaign in Hungary in 1849, lan W. Roberts
Russian Deltiology, Dr. William R. Nickle 15
Zemstvo Look-Alikes, Dr. George Murdoch 25
Russian Military Pictorial Covers: Further Information, August Leppg 32
Additional Raz"yezd Marking, J.G. Moyes 33
Trans-Siberian TPOs Points to Ponder, P.E. Robinson 33
Notes from the Belkin Books, translated by Dave Skipton 35
Steamer Mail To and From Tsuruga, Ed Rasmussen 36
A Tale of Two Censors, Ivo Steyn 37
The Repatriation of Prisoners of War from Russia 1917-1921, Horst Taitl 39
(translated by Dr. Peter A. Michalove)
Mail Between Fighting Enemies 1918, August Leppa 44
The Postage Stamps of Siberia Additional Comments and Illustrations, 45
George G. Werbizky
"Khronika", translated by Dave Skipton 45,58
New Forgeries of Nikolaevsk-na-Amurye, George G. Werbizky 53
Revenue Stamps in Place of Postage Stamps, V. Mogil'nyi 55
(translated by Richard Dallair)
A Variety of the First Soviet Stamp, B. Rodionov 56
(translated by Gary A. Combs)
Airmail Update, Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman 57
ODVF Revisited 58
Soviet Naval Mail 1941-1945, Dr. Peter A. Michalove 58







TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.)

Article Page

Soviet Varieties, Norman Epstein 63
Soviet Censorship: Some Additional Notes, Ivo Steyn 63
The Rehabilitation of Stamps in the USSR, R. Polchaninov 65
translated by Scott Allen
Lithuania, Where Have You Been?, Ivo Steyn 67
The Rossica Library 69
Reviews of Recently Published Material 70
New Members 75
Adlets 77
Advertisements 80




In the Back Room

We have a limited number of back issues of the journal for sale, both in English and Russian
language editions. Russian editions available are numbers 44-69 (unfortunately, there are many
gaps), and English editions available are numbers 66-112. Prices listed for back issues are in US
dollars.
Single issue:

-- -r 7.50 Non-Member 10.00

Single issues currently available are:
44-45, 48, 54-59, 61-75, 78-85, 88-89, 92-93, 110-112

Double issue:

Member 15.00 Non-Member 20.00

Double issues currently available are:
46-47, 76-77, 86-87, 90-91, 94-95,96-97, 98-99, 100-101, 102-103, 104-105, 106-107, 108-109,
113-114.

Back issues may be obtained from:

Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Court
Millersville, MD 21108

Make checks payable to ROSSICA and include them with your order. If normal mail delivery is not
desired, please indicate so, and include the added cost in your payment.









HONORED MEMBER
4 Joseph Chudoba


OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President: Dr. Gordon Torrey, 5118 Duvall Drive, Bethesda, MD 20816
Acting Vice President and
Secretary: George Shaw, 7596-J Lakeside Village Drive, Falls Church, VA 22042
Treasurer: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11226
Librarian: David Skipton, 50 D Ridge Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770
Auditor: Leon Finik, P.O. Box 521, Rego Park, NY 11374

Board of Directors:

Dr. Raymond Ceresa, Fairview Cottage, Quarry Lane, Gorsley, Ross-on-Wye,
Hereford BA9 7SJ, Great Britain

Lester Glass, 5461 Village Green, Los Angeles, CA 90016

Alex Sadovnikov, P.O. Box 612, San Carlos, CA 94070


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

Washington-Baltimore Chapter: Dr. Gordon Torrey
Northern California Chapter: Michael Gutter
Midwest Chapter: James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park, IL 60304
Great Britain: Dr. Raymond Ceresa

Anything in this journal may be reproduced without permission. However, acknowledgement of
the source and a copy of the reprinted matter would be appreciated. The views in this journal
expressed by the authors are their own and the editors disclaim all responsibility.


The membership dues are $18.00 annually if paid before 1 January and $20.00 if paid thereafter.
Application forms are available upon request from the President, Secretary, Treasurer or Librar-
ian. Membership lists will be sent annually. Please make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY

c/o Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave.,
Brooklyn, NY 11226 USA.


Copyright 1990
The Rossica Society








Editorial


Many members have written to express their print it. If this is the case, please re-submit.
feelings about the lastjournal. The overwhelming A couple of members commented on the qual-
majority have expressed appreciation and pro- ity of the pictures. The main problem with the
-:onstructive comments. To say the least, scanner is that I had to learn how to use it "on the
out a journal was a learning experience fly." I think you will notice an improvement in
for both Dave and me. We had to learn how to use this issue. Every picture we are able to scan saves
new equipment, how to squeeze and expand both the society $9. Also, we would like to point out
text and graphics, and how to take aspirins and that we cannot take a barely readable xerox or a
use Visine. photograph that does not accurately reflect the
Several members commented about thejournal author's thoughts and make them into something
not being 128 pages as we had promised. Please they are not. There have been a few articles in
allow me to explain why I believe the journal this category, and the authors have been in-
actually containedmore information in 111 pages formed.
than previous 128-page journals. As you are The Editorial Board has been an extremely
aware, we introduced a scanner into the produc- interactive group. All articles forpublication get
tion effort. Previously, the journal preparation at least four checks for spelling, etc. All board
was a "cut and paste" operation. The text was members have been very beneficial to the edi-
typed and sufficient space was left for the pic- tors. We definitely appreciate their efforts!
tures, tables, etc. The size (pitch) of the letters This is the second journal published by myself
was larger than that used in number 113/114. The and Dave. We have been on schedule both times,
pictures were normally shown at full size, thus and we have a good start on the next journal
occupying a lot of space. The scanner allowed us already. However, we still need material. Keep
to reduce most items by at least 1/3. Several it coming!
items that were submitted would have taken an After a long hiatus, we are again running adver-
entire page by themselves. However, due to tisements from supporting dealers. This signifi-
reduction, we were able to get both the picture cantly reduces the cost of journal production and
and text on the same pages. We did a rough provides a service to the membership. In addi-
calculation (sorry, no formula.is available for tion, it fits very well within our philosophy of
you mathematicians ) and estimated that if we giving the membership more for less. (Norman
had used full-size pictures, and a slightly larger likes that.) We have tried to identify all the
letter size, the journal would have been roughly dealer-members, and invitations for ads have
150-160 pages. Therefore, I feel that we met our been sent out. If we missed you, our sincere
obligation as far as contents of the journal are apologies, and please let us know. It is not our
concerned. If you disagree, write Dave. intent to ignore anyone.
An apology is due to those members that did We encourage our membership to submit origi-
notseetheirmemberadlets/articles. Inthe"chang- nal material from all periods and aspects of
ing of the guard" some things got lost or mis- collecting. To balance the journal, we'd like to
placed in the relocation of journal records. We receive more Soviet-period articles in the future,
recently found them (all?) and they ar in this especially of the "just stamps" kind, since that is
issue! If any member has submitted items prior what a goodly number of the members collect.
to the publication of #113/114, and you did not While we are happy to run good translations on
see your item in #113/114, and it is not in this this topic, we'd prefer original work. But we
-,ease let us know. We may not have your can't print what we don't get, so let us hear from
"submission and, therefore, could not you!
Journal Number 115, 4
1990







Editorial Board Suffers Moderate Casualties
(Errata for #113/114)
















Well, despite a lengthy and very repetitious Stick Restaurant failed to include this man, one
proofreading program for the journal, we blew a Lawrence Silverman, who threatened to use these
few. To those kind readers who caught our boots on our collective behind if we ever did that
mistakes and hastened to inform us of them, our again. So we won't.
best clench-jawed "thanks."
A minor problem in discerning the difference
between "0" and "2" resulted in an error on page
5. Peter Michalove's zip code is 61821. We were
only 20 off. And just to prove we play no
favorites here at the E. board, we got the Rossica
President's zip code wrong, too. It should be
20816. (That was 800 off, a slightly more notice-
able miss.)
On page 59, we neglected to supply fig. 4, so
here it is.








Gremlins struck again on page 83, where figs 1
and 2 were reversed, and yet again on page 86,
where the cancel identified as a Mongolian-
language datestamp is actually Buryat. Peter M.
caught that as well,, but he missed the 20016/
20816 mix-up, so we don't feel so bad. But we
DO feel terrible about the gaffe perpetrated on
page 7. The list of people present at the Chop
Rossica Journal Number 115, 5
October 1990







Life of the Society



It is encouraging to note that Rossica's mem-
bership is now well over 300 persons and steadily
Growing. I sincerely hope that the increasing
membership will mean an increasing supply of
fl; by Dr. Gordon Torrey
y D G T new information, and encourage each member to
sign up a new member.
1 Our financial position is very strong. We are
within $500 of breaking even on the Bazilevich
translation and sales of the Prigara translation are
progressing nicely. Quite a few Tables of Con-
Much of the "Life of the Society" since the ap- tents from past issues and copies of the Reverse
pearance of the last journal is appearing in this Sort have been sold as well. But the best news is
Journal in the report on London '90 or has been that we are finally close to receiving our "tax ex-
in the fine newsletter published by Paul Spiwak empt" status. As a non-profit organization, we
in June. I can say only that London '90 was thor- can do more with less money.
can do more with less money.
oughly enjoyable, with near-perfect weather, and I was saddened to have to inform the member-
that itprovided a great opportunity to meetfriends ship in the newsletter that our vice president,
from many countries. I had the pleasure of George Shalimoff, resigned his post for personal
attending the Royal Philatelic Society, London's reasons. George has made many contributions to
dinner, as well as Robson Lowe's banquet cele- the Journal over the years, and was a major force
rating his70th year in the London '90 Palmares. in maintaining the San Francisco chapter. Until
I have received many pleasing comments on the elections are held next year, George Shaw
the last Journal. The editors would like to receive will function as the acting vice-president. Please
your comments so that we can print what inter- give George Shaw the same cooperation that you
ests you. Gary and Dave are doing an excellent gave George Shalimoff for so many years.
job. They have spent many hours reviewing Members might want to mark November 1991
material, discussing what should be in thejournal on their calendars. Rossica will hold its annual
(debating as Dave puts it, arguing as Gary puts it, general meeting at the "Pan-Slavic" show in
and how much will it cost as Norman puts it), and Chicago then, and we hope to have a good show-
finally, meeting with the editorial board to dis- ing of Russian exhibits. We'll also have a Rossica
cuss the upcoming journal. The editorial board booth with books and journals for sale. It should
has met at least three times for this issuealone.In be quite an event; I hope to see many of you there.
addition, as you have noticed, we are now accept- You will also note that our latest membership
ing advertisements from our member-dealers in list is enclosed. We'd like to include collecting
the Journal; we welcome them! To place your ad, interests of as many members as possible in next
simply contact one of the editors. This issue year's list, so if you would please send this
represents a first for Rossica, in that it is the only information to the editors or the treasurer, we can
one to have all illustrations done on a scanner, begin to compile it
This has saved us so much on halftones that the
scanner has already paid for itself in just two
issues (#'s 113/114 & 115).



Rossica Journal Number 115, 6
October 1990







Chapter Roundup

The Midwest Chapter The Washington Chapter

(Ed. Note: The following excerpt from the Mid- The Washington (D.C.) chapter met twice in
west Chapter's bulletin and editorial pen of Peter the last several months. On April 4 Gordon
A. Michalove covers the activities of the chap- Torrey, Clyde North and George Shaw met in a
ter.) joint session with our counterparts from the
Czechoslovak and Ukrainian Societies at
The Midwest Chapter of Rossica met May 27 SPRINGPEX, the 20th annual show of the Spring-
at COMPEX, where Bob Pauk gave a program on field (Va.) Stamp Club. Topics focused on the
his Bielarus' collection. By any measure, this current scene in Eastern Europe including the
was one of our liveliest programs, and Bob's changeover in the heirarchy of the Czech phila-
unusual material generated active discussion telic establishment because of the Velvet Revo-
among members. Peter Bylen catered (an in- lution and its implications for the leadership of
spired choice!) Matt's Chocolate Cookies. Oth- FIP. Plans for participation in upcoming shows,
ers there to enjoy the program and refreshments notably BALPEX, were also discussed,
were Victor Algmin, Emil Arlinas, Mike Carson, The capital area chapter also met at NAPEX in
Eugene Gregor, Jacob Levitan, Bill Mudry, and Arlington, VA on June 4. Attendees included:
I (PM). Gordon Torrey, Joe Geraci, Gary Combs, Dave
Peter Bylen won a gold at the show for his Skipton, Clyde North, Denis Voaden, Joe Tay-
"Phases of Ukrainian History" exhibit. The lor, Daniel Levandowsky, Webster Stickney and
bourse was full of good Russian material, so George Shaw. The highlight of the meeting was
everyone came home happy. the debriefing by Dave Skipton and Gordon
In other news of members, Mike Carson won a Torrey on London '90. A secondary highlight of
vermeil plus the APS 1900-1940 award and the the NAPEX show was when a certain Rossica
APS Research Award at the Plymouth Stamp member found a pristine St. Petersburg Tempo-
Show. Our coordinator, Jim Mazepa, was a rary PO. What made this event unusual is that it
judge at that show. cost only $10 and it wasn't found by Dave Skip-
Peter Bylen won a gold at KAZOOPEX for his ton although he swore up and down that the
display of the Belize maritime life definitive. booth it was found at had absolutely nothing at
And Peter's showing of Belize at MILCOMPEX all.
was singled out for special comment in Randy As usual, the horde moved on to eat. And, as
Neil's column in the June issue of The American usual again, nobody knew where to go. We all
Philatelist. decided not to go Chinese. Instead we ate at a
At the Cardinal Spellman Philatelic Literature fantastic little Vietnamese restaurant. The high-
Fair in April, our Newsletter earned a bronze light of the meal was when 90-year old Daniel
award, while John Otten, Dave Skipton and I Levandowsky corrected the waiter on the pro-
received a gold forPostalCensorship in Imperial nunciation of menu items not once but twice.
Russia. Plans are already underway for BALPEX and
the annual meeting.







Rossica Journal Number 115, 7
October 1990








Stamp World London '90

by Dave Skipton























Alexandra Palace Entrance to Stamp World London '90

The newly restored Alexandra Palace hosted Rev. Leonard Tann, new and soon-to-be-new
this decade's STAMPWORLD show, and a glo- members Alan Blunt (BSRP Treasurer), George
rious bash it was. Held on May 3-13, the event Miskin(BSRPCommitteemember),GeorgeMur-
attracted about 90,000 to its numerous dealer doch, Terry Page and Kaj Hellman. Kaj and
booths, outstanding exhibits and comfortable Dragan Udovicic of Euro-Yu, also a member,
accommodations. The only fly in an otherwise had far and away the deepest, quality stocks of
pure ointment was the inadequate arrangements Russian material at the show.
for many of the society meetings, but of this, Monday, May 7th was the day the British
more later. Society of Russian Philately had its meetings,
Rossica Society members from the U.S. were and it was here that London 90's organizers came
there in force: Paul Buchsbayew, Norman Ep- up short. "Room D" turned out to be one of four
stein, Martin Garfinkle, Joe Geraci, Fred Scheuer, small, forlorn trailers parked in a side alley of the
Al Kugel, Larry Silverman, Dave Skipton, Palace. The promise of exhibit frames on par
"Webster Stickney, Joe Taylor, Gordon Torrey with those in the Exhibition Halls gave way to
and Bill Welch. (My apologies to any whose crude wooden magazine holders, thus making it
names I missed.) There were even more Euro- inadvisable to leave pages on display. Dr. Ray-
pean members of Rossica, and not a few gentle- mond Casey, BSRP President, brought in his
men joined our ranks at the show. It was a great magnificent showing of Russo-Japanese War
pleasure to meet with Dr. Raymond Casey, Ivo covers to support his talk, and spoke to a well-
Steyn (editor of the BJRP), George Henderson, attended gathering of the faithful. Unfortunately,
Philip Robinson (of Siberia Postmarks fame), only 30 or so could be sandwiched into Room D,
Rossica Journal Number 115, 8
October 1990








so that several more either had to stand outside or lick" and "touristickal," and enjoying a four-
simply leave. This was a shame, as Dr. Casey's course lunch. In addition to his BSRP Librarian
talk was very interesting and the covers fabulous, duties, George doubles as the Librarian for the
Viktor Sinegubov, First Deputy Chairman of Postal History Society, and Pru is the Portuguese
the Union of Philatelists' (SF) Central Commit- Society Librarian! Needless to say, there are a
tee, was present at the talk, and met with Gordon few books to be found at their office and home.
Torrey to discuss establishment of a literature We hope to expand the library exchange program
exchange with the SF. Also present was Anatolii between the societies, especially as more original
Kiryushkin, co-author with Philip Robinson of source material becomes available. My thanks to
"Russian Postmarks." Mr. Kiryushkin has been George and Pru for their gracious hospitality and
doing a lot of digging in the Minsk postal ar- engaging conversation!
chives, and the fruits of this research will cer-
tainly be welcomed by the collecting fraternity.
Another gentleman with whom it was a great
pleasure to meet was Tony Speeckaert, author of
the first-rate book in Dutch on WWI Russian
military censormarks. Tony is working on an up-
date, which promises to contain a hefty number
of newly-recorded markings.
May 8th and it was off to Beckenham, a pleas-
ant community south of London, there to visit the
Hendersons, George and Pru. (A word on trans-
portation here. The London Tube is one of the George Henderson (BSRP Librarian) and his
easiest, least confusing subway systems I've ever wife Pru outside their Beckenham office, May 8,
ridden. That said, the equation changes on most 1990.
any weekday morning. Just getting to Becken-
ham on a Tuesday was an eye-popping, shoulder- London '90 was also noteworthy for its exhib-
scrunching adventure. The London subway its, of which not a few were in the Russian/Soviet
system gets a bit crowded during the morning area. Three frames in the Kaminskii display held
rush hourss, so much so that each platform could an awesome mass of Russian FPO covers from
use some burly Japanese "packers" to get riders the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. Most of us
into the cars. Once the Green Park Station is will retire to that Big Bourse in the Sky without
reached from Russell Square Station, the fun is ever having one in our collections, but here were
half over. There, the multitudes spill out and not only numerous letters sent through the FPOs,
scatter through a maze of tunnels on their way to but THREE (!) receipt forms with "IOJIEBAlI
yet another platform, this one for a transfer to IO'ITA" (Field Post) at the top. I had to sit down
Victoria Station and still more humanity-dump- after that. The exhibit, however, failed to receive
ing madness. I was fortunate to be swept along an award, as the judges could not decide how it
by a mob heading in the direction I wanted to go, should be classified. The three glorious frames
else these lines might have been written from of 1877-78 material wereprecededbythreeframes
Dover, Edinburgh, or some other place not ter- of nice imperial stamps, essays and covers that
ribly close at all to Beckenham.) had nothing to do with the Russo-Turkish War
A very pleasant day was spent at the Hender- section. Essentially, it was two three-frame ex-
sons', perusing the BSRP Library (similar in size hibits.
to Rossica's, and strong in background material Mr. Mandrovskii's collection of ship mail held
pertaining to the Far East, Russo-Japanese War, quite a number of excruciatingly rare can-
etc.), conversing on matters sublimely "philate- cellations, among them a Pechora steamer, both

Rossica Journal Number 115, 9
October 1990







directions of the Ust'-Kut-Yakutsk lines, and a Maciej Miszczak, Poland, (Poland Pre-Adhe-
spare R.V.A.P. or two. The Volga-Kama river sive and Classic-Early Postal Annotations,
lines were well represented, as were the Baltic Seals, Markings and the First Adhesive)
and Black Seas. While much of the material was Veslav Savin, USSR, (Russia Under the Pro-
rare, however, it is this writer's opinion that the tection of the Red Cross, 1878-1917)
gold medal Mr. Mandrovskii's exhibit received *Gordon Torrey, USA, (Russia Imperial Of-
was a bit more than the quality would support. fices Abroad)
Quite a few of the covers bore unsightly stains Vermeil:
and foxing. Vigintas Bubnis, USSR, (Lithuania, Postmarks
For some inscrutable reason, Ivo Steyn's Civil of Vil'na 1816-1939)
War Siberia exhibit was banished from the Rus- Marat Kabanov, USSR, (Russia, Standard
sian section and consigned to the nether reaches Postage Stamps of the RSFSR and USSR)
of the "All Others" area, there to languish with a Norge Lundh, Denmark, (European Letters to
potpourri of displays. Some very rare covers Finland 1819-1873)
lurked in his frames, but alas, they were largely Esa Mattila, Finland, (Estonia 1940)
un-remarked by the "All Others" judges. Zdenek Mekyna, Czechoslovakia, (RSFSR/
Russian and related-areas exhibits did quite Soviet Union/1917-1923)
well at the show, as did several of our members, Ms. Czechna Witkowska, Poland, (Poland
with Adolph Ackerman's Airmails leading the 1860-1939)
way. The following is a list of the exhibits: Large Silver:
(* denotes a Rossica member) Jorgen Jensen, Denmark, (Tercentenary of the
Romanov Dynasty)
FIP Championship Class: Vyavno Karmi, USSR, (Estonia Stamps of
Sven Kraul, FRG, (Latvia Forerunners 1736- 1918-1940)
1902). Juris Mors, Sweden, (Latvia Postal History
Hiroyuki Kanai, Japan, (Finland Classics) 1770-1925)
Large Gold: Silver:
Jussi Tuori, Finland, (Finland 1637-1884) Stig Anderson, Denmark, (Russia 1784-1905)
Christian Sundman, Finland, (Finland, Postal Leslaw Schmutz, Poland, (Poland 1860-1939)
Stationery 1845-1871) Viktor Sinegubov, USSR, (Russia, Letters by
Gold: Sea Mail 1792-1917)
"*G. Adolph Ackerman, USA, (Soviet Airmail *Ivo Steyn, The Netherlands, (Siberia 1918-
The Early Years) 1923)
Manfred Dobin, USSR, (Russia, History of
Postal Markings) Our member in Chile, Derek Palmer, displayed
Vambola Hurt, Sweden, (Estonia Prephilately "Germany, Used Stamps and Covers of the Infla-
and Prephilatelic Postmarks) (Unfortunately, tion Issues 1919-1923" and garnered a silver-
this exhibit was not displayed.) bronze, and Josef Kuderewicz of the USA got a
Nikolai Mandrovskii, USSR, (Russia Steamer vermeil for his "Disinfected Mail Austro-Hun-
Post) garian and German Empires." In thematic philat-
Large Vermeil: ely, new Rossica member Albert Ash pulled in a
"*Per-Anders Erixon, Sweden, (Russia 1812- vermeil for "The History, Activities and Funding
1875) of the Red Cross."
Shifara Hindrekson, USSR, (Birth and De- It was a tremendous show; London 2000 will
velopment ofEstonia and Latvia Postal History certainly be another "can't miss" affair.
Until 1800) + Special Prize

Rossica Journal Number 115, 10
October 1990








Cholera Duty The Post and Its Disease-Control ProblemsUnder Nicholas I


One such problem that year led all the way to
the Committee of Ministers before it was re-
by David M. Skipton solved. On March 9th, Postmaster A.N. Golitsyn
gave a report to the Committee describing the
"discovery of undeclared money at the Srednii-
Egorlyk Quarantine (in Stavropol' province. The
Second Pandemic had begun in August 1829 in
the Caspian region and started to spread north.).'
Russian mail disinfection practices to pre- Officials there had opened two money packets
vent the spread of cholera and plague have been addressed from Stavropol' to a Mr. Aleksandr
well-documented in the literature, but several Schneider in St. Petersburg, finding therein a
behind-the-scenes aspects have largely escaped total of 45,000 paper rubles and 6,000 rubles in
notice how the Postal Department worked the banknotes. As the packets' declared values were
various quarantines to check money transfer and for a mere 100 and 150 rubles, both were in
packet mail during the early years under Nicho- flagrant contravention of postal regulations.
las I (1825-1855), coordination of actions be- Trying to sneak money through the mail without
tween the Post, the Ministries of Internal Affairs paying the Post its percentage was frowned upon
and Finance, governors-general and of course the by the authorities, and to combat that sort of thing
quarantines, and salary matters of those unfortu- the Post gave its employees a considerable incen-
nates who were sent to man the anti-cholera posts tive: any postal worker who found undeclared
in small, dirty villages. All of these aspects were money or valuables in mail was permitted to keep
causes for concern during the terrible outbreaks 25%, and the Treasury took the other 75%. With
of cholera in central European Russia in 1829- the niggardly wages paid to clerks and lesser
1830. Many questions arose which the Postal officials, finding an undeclared amount like
Administration's regulations were ill-equipped 61,000 rubles (a princely sum in those days) was
to answer. In the face of a swift, virulent disease like winning a sweepstakes. The problem for the
which threatened to overrun the empire's inter- authorities in this case arose from the place where
nal defenses, the authorities often had to take the packet had been opened at a quarantine.
action first and ask for legal clarification later. The quarantines were a part of the Ministry of
On one occasion in 1829, cholera was indi- Internal Affairs, while at that time the Postal De-
rectly responsible for the refinement of a cus- apartment was an independent entity with the
toms/postal law that dated back to 1800. Under rights and privileges of a ministry. Alexander I
then-current quarantine law, letters could be slit, had approved a law on 5 September 1800 that
punctured and fumigated, but packets containing gave one-fourth of discovered monies to the
bills, bonds and other valuable papers were not finder, and while it was further refined in 1807, it
always subject to such rough handling. Like applied only to postal workers. Since the 1829
package mail, they could be opened and their incident involved a non-postal establishment, it
contents inspected and treated (presumably with took the Minister of Internal Affairs and the
the same hydrochloric fumes or smoke), then Postmaster-General to sort things out. Their
resealed. Postal officials had to be in attendance decision was to treat the quarantine officials in
at the quarantines to make sure postal regulations the same way as postal workers, so that one-
were followed, and this dual supervision some- fourth share of 12,750 (less the Post's 510 rubles
times led to jurisdictional problems of the first for the proper insurance) was divided among
magnitude. them. The unfortunate Assistant Caucasus Ob-

Rossica Journal Number 115, 11
October 1990







last' Postmaster, Collegial AssessorLetunovskii, tice in the literature. Since the quarantines were
received a severe reprimand for his inattention to located along post roads, anyone travelling by
duty (he'd taken the sender's word that the pack- postal conveyance would have had to deal with
ets contained only 250 rubles), and was told the them and wait, despite what their orders for post
next time that happened, he'd be looking for a horses said about permitting no delay. And there
new job.2 was always the problem of feeding, housing and
The Srednii-Egorlyk Quarantine has not been paying postal employees sent on duty to the
noted specifically in the literature, probably be- cordons. Thus, the Postal Administration inter-
cause it was an internal station established to pre- acted with the Quarantine in three major areas:
vent the spread of cholera inside the empire, not 1) postal correspondence passing
to stop it at the borders. Much further north, other through the cordons (disinfection),
quarantines and guard posts were erected as the 2) postillions and travellers by post
disease marched into Moscow and the provinces reaching the quarantine stations
surrounding it. Lines were thrown up to prevent (isolation), and
its advance into St. Petersburg, the disease al- 3) room and board for postal workers
ready having ravaged Astrakhan' and worked its serving at the stations (maintenance).
way up the Volga.3 On 20 September 1830
Nicholas issued his instructions to the Senate: JIET 7 1'
"On precautions against the cholera where pos- orns 1 om UB, W.... M., oua Kapa,,nr.
millions and correspondence are concerned.
"On the 20th day of this month His Imperial 6srA-- we cera <
Majesty has deigned to command that: a' uI...u,,,,oom. Kpal,.... irSWAcpr anpeA. mIfo
1) Postillions travelling with posts and U"'" ARtl "'m""p" K "'y"""" Fma""""xna a?
%=uua C"'9Aw tcnaa 183/- ra am 5t.oAaJImO
relays on all highways leading from *COWh
cholera-outbreak areas shall be re- j,-wcp.
placed by others at the cordons and ,
not allowed to go any further.
2) All packets sent by post from
Yaroslavl', Kostroma and Nizhnii "Certificate from the Chief of the Vyshnyi Vo-
Novgorod shall be punctured and lochek Quarantine. The bearer of this [certifi-
disinfected, without exception, cate], Actual State Counsellor Butkov's house
"In obeying this Imperial injunction, the serf Peter Kareev, has undergone the necessary
Postal Administration has given the neces- 14-day term in the Vyshnyi Volochek Quaran-
sary instructions to the Post Offices, while tine, and is released from the Quarantine this
the Ministry of Internal Affairs has instructed 29th day of January, 1831, in good health.
the St. Petersburg and Moscow Military Gov-
ernors-General, and the civil governors of General-Major Nabokov."
Novgorod, Tver', Yaroslavl', Vologda and
Olonets, to ensure that no one from an in- (FromN.K. Schilder's "ImperatorNikolaiPervyi,
fected area may leave without having under- Ego Zhizn' i Tsarstvovanie," SPb, 1903, vol. 2,
gone the 14-day observation period called for ill. 14. Reduced.)
in the quarantine regulations and the instruc-
tions of the Minister of Internal Affairs..."4 The situation with the cholera onslaught was
The illustration below shows a certificate is- evidently so unusual in 1829-1830 that the Postal
sued to one fortunate soul who survived his Administration had few or no regulations to
mandatory two-week isolation at Vyshnii Vo- guide it in either the customs or in the mainte-
lochek, another quarantine that has escaped no- nance aspects. In report given to the Committee

Rossica Journal Number 115, 12
October 1990







of Ministers by the Postmaster-General in No- 2) For officials sent to cordons, guard posts
vember 1830, Golitsyn read the following: and quarantine posts in all other prov-
"Since the establishment of cordons on the inces where cholera has been found, as
Moscow and Yaroslavl' roads to prevent the well as those contiguous 1 ruble, and for
cholera from reaching St. Petersburg, the office workers and other low-ranking
Postal Administration has sent 8th-rank offi- employees 40 kopecks daily.
cials Maksimov and Tarnavskii there to disin- 3) For postillions arriving with mail and de-
fect mail on its way to St. Petersburg and tained if they cannot be allowed to return,
[make sure] that newpostillions replace those 50 kopecks daily in the capitals and 40
from the infected regions. kopecks elsewhere.
"This temporary duty was hastily assigned, 4) Payment of food allowance should be
and on my orders each of them has been made by the closest post office one month
granted 500 rubles for necessities and other in advance to each individual.
living costs from the general revenues of the 5) Expenditures made by the St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg GPO. Furthermore, I have in- Postal Director for detained postillions
structed the Postal Director that all expenses prior to publication of these instructions
incurred from disinfection of mail and pro- should be applied to the treasury's ac-
viding for detained postillions be covered count as a legitimate expense.
from the same revenues, while keeping in 6) The 1,000 rubles paid out to officials
mind that these sums for extraordinary ex- Maksimov and Tarnavskii should also be
penditures have not been allocated to the considered a legitimate expense.
Postal Administration's budget. I have in- 7) Money which will go for apothecary
formed the Minister of Finances of these in- medicaments for disinfection of corre-
structions, and an accounting of whatever spondence, the construction of boxes for
amount is spent will be communicated to him this operation and so forth should be paid
in due course, from postal revenues."5
"Inasmuch as I am receiving reports from This evidence of bureaucratic confusion in the
local postal authorities which show that highest echelons of government appears to con-
similar temporary assignments to cordons firm Vandervelde's hypothesis that "all quaran-
and quarantine guard posts are being made tine measures had been allowed to lapse after the
everywhere circumstances dictate, and that outbreak of plague in 1770/1771. This, despite
the officials and other employees sent there minor epidemics in Kherson in 1783, Transylva-
are encountering extreme difficulties in pro- nia in 1786, Syrmia in 1795 and Volhynia in
viding for themselves due to low salaries and 1798."6 A concern for postal reaction to the
problems in acquiring necessities,I am bring- disease's spread seems gradually to have faded,
ing this to the attention of the Committee of until six decades later it had completely disap-
Ministers: Would it not be desirable to deter- peared. It also raises the same philatelic question
mine a cost-of-living allowance for postal Vandervelde posed: where are the domestic let-
officials and employees at the following rates? ters which passed through disinfection stations?
1) For officials at cordons, guard posts and Disinfected correspondence to and from Russia
quarantine posts in St. Petersburg and can easily be found, with handstamps from the
Moscow provinces, where such have been border quarantines. But here we have the names
established 1.50 rubles each per day, of two internal stations, one of which was impor-
and for office workers, postillions and tant enough to have its own quarantine certifi-
other low-ranking employees 50:ko- cates printed and to have a major general in
pecks daily. command, and allusions by the Postmaster-
General to many more such stations and posts.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 13
October 1990








With at least seven provinces directly involved in modern Slovakia) dated 24th May 1849 contains
the defense against cholera, there must be some this sentence:
philatelic proof of internal disinfection from this "If one is destined to die, it is better to
period. Yet, thus far, nothing definite has been do so from a bullet, than from cholera
found, which has begun to spread seriously in
the regiments."
NOTES: The second letter dated 19 June 1849 is written
1) Vandervelde, "Russia: The Disinfection of from a bivouac after the capture of Gyor on 17th
Mail. Early Documentary Sources", in June. It gives a description of the battle of Pered
"Pratique", vol. 1, #4, 1975, p.77. which took place on 9th June and again refers to
2) "Sobranie zakonov po upravleniyu the serious effects of cholera among the Russian
pochtovomu", St. Petersburg, 1846-1850, troops.
vol. 2, pp. 241-244. As Panyutin's division was attached to the
3) Vandervelde, p. 80. main Austrian army throughout the campaign, it
4) Ibid, pp. 324-325. seems reasonable to assume that these letters
5) Ibid, pp. 440-441. were handled in the first instance by the Austrian
6) Vandervelde, "Russian Quarantine andDisin- Field Post Offices which had been established in
fection: An Overview", in "Pratique", vol. May 1849.
XII, No. 102, 1986, p. 13. The Russian authorities were concerned about
the possible spread of the Hungarian revolt into
the Kingdom of Poland through Austrian Gali-
The Russian Field Post Offices during cia. According to the diary of a Prussian diplo-
the Austro-Russian Campaign in mat (entry dated 3 June 1849), the Russians took
Hungary in 1849 over the police and post when they entered
Lemberg (now Lv'v in the Ukraine) "exactly as
if they were in a hostile country."
There is also evidence from two British con-
sular officials that the Russians did their best to
prevent letters from the Russian troops being sent
by Ian W Robs back to Russia. In October 1848 the British
consul in Odessa reported that all private corre-
spondence from the Russian forces which had
occupied the Danubian Principalities (Moldavia
and Walachia) earlier in the year "appears to be
since my article on the above subject which prevented by authority." A few months later, the
Once my article on the above subject which
British Consul in Warsaw reported on 1 July
appeared m "ROSSICA" No. 106/107, I have
appeared in "ROSSICA" No. 106/107, I have 1849 that private correspondence from Russian
continued the search to find a letter sent during officers in unar st pt as en
officers in Hungary sent by post was being de-
the campaign, and located the text of two letters wa.
stroyed "if it contains references to the war."
sent by an officer serving on the staff of the Tis ws becse of inreasng Rssn dse
compsit in d o This was because of increasing Russian dislike
composite infantry division commanded by
enel Panyutin, which had bn sn by ril for the Austrians and fraternization with the
General Panyutin, which had been sent by rail
Hungarians, not to mention the Slovaks and
from Krakow to help the Austrians deal with a, n t
Ukrainians living in Northern Hungary.
threat to Vienna. The letters are reproduced in a Ukrainians living in Northern Hungary.
volume ofmemoirs pushedteacher In light of the above, it is perhaps not surprising
volumofmemoirspublishedin 1898 byateacher that so little information is on record about the
at the famous Smolny Institute in St. Petersburg. in
letters sent during the campaign.
"One letter written from Pressburg (Bratislava in


Rossica Journal Number 115, 14
October 1990








Russian Deltiology

by Dr. William R. Nickle

Introduction time. They were made in Germany and cost more
than most PCs and, therefore, are rarer. During
Russian deltiology is an allied collecting the postcard boom, many of the companies pro-
area which may interest some members. Picture during PCs sent their photographers out into all
postcards (PCs) officially began in Russia in parts of Russia to bring back photos of people,
1895 when a series of six Moscow scenes became resulting in an interesting series called "Russe
available. They were approved by censor and Types." My favorite is the man selling icons on
carry this designation on the margin. I do have an the street corer. These photographers also took
earlier 1894 Riga picture postcard. Though I photos of places and street scenes from all parts
have a general collection of about 5,000 pre- of Russia. These are of historical interest as
revolutionary picture postcards, I have my favor- many of these streets and towns have changed
ite series, which include: royalty; military; the remarkably over the years. [Ed. or no longer
signedchild artist, Bem; Russe types; 5 1/2% war exist!] I have four multiple PCs (2&4) attached
bond PCs; railroads; ships, etc. The postcard lengthwise, giving panoramic views of Moscow
glory days extend from 1895 to 1917 in Russia as and St. Petersburg dating back to the turn of the
in other countries of Europe and the U.S.A., with century. Recently, I read an article by a man from
production figures in the millions. The St. Eu- Barnaul who had collected 300 PCs from the
genia Society produced 6,400 different picture Altai region of Siberia. Probably half of the PC
postcards, sometimes in quantities of 10,000 collectors in the U.S. specialize in their home
each for the popular cards. I have paid from one towns and states, such as Baltimore, Ocean City,
dollar to seventy-five dollars each for my post- Md, Albany, NY, etc.
cards. The latter card carried a nice Odessa- Another large series popular in old Russia was
Batum steamship cancel. Most royalty PCs cost artpostcards. Reproductions from the Tret'yakov
from $10-30 (US) and they are increasing in gallery-paintingsbyShishkinandAivazovskii
value. and others. My favorites are the paintings ofchil-
Though there were several firms producing dren by Eleava Bem at the turn of the century.
PCs in Russia, many others were published in These were signed artist PCs commanding a
Germany, France, Great Britain, Denmark, premiumprice. Her volumeswerelovedthrough-
Sweden and other places. The most common out the world. The old Russian holidays of Easter
PCs depict scenes from St. Petersburg to Moscow, and Christmas were occasions many used to send
areas where most tourists would visit, then pur- relatives a postcard. The Easter holiday espe-
chase and write postcards to friends and rela- cially was celebrated on postcards with variously
tives. Other attractions await the collector of old colored eggs, baby chickens, rabbits and chil-
Russian postcards. For instance, some PCs depict dren. I keep a separate album for Russian post-
events of historical significance, many are real cards with cancels before 1900, as they are hard
photos of people and street scenes which hold the to find and rather expensive.
clock and give us a glimpse of the life and times Churches also grace many postcards, revealing
during this period. Some PCs are poorly done on an attraction in demand by tourists and natives
poor quality paper, others are well done in color alike. Over 150 postcards with railroad cancels
on good paper. I have two hold-to-the-light fill another album. Quite logically, tourists buy
views, St. Basil's Cathedral and Ivan the Great's postcards and write them out while travelling on
tower, which are beautiful and would even hold the train.
the interest of a postal history specialist for a Regions such as the Ukraine, Caucasus, Sibe-
Rossica Journal Number 115, 15
October 1990







na and the Urals were popular topics for PCs. and publish postcards from the photos.
Flowers, dogs, hunting, winter scenes and forests
are often depicted on cards. Napoleon, World Nicholas II
War I, and the Russo-Japanese war are very
collectable, and command a high price. The The most popular monarch for Russian post-
Hermitage and Peterhof, of course, are common cards was Nicholas II. These PCs were produced
tourist attractions, and postcards of these sites are in Russia, England, France, America, Holland,
common. Pretty girls appear on over 100 of my Belgium and Germany. Figures 1-4 depict cards
cards, but only one is nude. Religious cards are made in Russia. Figure 1 is a photo from Bois-
not very common, but New Year's cards are. sonnes-Eggler, and the card was produced by
Some Russian PCs show then-current stamps, Beagles & Co.,Ltd., London, England. The next,
and some show the coins, fig. 2, is perhaps the most beautiful of the series
There are also advertisements on PCs, and and is in excellent color. It was printed in 1901
some have elaborate prints of welfare organiza- by the St. Eugenia Society. Figure 3 was printed
tions on the reverse. Rasputin PCs are rare and in St. Petersburg by A.L. Kononov. The last
expensive. I have only one of the chap. Real life Russian card, fig. 4, was produced in St. Peters-
picture postcards of other famous Russians, such burg in 1909. It shows "His Imperial Majesty,
as Pushkin and Tolstoy, are collectable I have and Sovereign Emperor Nicholas Aleksan-
about six of each. drovich, in full soldiers' uniform and equipment,
Hundreds of categories can be collected in 18th and 24th November at Livadiya."
addition to the town and area cards. I have an old Figures 5-9 show postcards printed in England.
Russian postcard album produced in St. Peters- Figures 5-7 came from the Rotary Photographic
burg in 1898 with room for 100 PCs, indicating Co., Ltd., which had printed many postcards of
early collector interest. Also, many PC collector monarchs across Europe. Figure 8 on the Bel-
clubs were formed at that time to exchange PCs, gium War Relief Funds in 1915 was produced by
including somein Russia and Austria. One series the Joseph Clarkson Company of Manchester,
of seven "real" photos I enjoy is the "Hull Out- England. The Aristophoto Company of London
rage," showing the cannon holes in the fishing produced the PC in fig. 9, probably as part of a
boats that Nicholas II's warships inflicted on series on monarchs. The largest group of Nicho-
October 21, 1901, mistaking the British fishing las II cards were produced in France (see figs. 10-
vessels for Japanese torpedo boats. 18) by various printing firms. American-pro-
duced PCs are shown in figs. 19-22. Figure 23 is
Russian Royalty Portrayed on Postcards a commemorative produced in Holland, and fig.
24 was produced in Brussels, Belgium for the
Tourists often bought royalty cards and kept war effort. Figures 25-27 were printed in Ger-
them as souvenirs, since most of my 250 royalty many for sale in Russia. The German-made PC,
cards are unused. The range is considerable: fig. 28, was postally used in Belgium in 1898.
Nicholas II alone, Alexandra Feodorovna alone, Figure 29 was a PC produced in France, which
Alexis alone, each daughter alone, the tsar and made him look rather French. Figure 30 is
tsarina together, the whole family together, and another memorial of unknown origin, with
all the combinations of the immediate family. caption reading "Brutally murdered in Ekater-
The lesser royality are also shown in "real" inburg 3(16) July 1918." Figures 31-34 are anti-
photos, and these PCs are rare and expensive. tsarist productions from Germany, France, and
The St. Petersburg-based photographic studio of America.
Boissonnes and Eggler, and the London Rotary
Photographic Co., Ltd., had permission, for many
years, to take pictures of the Tsar and his family,

Rossica Journal Number 115, 16
October 1990








[Ed. note: With this article we begin a series on a long-neglected aspect of"rossica," deltiology. A
collecting discipline with a wide following, information on its Russian branch has appeared in this
Journal all too seldom. Bill Nickle has an outstanding collection of Russian picture postcards, and
we'd like to share their variety with you. Enjoy!]

Russian Postcards























Figure 1. Figure 2.







Kim










-wao._- .


Figure 3.
Figure 4.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 17
October 1990








British Postcards















i -* Figure 6.
ICzR OF *pCtal

Figure 5. Figure 7.














A 6,

















M Aaki I Figure 8.
S akGIAN RELIEF FL;-

OF'ICIAI- SOU'-
r o IFigure 9.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 18
October 1990








French Postcards



















I-































Figures 10-13.


Rossica Journal Number 115, 19
October 1990









French Postcards

















F'






LE CON4FLIT EUOtOPZIEN E)N 114






































PL. L.IEVTSKIY PAIS -
PHOTOGAPIIE I>. LL. MAJFSTIS RIEPRODUDTIOX IRTNUDITt



Figures 14-18.


Rossica Journal Number 115, 20
October 1990








Other Countries


















Em Hvnwun pvayow Jit.iuri,,r,.



Figure 19. Probably American. Figure 20. Either British or American.






















RUSSIA






Figure 21. Printed In the US. in 1909, part of Figure 22. American.
the Monarch series.



Rossica Journal Number 115, 21
October 1990








Other Countries




------------ ..: --

















Figure 23. Commemorativefrom Holland. S. M. NICOLAS II
EMPEREUR DE RUSSIE

C:AI IP AtiNK I K.: 1 14-


Figure 24. Printed in Brussels, Belgium.
























S7U
"MIOwAUS I. Kai"sr rt R

Figure 25. German Postcard. Figure 26. Printed in Germany.


Rossica Journal Number 115, 22
October 1990









Other Countries














Kaiser Nicolaus II. von Russland
.tl i -fn CO.ira, v ,a flfrd I-:Ws lfl*Bf
ai. rttsu .tirear nMu bpl.u X p Su.-P.*
S,,D1r grose CGdanke des Wcltfridein mss ober alley
Elemcate des Unfrieden und der Zwictrachl triumphira."
11t vo e Jpa-o3, e. e- rtl-aDdwrlec
JIaS!!l -'i-fo mcitltiw vo!yu dIL Li)i

Figure 27. Made in Germany for sale in ,'a^r.3 -il l. si "
Russia.

Figure 28. German made. Postally used in
Belgium.



























S.M.NicoLAs II
Empe.,ur d, Ru ,i pmepropb Hem oAr Amicalapaom,
oEmp...6 d. R,. oul s Exauspmyp.t 3(16) as 1918 r.



Figure 29. Printed in France. French-ish Figure 30. In memorial.
looking Tsar.


Rossica Journal Number 115, 23
October 1990








Anti-Tsar Postcards










-











Nh,'OIAN fI, -41'1wr -4 a-tf lt d, 1o-1- leW R-niec.
la nauMs ffirltuel de u t l e ? ...


Figure 31. German. Figure 32. French.






.....m.__ IO
A hakppy New VaI"





















-ii 2--L- M 1A ..L l.VNn r .i ia:.-4- ,

Figure 33. French. Marque Company. Figure 34. American. C. Stern.



Rossica Journal Number 115, 24
October 1990







Zemstvo Look-Alikes

by George Murdoch
This article on a somewhat neglected as- names of which are altered either by type inserted
pect of zemstvo stamp investigation, namely the in a name panel, or (in two-color designs) by
description and discussion of the various group- means of a duty plate, or by overprinting across
ings of zemstvos that resemble each other in the design. Such key types have been widely
design, is divided into three parts: used by Great Britain, France, Portugal andSpain
"* State Paper Printing Office key types for their smaller dependencies.' He could have
"* Indigenous reproductions by issuing added Germany and Italy. Clearly the colonial
districts context does not apply to zemstvos, but other-
"* Additional imitative zemstvo stamps wise key types of Sutton's first kind, with alter-
of other designs able elements, are what the EhZGB produced
from 1884.
State Paper Printing Office Key Types The design (fig. A3) for Ostrov, near Pskov,
was supplied to one other place, Lebedin in the
In his 1925 "Catalogue of the Russian Rural northern Ukraine, from 1887 onwards (fig. A4).
Postage Stamps," F. G. Chuchin refers promi- In all, the Ostrov type was reproduced in eight
nently to five "types" of stamps for zemstvo value-color combinations, excluding shades.
(local authority) use which the State Paper Print- The next key type to appear was used for nine
ing Office in St. Petersburg produced between districts. In 1893 it was issued by Sarapul (fig.
1884 and 1917. The State Printing Office, in A5, Elets (fig. A6), and Belozersk (fig. A7), but
Russian "Ehkspeditsiya Zagotovleniya Gosu- Chuchin named it the Bakhmut type, presumably
darstvyennykh Bumag (EhZGB)," was roughly because that comes first alphabetically. There is
equivalent to Her Majesty's Stationery Office thus a small inconsistency. Why was the Ostrov
(HMSO) in Britain. type not named the Lebedin type? No satisfac-
Two of the EhZGB types were issued by only tory answer comes to mind. The dates ofinaugu-
one district each, Arzamas from 1890 onwards ration of this type in the other six districts were
(fig. Al), and Petrozavodsk 1901 onwards (fig. 1894 Stavropol' (fig. A8), 1897 Novouzensk
A2). The 5-kopeck Arzamas stamp was pro- (fig. A9), 1898 Sumy (fig. A10), 1900 Livny (fig.
duced in three colors, and the Petrozavodsk set Al ), 1901 Bakhmut (fig. A12) and, lastly, 1910
comprised seven values from 1k to 20k in differ- at Shadrinsk (fig. A13), over the Urals in Siberia.
ent colors, with a reprinting in 1916 that had The locations of all zemstvo-issuing districts
duller shades. referred to in this article are given on map 1.
However, more interest attaches to the other The most obvious variety within the Bakhmut
three EhZGB designs, first put out for Ostrov in key type is the crisscross background, of a differ-
1884, Sarapul and other districts in 1893, and ent color, adopted for the Novouzensk stamp. In
Zyen'kov in 1899. These designs were em- all 60 different combinations of value and color
played by more than one issuing authority, with were provided for the Bakhmut type districts of
varying name tablets, prices and coats of arms. origin, not taking into account shades and paper
They are exactly analogous to the colonial key changes.
types familiar from perusal of, for instance, the From 1897 onwards an even more popular key
introductory pages in Stanley Gibbons "Stamps type emanated from the St. Petersburg EhZGB
of the World" annual catalogues, presses, starting with Zyen'kov in the Ukraine
In the 1957 printing of his "Stamp Collectors and spreading to 30 districts in some 110 value-
Encyclopaedia," R. J. Sutton defines key type as color combinations. Chuchin named it the Arda-
a basic design used for two or more colonies, the tov type, again one supposes because A begins

Rossica Journal Number 115, 25
October 1990








S, Y.-I._ %. ,
rL- -

VA
/V J'L0 0 U42s0V
I (T'.I' '' \ A V'LL*1 e'"


0 A*V --''c V 0 r 4 o.(
j -- \ A 0 T...0Z I V

A ,, ". rtr ..K v t sji ..... ...AA q'*
L.A C$ ; r "* -- TA.I I *-










1899 Zyen'kov A14 1905 Urzhum A29'












1901 Krasnoufimsk AlS 1905 Vyatka A30
1901 Velikii Ustyug A16 1906 Kholm A31
1902 Ardatov Al7 1907 Cherepovets A32
1902 L'gov A9 1907 Kashira A34














1902 Ust'sysoPisk A21 1910 Cherdyn A36
1903 Gryazovetsk A22 191 0 Vesegonsk A37


















1903 Kadnikov A23 1911 Tetyushi A38
1903 Lubny A24 1912 Yarensk A39





1903 Pudozh A25 1913 Nikos'sk A40
1904 Dankov A26 1913 Konstantinograd A41
1904 Poitava A27 1916 Bugurusian A42
Table 1. Acrdatov type dates of appearance























the alphabet. The full sequence of Ardatov type and especially the Buguruslan (fig. A42) stamps





the Yarensk (fig. A39), the Nikol'sk (fig. A40), prices and other variables goes back to 1852
Rossica Journal Number 115, 26
October 1990
"TablerQ 1. Ardatov ta

I- -, M44 I STRICT CElTf&SS
\FK ,/ )PODvCl6 zerAST0 KY TYPES
r)trl. ~y'tuA, t* 01-KER SMo M)PS WITH






Year of Reference Year of Reference A s
Appearance Location Figure Appearance Location Figure


1901 Krasnoufimsk A15 1905 Vyatka A30

1902 Ardatov A17 1907 Cherepovets A32
1902 Gadyach A18 1907 Chistopol' A33
1902 L'gov A19 1907 Kashira A34




1903 Lubny A24 1912 Yarensk A39
1903 Pudozh A25 1913 Nikol'sk A40
1904 Dankov A26 1913 Konstantinograd A41
1904 Poltava A27 1916 Buguruslan A42
1904 Vyel'sk A28 1916 Zolotonosha A43

Table 1. Ardatov type dates of appearance


the alphabet. The full sequence of Ardatov type and especially the Buguruslan (fig. A42) stamps
dates of first appearance are listed in table 1. seem hard to find now.
Examples of Chuchin's types for most districts Putting the Chuchin types into international
are common enough in zemstvo collections, perspective, the history of designs containing
though there are a few exceptions. For instance, alterable panels for country or area names, stamp
the Yarensk (fig. A39), the Nikol'sk (fig. A40), prices and other variables goes back to 1852


Rossica Journal Number 115, 26
October 1990







when the British colonies Barbados, Mauritius Indigenous Reproductions by Issuing
and Trinidad adopted the same Seated Britannia Districts
picture (fig. A44, top left). Other GB colonial
'nearly key type' preparations followed, 1855 Kirilov is at first sight an issuing authority with
onwards, notably based on the Albert Chalon Bakhmut type stamps, but a closer look at its
head of Queen Victoria, but none was uniform 1903 output shows that the design and lettering is
with another in portrait surrounds. coarser that EhZGB fashioned. This is a local
The next veritable key type was the Portuguese imitation of the type (fig. B1).
colonies Crown from 1870 onwards (fig A44, Likewise one district, Penza, copied the Arda-
second in top row, the other stamps mentioned in tov model and, in 1910, put out more roughly
this paragraph being shown on that figure in drawn versions (fig. B2). Four years later, Penza
chronological sequence). There followed the enlarged the entire stamp proportionally (fig.
Spain and colonies Alfonso type and GB octagon B3). Meanwhile, at Gryazovetsk, the opposite
designs. Then came Russia's Ostrov key type, process, miniaturization, had been practiced from
and five series from Portugal, Britain, Spain, the 1907 (compare figs. B4, the original, and B5).
Malayan States andFrance before the 1893 advent Earlier, the Krasnoufimsk EhZGB supplies of
of the Bakhmut type. There were then many the 2k red, typographed as always, had been
issues from colonial powers. Russia's Ardatov supplemented from 1904 onwards with the
predates, however, the German Yacht and the lithographed local printings of very slightly dif-
Portuguese Ceres designs. ferent dimensions (compare figs. B6, the origi-
Dates of initiation and the numbers of issuing nal, and B7). By 1912, Cherdyn and Chistopol'
authorities (colonies, districts, other places) with had followed suit, making similar rough 'home-
spun' formats. One Cherdyn version is a pass-
Date Places Country Key Type able copy (compare figs. B8, the original, and
1852 3 Britain Seated Britannia B9), but a second design has the deer in the coat
1870 7 Portugal Crown
1879 5 Spain Alfonso of arms facing left and not right (fig. B10).
1879 8 Britain Octagon The Chistopol' district production is illustrated
1884 2 Russia Ostrov from Plate I of the A. G. Thompson collection of
1886 7 Portugal Embossed
1889 14 Britain Tablet, including subtypes zemstvos auctioned by Harmers in November
1890 5 Spain Babyface 1985. The lot description stated that this was then
1890 5 Malaya Tiget the only known unused copy (compare figs. B 11
1892 28 France Tablet
1893 9 Russia Bakhmut and the local artwork, B12).
1899 30 Russia Ardatov
1900 10 Germany Yacht
1912 14 Portugal Ceres
Table 2. Key types featured in fig. 44. Additional Imitative Zemstvo Stamps of
Other Designs
respect to each of the key types featured in fig.
A44 are indicated in table 2. When collecting zemstvos, or paging through
It is noteworthy that there were more Ardatov Chuchin and other catalogues of them, it be-
type localities than any other category listed comes apparent that as well as the universally
above, including Tablet and French Empire ter- recognized and formally described types, there
ritories worldwide. The EhZGB was thus among are other pairs and trios (and in one instance a
global pioneers in the style of stamp provision quartet) of designs from different districts that
that led eventually to mass production, stere- have a great deal in common.
otyped artwork and omnibus sets. In this section we examine the characteristics
of 18 further groupings of zemstvos which are
look-alikes, the later issues presumably being

Rossica Journal Number 115, 27
October 1990








imitations of the item produced first in each and a foursome. Superficially similar, each
group. There is no suggestion that any of the group's stamps are seen, on more detailed in-
'copies' are bogus or clandestine facsimiles or section, to have been prepared from different
plagiarisms as distinct from the blatant plagia- basic plates. The imitating began early (1870)
risms of European classic stamps (Swiss, Dan- and the order of illustrations is in time sequence
ish, Bavarian, etc.) perpetuated in 1899 by the of the copies. Table 3 lists these examples in
Gryazovetsk zemstvo post. Much the likeliest chronological order.
explanation is that the same designer marketed

Original Reference Imitated Reference
Location Year Fig. Number by Year Fig. Number

Glazov 1869 C1 Kotel'nich 1870 C2
Pskov 1872 C3 Ostrov 1876 C4
Gdov 1874 C5 Korcheva 1876 C6
Atkarsk 1879 C7 Balashov 1880 C8
Morshansk 1880 09 Kherson 1884 C10
Buguruslan 1881 011 Bugul'ma 1884 012
Layishev 1896 013
Morshansk 1887 014 Tula 1888 015
Suja 1890 016
Novgorod 1889 C17 Kologriv 1890 018
Kolomna 1892 019
Sapozhok 1890 C20 Verkhotur'e 1893 C21
Zolotonosha 1892 C22 Zyenkov 1893 C23
Vyel'sk 1890 C24 Zadonsk 1895 C25
Krasnoufimsk 1893 C26 Okhansk 1895 C27
Tver' 1890 C28 Borovichy 1897 C29
Tver' and Borovichy
flouted an 1870
zemstvo decree
prohibiting local
stamps from resembling
Imperial issues.
Shadrinsk 1897 C30 Ossa 1898 031
Verkhotur'e 1902 C32
Kamyshlov 1903 033
Ekaterinburg 1895 C34 Verkhotur'e 1902 C35
Vol'sk 1899 C36 Khvalinsk 1902 C37
Kremenchug 1890 C38 Kobelaki 1903 C39
Nikol'sk 1889 C40 Vyetluga 1905 C41

Table 3. Imitative Zemstvo listing by date of imitation
his wares in various districts, or was deliberately One feature common to many of these pairs and
sought out or taken as a model by zemstvo trios, and sharedby the Ural four (figs. C30-C33)
officials impressed by an existing stamp. It could is geographical contiguity see the lines joining
be fascinating to know the identity and life story group members on map 1. Farthest apart on the
of a few even one! -of the people responsible for ground are the towns of Sapozhok and Verk-
zemstvo stamp preparation and artwork. Any hotur'e, more than 800 miles (about 1,300 kilo-
information would be appreciated by Rossica. meters) distant in a straight line.
The groups represented in figs. C1-C41 do not A question remains, linking back to the first
exhaust the possibilities for matching among the part of this paper did the existence by 1884 of
approximately 850 different designs of zemstvo half a dozen or more imitations give the EhZGB
stamps pictured in the J. Barefoot 1984 reprint of the idea for key types proper?
Chuchin. There are 14 couples here, 3 triplets,

Rossica Journal Number 115, 28
October 1990































































Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7
A8 A9 A10 All A12 A13 A14
Key for page 29. A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A20 A21
A22 A23 A24 A25 A26 A27 A28
A29 A30 A31 A32 A33 A34 A35
A36 A37 A38 A39 A40 A41

Rossica Journal Number 115, 29
October 1990



































_A42 A43 _
AA42


















Key for page 30 A44

B1 B2 83 B4 B5
B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12

(Note: figures B 1-B 12 were photocopied on a white back-
ground, hence perforations do not show.)



Rossica Journal Number 115, 30
October 1990
October 1990
























CI CC34














C17 C18 C19 C20 C21 C22 C23
(Note: figures C1-C39 were photocopied on a white back- C24 C25 C26 C27 C28 C29
ground, hence perforations do not show. The truly imper- C30 C31 C32 C33 C34 C35 C36 C37
forate items are figs. C1-C6 and C 1.) C38 C39 C40 C41

Rossica Journal Number 115, 31
October 1990






Russian Military Pictorial Covers: Further Information

by August Leppa
Looking through older issues of the Ros- This statement is now at least partially proven. I
sica journal is always rewarding. In Nos. 89 and found No. 2, which has actually been used during
92, Mr. Torrey describes a couple of covers military conditions, probably in a training camp,
printed in Vil'na by G. Benniker & G. Cinaja. because it was postmarked in Petrograd. The
According to Mr. Torrey, "there must have been sender's unit is the 8th Pskov Militia Detach-
numbers 2&3, but they have not turned up yet." ment, 3rd Company.










/ :

.. .. .






Front of cover.




















Back of cover.


Rossica Journal Number 115, 32
October 1990






Additional Raz"yezd Marking Trans-Siberian TPOs -
Points to Ponder
by J. G. Moyes

I by P.E. Robinson
In Rossica Number 111, Mr. V. Popov by P.E. Robinson
illustrates a raz"yezd marking on the Moscow- Since the publication of "Siberia: Post-
Kiev-Voronezh railroad line. The number is marks and Postal History of the Russian Empire
illegible and possibly is a 5. In addition to the Period" in 1986, I have continued to record
illustration offered by Mr. Popov, I can offer the newly-discovered Siberian postmarks, and I have
following cancellation: been particularly fortunate in almost doubling
the number of Travelling Post Office marks re-
? It is from Raz"yezd corded, thanks to the help I received from collec-
SNo. 25, on the tors in many countries. This has meant that a
SMoscow-Kiev rail- much more complete record now exists of the
way line, dated 29-6- postmarks used by the TPOs, and in many cases,
16. It was franked the dates when the termini changed are now more
S.. with two 2k. stamps accurately known. The newly-recorded post-
of the 1909-1912 is- marks and information will be detailed in the
sue on the reverse, and two 3k. of the same issue forthcoming second edition of the book, but a
on the front. All cancellations are superb. It was number of "mysteries" remain in regard to TPO
held over at Moscow from 2 July until 4 July postmarks, and the purpose of this short article is
1916 for censorship. It arrived in Copenhagen on to draw attention to a couple of them.
11/24 July 1916. One complicated route is No 243-244, and so
-. far, no oval postmarks of the standard Imperial
S.type have been recorded from this route. Its early
Operation seems to have been quite straightfor-
ward Circular No. 77 dated 1 July 1900 stated
That daily operation of the TPO was to begin, with
.,. .the postal wagons operating between Chita and
S/i Sretensk. By 1906 the route had begun to termi-
S.nate at Karimsk instead of Chita, and this situ-
ation evidently continued until the Amur Rail-
way began to be built. During the construction of
the railway the eastern terminus was progres-
sively extended; by 1913 the route was from
S .___ .. Karimsk to Blagoveshchensk. The early post-
Smarks are of course circular, single-ring types,
Reverse side of cover showing transit dates, and I have found these used between August
1901 and April 1910. Curiously, no postmarks
(Ed. note: According to the 1913 Postal List, have been recorded usedbetween 1910and 1917.
Siding 25 was located in Kaluga province, over
During this period, one would expect oval post-
280 versts down the track from Moscow. (Siding marks to have been used, inscribed KARIMSK
24, which also handled mail, was 280 versts from 23 SRETENSK, TALDAN 244 KARIMSK
the capital.) We'd like to take this opportunity to etc. It is clear that postarks from this route are
correct the #111 article, which erroneously gave
among the scarcest of the Siberian TPO marks,
the expansion for"M.K.V." as Moscow-KURSK-
the expansion for"M.K.V." as Moscow-KURSK- and it may be that oval postmarks of routes 243-
Voronezh. It should, of course, be KIEV.) 244 exist, but that they have simply not come to

Rossica Journal Number 115, 33
October 1990






Additional Raz"yezd Marking Trans-Siberian TPOs -
Points to Ponder
by J. G. Moyes

I by P.E. Robinson
In Rossica Number 111, Mr. V. Popov by P.E. Robinson
illustrates a raz"yezd marking on the Moscow- Since the publication of "Siberia: Post-
Kiev-Voronezh railroad line. The number is marks and Postal History of the Russian Empire
illegible and possibly is a 5. In addition to the Period" in 1986, I have continued to record
illustration offered by Mr. Popov, I can offer the newly-discovered Siberian postmarks, and I have
following cancellation: been particularly fortunate in almost doubling
the number of Travelling Post Office marks re-
? It is from Raz"yezd corded, thanks to the help I received from collec-
SNo. 25, on the tors in many countries. This has meant that a
SMoscow-Kiev rail- much more complete record now exists of the
way line, dated 29-6- postmarks used by the TPOs, and in many cases,
16. It was franked the dates when the termini changed are now more
S.. with two 2k. stamps accurately known. The newly-recorded post-
of the 1909-1912 is- marks and information will be detailed in the
sue on the reverse, and two 3k. of the same issue forthcoming second edition of the book, but a
on the front. All cancellations are superb. It was number of "mysteries" remain in regard to TPO
held over at Moscow from 2 July until 4 July postmarks, and the purpose of this short article is
1916 for censorship. It arrived in Copenhagen on to draw attention to a couple of them.
11/24 July 1916. One complicated route is No 243-244, and so
-. far, no oval postmarks of the standard Imperial
S.type have been recorded from this route. Its early
Operation seems to have been quite straightfor-
ward Circular No. 77 dated 1 July 1900 stated
That daily operation of the TPO was to begin, with
.,. .the postal wagons operating between Chita and
S/i Sretensk. By 1906 the route had begun to termi-
S.nate at Karimsk instead of Chita, and this situ-
ation evidently continued until the Amur Rail-
way began to be built. During the construction of
the railway the eastern terminus was progres-
sively extended; by 1913 the route was from
S .___ .. Karimsk to Blagoveshchensk. The early post-
Smarks are of course circular, single-ring types,
Reverse side of cover showing transit dates, and I have found these used between August
1901 and April 1910. Curiously, no postmarks
(Ed. note: According to the 1913 Postal List, have been recorded usedbetween 1910and 1917.
Siding 25 was located in Kaluga province, over
During this period, one would expect oval post-
280 versts down the track from Moscow. (Siding marks to have been used, inscribed KARIMSK
24, which also handled mail, was 280 versts from 23 SRETENSK, TALDAN 244 KARIMSK
the capital.) We'd like to take this opportunity to etc. It is clear that postarks from this route are
correct the #111 article, which erroneously gave
among the scarcest of the Siberian TPO marks,
the expansion for"M.K.V." as Moscow-KURSK-
the expansion for"M.K.V." as Moscow-KURSK- and it may be that oval postmarks of routes 243-
Voronezh. It should, of course, be KIEV.) 244 exist, but that they have simply not come to

Rossica Journal Number 115, 33
October 1990








light. If any members have examples of such In the case of TPO marks of routes along the
postmarks, I would be very grateful for details of Chinese Eastern Railway, to judge from the se-
them. The postmarks recorded to date from rials recorded it seems that for each route eight
routes 243 and 244 are given below, in the same different handstamps were used for each direc-
format as in my book (note that most of the tion. For routes 263 and 264 eight handstamps
valuation ratings have been changed to reflect with the Cyrillic letters 'a' to 'z' have been
present-day prices), recorded in each direction, but this does not apply




c

Ci 1 E U1 a

R243.1 3 POCHTOVYI VAGON No 243 28 3.10.01 G
R243.1 8 POCHTOVYI VAGON No 243 29 25.8.01 19.12.02 G
R243.2 e CHITA 243 BOCHKAREVO 291/2 16.4.17 24.11.17 F
R244.1 1 POCHTOVYI VAGON No 244 28 26.4.03 30.4.10 F
R244.1 3 POCHTOVYI VAGON No 244 28 19.7.02 F
R244.1 4 POCHTOVYI VAGON No 244 28 30.6.02 F
R244.2 b BOCHAREVO 244 CHITA 29 6.1.18 E
R244.2 z BOCHAREVO 244 CHITA 29 16.10.19 E
R244.2 L BOCHAREVO 244 CHITA 29 .5.17 E
R244.2 m BOCHAREVO 244 CHITA 29 3.8.23 E

ROUTE 243-244






S0
a-. IIu 0 I
CLZ A) D
l Z L t| El l


R261.2 a MANCHZHURIYA 261 KHARBIN (With dots) 30 x 25 11.9.13 F
R261.2 b MANCHZHURIYA 261 KHARBIN (With dots) 32 x 26 20.10.10 9.7.23 F
R261.3 a MANCHZHURIYA 261 KHARBIN (Without dots) 31 x 26 21.7.13 13.1.17 F
R261.3 b MANCHZHURIYA 261 KHARBIN (Without dots) 30 x 25 7.10.07 22.8.13 F
R261.3 d MANCHZHURIYA 261 KHARBIN (Without dots) 31 x26 23.1.13 16.3.21 F
R261.3 e MANCHZHURIYA 261 KHARBIN (Without dots) 31 x26 23.11.14 5.7.15 F
R261.3 zh MANCHZHURIYA 261 KHARBIN (Without dots) 31 x 26 4.7.12 16.12.20 F
R261.3 z MANCHZHURIYA 261 KHARBIN (Without dots) 31 x 26 5.6.07 31.7.15 F
R262.2 a KHARBIN 262 MANCHZHURIYA (With dots) 32 x 26 5.9.10 2.7.17 F
R262.2 b KHARBIN 262 MANCHZHURIYA (With dots) 32x 26 16.5.13 F
R262.3 a KHARBIN 262 MANCHZHURIYA (Without dots) 31 x 26 1.2.05 24.2.17 F
R262.3 b KHARBIN 262 MANCHZHURIYA (Without dots) 30 x 25 13.09.07 1919 F
R262.3 d KHARBIN 262 MANCHZHURIYA (Without dots) 30 x 25 13.5.07 11.8.11 F
R262.3 e KHARBIN 262 MANCHZHURIYA (Without dots) 31 x25 31.3.08 17.11.13 F
R262.3 zh KHARBIN 262 MANCHZHURIYA (Without dots) 31 x 26 2.9.05 27.9.17 F
R262.3 z KHARBIN 262 MANCHZHURIYA (Without dots) 30 x 25 26.1.08 .3.09 F

Route 261-262





Rossica Journal Number 115, 34
October 1990








to routes 261 and 262. For each of these routes I be found, it seems to be a likely explanation. An
have found standard-type marks with serials 'a', up-to-date listing of oval postmarks from routes
'b', 'd', 'e', 'zh', and 'z', but none with serials 'v' 261 and 262 is given below, together with illus-
and 'g'. Instead, in each case there are postmarks trations of the eight types for route 261.
lettered 'a' and 'b' with dots above and below the I would welcome any information or sugges-
date, in addition to the ordinary postmarks with tions from members which could clarify the sit-
the same serials. It would seem that the post- uation in regard to the routes mentioned above, or
marks with dots replace those which would nor- indeed any other Siberian TPO routes.
mally have had the serials 'v' and 'g', and for
some reason they were given serials 'a' and 'b'.
This contravenes the rule stated that each hand-
stamp was to have a different serial, but unless
standard-type marks with serials 'v' and 'g' can



2zk 4?261 )(2G1.o-2 91 1




I44-






Examples of Route 261 cancellations.



From the V. G. Belkin notebooks
(transcribed from the Post and Telegraph Journal, Official Edition)

Feodosiya 131 Dzhankoi mailcars #131-132..."
Dzhankoi 132 Feodosiya
6 July 1893, #50: "On the establishment of mail Kazat 127 Uman
16 r26 C12) (^ )















transportation along the Dzhankoi-Feodosiya Uman' 128 Kazatin
Examples of Route 261 cancellations.







Railroad ... From the 16th of this June V. G.mail Vapnyarka 129 TsvetkovBelkin notebooks
(transcribed from the Post and Telegraph Journal, Official Edition)

Feodosiya 131 Dzhankoi mailcars #131-132..."
Dzhankoi 132 Feodosiya - - - - -

6 July 1893, #50: "On the establishment of mail Kazatin 127 Uman'
transportation along the Dzhankoi-Feodosiya Uman' 128 Kazatin
Railroad. ... From the 16th of this June mail Vapnyarka 129 Tsvetkov
transportation along the Dzhankoi-Feodosiya Tsvetkov 130- Vapnyarka
railroad was established, with travelling officials
and postillions accompanying the mail. In con- 27 March 1892, #14: "On the establishment of
sequence of this, correspondence addressed to mail transportation along the Uman' branches of
stations Kalai, Seitler, Ichki, Islam-Terek and the South-West Railroads."
Feodosiya should be sent in postal packets to


Rossica Journal Number 115, 35
October 1990







Steamer Mail To and From Tsuruga


the typical vertical orientation of Japanese post-
cards with the legend Yubiri bagaki across the
by Ed Rasmussen top, and the rectangle suggesting placement of
the stamp longer than wide, which was appropri-
ate for ordinary stamps of the time. Therefore,
The steamer in the picture (fig. 1) is not it appears that this card was prepared in Japan
identified, but is presumably one of the five around 1910 (or at least between 1909-1914) for
vessels of the Russian Volunteer Fleet named in distribution toEnglish-speaking travellers, proba-
the English language advertising on the reverse. bly to promote business for the Transiberian
According to Tchilinghirian and Stephen, all five Railway agencies at Tsuruga, Nagasaki and
were built in 1909 and ranged in size from the Shanghai. However, the message in Japanese
"Penza" at 2,649 tons to the "Ryazan"' weighing tauts the Kumagai Hotel in Tsuruga as a high-
in at 3,572 tons. class, cosmopolitan hostelry for travelers to
inat3,57 tons.Europe, convenient to both the harbor and the
railway station. While obviously relevant to the
information about steamship connections to the
S. Trans-Siberian Railway, you have to wonder
Show many people at the time would have been
S -. expected to be able to read both messages!
A word about Tsuruga in those days: the
Russian language was taught in the schools, the
local Technical College offered courses in Rus-
S sian business, and on the main commercial street
were places where rubles could be exchanged for
Figure 1. Unknown steamer. yen, or vice-versa. In addition, the main com-
mercial street places of business displayed many
On the original card it can be plainly seen that signs in Russian as well as Japanese.
the message side (fig. 2) was printed first in
brown ink with the words 'Carte CREP.L
Postale' at the top, 'For Correspon- s CARTE POSTALE
dence'to the left, 'Address' to the right, b, R, .
and the Japanese characters for Yubiri ..VOLUTEE FLET
bagaki (postcard) reading right to left Smiw ,"o, ...-H... -
'ro,*** & lu ~Inm notlon with the
across the right margin. The English : i e 1n aN TRNI M-.ERIA Y i
text is printed in the same color ink and p i 5 T w.i.k1
appears to have been done at the same ,h 7 S*h- ,'' ,,. .
time. The Japanese message, however, lg C g. a r. V,,, kd-, am k
is in black ink printed over the words m a+ % cth ViT' & .Irc'
S' J illEK T.lr I I ...".. Vo. n r"
'For Correspondence' and the left .. e S T .... ,,. ,
margin of the English, and was obvi- .S25 a
ously added later.
Take away the two advertising messages, ro-
tate the card 90 degrees to the left, and you have Figure 2. Bilingual postcard.


Rossica Journal Number 115, 36
October 1990






A Tale of Two Censors


I had two problems: 1918 or 1919, and Red or
White? To start with the latter, the Whites did not
by Ivo Steyn use numbered army groups at first. When the
Siberian Whites managed to bring some sort of
order into their army (Dec. 1918), they divided
their forces into the Siberian Army (commanded
(Ed. note: The following by Gajda), the Western Army (commanded by
article is based on a corre- Khanzin) and the Southern Army (commanded
spondence that began with xeroxes and a plain- by Dutov, although this latter group disintegrated
tive note from me to Ivo, asking for his opinion in 1919). These army groups were arranged from
on these covers; White or Red censorship? The North to South, so that Khanzin's Western Army
results of his research make for interesting read- fought all the important battles. When the Whites
ing, a glimpse at something seldom seen Civil switched to Plan B (Run Away) in June-July
War military censor marks from units in the 1919, they did reorganize their forces. What was
field.) left of the Western Army became the 3rd Army,
one of three army groups which spent most of
Before I go to the rest of the letter, let me their time fleeing East. On the Red side it took a
say how much I've enjoyed looking into that'3rd lot of time to get things settled down (a bit
Army Staff' censor marking of which you sent difficult when you have to deal with things like
me a copy. (see fig.1) It was quite a romp through General Murav'ev defecting, etc.) but, from
the books to get to what I think is the truth, but I November 1918 on, the Eastern Army Group
think I've got the thing placed now, and quite a consisted of 5 armies. In the North, the 3rd Army
story it is too. faced Gajda's Siberian Army. In the center, the
2nd and 5th Armies faced
Khanzin's Western Army,
".i ..... while in the South, the 4th
S\ and 1st Armies dealt with
Dutov.
........ ........ As you can see, this does
Snot really solve anything,
-- -, since both the Red 3rd Army
and the later White 3rd
... Army operated in the re-




30 June 1918, the Red 3rd
Army did not yet exist as such, while on 30 June
Figure 1. "Morshansk to Ekaterinburg, 191?, 1919 the White 3rd Army had not yet been
"bearing an extremely rare 'Examined by Mili- formed. So, on that basis, 1919 would seem a
tarylCensorship of 3rd Army HQ/N 34'." likely year. But there are two grave problems
with that. First is the 20 kopek franking, which
firmly dates the sending of the card between


Rossica Journal Number 115, 37
October 1990








March and September of 1918. (Postage in 1919 connections. The card was then delivered, and
was free, of course.) Another slight problem is censored by the military authority in charge of
the control over Ekaterinburg. Ekaterinburg fell the newly-conquered area: the (Red) 3rd Army.
to the Whites on 25 July 1918 and wasn't recap- That latter item may seem a bit strange when it
tured by the Red 2nd Army until 15 July 1919. was the 2nd Army which captured the city, but
Morshansk was under Red control all the time, of the 2nd passed straight through, in hot pursuit of
course (although it didjoin the Antonovinsurrec- Kolchak's troops. The 3rd followed at a more
tion in 1921). leisurely pace, absorbed the remaining units from
All in all, my best guess is the following: the the 2nd after the White stand at the Tobol river
card was sent on or slightly after 30 June 1918. cost 15,000 Red casualties, and eventually be-
By that time, fighting in the Urals had broken out came the authority in most of Western Siberia.
and the card was not sent on to Ekaterinburg. The The Ufa cover is of course wholly White. Ufa
card then had to wait for almost a year, before the was in White hands until 31-12-18, and again
Red recapture of Ekaterinburg restored postal between 14-3-19 and 8-6-19 (captured by Red
I -...... --- 5th Army).




-7-




.f "* -

... Figure 2. (Reduced) Obverse enve-
"lope, from Birsk to Ufa (mostly ef-




"* *>, ". *,
Figure Re verse enve- '
fac loped), with Ivanoter rare mark-









,October 1990A l 11

".':'"* 'Figure 3. Reverse of enve-
^..'. lope, with another rare mark-
;'_ iEng, "ExaminedlUfalMilitary
Censor Nk 4"

Rossica Journal Number 115, 38
October 1990






The Repatriation of Prisoners of War from Russia, 1917-1921



It was agreed by treaty that:

by Horst Taitl
lby Hot Ta1. Germany would establish 14 evacuation
(Translatn fm te stations in the territory of European Russia
(Translation from the
Germani beginning in May 1918 to direct the repa-
S- a triation of her POWs to the respective
by Peter Michalove)
y P "districts." The exchange was to be held on
a one-to-one basis for Russian POWs held
in Germany, with the remaining Russians
released only afterwards. Wounded and
Historical Background civilian internees were to be repatriated
first.
On 26 November 1917, the Soviet govern- 2. The Turkish POWs were to be returned
ment in European Russia proposed to the Central through the German organization.
Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany and Tur- 3. Austria-Hungary wouldestablish 11 evacu-
key a cease-fire, which came about on 15 Decem- ation stations in European Russia from
ber 1917. Peace negotiators from Russia and the mid-July 1918. There would be a mutual
Central powers met in Brest-Litovsk on 18 De- exchange of prisoners, as there were ap-
cember 1917, and the Soviets immediately pro- proximately the same number of prisoners
posed that the exchange of POWs and civilian in- on both sides.
ternees be separated from the peace negotiations 4. The existing neutral delegations (Swedish
and discussed in Petrograd. A German and an and Danish) would cease their work with
Austro-Hungarian delegation therefore went to the beginning of the work of the Central
Petrograd on 27 December 1917. Powers' delegations.
Since the peace talks in Brest-Litovsk suddenly
broke off on 10 February 1918, the delegations in Fieldmarshal von Krejcy had overall responsi-
Petrograd also went home without success, ability for the Austro-Hungarian mission. The
Military operations were taken up again and, as various delegations (11 in all) had at their dis-
the German offensive threatened Petrograd, peace posal doctors, financial specialists, Red Cross
talks were resumed on 28 February 1918. delegates and translators, former POWs, and
The resultant peace treaty was signed on 3 personnel, as well as medical supplies and uni-
March 1918. The Ukrainian delegation, which forms.
was separate from the Russian delegation, had al-
ready signed a peace treaty on 9 February 1918. Activities of the Delegations

Negotiations for the Repatriation of POWs The POWs were collected in the respective
and Internees "districts" (of the evacuation stations), cared for,
and sent westward by train. In order to facilitate
At the end of April 1918, German, Austro- a smooth transport home, the more westerly
Hungarian and Turkish commissions went to areas were evacuated first to make room for the
Russia, as negotiations were handled separately POWs coming from further east. POWs in the
by the three countries. eastern regions were ordered not to travel west-
ward on their own, or to do so only at their own


Rossica Journal Number 115, 39
October 1990








risk. The Soviets provided intact railway equip- dertake the evacuation of POWs from the Cauca-
ment only in insufficient quantities and after sus across the Black Sea. From Constantinople,
great pressure from the Central Powers. Dr. Formanek came only as far as Odessa.
After troops of the various "Internationalists" Wartime conditions were raging; the Bolshevik
(not to be confused with the Bolshevik Red Bri- Red Guards had defeated the White Russian
gades) had stopped or delayed POW transports, army of General Wrangel and were preparing to
and sometimes sent prisoners back to their origi- take Odessa. In February 1920, Dr. Formanek's
nal camps, the delegations of the Central Powers mission turned back without accomplishing its
had the Soviets disarm the Internationalists. This aims. But the fate of the POWs in the Caucasus
order was not carried out by the Russian district gave Dr. Formanek no peace, and so in July 1920
and local authorities, however, as the power of he travelled again to the Caucasus and, arriving
the Internationalists was too strong. But the in Tiflis in mid-August, he organized the evacu-
orderresulted in the uprising of the Czech Legion ation from the region. POW stations were estab-
against the Soviets. lished in Tiflis, Baku, Vladikavkaz and Rostov-
From June to the end of October 1918, the fol- na-Donu. All of these stations were well sup-
lowing numbers of prisoners were repatriated plied with funds and medical materials.
from European Russia:
Turkestan
Germans: 80,000 POWs and
214,000 civilian internees Turkestan, bordering Afghanistan (then a de-
Austro-Hungarians: 450,000POWS and civil- pendency of British India) [ed. official date of
ian internees independence is 1919] and Persia to the south,
Turks: 25,000 POWs and civil- the Caspian Sea to the west, and China to the east,
ian internees remained a child of sorrow in the whole repatria-
The 21,000 German and 257,000 Austro-Hun- tion effort. The only railway to Orenburg had
garian POWs in the Ukraine likewise returned long since been cut, and the British sought to cut
home, some on their own. off the Caspian route from Askhabad and Krasno-
After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian vodsk. The repatriation team led by Captain
monarchy on 3 November 1918, all of the dele- Bretter and regimental Doctor Formanek, along
gations ceased their work. The few POWs re- with Captain Hofmeister's team for Baku, was
maining in European Russia were attended to by delayed on the open sea at the beginning of
the German, Austrian, and Hungarian workers' August 1918, arrested upon British instigation in
and soldiers' councils (soviets). Of these, only Baku, and only released after the general armi-
the German councils were noted for their objec- stice. Their funds and material were confiscated.
tive and well-organized work. The Danish delegate in Tashkent, Captain Brun,
POWs in Siberia, the Urals, the Caucasus and was arrested by the British and taken to India.
Turkestan were forced to remain since the upris- Several couriers sent from Petrograd had to turn
ing of the Czech Legion in central Russia had to- back in the face of the civil war. However, the
tally cut them off. Austrians did succeedin wiring two considerable
In mid-May 1919, the Polish-Ukrainian war sums to the Tashkent State Bank for the support
broke out, but almost all POWs had already been of Austro-Hungarian POWs.
evacuated from these areas. Negotiations conducted in Moscow in early
August 1918 were successful, but the plans agreed
The Caucasus on could only be realized later, since the connec-
tion with Tashkent was cut until spring of 1920.
In October (1919), the POW mission of Dr. Thus, the large-scale repatriations did not begin
Formanek travelled to the Black Searegion to un- until spring 1920, and proceeded by way of Euro-

Rossica Journal Number 115, 40
October 1990








pean Russia to Narva in the Baltic and from there Lieutenant Alevra, and a Hungarian group had
by ship to German ports. The returning POWs landed in Vladivostok. In addition the Canadian,
were deloused, given new clothes, money and English, and American Red Cross delegations
tickets in the so-called DULAGS and a delegation of the International Red Cross
(Durchgangslager, or transit camps), and sent on led by the Swiss Dr. Montandon were at work.
in trains within two or three days. The Austrian delegation of von der Heller was
subordinated to the Swiss delegation.
Siberia The mission of Dr. George Montandon de-
parted from Bordeaux on 15 April 1919 at the
In eastern Siberia, the hopes of the poor POWs urging of Austria and Hungary, and later, after
faded. The land route westward was blocked to consultations with Turkey and Bulgaria, acted as
them by the Czech Legion's revolt. The route to the official delegation of the International Red
Vladivostok was controlled as late as 1920 by Cross in Geneva. Arriving in Yokohama on 7
White forces, who declared themselves still in a July 1919, the delegation continued on to Vladi-
state of war with the Central Powers, and there- vostok and on 20 July left for Omsk. Montandon
fore would not allow the Austrians, Hungarians, wanted to negotiate with the White Kolchak
Germans, Turks and Bulgarians to leave. True, government on transporting POWs eastward.
large contingents of Japanese, Americans, Eng- But the power of the Kolchak regime was al-
lish, French, Canadians, and even Italians marched ready faltering, as the Czech Legion was yielding
into eastern Siberia in 1918, but these "foreign- the Ural front to the Bolsheviks. Montandon
ers" could achieve only the entry of various wanted to prevent a too hasty move of the POWs
delegations for the repatriation of POWs. from west Siberia to east Siberia, as they would
Transportation home could be secured after the then only be used as pawns by a defeated Kol-
evacuation of the Czech Legion in 1919, and chak regime or the Czech Legion.
even then, space on board ship and the necessary For the spring of 1919, Montandon cites the fol-
funds were not available. 4,000 Swiss francs per lowing numbers for Siberia:
man was required for transport to Trieste.
On 6 April 1920, representatives of 11 organi- 148,000 Austrians and Hungarians
zations met in New York and decided to provide 18,500 Germans
the necessary funds. However, only one million 3,500 Turks
dollars was procured, which was much too little, 10 Bulgarians
so only a few POWs were repatriated by the 170,010 Total
American Red Cross on a fortuitously available
steamer. Only one state steamer, the Hefferin, Montandon's first rail transport left on 6 Sep-
took on 175 men. Thus, it was only in August tember 1920 with wounded from the camp at
1920 that 6,300 Hungarians and 2,000 Austrians Berezovka. It was the first of a total of 12 rail
from camps in Pervaya Rechka, Kharbin, transports eastward from "Red" west Siberia
Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk, Chita and Blagoveshchensk (later from central Siberia as well) to Vladivos-
were conveyed from Vladivostok by way of tok, and then by ship to Trieste. On 23 October
Shanghai, Saigon, ColomboandPortSaidtoTri- 1920 there were only 26 Hungarian officers
este. remaining in the Far Eastern Republic. These
Meanwhile, the German POW repatriation mis- were still held for political reasons.
sion of Herren Keller and Fisher as well as that of At the end of October, the White Russian Gen-
Herren Gerber and R6ssler, the Austrian delega- eral Semenov finally evacuated east Siberia and
tion of First Lieutenant von der Heller, the mis- withdrew via Dauria back to Manchuria. The
sion of Herr Klaus from Czechoslovakia for the route to Vladivostok was at last free, and Dr.
Sudeten Germans, the Romanian delegation of Montandon's mission was completed. Atthe end

Rossica Journal Number 115, 41
October 1990








E 0E
0 0



1 6 Sept. Berezovka I 160 375 535
2 & 3 17 Sept. 20 Sept. Berezovka II 80 72 152
and Irkutsk I 135 180 315
4 24 Sept. 29 Sept. Irkutsk II 220 ? 500 ? 720
5 25 Sept. 30 Sept. Berezovka III 190? 400 ? 590
6 26 Sept. 6 Oct. Tomsk 44 90 209 536 23 119 2 1023
7 26 Sept. 8 Oct. Krasnoyarsk I 202 601 107 224 22 45 21 1222
8 5 Oct. 10 Oct. Achinsk, 276 488 201 161 26 13 21 1186
Krasnoyarsk II
and Kansk
9 8 Oct. 12 Oct. Irkutsk III 122 130 163 277 129 7 26 2 856
10 11 Oct. 17 Oct. Berezovka IV 90 49 101 122 27 11 13 7 420
11 13 Oct. 17 Oct. Krasnoyarsk It 423 364 266 125 39 22 22 1261
12 15 Oct. 19 Oct. Irkutsk IV 136 61 287 337 116 96 81 1 1115
Totals 2078 1783 1334 3309 382 194 303 10 2 9395

Summary of the Mission of Dr. Montandon

of November 1920 there were only about 20,000 The Steigerwald. Departed 15 November 1920
POWs in all of Siberia. The repatriation by the with 1,644 POWs of various nationali-
"Nansen-aid" of the National Confederation ties.
through the International Red Cross in Geneva The Frankfurt. Departed 23 November with
began in west Siberia at this time. 2,500 POWs.
The principal transport ships for which the The Kaikyu Maru. Departed 25 November
Austrian delegation of von der Heller was re- with several thousand POWs.
sponsible were the following:
The number of POWs who returned later were:
The Mount Vernon. Departed 14 April 1920
with 4,000 Czechs, 400 Germans and 300 1922 318
Austrians and Hungarians. 1923 48
The Scotland Maru with an unknown number 1924 33
of POWs. 1925 27
The President Grant (Formerly the Fiirst 1926 25
Bismark). Departed 27 April 1920 with 1927 5
5,500 Czechs and 600 Austrians. 1928 8
The Shunko Maru. Departed 15 May 1920 1929 10
with 1,120 Austrians and Hungarians.
The Capeton Maru. Unknown date of depar- These were mostly former POWs deep in the
ture and number of passengers. Siberian tundra, many of whom learned only
The Nankai Maru. Unknown date of departure very late of the peace.
with 1,400 Austrians and Hungarians.
The Scharnhorst (a French ship). Departed 5
October 1920 with 2,217 POWs of
various nationalities.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 42
October 1990







The various organizations that participated in 6STER A. UNGAR. HILFSVEREIN.
the repatriation effort used distinctive handstamps. 3took
The following illustrations are by no means
comprehensive; they are provided to show some
of the handstamps that have been identified. Austro-Hungarian Aid Society. Stockholm.


SrihschoJstracttisteo ffavtgnueiist
S+ ~ci|AN



SGerman/Austrian POW Service. Bern.


M,.co..ii K,..r Kriegsgefangenenpost
nomouiw somHonAfwurWW. BASEL 2
2 6. NOV. 1916 POW Post. Basel 2.
wp.n tr JCem'uur iwb.
C it ITEMIATFHAL K LACM5M WW
Moscow Aid Committee for POWs. Office in G E NE VE
Copenhagen. AtMCE D PRISONNIEtS tDE UER

International Committee of the Red Cross.
Geneva. POW Agency.
C0101 XPAGTIANCIOII OJiOAEMI
SOBOJU 1eII lIIIuIMN
ErPoPCAla; 7. rioroS. iL Handstamos of ships carrying POWs from
Siberia to Trieste

International YMCA. POW Aid. Petrograd,
Gogol St., 19.

SPITALSTRAIISPORT
Croix Rouge Danoise VLADIWO S TOK-TRI EST
Copenhague O
Agerce des prinier de guerre AM BORDDE R

NAMAI MARU
Croix Rouge Danoise NAN AI AR
Copenhague
Aoenc des prlsonnier de guern. Hospital transport Vladivostok-Trieste on
2 5. OCT. 1919 board the "Nankai Maru."
2 3. OCT. 1919
Danish Red Cross. Copenhagen. POW
Agency.



Rossica Journal Number 115, 43
October 1990






@ Mail Between Fighting Enemies -
1918

M539 by August Leppdi

The postal history of Russia after the First
World War includes several interesting items
which are not easy to explain in detail. The il-
S lustrated card is one of these items and the ex-
German Military Transport "Nankai Maru."
planations given are guesses.
The card was sent from Tambov in April 1918
to Finland. The card is dated 12. IV. 1918 and
cancelled in Tambov 31.4.18 [April gained a
day]. The difference in the dates is due to the two
% LO different calendars in use at the time. The card
arrived in Abo on 12 May 1918.




German Military Transport "Hudson Maru."


References:

Dr. Franz Formanek. Geschichte der Befreiung .
unserer Kriegsgefangenen in Russland.

Gaston Lichtenstein. (Das) Rote Kreuz der
Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika zur Heim-
Vereinigten Staaten on Nordamerika zur Heim- The cover is franked on the front with the 1917
beforderung der Gefangenen aus Sibirien.
S20 k. overprint on the 14 k. stamp of the 1909-
S 1912 issue. This franking accurately reflects the
Dr. Leopold Kern. Die Mission zur Heim-
e er. ie M ssire. internal rate for cards. According to A. Fedotow-
bef6rderung der Gefangenen aus Ostsibirien.
sky in Rossica No. 93, the foreign rate was 12
r. G d R Fr de H r in d kop., but internal rates were widely used up to
Dr. Gerhard Rose. Fiir die Heimkehr in den
Jahren 1918 bis 1920. 1 .
Nothing special up to now, but what was the
eiich Freih von Raabl-Werner. ster- mail route used? Finland declared independence
in December 1917, and it was shortly afterwards
reichs-Ungarns offizielle Kreigsgefangenen-
ris g s o e K recognized by Soviet Russia. When the card was
Fiirsorge.
dated 12. IV., the town of Abo (Turku) was still
Sin the hands of red Finnish troops during the
Independence War. It was occupied by White
Troops in April, but that was probably easily
known in Tambov. The card received a trilin-
gual-arrival marking in Turku on May 12th. At


Rossica Journal Number 115, 44
October 1990







that time, the Independence War was practically The Postage Stamps of Siberia-Addi-
over, but fighting continued in the area near tional Comments and Illustrations
Petrograd. Exchange of mail was certainly not
possible. There are, maybe, two possible expla- b G .
by George G. Werbizky
nations. Maybe the White Troops had delivered
mail which was found in the occupied area. On Mr. Ivo Steyn has written extensively on
the other hand, after the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, a i t v
and illustrated the various issues of Siberia dur-
mail was carried between Germany and Russia in g the Civil War period, 1917-1922. The pur-
ing the Civil War period, 1917-1922. The pur-
1918. Mail from Germany to Finland was usu-
S o Ger t d ws pose of this article is to provide additional illus-
ally censored in Kmnigsberg, yet this card was not
censored trations of these issues (mainly errors), as well as
censored.
e other pertinent information, which I hope will be
The writer states that he plans to travel abroad
new to readers. I'd also like to continue the
to Riga and Warsaw for 1-1/2 months. It would discussion ofth
discussion of the "" ("g") Vladivostok canceller
be interesting to know if his plans were fulfilled. w a
which Mr. Steyn associates with dubious mate-
rial. All the stamps and items shown were
From "Khronika" in "Zhizn' i Tekhnika expertise or signed by one of the following: Dr.
Syaz No.8, August 1924, p. 154. Translated R.J. Ceresa, Dipl. Ing. Z.S. Mikulski, W. Pohl,
Svyazi" No. 8, August 1924, p. 154. Translated
by Dave Skipton Romeko or A.M. Rosselevich.

DIRECT ROUTING OF MAILCARS The Kolchak Issue.

A plan to have mailcar #135 on the Moscow- This stamp, the missing
Kazan' line put through directly to Ekaterinburg "3"variety, should be thought
has been drawn up. This would make it possible of as a companion to the
to send the great amounts of Siberian mail to missing"5"variety, ScottNo.
Ekaterinburg without having to transfer it to i 1. So far, this is the only
another mailcar. Such routing of Siberian mail known copy.
would decrease the chances of damage from Figure 1. Missing 3 variety, Scott No. 5.
loading and unloading along the way, save on the
number of hands needed, prevent a slowdown in
mail transportation, etc. It takes 66 hours and 40
minutes to travel from Moscow through Kazan'
to Ekaterinburg, while the mail from Moscow
through Vyatka to Ekaterinburg takes 76 hours
and 45 minutes.
The Khar'kov Communications District has
proposed that mailcar #15, which runs from
Moscow to Khar'kov, be sent on to Sevastopol'
because of the short time available to transfer
mail from #15 to mailcar #59. On the average,
#15 arrives in Khar'kov carrying 762 boxes and
bags with a total weight of 642 poods [approxi-
mately 23,112 pounds], of which #59 receives
about 406 items (227 poods); mailcar #19 gets Figure 2. Inverted overprint, Scott No. 8.
198 items (287 poods); mailcar #37 65 for 50
poods, while Khar'kov itself accounts for 93 The lines across both stamps appear to be an
items (78 poods). The question is being studied. unknown cancellation in red.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 45
October 1990







that time, the Independence War was practically The Postage Stamps of Siberia-Addi-
over, but fighting continued in the area near tional Comments and Illustrations
Petrograd. Exchange of mail was certainly not
possible. There are, maybe, two possible expla- b G .
by George G. Werbizky
nations. Maybe the White Troops had delivered
mail which was found in the occupied area. On Mr. Ivo Steyn has written extensively on
the other hand, after the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, a i t v
and illustrated the various issues of Siberia dur-
mail was carried between Germany and Russia in g the Civil War period, 1917-1922. The pur-
ing the Civil War period, 1917-1922. The pur-
1918. Mail from Germany to Finland was usu-
S o Ger t d ws pose of this article is to provide additional illus-
ally censored in Kmnigsberg, yet this card was not
censored trations of these issues (mainly errors), as well as
censored.
e other pertinent information, which I hope will be
The writer states that he plans to travel abroad
new to readers. I'd also like to continue the
to Riga and Warsaw for 1-1/2 months. It would discussion ofth
discussion of the "" ("g") Vladivostok canceller
be interesting to know if his plans were fulfilled. w a
which Mr. Steyn associates with dubious mate-
rial. All the stamps and items shown were
From "Khronika" in "Zhizn' i Tekhnika expertise or signed by one of the following: Dr.
Syaz No.8, August 1924, p. 154. Translated R.J. Ceresa, Dipl. Ing. Z.S. Mikulski, W. Pohl,
Svyazi" No. 8, August 1924, p. 154. Translated
by Dave Skipton Romeko or A.M. Rosselevich.

DIRECT ROUTING OF MAILCARS The Kolchak Issue.

A plan to have mailcar #135 on the Moscow- This stamp, the missing
Kazan' line put through directly to Ekaterinburg "3"variety, should be thought
has been drawn up. This would make it possible of as a companion to the
to send the great amounts of Siberian mail to missing"5"variety, ScottNo.
Ekaterinburg without having to transfer it to i 1. So far, this is the only
another mailcar. Such routing of Siberian mail known copy.
would decrease the chances of damage from Figure 1. Missing 3 variety, Scott No. 5.
loading and unloading along the way, save on the
number of hands needed, prevent a slowdown in
mail transportation, etc. It takes 66 hours and 40
minutes to travel from Moscow through Kazan'
to Ekaterinburg, while the mail from Moscow
through Vyatka to Ekaterinburg takes 76 hours
and 45 minutes.
The Khar'kov Communications District has
proposed that mailcar #15, which runs from
Moscow to Khar'kov, be sent on to Sevastopol'
because of the short time available to transfer
mail from #15 to mailcar #59. On the average,
#15 arrives in Khar'kov carrying 762 boxes and
bags with a total weight of 642 poods [approxi-
mately 23,112 pounds], of which #59 receives
about 406 items (227 poods); mailcar #19 gets Figure 2. Inverted overprint, Scott No. 8.
198 items (287 poods); mailcar #37 65 for 50
poods, while Khar'kov itself accounts for 93 The lines across both stamps appear to be an
items (78 poods). The question is being studied. unknown cancellation in red.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 45
October 1990


















Figure 3. Same stamp, double overprint.

Figure 4 is an oddity of ^C 1
Scott No. 8 again: it consists : lSm.o,
of two pieces glued together.
The bottom is covered with
ifp;~l: , stamp glue as well as the back '
of the printed portion. Figure 7. Scott No. 5. Overprint shifted down-
wards.

Figure 4. Two Piece, Scott No. 8.







Figure 5. Strip of 5 stamps, Scott No. 9, with a Figure 8. Scott No. 4. Double overprint and a
shifted and progressively misplaced overprint, pair with double overprint, one inverted.









"Figure 9. Scott No. 6. Double overprint.

Note that on this stamp one overprint is on top
of the other. Mr. Steyn shows the same stamp
Figure 6. Scott No. 10. with the second overprint significantly displaced
upward and to the left (ref. 1, p. 11, fig. 6).
This is an example ofashifted overprint. Further On some stamps, the degree is so extreme that
examples of shifted (see fig. 7) and double over- only a portion of an overprint appears on a stamp.
prints are shown in figs. 8-9. This variety is well illustrated in ref. 1, p. 11, ill.
6, Scott No. 6.


Rossica Journal Number 115, 46
October 1990
Ths s n xape f sifedoerrit.Futer Onsoe tap, hedere i oVxtem ta
exaple ofshited(se fi. 7 an dobleove- oly potio ofan verrin apear ona saip








The Semenov Issue

Figure 10 is Scott No. N1, the 1 p.p. variety.
The same stamp is shown cancelled (favor can-
cel?) in fig. 11 and illustrates a not very common
cancellation of Gazimurskii Zavod, Zabaikal
Oblast', Robinson illustration No. 294.1.
Figure 14. ScottNo. N4. Partial overprint only
top of "10" showing.

II. The Blagoveshchensk Issue

Mr. Steyn, in ref. 1, states that "Genuinely used
Figure 10. 1 P.P. variety, copies are rare." Some stamps were "favor-
cancelled," as I suspect the two shown in fig. 15
were. It is a composition to illustrate the Bla-
M: M9 goveshchensk cancel. Both stamps were cancelled
on the same day.








Figure 11. N1 cancelled. Note expertizing
mark W. Pohl in lower left hand corner.



Figure 15. Scott No. 42, cancelled.

Inv The cancellation is No. 142.6, shown in P.E.
--Robinson's book on Siberian postmarks, p. 73.
The other two examples of postal use in my
Figure 12. PP. 5 variety of Scott No. N3. collection are portions of money orders; one with
a block of 4, Scott No. 46 tete-beche (!) along
SFigure 13, Scott with two 10 kop. arms issue stamps (fig. 16). The
No. N3, double second money order portion (fig. 17) has a strip
overprint vari- of two Scott No. 44 and one Scott No. 46 (it
ety. Note arrow appears that that was a pair, with one stamp
at single stamp removed. So, when one finds single used stamps,
one P. of a the stamp may have seen postal use.). The first
.partial over- piece is dated 7-12-20 (same as the two loose
print (upper right hand corner), stamps shown in fig. 15- a coincidence?); The
It is believed that only one sheet date on the second piece is 30-12-20. Both items
was double-overprinted, have Blagoveshchensk postmarks.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 47
October 1990






The question, which can only be answered par-
tially, is where do t&te-bches come from? Half
sheet or strip as in fig. 19, or both?







Figure 19. Strip showing "empty" position.
Figure 16. Portion of a money order, front and
reverse. Note the tete-b&che. In contrast, the 5-ruble sheet, Scott No. 44, has
the layout shown in fig. 20.










Figure 20. The 5-ruble sheet layout.

Figure 17. Portion of another money order; one Note that only two groups of 5x5 stamps contain
stamp has been removed, tete-beche pairs. Arrows show direction of stamp.
No arrow indicates direction as shown in upper
The sheets of this issue, I believe, consisted of left hand corner.
200 stamps, arranged 4x25 per side. This is the The remainder of the stamp stock was sent to
same arrangement of the 5-ruble stamp, Scott Moscow, where they were annulled in two ways:
No. 44, in my collection. The 30-ruble stamp is 1. With colored pencil: single line in
a bit of a mystery: A half sheet has an expected light blue, green or red; or
layout of 4x25, with no tSte-beche pairs. How- 2. With three black, printed, straight
ever, fig. 18 is what appears to be a complete strip lines (see fig 22.) or in a pattern, as
(less two stamps at one end) in a 2x13 layout, shown in fig. 21. Since only one
stamp is available, the complete
-- pattern is unknown.


Figure 18. Strip of Scott No. 46. Arrows show
stamp orientation to point out tete-beches.
k ,


Figure 21. Single stamp with pattern lines.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 48
October 1990






Figure 22 illustrates a curiosity. When the essentially identical in both cases, i.e., it is to the
sheet was printed, a corer paper fold occurred side of the stamp.
and the stamp was printed thus. When the sheet
was straightened, a portion of the stamp became
printed on the back. The small square in the
lower right hand corer is that portion.






Figure 23. Inverted (left) and shifted (right)
overprints.

+ -Figure 24 shows a further shift of the "DBP" to
the middle of the stamp, with the "K.7 K."
missing. Another example of a shift is illustrated
in fig. 25 a downward shift.
Figure 22. Straight-line annulled stamps with
corner fold.

The history of the annulled remainders, as
given to me in private correspondence by the
stamp dealer Mr. A. Ernst, in 1967, is that from
the Postal Ministry in Moscow "all remainders
have been purchased by the late New York dealer
Michael Gluck, and I purchased the whole stock Figure 24. Missing K.7 K. with shift.
from him about 20 years ago. All the sheets were
cut into smaller blocks, because the tete-b&che
pairs had been cut out. Only eight sheets (four
from the left and four from the right) were intact,
and you have the last pair of sheets. The whole
lot has been cleaned by employees of Mr. Gluck,
except those with the surcharge, which could not
be taken out" i.e., printed lines.

Far Eastern Republic Issue
Figure 25. Downward shift.
The 7/10k. stamp, Scott No. 8, seems to have
more errors than any other stamp of the same
issue. That is probably because significantly A block of four, Scott No. 32, with "DBP"
more 7/10k. were overprinted (395,000 accord- shifted downward is shown in fig. 26. Is that the
ing to Steyn) than any other value. The next overprint that was used on the 7/15k. stamp when
highest printing volume was that of the 10/3.50r., the stamp was overprinted in error with just the
Scott No. 26: 100,000. The illustrations in fig. 23 monogram? (see fig. 24) There is enough space
show the misplaced as well as inverted over- below the monogram for the 7/15k. portion of the
prints. Note that the shift of the overprint is overprint.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 49
October 1990




















Figure 26. Monogram shift.

This block is clearly "favor cancelled" (full
gum on the back) with the notorious ""' ("g")
canceller, which will be discussed later.
The next item (fig. 27) is a block of 5x5 stamps
with perforation shift and tilt. Figure 38 shows
partial overprints on Scott Nos. 36 and 6.
Figure 28. Partial overprints on Scott Nos. 36
and 6.


The Chita Issue

Here I can add one variety not previously
I i recorded. It is Scott No. 53b, imperforate verti-
cally, fig. 29.








S : Figure 29. Pair, imperforate vertically.

Figure 27. Perforation shift and tilt.




0


Rossica Journal Number 115, 50
October 1990






The November Anniversary Issue Vladivostok ""' ("g") Postmark

Both inverted and double overprints exist. In Mr. Steyn states in ref. 1, p. 50, that "the
one case, a triple overprint has been found. In Vladivostok marking with a serial "r" ("g") and
addition, a "curved-two" variety is illustrated the characteristic dents at the top is known on an
with the hope that it will show better than in Mr. array of philatelic covers from Pappadopulo, and
Steyn's article, even on forged covers. It almost certainly fell
into Pappadopulo's hands sometime during 1920-
1923 and was used by him to cancel his remain-
ing stock after he fled to Shanghai. It is known
with many different dates from 1920 to 1922 and
was, therefore, complete with a variable date. I
have not seen it used postally."
In my opinion, it is more likely that Pappadop-
Figure 30. Double overprint, Scott No. 63. ulo had easy access to this canceller for improper
or questionable use. However, the same canceller
was properly used on legitimate mailings, as
shown in figs. 35 and 36.






Figure 31. Double overprint, Scott No. 64.

Figure 32. Triple overprint,
Scott No. 63. (Cannot be seen
without magnification.) The
firsthand second overprints are
slightly shifted, while the third
overprint shows significantly
"more shift.

Figure 35. Legitimate use ofthe "r" canceller in
1922.

Figure33. Invertedoverprint, Figure 35 is a portion of a cover (?), cancelled
Scott No. 62. Note that the on 3-10-22 with Vladivostok "l"'("g) canceller.
first "2" is the "tall two" va- (The "T" can't be seen here. Presented only as an
riety. example.) The stripe through the middle is red in
color. The two stamps are from the Diterikhs
issue, Scott Nos. 85 and 88. The translation of the
Chinese writing is as follows:
"Please send this to Ta-Huo-Mou town of
Figure 34. "Curved-two" vari- Shuan-Chen-Tze, Mr. Wang Shin An
ety, Scott No. 62. (from) Shua-Ko Ho-Shan Tung-Fu, Tai-
Huo-Mou"

Rossica Journal Number 115, 51
October 1990







The second cover, fig. 36, is from the collection "... year missing in cancel." Figure 37 illustrates
of a well known expert of Russian material, another cover with this cancel, year missing. It is
kindly provided to me. It is dated 3-6-27 and from the collection of the expert, already men-
addressed to Kobe, Japan. tioned.
So, we see that canceller "r" ("g") was legiti- Finally, in my collection I have Diterikhs issue,
mately used even after the Civil War, i.e., not ScottNo. 104, on piece, with a completeNikol'sk-
only on Pappadopulo material. Ussuriisk cancel, also with "12" for the year.
Of interest also is the second cancel on the 1922 Probably what happened is that the removable
cover, that ofNikol'sk-Ussuriisk. The year shown year date got stuck. An attempt to repair this
is "12" (!) an impossibility. The canceller is canceller resulted in a complete loss of the year
No. 938.5 in Robinson's book, p. 98. Mr. Steyn and its replacement with a bar, as can be seen in
shows another cover in ref. 2, p. 17, and states fig. 37.


; ) n t s .. '. J
asion o il vmao s,-.L..
i125RJ1.-piiA' i / FrAMWI VAaIAA X.MwrHil&M aMfrAm TMiA.IT -MODUO R MXOMANUZ CO.* '














Figure 36. The use of the "rI canceller in 1927.
w.t .C '. -
..Fi r.. Th..e.f.e.r caneller an 1927.



















Figure 37. Example of missing year in Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk cancel.



Rossica Journal Number 115, 52
October 1990







The Diterikhs Issue New Forgeries of Nikolaevsk-na-
Amurye Issue
Figure 38 illustrates two inverts, Scott Nos. 97Amurye Issue
and 100; the Scott No. 100 is cancelled, but only by George G. Werbizky
by George G. Werbizky
a partial strike appears on the stamp.
"This issue has always been controversial
Sand questionable by some.' Forgeries abound,
but this is not unlike other Russian Civil War is-
sues. Stamps of Nikolaevsk-na-Amurye are
scarce very few were issued.2 Therefore,
_H when two stamps, Scott No. 52 (10/10 kop.
perforated, 9 issued) and Scott No. 68 (10/15
re 3 I rt rr kop., imperforate, 49 issued), were offered at a
Figure 38. Inverted overprints.
recent auction, I immediately placed my bid and
was successful. The stamps were encased in
Finally, fig. 39 is Scott No. 109. Note the .
Finally, fig. 39 is Scott No. 109. Note the individual packets approximately 4"x4" with a
absence of a frame on this overprint (there is also i a a ,"
semi-transparent window approximately 2"x2 .
noframeon the 35/2k.). OriginalKolchak stamps i-t pa w ppry
The window was glued to the base paper and then
have no frame, while "DBP" monogram stamps, .
c thave no frame, while" monogram Tam threaded with red thread in one packet, and rose
Scott Nos. 116-118, do have frames. There are
STthread in the other (aged red thread?). The four
very good forgeries of Scott No. 109 with a frame .
Sd corners of the window were stamped in violet
- a dead giveaway.
with the seal of the French Consulate in Vladi-
vostok. Ivo Steyn mentions and illustrates simi-
&,rad, Figure 39. Scott No. 109 -
NN Figure 39. Scott No. 109 lar "certificates of authenticity" in his article.
note absence of frame.
.3tl[KI note a e The abbreviated certificates, as Ivo calls them,
Strai oare the ones discussed here. These packets were
Illustrating other stamps
Ss i illustrated in the auction catalogue. It became
from this issue not shown in
r ts ie sn quickly obvious that the stamps could be exam-
Mr. Steyn's article represents
Mr. Steyn's article represents ined in detail only when removed from the pack-
little interest, and, in my collection, I have no
ets. This meant that the carefully constructed
more errors. Undoubtedly, there are more errors/ e a i
seal had to be broken. I had prior agreement with
varieties of Siberia issues known only to a few, or ,
the auction house that, if successful, I would
yet to be discovered. It is hoped that our readers
will come forward with new material remove both stamps from the packet and have
will come forward with new material.
them expertise.
Ref : As stated, my bid won, and after receiving the
two items, the packets were carefully cut open,
1. Steyn, Ivo, 'The Postage Stamps of Siberia," twoite the packets were careful cutopen
Rossica No. 111, 1988 USA. the stamps removed and sent to experts. Figure
n, Iv t o R W 1 shows one of the packets with the stamp re-
2. Steyn, Ivo, "East of Russia, West of Japan:
The Far Eastern Republic, an overview," The mo
i No. 1, Nov. 1 Cna Two well known experts examined both stamps
Post Rider No. 19, Nov. 1986, Canada.
and stated that their opinion was as follows:
3. Steyn, Ivo, "The Far Eastern Republic: New S i
1. Dipl. Ing. Z. S. Mikulski: "Both stamps
Information," The Post Rider No. 20, June
1987, Canada. are primitive overprint forgeries."
4. Robinson, P.E., "SIBERIA Postmarks and 2. Dr R. J. Ceresa: "Forgery type F5."
S This is a new forgery as far as Dr. Ceresa
Postal History of the Russian Empire Period,"
1986, England is concerned. The four previous types are
198,Eglad. illustrated in his book.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 53
October 1990









I also have in my collection very clear over-
prints of other denominations. (In all there were
three different overprints: 10 kop., 15 kop. and 20
kop.). These overprints are shown in fig. 3.










Figure 1. Empty packet. Note seals. g7-.-_ -_
Figure 3. The 15 and
When one carefully compares this forgery to a 20 kop. overprints.
genuine overprint, one can generate the list of
differences shown in table 1. To create a 20 kop.
Genuine Forgery overprint on a 20 kop.
stamp, the bottom of the
Frame Well defined, Unes wider, especially vp,the ottomofthe
thin vertical right-hand line.- overprint was not used:
This makes the frame, a piece of paper was
outer edge to outer edge
wider, placed over the bottom portion of the stamp. As
a result, only the frame and wording appear as an
"A" in "NA' Top flat Top pointed
overprint.
Period "." In line with Further away and below When one reflects on this forgery discovery,
after "B" bottom bottom stroke of "B"
stroke of "B" one has to marvel at the ingenuity of the forger(s).
Seal the deed so that close examination is impos-
Period "" Present Absent sible and have the owner be the guardian of the
after kop
fake! In my case this affair ended very satisfac-
Top Serif Slightly Short and straight
on "1" curved torily. The auction house immediately refunded
my purchase price in full based on the opinion of
Table 1. Comparison of genuine vs forged, Dr. experts in the field.
Ceresa's F5, 10 kop. overprint. My advice to holders of these packets is simple
open them and have a competent authority
There are other differences; in general, the examine the stamps. Lastly, let us, the collecting
shape of the letters is markedly different. The community, know the results.
stamps with genuine and forged overprints are
shown side by side in fig. 2. References:
1. Ivo Steyn, "The Nikolaevsk Affair,"
Rossica No. 111, 1988, p. 41-51.
"H"A Figure 2. Genu- 2. Ceresa, Dr. R. J., "The Postage Stamps of

the left andforged
ll.M. overprint, FS, on [Ed. note. We will be glad to publish any article
the right. related to newly-discovered forgeries.]

Rossica Journal Number 115, 54
October 1990







Revenue Stamps in Place of Postage Stamps

by V. Mogil'nyi in Kiev
(Translated from "Filatelia SSSR", No. 2, 1988 by Richard Dallair)


Philatelists know about the postal usage of mation about this is contained in an application
Russian revenue stamps, it being assumed that which was sent to Kiev Post-and-Telegraph Of-
those stamps were put into circulation by postal fice No. 5 in November 1918.
institutions on their own initiative.' In accordance with the postal rates of the
Indeed, in addition to that, in the years 1918 to Ukraine of 15 January 1918, such applications
1922 the post office was engaged in the sale of were paid for with a one-ruble stamp. In this
revenue stamps, which initially served as pay- case, for this the customer used a revenue stamp,
ment of a special tax called the stamp-duty [tax]. as was pointed out in the application [example]:
For example, at Kiev Post-and-Telegraph Office "I am enclosing... a one ruble revenue stamp."5
No. 16, 800 rubles' worth of revenue stamps It was cancel-stamped "KIEV 5 e."
were used in February 1919 (as opposed to 1000 Valuable information is contained in Circular
rubles' worth of postage stamps being used at No. 178 of 21 October 1921 of the Kiev Provin-
that time).2 cial Department [gubotdel]: "According to a
Of course, a situation has not been ruled out in report from international postal administrations,
which the post office was short of regularpostage correspondence is being received from the RSFSR
stamps. But the postal usage of revenue stamps that has been paid for with revenue stamps,
was hindered by the fact that they belonged to control stamps, and postal savings stamps. In
another [government] agency. This is why the confirmation of this year's circular telegram No.
Narkompochtel'[People's CommissariatofPosts 7/396 of 3 September about the payment for
and Telegraph] did not officially put them into international postal correspondence exclusively
postal circulation even during the time when tax with newly-issued postage stamps, I propose
stamps were abolished (1920-1922). notifying the public about this by putting up
Nevertheless, revenue stamps are known to announcements in conspicuous places in post
exist with diverse postal cancellations. Among offices, [stating] that international correspon-
them, as usual, are fraudulent, counterfeit stamps dence which has been paid for with different,
which were made up for postage. It should also [non-postal] stamps will not be sent abroad."
be remembered that postally-cancelled examples The circular about international mail clearly
exist which were used to pay revenue fees. For shows that it was the public who took the initia-
example, they could have been removed from the tive for the postal usage of revenue stamps.
lease agreements of postal facilities (in connec- However, it is not known what the Postal Ad-
tion with which they were cancelled, which fully ministration's attitude was toward the analogous
conformed to the rules in particular the 24 franking of mail within the USSR. Therefore, it
January 1915 Directive of the Minister of Fi- is impossible to judge with certainty whether
nance on the need to mark over "by hand or by there was tacit consent here on the part of the post
cancel-stamp thename of theinstitution cancelling office or, as in the case of international mail,
the revenue stamps and the time of cancella- whether the revenue stamps turned up on enve-
tion").4 This is why only entire items are of value lopes through oversight.
to philatelists. In conclusion, I will emphasize that up to now
On the basis of real factors let us attempt to the version about the release of revenue stamps
determine who took the initiative for the postal into circulation on the initiative of certain postal
usage of revenue stamps. For example, infor- institutions has not been corroborated. Only

Rossica Journal Number 115, 55
October 1990







instances of the franking of mail with revenue Position 99 Position 100
stamps on the initiative of the public have been Variety Normal stamp
substantiated by documentation, but those can be
regarded as curious postal incidents rather than
anything else.Fr iW
References: Perforate
1) Lobachevskii, V., "The National Postage
Stamps of Russia, Issues of 1908-1917," So-
viet Collector, No. 17, 1979, p. 52.
2) State Archives of the City of Kiev (GAGK),
f. r-889, op. 1, d. 99, 1. [page] 83. Imperforate
3) Collection of Government Statutes and De-
,crees, No. 31, 27 January 1915, p. 264. [The inner white oval is significantly larger.
indicator"3"forthis reference does not appear 2. The first letter "C" is significantly thinner.
in the body of the article trans.] 3. The letter "ff' has a noticeably different
4) GAGK, f. 124, op. 1, d. 77, 1. 304. outline and does not have the prominent
5) GAGK, f. r-893, op. 1, d. 122, 1. 296. flourish of the ordinary stamp.
4. The vignette immediately under the letter
"Il" penetrates the white field with the
A Variety of the First Soviet Stamp word "POCCIf' in it and almost touches
the letter on the ordinary stamp. On this
by B. Rodionov variety the vignette does not even penetrate
[Translated from Filatelia SSSR. February the field.
1971, by Gary A. Combs] Therefore, even though we have a variety that
can easily be distinguished and has been in exis-
The first Soviet postage stamps depicting a tence for 53 years, it remains little known to the
sword cutting a chain were issued in 1918. The majority of Soviet stamp collectors. Mr. P.F.
first issue had two denominations 35 and 70 Mazur, in his detailed article "The First Revolu-
kopecks. tionary Stamps 50 Years" (Filateliya SSSR,
Severalcatalogs listing the firstissue alsopoint 1968, No. 11-12), barely mentioned it. About
out the existence of horizontaldarkblue stripesin this variety he said only "99th stamp in the sheet
the upper and lower parts of the sheet as well as thin letters and a break between the letters "H"
other minor defectsin the overall design. Almost and "i" in the word "POCCIL" The stamp
all of these minor defects are insignificant and wasn't even illustrated.
appear to be blots and worn or damaged details of The fact that several of these stamps exist and
the stamp. they can easily be distinguished from the ordi-
However, one stamp stands out from the rest. nary stamp demands that more attention be given
This stamp cannot be another defective cliche to this variety. It should be included in catalogs
since all other details of the picture are the same. as a variety under number one.
It appears only once in several sheets in the 99th This variety can be seen on sheets with or
position. It is very easy to see this stamp when the without the horizontal stripes in the upper and
stamp in the 100th position is attached to it on the lower parts of the sheet and on the imperforate
right side. issues. It also is seen on the 1922 issue with the
The distinguishing features of this changed overprint "PCCP nronamouam" and on the post-
picture are listed below. age due stamps of 1923.
1. The letter "O" in the word "POCCIl" has
lines that are thinner and, as a result, the

Rossica Journal Number 115, 56
October 1990







Airmail Update



items. Included on the flight were two known
b covers one to U.S. President Roosevelt (regis-
by G. Adolph Ackerman traction #110 fig. 1) and another to Grover
Whelan, then head of the New York Worlds Fair
register #63) see Rossica Journal (#82:34-36,
"? 1972) for further information on these two cov-
ers. A third cover carried on this flight (ad-
In a recent article 'First Moscow North dressed to a Mr. Nikalansky, c/o Amtorg Trading
America Flight 1939' in the Airpost Journal (60 Corp.) was noted in a recent exhibit; this cover
(10): 344-349, 1989), I described the events of had registration #26.
the historic Transatlantic Flight from Moscow to Following publication of this article, Mr. Tho-
Miscou Lighthouse in New Brunswick, Canada. mas Knapp of New York provided a photocopy
This article included a description of the Roose- of a cover in his collection to a Mrs. C. N. ll'in,
velt cover prepared by the pilot plus other postal c/o Amtorg Trading Corp., with appropriate com-
items carried on this flight, memorative franking and the Moscow/Miscou
Lighthouse postmarks. The Moscow
registration number was #23. Provided
SmA all cards/covers were consecutively reg-
O| __. "i t i s istered, the number of postal items car-
ried on the historic flight can be further
"": -a expanded (#23-110, inclusive).
___ Before publication of my article 'The
A li .. -- Soviet Air Fleet Semi-Official Stamps'
S-.- J < c ^..- (Rossica Journal No. 113/114:8, 1990),
,,4 ... ,, additional installments of Krasin
.. /e ,M/ &Turchinskii's series on the Soviet Air
,a Fleet stamps/receipts appeared in "So-
viet Collector" (Nos. 24-26, 1987/88/
89). These authors have listed a number
of Air Fleet stamps not found in Speers'
Figure 1. Cover (front) to Franklin Roosevelt listing published in the Aero Philatelist some
from General Kokkinaki and carried on trans- years ago. Speers' detailed listing has long pro-
Atlantic flight. vided the basis for our classification and ordering
of these interesting semi-official stamps/receipts.
It has been stated repeatedly in auction cata- In addition, the city or district of origin of some
logs, based on information presented in the stamps, as listed by Speers, differ with those
American Air Mail Catalogue, that only 32 items described by the Soviet authors.
were carried on this flight. The Post Rider (no. 6,
p.5, 1980), apparently based on information
provided by the Soviet Amtorg Trading Corpora-
tion in New York City, states that 32 postcards
were sent to Amtorg officials, plus a few cards to
some important buyers; a total of -50 flown

Rossica Journal Number 115, 57
October 1990







O.D.V.F. Revisited Soviet Naval Mail 1941-1945

by
Ivo Steyn sends us this glorious registered Dr. Peter A. Michalove
cover from Tashkent to Germany, posted on 29
October 1925. Itwasn'tdispatchedfrom Tashkent
until 31 October, and reached Charlottenburg on Dave Skipton
9 November. In addition to 36 kopecks in post- once wrote me that mili-
age, it bears two fund-raising labels. At right is tary naval mail was just
a 1-ruble RSFSR label of the All-Russian Com- like field post, only
mittee for Invalid Aid, and at left, the piece-de- wetter. I can't argue
resistance, the 5-kop. ODVF label showing, with that.
Kalinin "sowing the seeds" of the Red Air Fleet.
This is evidently a Rostov issue, as it lacks a
printer's legend at bottom right. (See "Rossica" Organization of the Naval Post
S#113/114 for Adolph Ackerman's article on
Soviet Air Fleet semi-official stamps.) A separate, specifically naval postal organ-
ization, the Military-Naval Post (BoeHHO-MopcKal
S noTra, or VMP) came into operation in the first
A, few days after the German invasion of the Soviet
,.S l Union in June 1941. Under the VMP were a
J l~Bl series of postal units (BoeiHo-MopcKl e nonrOBue
S.. oTraeneHHH, or VMPOs). Located at main naval
"E ,- bases, the VMPOs coordinated a larger series of
S '. ,. subordinate Military-Naval Postal Stations
Z ). H. "(BoeHHo-Mopcme noqroBm e craimnm,orVMPSs),
which were responsible for the actual collection,
Sorting, and transportation of sailors' mail.
t By August 1941, there were a total of 49
/' \ VMPSs, distributed as follows according to
Sinegubov (1981):
12 for the Baltic Fleet
12 for the Black Sea Fleet
? t8 for the Northern Fleet
From "Khronika" in "Zhizn' i Tekhnika 8 f t
16 for the Pacific Fleet
Svyazi" No. 6, June 1924, p. 165. 1 f t
1 for the Caspian Flotilla
Translated by Dave Skipton 1 for the Caspian Flotilla
Over time, others were added to this list, as
Post-and-Telegraph Offices in the North-
s tee r ices i t e rt Sinegubov speaks of a VMPS serving the Volga
Flotilla during the battle of Stalingrad.
There are currently 250 post-and-telegraph Sailors' mail was collected on board ship and,
branch offices in the Northwest District. Re- when in port, delivered to the nearest VMPS.
cently, over 25% of them have been converted to From there, the mail was sorted, censored, and
post-and-telephone, wherein telegrams are trans- deposited in the regular Soviet mail stream.
mitted over the phone as well as money orders by Mail to sailors followed a more complex route,
telegraph. going first through a Military-Postal Sorting Point


Rossica Journal Number 115, 58
October 1990







O.D.V.F. Revisited Soviet Naval Mail 1941-1945

by
Ivo Steyn sends us this glorious registered Dr. Peter A. Michalove
cover from Tashkent to Germany, posted on 29
October 1925. Itwasn'tdispatchedfrom Tashkent
until 31 October, and reached Charlottenburg on Dave Skipton
9 November. In addition to 36 kopecks in post- once wrote me that mili-
age, it bears two fund-raising labels. At right is tary naval mail was just
a 1-ruble RSFSR label of the All-Russian Com- like field post, only
mittee for Invalid Aid, and at left, the piece-de- wetter. I can't argue
resistance, the 5-kop. ODVF label showing, with that.
Kalinin "sowing the seeds" of the Red Air Fleet.
This is evidently a Rostov issue, as it lacks a
printer's legend at bottom right. (See "Rossica" Organization of the Naval Post
S#113/114 for Adolph Ackerman's article on
Soviet Air Fleet semi-official stamps.) A separate, specifically naval postal organ-
ization, the Military-Naval Post (BoeHHO-MopcKal
S noTra, or VMP) came into operation in the first
A, few days after the German invasion of the Soviet
,.S l Union in June 1941. Under the VMP were a
J l~Bl series of postal units (BoeiHo-MopcKl e nonrOBue
S.. oTraeneHHH, or VMPOs). Located at main naval
"E ,- bases, the VMPOs coordinated a larger series of
S '. ,. subordinate Military-Naval Postal Stations
Z ). H. "(BoeHHo-Mopcme noqroBm e craimnm,orVMPSs),
which were responsible for the actual collection,
Sorting, and transportation of sailors' mail.
t By August 1941, there were a total of 49
/' \ VMPSs, distributed as follows according to
Sinegubov (1981):
12 for the Baltic Fleet
12 for the Black Sea Fleet
? t8 for the Northern Fleet
From "Khronika" in "Zhizn' i Tekhnika 8 f t
16 for the Pacific Fleet
Svyazi" No. 6, June 1924, p. 165. 1 f t
1 for the Caspian Flotilla
Translated by Dave Skipton 1 for the Caspian Flotilla
Over time, others were added to this list, as
Post-and-Telegraph Offices in the North-
s tee r ices i t e rt Sinegubov speaks of a VMPS serving the Volga
Flotilla during the battle of Stalingrad.
There are currently 250 post-and-telegraph Sailors' mail was collected on board ship and,
branch offices in the Northwest District. Re- when in port, delivered to the nearest VMPS.
cently, over 25% of them have been converted to From there, the mail was sorted, censored, and
post-and-telephone, wherein telegrams are trans- deposited in the regular Soviet mail stream.
mitted over the phone as well as money orders by Mail to sailors followed a more complex route,
telegraph. going first through a Military-Postal Sorting Point


Rossica Journal Number 115, 58
October 1990







(BoeHHo-noTrOBNu copTnpoBO'nii nyHKT, or style, from VMPS 1107, dated January 21, 1942.
VPSP). Here, mail addressed to military units Here, there is no identification of where this
wassortedaccordingtotheFPOorVMPS number VMPS was located, but the Baltic Fleet again
and routed to the location where that number was seems likely, in line with the use of numbers in
assigned. In the case of naval mail, letters were the low 1100s for that group.
forwarded to the appropriate VMPO and, through Figure 4 is a fine example of this type of cancel,
the VMPO, to the appropriate VMPS, and only this time also showing a naval registration ca-
then from the VMPS to the assigned ship and chet. Both the cancel and the registration mark
addressee. are for VMPS 1101, and the indication KBI( in the
Sinegubov also mentions that when military address again identifies this unit as being in the
ships were not otherwise occupied, they some- Baltic Fleet. The letter was mailed some time in
times served the civilian post by carrying mail to December 1941 (the date is unclear on the can-
the nearest VPSP. eel) to FPO 245, where it was backstamped on
December 10.
This letter was entitled to post-free service,
Cancellations of Naval Mail with only a 30 k charge for the registration. But
it is franked with 60 k, the cost of an ordinary
The earliest naval cancels of the war were the domestic registeredletter. Kabanov(1986) gives
old pre-war triangular military cachets. Leppa a clear illustration of naval registration cachets,
(1985) illustrates one of these on a cover from which cannot be too common.
Latvia dated June 22, 1941. This is the date of the In November 1942, a new type of cancel was
German invasion, and so is an old type, used introduced, reading "HOJIEBAR I O'ITA" (Field
before the establishment of the VMP. Post), indistinguishable from the land-basedFPO
After the invasion, circular dated cancels were units. This change was intended to enhance
introduced (as early as the end of June 1941) for security by not identifying naval units separately.
both the FPO and naval postal units. If the However, the numbers of individual postal units
continued use of the triangular-cancellation type remained the same, so collectors would do well
after June 1941 is uncommon, but at least known to look out for ordinary-looking covers from
on FPO mail, it has not been recorded at all to my FPO units such as 1001, 1004, etc. in this period.
knowledge on naval mail. Figure 1 shows the I have no examples of naval covers to illustrate
earliest dated naval cancel I have seen, and it this period, which brings up an interesting point.
reads, CCCP/MOPCKAlI nOWTA/HO. 1104(USSR/ In collecting Soviet field post of World War II, I
Naval Post/No. 1104). It was mailed October 23, have generally found the material from the later
1941, to Leningrad, where it arrived on the 26th. part of the war to be more common than the early
Figure 2 shows a postcard from Ehrevan to the covers. But in the area of naval mail,itis the early
same postal station 1104. It was mailed Novem- period that predominates. Perhaps this is be-
ber 23, 1941, and arrived February 13, 1942, cause, without an explicit naval indication, col-
when it received an arrival marking similar to the lectors have been slower to jump on them.
cancel of fig. 1. Specifically, this card is ad- Effective April 1943, all FPO and naval can-
dressed to a post office box at KBF 1104. The eels were again overhauled, creating a new pe-
abbreviation KBF stands for KpacHUi riod. FPO numbers (including those for naval
BajnTHmCHai .rnoT, or Red Baltic Fleet, and units) were uniformly given 5-digit iden-
identifies at least the general location of VMPS tifications, even if this meantonly addingleading
1104. The use of this number for the Baltic Fleet zeros to lowered-numbered units. But these new
is consistent with the numbering system dis- numbers appear only in manuscript addresses;
cussed below. the new cancellations from this time simply read,
Figure 3 is a letter with a cancel in the same IIOJIEBAH O'IOWA (Field Post Office), with no

Rossica Journal Number 115, 59
October 1990













1 /- *

,' t : -. ",







Figure 1. Earliest naval cancel observed.



ITOAR T







Ko y 7




.. ,i. ,:"i ;
Figure 2. Postcard from Erevan to station 1104.
K ....... ..................... ..............




.- -"................. -. ............ ....... .......... .








Rossica Journal Number 115, 60






October 1990
f






Figure 3. Letterfrom VMPS 1107.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 60
October !990






















Figure 4. Showing naval registration cachet.


Q nrOL-TOBAR KAPTOH -
CARTE POST f1
543






n UHMTE FPABMAbHblE. TO4HbE H PA360P'4Ii4gW AAPECA


2 "1.-
.- ., I 1. .6 ."


Figure 5. Postcard addressed to FPO 1107.


/





[^"C rYpc'.. "l









Figure 6. Reverse offigure 4 cover.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 61
October 1990







number. (Numbers were supposed to be retained Numbers of Naval Postal Units
only on cancels for registered mail, but I haven't
seen any registered pieces from this period.) We can identify the following numbers as re-
The use of these cancels lasted until the end of ferring to naval units. Among the numbers
the war. The transition to the new, unnumbered identified by Sinegubov and Osyatinskii, those in
type seems to have taken place practically over- the 1000s are VMPOs, and those in the 1100s are
night, as I have never seen one of the old, num- of the VMPSs (which were subordinate to the
bered cancels used after March 1943. Figure 5 VMPOs). I wonder if this was a consistent
shows a postcard from March 16, 1943, ad- numbering system. Further identifications from
dressed to FPO 1107. It arrived in May of that covers our readers may find would be very wel-
year and received a strike of one of the new-style come information.
cancels. Thus, we can identify this card as a naval Naval (FPO) Location Identified by
piece only on the basis of fig. 3 (from the earlier Number
period). Baltic FLeet
Figure 6 shows a censor mark on the reverse of 1001 Kronshtadt Sinegubov
the cover in fig. 4. Figures 1 and 3 also bear less 1002 Tallin Sinegubov
clear strikes of the same censor mark on the 1101 ? Figure 4
1104 ? Figures 1 and 2
reverse. Thus, the mark appears on all three of 1104 ? Figure 3 (butand
1107 ? Figure 3 (but
our covers originating from naval units, and I see above)
have not seen it on any other covers, so it appears 1109 Paldiski Sinegubov
to be an exclusively naval marking, recorded 1110 Kuressare Sinegubov
here from October 1941 through January 1942. Black Sea Fleet
The framed censor mark on fig. 2 and the 1007 Sevastopol', later
control number 78 with it may have been applied Novorossiisk Osyatinskii
when the card was mailed from Ehrevan, so it is 1130 Novorossiisk Sinegubovand
1132 Tuapse Sinegubov and
not likely a naval marking. Osyatinskii
After the war, the earlier, triangular military 1133 Poti Sinegubov
markings were reintroduced, and Leppl shows a Volga Military
usage from 1950. Figure 7 is another example, Elotilla
this one from Sevastopol', dated 1955. The 1169 Volga Flotilla Sinegubov
cachet reads, MaTpoccxoe/mcMo /BECITIATHO
(sailor's letter postfree). Numbers of Naval Postal hUits

S It also seems noteworthy that all
( ,JOa O 4 of the examples reported here are from
iofu .." & .. I .j, -. the Baltic fleet. Mail from other naval
0" U units must be very rare indeed.

aI --Jd" ,And finally, a big "Thank You!"
Xa'' -' j "- to Irving Baron for providing the cov-
.... ers for this article. Except for fig. 4,
., a CrA t. '- which is from my collection, all of the
. YW".U....d W.C IO U.U illustrations here are Irving's. That
SO gives him no mean collection of very
unusual covers.
Figure 7. Sevastopol', 1955.


Rossica Journal Number 115, 62
October 1990








References: stamp with the error corrected (Scott number
1. Kabanov, M. "Ob ispol'zovanii materialov 2067a).
voenno-polevoi pochty v filatelisticheskikh
razrabotkakh." Sovetskii Kollektsioner, No. 10. TA
24, 1986, pp. 3-15.
2. Leppii, August. ""Russian Fieldposts in the
Baltic States 1939-1941." Rossica, 106/107, 9
1985, pp. 24-31.
3. Osyatinskii, A. "Morskaya pochta osazh-
dennogo Sevastopolya." Filateliya SSSR, 9- Figure 1. Error Figure2. Erroronstamp.
1982, pp. 14-15.
4. Pantyukhin, V. "Kalendarnye shtempelya R
polevoipochtyvelikoiotechestvennoivoiny."
Filateliya SSSR, 8-1985, pp. 38-42. German
translation by Nina Aerni in Pochta, Heft 42, 95 1
March 1987, pp. 20-25.
5. Sinegubov, V. "Voenno-morskaya pochta v
gody velikoi otechestvennoi voiny." Filate- Figure 3. Corrected. Figure 4. Correct stamp.
liya SSSR, 9-1981, pp. 45-46.


Soviet Varieties Soviet Censorship: Some Additional
Notes
by Norman Epstein
by Ivo Steyn
M any varieties are catalogued by various
companies. An equal number of varieties re- rom my collection, I can report the fol-
mains uncatalogued. However, when the gov- lowing:
ernment makes an error, it simply re-issues the
stamp in its correct form. One such error is the The "roller" censor markings shown in Mr.
topic of this snippet. Shmuely's figs. 12 and 13 (Rossica# 112, pp. 17-
On May 26, 1958, the Soviets issued a stamp 41) are not the only subtypes of this class of
commemorating the communist Ministers Con- markings. There is at least one further type, also
ference on Communications held in Moscow, with eight lines in the "killer," the fourth from the
December 1957. The design contains the flags of top replaced with the text "PROSMOTRENO
the Eastern European countries that participated. VOENNOI TSENZUROI." However, the wavy
The error is in the flag of Czechoslovakia. The lines in the "killer" are of a different shape (with
flag of Czechoslovakia is tricolor (red, white and a characteristic double bump; mathematical for-
blue) with the color white on the top and red on mula for this available on request!), and the coat
the bottom. The initial issue of this stamp had the of arms is far bigger, completely filling the space
red and the white reversed. Figure 1 illustrates between the outermost wavy lines. It occurs on
the positioning of the error and fig.2 shows the three cards in my collection, with dates from
stamp with error (Scott number 2067). August and September 1941, all travelling to or
After realizing their error, the Soviet govern- from the Crimea. The color of the marking varies
ment re-issued the stamp in November 1958 with from grayish to violet.
the colors in their proper places. Figure 3 illus- I would certainly agree with Mr. Shmuely that
trates the corrected position and fig. 4 shows the censor markings from the "669 days of infamy"

Rossica Journal Number 115, 63
October 1990








References: stamp with the error corrected (Scott number
1. Kabanov, M. "Ob ispol'zovanii materialov 2067a).
voenno-polevoi pochty v filatelisticheskikh
razrabotkakh." Sovetskii Kollektsioner, No. 10. TA
24, 1986, pp. 3-15.
2. Leppii, August. ""Russian Fieldposts in the
Baltic States 1939-1941." Rossica, 106/107, 9
1985, pp. 24-31.
3. Osyatinskii, A. "Morskaya pochta osazh-
dennogo Sevastopolya." Filateliya SSSR, 9- Figure 1. Error Figure2. Erroronstamp.
1982, pp. 14-15.
4. Pantyukhin, V. "Kalendarnye shtempelya R
polevoipochtyvelikoiotechestvennoivoiny."
Filateliya SSSR, 8-1985, pp. 38-42. German
translation by Nina Aerni in Pochta, Heft 42, 95 1
March 1987, pp. 20-25.
5. Sinegubov, V. "Voenno-morskaya pochta v
gody velikoi otechestvennoi voiny." Filate- Figure 3. Corrected. Figure 4. Correct stamp.
liya SSSR, 9-1981, pp. 45-46.


Soviet Varieties Soviet Censorship: Some Additional
Notes
by Norman Epstein
by Ivo Steyn
M any varieties are catalogued by various
companies. An equal number of varieties re- rom my collection, I can report the fol-
mains uncatalogued. However, when the gov- lowing:
ernment makes an error, it simply re-issues the
stamp in its correct form. One such error is the The "roller" censor markings shown in Mr.
topic of this snippet. Shmuely's figs. 12 and 13 (Rossica# 112, pp. 17-
On May 26, 1958, the Soviets issued a stamp 41) are not the only subtypes of this class of
commemorating the communist Ministers Con- markings. There is at least one further type, also
ference on Communications held in Moscow, with eight lines in the "killer," the fourth from the
December 1957. The design contains the flags of top replaced with the text "PROSMOTRENO
the Eastern European countries that participated. VOENNOI TSENZUROI." However, the wavy
The error is in the flag of Czechoslovakia. The lines in the "killer" are of a different shape (with
flag of Czechoslovakia is tricolor (red, white and a characteristic double bump; mathematical for-
blue) with the color white on the top and red on mula for this available on request!), and the coat
the bottom. The initial issue of this stamp had the of arms is far bigger, completely filling the space
red and the white reversed. Figure 1 illustrates between the outermost wavy lines. It occurs on
the positioning of the error and fig.2 shows the three cards in my collection, with dates from
stamp with error (Scott number 2067). August and September 1941, all travelling to or
After realizing their error, the Soviet govern- from the Crimea. The color of the marking varies
ment re-issued the stamp in November 1958 with from grayish to violet.
the colors in their proper places. Figure 3 illus- I would certainly agree with Mr. Shmuely that
trates the corrected position and fig. 4 shows the censor markings from the "669 days of infamy"

Rossica Journal Number 115, 63
October 1990















...... ... .





TIYOTEOb MPMOH WTOBAoMPTO01o0A BPN HABPENAEM AAKHX CPAol


Ad ... ....ur ... ... .......f........


Figure 1. New roller type. (Simferopol' to Annyansk, 11 Sept. 1941.)



^^S^HF$IO4TOBAR KAPT04KA





.. .......... .. .... ...... ... ........... ........ ... .................. ......
CARTE POSTAL





.... .. .. .. .. .. -.. .. ., ........................ ............... ....
Ko.y I 1

............... ........... .......... ........... .. ..... .. .. ..
non bav aTEo n 0 T

om pa uu .. ....................... .......... ............ ............... ,


Figure 2. Mysterious number "247."

(between Molotov-Ribbentrop and Barbarossa) fallen during the first weeks of fighting?
are very scarce. I have only one example, Mr. Finally, in the category of "oddball markings",
Shmuely's fig. 12 in violet on a card to Germany, take a look at this card from Moscow (23-8-41) to
dated 9 January 1940. I have Mr. Shmuely's fig. Krasnoperekopsk, Crimea (2-9-41). Any guesses
13 on a card and a cover from 1941, black and about the odd gray circular marking "247"?
violet, respectively. The cover is addressed to
FPO 160, where it arrived, but it was sent back for
no obvious reason. Possibly the addressee had



Rossica Journal Number 115, 64
October 1990








The Rehabilitation of Stamps in the USSR

by R. Polchaninov

(This article first appeared in "Novoe Russkoe Slovo," 24-5-1970.
Translated from the Russian by Scott Allen)

The history of philately in the USSR be- collect stamps.
gins with the decree of the VTsIK's Central From 10 to 15 August 1946, an "Exhibition of
Committee for Famine Relief (Izvestiya VTsIK Soviet Postage Stamps" was held in Leningrad
#72, 20 March 1922), concerning the appoint- on the occasion of the 25th anniversary. This
ment of Comrade Chuchin as the Commissar for exhibition met with great success in Kiev,
Stamp Donations from the Central Committee Moscow, Minsk, Tbilisi, Erevan, Baku, and
for Famine Relief in Russia and abroad. Tashkent. The very few remaining "philatelic
In the lead article of the January 1924 issue of Mohicans" succeeded in interesting a great
"Soviet Philatelist", F. G. Chuchin wrote: number of new people, for whom a catalog of
"A year has passed since the recognition of stamps was published in 1955 by the SPA. This
philately on the part of Soviet authorities as a catalog had a small run of 20,000 copies.
secondary means of fighting against physical When comparing the 1955 SPA catalog with
and spiritual hunger of the Soviet republics' any other foreign catalogs, the intentional ab-
working class and for the material, intellec- sence of two categories of Soviet stamps is plain
tual, and moral betterment of children' lives, to see: errors and politically suspicious. Sud-
The year 1923 has gone down in history denly, by a decision of the SPA, existing stamps
forever as the actual first year that postage became non-existent.
stamps, banknotes, and paper money in Rus- A complete catalog of Soviet stamps from
sia could be legally collected. It became an 1921 to 1957 was published in 1958 with the
honored occupation with a definite purpose same small run of 20,000 copies. Some of the
and significance not only for children, but stamps which were not in the 1955 catalog were
also for the adult generations of our great rehabilitated.
country."
1924 was truly rich in events in the philatelic 1933
life of the USSR. In addition to the All-Russian
Society of Philatelists (VOF), the All-Union
Philatelic Association for Aid to Homeless Chil-
dren throughout the USSR was formed, and
finally there was the Filintern.
The journal "Soviet Collector" was shut down
in 1932. The Filintern and the VOF one day Scott No. 495. Scott No. 491.
somehow ceased to exist of their own accord, and
the Soviet Philatelic Association (SPA) became In the 1955 catalog, there were 19 stamps listed
an enterprise which existed to sell Soviet stamps in the ethnographic series, but 21 were actually
within the Soviet Union and abroad. Philatelic issued. In the 1958 catalog, the 7-kop. stamp
life in the USSR came to a standstill, but did not (Scott 495) was rehabilitated and included in the
die. The last All-Union Philatelic Exhibition was series under the 6-kop. stamp's number (459) by
held in Leningrad, April 1933. placing a "0" in front (i.e., (0459) VIII.) in front
It is said that Stalin viewed adult philatelists of the number and the numeral VIII behind the
with suspicion, but pioneers were permitted to parentheses. However, the 3-kop. stamp (Scott

Rossica Journal Number 115, 65
October 1990








491) depicting Crimean Tatars continued to be 1944
"non-existent" for political reasons.

1943








Scott Nos. 921-922.

Scott Nos. 909-910. United Nations Day (Scott 921-922). Both
stamps received the number of the preceding
The 125th anniversary of the birth of series with the additional preceding "O", fol-
LS.Turgenev (Scott 909-910). Both stamps lowed by the Roman numerals "XIV" and "XV."
received the number of the preceding series with Because these stamps also showed the flags of
the additional "0" in front of the numberfollowed the USSR, Great Britain, and the US, it's pre-
by the Roman numerals "X" and "XI." A foot- sumed that was the reason for their removal.
note explained: "In the quotation on the stamps of A supplemental catalog, "USSR PostageStamps
this issue, the word "CIPABEAJIHBHH" 1958-1959" appeared in 1960. It was distributed
(just) was mistakenly printed. It should have by the Main Philatelic Office of the Ministry of
been "IIPABAHBUf" (truthful). Culture of the RSFSR. (30,000 printed). In-
cluded in this book was a stamp issued in 1958 to
1943 commemorate the Moscow Conference of Min-
isters of Communication from the socialist coun-
tries (December 1957). Listing the stamp under
#2198, but without its own number, the catalog
stated that the first issue contained an error. On
it the Czech flag was printed upside down. Even
though this was known by Soviet and foreign
philatelists, the Main Philatelic Office, which
Scott Nos. 907-908. had distributed the catalog, for some reason
decided to remain quiet about it.
The Teheran Conference (Scott 907-908). In 1970, the new "Catalog of USSR Postage
Both stamps received the number of the preced- Stamps 1918-1969" was published by the Cen-
ing series with an "0" added in front of the tralPhilatelic Agency "Soyuzpechat'." (100,000
numbers, followed by the Roman numeral "XII" printed). In this catalog, the 3-kopeck stamp of
and "XIII." It is thought that the reason for the the 1933 ethnographic series was partially reha-
removal of these stamps from the 1955 SPA bilitated. The inscription "Crimean Tatars," was
catalog was the presence on the stamp of the simply noted as "Tatars" in the catalog, but the
American and British flags together with the So- error stamp of 1958 with the inverted Czech flag
viet flag. was not included. Besides that, the 1960 stamp
honoring Lenin's 90th birthday was titled as
before "V. I. Lenin among children around the
New Year's tree," although it was known that

Rossica Journal Number 115, 66
October 1990







there was only the 'Christmas tree' in Lenin's Lithuania, Where Have You Been?
time and that the New Year's trees appeared
during Stalin's regime. A year before the 1970 by Ivo Steyn
catalog a "concise handbook" USSR Postage
Stamps (1918-1969)" by D. Karachun and V. On March 11th of this year, the Lithuania
Karlinskii appeared. It was published by Socialist Soviet Republic announced the re-
"Svyaz'," with a run of 40,000 copies. In this sumption of its independence and changed its
book, despite its small size, room was found for name to Lithuanian Republic. While it is still far
the two 1958 stamps issued in honor of the from certain that this declaration will result in a
Moscow Conference, both the error and the cor- lasting secession from the USSR, and the recrea-
rected stamp. The "handbook" simply stated, tion of a truly independent Lithuanian state, the
"first issue: center flag red over white. Second Lithuanian Republic has already left its first
issue: center flag white over red." traces in our spheres of interest.
Concerning the 1960 Lenin stamp, the infor- At the time of the declaration, the postmarks
nation is short and to the point, "V. I. Lenin used in the Lithuanian SSR were of the Standard
among children." Only the Crimean Tatars were type of the Soviet Union. A typical example
not as lucky. They were noted only as "Tatars." reads "KEL'ME LIT.SSR (in Cyrillic) KELME (in
The most interesting thing about all of this is Latin)" along the lower edge, with "SS(hammer
that the "reinstated" information on these Soviet and sickle)SR" at the top of the postmark.
stamps, which D. Karachun and V. Karlinskii The first steps of the Lithuanian Republic
published in 1969, was, within a year, "unin- have been aimed at these postmarks. Figure 1
stated" again in the "Catalog of USSR Stamps shows an ordinary letter from Utena. The post-
1918-1969." mark has been altered: the "SS(hammer and
Such practices undermine the authority of the sickle)SR" has been excised, as has the "SSR" in
Central Philatelic Agency, in which neither So- the Cyrillic part of the text. The handstamp
viet nor foreign philatelists are able to trust. "Lietuvos Respublikos/PASTAS" is in black,
but also has been seen in violet, and from many
other offices.
The aforementioned postmark of
S-Kel'me has been altered in a
ict;Lvo "e pubUik-, slightly different way: the "R" of
P ^ ; A s "SSR" has been left intact, leav-
ing a Cyrillic abbreviation
/X'.,duA/-A[ -,-, "LIThuanian Republic" (see fig.
7t/4i, 6, 2).
The alteration has not been con-
/4o,, A c.. o. o., -fined to postmarks: registration
f. ,r cachets also have been treated, as
shown in fig. 3, an example from
Tytuv6nai.
Apparently, Lithuanian postage
stamps are planned, but for inter-
nal use only: as Lithuania has not
been a member of the UPU since
1940, such stamps would not be
Figure 1. Altered postmark. accepted outside Lithuanian bor-
ders.

Rossica Journal Number 115, 67
October 1990


















-uy -,,--,- ,- -&..-,-- -x-,--,.-,.




Figure 2. Kel'me alteration.




B 1





SHerrn l.J.Steyn
i PostbuB 16636
1001 RC Amsterdam
VASARIO 16
,_____________ Nederland / ./

-^MN-i -|/

Figure 3. Altered registra-
tion cachet.
........... .. .. .... ..... ---. cach




A postal stationery envelope with an imprinted
stamp in a new design, with a value of 5 kopecks,
has been issued in a print run of one million. The i
imprinted stamp and the illustration are printed in
dark green, with yellow for the crest on the tree. .
Like the proposed stamps, it is for internal use
only. Figure 4 shows an example. The envelope .- --
exists in at least two versions: with and without
the text "Siunciama Lietuvoje!" on the back flap.

Siuniama Lietuvojel

Figure 4. Showing envelope andflap text.


Rossica Journal Number 115, 68
October 1990








The Rossica Library Over a period of years Mr. Belkin labori-
ously hand-copied a mass of imperial postal
information from sources like "Laws"
(mentioned above), the Post-and-Telegraph
Journal, and a number of other official
publications contained in the Popov Mu-
Sseum of Communications. Mr. Belkin's
9 monumental efforts in extracting a wealth
of data on ship mail, the Telegraph, rail-
roads, field post, mail categories and the
like, are truly a labor of love, and we thank
him for his generosity. While the note-
books themselves can't be loaned out, we
by David Skipton intend to publish translations of many items
in the Rossica Journal, and of course xerox
copies of specific sections can be repro-
The Library is having another excellent year duced upon request. (Unfortunately, there
for orders and loans, although acquisitions are is some water damage at the bottom of most
down from the last report. As of July 1, 1990,23 pages.)
Rossica members have used the Library since 3) Mike Renfro's "Russia: Offices Abroad"
BALPEX '89, for a total of 86 titles borrowed or exhibit. A fine selection of material from
copies purchased. Response to the exhibit copy this difficult area, and well worth a look.
program has been very gratifying, and I hope to XEROX, loan out or duplicate purchase.
increase the holdings further. Since the appear- 4) Gordon Torrey's international vermeil
ance ofRossica#1 13/114, there has been a"mini- exhibit of "Russian Post Offices Abroad."
boom" of orders as members take a look at other A mass of rare and unique covers and can-
members' exhibits. Save for Adolph Acker- celled stamps, filling 7 frames. XEROX,
man's Soviet Airmails and George Shaw's Infla- load out or duplicate purchase.
tion displays, the shelves hold only imperial- 5) George Shaw's "St. Petersburg Geometric
period and Allied-Intervention copies. Any mem- Cancellations" exhibit From I to XXXI
bers with good exhibits of Soviet material who'd (less XVII), it's all here, on a wide variety
like to donate or sell a copy to the Library, step of stamps and covers. XEROX, loan out or
forward! duplicate purchase.
6) "Riga. Die Postgeschichte bis 1919,"by V.
ACQUISITION HIGHLIGHTS. Marcilger, 2 vols., Heide, FRG, [n.d.]. An
exhaustive treatment of Riga cancels and
1) "Sobranie zakonov po Upravleniyu Poch- postal history. ORIGINAL, hardbound, 2
tovomu," (Compendium of Laws Concern- vols., single-side printing. Loan out only.
ing the Postal Administration), vols. 5-6, 7) "Pochta i pochtovye mark Armenii" (The
St. Petersburg, 1849-1852. This completes Post and Postage Stamps of armenia), by
the Library's run of "Laws," bringing us up Kh. Zhakiyan and S.A. Saltykov, "Asias-
to the year 1849. MICROFILM, loan out tan,", Ehrivan, 1988. A 226-page effort
or duplicate purchase. that provides detailed information on a
2) The Belkin Notebooks. To member Daniel rather neglected field. Hardbound ORIGI-
Levandowsky we owe a resounding "thank NAL, loan-out only.
you!" for his help in obtaining 7 notebooks 8) "Spisok pochtovo-telegrafnykh predpriy-
from Mr. Valentin G. Belkin of Leningrad. atii SSSR. Pochtovaya chast'" (List of

Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 69







Post-and-Telegraph Enterprises of the your first loan request for an area rather than a
USSR. Postal Section), NKPT, Moscow, specific title, please include a 3x5 card with your
1924. The first Soviet effort to provide name, address, which languages) you command,
postmasters with a listing of all postal es- and any other information you think might help
tablishments, and a must for the early Soviet- the Librarian in searching for materials. That
period postal historian. MICROFILM, way, the necessary information will always be at
loan out or duplicate purchase. (My thanks hand, and this and future Librarians need not rack
to Howard Weinert for obtaining this copy their brains trying to remember which member
from the Library of Congress.) reads what languages. The idea is logical and
9) "State Paper Money of RSFSR & USSR, seems obvious, but the fact that it never occurred
1918-1961," by D.A. Senkevich, Moscow, to me suggests that perhaps the brain could do
1989. A joint Soviet-West German ven- with more racking!
ture, this gloriously-produced book is writ- To those who have donated material to the Li-
ten in Russian and English, with a mass of brary (Adolph Ackerman, Valentin Belkin, Dale
high-quality COLOR photos. It includes Cruikshank, Norman Epstein, Leon Finik, Ana-
state-issued bills, coupons, treasury notes, tolii Kiryushkin, Daniel Levandowsky, Philip
bonds and even surrogate money. Cer- Robinson, George Shaw, Ivo Steyn, Joe Taylor
tainly one of the finest Soviet catalogs ever and Gordon Torrey), many thanks!
produced, and indispensable to the Russian
scripophilist. Hardbound ORIGINAL,
loan out only. (With thanks to Leon Finik Reviews
for the donation of this magnificent book.)
10) "Russland. Spezial Sammlung des Barons "Raznovidnosti pochtovykh marok Rossii -
Scharfenberg," Berlin, 1924. In Rossica Katalog" (Postage Stamp Varieties of Russia),
#113/114, this title was listed in xerox, but by A.G. Maiorov. "Radio i Svyaz'," Moscow,
now, thanks to the generosity of Ivo Steyn, 1989. Paperback, 3000 copies printed, 96 pp.
the Library boasts an original. Un-
fortunately, its spine is in delicate health, as
a previous owner apparently had no idea or
appreciation of its rarity and treated it
roughly, but now that Ivo has rescued it for nTroux
posterity it will be retained as a back-up in Nap
case the xerox copy is lost. ORIGINAL, POCCHH
no loan out.

The Library's xerox copy of Khrushchov's
1884 "Essay on the Yam and Postal Establish-
ments..." has acquired the three postal maps it
was missing, thanks to Dale Cruikshank, who
found a second original in California. The maps Serious collectors of imperial-Russian stamps
show postal routes during the reigns of Aleksei will find this work useful and, armed with a stout
Mikhailovich, Peter the Great, and his successors dictionary and a nodding acquaintance with
up to Catherine the Great. A welcome addition Russian, relatively easy to use. It covers every-
for the early Russian postal history buffs. thing from the first issue of 1857 to the 26th issue
I am also indebted to Ms. Rachel Ammann of of 1919. Mr. Maiorov's numbering system is
Wylie, Texas, for her suggestion concerning basedon the Lobachevskiicatalog (Englishtrans-
members' library requests. When you submit lation published in Rossica Nos. 94/95, 96/97,

Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 70







98/99, 100/101 with errata in# 104/105), as is the the millennium of Christianity in Russia and
valuation system, wherein the basic unit a 1908- Ukrainian wooden churches in philately are out-
issue 7-kopeck stamp in good condition is standing topical articles and cover the subjects
assigned a value of "1." As the 7-kopeck is well. Both articles are continued in the next
currently at 1/2 French franc in the Yvert catalog, edition.
the necessary calculations for cost and relative Andrew Gregorovich presents us with a very
rarity can be made from this book's price guides. nice article, including illustrations, on the first
The reader should prepare for disappointment in Canadian usage of the Ukrainian Icon on their
the quality and number of photographs. A fair stamps. The illustrations cover the topic very
number of varieties are illustrated, but often not well.
even the eye of faith will allow one to derive Andrew begins a two-part article on pre-stamp
much of any use from them. The strength of this and stampless mail from the Carpatho-Ukraine.
book lies in the descriptions only. This is an outstanding postal history article and
If your object is to collect more than just the the illustrations are more than substantial.
basic stamp types and denominations, then you Andrij Solczanyk begins a three-part series
ought to have this book on your shelves. With entitled "Postal Issues with Ukrainian Musical
only 3,000 copies printed, though, it will be Connections." He has divided his presentation
difficult to obtain. We can hope only for a second into six parts and covers the first two quite ad-
edition on a larger scale. mirably in this issue. The six parts are:
David M. Skipton 1. Ukrainian Composers
**************************** 2. UkrainianPerformers
3. Non-Ukrainian Composers
Ukrainian Philatelist, Vol. 36 No. 1 (55), 1989. 4. Non-Ukrainian Performers
Journal of the Ukrainian Philatelic and Numis- 5. Ukrainian Musical Instruments
matic Society, ed. Dr. I. Kuzych, P.O. Box 8363, 6. Musical Institutions/Theater
Alexandria, VA 22306-8363
Gary A. Combs
YKPAiHCbKMM
HCDIAATEAICT -""""""""'"""-"*
UKRAINIAN
PHI LATE IST YAMSHCHIK (The Post Rider), No. 25, Dec.
1989. The Canadian Society of Russian Phi-
lately, Box 5722 Station 'A', Toronto, ONM5W
1P2, Canada.


if1K

CA4Af 37 CANA DA 43

*"^^^^^^ ~------ -- --|I t t


This issue contains several articles for the .a"
Ukrainian topical collector and an excellent arti-
cle for the postal historian.
Ingert Kuzych's article on the stamps covering

Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 71








This issue begins with an editorial on interna- Australia, all flown on the Irkutsk-Moscow-
tional judging, immediately followed by a re- Berlin-London route, and a 1919 cover from
printed article on the "importance" factor in ex- Kolchak-controlledSiberiato Sydney; "Returned
hibiting internationally, a hot (or at least heated) Mail From the Soviet Union," by P.E. Robinson;
topic at the present. Ivo Steyn contributes a study "Comments on Expertising Marks," by George
of Civil War period Siberian postal rates, based Werbizky; "Stampshow '89 Australian Na-
upon known information and reconstructed in- tional Philatelic Exhibition"; "The Soviet Phila-
formation from existing covers. P.J. Campbell telic Association," by E. Rombaut; "Russian
checks in with another of his well researched ProvisionalPostinCrete-OverprintorC.T.O.?,"
thematic pieces, this on the ship "Earl Grey," a by D.W. Johnson; "The Adventures of No. 15
Canadian vessel that was turned over to the Squadron," by Peter Collins; "Kherson District
Russians at the start of WWI. The regular feature 1922 Provisionals," by Robert Taylor; "A Card
"Correspondence with Canada" details a cover from Revel," by Rev. L.L. Tann; "A Space Pi-
from the Russian office at Constantinople. Alex oneer Valentina Tereshkova," by D.W. Gal-
Artuchov's continuing series on the Zemstvo lagher; "The Apothecaries' Post," by P.E. Robin-
posts covers Kherson and Kholm in this issue, son; "Provisional Lettercard" (10k surcharge on
The largest piece is Andrew Cronin's article on 7k Romanov lettercard), by A.R. Marshall; "Book
Moldavia, covering Romanian Moldavia, the Review of 'Postal Censorship in Imperial Rus-
ASSR (prior to 1940) and the Soviet Republic. sia'," by Norman Banfield (includes 5 illustra-
There is much detailed information here. The tions and descriptions of censored covers in the
issue includes short articles on the "C.I.B."St. author's collection); "Siberia 1901," by N.R.
Petersburg cancel, an inward card to Russia from Banfield (excerpts from "The Real Siberia,"
the Ionian islands, a warning on forgeries and the 1902); "Book Review 'Russian Postmarks: An
usual "Philatelic Shorts" (notes from collectors), Introduction and Guide," by Terry Archer, and
literature reviews and adlets. "New Issue Details."
M. R. Renfro A fine issue covering a lot of ground. Our
*************************** hearty compliments to Messrs. Marshall and
Archer!
"Pochta. The Journal of the Australia & New David M. Skipton
Zealand Society of Russian Philately," #7, De- . . . . .
cember 1989. Dr. Ross Marshall, ed., P.O. Box
7, Otorohanga, NZ. Subscription price: NZ $30 Ukrainian Philatelist, Vol. 36 No. 2 (56), 1989.
(surface), NZ $45 (airmail).

7 YKPAiHCbKMA
(DIAATEAICT
UKRAINIAN
THE IPH ILATELIST
JOURNAL
AUSIURA Lt
NEW 2EkAXD
SOCIETY OF Bc s-
HUIICTY \,




Contents of this issue include: "Correspon-
dence Russia, Australia & New Zealand," fea-
turing 3 Soviet covers from Irkutsk to Sydney .. -

Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 72








The articles offered in this issue are primarily "The Postage Stamps of Russia, 1917-1923.
continuations of articles started in the previous Volume 3. The Armies and Post Offices, Parts
issue. 16-18: Russian Post Offices in the Levant and
Ingert Kuzych concludes his article on the White Armies," by Dr. R.J. Ceresa. Cambridge
stamps covering the millennium of Christianity Printing Services Ltd., January/March 1990.
in Russia with a listing of some cancellations Copies available for 21.50 or $37 from the
observed on the subject. Featured in this issue author at "Fairview Cottage, Quarry Lane, Gor-
also is the conclusion to his article on the Ukrain- sley, Ross-on-Wye, HR9 7SJ, England.
ian Wooden Churches. Mr. Kuzych ends the
article by presenting two meter cancellations that
THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF
bear a picture of the churches. RUSSIA 1917- 12
An article written by L. Stepkovskii, first e "waQ
published in Filateliya SSSR and translated by U THE AMESAPOSTO
John-Paul Himka for the journal, deals with of-
ficial documents covering the subject of mail
transport in the Ukraine in the late 18th and early
PARTS 1 -18
19th century. It is an excellent postal history OFFICES ,
article and well written. The map provided
greatly enhances the reader's ability to grasp the
subject.
Ingert Kuzych covers the 175th anniversary of N ..,. ......
the birth of Taras Shevchenko in his listing of
recent stamps with the picture of Shevchenko on This is the concluding section of Dr. Ceresa's
them. In addition, he has researched the Nomen- Volume 3, and includes:
clature Internationale des Bureau de Poste for a lengthy table of contents (a lot of ground
1977 and produces a listing of cities that have covered in its 184 pages);
been named after Shevchenko. Chapter 1: Russian Post Offices in the Le-vant
Mr. Solczanyk presents the second installment (from the 1900 issue on), covering both the
of his series "Postal Issues with Ukrainian Musi- general R.O.P.I.T. stamps and each of the
cal Connections." In this issue he covers parts city issues;
three and four. Chapter 2: Forgeries of Overprints of Rus-
Andrew Cronin concludes his classic study on sian PO's in the Levant;
the pre-stamp and stampless mail from the Car- Chapter 3: The Bogus Ukrainian R.O.P.I.T.
patho-Ukraine. Many nice illustrations. Issue of 1918;
Ivo Steyn, Norman Banfield and Ingert Kuzych Chapter 4: Russian Levant Fantasies;
explore the 'KRAG" machine used to automate Chapter 5: White Russian Army Issues;
postal cancellation from 1906 to approximately Chapter 6: Western Army Issues;
1923. This is an outstanding article and a must Chapter 7: Miscellaneous Occupation Issues,
for all philatelists interested in this era. including the General Miller stamps, the
Smiltene Provisional, Northern Karelia is-
Gary A. Combs sues, the (German) Dorpat emission of 1918,
Tallin Provisional Overprints (Eesti Post),
Polish First Corps Issues, and Red Army
occupation of Vil'na in 1919;
Chapter 8: Miscellaneous Issues, with the
bogus Russian Turkestan (first and second
issues) and North Ingermanland stamps;

Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 73







Chapter 9 : Check List of Genuine Issues the best in the series to date, and comes highly
(genuine in the sense that the questionable recommended to forgery, cinderella and "just
and bogus stamps included here are the plain stamps" collectors.
"originals"), with price estimates; Dave Skipton
Chapter 10: Check List of Forgeries, with
price estimates.
"Levant and White Armies" was produced on "Filatelistu Draugijos Lietuva Biulentenis"
a Macintosh computer, and the results are a (Lithuanian Philatelic Journal) No. 1 (208),
tremendous improvement overprevious volumes 1990. Subscriptions at $10 per year from the
and parts. Text is in columnar format with left- editor, Alex Zakas, at 5723 S. Merrimac Avenue,
and right- justification, giving this work a much Chicago, IL 60638.
more professional appearance; typos have been
reduced dramatically, and the author has sup-
plied very clear drawings to compare genuine
features with fake. The book is very readable,
and compliments are due Dr. Ceresa for his
research.
The only chapter with which I might take ex-
ception concerns the "bogus" Ukrainian
R.O.P.I.T. issue of 1918. Dr. Ceresa generally
"accepts the Stanley Gibbons Catalogue assertion i
(shared by Scott, Yvert and others) that "the
stocks of stamps were sold but they never served
any postal purpose, the only used copies having
been made to order." While it is incontestable A well-produced 40-page journal written in
that the overwhelming majority of these stamps Lithuanian and English. Articles are in one or the
in cancelled form are either CTO or forgeries, it other language, but not both, so readers with no
is also necessary to point out the existence of at command of Lithuanian will have to get help for
least two orders issued to R.O.P.I.T. ship cap- much of each journal. It encompasses philately,
tains (one of the orders is in the Norman Epstein numismatics, scripophily and"Lithuanica." This
collection), which would seem to establish the issue includes "June 1941 Lithuanian Local
legitimacy of these stamps. They set forth the Administration Postage Stamps Issues" by W.E.
regulations on how they were to be used, and to Norton (very interesting); "Veni, Vidi, Vici?" by
whom the would be issued. Moreover, an article Philatelicus Z. m. 1., concerning the currentphila-
in "Sovetskii Kollektsioner" # 14 of 1976 (pp. telic situation in Lithuania, and "My calling card:
28-40), by Professor A. Georgievskii, shows two Filmmaker and Philatelist," by Raimundas La-
used, albeit philatelic, covers, as well as a dupli- pas, about Kazimieras Motuzas, one of the pio-
cate of the order contained in Mr. Epstein's neers of the Lithuanian motion picture industry.
collection. The covers are very similar to those There are numerous other articles here, all are in
described as fake in "Levant and White Armies" Lithuanian, and I regret that they aren't included
by Dr. Ceresa, but the professor accepts them as in this review. Despite the language difficulties
legitimate. Given the high level of original posed for many of our readers, this is a first-class
research published in "Sovetskii kollektsioner," journal and a must for anyone interested in Lithu-
perhaps these "Ukrainian Levant" stamps are not anian philately. Perhaps in future issues one of
yet ready to be buried, our Lithuanian-reading Rossica members could
With the new, improved layout and upgrade in help us out with the reviews?
the quality of text, "Levant and White Armies" is Dave Skipton

Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 74








"The British Journal of Russian Philately" Ehkspeditsiya datestamp, which is in turn suc-
#68, 1990. Ed. Ivo Steyn. Annual subscription ceeded by A5B, a 1st Ehkspeditsiya hatchmarked
- 10 (U.S. 20). Information on journals can be double-circle canceller.
obtained by writing the Editor at Postbus 16636, Excluded from this work are the geometric
1001 RC Amsterdam, The Netherlands. numeral cancellers, the "FTOA" markings, and a
few others, but the many types which are in-
The British Journal cluded are covered in detail. The reader will need
of Russian Philately the Imhof, Dobin and Peel works close at hand to
68 follow the text closely it is heavy going in
places. There are very clear, useful tables through-
out, as well as numerous illustrations. Readers
will find the conversion chart between the Baillie
and Imhof system helpful, and they will decide
which approach (or both!) they favor. The lay-
out, typing and proofreading in this journal are
10V ^ Oexcellent If you collect St. Petersburg in a
serious fashion, you will need this as a reference.
""__ If you're not a member of the BSRP, you may still
purchase a copy, but better yet, join up and get
This issue represents a considerable departure your copies the easy way!
from past BJRPs, in that it is devoted entirely to
one article, "The Postmarks of St. Petersburg" by David S ipton
lan L.G. Baillie. Over 55 pages in length, the
article is based on a prodigious amount of re-
search, and addresses only the period from 1857 New Members
on; pre-adhesive marks are not included unless
they saw use after 1857. Mr. Baillie records Since we last listed the new members in No.
many cancels not found in Heinrich Imhof's 113/114, we have added 34 new members to our
pioneering work "Die Poststempelformen in St. rolls. The new members are heartily welcomed
Petersburg von 1766-1914" (1976), and his clas- and, if one of them happens to be your neighbor
sification scheme differs from that of Mr. Imhof. or a friend, personally welcome them to our
The article is divided into 7 sections: favorite hobby.
Ehkspeditsiya, otdyelenie, Town Post Central The new members are:
Otdyelenie, otdyel (1880 on), telegraph office,
railway stations, and other marks. Each section 1362 James W. Dean
is further divided into groups of cancel types, and 5836 Alexander St. NBU103
it is here that the divergence in approach between Tucson, AZ 85708 USA
Mssrs. Baillie and Imhof becomes evident. 1363 Albert M. Ash
Whereas Mr. Imhof adheres to an organizational P.O. Box 719
schematic (e.g., recorded postmarks for a given Ocean City, NJ 08226 USA
office, say, the 1st Ehkspeditsiya, presented in 1364 Douglas H. Sprott, Jr.
chronological order), Mr. Baillie presents organ- 171 Carleton Avenue
izational types (e.g., all ehkspeditsiyas, 1-10, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y OJ5
lumped together and differentiated by Canada
CANCELLER type). Thus, Type A4A, the 1st
Ehkspeditsiya's killer-bar obliterator, is followed
by A5A, a double-circle, bridged 3rd

Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 75







1365 John W. Salomon 1379 Horst Taitl
J.S. Company City Reisebiiro
13500 Midway Road, Suite 203 Dorbirn, Stiglingen 3
Dallas, TX 75244-5125 USA A6850 Dorbirn
1366 Frederick P. Lawrence Austria
1707 Terrapin Hills Drive 1380 George S. Miskin
Mitchelville, MD 20721 USA Maple House, 25 Redwood Close
1367 Cleve Boutell Ross-on-Wye
570 North Orange Grove Herefordshire MR9 5UD
Pasadena, CA 91103 USA United Kingdom
1368 D.A. Iworsky 1381 L.D. Mayo, Jr.
18 Maple Street P.O. Box 20837
Amesbury, MA 01913-1304 USA Indianapolis, IN 46220 USA
1369 John Pecoraro 1382 Mark W. Commiskey
102 A St. Andrews Way 751 NW 84th Avenue
Chesapeake, VA 23320 USA Pembroke Pines, FL 33024 USA
1370 William A. Whiteman, Jr. 1383 Kaj Hellman
314 Mullica Hill Road P.O. Box 1
Glassboro, NJ 08028 USA JF-02611 Espoo
1371 William T. Forsberg Finland
755 S. Wintergarden 1384 T.E. Page
Bowling Green, OH 43402 USA 30 Furze Lane, Purley
1372 John W. Ballard Surrey CR8 3EG
350 South 400 East (Suite 201) United Kingdom
Salt Lake City, UT 84111 USA 1385 Dr. George Murdoch
1373 Marge P. Gulyas 33 Slave Hill
1820 Jefferson Ave. Pine Grove Haddenham, Aylesbury
Marlton, NJ 08053 USA Bucks HP17 8AY
1374 Patrick Robitaille United Kingdom
1191 St. Gerard 1386 Thomas M. Mills
Ancienne-Lorette P.O. Box 221
Quebec G2E 2B8 Rexford, NY 12148 USA
Canada 1387 E. Joseph Dreger
1375 Norman Thomas Roule c/o Kep-Dre Associates
c/o American Embassy P.O. Box 1133
APO NY 09038-0001 USA Mt. Clemens, MI 48046-1133 USA
1376 Paul Buchsbayew 1388 Edmond Rombaut
Cherrystone Stamp Center Prins Boudewijnlaan #30
119 West 57th Street 2700 Sint Niklaas
New York, NY 10019 USA Belgium
1377 George V. Keller 1389 Leonard L. Kopp
239 Deckker Drive P.O. Box 282
Golden, CO 80401 USA Mound, MN 55364 USA
1378 Edward J. Rasmussen 1390 Don C. Richardson
73 County Center Road 608 Londonderry Road
White Plains, NY 10607 USA El Paso, TX 79907 USA


Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 76







1391 Ody J. Fish be insured or registered for your own protection.
P.O. Box 33 The regulations and prices are as follows:
Pewaukee, WI 53072 USA
1392 Boris Dmitrevsky Rossica adlets will have no limit per
13397 SW Devonshire Drive se, however, members are requested to
Beaverton, OR 97005 USA use good judgement.
1393 Antoine Speeckaert The price will be US $2 for adlets up to
J. B. Nowl6ei, 24A 25 words, and US 10 cents per word
B-1800T Vilvoorde thereafter.
Belgium Each adlet must include the name and
1394 Robert W. Bauswell address of the member placing the ad.
525 North 4th Street No general buy or sell ads will be ac-
Keokuk, IA 52632 USA cepted as adlets. The journal makes
1395 John Grabowski other provisions for strictly commer-
P.O. Box 10916 cial advertisements.
White Bear Lake, MN 55110 USA Adlet service is available to Rossica
members only.
One member has been re-instated. Please All adlets will be accompanied by a
update your records as follows: check for the correct amount made out
to Rossica Society.
814 Daniel Levandowsky All adlets and checks will be mailed to
9251 SW 76 Terrace Gary A. Combs
South Miami, FL 33173 USA 8241 Chalet Court
Millersville, MD 21108
We seem to have lost two members. When USA
issue #113/114 was mailed, two were returned
for either incorrect address or "moved, no - - - - -
forwarding address." If any member knows For Sale Imperial Russia Covers and stamps
the following two individuals, please ask them from H. Taitl, Stiglingen 3, A6850 Dombirn,
to write me (Gary Combs) and I will expedite Austria. Photocopies available upon request.
their journals. The two members are:
August Leppii Pre-1960 Russian area postal stationery. Sell,
George M. Magura trade or buy. Send SASE for list of Czarist sta-
tionery available at 60% Higgins & Gage.
Thanks in advance...Gary. Wanted. Soviet Inflation Covers, 1917-1923.
Advertising/propaganda cards and envelopes,
1926-1934. St. Petersburg geometric numeral
cancellations. George Shaw, 7596-J Lakeside
Member-to-Member Adlets Village Dr., Falls Church, VA 22042 USA.

Rossica cannot assume any liability for trans- Wanted. Covers. Used Abroad and imperial
actions resulting frommemberresponsesto adlets dotted numerals. Buy ortrade. Send description
nor get involved with mediating disputes, and price. M.R. Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara,
Members are cautioned to be fair in offering and CA 95055 USA.
in responding. Any material considered to be of
value by the sender sent through the mails should


Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 77







Wanted. Revenues and Cinderellas (Fiscals and Rossica members specializing in the various
all types of non-postal labels, vignettes, etc.). aspects of Russian philately.
Also correspondence and information on this
type of material for forthcoming catalog. An-
drew Hall, P.O. Box 62, York YO1 1Y1, United FOR SALE
Kingdom.
Included in the last journal were fliers for items
Wanted: Russian or its Satellite countries, hand the society has for sale. The response was so
drawn covers with space stamps, mint or used: great that we decided to include them as a part of
cover must contain hand written letter in English, this journal. All items listed can be purchased
from the artist, talking about his life. Letter can from any officer of the society or through the
be recent and addressed to me. Will purchase or journal editors.
exchange for the same from me. Artist Carl G. We normally send items at the "book rate" to
Mueller, 276 S. Benson #50, Upland, CA 91786. keep costs down. If this method is not satisfac-
tory, please include sufficient funds to cover the
Wanted: Moscow cancellations. On cover, loose type of postage desired.
stamps or CSQ. Send xerox, photo or item with
requested price. Gary Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct.,
Millersville, MD. 21108.


Expertization

One of the privileges of membership in Rossicart nIMea
is one free expertization per membership year.
Policy on these free expertizations is as follows: sSLuOP
Only one free expertization per mem- "nro
bership year.
"* The privilege must be used during the """
membership year. It cannot be accu- ,
mulated. The service was begun in the
1978 membership year, and prior mem- The Russian Post in the Empire, Turkey, China
bership in the Society has no bearing, and the Post in The Kingdom of Poland by
"* The item must be submitted on an offi- S.V. Prigara.
cial expertization form available from It is the standard upon which many studies and
Norman Epstein. conclusions have been established. Written in
"* Return postage must be included. 1941, the book is considered by many to be the
"* Only one item per expertization form. authoritative guide for Russian postal history.
Any serious collector of Russian postal history
Anyone wishing to avail himself of this service must have this book on his shelf. The translation
merely has to write our Treasurer and Chairman can be purchased from the society President,
of the Expertization Committee, Norman Ep- Treasurer, Librarian or journal editor at the fol-
stein, enclosing a legal size (4 1/4 x 9 1/2") lowing rates:
stamped envelope for an expertization form. Non-Rossica member $40 postpaid
When submitting material for free expertization, Rossica members: $35 postpaid
the owner must provide return postage for his Dealer rate: $24 per copy for orders of 5 or
material. Items submitted will be expertized by more.

Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 78







The Russian Posts in the XIX Century listing contains 55 pages and covers all articles
by K.V. Bazilevich (in English) that have appeared. An excellent
index to your library. The cost is US $5, which
Sis very reasonable. This list w ill enable you to
decide what back issues to purchase, if your set is
not complete. (Many of the issues can be ordered
through your editor.) Send check or money order
to:
George Shaw
THE RUSSAN POSTS IN THE NTU 7596-J Lakeside Village Dr.
bV K V $-&kh 7596-J Lakeside Village Dr.
Falls Church, VA 22042
USA


Imperial Russian Placename List, Reverse
Sort (1858-1915) compiled by David Skipton.

The original work, published in 1927 in Have you ever had a partial strike on a loose
Moscow, is today almost impossible to find. It is stamp or cover, where the first few letters of
one of the most detailed overviews of the impe- the placename are missing? If so, and you
rial Russian postal system to be found under one collect imperial Russian cancellations, this
cover, and contains a wealth of information and working aid is a must for you. It contains
illustrations. The translator has provided many 18,187 postal placenames gleaned from ten
illustrations not in the original. If you want to sources, ranging from the Prigara book to the
learn about the whys and wherefores of old official 1916 Postal List. The Reverse Sort is
Russia's communications system, this book will 379 pages long, xerox, printed on one side
oblige, only, and unbound. It contains an introduction,
Intended as a companion to the Prigara transla- an explanation of how to use the RS, com-
tion, the Bazilevich book will be a handsome piler's notes, a list of cancellation abbrevia-
addition to your shelf: 165 pages on semi-gloss tons, format explanation, a list of sources,
paper, casebound, with a purple-and-white dust province and oblast' trigraph listings, a cyrillic-
jacket. Members may order directly from the latin alphabet conversion chart, and 361 pages
President, Treasurer, Librarian or Journal Editor of cross-referenced placenames. A must for
of the society. Prices are as follows: the serious cancellation collector. Members
Non-Rossica member $50 postpaid may order directly from the President, Treas-
Rossica members: $45 postpaid urer, Librarian or Journal Editor of the society.
Dealer rate: $30 per copy for orders of 5 or Prices are as follows:
more. Non-Rossica member $45 postpaid
Rossica members: $40 postpaid (Overseas
orders please add $3 for surface mail on all
Compendium of the Table of Contents for orders.)
issues 44 through 111

George Shaw has compiled a list of all articles
that have appeared in the Rossica Journal since
the 1950s. All proceeds beyond the cost of
reproduction and postage go to the society. This

Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 79







ARMENIA JS~s
POSTCARD 3K surcharges, 30 kop. POSTAL COVERS
1 in black $50.00
Postal fee increase to 50 kop. -
POSTCARD with additional 2k, MAIL SALES
3k, 5k, 10k $145.00
Scott very scarce 31, 32, 36
Cancelled ERIVAN "COVERS OF THE WORLD"
Postcard to Georgia Similar scarce
FRANKING cancelled TIFLIS $245.00
We have stamps and covers from March to Postal History Specialties
August 1920. Prices not related to catalog. Military & War Covers
P.O.R. Maritime, Railroad & Air Mail
ON HAND, a very fine selection of: Locals & Cinderella
Russia Armies Postal Stationery
Baltic and Caucasian, etc. etc.
For a SPECIALIST
For illustrated catalog send $1.00 to:
S. SEREBRAKIAN, INC.
P.O. Box 448 THEO. VAN DAM
Monroe, NY 10950 P.O. Box 8809
Anaheim, CA 92812





Comprehensive Stock of Russian Material:
stamps
covers
errors
yearly units
collections
wantlist service
approvals
wholesale


Free price list
Loral
Box 521
Rego Park, NY 11374

Fax (718)271-3070

Rossica Journal Number 115,
October 1990 80
















BUYING AN) SELLING
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RUSSIAN POSTAL HISTORY

What Do You Collect?


I stock Russian Postal History items from the Imperial and
Soviet periods
including:
Airmails, Republics, Space, Zemstvos
Semi- Postals, Inflation, Stations, TPOs,
Intervention and Offices Abroad.

I also stock the Baltic Countries.
Let me know what you are searching for.
Material sent on approval.
I am always searching for material to buy and
offer top dollar.
Please include references or Rossica number.

Member: Rossica Society, Canadian Society of Russian Philately,
British Society of Russian Philately, APS, ASDA and
others.
Webster F. Stickney
7590 Windlawn Way
Parker, CO. 80134