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 Front Cover
 Officers and representatives of...
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 The Soviet postal index system...
 Additional postal convention between...
 Fake Russian offices abroad postmarks...
 99 bottles of beer by Gary...
 Russian America by V. Boiko, translated...
 Imperial Russian officers: Deltiology...
 Russian stamps used in the Aland...
 Zemstvo post office operations...
 The Romanov jubilee issue and the...
 Mysteries of the Boxer Intervention...
 Roman postal stationery proofs:...
 Esperanto return address label...
 Covers relating to Russia
 The works by Michael Ercolini
 She loves me, she loves me not...
 A bit of luck, a lot of observation...
 A puzzle by Michael Ercolini
 The Dutch connection: Early mail...
 President's corner by Dr. G. Adolph...
 Officer's meeting at BALPEX by...
 Treasurer's report by Gary...
 In the back room
 Membership Status
 New applicants for membership
 Member-to-member adlets
 Society publications for sale
 Submitting articles to the...
 Reviews of philatelic publicat...
 Advertising


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00037
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1993
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00037

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    The Soviet postal index system by George Shaw
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Additional postal convention between Prussia and Russia, translated by Dave Skipton
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Fake Russian offices abroad postmarks by Dr. Gordon Torrey
        Page 24
        Page 25
    99 bottles of beer by Gary A. Combs
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Russian America by V. Boiko, translated by George G. Werbizky
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Imperial Russian officers: Deltiology (part 6) by Dr. William Nickle
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Russian stamps used in the Aland Islands by Rev. Leonard Tann
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Zemstvo post office operations at the turn of the century by George G. Werbizky
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    The Romanov jubilee issue and the 1916 surcharge by Rev. Leonard Tann
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Mysteries of the Boxer Intervention period by Alfred F. Kugel
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Roman postal stationery proofs: A story of your friendly local stamp store by Rev. Leonard Tann
        Page 68
    Esperanto return address label by Gary A. Combs
        Page 69
    Covers relating to Russia
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    The works by Michael Ercolini
        Page 76
    She loves me, she loves me not by Gary A. Combs
        Page 77
        Page 78
    A bit of luck, a lot of observation by George G. Werbizky
        Page 79
    A puzzle by Michael Ercolini
        Page 80
    The Dutch connection: Early mail from Russia to the West by Ivo Steyn
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    President's corner by Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman
        Page 89
    Officer's meeting at BALPEX by Robert B. Bain
        Page 90
    Treasurer's report by Gary Combs
        Page 91
    In the back room
        Page 92
    Membership Status
        Page 92
    New applicants for membership
        Page 93
    Member-to-member adlets
        Page 94
    Society publications for sale
        Page 95
    Submitting articles to the journal
        Page 96
    Reviews of philatelic publications
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Advertising
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Cover 2
        Cover 3
Full Text

THE JOURNAL
of the

ROSSICA SOCIETY

of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY


No. 120 April 1993




















AWARDS

GOLD POLSKA 1960
CHICAGO-APS 1974 PRAGA 1962
VERMEIL MELUSINA 1963
SESCAL 1990 PHILATEC 1964
SPRING PEX 1992 WIPA 1965
SESCAL 1992 SIPEX 1966
LARGE SILVER PRAGA 1968
CAPEX-78 1978 APS-68 1968
SILVER WIPA 1981
OSTRAPA 1935 CHICAGOPEX 1991
ZEFIB 1937 STaMpsHOW-APS 1992
BEPHILA 1957 SILVER CERTIFICATE
EFICON 1958 EFIMEX 1968
TEMEX 1958 SOFIA-69 1969
INTERPOSTA 1959 BUDAPEST-71 1971
SICILIA 1959 BRONZE
BARCELONA 1960 WIPA 1933
UNIPEX 1960 PRAGA 1935






OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President: Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman, 629 Sanbridge Circle E., Worthington, OH 43085
Vice President: Dr. Peter A. Michalove, 307 S. McKinley, Champaign, IL 61821
Secretary: Robert B. Bain, 3132 Bayswater Ct., Fairfax, VA 22031
Treasurer: Gary A. Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville, MD 21108
Librarian: David Skipton, 50 D Ridge Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770
Auditor: Leon Finik, P.O. Box 521, Rego Park, NY 11374

Board of Directors:

Dr. Gordon Torrey, 5118 Duval Dr., Bethesda, MD 20816
Dr. James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park, IL 60304
Mike Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara, CA 95055


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

Washington-Baltimore Chapter: Dr. Gordon Torrey
Northern California Chapter: Mike Renfro
Midwest Chapter: Dr. James Mazepa
Great Britain: Dr. Raymond Ceresa

All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any
means without permission in writing from the journal editor. The views expressed by the authors in
this journal are their own and the editor disclaims all responsibility.


The Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc. is a non-profit, non-political organization incorporated in the state
of Maryland, USA, and affiliated with the American Philatelic Society. The Rossica Journal is the official periodic
publication of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc., published twice a year in April and October and mailed
"surface rate" from the Editor's residence. Price for non-members is US $10 per issue. For air mail delivery, please add
US $5. Subscriptions are available for US $30 which includes air mail postage. Available back issues are listed in the
section titled "In The Back Room." Submit articles for consideration directly to the Editor. Periodically other Rossica
publications are listed in the back of the journal. Information is available from the Librarian or Secretary.
Society dues are US $20 per year with a discount for early renewal. Membership applications can be obtained from
the Treasurer or Secretary at the addresses listed under "Officers of the Society."
Dealers wishing to advertise in the Journal are welcomed. Information pertaining to advertising can be found in the
back of the Journal.
Checks and money orders submitted should be made payable to The Rossica Society of Russian Philately and not
to any officer. Checks not drawn on a US bank must include an additional US $10 for processing fees. Sorry, no credit
cards are accepted. Please make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Ct.,
Millersville, MD 21108
USA

Copyright 1993
The Rossica Society

ISSN 0035-8363





THE JOURNAL OF THE
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


Journal No. 120 for April 1993

Editor : Gary A. Combs
Editorial Board: George Shaw, David M. Skipton, Howard Weinert

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Topic Page

ARTICLES

Editorial 2
The Soviet Postal Index System-George Shaw 3
Additional Postal Convention Between Prussia and Russia 13
-translated by Dave Skipton
Fake Russian Offices Abroad Postmarks-Dr. Gordon Torrey 24
99 Bottles of Beer-Gary A. Combs 26
Russian America-V. Boiko, translated by George G. Werbizky 33
Imperial Russian Officers-Deltiology (part 6)-Dr. William Nickle 36
Russian Stamps Used In The Aland Islands-Rev. Leonard Tann 39
Zemstvo Post Office Operations at the Turn of the Century 43
-George G. Werbizky
The Romanov Jubilee Issue and the 1916 Surcharge-Rev. Leonard Tann 55
Mysteries of the Boxer Intervention Period-Alfred F. Kugel 65
Roman Postal Stationery Proofs-A Story of Your Friendly Local 68
Stamp Store-Rev. Leonard Tann
Esperanto Return Address Label--Gary A. Combs 69
Covers Relating to Russia-Melvin M. Kessler 70
The Works-Michael Ercolini 76
She Loves Me, She Loves Me Not-Gary A. Combs 77
A Bit of Luck, A Lot of Observation-George G. Werbizky 79
A Puzzle-Michael Ercolini 80
The Dutch Connection: early mail from Russia to the West-Ivo Steyn 81
OF INTEREST TO MEMBERS
President's Corner-Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman 89
Officer's Meeting at BALPEX-Robert B. Bain 90
Treasurer's Report-Gary Combs 91
In the Back Room 92
Membership Status 92
New Applicants for Membership 93
Member-to-Member Adlets 94
Society Publications for Sale 95
Submitting Articles to the Journal 96
Reviews of Philatelic Publications 97
Dealer Advertisements and Information 102







Editorial

by Gary A. Combs

As the Society enters its 64th year, it is my Should we grant free membership to those
pleasure to report that the membership continues to individuals that cannot afford to pay the member-
increase, the journal enjoys a much wider circula- ship dues? Some societies do and others do not.
tion, and our reputation as a first-class society We recently refused membership to an indi-
remains untainted. However, some things never vidual implicated in selling fraudulent material
change. Until the recent turn of events rendered the internationally. Should those individuals suspected
Soviet Union into many smaller pieces, the Rossica of dealing in fraudulent material or otherwise con-
Society was persona non grata there. Those of you ducting a business in an unethical manner be ex-
who have copies of "The Soviet Collector" or posed in the Journal?
"Filateliya SSSR," count the number of occur- The Rossica Society is approaching some of
rences where even an article published in our jour- these inevitable crossroads. Decisions will be made
nal is referenced. True research and philatelic ex- relative to which path to take. Yet the officers are
pression were strictly channeled. Individuals re- only as capable as their individual persuasions
sponsible for these actions are still in place and as dictate unless the membership provides input. If
strong as ever in the philatelic community. Have you like the Journal, the Bulletin, the Library, or any
they changed their views towards the West? other function offered, please let us know. If you do
With the flood of philatelic material currently not like something we would also like to know. Is
pouring into the West, problems continue to surface there something that you feel would benefit the
about the authenticity of some of the material. The membership that is not currently implemented? In
"Moscow" squad is very prolific these days, I'm the future planned revision of the Constitution will
told. Yet the number of members capable of spot- likely be presented for your vote. Here again, please
ting this bogus material is apparently dwindling, read the current one and offer suggestions, con-
This phenomenon is adequately documented in the structive criticisms, anything. There are many ways
philatelic press--our member Peter Bylen writes to accomplish any goal-maybe you have the right
extensively for Linn's on the subject. If you should one. We are here to serve you and need your input.
encounter such items and are unable to find where According to our Librarian, the library is so full
it has been covered in the press, please let me know. it is ready to burst at the seams. Pieces of it have been
Another interesting subject is the sudden inter- parceled out to other members who function as
est in the specialized societies by individuals in the assistant Librarians. Yet usage of this asset is not
former union and Eastern Bloc countries. Is this widespread. One does not necessarily need to know
simply a closet door that was opened when the what we have to use the Library. If there is a topic
union disintegrated or acts of desperation from that you are interested in, write the Librarian. Dave
individuals in dire need of money? Many Western is working on an index, and a partial index should
philatelists are in contact with these individuals, and be available to the membership soon. The index is
some are adding to their collections quite hand- massive and everything is cross-referenced for user
somely. How is it that items can leave the union but convenience.
they have such a difficult time getting in? Sending Lastbut not least, if any member is notreceiving
anything of value into the former union republics is timely answers to questions asked of any elected
almost guaranteed not to reach the addressee. How official or has any problems related to the Society,
much of this information should be made available the President has informed me that he has an open
to the membership is a question with as many door policy at all times. Please let him know if you
different answers as the number of people asked to encounter problems.
respond. Any recommendations?
2 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








The Soviet Postal Index System

by George Shaw

Have you had difficulty establishing the ori- Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
gin of a Soviet cover? Would you like to be able to (ASSR) 20 autonomous regions in
identifytheRepublicanddistrictofmostpost-1970 Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, and Uzbek-
covers in a few seconds? This article will document istan, nominally homelands for specific
the postal index system of the former Soviet Union ethnic groups. Bashkiriya's population (3.9
as well as describe the relative scarcity of the codes million) is larger than five of the SSRs.
inthe early period (March-April 1992) of the newly 0 Autonomous Oblast (A. Obl.) 8 smaller
independent republics. A new system of codes to administrative subdivisions within Geor-
replace the twenty-year old index is being imple- gia, Russia, and Tadzhikistan focused on a
mented in late 1992. specific ethnic group.
In the December 1992 issue of the Rossica Autonomous Okrug (A. Ok.) 10 areas
Bulletin, Bruce Bain illustrated a few covers from similar to the Autonomous Oblasts but
the Voice Of America (VOA) contest last spring, generally smaller and found only in Russia.
which was initiated to bring a number of foreign Smaller units raions (regions), village
listeners to the United States to commemorate the soviets, towns and other urban settlements.
500th anniversary of Columbus' discovery of
America. Subsequent journal articles will cover Postal Index Sequence
some of the interesting postal history aspects of this
correspondence which contains in excess of 6000 The code is found twice on envelopes: lower
covers. Future articles will include usages for each left for destination and lower center for return
new republic, rates, local overprints, and revalued address. In the illustration "667003" is Kyzyl 3 in
stationery. the (Tannu) Tuvan ASSR within Russia. The map
shows the six broad regions. The code generally
Soviet Administrative Levels breaks down as follows:

The Soviet postal index system was introduced 1st digit 6 broad regions of the former
in 1969 and was based on the then current adminis- Soviet Union. The only numbers used are 1,
trative structure of the USSR. The relevant admin- 2,3,4,6, and 7. Index 500 was reserved for
istrative levels are: foreign mail.
2nd digit each broad region is broken
"* Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) 15 now down into subregions. Series 17x covers an
independent states. area northwest of Moscow including Tver'
"* Oblast (Obl.)-more than 100 districts with and Novgorod Oblasts. The numbering of
a major city as their center. These are 2nd digit regions is consecutive except for
subdivisions of all SSRs except for the 13x, which is reserved for expansion of
Baltic States, Caucasian Republics, and Moscow city.
Moldova. Oblasts were created in 3rd digit this level represents specific
Tadzhikistan and Turkmenistan after 1969 oblasts and krais. Typically, the oblast's
and are not reflected in the postal index chief city will receive one three digit index;
system. its surrounding areawill receive at least one
"* Krai 6 regions in the Caucasus or in more. In addition, each ASSR within the
Eastern Siberia that are similar to oblasts. Russian Republic has a unique code for its

Rossica Journal Number 120 3
April 1993








major city and another one for the rest ofthe tables list the number of covers per million people.
district. These percentages approximate scarcity. Surround-
4thdigit-thislevelgenerallyreflects urban ing regions are generally scarcer than their core
and rural raions, the level beneath oblast. cities. Turkmenistan is by far the toughest Repub-
All autonomous oblasts and okrugs can lic; the Baltic States were not included in the tally
only be distinguished at this level. This because they generally used their own stamps, not
degree of segregation is necessary to pin- Soviet ones.
point non-Russian ASSRs.
5th/6th digits further breakdowns by vil- SOURCES:
lages, blocks, streets, etc. Ministerstvo Svyazi Soyuza SSR, Glavnoe
Pochtovoe Upravlenie, SpravochnikPochtovoi
The tables included with this article list all Indeksatsyi: Tom I (A-M). Moscow: 1969.
three- digit postal codes in numerical sequence, as
well as the population of the region, and the number PrezidiumVerkhovnogoSovetaSSSR:Admini-
of covers found in the portion of the VOA corre- strativno-Territorial'noe Delenie Soyuznykh
spondence I was able to evaluate. In addition, these Respublik. Moscow: 1987.














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Code City Area Republic Population % Total # Covers/
(thousands) Population Covers Mil. Pop.

101 Moscow Russia 8614 3.1% 2 50.3
103 Moscow Russia 19
105 Moscow Russia 23
107 Moscow Russia 31
109 Moscow Russia 33
111 Moscow Russia 19
113 Moscow Russia 32
115 Moscow Russia 33
117 Moscow Russia 58
119 Moscow Russia 18
121 Moscow Russia 39
123 Moscow Russia 31
124 Moscow (not reported in Index) Russia 1
125 Moscow Russia 35
127 Moscow Russia 20
129 Moscow Russia 39
140 Moskovskaya Obl. Russia 6581 2.4% 35 25.2
141 Moskovskaya Obl. Russia 63
142 Moskovskaya Obl. Russia 44
143 Moskovskaya Obl. Russia 24
144 Moskovskaya Obl. Russia 5
150 Yaroslavl' Russia 634 0.2% 20 31.5
152 Yaroslavlskaya Obl. Russia 824 0.3% 9 10.9
153 Ivanovo Russia 479 0.2% 26 54.3
155 Ivanovskaya Obl. Russia 842 0.3% 3 3.6
156 Kostroma Russia 276 0.0% 4 14.5
157 Kostromskaya Obl. Russia 523 0.2% 2 3.8
160 Vologda Russia 278 0.0% 8 28.8
161 Vologodskaya Obl. Russia 1077 0.4% 0 4.6
162 Vologodskaya Obl. Russia 5
163 Arkhangel'sk Russia 416 0.1% 6 14.4
164 Arkhangel'skaya Obl. Russia 1138 0.4% 20 19.3
1647 Nenets Auton. Okrug Russia 50
165 Arkhangel'skaya Obl. Russia 2
167 Syktyvkar Russia 224 0.0% 6 26.8
168 Komi ASSR Russia 1023 0.4% 0 8.8
169 Russia 9
170 Kalinin (Tver') Russia 447 0.2% 15 33.6
171 Kalininskaya Obl. Russia 1204 0.4% 8 10.0
172 Kalininskaya Obl. Russia 4
173 Novgorod Russia 228 0.0% 5 21.9
174 Novgorodskaya Obl. Russia 524 0.2% 1 1.9
175 Russia 0
180 Pskov Russia 202 0.0% 5 24.8
181 Pskovskaya Obl. Russia 643 0.2% 5 10.9
182 Pskovskaya Obl. Russia 2
183 Murmansk Russia 432 0.2% 9 20.8
184 Murmanskaya Obl. Russia 686 0.2% 16 27.7
185 Petrozavodsk Russia 264 0.0% 3 11.4
186 Karel'skaya ASSR Russia 531 0.2% 2 13.2
187 Leningradskaya Obl. Russia 1655 0.6% 5 15.7
188 Leningradskaya Obl. Russia 11
189 Leningradskaya Obl. Russia 10
190 Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Russia 4393 1.6% 7 30.3
191 Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Russia 5
192 Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Russia 7
193 Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Russia 10
194 Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Russia 17
195 Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Russia 30
196 Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Russia 12

6 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Code City Area Republic Population % Total # Covers/
(thousands) Population Covers Mil. Pop.

197 Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Russia 13
198 Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Russia 27
199 Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Russia 5
200 Tallinn Estonia 478 0.2% N/A N/A
202 Estonia SSR Estonia 1088 0.4% N/A N/A
203 Estonia SSR Estonia N/A
210 Vitebsk Belarus 347 0.1% 11 31.7
211 Vitebskaya Obl. Belarus 1063 0.4% 18 16.9
212 Mogilev Belarus 359 0.1% 11 30.6
213 Mogilevskaya Obl. Belarus 931 0.3% 12 12.9
214 Smolensk Russia 338 0.1% 9 26.6
215 Smolenskaya Obl. Russia 811 0.3% 6 11.1
216 Smolenskaya Obl. Russia 3
220 Minsk Belarus 1543 0.6% 80 51.8
222 Minskaya Obl. Belarus 1572 0.6% 8 8.9
223 Minskaya Obl. Belarus 6
224 Brest Belarus 238 0.0% 7 29.4
225 Brestskaya Obl. Belarus 1195 0.4% 12 10.0
226 Riga Latvia 900 0.3% N/A N/A
228 Latvia SSR Latvia 1747 0.6% N/A N/A
229 Latvia SSR Latvia N/A
230 Grodno Belarus 263 0.0% 12 45.6
231 Grodnenskaya Obl. Belarus 894 0.3% 11 12.3
232 Vilnius Lithuania 566 0.2% N/A N/A
233 Lithuania SSR Lithuania 3075 1.1% N/A N/A
234 Lithuania SSR Lithuania N/A
235 Lithuania SSR Lithuania N/A
236 Kaliningrad Russia 394 0.1% 18 45.7
238 Kaliningradskaya Obl. Russia 463 0.2% 9 19.4
240 Bryansk Russia 445 0.2% 2 33.7
241 Bryansk Russia 13
242 Bryanskaya Obl. Russia 1028 0.4% 6 8.8
243 Russia 3
244 Sumy Ukraine 268 0.0% 1 3.7
245 Sumskaya Obl. Ukraine 1159 0.4% 2 1.7
246 Gomel' Belarus 488 0.2% 30 61.5
247 Gomel'skaya Obl. Belarus 1179 0.4% 11 9.3
248 Kaluga Russia 307 0.1% 15 48.9
249 Kaluzhskaya Obl. Russia 734 0.3% 15 20.4
250 Chernigov Ukraine 291 0.1% 1 N/A
251 Chernigovskaya Obl. Ukraine 1131 0.4% 0 N/A
252 Kiev Ukraine 2544 0.9% 14 N/A
253 Kiev Ukraine 2
255 Kievskaya Obl. Ukraine 388 0.7% 0 N/A
256 Kievskaya Obl. Ukraine 1
257 Cherkassy Ukraine 287 0.1% 0 N/A
258 Cherkasskaya Obl. Ukraine 1242 0.4% 1 N/A
260 Zhitomirskaya Obl. Ukraine 1256 0.4% 0 N'A
261 Zhitomirskaya Obl. Ukraine 0
262 Zhitomir Ukraine 287 0.1% 0 N/A
263 Lutsk Ukraine 185 0.0% 1 N/A
264 Volynskaya Obl. Ukraine 850 0.3% 0 N/A
265 Rovenskaya Obl. Ukraine 938 0.3% 1 N/A
266 Rovno Ukraine 233 0.0% 1 N/A
270 Odessa Ukraine 1141 0.4% 8 N/A
272 Odesskaya Obl. Ukraine 1478 0.5% 0
273 Odesskaya Obl. Ukraine 1 N/A
274 Chernovtsy Ukraine 254 0.0% 1 N/A
275 Chernovitskaya Obl. Ukraine 664 0.2% 1 N/A
277 Kishinev Moldova 663 0.2% 22 33.2

Rossica Journal Number 120 7
April 1993








Code City Area Republic Population % Total # Covers/
(thousands) Population Covers Mil. Pop.

278 Moldavia SSR Moldova 3522 1.3% 11 7.4
279 Moldavia SSR Moldova 15
280 Khmel'nitskiy Ukraine 230 0.0% 2 N/A
281 Khmel'nitzskaya Obl. Ukraine 1295 0.5% 0 N/A
282 Ternopol' Ukraine 197 0.0% 2 N/A
283 Ternopol'skaya Obl. Ukraine 955 0.3% 3 N/A
284 Ivano-Frankovsk Ukraine 225 0.0% 0 N/A
285 Ivano-Frankovskaya Obl. Ukraine 1157 0.4% 2 N/A
286 Vinnitsa Ukraine 383 0.1% 1 N/A
287 Vinnitskaya Obl. Ukraine 1564 0.6% 0 N/A
288 Vinnitskaya Obl. Ukraine 1
290 Lvov Ukraine 767 0.3% 8 N/A
292 L'vovskaya Obl. Ukraine 1919 0.7% 2 N/A
293 Ukraine 1
294 Uzhgorod Ukraine 111 0.0% 1 N/A
295 Zakarpatskaya Obl. Ukraine 1095 0.4% 13 N/A
300 Tula Russia 538 0.2% 12 22.3
301 Tul'skaya Obl. Russia 1325 0.5% 11 8.3
302 Orel Russia 335 0.1% 7 20.9
303 Orlovskaya Obl. Russia 528 0.2% 2 3.8
305 Kursk Russia 434 0.2% 9 20.7
306 Kurskaya Obl. Russia 895 0.3% 1 3.4
307 Kurskaya Obl. Russia 2
308 Belgorod Russia 293 0.1% 7 23.9
309 Belgorodskaya Obl. Russia 1053 0.4% 15 14.2
310 Khar'kov Ukraine 1587 0.6% 14 N/A
312 Khar'kovskaya Obl. Ukraine 1584 0.6% 2 N/A
313 Ukraine 1
314 Poltava Ukraine 309 0.1% 4 N/A
315 Poltavskaya Obl. Ukraine 1413 0.5% 0 N/A
316 Kirovograd Ukraine 269 0.0% 1 N/A
317 Kirovogradskaya Obl. Ukraine 960 0.3% 2 N/A
320 Dnepropetrovsk Ukraine 1182 0.4% 6 N/A
322 Dnepropetrovskaya Obl. Ukraine 2675 1.0% 7 N/A
323 Dnepropetrovskaya Obl. Ukraine 1
324 Dnepropetrovskaya Obl. Ukraine 1
325 Kherson Ukraine 358 0.1% 0 N/A
326 Khersonskaya Obl. Ukraine 873 0.3% 0 N/A
327 Nikolaev Ukraine 501 0.2% 2 N/A
329 Nikolaevskaya Obl. Ukraine 808 0.3% 1 N/A
330 Zaporozh'e Ukraine 875 0.3% 2 N/A
332 Zaporozhskaya Obl. Ukraine 1189 0.4% 6 N/A
333 Simferopol' Ukraine 338 0.1% 6 N/A
334 Krimskaya Obl. Ukraine 2059 0.7% 10 N/A
335 Sevastopol' (not reported in Index) Ukraine N/A 3 N/A
338 Donetskaya Obl. Ukraine 4278 1.5% 0 N/A
339 Donetskaya Obl. Ukraine 0
340 Donetsk Ukraine 1090 0.4% 3 N/A
341 Donetskaya Obl. Ukraine 4
342 Donetskaya Obl. Ukraine 0
343 Donetskaya Obl. Ukraine 5
344 Rostov-na-Donu Russia 1004 0.4% 52 51.8
346 Rostovskaya Obl. Russia 3288 1.2% 23 12.2
347 Rostovskaya Obl. Russia 17
348 Voroshilovgrad (Lugansk) Ukraine 509 0.2% 2 N/A
349 Luganskaya Obl. Ukraine 2340 0.8% 2 N/A
350 Krasnodar Russia 623 0.2% 21 33.7
352 Krasnodar Krai Russia 4428 1.6% 21 19.0
3526,3527 AdygeyAuton. Obl. Russia 420


8 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Code City Area Republic Population % Total # Covers/
(thousands) Population Covers Mil. Pop.
353 Krasnodar Krai Russia 41
354 Krasnodar Krai Russia 22
355 Stavropol' Russia 306 0.1% 8 26.1
356 Stavropol'skii Krai Russia 2472 0.9% 5 17.8
357 Stavropol'skii Krai Russia 39
3571 Karachayevo-Cherkass A. Obl. Russia 400
358 Elista Russia 85 0.0% 3 35.3
359 Kalmytskaya ASSR Russia 244 0.0% 0 0.0
360 Nal'chik Russia 236 0.0% 5 21.2
361 Kabardino-Balkarskaya ASSR Russia 496 0.2% 4 8.1
362 Ordzhonikidze (Vladikavkaz) Russia 313 0.1% 11 35.1
363 Severo-Osetinskaya ASSR Russia 306 0.1% 2 6.5
364 Groznyi Russia 404 0.1% 4 9.9
366 Checheno-lngushskaya ASSR Russia 831 0.3% 1 1.2
367 Makhachkala Russia 320 0.1% 4 12.5
368 Dagestanskaya ASSR Russia 1448 0.5% 5 3.5
370 Baku Azerbaijan 1115 0.4% 4 3.6
373 Azerbaijan SSR Azerbaijan 5696 2.0% 3 0.7
3735 Nagorno-Karabakh Auton. Obl. Azerbaian 180
3736 Nakhichevan ASSR Azerbaijan 270
374 Azerbaijan SSR Azerbaijan 1
3743, 3744 Nagorno-Karabakh Auton. Obl. Azerbaian
375 Erevan Armenia 1168 0.4% 42 36.0
377 Armenia SSR Armenia 2244 0.8% 9 9.4
378 Armenia SSR Armenia 12
380 Tbilisi Georgia 1194 0.4% 65: 54.4
383 Georgia SSR Georgia 4072 1.5% 6 5.2
3835 S. Ossetian Auton. Obl. Georgia 100
384 Georgia SSR Georgia 15
3844, 3845 Adzharskaya ASSR Georgia 380
3848, 3849 Abkhaz skaya ASSR Georgia 530
390 Ryazan' Russia 508 0.2% 18 35.4
391 Ryazanskaya Obl. Russia 804 0.3% 6 7.5
392 Tambov Russia 305 0.1% 5 16.4
393 Tambovskaya Obl. Russia 1004 0.4% 2 2.0
394 Voronezh Russia 872 0.3% 18 20.6
396 Voronezhskaya Obl. Russia 1577 0.6% 5 4.4
397 Voronezhskaya Obl. Russia 2
398 Lipetsk Russia 465 0.2% 8 17.2
399 Lipetskaya Obl. Russia 753 0.3% 6 8.0
400 Volgograd Russia 988 0.4% 18 18.2
403 Volgogradskaya Obl. Russia 1576 0.6% 6 8.2
404 Volgogradskaya Obl. Russia 7
410 Saratov Russia 918 0.3% 38 41.4
412 Saratovskaya Obl. Russia 1728 0.6% 3 5.8
413 Saratovskaya Obl. Russia 7
414 Astrakhan' Russia 509 0.2% 13 25.5
416 Astrakhanskaya Obl. Russia 483 0.2% 1 2.1
417 Ural'sk Kazakhstan 201 0.0% 1 5.0
418 Ural'skaya Obl. Kazakhstan 419 0.1% 0 0.0
420 Kazan' Russia 1068 0.4% 35 32.8
422 Tatarstan ASSR Russia 2500 0.9% 6 9.2
423 Tatarstan ASSR Russia 17
424 loshkar-Ola Russia 243 0.0% 10 41.2
425 Mariiskaya ASSR Russia 496 0.2% 4 8.1
426 Izhevsk Russia 631 0.2% 8 12.7
427 Udmurtskaya ASSR Russia 956 0.3% 7 7.3
428 Cheboksary Russia 414 0.1% 59 142.5
429 Chuvashskaya ASSR Russia 916 0.3% 8 8.7
430 Saransk Russia 323 0.1% 6 18.6
431 Mordovskaya ASSR Russia 641 0.2% 3 4.7
Rossica Journal Number 120 9
April 1993








Code City Area Republic Population % Total # Covers/
(thousands) Population Covers Mil. Pop.

432 Ul'yanovsk Russia 589 0.2% 8 13.6
433 Ul'yanovskaya Obl. Russia 765 0.3% 7 9.2
440 Penza Russia 540 0.2% 19 35.2
442 Penzenskaya Obl. Russia 955 0.3% 4 4.2
443 Kuibyshev (Samara) Russia 1280 0.5% 174 135.9
445 Kuibyshevskaya Obl. Russia 1984 0.7% 14 15.6
446 Kuibyshevskaya Obl. Russia 17
450 Ufa Russia 1092 0.4% 33 30.2
452 Bashkirskaya ASSR Russia 2803 1.0% 8 6.4
453 Bashkirskaya ASSR Russia 10
454 Chelyabinsk Russia 1119 0.4% 32 28.6
455 Chelyabinskaya Obl. Russia 2464 0.9% 4 9.3
456 Chelyabinskaya Obl. Russia 14
457 Chelyabinskaya Obl. Russia 5
458 Kustanai Kazakhstan 212 0.0% 1 4.7
459 Kustanaiskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 831 0.3% 4 4.8
460 Orenburg Russia 537 0.2% 11 20.5
461 Orenburgskaya Obl. Russia 1628 0.6% 8 6.8
462 Orenburgskaya Obl. Russia 3
463 Aktyubinsk Kazakhstan 248 0.0% 2 8.1
464 Aktyubinskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 472 0.2% 1 2.1
465 Gur'ev Kazakhstan 150 0.0% 1 6.7
466 Gur'evskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 253 0.0% 7 27.7
467 Kzyl-Orda Kazakhstan 189 0.0% 1 5.3
468 KzyI-Ordinskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 39 0.0% 0 0.0
470 Karaganda Kazakhstan 633 0.2% 8 12.6
472 Karagandinskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 735 0.3% 1 1.4
473 Tselinograd Kazakhstan 276 0.0% 3 10.9
474 Tselinogradskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 583 0.2% 1 1.7
475 Kokchetav Kazakhstan 127 0.0% 1 7.9
476 Kokchetavskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 525 0.2% 3 5.7
480 Alma-Ata Kazakhstan 1708 0.6% 24 14.1
482 (not reported in Index) Kazakhstan 1
483 Alma-Ata Obl. Kazakhstan 919 0.3% 0 0.0
484 Dzhambul Kazakhstan 315 0.1% 3 9.5
485 Dzhambulskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 701 0.3% 3 4.3
486 Chimkent Kazakhstan 389 0.1% 4 10.3
487 Chimkentskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 1391 0.5% 1 0.7
488 Taldy-Kurgan Kazakhstan 113 0.0% 0 0.0
489 Taldy-Kurganstaya Obl. Kazakhstan 596 0.2% 0 0.0
490 Semipalatinsk Kazakhstan 330 0.1% 4 12.1
491 Semipalatinskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 486 0.2% 3 6.2
492 Ust'-Kamenogorsk Kazakhstan 321 0.1% 2 6.2
493 Vostochno-Kazakhstan Obl. Kazakhstan 614 0.2% 2 3.3
600 Vladimir Russia 343 0.1% 13 37.9
601 Vladimirskaya Obl. Russia 1295 0.5% 9 6.9
602 Vladimirskaya Obl. Russia 0
603 Gor'kii (Nizhnii Novgorod) Russia 1425 0.5% 48 33.7
606 Gor'kovskaya Obl. Russia 2263 0.8% 12 8.4
607 Gor'kovskaya Obl. Russia 7
610 Kirov Russia 421 0.2% 10 23.8
612 Kirovskaya Obl. Russia 1254 0.4% 0 0.8
613 Kirovskaya Obl. Russia 1
614 Perm' Russia 1075 0.4% 21 19.5
617 Permskaya Obl. Russia 1996 0.7% 3 2.5
6172, 6173 Komi-Permyak Auton. Okrug Russia 160
618 Permskaya Obl. Russia 2
620 Sverdlovsk (Ekaterinburg) Russia 1331 0.5% 47 35.3
622 Sverdlovskaya Obl. Russia 3372 1.2% 7 10.1
623 Sverdlovskaya Obl. Russia 13

10 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Code City Area Republic Population % Total # Covers/
(thousands) Population Covers Mil. Pop.

624 Sverdlovskaya Obl. Russia 14
625 Tyumen' Russia 456 0.2% 4 8.8
626 Tyumenskaya Obl. Russia 979 0.4% 11 15.3
6262-3, 6268 Khanty-MansiAuton. Okrug Russia 105
6265 Yamalo-Nenets Auton. Okrug Russia 380
627 Tyumenskaya Obl. Russia 4
630 Novosibirsk Russia 1423 0.5% 41 28.8
632 Novosibirskaya Obl. Russia 1347 0.5% 1 2.2
633 Novosibirskaya Obl. Russia 2
634 Tomsk Russia 489 0.2% 19 38.9
636 Tomskaya Obl. Russia 494 0.2% 4 8.1
637 Pavlodar Kazakhstan 331 0.1% 1 3.0
638 Pavlodarskaya Obl. Kazakhstan 603 0.2% 3 5.0
640 Kurgan Russia 354 0.1% 7 19.8
641 Kurganskaya Ob. Russia 758 0.3% 0 0.0
642 Petropavlovsk Kazakhstan 233 0.0% 4 17.2
643 Severo-Kazakhstanskaya Ob. Kazakhstan 373 0.1% 0 0.0
644 Omsk Russia 1134 0.4% 46 40.6
646 Omskaya Obl. Russia 954 0.3% 0 0.0
650 Kemerovo Russia 520 0.2% 10 19.2
652 Kemerovskaya Obl. Russia 2632 0.9% 10 5.7
653 Kemerovskaya Obl. Russia 1
654 Kemerovskaya Obl. Russia 4
656 Barnaul Russia 596 0.2% 11 18.5
658 Altaiskii Krai Russia 2181 0.8% 4 6.9
659 Altaiskii Krai Russia 11
6597 Gomo-Altaisk Auton. Obl. 180
660 Krasnoyarsk Russia 899 0.3% 43 47.8
662 Krasnoyarskii Krai Russia 2621 0.9% 6 4.6
6626 Khakass Autonomous Obl. Russia 550
663 Krasnoyarskii Krai Russia 6
6632 Taymyr Autonomous Okrug Russia 50
6633, 6634 Evenki Autonomous Okrug Russia 22
664 Irkutsk Russia 609 0.2% 43 70.6
665 Irkutskaya Obl. Russia 2175 0.8% 23 13.8
6653, 6654 Ust-Orda Buryat Auton. Okrug Russia 130
666 Irkutskaya Obl. Russia 7
667 Kyzyl Russia 80 0.0% 2 25.0
668 Tuvinskaya ASSR Russia 209 0.0% 0 0.0
670 Ulan-Ude Russia 351 0.1% 12 34.2
671 Buryatskaya ASSR Russia 679 0.2% 4 5.9
672 Chita Russia 349 0.1% 6 17.2
673 Chitinskaya Obl. Russia 1012 0.4% 1 3.0
674 Chitinskaya Obl. Russia 2
6744 Aga-Buryat Autonomous Okrug Russia 80
675 Blagoveschchensk Russia 202 0.0% 6 29.7
676 Amurskaya Obl. Russia 851 0.3% 14 16.5
677 Yakutsk Russia 188 0.0% 1 5.3
678 Yakutskaya ASSR Russia 846 0.3% 9 10.6
680 Khabarovsk Russia 591 0.2% 26 44.0
681 Khabarovskii Krai Russia 1203 0.4% 11 25.8
682 Khabarovskii Krai Russia 20
6822 Evreiskii Autonomous Obl. Russia 210
683 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii Russia 252 0.0% 14 55.6
684 Kamchatskaya Obl. Russia 191 0.0% 6 31.4
6847, 6848 Koryak Autonomous Okrug Russia 40
685 Magadan Russia 148 0.0% 10 67.6
686 Magadanskaya Obl. Russia 402 0.1% 6 14.9
6865-6568 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Russia 160
690 Vladivostok Russia 615 0.2% 30 48.8

Rossica Journal Number 120 1
April 1993








Code City Area Republic Population % Total # Covers/
(thousands) Population Covers Mil. Pop.

692 Primorskiy Kray Russia 1574 0.6% 36 22.9
693 Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Russia 166 0.0% 11 66.3
694 Sakhalinskaya Obl. Russia 543 0.2% 12 22.1
700 Tashkent Uzbekistan 2124 0.8% 30 14.1
702 Tashkentskaya Obl. Uzbekistan 2095 0.7% 13 6.2
703 Samarkand Uzbekistan 388 0.1% 1 2.6
704 Samarkandskaya Obl. Uzbekistan 1662 0.6% 1 0.6
705 Bukhara Uzbekistan 220 0.0% 4 18.2
706 Bukharskaya Obl. Uzbekistan 854 0.3% 0 0.0
707 Gulistan Uzbekistan 51 0.0% 0 0.0
708 Syrdar'inskaya Obl. Uzbekistan 499 0.2% 0 0.0
710 Andizhan Uzbekistan 288 0.1% 0 0.0
711 Andizhanskaya Obl. Uzbekistan 1344 0.5% 1 0.7
712 Fergana Uzbekistan 203 0.0% 9 44.3
713 Ferganskaya Obl. Uzbekistan 1839 0.7% 2 1.1
714 Osh' Kirghizistan 209 0.0% 0 0.0
715 Oshskaya Obl. Kirghizistan 1595 0.6% 1 0.6
716 Namangan Uzbekistan 291 0.1% 1 3.4
717 Namanganskaya Obl. Uzbekistan 1088 0.4% 0 0.0
720 Frunze Kirghizistan N/A N/A 12 N/A
722 Kirghizskaya SSR Kirghizistan N/A N/A 4 N/A
730 Karshi Uzbekistan 141 0.0% 0 0.0
731 Kashkadar'inskaya Obl. Uzbekistan 1365 0.5% 0 0.0
732 Termez Uzbekistan 72 0.0% 0 0.0
733 Surkhandar'inskaya Obl. Uzbekistan 1104 0.4% 0 0.0
734 Dushanbe Tadzhikistan 582 0.2% 5 8.6
735 Tadzhikistan SSR Tadzhikistan 4045 1.4% 6 1.5
736 Gorno-Badakhshanskaya A-O Tadzhikistan 180 0.0% 0 0.0
740 Urgench Uzbekistan 123 0.0% 0 0.0
741 Khorezmskaya Obl. Uzbekistan 823 0.3% 0 0.0
742 Nukus Tadzhikistan 152 0.0% 0 0.0
743 Karakalpakskaya ASSR Tadzhikistan 987 0.4% 0 0.0
744 Ashkhabad Turkmenistan 382 0.1% 0 0.0
745 Turkmenskaya SSR Turkmenistan 3100 1.1% 3 1.0
746 Turkmenistan 0


NOTES:

"* Population for autonomous oblasts and okrugs included in corresponding districts.
"* Population for Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan Oblasts based on 1987 administrative boundaries, not 1969 postal (and
administrative) regions. Populations thus are understated for these republics.







[This is the first in a series of articles in which George will continue his research and report to the membership. If you can
provide any assistance, please write George.

From Peter Michalove Mr. Michael Padwee put a notice in the APS journal stating that he wanted to start a study group
to investigate and chronicle postally relevent events occurring in the republics of the former Soviet Union. Michael requests
assistance from interested philatelists. If you can support Michael in this effort, please write him at 163 Joralemon Street, P.O.
Box 1520, Brooklyn NY 11201-1520, USA.-Ed.]





12 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







Additional Postal Convention Between Prussia and Russia,
Signed at St. Petersburg, 21 May (2 June) 1843

translated by Dave Skipton

Sn response to current demands, His Majesty d) the one-horse post running twice weekly
the Emperor of All the Russias, King of Poland, and between Yurburg and Schmalleningken;
His Majesty The King of Prussia, desiring to make e) the Polish posts, by which letters in closed
changes in the relations between their Postal Ad- mail packets are sent between the Russian
ministrations and supplement the articles of the post offices in Vladimir and Zhitomir and
Postal Convention of 12 (24) December 1821 with the Prussian post offices in Strzalkowo,
regulations not [previously] included in it, have Poznan, Berlin, and Thorn, and finally
commanded that an agreement be concluded. To f) the steamships onwhichletters are also sent
this end, They have appointed the following as between Russia and Prussia.
Their plenipotentiaries: Article H.
From His Majesty the Emperor of All the
Russias, King of Poland -His Privy Councilor, The posts enumerated above under letters a, b,
Director of the Postal Department and St. Pe- c, and d will take the following routes:
tersburg Postal Director Fedor Pryanishnikov, a) The extra-post between St. Petersburg and
Cavalier of the Orders of St. Anne (First Rank), Berlin will:
St. Vladimir (Second Rank) of the Grand Cross,
and others, Depart St. Petersburg: in the evening on
From His Majesty the King of Prussia-His Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, Fri-
Privy Ober-PostCouncilorHeinrich Smuekert, days, and Saturdays.
Cavalier of the Prussian Iron Cross (First Rank) Transfer at Laugszargen: at7 p.m. onThurs-
and others, who, their plenary powers [docu- days, Fridays, Sundays, Mondays, and
ments] having been exchanged and found to be Tuesdays.
in good order, have concluded the following Arrive at Berlin: in the evening on Sundays,
supplemental act. Said act will be presented for Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and
confirmation by Their Majesties of both States. Saturday.
Depart from Berlin: in the evening on Sun-
I. Concerning The Mutual Forward- days, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thurs-
ing of Letters. days, and Saturdays.
Transfer at Taurogen: at 6 a.m. on Wednes-
Article I. days, Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays, and
Tuesday.
Letters between Russia and Prussia shall be sent Arrive at St. Petersburg: in the morning on
via: Saturdays, Mondays, Tuesdays,
a) the extra-posts running five times weekly Wednesdays, and Fridays.
between St. Petersburg and Berlin to Riga,
Mitava, Taurogen, Tilsit and Koenigsberg; b) The light post between Mitava and Memel
b) the light post running twice weekly be- will:
tween Mitava and Memel to Libava, Po- Depart from Mitava: at 8 p.m. on Mondays
langen, and Immersatt; and Fridays, upon arrival from St. Pe-
c) the light post running twice weekly be- tersburgofthemailandpassengers(light
tween Libava and Memel to Polangen and
teen Libava and Memel to Polangen and post) and the mail with packages (heavy
Immersatt; post)

Rossica Journal Number 120 13
April 1993







Transfer at Immersat: at 2 and 3 a.m. on Article ll.
Wednesday and Sundays;
Arrive at Memel: on the same days, in the For Berlin's incoming and outgoing posts from
morning; and to Western and Southern Europe, the Prussian
Depart from Memel: at 8 p.m. on Sundays Postal Administration is obligated to maintain ex-
and Wednesdays; tremely close contactwith the St. Petersburg Extra-
Transfer at Polangen: at 11-12 p.m. on the post, and to issue instructions that letters between
same days; Russia and Western Europe shall be expedited by
Arrive at Mitava: in the morning on Tues- one day.
days and Fridays, to connect with light
posts with passengers and heavy posts Article IV.
departing for St. Petersburg.
If in the future either of the Contracting States
c) The light post between Libava and Memel wishes to make changes in the current scheduling of
will: posts, and to that end considers it necessary to
change the number of days on which the posts are
Depart from Libava: at 6 p.m. on Mondays dispatched, or the transfer times at the border sta-
and Thursdays; tions, one of the Main Postal Administration au-
Transfer at Immersat: at 2-3 a.m. on Tues- thorities shall contact the other, and they shall
days and Fridays; consent to the changes, so long as they are not
Arrive at Memel: in the morning of the contrary to the good of either Administration or the
same days; public.
Depart from Memel: at 8 p.m. on Tuesdays
and Fridays; Article V.
Transfer at Polangen: at 11-12 p.m. on the
same days; Mail transportation costs incurred by the routes
ArriveatLibava: inthemomingonWednes- enumerated in Article I, sections a, b, c, and d, shall
days and Saturdays. be paid by the Russian Government for the entire
distance within Russia up to the first Prussian
d) The light post between Yurburg and border station, and by the Prussian government for
Schmalleningken will: the distances within Prussia up to the first Russian
border station. Russian border stations are at Po-
Depart from Yurburg: at 5 p.m. on Tues- langen, Taurogen, and Yurburg, and the Prussian
days and Fridays; border stations are at Immersatt, Laugszargen, and
Arrive at Schmalleningken: at 8 p.m. on the Schmalleningken. Locations of the border stations
same days; may not be changed unless both Parties agree to it.
Depart from Schmalleningken: at 10 a.m. Expenses for transportation of postal packets
on Tuesday and Fridays; by sea-going steamships shall be borne by Russia
Arrive at Yurburg: at 1 p.m. on the same and Prussia equally. Expenses for transportation of
days. postal packets by land between that point on the
coast where steamships put in and depart and the
Postal packets sent as transit mail through the first Prussian post office shall be paid from the
Kingdom of Poland shall be dispatched by Russian Prussian Postal Treasury.
post offices to Warsaw in time to be sent off with the Transit fees shall not be paid for transportation
departing posts to Strzhalkovo and Thorn. From of postal packets through the Kingdom of Poland.
Prussia, such postal packets shall be dispatched to
Warsaw in time to be sent on immediately with the
departing posts to Vladimir.
14 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Article VI. from Russian ports to Copenhagen or the German
Sea and back, norshall she demand anypaymentfor
Orders for post horses, mail-bag registers, and such correspondence.
postal packets shall be sent by each of the Contract-
ing States only as far as that border station to which Article IX.
both are obligated to carry the mail. After the
necessary entries for time of arrival and departure Transportation of mail by land shall be con-
have been made on these orders for post horses and ducted by those posts which maintain direct links
registers, they shall be returned immediately with between Russia and Prussia. Russia shall transfer
the postillion accompanying the mail. her correspondence to Prussia at Immersatt,
Laugszargen, and Schmalleningken; Prussia shall
II. On The Transfer and Transporta- transfer her correspondence to Russia at Polangen,
tion of Mail. Taurogen, andYurburg.Anexceptiontothisismail
going to the followingprovinces: Volhynia,Podolia,
Article VII. Kherson, Tavrida, and Kiev, and to Bessarabia
Oblast'. Also excepted is mail from all these prov-
In addition to that correspondence addressed to inces sent to foreign addresses, which mail shall be
Prussian possessions and to those places in Ger- sent in closed postal packets through the Kingdom
many at which Prussian post offices are located, of Poland, if by so doing delivery would be expedited.
Russia shall also transfer to Prussia that mail which Correspondence dispatched by sea from Rus-
is addressed to other lands of the German Union sian post offices to Prussia and vice-versa shall be
(except those belonging to Austria), as well as sent aboard steam-driven vessels, which now run
Denmark, Switzerland, The Kingdom of the Neth- between the Russian shores of the Baltic Sea and
erlands, Belgium, France, the Pyrenees Peninsula, Travemuende. If in the future a steamship line
Great Britain and Ireland, the colonies of those should open between the aforementioned shores
states, and America, if said correspondence cannot and some other German or Schleswig port on the
be sent faster and more cheaply by other routes Baltic Sea, both Parties shall use the new line for
Prussia shall transfer to Russia all mail ad- mail transportation on the basis of the points in
dressed to the latter, whether it is posted at Prussian Article VIII. Excepted from this is Danish mail,
offices or received from other foreign States. which may be transported directly between Russian
and Danish post offices in the event the designated
Article VIII. port is Danish (Holstein or Schleswig).

The mail mentioned in the preceding article, Article X.
whether coming to Russia or from it, shall be
transported not only by land posts but by steam- An exchange of postal registers is established
ships, if by that means it can be delivered faster, or for mutual sending of correspondence:
if a sender specifically requests that itbe sent aboard
a steamer by writing that on the letter, a) When using the land posts for dispatch of
Correspondence sent by steamer between Rus- the mails
sian and German or Schleswig ports shall also be
transferred by Russian post offices to Prussian 1) Between St. Petersburg and Riga on
offices, and vice-versa. However, Prussia shall not the one hand and Tilsit, Memel, Ber-
demand transfer to herself of those letters which are lin, Hamburg, Achen, and Emmerich
sent via steamers not serving the routes between on the other;
Russia and any of the German or Schleswig ports on 2) Between Moscow and Tilsit;
the Baltic Sea, i.e., mail sent by steamer directly 3) Between Narva and Tilsit;
Rossica Journal Number 120 15
April 1993







4) Between Libava and Memel; III. Concerning the Letter Tariff,
5) Between Mitava on the one hand and Mutual Payments, Franking,
Memel and Tilsit on the other; and Accounting.
6) Between Polangen and Memel;
7 Between Taurogen on the one hand Ar e
Article XII.
and Laugszargen and Tilsit on the
other; Theinternational charge,whichuptothepresent
8) Between Vil'na and Tilsit; has been exacted over and above the main [charge],
9) Between Yurburg on the one hand is abolished, and each of the Contracting Parties
and Schmalleningken and Tilsit on shall calculate the payment for letters only for the
the other; distance within their borders, to and from the last
10) Between Vladimir and Zhitomir on border station of either Party.
the one hand and Strzalkowo, Poznan,
Berlin, and Thorn on the other. Article XIII.

b) For dispatch of correspondence by steamship: In order for all post offices in Russia and Prussia
to use exactly the same charges when calculating
1) Between St. Petersburg on the one the porto fees for letters sent from one to the other,
hand and Luebeck and Hamburg on regardless by which route (sea or land) that corre-
the other; spondence is sent, it is resolved to calculate porto
2) From Kronstadt to Luebeck and fees for all correspondence between Russia and
Hamburg. Prussian post offices at the distance rate for Prussian
mail to and from Laugszargen, and the distance rate
Postal registers sent by land posts shall be for Russian mail to and from Taurogen. The only
dispatched regularly witheachpost and, intheevent exception to this shall be for local correspondence
there arenoletterstobe senton agivenday, registers between border post offices.
may be sent blank (Vacat-Karten). Postal registers
sent by steamer shall also be dispatched on every Article XIV.
day steamers are scheduled to depart. If there are no
letters to take, registers with blank spaces shall still Porto fees owed to Russia for transportation of
be sent. letters to and from Taurogen shall be calculated and
Russian post offices shall write the registers in collected according to the current or future pub-
German or Latin letters. lished rate for internal correspondence. For letters
The number of post offices between which weighing up to and including one Prussian lot, a fee
postal registers are exchanged may be increased or of one weight rate shall be collected. For letters
decreased, depending on the circumstances. weighing more than one Prussian lot, one half of the
weight rate shall be added for each extra Prussian
Article XI. half-lot. The slightest additional weight over each
increment shall increase the payment.
To avoid improper routing of mail, tables shall The following weight-rates shall apply:
be prepared and communicated to the proper post Up to and including one Prussian lot-weight rate.
offices as a guide. These tables will explain what From 1 to 1.5 lots 1.5 x weight rate.
correspondence shall be placed in postal packets From 1.5 to 2 lots 2 x weight rate.
and addressed to which post offices. From 2 to 2.5 lots 2.5 x weight rate
If changes in routing of the posts within either From 2.5 to 3 lots 3 x weight rate, and so on for
State forces a change in direction of incoming every half lot.
foreign mail,both postal administrations are obliged Porto fees owed to Prussia for transportation of
to notify the other of that fact. letters to and from Laugszargen shall be calculated
16 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







and collected for letters according to distance, as its border stations listed above, or from a border
follows: station to a destination within that state.
Up to 2 miles 1 silver groschen
Over 2 to 4 miles 1.5 silver groschen Article XVI.
Over 4 to 7 miles 2 silver groschen
Over 4 to 7 miles 2 silver groschen If during the period of this supplemental act the
Over 7 to 10 miles 2.5 silver groschen general letter rate in Prussia is reduced to such a
Over 10 to 20 miles 3 silver groschen
Over 0 to 0 miles silver groschen level that payment for letters at the new rate is less
Over 20 to 40 miles 4 silver groschen
r 2 t 4 m 4 s g than that cited above, then this reduction shall also
Over 40 to 60 miles 5 silver groschen
Over 40 to 60 miles 5 silver groschen be extended to correspondence sent to and from
Over 60 to 80 miles 6 silver groschen
Over 0 to 0 miles silver groschen Russia, if the Russian side consents to accept the
Over 80 to 100 miles 7 silver groschen
Over 80 to 100 miles 7 silver groschen established weight progression of the new letter rate.
Over 10 to 10 miles silver groschen By the same token, should there be a reduction
Over 120 to 140 miles 9 silver groschen .
S1 t 1 m in the Russian internal letter rate, that reduction
Over 140 miles 10 silver groschen
Over 140 miles 10 silver groschen shall also be applied to letters sent from Russia to
The weight rate fee for a letter up to and Prussia and through Prussia to other states andback.
including one Prussian lot shall be determined in the Article XVII.
same manner as the Russian weight rate fee. For
each additional half lot, one half the weight rate fee For local correspondence from Polangen to
shall be added. Thus, for letters weighing: Memel, from Taurogen to Laugszargen and from
over 1 to 1.5 lots collect 1.5 x weight rate Yurburg to Schmalleningken, a fee of three ko-
over 1.5 to 2 lots collect 2 x weight rate pecks silver per letter may be charged, and for
over 2 to 2.5 lots collect 2.5 x weight rate similarmailfromMemeltoPolangen,Laugszargen
over 2.5 to 3 lots collect 3 x weight rate, and so to Taurogen, and Schmalleningken to Yurburg,
on for every half lot. 1 silver groschen. The weight-rate progression
regulations established for ordinary correspondence
However, Prussian regulations for charging porto between Russia and Prussian post offices must still
fees for letters shall be followed, be observed. Regardless of whether or not the local
In accordance with these regulations, payment correspondence has been franked, payment for it
for letters shall be collected according to the gross must still go to the post office of origin.
weight of each letter. Thus, if in these letters there To avoid any misunderstanding, it is herein
are sealed or unsealed enclosures addressed from stated that by "local correspondence" is meant only
one and the same sender to one or several recipients, those letters which are submitted to any one of the
no separate porto fees shall be collected for such aforementioned postal border points for dispatch to
enclosures. its opposite on the other side of the border; such
On the other hand, it shall not be permitted to letters may not proceed to a further destination.
send packets of letters to some post office for distri-
bution. In such circumstances, porto and weight Article XVIII.
fees must be collected for each and every letter
included in a packet. For transportation of correspondence transiting
This changes the stipulations contained in Ar- Prussian territory to and from Russia, the following
tide XV of the Convention of 12 (24) December 1821. fees shall be charged for each letter (between Russia
and the following lands):
Article XV. 1) To Baden 9 silver groschen
2) To Bavaria, Wuertemberg and the
Each postal administration shall be entitled to 2) To Bavaria, Wuertemberg and the
Hohenzollern Principalities 8 silver
the monies it collects for distance rates, calculated Hohenzol Principalities 8 silver
from the point of origin within its borders to one of groschen
Rossica Journal Number 120 17
April 1993







3) To Belgium- 10 silver groschen transit fee and whatever more franking is required
4) To Braunschweig 8 silver groschen for the letters to be sent on to their destinations.
5) To Danish Possessions and the Principal- In order to simplify the collection of the afore-
ity of Luebeck 8 silver groschen mentioned fees (as far as possible) from Russian
6) To France and the Pyrenees Peninsula correspondents and the transfer thereof to the Prus-
10 silver groschen sian Postal Administration, one porto fee shall be
7) To Hannover 8 silver groschen established for each of the foreign states (consider-
8) To the Kingdom of the Netherlands- 10 ing also the Thurn-and-Taxis Postal District as a
silver groschen separate state). This fee shall be established by
9) To Mecklenburg-Strelitz 7 silver mutual agreement between the Russian and Prus-
groschen sian postal administrations. The amount of this
10) To Mecklenburg-Schwerin 8 silver porto fee, which shall be charged in accordance
groschen with the regulations set forth in Article XIV on the
11) To Oldenburg, excluding Luebeck and letter-weight progression, shall be made public
Birkenfeld 9 silver groschen throughout Russia.
12) To the Kingdom of Saxony 7 silver One year after the introduction of this porto fee,
groschen it shall be reviewed and verified according to the
13) To Switzerland 9 silver groschen mostrecentinformationreceived.BothMainPostal
14) To the Thum-and-Taxis Principality Administrations shall then agree on a final fee level
Postal District 8 silver groschen sufficient to recompense Prussia completely for her
15) To Great Britain & Ireland, and also to expenses in repaying other states for transportation
America and the colonies, with dispatch of Russian mail, according to those states' own
either through Hamburg or Rotterdam particular rates.
and Ostende 9 silver groschen If the letter rate in either Russia or Prussia
changes, i.e., it is increased or decreased, so that the
This transit fee may be calculated according to fixed porto fee no longer answers the purposes of
current Prussian general regulations on weight rate either foreign state, then a new porto fee that con-
progressions, with this difference: the weight of an forms to the new situation shall be established by
individual letter is considered to be one full Prussian mutual consent [of Russia and Prussia].
lot, and if a letter weighs more than that, then the fee
charged shall be increased only at the rate set forth Article XIX.
in Article XIV for Prussian correspondence to
Russia and back. Both postal administrations are obliged to com-
If the Prussian letter rate should ever be de- pileletterweightrates onthebasisoftheregulations
creased, so that the payment for letters from one set forth above, and to notify one another [of those
Prussian border point to another shall come to less rates] no later than eight weeks prior to their intro-
than that set forth above, then this decrease shall duction. Both main postal administrations shall
also be extended to Russian mail transiting Prussia, exercise the strictest supervision to ensure that these
in accordance with the condition contained in Ar- rates are observed.
tide XVI.
In addition to the transit fees owed to Prussia for Article XX.
unfranked letters sent to Russia via Prussia from
other foreign states, Russia shall pay Prussia the Russian post offices shall calculate internal
porto fees owed to the foreign states of origin. Russian weight rates in silver kopecks, but for
Likewise, for letters from Russia which have been franked letters sent to Prussia, Russia shall pay
franked or must be franked through Prussia and porto fees in silver groschen for letters through
beyond, Russia is obliged to pay Prussia both the Prussia and beyond Prussian borders, with 30 silver

18 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








groschen equaling one Prussian thaler. Prussian 4) from Russia to Switzerland unfranked,
post offices shall calculate Prussian transit (porto) franked to Taurogen, or franked to des-
fees and other expenditures in silver groschen. If the tination. If coming to Russia, they may be
letters are franked, Prussia shall pay the Russian sent unfranked, franked only to the Swiss
weight rates in silver kopecks. In conformance to border with Germany, or franked to desti-
this, all porto, weight-rate, and other fees shall be nation.
noted on the back of each letter.
The former calculation of one thaler equal to 90 Article XXIII.
so-called Prussian groschen shall cease completely.
As regards correspondence between Russia
Article XXI. and France, Prussia shall make arrangements with
France so that from the day this supplemental treaty
When collecting from Russian correspondents takes effect, those sending letters from Russia may
the porto fees owed to the Prussian Postal Treasury choose to dispatch them unfranked, franked only to
for letters franked from Russia or unfranked to Taurogen, or franked to destination. Letters from
Russia, [postal officials] shall calculate the Prussian France to Russia may likewise be sent unfranked,
silver groschen as equal to 3 1/4 Russian silver franked only to the French border, or franked to
kopecks. destination.

Article XXII. Article XXIV.

Correspondents shall be given the choice of Correspondence from Russia to the Kingdom
sending their letters unfranked, franked to the des- of The Netherlands must be franked to Taurogen. If
tination or franked only for a given distance, insofar the sender so desires, letters may also be franked to
as this is possible where other foreign powers are the Prusso-Dutch border, or to a destination in the
concerned. Correspondents may avail themselves Netherlands. In the opposite direction, letters from
of this freedom when sending letters from Russia to the Netherlands to Russia must be franked at least
the lands listed below and back, namely to all places to the Prusso-Dutch border; they may also be
where there is a Prussian post office, to the German franked to the Prusso-Russian border or to the
Union (excluding those areas belonging to Austria), Russian destination.
to the Danish Possessions and to Switzerland. Thus, When the Netherlands Postal Administration
letters may be sent: declares its readiness to accept unfranked letters
1) from Russia to places where there are Prus- from Russia and to dispatch letters franked to a
sian post offices. They may be sent Russian destination, then all limitations on this
unfranked, franked only to Taurogen, or correspondence shall end.
franked to destination if coming from Rus-
sia, and if sent to Russia, they may be sent Article XXV.
unfranked, franked to Laugszargen, or
franked to destination. Once this convention comes into force, cor-
2) from Russia to the lands of the German respondence between Russia and Belgium shall be
Union (other than Austria) unfranked, handled on the same basis as mail between Russia
franked only to Taurogen, or franked to and the German Union.
destination. If coming to Russia, they may
be sent unfranked, franked to the first Prus- Article XXVI.
sian border point, or franked to destination.
3) from Russia to the Danish Possessions and Letters from Russia to Great Britain and Ire-
back, as set forth in point 2, and land, the Pyrenees Peninsula, colonies, and the

Rossica Journal Number 120 19
April 1993







Americas must be franked to the shores of the addition to the extra-post provided for in Article 1.
German Sea or to the Franco-Spanish border. The This post shall:
amount other than the porto fee which Russia must Depart Taurogen: on Tuesdays and Satur-
pay to Prussia for this correspondence (which must days at 10 a.m., upon arrival of the heavy
be franked) shall be shown separately in the porto and light posts from St. Petersburg.
fee, and this shall be communicated to the Imperial Arrive Tilsit: on the same days, in the
Russian Postal Administration. afternoon.
Depart Tilsit: on Saturdays and Tuesdays at
Article XXVII. 12 noon.
Arrive Taurogen: on the same days, in the
ThePrussianPostal Administration shall see to afternoon, to connect with the heavy
the elimination of difficulties existing in the send- post dispatched to St. Petersburg.
ing of mail between Russia and Great Britain and
Ireland. These difficulties arise from the fact that On this post's way from Tilsit to Taurogen, the
such mail is charged porto fees at the former English Taurogen Customs Office shall have sufficient time
rate and must be franked to the coast. to check the packages arriving with the post from
In the event France's porto rate is reduced, the Tilsit, before the heavy post is dispatched to St.
Prussian Postal Administration shall avail itself of Petersburg.
this opportunity to extend the lower rate to mail Moreover, the Prussian Postal Administration
between Russia and France. shall see to it that those passengers traveling from
Tilsit to Taurogen who desire to continue on from
Article XXVIII. there with the light or heavy posts are accorded
low-cost and convenient departure by post. [The
Settling accounts on the monies collected from same service shall be available to passengers] wish-
porto fees and other expenses owed to either postal ing to continue on with the extra-post, so long as
administration shall be conducted in the same man- this post is able to accommodate them. The passen-
ner as before, i.e., between the St. Petersburg and gers shall not be delayed at Taurogen Customs
the Tilsit General Post Offices, and not separately longer than is necessary to examine their baggage.
between those post offices among which postal For passengers arriving in Laugszargen on the
registers are directly exchanged. The only differ- extra-post from Taurogen, the Prussian Postal
ence shall be that the sums owed to Prussia shall be Administration shall also issue the necessary in-
shown in Prussian thalers, and those owed to Russia structions, so that their departure for Tilsit is not
in silver rubles. Payment shall be made in St. delayed.
Petersburg and Berlin until such time as a simpler
method that conforms to the situation is found. Article XXX.

IV. On the Mutual Carriage of the The posts mentioned in Article XXIX shall be
Heavy Posts. conveyed:
From Taurogen to Laugszargen at Russia's
Article XXIX expense,
From Laugszargen to Tilsit and from Tilsit to
In order to maintain the connections of the Taurogen at Prussia's expense.
heavy and light posts operating between St. Peters-
burg and Taurogen with the package- and passen- Both Parties shall keep the monies they collect
ger-posts operating between Tilsit, Koenigsberg from passengers and package mail for those sec-
(in Prussia), and Berlin, a year-round heavy post tions on which postal transportation is at their
may be established between Taurogen and Tilsit in expense.

20 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







Orders for post horses (nHOOPO)KHbISI- A fee may also be collected for packages tran-
PODOROZHNYYA) and registers with the names siting Prussia on this same basis.
of passengers and an itemization of their baggage The provisions contained in Articles XX and
shall be sent from Taurogen to Tilsit and from Tilsit XXI shall govern the collection of porto fees for
to Taurogen. These documents shall be returned at packages.
the first opportunity to the post office from which The mutual-account procedure set forth in Ar-
they were received, tide XXVIII shall also be extended to payments for
the heavy posts.
Article XXXI.
Article XXXIII.
Packages and money submitted to the Russian
Post for dispatch to Prussia and beyond, as well as Both postal administrations shall establish pack-
packages and money submitted to the Prussian Post age rates based on the provisions above, and they
for dispatch to Russia (this also includes same shall inform one another of these rates, together
arriving in Prussia from other countries for transit to with the letter rates.
Russia), shall be sent with the heavy post through The provision in Article XIX for supervising
Taurogen and Tilsit. observance of letter rates is also extended to pack-
These items shall be accompanied by registers, age rates.
which are to be transferred between the two Parties.
Exchange of the registers shall take place between Article XXXIV.
Taurogen on the one hand and Laugszargen on the
other. Senders of money packets and other packages
shall not be required to frank them. Regardless of
Article XXXII. whether they are sending such items from Russia or
from Prussian post offices, they shall be afforded
For all packages sent with the heavy posts the opportunity to choose how they wish to present
through Taurogen and Laugszargen to other for- their items to the Post: unfranked, franked only as
eign states, likewise for such packages proceeding far as the Russo-Prussian border, or franked all the
intheoppositedirection, Russiashallcollectweight- way to the destination.
rate fees only for the distance to and from Taurogen, Money packets and other packages sent from
while Prussia shall collect for the distance to and Russia through Prussia to other states may also be
from Laugszargen. No border porto fee for pack- sent unfranked. But if the senders wish to frank
ages shall be collected. However, for local pack- them, then they shall be permitted to frank them as
ages sent by heavy post between Taurogen and far as Taurogen or to the Prussian station which
Laugszargen, Russia shall calculate and collect the borders another, foreign state.
feesetforthinArticleXVIIforlocallettermail, and Packages coming via Prussia to Russia from
Prussia shall charge the lowest rate [extant on her other lands may also be unfranked, franked as far as
own territory]. Both Parties shall keep for them- the first or last point of the Prussian border, or
selves the collections from local money-[packets] franked to their destinations.
and otherpackages [posted from their own territories].
Packages sent from Russia shall be weighed Article XXXV.
and charged according to Russian weight [units of
measurement] on the basis of the Russian package If circumstances are considered favorable to
rate. Similarly, packages posted from Prussia shall increase the number of heavy postsbetweenthe two
be handled on the basis of Prussian weight [units of High Contracting Parties, then both postal adminis-
measurement] and the package rate in effect there. trations shall confer and establish new posts on the
basis of this supplemental treaty.

Rossica Journal Number 120 21
April 1993







V. Concerning Those Traveling by Article XXXVII.
Post Horse, Courier, and Relay.
Letters, manuscripts, and other items weighing

Article XXXVI. less than two pounds may be sent with the relays by
private individuals. [For this service], the senders
Those traveling by post horse or as couriers will be charged a special porto fee (in addition to the
shall be transported only between Taurogen and fee for the horse) for carriage of their mail in
Laugszargen or between Yurburg and Kassig- Prussian possessions. Senders of letters and manu-
kehmen. The border postal stations at those places scripts will be charged at the letter rate for each lot
shall be obliged to note the time of arrival at the ITR. note: 1/2 ounce] over two pounds; other items
station on the travelers' and couriers' tickets, and to weighing more than two pounds will be assessed a
return the tickets to the post rider or pochtar' con- porto fee at the package rate.
ducting them. Neither cash nor valuables, when their value is
It is forbidden to send post or courier horses declared, will be accepted for dispatch by relay.
from one state to the other to transport travelers They may be sent by relay only if their value is
from there. But if a traveler arriving at one state's undeclared, and the senders relieve [the Post] of any
borderstation from a station of the other's wishes to obligation to recompense them in the event their
return using those same horses, then this can be mail is lost.
permitted if the return is within six hours of the In Russia, the relays will be sent on one horse or
arrival. However, the post rider or pochtar' is re- on two, depending upon the items being carried.
quired to appear at the local postal station before the 1) Letters with no money, valuables, or docu-
return and request that the time of departure be ments enclosed will be sent on one horse at
noted on the ticket. one and one-half times the travel fee
(nPOrOHb-PROGON).
Article XXXVII. 2) Letters with money, valuables and doc-
uments enclosed, letters to persons of the
Depending upon their destination, relays be- IMPERIAL family, and dispatches on state
tween Russia and Prussiamaybe sent either through affairs addressed to ministers, governors-
Taurogen and Laugszargen, or through Polangen general, postal directors, or foreign envoys
and Immersat, or through Yurburg and must always be sent on two horses and
Kassigkehmen. accompanied by a special postillion (guard),
Both states' border post offices shall issue new at a three-horse travel fee.
ordersforposthorsesto therelaysthey receive from Packages sent by relay shall also be examined
the other, and the established duties shall be charged. and assessed [customs] duties.
In order to verify the payments marked on them,
these orders for post horses shall be filed in both VI. General Provisions.
states' accounts.
Once the exact time of arrival has been marked Article XXXIX.
on the tickets, both the tickets and the orders forpost
horses received from relays must be returned to the To make verification of the porto fee easier, and
post office whence the relay was dispatched. to make certain correspondence has been correctly,
Expenses from running the relays shall be bore all letters and greeting cards sent from Prussian post
by the general accounts of the St. Petersburg or offices shall be struck with a hand stamp of the
Tilsit General Post Offices. dispatching post office. If they bear no hand stamp,
letters received in Prussia from other states shall be
struckwith a hand stamp denoting the country oforigin.


22 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








In Russia, all letters and greeting cards shall also Neither [administration] shall charge porto fees
receive a postmark upon submission to the post. In for the return of these receipts.
the event no postmark is available, the date and
place where the letter was given to the Post shall be Article XLII.
entered by hand.
Upon receipt of notes [LUIHYlIbl -TSIDULY]
Article XL. from another post office that [addressees] have
been informed of insured letters, packages, or money,
Letters and packages marked "Poste Restante" the post offices of both states will be required
shall be kept at the post offices of either Party until immediately to make the necessary certificates
demanded by the addressee, but for no longer than [CIPABKH-SPRAVKI] for them, and, having re-
three months from the date of receipt. Once this corded what was on the notes, to send the notes back
period has expired, the mail in question shall be through the border post offices through which the
returned with the inscription "3A HEnPHH5ITI EMb" insured letters or packages were sent.
[ZA NEPRINYATIEM Not Claimed], and the
date of the letters' or greeting cards' receipt noted Article XLIII.
on the back.
For returned letters, only the porto fee that was Both postal administrations shall be responsible
charged upon their transfer at the border shall be for the safety of the mail, in conformity with both
assessed. states' current regulations pertaining to this subject,
Money paid to frank letters will not be re- only as far as the mail-transfer point, i.e., for that
imbursed. distance over which each of the aforementioned
Porto fees shall also be charged for returned administrations must carry the mail at their own
packages, in addition to the porto fees paid [for expense. It is agreed that these administrations shall
carriage] to the destinations, other expenses and also be responsible for any illegal actions, errors, or
Customs duties. In the event the sender of the negligence committed by officials and other in-
returned package cannot be found, or the value of dividuals under their jurisdiction.
the package is not sufficient to recover the porto fees
by selling it, the porto owed to a foreign post office Article XLIV.
shall be made up in part or in whole. The same
procedure shall be observed for those packages Having been altered by this Additional Con-
which, for whatever reason, cannot be delivered to vention, the terms of the Postal Convention of 12th
the address. Such packages must be returned no (24) December 1821 shall have no force during the
later than four weeks after their receipt, period of the former.
When these packages are returned, and due to
the Customs regulations of one of the two States Article XLV.
they cannot be permitted entry, the money paid to
frank it will be returned to the border post office. The terms of this additional convention do not
extend to Prussia's postal relations with the King-
Article XLI. dom of Poland. Those relations are determined by
a special clause.
The receipts [POCHHCKH-ROSPISKI] ac-
companying insured letters and parcels shall be
presented to the addressees for their signatures, and,
once this is done, the receipts shall be returned by
the next post to the post office of origin.


Rossica Journal Number 120 23
April 1993








VII. Onthe mplementationDateand Fake Russian Offices
Period of Validity Forthis Addi- Abroad Postmarks
tional Convention, and the Rati-
fication Thereof. by Dr. Gordon Torrey

Article XLVI In the course of collecting Used Abroad items
and working with Simon Tchilinghirian, I have
The term of this additional convention, which observed (and later suckered on) faked covers and
begins on November 1st [Old Style] of this year, is cancellations. Some of these were expensive "re-
set for 10 years. If, upon expiration of this term, search!" It is with this in mind that I am writing this
neither of the Contracting Parties declares a wish to short article to help and remind other collectors to
end the convention, it shall in that case continue in double check any item that is listed as scarce or rare.
force for another 10 years and so on, in 10-year First among the faked cancellations comes from
increments. the location YAOMYNG (Tchilinghirian &
Should one or the other Party wish to change the Stephens (T&S), p. 453, fig. 640) rated RR on
conditions of this convention for possible improve- cover. Illustrated is the hand-drawn example from
ment, expansion, and facilitation of their mutual their works. Aside from the normal date fakes-
postal relations, [that party] must so declare one date outside of known us-
year before the convention's term expires, and both b age- these can be some-
Parties must declare their readiness to enter into what easily spotted by not-
another convention. If such an agreement is not 10 1 20) ing that on covers there is
forthcoming in the space of that year, then this never a valid arrival stamp
additional convention will remain in force for an- 78 at the destination. The sec-
other ten years until a new convention is concluded. ond method is the lack of
minute detail that the faker overlooked. One small
ARTICLE XLVII. detail most often noted is that instead of the "stars"
being more or less exactly between the date bar
Ratification of this additional convention shall lines, the star on the right will be higher and almost
be exchanged in St. Petersburg during the [next] in line with the top date bar line. I suppose the ">K.
eight weeks. 1." took up more room than anticipated? This detail
is easy to overlook when casually glancing at these
In attestation of which, etc. cancellations. These cancels appear to almost per-
Done in St. Petersburg this 21st day of May (the 2nd fectly match the example shown and are in pristine
of June) 1843. condition, although any imperfections are masked
(signature) Fedor Pryanishnikov.
(signature) Heinrich Schmueckert. "bic

Ratified at Krasnoe Selo on 11 July 1843. 3 21 ]



*pnflqbH OB}'
"T-a--/P.T1,B .'18
oT.. -" 'b rop-*t

Cover with fake Yaomyng cancel. Enhanced cancel
normal size overlayed on reduced cover.

24 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







by the stamp (s). I have a cover dated 23-1-1921 to
Kharbin which came from the collection of a noted
collector-it is a fake. I also have a block of six
given to me by Dave Skipton that bears a fake.
Check the date, the location of the star on the right
side, and the obverse for arrival marks. Chances are
that what you are about to purchase is a fake if it
meets any of the criteria established above. .
The second forgery is from SHANG-
HAIKWANG (T&S, p. 462, fig. 637) on a postcard
dated 15-5-1905. The card is a Japanese Red Cross
picture postcard inscribed in Japanese "Imperial .
Princesses Making Bandages." The give-away on
this item is the cancellation date--the Russians Fake Feld Post No.3 chance
evacuated the city on 8 October 1902. The cover is
addressed to someone in the "1st Compagnie de The question arises as to the origin of these two
Infantry ColonialeSHANGHAIKWANG."So,we cards. It would seem that they originated in Japan,
have the French Army in Shanghaikwang!? however, the "addressee" is French. Could itbe that
someone with the Russian Army absconded with
Ri^f/* the datestamps and then obtained the Japanese
S 27 cards at a later date? Another possibility is that
S19 -02 1 someone obtained the devices from the archives,
V11 found cards he thought to be suitable, and "filtered"
V I OT them outside the Soviet Union-not easy unless
you had connections.
All of these items began appearing in the late
Tchilinghirian & Stephen example. 1970s and early 1980s, possibly via Leningrad to
Europe and the United States. Eventually the phila-
telic community will track down the source and,
hopefully, make publicly known who orchestrated
7 or participate in this scam. Last I heard, they were
Swell on their way to an answer. In the meantime,
.^ 3 . "buyer BEWARE!"
If you have an item that you feel may be a fake
"or forgery, discuss it with other members and, if
found to be a fake or forgery, expose it to the rest of
the philatelic community.
Fake Shanghaikwang cancel Rossica members may submit any item for
which they wish an opinion. Although cancella-
The last fake is what purports to be Field Post tions are elusive and not normally expertise, some-
Office No. 3, used at Shanghaikwang on dated 27 times they can be judged as fakes or forgeries based
September 1905. Again, the date is the give-away, on the date canceled, origin of cancellation, ormany
This item is a postcard portraying two Japanese other various factors.
ladies in traditional dress. The postcard is addressed
to France, but there are no French markings.


Rossica Journal Number 120 25
April 1993







99 Bottles of Beer

by Gary A. Combs

M ost people think that the Russians drank distributors on which the requester needs only to
only vodka or, if in the elite, perhaps the finest enter the date, quantity, address, and name.
French wines and cognac. But what about one of the In this article we will take a look at nine post-
oldest and most widely acknowledged alcoholic cards from four of Moscow's distributors. They
beverages in the world BEER? Or mead? represent pre-printed cards and cards with a
In the 1870s-1890sone occasionally encounters "stamped" impression of the company name on the
pre-printedstampedpostcardsfromMoscow'sbeer front and ordering information on the reverse side.


TrII Bell^,^sma AI, r.

1 Iflor ....ropo go ,

AKILIOHEPHAFO OBELECTBA
",,MOCKOBCHAR BBAPIR"
f-b CupoMafnNKax1i.
TpeGouaHic
j; Aroe.Ta AjeKaHA.p-. japioBHLs Pfoyi4FHHrib.
The item shown in fig. 1 is an inner-city postcard from the first postcard issue of May 1872. The









text on the front and the back was professionally printed by the "State Printing Office Eh.Z.G.B." in
W=n -W. Peb XMaMmc e f 0Dlo c-^%^r- Apyi>











black. The ard is addressed to the"Board of the Joint Stock Company 'Moscow Bavaria' in Syromyatniki,







Photographic Theater on 10 August 1876. The order is dated 9 August 1876 and posted on 10 August 1876
6 Rosica Journa ..........r 1. ....
11 0 T 1< ip. 1- 6>'ax' April 1993


TOKC ...... .. IlQ'Pl' Is 6oqaaXT. ,
MocK.n,^'^ -<1U876 r. iOAflKH Z lCb /Z71

Figure 1.
The item shown in fig. 1 is an inner-city postcard from the first postcard issue of 1 May 1872. The
text on the front and the back was professionally printed by the "State Printing Office Eh.Z.G.B." in
black. The card is addressed to the "Board of the Joint Stock Company 'Moscow Bavaria' in Syromyatniki,
Order Agent Aleksander Karlovich Kumming." On the reverse side Mr. Konarskii requests that thirty
bottles of Viennese beer be sent to Kuznetskii Most, the house of Solodovnikov, in the M.N. Kanarskii
Photographic Theater on 10 August 1876. The order is dated 9 August 1876 and posted on 10 August 1876
with a standard Moscow Town Post postmark in red.
26 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







Fgure 2.






SI...... .. H.BOBAPEHIHLrAO BAB.O&A_..

-,MOCI{OBCI{A II-AB API-g"- .





Figure 2 is a postcard from the 5th issue of 1 April
",". (<-, .>r / ..... -.. .... _. .



"1879. The text on the front and back was stamped in blue ..
ink. The card is addressed to "Office of the Brewery
'Moscow Bavaria' in Syromyatniki."On the reverse side
the writer requests that 5 (?) barrels of mead be sent to the
"Panin Restaurant" in the Pokrovskaya zastava on 16 4
August 1883. The number 19624 written in ink on the
back was probably applied by the individual ordering the mead and possibly represents an internal
accounting number. The other number, 3276-4-15, is probably an accounting number entered at the
brewery. The order is dated 16 August 1883 and posted on 16 August 1883 with a standard Moscow Town
Post datestamp in red. This should tell us something about the efficiency of or the relationship between
the beer seller and the Post Office!
"Figure 3.






oOTrJloP NT(( ER EO 8-l c



P M MAny .n..o
.. -aroY--..







Figure 3 is a postcard from the 6th issue of April 1884.
The text on the front and back was stamped in purple ink. n o .A .....
The card is addressed to "Office of the Brewery 'Moscow
Bavaria' in Syromyatniki." On the reverse the writer
requests that 40 bottles of Viennese and 40 bottles of table beer be sent to "Karetnij Ryad-Coach-house
Row" on 26 October 1884. The number 17 written in ink on the back was probably applied at the brewery.
The order is posted on 25 August 1884 with a standard Moscow Town Post datestamp in black at 4 P.M.
Rossica Journal Number 120 27
April 1993







Figure 4.

Sallo/ elQTI Q 1cTIT a 1m o011 3 ao DrUDD:

SOTRPblTOE RHlCbMe. b f ...
ISompro ... ......
............... OHTOPY ..... . .. .
....o..u r o m n .

S..................... .> .


...no .. u ..r e a. ..o.^as ia > > .... .... .. ... . '. '*U a
.......... ...... ......... ... ........ .. ....... ....
........... ................. .. ................... ......... .......... .... .. ................ ..................................... I P y A > .-

HA n lK i oe n B U tO f t > o >po r 6 -9 .....
I" 6^n X" Jt 2- 6arom.. ..m. .. .

Figure 4 is a postcard from the 5th issue of 1 April .: / ". /
1879. The text on the front and back was professionally 4 / // ./ ,.._
printed in black. The card is addressed to "Office of the i / //0 A"w.
Shabolovskii Brewery 'Kamyeev, Gorshanov, and Com- 2
pany,' in the Shabolovka." On the reverse side the writer t / / A,
requests that 10 buckets of draft beer be sent to "Sparrow j
Hills"-unfortunately,nopostmarkfromthere-on8 May
1883. The directions provided are very detailed and the
writer adds "please do not delay."


o01iiy oWiHyCTITt no ylasauoxy ue anIcy:
doqn. dryua
Figure 5 also is a postcard from the 5th issue of ...
1 April 1879 with the text on the front and back g.. ... ......
professionally printed in black. The card is ad- apao nar aEonop BVO .
dressed to "Office of the ShabQlovskii Brewery Ne.wcaro n .. .
'Karyeev, Gorshanov, and Company,' in the Bi,,ar '
Shabolovka." On the reverse side the writer re- Xpao. pa .. .
quests that 200 bottles of Viennese beer and 20 r p ..ar.o HB.... .. . .
bottles of Black beer be sent to Pokrovskii most in ,> CapxalTro .
the Malaya Simenovka, the house of Melkhanov, in Fyowaoro naponaro nU ....... .
the port (v porte)-possibly "beershop"- of MeAa n 1-4 posoBvear .. ...
Terent'ev. It is signed Ivanov. Canceled by a faint > 61wro. . .
red Moscow Town Post mark on the front which is > a- pososaro .. .
illegible. ar. .
Note the spelling of "BAPXATHAFO" in fig. 5 As ..........
- spelled "BAPXAT5I" in fig. 4. Our beer expert ' .....
G.G. Werbizky says that the spelling in fig. 5 is the .t aa_ ""'-'1 "-c .
correctversion. Maybe the printerwas sampling the c -- for, m
wares when he made the first batch of cards. -- 9/ ,, / .


Figure 5.

28 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







Figure 6.

A^A OTI**11TO I':" .hi h PO '" "


Bb RKOHTOPY . .i .. .
m-ABiOJOBClAr IiBOBAPBHHArOA a. .... "
SIapcuro. ru-u SCepn T. .
KAPHtEB'1t I'OPmIAHOB'I -1 n.u-e..ro u.ar ".., ..
B MOCK B, BiBotaro nl .. . .
,,- c% ipacs. UpaN _,
180nu"or.. .......0

r .Me 14* M . ..
Pieoiaro -pcgro oiu. .
I, *. .w....
Figure 6 is a postcard from the 6th issue of April 2 po .. .
1884 with the text on the front and back profession- . .
ally printed in black. The card is addressed to atp .
"Office of the Shabolovskii Brewery 'Kamyeev,
Gorshanov, and Company,' in the Shabolovka." .
This card represents a different printing as seen on ....
the back of the card which now offers stout beer in ... _. ..............
bottles or half-bottles. On the previous version one
could order only bottles of stout. A standard Mos-
cow Town Post mark of 14 August 1886 at 9 AM
postmarks the card. ,.
"fpowoy omao7aumb HtAs uoovs ,.e, .r

Rhma ,B.rr'

OT TO lapckaro "

MOCKOBCKAPO c Okupi....... ... .
Ct ...b. .. Ia w jch nw opme .. ... .. ....





S.T ,, c d r "3 e u : i y --.-* -.-. l.*.61..







Figure 7 is a postcard from the 6th issue of April 1884. The text on the front and back was stamped
"in purple ink. The card is addressed to "Office of the Moscow 'Vienna' Society's Warehouse" located in
Myasnitsa on the corner of Milyutinskii and Yushkov lanes, house No. 2/20. This card was used by a Mr.
Sarpanov to order Viennese beer and represents the only example of a distributor offering bock beer.

Rossica Journal Number 120 29
SApTril 1993 l
Figure 7.

Figure 7 is a postcard from the 6th issue of April 1884. The text on the front and back was stamped
in purple ink. The card is addressed to "Office of the Moscow 'Vienna' Society's Warehouse" located in
Myasnitsa on the comer of Milyutinskii and Yushkov lanes, house No. 2/20. This card was used by a Mr.
Sarpanov to order Viennese beer and represents the only example of a distributor offering bock beer.
Rossica Journal Number 120 29
April 1993






Figure 8.


t OTKPLITOE IIHCO MO.

B'b RiOHTOPY
S' o H 0.P y ............


TPEXrOP.H A rF


HIOBAPEHHArO 3ABOAAI

y 0oporouno1oncKoft uracTasr .
Ha enIo4 ciNopoeii nuinCeI mc o.mao aopees.




npomy npNCnaTb no HnmecjitAyloutey aApecy:

BlrHCIaro: .....y..... .TbiAoIR.

BeAepa B. /..........
Borexcxaro: .
,4IoBfHt 30OT. flpanJuh":
Eyajbxaxcuaro:


AApeci:..... .... ..




Figure 8 is a postcard from the 10th issue of March 1890. The text on the front and on the back was
professionally printed in black ink. The card is addressed to "Office of the Trekhgomyi Brewery at
Dorogomilovskaya zastava." On the reverse side the writer requests that 10 (?) barrels of Viennese beer
be sent to a Mr. Sobolev at Bol'shaya Nikitskaya "IHBHA'I"-PIVNAYA- a "beer hall, pub, alehouse,
or barroom." The number 59622 written in ink on the back was probably applied by the brewery. There
is no request date and the card was postmarked on 19 June 1890 with a standard Moscow Town Post
datestamp in black at 9 A.M.

30 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993






Figure 9.


Q OTEPbITOE IIHOLMO.


B 'j 0 II T P


..TP.EXTO PHAf.O.


S. ..... ........... ...... AP HA.... ....A- .....

y Aopo r oIItn 1 0 ietof anc Iu.
Ha omaol emopoun. numrmne mno.i.Kio uOpems.



npouy npcnarTb no HrNecatAYlouIey aApecy:
B'ueMcaro: BeAep Ba poa Bas. /, /y / .
S B9 Go6qKax -x

no K a r o : ..... .p .. .. ... ...... .... ... ........ ............. .......... .... .........


lW BA Y.... .. ............ .............. ....... .. .. ........
^KcnopTa:
y : ...... : ... ....... ......... ........ ............. ...................6a x c...... ..........ar :.................

MAApecy: 7
". ". . ... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .
A;, ., ;:.. / (



Figure 9 is a postcard from the 10th issue of March 1890. The text on the front and on the back was
professionally printed in black ink and differs from fig. 8 when ordering Viennese beer. The card is
addressed to "Office of the Trekhgomyi Brewery at Dorogomilovskaya zastava." On the reverse side the
writer requests that 2 buckets of draft Viennese beer and 3 SKANSI or SKANSA (?) of Double Gold Label
beer be sent to Mr. Zhukov at the home of Kharitov on Neglinskii Proezd in the morning of 17
September-eary party? The card was postmarked on 16 September 1891 with a standard Moscow Town
Post datestamp in black at 12 noon. Note that this is the new cross-date device introduced in 1890.

Rossica Journal Number 120 31
April 1993








The following list is a compilation of possible The Russian system for measuring liquids is
items from all four distributors as listed on the re- explained here compliments of George Werbizky.
verse side of the cards. 1 bucket (BEIPO-VEDRO) = 10 mugs
Beer (HBO-PIVO) (KPY)KKA-KRUZhKA)
Golden (307IOTAFO-ZOLOTAGO) 10 mugs = 100 cups or gin-glasses (4APKA-
Kulmbach (KYJIbMBAXCKAFO- ChARKA)
KUL'MBAKHSKAGO) 100 cups or gin-glasses = 12.3 liters
Amber (M5HTAPHAFO-YANTARNAGO) As a point of reference, the following U.S. measures
Viennese (BIHCKAFO-VENSKAGO) are provided:
with a red label (Cb KPACH. FIPJIbIK.-S 1 U.S. liquid quart = 0.946 liters
KRASN. YARLYK.) 1 U.S. barrel = 119 liters or about 10 Russian
Table (CTOJIOBAFO-STOLOVAGO) buckets
Bohemian (BOFEMCKAFO-BOGEMSKAGO)
Double Gold Label (LBORIH. 3010OT. IPJIbIKb I have not been able to find out how Russian
-DVOIN. ZOLOT. YARLYK.) buckets equate to Russian barrels, or what the
Export(3KCnOPTHAFO-EHKSPORTNAGO) difference is between "draft beer" and beer pro-
spelled three different ways: 3KcnopTb, vided in a barrel or bucket. Perhaps some member
3KcnopTy, 3KcnopTa (Ehksport, can better explain how the breweries satisfied their
Ehksportu, Ehksporta) customers.
Black (LEPHAFO-CHERNAGO) I have seen order cards only between the years
Black Velvet (LEPHAFO BAPXATHAFO- 1879-1891 used in both Moscow and St. Peters-
CHERNAGO BARKHATNAGO) burg. Does this mean that these cards were in use
velvet is spelled two different ways: only 12 years? If so, why were they stopped?
BAPXATHAFO-BARKHATNAGO and The wide variety of "brewskii" available sug-
BAPXAT--BARKHATYA gests that the taste buds of the average Muscovite
Russian Folk (PYCCKAFO HAPOIHAFO- were both varied and somewhat sophisticated. The
RUSSKAGO NARODNAGO) different methods of brewing beer--pale, dark,
Tsar'sExport (IAPCKAFOHHBA3KCnOPTY- black, pils, etc.-normally associated with Euro-
TSARSKAGO PIVA EhKSPORTU) pean countries and the variety of spellings perhaps
Pilsen (nHJIb3EHCKAFO-PIL'ZENSKAGO) suggests that Germans ran the breweries and did a
Stout (HOPTEPA-PORTERA) thriving business. One thing is certain, the postal
Bock (BOKBHPb-BOKBIR) system and the breweries worked together very
Ale (3JIb-EhL') well-name one other mail order place in any city
Mead (MEFA-MEDA and MEIY-MEDU) that you can fill in a card, drop it in the post at noon
No. 1 White (BbJIAFO-BELAGO) today and expect delivery tomorrow morning!
Ros6 (PO30BAFO-ROZOVAGO) Let the linguist purists debate ad nauseum over
No. 2 White or Ros6 the correct usage of all cases and associated spell-
(The use of"No. 1" and "No. 2" refer to the quality ings! Even the breweries could not get it straight.
of the honey used in making the mead which is a HA 3iIOPOBbE !
fermented honey and water alcoholic beverage.
Number 1 honey is better than number 2 honey.)
Beer could be purchased by the bottle
(BYTblIKA-BUTYLKA) or half-bottle (HnOlY-
BYTbIIKA-POLUBUTYLKA) depending on the
beer as well as in barrels (BOqKH-BOChKI) of
different bucket (VEDRO-VEDRO) sizes. Draft
beer (v rozlive) was also available.

32 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Russian America

by V. Boiko
translated by George G. Werbizky from "Filateliya" No. 11, 1991, Moscow.

W while celebrating the 250th anniversary of over the years. However, some do exist from the
Russian America, it is interesting to note a long pre-stamp period and would, therefore, not have
forgotten fact; that within the possessions of the any official state markings to indicate payment of
Russian American Company (RAC) (a huge ter- postal tariffs. One must assume that such corre-
ritory, which included not only Alaska, but also spondence would be accompanied by some sort
the Pribylov, Aleut, and even the Kurile Islands) of annotation certifying that the fees had been
special tokens were used that were officially paid according to the system of franking [ i.e.,
called "MAPKH" (MARKI)-stamps. Therefore, existing postal rates-Trans.]. Yet letters that we have
the question arises-were these tokens used as seen lack any postal annotations. Therefore, the
they were named, as verification of postage paid? discussion returns to these monetary tokens or,
The question is not an idle one since there are more appropriately, paper money, which was
authors who think that the RAC stamps were called "stamps" as opposed to money [ hard cur-
meant to pay for correspondence from Novo- rency-gold and silver-Trans]. These "stamps" car-
Arkhangel'sk (the capital of Russian America) to ried denominations as defined by the State Trea-
Russia, where the RAC headquarters was lo- sury which were in circulation in the Russian
cated, first in Irkutsk and later in St. Petersburg, Empire. Mr. D. Zavalishin provides this unam-
and to offices of the company and its agencies biguous definition:
which were located first in Okhotsk and later in
Ayan. This error is the result of the modern "In the colonies the only money in existence is the
meaning of the word "stamp." company tokens, which are used to buy just about any-
There are at least two points that counter the thing from the company, and to deal with each other.
When an individual leaves the colony, that individual is
postal use of these tokens: when they first ap- issued a certificate that can be exchanged for money in any
peared, the concept of a "postage stamp" did not office of the Russian-American Company in Russia."2
exist; the majority of RAC correspondence-
and there was a lot of it-going in both directions As far as the use of the term "marki" is
was handled by the company itself and thus concerned, perhaps there is a linguistic expla-
additional payment for transit was not necessary. nation. Here, apparently, the semantic meaning
Let us look at the statistics for one year, of the word "MARK" was influenced by both the
which does not significantly differ from other English and German languages. In the English
years. "During 1849, the headquarters received language "MARK" means "sign" [TR. note: or
2,106 pieces of correspondence from local of- token], in the German language it is a monetary
fices, trading posts, and other places .. Dis- unit-German Mark.
patches were to the colonies and traveled with the The introduction of these "tokens" was nec-
colonial mail in March and April of 1850 essary due to the lack of Russian money in the
Outgoing mail consisted of 1,419 pieces of cor- territories of the RAC. This is especially true
respondence." 1 relative to coins and paper money of small de-
In addition to the correspondence mentioned nominations. Employees and hunter-traders had
above, the denomination of these "stamps" was to be compensated using a barter system and,
much higher than existing postal rates of the since the RAC had no customs officials assigned,
time. To put aside all doubts, one must review the there was a continuous flow of Russian currency
so-called RAC "Colonial" mail. This is not an abroad.
easy task since very few pieces have been saved
Rossica Journal Number 120 33
April 1993







As early as 1803, only four years after the Finally, but of equal importance, the wording
RAC was established, RAC General Manager A. on tokens duplicated exactly the main elements
A. Baranov was reporting to the board about of the RAC seal. However, in the "Acts of Incor-
difficulties encountered when settling accounts portion of the American Company," the precise
with employees and natives due to the lack of text of the seal is not stated:
currency. "The main company office must have its own unique
In 1816 the first tokens were issued in Rus- seal with proper emblem and text in Russian and Latin
sian America. Since paper tokens were used and stating that the seal is that of the main office of the
Incorporated American Company. Other offices must
paper tends to wear out quickly, additional to- also have a seal and all offices must have a device of
kens were issued. Tokens in the following de- similar design for affixing lead seals to containers and
nominations are known to have been issued: bales." 3
10-, 25-, and 50-kop. values; 1-, 5-, 10-, and
25-ruble values. Some of these tokens, even
though they were of different denominations, '
were the same size and color, thus complicating
financial transactions with the natives. To elimi-
nate this problem, tokens of the same size but '
bearing different denominations had various cor- .
ners trimmed. To distinguish the 10-ruble value '
from the 50-kop. value, the 50-kop. value had -,
the upper comers trimmed. The 25-kop. value :
had all four corners trimmed to differentiate it .i,
from the 5-ruble value. The 10-kop. values were "Token in America, 10-rubles, No. 591, Dir.(ector)
trimmed to represent a circle, thus distinguishing Andr(ei) Severin"
it from the 1-ruble value.
The only place we find an exact description
of the seal used by the main office, located in
r Irkutsk, as well as the other offices is in a 1799
..'.. document titled "Rules for the Establishment of
the Company." The document states:
"Management must have a seal with the Imperial coat-
f\p of-arms containing the following wording: The Seal of
"" the Russian American Company Under the Protection of
.. His Imperial Majesty." 4

Company Seal on a 25-kop. token. | 6t .. rc/rnoi l'

Another contributing factor to the confusion
and erroneous identification of tokens that were ,,- -,-
not altered was that the overall appearance was -f .
the same-even though they had different de- o
nominations. The design used for the tokens I .,,,,,;. ..;
consisted of an oval in the center with the inscrip- ,.. ,r ., ,
tion "The Seal of the Russian American Com-
pany under the protection of His Imperial Maj- Cover to St. Petersburg. Text reads:
Dear Sir
esty." Within the oval above the words "Seal of Dear T irc
Cyril Timofeevich
the Russian American Company" the imperial Khlebnikov
coat of arms is displayed. Russian-American Company, Main Board of Directors

34 Rossica'Journal Number 120
April 1993









Offices in the territories were to comply as fol- 4. The Rules for the Incorporating Company,
lows: St. Petersburg, 13.
"The Main Office is to supply other offices with 5. Ibid., 15.
smaller seals with the coat of arms and similar word-
ing as appropriate." 5
[It should be pointed out that as early as 1938 Rossica in
References: issue No. 30 of the journal correctly identified RAC
1. Russian American Company Yearly Report "stamps" as money used in "Russian America." For those
for 1849, St. Petersburg, p. 17. interested in further information on the subject, I recom-
Z, D, R n A n C p mend the following articles:
2. Zavalishin, D., RussianAmerican Comany 1. "Paper Money" by S.V. Prigara, Rossica No. 41,
Moscow, 1865, P. 44. June 1941.
3. Incorporation Acts of the United American 2. "The Mother Lode of Russian-Alaskan Postal His-
Company, St. Petersburg, 1787, 13. tory" by M. Rayhack, Rossica No. 68, May 1965.
-Trans]



RUSSIA IN AMERICA 1784-17 .







S.[The map to the left and the historical chart
,r. '- A Sit'A below are not in the original article. They are
T , *fADA from the "Atlas of Russian History" by M.
/A Gilbert, published by Dorset Press, USA, 1972,
p. 44. They were added to give the reader a
,- ^ broader picture of the subject. Alaska did not
'.***** become a state until 1959.-Ed.]
--- --------,__________-~ _





PACIFIC



1784 First Russian settlement established at Old 1821 Russian claim to exclusive navigational rights
Kodiak. It moved in 1792 to a better site at above 51 North rebutted by the U. S. Monroe
Kodiak. doctrine of 1823.
1799 Russian town of Mikhailovsk founded. It was 1834 Fort Wrangel built to prevent growing British
destroyed by the Aleuts in 1802. influence on Pacific Coast.

1804 New Archangel founded, later renamed Sitka. 1835 Russian claim to exclusive rights above 540 40'
North ignored by whalers and traders.
1811 Fort Ross founded to counter Spanish control of
San Francisco. It was sold to an American 1867 Alaska, including Aleutian, St. Lawrence, and
trading company in 1841. Pribylov Islands sold by Russia to the United
States for 7.2 million dollars.
1820 Russians failed to obtain a trading foothold in the States for 7.2 million dollars.
Hawaiian Islands.



Rossica Journal Number 120 35
April 1993








Imperial Russian Officers Deltiology (part 6)


by Dr. William Nickle

The picture postcard glory days extend from cialized appointments were: General-of-Infantry,
1895-1917 in Russia as in other countries of Europe General-of-Cavalry, General-of-Artillery, Gen-
and the United States. This period includes the eral-of-Engineers.
Boxer Rebellion, the Russo-Japanese War and The Navy ranks were (bottom to top): Rear
WWI. Numerous themes are presented on these Admiral, Vice-Admiral, Admiral, General-Admi-
postcards: war bond promotions, anti-German pro- ral. The General-Admiral was equivalent to Field-
paganda, ships, planes, Red Cross activities, battle Marshal General and was the highest rank used
scenes, soldiers, officers, and many other similar from 1708 to 1908. In the period 1855-1905, the
subjects. General-Admirals were the Grand Dukes
I have 15 picture postcards from this period Konstantin Nikolaevich and Aleksei Aleksan-
depicting Russian generals and admirals, none of drovich, main chiefs of the Navy and the Depart-
whom seem to have had much good luck, and most ment of the Navy.
did not live long enough to experience the new General-Ad"yutant (aide-de-camp) was es-
Soviet state. They are quite rare, fairly expensive, tablished in 1716 as a high military ranking and
and definitely collectible. The predominant Rus- lasted until the 20th century. It was an appointment
sian manufacturer appears to be A. I. Mamontov in often for administrative duties of a high order and
Moscow. could be held by the highest ranking officials. For
The examples chosen for this issue of the jour- example, a Field-Marshal General could also be a
nal are merely the tip of the postcard iceberg. In General-Ad"yutant. From the early 19th century
future issues of the journal I hope to show more of the rank became one of the titles in the Imperial suite
these gallant men of the past. granted for military service and state activity.
In the Imperial military rank structure, the gen- The following chart shows how these high
eral ranks were from bottom to top: Major-General, ranking military and Navy personnel fit into the
Lieutenant-General, Field-Marshal General. Spe- Imperial "pecking order."

Rank Civilian Military Navy Court
1 State Chancellor General-Fieldmarshal General-Admiral Ober-Kamerger
Ober-Hofmarshal
Ober-Shtalmeister
Ober-Jaegermeister
Ober-Hofmeister
Ober-Shenk
Ober-Tseremonijmeister
Ober-Forshnejder

2 Voting member of General-of- Cavalry Admiral
the Privy Council General-of-Infantry
General-of-Artillery

3 Member of the General-Lieutenant Vice-Admiral Hofmeister
Privy Council Hofmarshal
Jaegermeister
etc.

4 Voting member of General-Major Rear-Admiral
the State Council
Comparative Table of Russian Ranks
36 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993
































n. Peomemaxna v

General-Ad"yutantNikolaiPetrovichLinevich General-Ad"yutant Pavel Karlovich
(24 Dec. 1838/5 Jan. 1939-10/23 Apr. 1908) en- Rennenkampf (17/29 Mar. 1854-March 1915)
tered the army as a Junker in 1855 and served in the graduated from the Helsingfors Infantry Junkers
Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878. In 1895 he School in 1873 and was a graduate of the Academy
commanded the South Ussuri detachment and by of the General Staff. He was in charge of a cavalry
1900 was in charge of a corps. brigade during the Boxer Rebellion and commanded
As commander-in-chief of the West's troops the Transbaikal Cossack Division in the Russo-
in the Boxer Rebellion (1900-1901), he directed Japanese War. (Anton Ivanovich Deniken served
the storming of Peking. In 1903 he was promoted to under Rennenkampfduringthiswar.) Rennenkampf
General-of-Infantry, placed in charge of the troops handled the cavalry in classic deployment for re-
assigned to the Amur military district, and became connaissance, but the strong Japanese infantry de-
the Governor-General of the Amur region. fenses frustrated these efforts.
During the Russo-Japanese War, he was in In 1905-1907, as commander of a punitive
charge of the Manchurian First Army from October detachment, he brutally suppressed the revolu-
1904 until March 1905. Linevich was appointed tionary movement in Eastern Siberia.
General-Ad"yutant on 3 March 1905 and rose to On 17 August 1914, while commanding the
Commander-in-Chief of the Far Eastern Armed FirstArmy ofthe Northwest Front, his armycrossed
Forces. This last assignment replaced Alekseev and into East Prussia and suffered heavy losses; his
Kuropatkin. However, since the warwas nearing its negligence led to the defeat of the I and II Armies
end, he had little chance to exhibit his talents. and he allowed the German forces to break through
Linevich was relieved of his command in Feb- during the Lodz' operation of 1914. He was relieved
ruary 1906 for lack of aggressiveness in fighting the of his command and went into retirement.
revolutionary movement. After the October Revolution, Rennenkampf was
arrested by the Bolsheviks and shot at Taganrog.
Rossica Journal Number 120 37
April 1993































reBepaj. SupoiLL-h UlITAEIbBKPr'. \'t,


General Baron Shtakel'berg (??-March 1917) boats using, for the first time, the Whitehead self-
served under Rennenkampf as commander of the propelled torpedo.
Siberian Cossack Corps, but in general without From 1886-1889, he commanded the corvette
success. He was skillful in the use of artillery. At the Vityaz' and sailed around the world. He was the
unsuccessfulbattle of Sandepu, Shtakel'berg, against Chief Inspector of Naval Artillery in 1894 and was
orders, attacked and captured a key objective. For promoted to the rank of Vice-Admiral in 1896.
his actions, he was later relieved of his command of In 1896 Vice-Admiral Makarov transferred to
the Corps. In August 1914, he was with the II Army the Baltic fleet and directed the construction of the
(General Samsonov) of the Northwest Front. icebreaker Yermak. In 1897 he published a book on
Shtakel'berg was in Petrograd at the time of the modem naval tactics, and in 1901 sailed to the
February (March) Revolution. He was dragged Barents Sea, Franz JosefLand, and NovayaZemlya.
from his house on false charges of firing on the On 1/14February 1904Vice-AdmiralMakarov
crowd and brutally murdered, was appointed as commander of the Pacific Ocean
Squadron and defended Port Arthur. On 13 April
Vice-Admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov (27 (New Style) he took to sea to chase Japanese
December 1848(8 January 1849)-31 March (13 cruisers, but his armor-clad flagship Petropavlovsk
April) 1904, wasborn atNikolaev, the son of a naval hit a mine and sank. In addition to Makarov, the
ensign who had risen from the ranks. He was renowned artist Vasilii Vasil'evich Vereshchagin
renowned as a commander, oceanographer, polar perished when the ship sank.
explorer, and shipbuilder. An 1865 graduate of the
naval school, Makarov served in the Pacific area Special thanks to Denys Voaden for the research
until 1871 when he transferred to the Baltic fleet. used in this article.
During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-8, he
initiated the use of mine-carrying ships and torpedo
38 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







Russian Stamps Used in the Aland Islands

by Rev. Leonard Tann

Past issues of the journals of Rossica and In the 19th century, during the stamp-issuing
BSRP have published articles on Finland and period, Finnish stamps and stationery were used
its postal history. These were excellent articles by both for internal mail and for such ex-Finland mail
acknowledged experts such as August Leppi, as might have occurred among this relatively sparse
Luciano Buzetti, Oleg Faberg6, Kaj Hellman, and population. From 1900, during the "Russification
the late Dr. Alfred Wortman. The Period," mail ex-Finland had to be
beauty of these articles is that en franked with Russian stamps. Residual
passant-other points are raised and Covering roughly supplies were sent to Finland of the
left for others to deal with. Further, 581 square miles, old 188992 Arms issue, then of the
recent issues of Rossica and the the 300 islands 1902-06 issue, and finally the 1909-
BSRP'sjournals published seminal and rocky islets 12 issue. Because of the curious
articles opening fresh avenues of are barely inhab- anomaly engendered by paying for
study and discussion for others to ited-only80 have stamps denominated in kopeek and
join in. been populated. rubles in actual Finnish coinage of
With some trepidation, I offer markkaa and pennia, the 2-kop.
these few notes hoping to open up stamps cost 5 pennia and a single 10-
the subject and to encourage members and collec- kop. stamp cost 27 pennia. The plethora of 2-kop.
tors on both sides of "the pond" to bring forth a stamps encountered used in Finland during this
follow-up article, period arises from the fact that five 2-kop stamps
The Aland Islands are an archipelago located in cheated the Russian postal authorities of 2 pennia.
the Southern part of the Gulf of Bothnia between Itisnot, therefore, surprisingthatoftheRussian
Sweden and Finland. The chief island is stamps known used in the Aland Islands, most are
Ahvenanmaa, or Aland, and the capital is ofthe2-kop.value.Russianstarpswereoccasion-
Maarianhamnina,orMariehamn. Covering roughly ally used on mail destined within Finland, but had
581 square miles, the 300 islands and rocky islets to be used on ex-Finland mail. While perhaps not
are barely inhabited--only 80 have been populated, many Alanders had contacts outside of the islands
These islands constituted but a tiny corner of the of Finland, it was a fairly popular holiday resort for
Russian Empire. They were part of the Grand Russian aristocracy and the well-to-do, and they
Duchy of Finland ceded to Russia by Gustavus IV undoubtedly sent postcards home to St. Petersburg,
of Sweden in 1809. After the Great War, the League Moscow, etc. Possibly the new Russian Republic
of Nations decided the status of the Aland archi- might yield some of the surviving ones to us.
pelago-confirmed as part of the new Republic of Russian material used in the Aland Islands is
Finland, but with a large measure of internal au- scarce and I am very grateful to my very good friend
tonomy. The Aland Islands were neutralized and Rend Hillesum of the Netherlands for allowing me
demilitarized by treaty in 1921-1922. The 1926 to show a few of the magnificent Aland items in his
census found the total population to be under30,000. collection. A few years ago when I visited Rend, he
In the earlier empire period, it must have been less showed me what is one of the finest collections of
than that. Because of the treacherous sea currents Russian-Finland I have ever seen.
and fairly mild weather in the late October to March Ivo Steyn, past editor of the Dutch East Europa
period of the year, mail that was carried by ship was Journal and now Editor of the BSRP journal, has
taken from/to Abo(Turku) in Finland, and dis- written on the variations in Russian spelling in
patched from there. Additionally, mail was taken to Finnish postmarks. Thus, I will not cover that item
Stockholm and forwarded from there. in this article.
Rossica Journal Number 120 39
April 1993









^^s^^'^^ e '''
J MO I .. ...... .


tS ^% V VV. -" "" /
"" AA..A ."
/ ..,,





'.," i I-




Maeam 5.r Sund ;0tj .--i "
AU ,i" l







3. Lemland 7. Ekkero /. ....... : ;
.1 1 6 ..,.
4. W ardo '" "/ ... i "'* ', "' i" \

An enlargement of a map of the Alands taken from the Marks Atlas 1905, showing spelling variants of the towns and
villages.






@ BREFKORT
"" Carte postale
a aid& anviLdes endast f6r adreaseringe



.. ...... .....t ............ ... ....... .. ...









Postcard franked with 2 x 2-kop. stamps from the 1902-06 issue with a nice Sund cancel and a bilingual Mariehamn.
( Collection of Rene Hillesum.)


40 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993















S- A Postcard franked with 2 x 2-
S..-... ... kop. stamps from the 1909-
--"!. ak mn-17 i -ssue with a nice Getabiln-
S. _. gual canceL (Collection of
"^t^_ .......... Rene Hillesum.)















A very ine 7-kop. letter card ad-


..lingual cancel of Marehamn. (Col-
lection of Rend Hillesum.)










Postkarte Carte postal
Itpostverein Union postal universelle
Ccrre-pcmdeaz Dopimce -
i.a.t CaLu PleDoihu -- K.-poad.c u
e"eMrt Tg/je Pos, oard Op
n oa s -nnxo Postcard with one 4-kop. stamp
from the 1902-06 issue addressed
;c -to the USA with a fine bilingual
Wardo. (Collection of Ren6
Hillesum.)






S Serie 23. ... 4



Rossica Journal Number 120 41
April 1993







Other items that Ren6 has which are worth Not shown is a postcard to England franked
noting include: a strip of four 2-kop. stamps from with2x2-kop. stampswithatri-lingualMariehamn.
the 1909-12 issue on cover bearing a cancel from I also have a bare handful of loose 2-kop. stamps
Palsb6le; a 4-kop stamp from the 1902-06 issue on with postmarks of Mariehamn, Geta, and Sund.
a postcard addressed to Stockholm with a bilingual Now, let me raise an interesting question. Were
Godby cancel; a pair of 2-kop stamps from the Romanov Jubilee stamps used in the Aland Islands?
1909-1912 issue on a postcard with a bilingual Last year, at London's Stampex, I fell into conver-
Odkarby; and a village straight-line cancel from station with members of the Scandinavia Society
Kula on a 2-kop stamp from the 1902-06 issue on and raised the question. No one had any knowledge
a postcard. He also has a loose 1914 War Charity of any Romanov stamps with Aland cancellations.
with a straight-line Haraldsby and a 4-kop stamp I discussed this with Ren6. He stated that there were
from the 1902-06 issue with a straight-line Nifsby. very few Romanov stamps with Mariehamn

BREFKORT ..






E;t&I ......... ....
S 6_" "




From my own paltry items in the field-a 3-kop. Arms stamp on a postcard with a bilingual Ekero cancel.

cancellations. He did not specify the val-
"1 ceMIPNb nO ) Col ues, but I would hazard a guess at 2-kop.
procCrN POS SE Alexander II stamps, possibly 10-kop.
OTKICblTOE rTIMC3i.( o frE P Alb Nicholas II items, the abroad rate, and
.-' -maybe a 3-kop. Alexander III.
In my opinion, a Romanov stamp
'- with an Aland cancellation-Mariehamn,
Sund, Geta, Godby, Ekero, Lemland, etc.
iI should rank on a par with some of the
S other Romanov material-Chinese East-
e /n 9 em Railway 260-1-2-3-4-5-6, etc. You
f / think that sounds silly? You can buy the
Chinese Eastern Railway covers. Try and
find an Aland Island cover!
Also from my collection-a 4-kop. stationery card with I sincerely hope, fellow collectors, that by open-
a trilingual Mariehamn. ing this branch of our collecting, others will weigh
in with their Aland material. Let's see if we can
locate that Romanov cover from the Aland Islands.


42 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Zemstvo Post Office Operations
At The Turn Of The Century


by George G. Werbizky

Introduction Catalogs and Collectors
Among the many useful services that the J. B. Moens, a well-known European stamp
zemstvos performed for the local population was dealer as early as 1875, published an illustrated
that of handling the mail in concert with the state zemstvo catalog in French with Russian annota-
postal system. There was a total of 371 zemstvos in tions.The catalog, compiled by Samuel Koprowski,
European Russia and none in Siberia. Of these 371 is an excellent work that is still useful.
establishments, only 161 issued their own stamps. The 1893 Moens' catalog "Les Timbres de
The exceptions (not included in the 161) were Russie" used the illustrations from the 1875 catalog
Fatezh and Toropovetz, which issued only stamped with the addition of new ones. They are not always
envelopes, and Zmeinogorsk, which issued stamps accurate and the collector must be careful when
between 1917-1921.1 Thus, a new area of Russian using them for comparison purposes.2 This edition
(and now Belarussian and Ukrainian) philately was lists Imperial and zemstvo stamps-a practice that,
bor. unfortunately, is not followed in modem catalogs.
Table I shows the number of zemstvos that The first Russian catalog written by I.I. Kreving
issued stamps during what time frame. The two and published in St. Petersburg in 1889 contained
early peaks are the result of the 1870 Postal Decree no illustrations. Stamps and stamped covers are
that granted the zemstvos the right to handle mail. listed by date of issue, but no prices are provided.
More definitive catalogs produced in years
Tlme period No. of zemetvos issuing
sta for #, mst uim to come included: a compilation by C.
--- -- Schmidt and A. Faberg6; one by C. Schmidt
70 88 1880-1870 37
la81-1mo e6 himself; one available in Russian or English
60 i oso 3 compiled by a group ofwell-known Russian
so 1901910o 14 philatelists. The latter is known as the
S1911-1920 3 "Chuchin" catalog, taking its name from the
ToWt 161_ publisher rather than the compilers.
3 6 There are virtually no data published on
20 13 14 the volume or kinds of mail handled by the
10I I s zemstvo posts. Reference 1 contains a table
l 187180 188- 00 190 1 0 with some figures, however, the period cov-
_____________________ ered is not listed. These figures are attributed
Table I. Zemstvos issuing stamps to C. Schmidt and represent the only known
for the first time-Includes Wenden (1863). compilation of such information to date.
Several items of correspondence given to me by
As the state postal system expanded, the need for Mrs. Maria Serebrakian, the wife of the late S.
zemstvo postal activity diminished. By 1917, there Serebrakian- a Rossica member and well-known
was essentially no need for zemstvo postal organi- stamp dealer-provide some additional informa-
zations since the state post office was able to handle tion. We will take a look at four letters found (two
all the previous zemstvo postal routes. The Red from the same zemstvo) and thus obtain a snapshot
Army victory of 1921 spelled the end of the zem- in time of postal operations. The first letter, a form
stvos, which were freely-elected and politically letter, will be covered only briefly, while the other
independent organizations, three letters will be covered in detail.
Rossica Journal Number 120 43
April 1993








Correspondence r. A a ",": jo9 r.

Early in this century, a Mr.
Aleksandr Yakovlevich Cherle-
niovskii from Odessa was engaged in
assembling "AScientific Work 'Items
Dealing with the History of the Devel- roco0Ay nBlH lpeActAaTeji o-& / .
opment of the Zemstvo Post in Russia,
its Significance and Operations'" as Y'lANHOI 30eCKOR YfnpaBu.
he stated in the form letter reproduced
here in fig. 1.
Undoubtedly, this form letter went 0/f.,'crmw 7/
to all known zemstvos. In the letter
.p-crynai Ks cocTlleMin isy Cherleniovskii asks for information npc yna .0 coaaHm, Hay.arO Tpa MaTepIa.iw, Np NIOMKHoeml
0i POCCIN WcKCeoA nooIu, en IsHaCHIIl N AIITWEiHOCTI'. HO HO He l OCTITOInlro
on the creation of the zemstvo post, e....p. .. .....O..H ....... T....... ..onC...... ....O .....HT...
samples of stamps and covers, and opamach iD. BaM, MminocTlBm rocyaap., h np norophlta o npochol oTr.xr..
their dates of issue. This particular 5" H"" "c"cp"" H3T A""a... .a o'i .... I.. GOOH ...ION H HodXOA.. K ....
.xorT-tu paTirr No HO OiHTsenHxbls CoIAiHI 061 HCToplM *O1HHKHOUdHII B y$riu
letter is dated 28 December 1906 and XO- H., oo*Te... b c II 6h CT.PI B,.NH.H yk
B, ' eMcioI no wr U e acnIoR npmOf 10oM I actx' o6pasuoa Baatx5' ae8 culx"
was addressed to the "Oster Zemstvo, '*.w.. ..... .....m ro .. .....x yc;.... T. .o r po. H .CHO 6 .
ChernigovProvince(inUkraine)."The c Con* ewo* naroA.pnocT., H.eS.iCNHo no3pamea B.*M. HIm- o. no oniio
hand-written answer at the bottom of Ba"'"y, Y"A"Y ""'SO-* """U "M'" CM 'M Map", "* MH"""s 'KO**, "M
,nnMK ^ sMlHy~l y a jiy HxyM H npeMuoro loixT Nei.
the page reads: CRD YJIY H H 0NTO M.
"Dear Sir! CTOeNMOTb Mapox% THKyuaro BMuOnyca npmarloa no'NT MapK. H ...' .
Currently,zemstvocorrespondencedoes C Col.pmenHHUNlas nouTleHI. rOTOB.iA Ib ycnyraw Batui.H
not require the use of stamps and, there- QtawaJep, 'rpr.ioHiOUi
fore, I cannot send you any [stamps]."

Oster started issuing stamps in 1885 4-
and, according to the "Chuchin" cata- V
log, discontinued the use of stamps in-
1887. L -- ..
Figure 2 shows a cover that, except
for the clear Chistopol' zemstvo post-
for the clear Chistopozemstvo post- Figure 1. A. Y. Cherleniovskii form letter.
mark, did not seem particu-
larly interesting when pur-
chased. However, with the
discovery of the form let-
ter, it gains significance -.- .
The cover is a self-ad- :: : .'
dressed envelope to Mr. A. ,XepcocxoA ryd '
Y. Cherleniovskii! i '
S-9. 4'EB 1 ""90 7 -;


S R0.EPEHIIOBCKOMy.iBH d i

Figure 2. Self-addressed --
envelope to A. Ya. ;:.. Ynua WK cyL ,N 4.
Cherleniovskii. .

44 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








The next two letters, written by the Chairman Mall In and out of Poltava Dstrict-Ytaa
(npeactc aTeJrb) of the Poltava Zemstvo Board,
Poltava province (Ukraine), provide significant in- 1903 1904 1905
formation. The first of these two letters (fig. 3-4), State parcels 63,001 84,548 81,137
dated 27 January 1907, provides, in addition to (naKeTru)
supplying Poltava zemstvo stamps totaling one Letters with 21,008 53,4 73,411
ruble, circulation information for the district state stamps
(ys3inb). This information is presented in table II.
Letters with 1,511 2,713 2,694
'zemstvo stamps
nr.P ATUcbi VAL J ( Mall into the District
rOJZTABICHOf40
%aURt oi Newspapers 14,613 34,744 42,645
,.;wot mFaIM
I A, magazines 4,561 8,447 9,144
,, 7.'s- if.t" s. u t..e. t ei,1Aa Parcels-State 640 1,110 1,164
"UJ*AL- nyjijD .*DAMS n auu.mJmo o I(nociUAKH)
-,r Iw, w Parcels-private 13 48 79
too (nOCUAIKH)

Zta*w dUA I4kAI, Q m &CUvO dU.Y Post & telegraph 3,950 4,795 4,787
C-,-,.,,. ,y t o o" -' notices

^ ,. CI.- YSYYJ. 1//. wrappers 3,069 4,277 3,696
c/l;P^,W.* s ^ (6aHePOAH)
.. e, .- /II. Y Telegrams 21 35 31

(c.ay ,He /YL-. yY. W6Y. Table II.

The second letter (fig. 5), dated 4 July 1912, is
Figure 3 Page one. really a receipt forzemstvo stamps purchased worth
1R. 35k. The stamps sent were from the latest issue
J'". yj1 /0Y and consisted of the following denominations: 1-,
aw sYY. 10-, 20-,30, and 40-kopeck. A50-kopeck stamp
-a. 6YO //10. //6y. is listed as being included in the set. The letter
tO,-. -- (3. '. -. further indicates that imperforate stamps exist for
-Arlk iL y VI all stamps of the set, and the ratio of perforate
stamps to imperforate stamps was 10-to-l. There-
S- .. fore, only one imperforate stamp was included to
e ,mU ylj a-. maintain the "as issued" ratio. The 10-to-1 ratio
""m IJ iMu, stated in the letter is essentially in agreement with
Sc, u H the numbers published in the C. Schmidt 1934
Sc.,.*. < catalog for Poltava (Nos. 141-149, Chuchin Nos.
,.. -,- ,74-82a). The Schmidt catalog lists only one set
fitting this description and states that the date of
".4" issue was 13 July 1912. If we add 13 days to 4 July
(to compensate for calendar differences), we get 17
July, which is four days after the official issue date
Figure 4 Page two. of the set. This eliminates any possible discrepan-
cies in the dates.
Rossica Journal Number 120 45
April 1993







1"Iqt1...If one uses listings provided by

""'"IO TA3CLA. catalogs and undertakes to examine all
YS. nojiT acA JA J A* stamps listed as issued by this zemstvo,
the logical conclusion reached is that
some of the issues must have been
m : speculative. The evidence:
excessive number of stamps is-
"sued-151 per the Schmidt cata-
JoNTAI."AA. C log
.u )%.= -41 E*. provisional issues consisting of
^ / ^ l3,,r"o^1 regular stamps overprinted with
,A 3". e-t, & G LI new values
Cty lfZ. V.."* UAXfE-t OL&LtX.AA4O&X.AM .AM A 1
4'AJ44"4t uo0 *"%, 0 7 3 **. imperforate stamps issued in small
o, quantities

cut- An additional piece of evidence is a
y- ^ P L cover shown here in fig. 6. The cover is
addressed to Pavel Petrovich Gan'ko
4^ s^a* .api,* > who was the postmaster of the Poltava
w cu, ?P. i. .Cc A o zemstvo, according to the late A. N.
^uwJ1 .wDCLC ^ /L. i .; Sarandinaki, a knowledgeable and avid
zemstvo collector. The 15-kop. "Peter
the Great" stamp is imperforate.


Figure 5. Second Poltava zemstvo letter.



0. BAIPAIVT a I0B




UIKA3HI












Figure 6. Registered Poltava zemstvo cover.


46 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Thelastlettercomesfrom theKotel'nichzemstvo, 2) Parcels up to 5 lbs.- 10 kopecks; up to 15 lbs.- 15
Vyatka province (Russia) and provides a great deal kopecks; up to 20 Ibs. -40 kopecks; between 20
of insight into the financial and operational aspects lbs. and one pood 8 kopecks [1 funt = 0.41 KG
or 0.9 American pounds. 1 pood = 16.4 KG or 36.1
of the zemstvo postal system. Clearly, the duties of American pounds.-Trans.] Parcels with declared
the zemstvo post as described in this letter applied value and letters with money enclosed had to pay a
to other zemstvos. The following is a verbatim registration fee in addition to the weight fee.
translation of the letter. 3) The fee for a registered letter is paid with a 5-
kopeck stamp.
"19 December 1906
"19 December 1906 Sums of money over 250 rubles and parcels over
r one pood are not accepted unless they come from the
state post. About 10 years ago, up to 1896, all letters
In reply to your letter of 8 December inquiring
In reply to your letter of 8 December inquiring were paid for with a 3-kopeck stamp. That fee was
about the operation of the zemstvo postal system, I can e e d a f of kopeck was established for
eliminated and a fee of 5 kopecks was established for
reportthefollowing:thepostaldepartmentofthezemstvo registered letters.
office, which handles all kinds of correspondence, be- rder t ee
came operational on 1 August 1892 [Apparently prior to In order to expedite delivery and for convenience,
came operational on 1 August 1892 [Apparently prior to the district is divided into 3 parts/routes. Twice a week
this date the mail was handled less rigorously, since the first the district is divided into 3 part utes. Twice a week
Kotel'nich stamps were issued in 1869; the first two are rated these routes are covered by horse carts. Mail within the
'RR' and 'RRRR'!-Trans.] and, since this date, the county [y3rb] is handled primarily by the district
accounting has been fairly accurate. For the first year of [BnoocTb] offices.
operation, 1893, the activity of the department is por- Ifyouwishtoreceiveadditionalinformation,please
trayed by the following figures: 106,189 pieces of be more precise in your questions. I can add that the cost
correspondence flowed into and out of the district; of moving mail is not shown separately from the horse
money orders and parcels with declared value amounted cart obligation, which is handled by the zemstvo budget,
to 17,870 R. 39 K. and is used for fee-free passage of its officials as well as
Since 1893, the amount of correspondence passing government employees who have a right to free trans-
through the department has increased and the volume in port while carrying out their duties. These employees
1905 was 583,589 items; the money orders and parcels areprimarily policeofficialsandmembersofthecourt-
with declaredvalueroseto393,589R.78K. Payment for examining magistrates and their couriers.
registered correspondence, letters with money inside In addition, I am enclosing examples of our stamps
[Money was frequently enclosed in a regular letter, with the and request that you pay for them.
amount written on the cover-Trans.], money orders, and [The stamps are missing, but the following notations were
notices accepted by the postal department office or the made next to each stamp.-Trans.]
district office came only from private citizens. Corre-
spondence of any type from government offices, offi- For regular ltINrs. Year
cials, related public and rank institutions, as well as of issue unknown.
correspondence from private citizens is handled free of
charge by thezemstvo post office. In addition, there is no
fee charged for the distribution of correspondence re-
ceived from the state postal system for delivery in the
district regardless of who sent it, who received it, or what
type it is. staring in 1896. One can The issue of 1906.
Therefore, the gross income of the zemstvo post is findihese stas only
represented by a very modest sum-for 1905, it was accided becau al
382 R. 31 K. The expenses for that year for the postal enusedup
department were 2,743 R. 13K. These expenses con-
sisted of 840 rubles for the manager and two clerks; six
postmen received 1,540 R.; the rest was spent for forms, Respectfully yours, Board [ynpasa] Secretary
office supplies, stamps, and other items.
Zemstvo fees are as follows: [signature illegible]"
1) Money letters or money orders to 5 rubles 2
kopecks; to 50 rubles 5 kopecks; above 50 and up
to 250 rubles 0.10 kopeck for each ruble.



Rossica Journal Number 120 47
April 1993






Examples of Zemstvo Mail

Official Mail

The correspondence discussed in this article covers several kinds of mail items handled by the zemstvo
postal system. Figures 7 and 8 illustrate two covers sent by a zemstvo office to a provincial (ry6epHia)
court. On the reverse side of both covers is a Kursk arrival mark and a zemstvo seal. The numbers written
on the front probably refer to court cases.


















Figure 7. Official zemstvo cover.

The registered cover has a 10-kopeck Romanov stamp that may be a human error since official mail
was free of charge. Another registered cover (not shown here) also addressed to the Kursk provincial court,
has no postage affixed.




ff


















Figure 8. Official zemstvo cover with stamp added in error?
48 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







Wrappers (BAHLEPOTH)

Figure 9 is a wrapper that was used to deliver a daily newspaper called "Native Son." A single 1/2-kop.
Ves'egonsk zemstvo stamp indicates that it traveled only within the zemstvo. The wrapper itself is made
from the same newspaper. Note the address label.


Py Eu IT39P3YBm PMYAYTAtR, OUR 6M 1 YURaiD jj
"_er qaas ,ymyp "wprcnte pesy s un ecKamT OUP 3s1. ...;
XUcTM MS^ o(Tees as qzej
AN U t ii 48 U i OTEVqECTBA. T n 20o ooprse ou
;MopiDeM u (=mum" , __-' .Mm o.m _.ur 'so orSB :
i aEdopu, aup. f9l 'ac. w4. @ xsmw xd
6bsuo Jya.6ad A.eehbigg 'f Ye. Baaz, ujp oftrOy
,p ri B .a a s e, ouru

"rawp p w Asr saa aalco, 1buM e ai3 uarro InNeTps EaIecoD
,- .. mcn s 3 pocCacC as 87 mros, Paaw cs cinpwntmanruol
Am = % aimoe, R6g OCT13. Im e unpo xzuio #iaourl


Figure 9. Wrapper that traveled within the zemstvo.


Figure 10 also is a wrapper that was handled by both the state and zemstvo postal systems as evidenced
by the stamps affixed to it-2-kopeck Arms-type and a 1-kopeck Bogorodsk zemstvo postage-due
stamp.



JACTHbIE .KPChI KOMMEPMECKHX'b.. .8
Inf .t..ity. BnanipOal .bl +oc;l: 1;3-

















Figure 10. Wrapper handled by both the state and zemstvo postal systems.

Rossica Journal Number 120 49
April 1993







Official Zemstvo Notices
Two kinds of zemstvo notices are illustrated next. The first notice, figs. 11 a-b, informs the recipient
that a sum of 10 rubles has arrived. In order to receive the money, the recipient's identity had to be verified
by local police unless he was known at the post office. In the case of the illustrated item, the recipient was
illiterate and he asked that the money be received by a local zemstvo employee. Another individual
confirmed the transaction and verified it by his signature. The reverse side, fig. 1 lb, was used to describe
these events.


O B 13C 'T A XN1

B.B1 YICTbGi COJBCKol UO'TOBOI KOHTOpt llOJyI0HO H31a


/ *' ^7 ^ f V>.

0 Mf KOHTO)! Mtcrb soc30 h de, rhi,. UBA.HI iip)oiniourrca exe-.umo
c( O 9-TH IMaCOBb yrpa Ao 2 1no10 HoI.1yLH, HCKmIOMn H1I)MM1011 lC 1a1360pl l H O-
f npa.iemtHi noq'r. HeHaoneTHue KonrTopt noayaiTea.i aio.iulnn iiij I.pe'n h.s i
S;IiHAciMta'libTlOinouie I'patcKofl fIlnui 11.4t1 .i inIti rnIuxl;erlsl'i, Vi i, sit nb; '1 '
So0 opo)T. o6LauAeat i STO oaH HeCHno Tr KOTOWi J m upni iai

Txe8 Par et8op

S K'b Outb'OBBOCTlMI AOAJXl 6u1 t upMuOXenHa I MM"'... "".
Figure 11a. Ust'sysol'sk, Vologda province, zemstvo money notice.

147A ^ Ile tl "A i 1.0e *frfi e O 4







k i) fr .: / ,, -,
^* 1k^-'' ""74 lUls' F"" '*"* "" : i^ ( "/tO %' i. .e. 1/ a'-,/.,,..
2(uI I' '' /v$"- ," yy ,, .o U, 4'f -.' Ai /q //,,. 4 "o -l



'e"- -g"4 -fe fir. ...,



Figure l1b. Reverse side of notice shown in 1la.
50 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993









The second type of notice, figs. 12 a-b, informs the recipient that a letter has arrived, but it carries a 14-
kopeck postage due. The printed portion spells out in detail the hours when the post office is open:
weekdays 8 to 2; holidays (listed) and Sundays 9 to 11.














H B S + .T.A
too










i .










Figure 12a. The address side of the zemstvo post notice, Bogorodsk, Moscow province.
.t-- +













NOUITJTEIEPAMHOE YVPEWAEIE I S9




0R oCA IAT'M4PZI, a- Octaak ream. (udamo 5v )rn mUa Bea
feoma. xm ma awpel -x upuans On. 1am. fim Ca. TpWam a 3% UPA a maw-
r Proeromepu 3Sa
nm W r a Ba a amres MbI Up MasxRanest r p* @ ep a.sramm, Mcp Ym atmu i ran-

amepe a am Ila mum t.mIa vi*nwar q2 m in ampesm a .eeaa
aamm a mu ao,pmmamal. u s J001. 9 uMyp. am 11 waiu ama, am
5a2maI m am aayiaqmaalppeaa mlmrn am apanm llm,,. anamam mai
rgca au am xaoa a. m mealson mn s p
imse w Im. amaps sgeaam a.ipiemam. a=Imt al' t ve a. m amUnma a
g 2a aTme e maI d m e Iemasr ypom nai am g serea s: femsac, rupdrlya,
Kuapm aCy rh ezurala.aain.l Had a..a w B aamau paa aam.. eL ae-
"*AM. smr6"m aw apaoy 0o ememy", a m ( amY OppeeaOamI.
AGmESPeaeanu as aaotbean Mirnami 6M aama01altmeasu Von us verazosai Ual z J
aa' t nOcm atums,, na ac :m aa nm i

= n" m.asO- f lerPapWe rpE Seoo (-' i86rp*
am t aa as a r, am sp aca n f aste rs yaamatp' a aara oaaa r
cnaram e a m aa m myiipo am aca.a. mraapa amm aa Ia
cm u measespna aI Am a my m (4rpti am meua me r l), m Ipeaml
a a aaao r mm, airmpy imoranm Garesa, a a .m i 6Eu a ma








Figure 12b. The operating rules side of the zemstvo post notice.
Rossica Journal Number 120 51
April 1993
*pi A 199i lM3l I *m y*fr(vy W J -BM~iW- *lfM~








Letter with Money Enclosed


Letters frequently contained money. This fact would be stated on the address side of the letter with the
amount of money indicated. Figure 13a is a letter addressed to the head of the Zyen'kov zemstvo from a
citizen (meshchanin) named Samuil Levin. The letter contains a petition (proshenie) and is accompanied
by 22 kopecks.













Figure 13a. Zemstvo letter containing money, Irbit, Perm' province.

On the reverse side, fig. 13-b, are two 3-kopeck stamps (was the letter overweight because of the money
enclosed?). The reverse side also appears to have been used as a note pad, which also is interesting. The
prices of four food stuff items and one kitchen utensil are listed as follows:


5 chickens .65
(H 66UM*60 eggs .84r







sieve .15
Sbeef, 4lbs .20








S# -- (total) 3R. 64K
Figure 13a. Back of zemstvo letter containing money, Irbit, Permdays" province.


On the reverse side, fig. 1-b, are two -kopeck stamps (was the letter overweight because of the money 120
enclosed?). The reverse side also appears to have been used as a note pad, which also is interesting. The1993
prices of four food stuff items and one kitchen utensil are listed as follows:


6 ducks 1.80
5 chickens .65
60 eggs .84
Vy v sieve .15

d^ rY j ^beef, 4 lbs .20
4fn' /^ (total) 3R. 64K














Figure 13b. Back of zemstvo letter listing "good old days" prices.



52 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








We can directly compare beef prices: In 1896, one pound of beef cost 5 kopecks (the two stamps are
from the 1896 issue); 1 kg = 2.2 lbs. Therefore, 1 kg of beef cost 12 kopecks. After nearly a century that
included 70 years of communism, the price increased a modest 69,200% (summer, 1992, Moscow).
[This percentage clearly does not take into consideration the currency reforms of 1921, 1922, 1923, and 1961, etc.-Ed.]
The second letter containing money, fig. 14, has the statement "money" in the upper right-hand corer.
Directly underneath is the inscription "for one ruble." On the reverse side (not shown) is an Irbit zemstvo
stamp.




(- (













Figure 14 Irbit zemstvo, Perm' province, letter with money enclosed.

Stamped Envelope


Figure 15 illustrates a stamped envelope from the Rzhev zemstvo. The stamp is printed in the upper left-
hand corer to allow for state postage in the upper right-hand comer, if required.



















Figure 15. Rzhev zemstvo, Tver' province, stamped envelope.
"Rossica Journal Number 120 53
April 1993







Postcard


Finally, fig. 16 shows a zemstvo postcard. The as that found on the 1892 set of zemstvo stamps
Pskov Zemstvo, Pskov province, was the only issued by Pskov, Chuchin Nos. 12-15.
zemstvo that issued stamped postcards. On this In the upper right-hand corer is the place
example, the 1 1/2-kop. stamp design is imprinted designated for affixing state postage (M'BCTO Aill
in the upper left-hand corer and depicts the Pskov HAKJIEfIKH -MESTO DLYANAKLEIKI-place
coat-of-arms: a hand descending from the heavens for adhesive). The inscription reads "3-kop. state
as if blessing something and a panther immediately postage stamp for mailing anywhere in the empire."
below the hand. The design of the stamp is the same The overall design is ornate and rather attractive.









'i .^ '











Figure 16. 1 1/2-kop zemstvo postcard from Pskov, Pskov province.



Concluding Remarks References
A. Y. Cherleniovskii's correspondence with 1. Hanford, C.C. "The Zemstvo Post of Imperial
zemstvos must have been extensive. What was Russia," British Journal of Russian Philately,
found is a very small portion--only four letters. If Nos. 24 & 25, 1958-59.
any Rossica member or anyone else reading this 2. Werbizky, George G. "Zemstvo: Forgeries, Er-
article has any additional correspondence, I would rors Perpetuated by Catalogs, and Comments,"
be glad to translate the item and work with you to Rossica, No. 119, October 1992.
disseminate the information to a wider philatelic
audience.




54 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







The Romanov Jubilee Issue and the 1916 Surcharge

by Rev L. L. Tann

Eighty years ago in a world profoundly dif- beginnings of the paper shortage, whichin 1917-20
ferent from ours, the Romanov Jubilee stamps became very critical, sparked the idea of an over-
appeared complete with proofs, essays, varieties, print or surcharge, so as to make use of these huge
currency-tokens, and surcharges. The stamps were stagnant stocks. The surcharge was designed, in the
widely used across the Empireand in China and case of the two Romanov stamps, to be a simple
Turkey as witnessed by the oval railway and station numeral that would fit over and obliterate the old
postmarks, war-time "dumb" postmarks, the mili- value: 10 on the 7-kop. and 20 on the 14-kop. Black
tary cachets, the cancellations of Austrian and Ger- was eminently suitable; the idea gave birth to the
man military units, the revolutionary overprints, deed and it was done. It seems that the 10/7-kop.
inflation uses, civil war overprints, etc. Truly this Nicholas I and the 20/14-kop. Catherine made
issue is one of the all time "greats" in the world of their debut in September 1916.
philately and full of potential study materials. While I can state with absolute certainty that the
As an 80th-anniversary tribute, I am devoting 10/7-kop. blue Arms stamp had its surcharge plate
this present study to the 1916 surcharge. By no numbers on the sheet comer, I am unaware of any
means does this essay cover the entirety of the field. of the other three surcharged types having any plate
The rabbis of the Talmud declare "they left me a markings for the surcharge printing (the two
place to make my mark" meaning, I am opening the Romanov types and the 20/14-kop. Arms type).
subject; there is plenty left for others to add, am- Figure 1 shows two blocks in my collection that
plify, and correct. have the original plate numbers 5 and 3, but no
Some time in 1915, some suggest even earlier, surcharge markings. I have complete sheets of the
the postal rates were raised. Inland mail was raised Romanov 10/7-kop. and 20/14-kop. stamps which
from 7-kop. to 10-kop. and registered mail from do not have surcharge plate markings either.
14-kop. to 20-kop. It may have been intended to
raise other rates, but so far as I am aware, that did not
happen at that time. [According toKaminskii in Soviet
Collector No. 27, 1989, pp. 28-30, the rates were raised in Figure 1. Top ex-
September 1914 and there were several increases thereaf- ample is a corner
ter.-Ed.] As pressure switched to the 10- and 20- block with plate No.
kop. values, vast quantities of the 7- and 14-kop. 5. The example on the
bottom is the lower
values were left in post offices, chief post offices b righthand corner
(that supplied regions and provinces), and the Impe- block from a quarter
rial State Printing Office. They now did nothing...... sheet with plate No. 3.
other than supplement stamps to make up the new
rates. Covers can be found with the 7- and 14-kop.
values with added Arms stamps to make up the
rates, as offices and individuals used up the stamps
they had as we all do when rates are changed.
It could not have been long before the presses ......
were working overtime to supply enough 10- and
20-kop. stamps of both the Arms types and the
Romanov issue while vast quantities of sheets of the
7- and 14-kop. remained on the shelves. The need :
to maintain supplies, and I suggest perhaps, the I

Rossica Journal Number 120 55
April 1993







Surcharginghas itsweaknesses too-the chance of mis-registration and human error. Figure 2 shows
four examples (mint and used) of the inverted 10/7-kop. Figure 3 shows examples of the considerable
shifts of the surcharge on both the Romanov values: up, down, sideways, almost any way you like! Mint
and used. Figure 4 shows blocks of ten of both stamps with progressive tilts downwards and traces at the
top of the stamps of the surcharge coming down from the rows above. If the tilt was severe enough, this
would mean that, in the top row, the comer stamp, far right or far left depending on which way the surcharge
tilted, could well have no surcharge at all, thus creating a "pair one without surcharge."
















Figure 2. Inverted surcharge mint Fgure 3. Surcharge shifts mint on top, used on bottom.
on used on bottom.






IT .... ...... ..---"





... .* .... .... ..... ... ..A -. J












,20 20N!-

Figure 4. Blocks showing tilt of surcharge.
56 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







Figure 5 shows an interesting item. It is a pair with a paper fold during the original printing, but the
sheet has been surcharged. Figure 6 shows examples of the surcharge being offset on the back, either from
being stacked on wet sheets that imprinted the surcharge on the reverse, or from the inked bed of the
printing press that imprinted the surcharge on the back. Two stamps in the block of the 20/14-kop. show
offsets of only one side of the surcharge.

Variety "pair one without surcharge"

This variety is known only
on the 10/7-kop. Nicholas II in
a dozen examples or so. The one
shown here in fig. 7 is from my
Figure 5. Paper fold on original printing collection and, obviously, comes
----- from a badly aligned sheet. The
... ,-- top stamp has no surcharge and
.., its companion has the surcharge
,at the top. I am not aware that
0 this variety exists used. If any
collector knows of such "genu-
ine use," it would be an im-
S' portant addition to this subject. _.
S. ,..,. Figure 7.

................ .... Having several examples of the 20/14-kop.
". stamps on which the surcharge hangs from the top
.. '" (similar to those in figs. 3 and 4), I became con-
vinced that there must be also an example of "pair
SO-, O -. one without surcharge" of this value too.
Figure 8 shows a block I purchased recently,
though I had known of it for some time. It shows the
,'F'3' i 20/14-kop. surcharge progressively tilted so that
S the top-right comer stamp appears to have no
SOS ,surcharge.
Fgure 6. Surcharge offset.


| .................. ...........


.......... .. a .. .









Fiure 8.
Rossica Journal Number 120 57
April 1993








Figure 9 is an enlargement of the comer block, and fig. 10 the comer stamp alone. Does this qualify
for listing as "pair-one without surcharge"? I sent the photocopy to Stanley Gibbons to see if they agreed
and would list it in their next "Russia" edition. The Catalog Editor replied that to qualify, there must be
absolutely no trace whatsoever of the surcharge on the "twin stamp," and that this item did not qualify -
magnificent item though it was. In my opinion, if the stamp were a single loose item by itself, its face value
would clearly be 14-kop. There is nothing to indicate anything else. It would be interesting to know what
other Russian specialists think! [I agree with Gibbons. Clearly this is not a "clean" 14-kop stamp.-Ed.]
Beyond that, it is interesting to see on this block the variety of misplaced surcharges. In the top row
at the left the "20" falls in the middle of the stamp, its "pair" falls across the perforations. Further to the
right, it begins to dip sharply. One might say that each stamp in the block is individual and different.















1(011: 0 1 : 1KO11.
*** ****** ***.***** *** ******





*
KOH;




X /1A ... Ao *... B

Figure 9. Enlargement of upper right-hand corner block.

I II


















Figure 10. Enlarged corner stamp Is there an overprint?
58 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993
)II(' rrll dII* 1
t .
















Figure 10. Enlarged corner stamp is there an overprint?
58 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Surcharged Stationery

Figure 11 shows the two different sizes of 14-kop. stationery envelopes surcharged 20-kop. As far
as I am aware, mint surcharged stationery is scarce. I do not have either of the 10/7-kop. types. There are
used examples, but these are uncommon too. Perhaps members wishing to supplement these few notes
might show some of the usage of these envelopes.














































Rossica Journal Number 120 59
April 1993







Covers
Let me show a few covers and items using the provisional stamps from my own collection. Figure 12
shows a fine cover to Bakhmut from Ekaterinodar. The franking combines the 10/7-kop. provisional and
a 20-kop. Arms stamp. Ovals of the Ekaterinodar/Vokzal cancel the stamps and a station registration label
is affixed to the cover.
Figure 13 shows a fine cover registered from Tuapse, a coastal town on the east coast of the Black Sea
in Chemomorskaya province, to Petrograd. Postmarked 13-12-16, the front bears a pair and a single of
the 10/7-kop. provisionals from the same sheet. The position of the 10 on each is exactly identical. On the
reverse there is another 10/7-kop. likewise canceled. This stamp is not from the same sheet since it shows
a shift of surcharge: left "10" showing displacement so that the number "1" falls level with the vertical
frame-line; the serif and foot of the number being partially outside the frame-line of the stamp.














I Ml 763







Figure 12. Cover to Bakhmut, bearing a 10/7-kop. provisional and 20-kop. Arms. Oval postmarks of Ekaterinodar
Terminal and registration labeL






..... -f-,,,eL ,:S 6o..ii **.4 -









60 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Figures 14 a-b show a magnificent cover. It bears a strip of three and a single of the 10/7-kop.
provisional, and 2- and 3-kop. Arms stamps. The stamps are all canceled by "mute" concentric circles
postmarks. All five very fine wax seals (all except the upper right one fully intact) bear the imprint of the
Imperial eagle and the words "ST. AKMANAI / YUZH. ZHEL DOR." The front, fig. 14b, shows the
registration label of"ST. action ) AKMANAI / SOUTHERN R.R. The arrival postmarks located between
the seals and the stamps read EKATERINOSLAV 13-2-17. Of course, the names on the wax seals and
registration labels nullify entirely the purpose of the "dumb" cancellations, which is to conceal from spies
and enemies the origin of the letter!



























Figure 14a. Reverse of cover of February 1917 bearing four copies of the 10/7-kop. surcharge and other postage.
From Akmanal railway station to Ekaterinoslav. The provisional stamps al show a surcharge shift



o o ;I
CT. Asuaea


Figure 14b. Akmanal, Southern Railways, label from the obverse of the letter shown above.








Rossica Journal Number 120 61
April 1993









Figure 15 shows a cover of 16-3-17 bearing a single 10/7-kop. provisional addressed to Kobe, Japan
from Odessa. Note the large rectangular Odessa censor marking at left. It is back-stamped on arrival at
Kobe, Japan. Sadly, no transit cancels!





'''. 1 ', -V 4 -;
s1:. vrT
















r
'.- :. -;r,4. .7-, ', ; . .












*... r .a t- '
o




', - -



























Figure 16.

62 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993
.. ,t. ; ,::" ,! : ; _









-:.. -' ',; . .. t














Figr 16.~~t
62 Rssie Jounal umbe 12
April 1993







Figure 17 shows three items: a 10/7-kop. with a
regular 10-kop. Romanov on piece; a 20/14-kop.
with 15-kop. Romanov on piece both items
canceled at Terijoki, which isjust over the border in
Finland; and loose 10/7-kop. canceled at Grankulla
in Finland. In addition, I have several loose 10/7- ". '
kop. provisionals (not shown) with postmarks of'
Kerki Bukhara, Nizhnii-Novgorod/Kanavino pa.t-!q :
Vokz., and the St. Petersburg-Helsingfors Railway. ::
paxce azo omOZ.j o








7-t

i












Figure 18.
One final point I must make. Scott catalog lists
Figure 17. Surcharged stamps used with other stamps at
Ter land top two examples; loose the two Romanov provisionals asNos. 110and 111.
TeriJokl, Finland top two examples; loose
stamp with Grankulla, Finland cancel on the For both, the only variety listed is "inverted sur-
bottom. charge." I have never heard of, read of, or seen an
Figure 18 shows two items from the collection inverted surcharge on the 20/14-kop. Catherine
of John Holland in England, a member of the BSRP provisional stamp. I would be delighted to hear of
Politburo(Committee!).Five 10/7-kop. provisionals the existence of this item from any collector and to
with fine oval postmarks of the Kineshma-224- see such a validated item. I would like to know
Moscow Railway, and three similarprovisionals on where Scott came by the information to list this
piece with postmarks of Harbin Pier (Chinese East- "mystery" variety.
em Railway) from December 1916. Both are fine
pieces, John!



Rossica Journal Number 120 63
April 1993







One last illustration is in order. Figure 19 shows 20/14-kop. Romanov provisionals canceled
a very fine cover and is really a star item in the 1916 Nizhnii-Chulimskoe, Tomsk province on 23-9-
surcharge field. As I have no note of the collection 20. Each stamp was re-valued to pass as 20 rubles.
from which it comes, and my old dimming memory Does anyone have a later usage?
fails me, I apologize to the owner for not being able I have not even mentioned the forgeries such as
to credit him. The cover is a 10/7-kop. stationery carefully drawing a "10" over the existing "7,"
envelope with a Romanov 10/7-kop. provisional saving 3 kopecks! And how were the stationery
and a 15-kop. Arms-type stamp with an unverified envelopes surcharged? I can understand a plate to
INVERTED center. Postmarks are from surcharge sheets of stamps, but how were the enve-
SARATOV16-1-18and a registration label that is, lopes done? By hand? There is still plenty to dis-
very curiously, blank! Any suggestions? cover, look at, and evaluate even 80 years later.











PWA %P 9: t 1, 9




Xho 439






Figure 19. Stationery envelope with surcharges and blank registration label-NOTE 15-kop. stamp with an
unverified INVERTED center.
This article opensup a subjectwhich needs tobe References: British Society Journals Nos. 9 and 10
expanded and amplified in its own right the for the Dr. Gregory Salisbury notes. Rossica Nos.
1916-17 provisionals. Future articles will deal with 90/91 (1976) for references in the article by Dr. J. L.
the two Arms types of the 1916 surcharge issue to Shneidman. British Society Journals Nos. 51-56
openup that side of the subject. Wewould like to see for the notes by Eric Peel, Howard Weinert, the
stationery, mint and used; interesting railway; used present author, and "The Imperial Arms" book
abroad; and perhaps steamships postmarks on these (Tann) pp. 82-85.
issues. What are the latest dates for use? This essay also updates and supersedes my
In my Romanov book (p. 97, foot), Imention an Romanov Book of 1978, pp. 53-56.
item from the Frederick Small Sale (Harmers, New [The shifts and other variations presented in this article are
York, December 1974) which consists of a regis- considered "printer's waste" by many philatelists. Given
tered parcel post card with vertical strip of4of the the circumstances in 1916, there should be plenty of this
material available at reasonable prices.-Ed.]
64 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Mysteries of the Boxer Intervention Period

by Alfred F. Kugel

A t the beginning of the 20th Century, a con- interesting era, which is frustrating to those of us
certed international military venture was mounted by trying to provide reasonable scope to our collections.
a group of primarily European powers to put down an I first encountered this frustration when I read the
uprising by the Boxers--a nationalist movement original Tchilinghirian & Stephen handbook on the
known as the Fists of Righteous Harmony and dedi- Russian post offices in China (part four, 1959). The
cated to the expulsion of foreign influence from entries for Field Post Offices under both Peking and
China. Emboldened by support from conservative Tien-Tsin stated tersely that "no information appears
factions within the Chinese Imperial Court, the insur- to be available regarding the types of cancellations
gents became increasingly hostile toward foreigners used during the Boxer Rebellion by the Russian units
and Chinese Christians, culminating in the siege of in occupation of Tien-Tsin, Taku, and other strategic
the international legations in Peking. Nine countries points along the Peking Tien-Tsin railway." It was
provided troops for the suppression effort, including a chilling thought, indeed, that these learned gentlc-
the Russian Empire, Great Britain, and the United men, with access to many of the leading collectors of
States. This action could be viewed as a forerunner in Russian postal material in the world at that time, had
its day of today's joint peacekeeping efforts spon- come to that conclusion.
scored by the United Nations. Additional information has, of course, become
Because of their relative proximity to the scene of available subsequently but, unfortunately, not on an
the action-largely in Chihli Province of North organized and readily available basis. What I propose
China-Japan and Russia sent the largest contin- to do in the remainder of this article is to set forth such
gents. In the assault to relieve Peking, Russian troops information as I have been able to gather in con-
numbered 4,000 or 20% of the entire Allied force. In nection with the preparation of an exhibit of Boxer
addition, sizable Russian forces were deployed as period mail from the various intervention forces and
garrison troops in various cities and to protect the to request that other members be kind enough to
facilities of the recently-constructed South Manchu- submit inputs based on material in their collections.
rian Railway. First, it is necessary to establish a specific time for
The scope and nature of the campaign leads to the the "Boxer period." Military historians generally date
mysteries hinted at in the title of this article. With their the Boxer uprising from the attack on the legations in
greater firepower, the Allies quickly routed the Box- June 1900 to the signing of the protocols between the
ers, and for more than a year until the final agreement Allies and the Chinese in September 1901. In addi-
with the Chinese government was worked out, a lot of tion, garrison troops in reduced numbers remained in
men were stationed in North China with very little to China for some considerable period thereafter, often
do. The first mystery is what happened to all of the using fieldpost facilities for mail. In the case of the
mail that the Russian soldiers presumably sent home Russian contingent, I would date this interim period
during this period? A closely-related mystery is as extending from September 1901 to the Japanese
where are the official military/postal records pertain- attack on Port Arthur in February 1904.
ing to this era? A third time period which needs to be considered
There are several explanations for the paucity of is the Russo-Japanese War, which lasted from Febru-
material, including a low literacy rate among the ary 1904 until the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed in
enlisted men, relatively little Russian interest in phila- September 1905. Although this is clearly not in the
telic matters, natural attrition due to war and revolu- Boxer period, the use of the same numbered cancella-
tion, and Communist-inspired fervor to to eliminate tions has provided information as to the location of
reminders of the former Imperial regime. Whatever additional military postal stations. Essentially, what is
the reasons, there is a lack of material related to this involved is the compilation of a list of recorded covers
Rossica Journal Number 120 65
April 1993







with the Priamur field post marking. All of these By cross-referencing the three time periods and
cancels are inscribed with an abbreviated version of the three geographic areas, I have constructed a grid
the following: "No. POLEVAYA POCH- showing the dates of the postmarks and the locations
TOVAYAKONTORA/PRIAMURSKIIOKRUG," from which the covers that have been recorded were
meaning a numbered field post office in the Priamur sent. As indicated earlier, this is merely a sample of
District. The numbers of the postal stations run up into what should exist in collections somewhere, but it is
the thirties, but it is not known if all of these were necessary to make a start:
actually placed in use. Postmarks have been seen Numbered Field Boxer Interim Russo-JaDanese
from about a dozen different offices, but identifica- Post Stations Period Period Period
tion of the specific location can only be done through China Proper
the examination of covers, and / #18 Taku 9 May 01
sometimes not even then! 21 M01
In addition to the three dif- Leased Territory
ferent time periods involved 1 1 #17 Dalny 16 May 01 3 Apr 03
17 Sep 03
with these field post cancels, Y Pm I as31 Oct 03
there are also three specificgeo- _18 Jan 04
graphic areas in which they were used. Most germane Manchuria
to the Boxer period, of course, is usage in China #3 Shanhaikuan 6 Feb 01
proper where the troops were deployed from Taku on #4 Ninguta 18 Sep 05
#13 Newchwang 14 Apr 03
the Gulf of Chihli inland to Tien-Tsin and Peking. (Yinkow) 12 Jun 03
The second area relates to the Lyaotung Peninsula, 2 Sep 03
which had been leased by Russia from China in 1898
for the purpose of building up an ice-free port as a #16 Lyaoyang 3 Aug 03
naval base. The third geographic zone is Manchuria, #28 HandaokhetzI 19 Dec04
in which the Russians negotiated special economic
rights, including the construction of the railway link- Well, the subject is now on the table and inputs
ing Port Arthur with Harbin. from other members would be greatly appreciated. In
this manner, everyone will benefit from new informa-
tion. I look forward to a follow-up article.




OTEPLITOE IIHOCMO.









-........ ............... "'*-*.*. ..... ....


-Ha smoug euiporni Nl iomr1 IWH n"iahi ipflra.

Cover from the 18th FPO at Taku, 9 May 1901.
66 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993























































Picture postcard depicting the advance of soldiers in Manchuria.

t< -
















Svauplals des englisch-rusischen grenisfrites beim CienAs'n- hif 4'-.
//








Picture postcard showing the English-Russian border guards at Ten-Tsin, 1902.
Rossica Journal Number 120 67
April 1993








Romanov Postal Stationery Proofs -A Story of Your
Friendly Local Stamp Store

by Rev. Leonard Tann

Not a lot has been written about the proofs of 4-kop. rose-red strike on a cream colored
the Romanov postal stationery. Very few collec- card, 2 examples.
tors have these items and the author has only a 14-kop. blue strike on a cream colored card.
single item a 14-kop. in blue imprinted on 20-kop. green strike on a cream colored
"zig-zag" watermarked paper. Certainly the sta- card, 2 examples.
tionery proofs are scarcer than the color or die
proofs of the stamps, and they are scarce enough! Ten items costing approximately $3.30 each!
Towards the end of 1992, I received a letter They are worth on average, in my opinion, at
from a relative newcomer to Russian philately least 120 each (approximately $190 at current
who lives in a suburb of London. He wrote that he rates) and the two in un-issued colors- 1-kop.
called in at his local stamp store. The conversation in ochre, 14-kop, in blue- are worth more. The
between the store owner and himself must have two strikes of the 3-kop. on a single card are also
run something like this : worth more.
Store owner: So you collect Russia. I have a In addition, the interesting point is that five
few things here you might like. have dates penciled on the base 3/VI/11 (June
Collector: What are they? 1911). The absence of the Nicholas II types (later
Store owner: I do not really know, Russian the 7-kop. and 10-kop. values) is explained by
stamps I suppose. Tell you what, the fact that the unadopted essays very scarce
give me 2 a piece and they are showing the Tsar in profile, three-quarter
yours! face, and full face were being experimented with
Collector: Seems OK to me. Here you are into 1912. Since those designs had not been
20 (approximately $30). depicted, they were not included in this series of
stationery proofs although they were in the is-
The collector writes to me and describes sued types.
them vaguely. I write back and say that I am not Not only did this give me the opportunity to
sure exactly what they are, but would need to see see proofs of the stationery-well, in photocopies
at least a couple of them before making any at least-and study them, but one can only stand
comments. Rather than risk the uncertainties of in awe at the lucky collector who paid $3.30 for
the post, he sent me photocopies black and items in the $200 bracket.
white and color. I wrote to the collector confirming his spec-
The ten items are described below as follows: tacular find, their value in my opinion, and saying
that he had a very fine mini-exhibit of consider-
All are Romanov types with the names of the able rarity. I offered him a "fiver" each for them!
engravers and designers under the base frame They say Christmas comes but once a year for
line identical to the stamp proof types, someone, but as a rabbi what chance have I
1-kop. in ochre on buff stock like the got.........?????.........!!!
wrapper types.
2-kop. green, also on buff stock. .7 -' ."'
3-kop. single carmine strike on a cream / .
colored card, 2 examples. 2-kop. imprint from proof card on the
3-kop. two strikes on a single cream left, penciled date above.
colored card. -
68 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








Esperanto Return Address Label

by Gary A. Combs

The postcard illustrated in this short article mouth, England. The cancellation date is 27 June
asks some very interesting questions. One does 1911. The message is in Esperanto (according to
not routinely find private usage of return address A. Cronin who translated it for me-bad Espe-
labels during the empire period. Newspapers and ranto) and basically is a "Hi, How are you?" type
other bulk-mail type businesses have used them letter. The writer asks if F. Jenkins has an Espe-
on occasion, but personal usage is scarce, ranto address in London.
The postcard shown in fig. 1 appears to be The wonderful feature of this postcard is the
normal at first glance. Aside from the outstand- address label used by V. Sablovski shown in fig.
ing Moscow cancel, it appears normal. Closer 2. Fellow collectors indicate that there should be
inspection reveals that the postcard is from V. more occurrences of address labels. Can any
Sablovski in Moscow to an F. Jenkins in Ports- member add to our knowledge on the subject?



m f i j .. ..................,
to '*OB I o CO S3b.
SNnoEilk'i"6 ?ra.E UNIVERSELLE. o .
lb oa'rfo'TliCbMuO. CART o
.^ ...... .......... ------

./ ...... ........ ..f . .... oA








Figure 1. Esperanto cover from Moscow to England with address label..
-l ,li ................









~Fi~~Fgure 2.. Esperanto cover om Moscow to England with address label enlarged.







Rossica Journal Number 120 69
April 1993
April 1993








Covers Relating to Russia

by Melvin M. Kessler

The covers shown and described in this issue are not great rarities, but each has a distinctive feature
that I believe may catch the attention of the Russian-oriented postal historian. They are diverse, ranging
from a Siberian official document, a Russo-Japanese military cover, two different kinds of adversity
covers, a somewhat scarce illustrated postcard from the 1920s, to a US cover to Russia once owned perhaps
by a Russian collector of old.

Siberian Official Imperial Document


.. A -


















^ OJVHHW{dMO o



I never expected to acquire such a cover in pristine condition with clear, well-struck cancellations.
The document that went through the mail unfranked (without stamps) is an "ukaz" from the Tobol'sk-
Surgutsk District Court addressed to the Yugansk Tribal Administration at Surgutsk. The cancellation is
a circular "TOBOL'SK POCHT. TELEGR. KONT." (Tobol'sk Post-and-Telegraph Office) serial
number 1, dated 16 September 1888. This cancellation is Kiryushkin and Robinson (K&R) type 1371.3,
rated "D." The arrival mark is "SURGUTSK," dated 21 September 1888. This cancellation is K&R type
1285.1, dated 2 Apr. 1913, and rated a high "F." The postmark on this cover is exactly the same type of
cancellation shown in the example listed in K&R, but used 25 years earlier! It is a wonder that the
cancellation had not changed in a quarter of a century. On the back of the cover is the court's paper seal,
broken, of course, reading "Tobol'sko-Surgutskago Okruzhnago Suda" (Tobol'sk-Surgutsk District
Court). How this document survived in such excellent condition is amazing. [This document probably came
from an official archive and recently made its way to the West.--Ed.]
70 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993






Russo-Japanese War Military Mail













CX. , y-?.-9,1 A: . e

This red-band cover originated at the 10th Company of the 183rd Infantry Regiment (negative
cancellation) and bears the postmark "SHTAB. 3 SIBIRSK. KORP. POCHT. KONT.," (HQ of the 3rd
Siberian Corps Postal Office), serial "V" dated 11-1-05 (11 January 1905). The cover was received at
Revel (on reverse side) on 8 February 1905. The postmarks are relatively clear but, due to the bright red
band, do not copy very well. I do not know how common red-band covers are from military personnel
in Siberia, perhaps another member can provide this information. To me it seems unusual that a military
cover from Russia would be a red-band one.

Kharbin to the US., 1919















Every now and then we all see a cover that we must have-even if for no other reason than it is pretty.
Such was the case with this cover from Kharbin. The sender used a 14-kop. postal stationery envelope
franked with imperial postage stamps which were not overprinted for China: two 15-kop. and one 25-
kop. Arms-type of the 1909-1912 issue; one 1-kop. imperforate of the 1917 Provisional issue. The cover
was canceled at Kharbin on 1 May 1919 and is of the type listed by Tchilinghirian & Stephen (T&S) as
"Harbin Sub-Type 4M (Serial "L")." The 70-kop. rate is correct for a US destination.
The use of the Provisional 1-kop. imperforate stamp adds another feature. According to T&S, no
covers were recorded used in China with the 1917 imperforate Arms-type stamps. Undoubtedly, some
covers may have surfaced used in China with the Provisional Arms-type stamps since 1959. The five
cancellations certainly enhance this cover. On the reverse is a partial strike of "CHANGCHUN" IJ.P.O.
(date unclear) in magenta.
Rossica Journal Number 120 71
April 1993






Adversity Covers: Zemstvo















N-
















Adversity covers are envelopes handmade from any type of paper that can be folded into the shape
of an envelope-used sheets of paper, printed pages from a form or book which is blank on one side.
Adversity covers are occasionally seen in US correspondence from the mid-19th century or, more
frequently, on forms which were made into envelopes in the Confederate States. A shortage of paper and
subsequent shortage of envelopes forced the letter writer to use his/her imagination on any kind of paper
that could be fashioned into a makeshift envelope. The same condition undoubtedly existed in Russia
during adverse times as well as in the early years of the Soviet Union. [In 1993 there is yet another paper
shortage.-Ed.]
The zemstvo cover shown above was made from a used sheet of paper on which one side had been
previously written upon. The sender possibly wanted to save the cost of a sheet of paper and used a sheet
of paper that was blank on one side to create this envelope. The cover is illustrated partially opened to reveal
the used side of the paper, which is now the inside of the envelope. The zemstvo stamp, Chuchin No. 6,
is a provisional issue surcharged with a "3" and considered a scarce variety. The letter was posted at
Zolotonosha in Poltava province in 1891 (rest of date is illegible). The oval cancellation reads
"30JIOTOHOUCK. 3EMCK. CElIbCK. nHOTbI." ZOLOTONOShSK. ZEMSK./SEL'SK. POChTY
(Zolotonosha zemstvo/rural post).





72 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993






Adversity Covers: Soviet Period









*44-





l \. I ..





II .. I




























'0.'" This particular spelling of Vladikavkaz (BJIAJIHKABKA3b) still retains the old orthography hard
sign "b" at the end of the word. This is not all that uncommon since the use of the hard sign persisted well

Rossica Journal Number 120 73
April 1993
April 199







Soviet Advertisement Card of the 1920-30s



SPO AE r KAPT'OtIKA




Hyia:
.aIf n tfIq. HUR ut6.l.-T., I UO.a
..II..n iU.I.lu H. .. .I. )




""te ,


OT'F.P E. H "



Ia[.. Cp.-Aa. CnpapGapo apu V'n-. H.I.11.. u T. yTm. 23i, Tn. p. L'VPo a" 2I .-I, r1p. I:.

According to Higgins and Gage (H&G-1972), the illustrated postcard shown above rated a full
picture. The card is H&G No. 126, five kop. with the "^" over the "s" of Posta. The post card was produced
in Tashkent, Uzbekistan by local officials. The ads are in Russian and other languages native to the region.
H&G states that the card was "withdrawn very shortly after... release by order of the Ministry of Posts.
They are very scarce and are much sought after." The postcard is unused and in mint condition as if just
issued. I have never seen one in a dealer's stock, except the dealer who sold five of them to me. Apparently
he acquired them from a recent Russian 6migr6 who was, I presume, possibly a closet philatelist in the
former USSR. I suspect thatmore Russian items seldom seen will surface in time as more secretive Russian
philatelists emigrate to the West. [According to George Shaw, there are 11 (?) of these Agitation/Advertising cards listed
in the 1982 Soviet Postal Stationery catalog.-Ed.]

US to St Petersburg

I saved this cover for last in this presentation. The cover is not a rare item, rather common I should
say. Canceled in New York on 25 August 1890, it bears a 5-cent franking which was the prevailing rate
for an unregistered cover going abroad. The cover is a 1-cent Franklin blue postal stationery on which is
included two 2-cent common stamps, the brown and the green Washingtons-thus making this a cover
with three distinctive colors of postal franking. The use of the two Washington stamps together is not often
seen, and the two differently colored stamps on an envelope with a third color used together is a plus.
The handwriting was not easily interpreted because the destination or address was rewritten. On the
reverse side is a St. Petersburg arrival mark dated 26 August 1890 (old style date).
What I also found interesting is that an old Russian collector once owned this cover. I have seen other
covers with the name V. N. Nekrasov and the notation "From the Collection of, etc." I have no idea who
Nekrasov was. A prominent collector from the Imperial days? If any of the readers are familiar with the
name, please contact me.

74 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993

























I04tJ,"- GAL i.L1
"/, .. /
t t.y .: .M,, ., :,






c4iu ----~










US to St. Petersburg cover on top; enlargement of perhaps an old Russian collector's mark on bottom.



I hope that you found this small presentation to [Mel Kessler has been involved in philately since before
your liking and I would appreciate hearing from any adhesives were even thought of. His low number, 431,
collector on any philatelic topic. indicates he has been in Rossica for many years-there are
only 12 members with lower numbers! Mel always has
interesting items to show other members or, as Mel is
References: inclined to say "isn't this simply the most gorgeous thing you
Prigara, S.V. "The Russian Post in the Empire, have ever seen?" As Rossica welcomes more new and
Turkey, China, and the Post in the Kingdom of younger members, we should show them as many aspects of
Poland," New York, 1941, Rossica Translation collecting Russian philatelic material aspossible. Any article
could provide the spark to start a new member on the way to
No. 1 by D. Skipton, 1980. an exhibit or a more interesting collection. To that end, I
Tchilinghirian, S. D. and W.S.E. Stephen. "Stamps asked Mel to share a few items with us in each journal. I
of the Russian Empire Used Abroad," The requested that the items be varied in an attempt to reach the
British Society of Russian Philately, 1957. widest audience possible. Mel most graciously agreed to
Kiryushkin, A.V. and P.E. Robinson. "Russian share his extensive knowledge with the membership. Addi-
Postmarks an Intro ton and G de," Unted tionally, Mel is a certified philatelic judge and is qualified to
Postmarks an Introcuction and Guide," United judge Russianarea exhibits.-Ed.]
judge Russian-area exhibits.-Ed.]
Kingdom, 1989.
Higgins & Gage, "World Postal Stationery Cata-
log," 1972.



Rossica Journal Number 120 75
April 1993








The Works

by Michael Ercolini

I have two covers in my collection from what The cover illustrated here received "the works"
is an apparent ongoing correspondence between from the postal system. Bearing three US 2-cent
someone in San Francisco and a Mr. Edward Huff stamps, the cover was postmarked in San Francisco
in Khabarovsk around the turn of the century. The on 30August 1902. Apparently itwasunderfranked
correspondence is meticulously annotated when as indicated by the 20 CTMS marking. The cover
received and when answered to include the number made three stops in Japan before reaching its destina-
of the correspondence-my covers indicate that tion. At each stop a transit mark was applied:
there were at least 60 letters sent and received. Yokohama, 1 Sep. 1902 in purple; Kobe, 21 Sep.
1902 in gray-black; Nagasaki, 23
Sep. 1902 in violet. Somewhere
along the line it received the red
Japanese postage dues (on front).
-- The next stop for this cover was
\-', Vladivostok where it received a
'" '/ Robinson type 268.3, serial 9, on 15
'-j: Sep. 1902 (old style). It was prob-
X ably assessed Postage Due at
SVladivostok by Robinson type 547
in the amount of 16-kop. ($.08 -
.r f. s -f' double the underpaid amount). I use
the term probably because other
-covers thatreached Khabarovskwith
postage due did not have this hand
Stamp, but rather the amount was
noted on the cover. Mr. Robinson
tells us that it was not until well into
this century that the name of the post
S...... ... "- '" .:.. office was added to this device.
S/ Finally, the cover reached
Khabarovskon 16 September 1902
S- and received aRobinsontype1514-
S \ 2-3 arrival mark.
S/Does any other member has
S, other letters from this correspon-
S7 dence or any information to add? If
#6A W so, please write me.

_-.. 4 | .






76 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993










SShe Loves Me, She Loves Me Not

by Gary A. Combs

n Filateliya SSSR No. 10 for 19851, Mr. V. The postcard illustrated by Mr. Kulikov features
Kulikov wrote a follow-up article to one written by 7-kop. stamps at the same angles with identical
Mr. I. Levitas in No.1 for 19852. Both articles dealt wording. The difference between the cards shown
with postcards claiming that the placement of the here and the one illustrated by Mr. Kulikov is that
postage stamp could be used to convey one's per- the text on his is in French and the text on the ones
sonal feelings of love toward another individual. shownhereisinRussian.Wenowhaveatleastthree
This short article simply adds to their articles and know items of this type.
presents two additional postcards. The postal markings on the stamps pictured on
In the last year, I purchased two of these little the cards are predominantly from Warsaw and
gems which I had never seen before except in the Lodz' circa 1905. Does this provide any additional
article by Mr. Kulikov. I asked several of my fellow insight into these cards? Both cards have the in-
collectors if they had seen one before. Naturally, scription "PHCYHOKb YTBEPA(KEHb" (Picture
they all said yes but could not remember when or Approved) on the reverse side. On the 3-kop.
where. Finally, one old sage said that he thought he example, the publisher's symbol is also included. In
remembered (from his youth) that how the stamp the lower right-hand comer is "4L.LL B 9/V. 03"-
was placed was used to convey a message, passed by censor 9 May 1903.
The two postcards illustrated here are examples The wording for"Postcard" and"place forstamp"
commercially produced during the days of the appear as in other postcards. However, the sections
Russian empire, somewhere around the turn of the for "address" and "letter" are reversed-address on
century. The subject is "placement of the stamp to the left side and letter on the right side. This is most
convey feelings." unusual. Does it have any significance? Neither
The inscription in the middle of the postcards postcard makes any reference to Russia or the
reads "The Language of the Postage Stamp." At the Universal Postal Union-items seen frequently on
bottom the inscription informs the user that one can other picture postcards of the time. Does this mean
express one's feelings by placing the stamp as anything?
indicated on the card. The creator of these postcards Has any member seen similar items either from
used a picture of a 3-kop. and a 4-kop. stamp Russia or another country? Can any member offer
placed in 10 different angles around the edge of the an example of a postally used example? If you have
postcard to indicate what would be implied to the any information on this subject, please write and
addressee. The phrases that accompany each are as share your knowledge with our members.
follows (starting from the upper left-hand comer):
Are you thinking of me? References:
Do you love me? 1. Kulikov, V. "rMHlY TEBE, MOR LIPYF
My heart is free. CEPELHbIh..." (PISHU TEBE, MOI DRUG
I love you! SERDECHNYI-I write you, my dearest
I think of you constantly. friend), ,RWJA TE/IHH CCCP(FILATELIYA
Your absence grieves me. SSSR--Soviet Philatelist), No. 10, 1985,
Be happy! Moscow, p. 62.
My heart longs for you! 2. Levitas, I., "Bnio6njeHHblI Koponb"
Yes! (Vlyublennyi korol'-A King in Love),
Will I see you soon? PHJIA TEJIHM CCCP, No. 1, 1985, Moscow.

Rossica Journal Number 120 77
April 1993



















MOE CEPAUE CBOBAoHO
A 6MWb JIM MEHNR JAOG6AJO TEfl51

S_;3.KL f lOTO580 MAPK H -Front of 3-kop. card.

MOE CEPALAE
6bETCR LJIR TEBS
&A rYAb C4ACTJIMBb





.IAU BUPA3R Tb CBOM ,BCTBA CJSbli.y#CTE fn'srOB MIAPIf CGOOTBtTCTSEHH0 HIliTb, KAKb BblUE O03HMAEHO.



OTKPbITOE nIHCbMO.

A R1I AAPECA. AAlI nflMCbMA An
ij PMAPHM.





Reverse of 3-kop. card.


UJ
O


0
o .




|.,_------- "'--"""-""'
A aS/v.o-.










MOE CEPALAE C0SOHOA *

&HWb/M MEF. nA Ta


S3a KB m M PKH Front of 4-kop. card.


a A YAb CWArAW






Tod6b 5IupIMsb no0AO Hn> BhbwueonaI4eMH!b ouLymenli, HaIO KaieHTh Mapiy
a. b cooTrTCTnemno. nonometil Ha aApeCHoI cropoAk.


78 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







A Bit of Luck, A Lot of Observation
(New P.O.n.H T. Cancel)

by George G. Werbizky

SnAugust 1974, the outstanding collection of Examination of the three items listed suggests
the late Kurt Adler was auctioned by R. A. Siegel in that these canceling devices were used on a specific
New York City. Of particular interest was lot num- type of document rather than on posted mail. Adler's
ber 910, which carried the following description: "on piece" as well as the second item seem to be
"Ropit, Agentstvo, Konstantinopoisk, Jan 22, 1905 affixed to the same type of pre-printed form. One
in Double Oval, two Strikes, on two Turkish Revenue can read "BblUlEO3..." and "B" (under strong light,
Stamps, this type is Unrecorded in Tchilinghirian, the full "B" is visible)just under the lower left-hand
believed to be the only Examples in Existence (Photo
X)" edge of the stamp. There is no printing on the
reverse side of the forms to which the stamps and
P.O.n.H T. (R.O.P.i T.) expands to "The Russian cancels are affixed. It is not too difficult to guess that
the word is "BblUEO3HA'-EHHbHi-VYShE-
Navigation and Trade Company" and "Agentstvo" the word is "BblwE03HAlEHHbI-VYShE-
means agency. Konstantinopol'is misspelled in the OZNAChENNYJ," which translates to "above-
catalog description. Only one of the stamps is mentioned or foregoing"-a word with legal flavor.
illustrated in the catalog. The lot is valued at $75.00 The third item illustrated in fig. 1 has the word
- $100.00, yet realized only $30.00! "IPHMEqAHHi-PRIMEChANIYA" and "...
It is always dangerous to refer to a philatelic bservatio..." right below it, between two lines, as if
item as "an only example" since there is always a column heading; these letters and lines are printed
anotherwaiting tobe discovered or is simply hidden on the back of the piece (fig. 2). Here one does not
in a collection unrecognized and unreported. Such need to guess since the Russian word translates to
is the subject of this article-o report on a recently note or comments and the French equivalent is
discovered new R.O.P.i T. cancel for Konstan- "observations.
tinopol'.
The subject cancel, seen in fig. 1, was used on
a Turkish tax stamp and is dated 2 December 1885.








Figure 2.

R.O.P.i T., a steam-ship company, was prima-
S rily a trading and shipping establishment, which
S, transported all kinds of cargo between Russia,
STurkey, and Levant. By the end of the 19th century,
S,'/ the R.O.P.i T. had 77 steamships with an approxi-
*. -' mate tonnage of 65,000 registered tons.1 Every
shipment required formal documentation, bills of
Figure 1. Top left-fom Adler sale; Top right-another lading being one of them. It is very likely that these
example; Bottom-unrecorded cancel.
Rossica Journal Number 120 79
April 1993







cancellers were used only on shipping documents References:
and not on mail. Konstantinopol' must have been a 1. Prigara, S.V. "The Russian Post in the Empire,
large R.O.P.i T. office and specialized cancellers Turkey, China, and the Post in the Kingdom of
make sense. In smaller offices one canceller may Poland," p. 136, Rossica Translation No. 1,
have served more than one function. This may 1981, USA.
explain why cancellers shown here do not appear in 2. S. D. Tchilinghirian and W.S.E. Stephen,
the authoritative work "Stamps of the Russian "Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad,"
Empire Used Abroad" by S.D. Tchilinghirian and The British Society of Russian Philately, 1957.
W.S.E. Stephen.2 (fig. 3)
So, once again, "good hunting" for postal use of
R.O.P.i T. cancels on Turkish tax stamps.



I MAP 1911 A8- FlHB 92)^;


no. ON
Figure 3. Illustrations from the works of Tchilinghirian and Stephens.



A Puzzle

by Michael Ercolini

The cover illustrated here is is from the 14th issue of 1883 and is somewhat perplexing. The cover
is postmarked Nezhin, Chemigov province, on 4 January 1889 with a standard Prigara type I cancel and
addressed to Moscow. The ink used is a blue-green--that in itself is unusual. On the obverse is another
Nezhin mark and a Moscow Town Post arrival mark dated 7 January 1889, 9 AM. The Post Office was
probably closed on 6 January since it is really 25 December 1888 and that was an official holiday.
Someone wrote in orange crayon "HAJIOX. HJIATEX." (NALOZh. PLATEZh. COD) and '1.75
X." Was additional postage required for this service or did regulations allow the fee to be attached to the
COD? Also, to whom would the funds be remitted? There is no return address nor any accounting number
of etiquette. I would appreciate hearing from any member who can help me unravel this mystery.













*<0

80 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








The Dutch Connection:
early mail from Russia to the West

Ivo Steyn1

If we go back in time, we pass several im- sors were two members of the Winius family--all
portant barriers that separate quite distinct periods Dutchmen. In 1701, Pyotr Shafirov replaced
in the history of the Russian post. Some of these Mattheus Winius as postmaster and the Dutch
dividing lines are connected to political events, influence vanished.
such as the formation of the USSR after the Civil What is known about that shadowy century
War, and the 1917 Revolution. Other crucial events before the first postmarks came into being? Not a
that are wholly within the province of the post heck of a lot. Thanks to the efforts of valiant postal
include: the 1888 amalgamation of post and tele- historians such as Sokolov and Vigilev we have a
graph; the 1871 decree that introduced registered vague idea of who did what when. We know of
mail within Russia; and, of course, the December postal routes being organized in Russia, and we
1857introduction of the firstRussianpostage stamp have a pretty good idea who was peeking into the
(cruelly disregarding itsTiflisprecursor for the sake mail at every opportunity (see the censorship book
of clarity), by Skipton and Michalove). But an aspect of Rus-
If we go back beyond 1857 we are technically sian mailwe knowvery little about is mail to foreign
in the pre-stamp era, or in the realm of eophilately, destinations. There has been a lively discussion
the name usually given over here to the period within the pages of the BJRP about the postal
before the introduction of postage stamps as pre- charges incurred by Russian mail to the west be-
payment for postal services. But if we continue to tween 1821 and 1843, and even for this relatively
travel back, we run into another crucial event: the modem period, very few firm answers are avail-
introduction-probably in 1765--of postmarks in able. In paleophilately, we don't even have the
Russia (again, for the sake of clarity, disregarding postmarks to inform us about the route followed.
some rare markings used in the Baltic area during its Do not expect any answers here. I will show you a
period of Swedish domination). Although we are fewcovers from thisperiod, report on a fewpossible
still in the realm of eophilately, I think a crucial explanations of the charge marks found on the
barrier has been passed. When first introduced, covers, and tell you something about the people
postmarks were to be used to signal that the pay- sending the covers.
ment for postal services had been received. These
early postmarks therefore served much the same The Dutch Invasion of Russia
purpose as postage stamps, and can safely claim to
belong to eophilately (remember that "philately" By an eerie coincidence, all the covers to be
comes from "at6leia" = free from (further) charges). discussed were sent to the Netherlands, to
The era that preceded the introduction of post- Amsterdam to be precise. Why Amsterdam? I hope
marks in Russia is an obscure period indeed. Per- I will be forgiven for a brief history lesson. During
sonally, I favor the name "paleo-philately" for this the second half of the 16th century, some of the
earliest period in the history of the post in Russia. It northernmost possessions of the Spanish Kingdom
started in 1665, when the first thing resembling a decided they did not want to play anymore. What
state-organized postal service came into being. It followed was the Eighty-Years War, the 1568-
was farmed out to a Jan van Sweden, apparently a 1648 Dutch struggle to become independent of
countryman of mine, and Dutchmen continued to Spain. Aided by luck, the timely appearance of a
play an important part in these earliest years of the few military geniuses, and the realization that a
Russian post. Jan van Sweden was followed by two defeat could harm property values, the struggle
members of the Marcelis family, while their succes- succeeded, and Europe had a new nation to worry
Rossica Journal Number 120 81
April 1993







about- the Republic of the Seven United Provinces perform certain duties for the Russian tsar.
of the Netherlands. Tsar Peter the Great was especially fond of the
The 17th century is known as the Golden Cen- Dutch for some strange reason, and even visited
tury in Holland. Dutch ships sailed all over the Holland on two occasions. Dutch weapons were
place, happily trading, wheeling and dealing, and shipped to Arkhangel'sk during the Northern War
seriously annoying the other European maritime against Sweden and legend has it was a Dutch ship
powers, of which England allowed its annoyance to (the galiot "d'JuffrouwAnna" to be exact) which, in
spill over into war several times. Incidentally, the 1703, was the first ship to visit Peter's grand project
United Provinces were dominated by the richest the city of St. Petersburg, which was built as a rough
province, Holland, which in turn was dominated by copy of Amsterdam on territory taken from the
its richest city, Amsterdam. The Golden Century Swedes during that war. The Russian flag also
reached its climax when Stadhouder (a combina- appears to be loosely based on the Dutch Red-
tion of Commander-in-Chief and Speaker of the White-Blue flag. Incidentally, Dutch merchants
House) William III was handed the job of King of had the gall to ask Peter the Great not to shell Riga
Great Britain because the Brits had run out of Kings during the Northern War, as that might have dam-
of the approved religion. So for about twenty years, aged their properties there. Amazingly, Peter com-
Britain and the Dutch Republic formed a united plied, and Riga fell into Russian hands in 1710,
front against the rest of the world, relatively undamaged.
Unfortunately, that was it for the Netherlands. Unfortunately, the rise of St. Petersburg coin-
The 18th century saw a slow Dutch decline relative cided with the decline of Dutch preeminence at the
to Britain, and by the time Napoleon came around, Russian court. Dutch traders were loath to switch
the Netherlands wasjust another small, defenseless their offices to St. Petersburg, even after the 1714
country. Oddly enough, we are still here to tell the ukase which forced them to do so. The English
tale. Probably an oversight, traders were quick to seize the advantage, and
All very well, but the Dutch showed a dis- Dutch trade at St. Petersburg never became more
concerting tendency to pop up wherever their great than a fraction of the huge volume of trade handled
rivals, the English also popped up. So when Richard by English ships. In the Baltic ports, the story was
Chancellor sailed into the White Sea in 1554, very different. At Riga, about half the ships which
traveling on towards Moscow and making the came and went during the 18th century did so with
acquaintance of the tsar of Muscovy ("Ew! Dutch captains and Dutch owners.
Heww6."),thefirstDutchshipswerenotfarbehind. When the Seven United Provinces crumbled
Where trade went first, diplomatic relations eventu- during the shockwaves sent out after the French
ally followed, and the "Muscovian trade" became a Revolution, most of the Dutch trade with Russia
profitable enterprise for many Amsterdam traders. vanished, never to reach its former levels again.
Arkhangel'sk was the great Russian gateway to the During the 19th century, the Dutch colonial empire
West, since the major Baltic ports were still in offered enough room for what was left of the great
Swedish hands at the time, and the Dutch virtually Amsterdam trading houses and, with a few odd
dominated the Arkhangel'sk trade. Dutch trading exceptions, Dutch trade with Russia never reached
houses also existed in Yaroslavl', Moscow, significant levels again.
Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. Exports from Some of the letters shown in this article were
Arkhangel'sk consisted of leather, furs, tallow, caused by Peter the Great's first visit to Holland.
caviar, flax, tar, potash, honey, salted meat, and This sounds odd and requires some explanation.
hemp. In return, the Dutch shipped salt, brandy, When a traveling Russian court party comes visit-
fruits, linens, paper, and other European manufac- ing, a LOT of money gets spent. The first anxious
tured items as well as colonial goods. Some Dutch question asked by the Dutch government was
merchants even made it to the ranks of the gosti, a "WHO'S GOING TO PAY FOR ALLTHIS?!!!"2
select class of merchants who were allowed to A group of wealthy Dutch merchants stepped for-

82 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







ward and said "Why, WE are." The catch was that, vague, huh? The scholars in this field seem to agree
in return, they were to receive a slight commission the charge must have been for either the Prussian
on any Russian goods shipped into Amsterdam transit alone, or the transit and any further postal
harbor from then on. In this way, the Commission- charges, say the French or Dutch charges for a letter
ers for the Muscovian Trade came into being: a going via Prussia to France or Holland, respec-
powerful group of Amsterdam traders who col- tively. The Prussians appear to have settled the
elected on every tub of caviar shipped from other charges for transit through the smaller Ger-
Arkhangel'sk to Amsterdam, and invested the pro- man states out of their share of the loot.
ceeds in more Russian goods. It should therefore As for the currency in which these charges are
come as no surprise that quite a few of the letters expressed, here several theories exist: Silver Ko-
shown here are addressed to "Commisarissen voor pecks (de Jongh); Prussian Groschen (of 90 to the
den Muscovische Handel." Thaler; Speeckaert, among others); Riga Groschen
(Goatcher). Yet nobody knows for sure, and until
How to get from A to B we know where these marks were written on the
in the 18th century covers, we are unlikely to find out.
De Jongh illustrates a 1723 example which
By which route and what means did such letters shows the Second Number "38." This Second
travel from a Russian port to Amsterdam? De Number can be found on letters from Russia to the
Jongh3 describes a letter from St. Petersburg to Netherlands throughout the period 1706-1766; the
Leiden in Holland from the second quarter of the fact that it only changed in 1766 when Prussia raised
18th century. Most of the letters showed no postal its internal rates appears to be significant. Other
markings at all, and were presumably carried by a signs of Prussian conveyance are notations like
ship's captain. This is confirmed by a Dutch charge "franco Emmerich"4 since Emmerich was the bor-
marking which would have covered the final stretch der station between Prussia and the Netherlands.
of the journey, from Amsterdam to Leiden. Other On later letters the notation is more likely to be
letters from this period may show an annotation in "franco Wesel," as that city superseded Emmerich,
Dutch along the lines of "That God protecteth or even some form of "franco to the (Prussian-
Cap'n Swabby of the good ship Barnacle" as an Dutch) border."
even stronger proof of private conveyance in the The internal Dutch charges are also a clue.
captain's quarters. Captain's letters to Amsterdam incurred no internal
Recently, a correspondence from Riga to Dutch charges if the addressee lived in Amsterdam
Amsterdam, spanning the period 1705-1724 has (presumably the captain just turned up on his door-
come to light. Some of these letters bear cryptic step and handed overthe correspondence), but mail
notations which seem to imply that the cost of coming in overland via Emmerich/Wesel had to
transporting them from Riga to Amsterdam was travel from the border to its final destination, and
not necessarily equally shared by sender and that netted somebody a fee of a few "stuyver^" (of
addressee. However, a number of letters from this 20 to the Guilder). These charges appear to vary
correspondence show signs of having been trans- alarmingly, but since this postal route was mostly a
ported overland by a state-run postal service. The bilateral affair between two Dutch cities, little uni-
thing to look for is the "Two-Number Code" usu- formity or consistency is to be expected anyway.
ally on the reverse of the cover.The firstof these two As a final complication, covers often included
numbers represents the number under which this more than one letter. Some of the letters shown here
particular letter was entered in the "Charta," the include a PS along the lines of "Oh, I'm also
inventory list accompanying each mailbag. The enclosing a few letters for Uncle Fred in Haarlem,
Second Number (capitalized because of its signifi- could you send these on?" Obviously, such letters
chance) represents a postal charge for at least part of traveling "undercover" would not show postal
the journey, expressed in some currency. Pretty markings, except for a Dutch internal marking.

Rossica Journal Number 120 83
April 1993






Some really, really early covers
What is the earliest date to be found on a cover tion on the post-1765 (eophilatelic) era. Goatcher7
from Russia to a foreign destination? That really illustratedal669coverfromMoscowtoAmsterdam
depends onwhatyou thinks admissible. Ifanykind (with the interesting annotation "franco Stettin"),
of letter is admissible, then surely the record holder and I think this cover holds the record for
must be the 1391 letter from La Tana (present-day paleophilately, considering that Jan van Sweden's
Azov) to Italy, recently auctioned by Dann Mayo.5 mail route to the West did not get going until 1665.
Obviously, not a postal marking is to be found on The first letter to be illustrated here actually has
that cover, and it was with 99.9% certainty trans- little to do with Russia, as it was written in Riga on
ported by "Cap'n Swabby of the good ship Bar- 20 August 1707 by a German merchant (see fig. 1).
nacle." He was writing to David de Leeuw (spelled as
Peter Ashford6 was unable to dig up much on "Daviet Leuwe" in the address), a member of the
paleophilatelic covers, and concentrated his atten- powerful Brants family in Amsterdam. The cover











1 -
-q

4 '







I '
*I -. .






.



Figure 1. 1707 cover from Riga to Amsterdam. [Reduced since original cover is 8" x 8"--Ed.]


84 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993
April 1993







bears the Prussian Two-Number Code "13-38," Figure 2 illustrates a letter with the Second
this being the second-earliest example of Second Number 38 which survived the Northern War. This
Number 38 that I am aware of, the earliest dating is a letter from Riga to Amsterdam sent in 1720.
from 1706. A Dutch charge mark of 4 stuyvers for Riga hadbeen occupiedby the Russians in 1710 and
the final stretch from the Prussian-Dutch border to this annexation was formally acknowledged in the
Amsterdam was applied in red on the front The 1721 Treaty of Nystadt. The cover bears a Second
sender annotated the cover "F.Couv." which may Number of 38 and is annotated "franco Emmerich"
be short for "franco covertt8 or (fully) franked (or an abbreviation thereof). The Dutch internal
letter, and it is interesting to speculate how much he charges were five stuyvers for this letter- as I
paid to whom in which currency! During the time previously mentioned, these tend to vary without
this letter was sent, Riga was Swedish. rhyme or reason. Sadly, neither of the covers shown
here bears the labeled "Riga-in-scroll" postmark
Which saw some use during the Swedish reign over
Riga. Its use may have been confined to mail within
Lifland.

























Amsterdam. This letter weighed 21/2 lot (DONT
'pI
































Second Numberis95(=21/208).TheDutchtreated
Rossica Journal Number 120 85

A ril 199- .
-. -a *'.

Figure 3. 1724 cover from Narva to Amsterdam.


If you are getting tired of Riga, cast a glance at
S2. 12 cr ro fig. 3 which illustrates a 1724 letter from Narva to
Amsterdam. This letter weighed 21/2 lot (DONT
ask me if these are Russian lots, Prussian lots or
Lower Slobbovian lots, please) and therefore the
SecondNumberis95 (=21/2x38).TheDutchtreated

Rossica Journal Number 120 85
April 1993







it as a double-weight letter ("2" in upper right Bored with the Baltic? Figure 4 takes us to
comer of front) and charged it 10 stuyvers. It would Arkhangel'sk where the Church Elders of the Dutch
have been nice to illustrate some letters from the Reformed Church wrote this letter to the Commis-
period 1710-1720, but mail from that particular sioners of the Muscovian Trade in 1733. Note the
decade is unlikely to turn up. Between the fall of neat notation on the reverse "16/27 March Archan-
Riga and the Treaty of Nystadt, Swedish vessels gel, 30 April received, 25 July replied," which gives
happily boarded any vessel in the Baltic Sea they us priceless information that would have been
could find, and both trade and correspondence supplied by postmarks in a later age, namely that the
between the Baltic cities and the West must have letter took 34 days to get from A(rkhangel'sk) to
been severely reduced in volume. A(msterdam). It weighed 11/2 lot (I'm warning



I i


A,




















Figure 4. 1733 cover from Arkhangel'sk.
i '- :- *





























86 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







you...), so Second Number 57 and a Dutch charge Figure 5 is something of a puzzler. It is a 1737
of 11/2 x 7 stuyvers makes 11 stuyvers. The 7 letter from Moscow to Amsterdam. It weighed 11/
stuyvers single rate did not last long, as a 1734 letter 2 lot, but there appears to have been some confusion
from the same correspondence shows a 9 stuyvers over this. A Second Number "38" is visible, but
single rate in effect for the Emmerich-Amsterdam there is a second set of numbers with Second
journey. Number "65" which makes little sense. The Dutch
also slapped a single rate on it ("9"). The contents of
.-*in" : ,'. -. :

rsgp 7. /737





.- './ .


7. "0
Z 7 I i. ,-.
-;, -' .." ," i "
". .. i "

u 5. c fo ..M.s- t A t-
-'?. 1 .*

-: "i'."- ," .:

1 J a N m e 1- 8

Ar 12 f" 9r 9/ s
\ dP2 '7-7W 7 7 ^^'-





I ,
.- l .. .
SI o







o / -' ...-- .
Figure 5. 1737 cover from Moscow to Amsterdam.

"Rossica Journal Number 120 87
April 1993







the letter are quite interesting. The Church Elders of 7. F. Goatcher, "Russia-a mystery solved." Postal
the Dutch Reformed Church in Moscow write: History #263, 1992.
"... The Almighty has sorely struck the city of 8. An alternative explanation being "Franco
Moscow, since the three most important sec- Couvorden," Couvorden being another town
tions of the city have been devoured by flame on on the Dutch border. However, probability
Whit Sunday, causing considerable damage appears to favor the interpretation given above,
and a sad spectacle of the inhabitants, such, that as Couvorden (or Coevorden, as it is spelled
it is impossible to put pen to paper to describe these days) is not known to have functioned as
their circumstances. This tribulation has also a Dutch border office.
struck our Sloboda9, or houses of foreign na- 9. The "Novaya Nemetskaya Sloboda," or New
tionals, where most have lost their homes and Quarter for the Mutes. All non-Russians were
hearth, and our Reformed community has lost referred to as Mutes because they did not speak
its church and school... and could we please Russian. The name later stuck for the Germans.
have lots and lots of money to rebuild?" 10. Thisdifferencebeingcausedbythe"Immersatter
border transit charge" which was only applied
The Commissioners for the Muscovian Trade did to mail from the Baltic area. From 1821 on all
actually support the Dutch Reformed Church in Russian mail was subject to this charge.
several Russian cities with large donations.
The Second Number of 38 vanished in 1766, to
be replaced by 451/2 (mail from the Baltic) or 44Hoe F s-M w
(mail from other locations) 0. By that time letters Hole Fler-M Tidbits
were often adorned by a postmark to show that In a circular from the Post-and-Telegraph Ad-
postage had been paid. As was to be expected, the ministration from 10 January 1909, one discovers
earliest of these marks are from places like St. that ".. .women employed by the post can seek a
Petersburg, Riga, and Moscow. The era of husband only from men also employed by the post."
eophilately had begun. In another circular from October 1910 we find
out that the Moscow Post purchased 25 automo-
Notes: biles from France for use by the post.
1. WiththankstoAndredeBruin, KurtWeisshaupt, From the 1862 Almanac we learn a bit about
and the Amsterdam Municipal Archives for travel by train from Moscow to St. Petersburg. "The
permission to reproduce items from their col- postal train, which transports mail and passengers
elections. with their baggage, leaves Moscow for St. Peters-
2. There is a persistent rumor that the Scots are burg at 12 noon daily and arrives at 8 AM the next
actually Dutchmen who were thrown out of the day. The trip takes 20 hours with an average speed
country because of their profligate spending of 37.5 versts per hour and stops at all intermediate
habits. Personally, I think they are Swiss who stations for 5 to 10 minutes for passenger discharge,
were extremely uninterested in cuckoo clocks. etc., and from 18 to 45 minutes at four stations for
3. W.J. de Jongh "The Two-Number Code on breakfast, lunch, dinner, and tea as follows:
Russian Mail to the West." BJRP 72, Autumn
1992, pp. 10-16. Location Time Reason How Long
Kalin 2:35 PM breakfast 15 minutes
4. Also written as Emmerick and EmmX. There Kan 2:35 PM breakfast 15 minutes
Tver' 4:57 PM lunch 45 minutes
was little universal agreement on the spelling of Bologov 10:18 PM tea and 30 minutes
place names and even of names in general. supper
5. TheletterwasillustratedanddescribedinPochta Lyubanskii 5:30 AM tea 15 minutes"
9, December 1990, pp. 26-30. -Gary
6. "Russian mail of the 18th century." BJRP 45,
1971, pp. 7-12.

88 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993








President's Corner

by Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman
You will be reading this column just before Have you ever thought of exhibiting? If not,
our annual Rossica meeting at NAPEX in June. If seriously consider it. Not just to show off your
you have never been to one of the Rossica meet- collection or to seek recognition in the philatelic
ings, this year provides a wonderful opportunity community, but to better focus your collecting
to see some outstanding Russian exhibits and direction and expand your collection's possibili-
expand your philatelic knowledge. Best of all, ties. In the final analysis, as you focus your
the show will provide you with a chance to make collecting habits and thinking, your collecting
new friends who share your collecting passion, will become increasingly more enjoyable and the
We have been promised NAPEX invitations for quality of your collection will increase signifi-
a number of dealers specializing in Russian and cantly. No longer will you be satisfied with just
Russian-related material. In addition to the filling album pages and checking catalogs, you
Rossica evening social, we will have our annual will gain new enjoyment as you explore the
"business" meeting. I promise, it will not be a depths of your interest by studying related phila-
long and boring presentation of the inner work- telic and non-philatelic references. There is no
ings and annual reports of your Society. There question that developing an exhibit is a stimulat-
will two major presentations on Russian philat- ing and continuing experience as you hone your
ely that will allow for discussion and member presentation and material content.
interaction. Remember, NAPEX comes at vaca- An exhibit is not just a collection of rare and
tion time and Washington provides a wealth of unusual stamps and covers. An exhibit has a
things to do for the entire family. Each of you is theme or focus and need not be filled with expen-
cordially invited! sive items. An exhibit is carefully organized and
The philatelic press has been listing Russian/ a plan must be established for displaying your
Ukraine exhibits displayed at both national and material in a logical and informative fashion.
local shows. I am quite familiar with some of the Even the more common material can be pre-
exhibits shown in the mid-Western United States sented in new and intriguing ways. When exhib-
and those shown at our annual Rossica meetings, its are judged at the shows, you are not competing
However, I have not had the opportunity to see with the other exhibits, you compete with your-
exhibits displayed at other regions of the country. self and the potential of the exhibit theme. Judges
I hope that our present exhibitors will be inclined and knowledgeable viewers can provide major
to begin to show their material more widely. input that will not only improve your exhibit, but
Personally, I would like to see collections of the that can add new dimensions, potential for growth,
zemstvos, the propaganda postal cards, the vari- and improvement in your collection for your
ous charity and fantasy issues, the polar drift and viewing audience. Judging of your exhibit should
Antarctic stations. I would especially like to see not be a "downer." If you don't win one of the top
more material from the Soviet and post-Soviet awards, it should function as a further stimulus
eras. The Soviet philatelic material lends itself to for improvement.
wonderful thematic exhibits and to special stud- How do you start? I think you start just by
ies-from nature to space, even political leader doing it, even if it's just by placing your album
themes. We note all kinds of proofs, varieties, pages in a local show. Get some input from the
and unusual copies of Soviet stamps in the auc- club members and local judges then go to work.
tion catalogs-let's see these in the exhibits. The APS has a judging manual that details how
judges are to evaluate a given type of exhibit.


Rossica Journal Number 120 89
April 1993







Study it. The American Association of Philatelic Officers Meeting
Exhibitors holds seminars at national shows and b R
by Robert B. Bain
provides a small and easily put-together start.
Single frame exhibits provide a chance to dis- At the annual meeting in Chicago in May, the
play your best subject material or for the initial officers agreed to a follow-on meeting at BALPEX
presentation of your embryonic exhibit or theme. to cover topics introduced at the annual meeting.
I like them. When judged they are evaluated sep- The follow-on meeting was held in conjunction
arately from the multi-frame exhibits. But, you with BALPEX in Hunt Valley, Maryland on 6
will find that it is very difficult to win the top September 1992 at 1:00 PM. Officers present:
honor in this category, the competition is terrific. Adolph Ackerman, Gary Combs, Dave Skipton,
Even so, they do provide a great starting point Leon Finik, Gordon Torrey, and Bruce Bain
and a great challenge for both the beginner and telephonicallyy)
the experienced exhibitor.
I will be pleased if this message stimulates Items discussed included:
even one of you non-exhibitors to begin exhibit- Agreement to consider publishing a new work
ing. Hopefully, it will stimulate our present ex- by Peter Michalove-Finik abstained.
hibitors to begin sending their exhibits to new The 1993 annual meeting will be held in con-
locales allowing for new audiences and increas- junction with NAPEX in Arlington, VA(June 4-6).
ing awareness and recognition of Russian and Adolph and Gordon agreed to conduct seminars.
Russian-related philately in this country. The Society will request 100 frames for members to
Exhibit their material.
The recent split of the library into three parts
Buyer Beware! seems to pose no constitutional problems and all
officers agreed with the personnel chosen.
This continues to be a topic of discussion at TheVoikhanskiitranslationpurchasedlastyear
all philatelic events around the world. Now that is approximately 2/3 complete and Dave anticipates
the former Soviet Union is no more, a plethora of completion between July and December 1993.
material has been streaming to the west. There Agreement to investigate advertising in the
continue to be numerous major varieties for all Scott Catalog, Gibbons Catalog, Linn's Stamp
stamps, overprints, and in some cases usages. News, and the APS journal. We are looking for a
Dealers from Norway to Europe to the United Scott representative.
States all seem to have plenty of this material at A Rossica award was discussed-Peter estab-
nominally high prices. Yet the material cannot be lishing criteria; first award will be at NAPEX 1993.
found within the Republics of the former Soviet Agreement on establishing a Rossica Scroll of
Union. Forgeries of items previously considered Distinguished Philatelists. Adolph and Gordon ab-
rare are also surfacing. However, this is of a stained. Three names were discussed. Criteria and
greater magnitude than the items sent to the West design of the scroll are being researched by Dave
beginning in the late 1970s and early 1980s. and Bruce and will be presented at NAPEX.
Thefts of Russian and Russian-related mate- Adolph agreed to inform Peter Michalove and
rial are more common. Recently, Linn's Stamp Jim Mazepa of the topics discussed when he travels
News reported the theft of a substantial collec- to INDYPEX later this month.
tion from an individual living in Los Angeles. Adolph reported from INDYPEX that Jim
Needless to say, "know thy seller" is fast Mazepa will have a draft of the proposed new
becoming a mandatory requirement. If the seller Constitutionreadyforofficers' reviewbeforeChrist-
will not take the item back and provide a refund mas. This item will be discussed at NAPEX.
if found to be a fake or forgery, perhaps you
should reconsider buying the item.
90 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







Treasurer's Report

by Gary A. Combs
The bottom line would seem to indicate that Starting Balance 3/1/92 $16,873.43
something must be wrong with our finances. There- Income
fore, some explanation is in order. Also, I feel that Dues 6,700.00
some general information may be useful to the Donations (money) 134.20
membership abouthow the expenses are accrued- Sales
although not perfect. The last accounting period Journals 1,080.00
covered a 14 month interval, whereas this account- Prigara 107.00
ing period covers only 12 months. Sales have im- Bazilevich 147.50
proved for back issues of the journal and the mem- Reverse Sort 92.50
bership is up. Higher costs are reflected in produc- Ads 311.00
tion of the journal and the bulletin with a nice Library Income 100.80
decrease in the "General" expenses. Misc. 18.88
Income from dues reflects only what was re- Bank Interest 352.15
ceived over the 12 month period for this report- TOTAL INCOME $9,209.03
roughly one complete cycle (ends 1 April)-whereas
in the previous report it covered part of the previous Expenses
year's cycle as well. Advertising is not down- Legal & Professional Fees 3,477.54
dealers normally pay for three installments at a Repairs/Upgrades 2,349.44
time. Thus, you will see steep peaks and valleys. Supplies & Postage
The cost associated with the journal is a bit General 1,291.21
misleading. The figure shown not only covers the Bulletin 753.24
cost of production and mailing of issues 118-119, it Journal 5,783.15
also reflects more accurately the supplies con- Library 604.79
sumed in its production. Also added in this category Secretary 473.31
is the cost associated with shipping the back is- TOTAL EXPENSES $14,732.68
sues-a minimum of $1.05 per issue shipped.
"General" expenses include items associated Balance as of 1 March 1993 $11,349.78
with the treasury and the non-journal producing
functions of the Editor including author previews. 1993 General Budget
Sorry, but I do not keep separate files for number of
stamps used, number of envelopes, or number of Legal & Professional $500.00
pieces of paper associated with each function. Repairs/Upgrades 2,000.00
The Legal & Professional fees covers such General 1,500.00
items as entry fees for the journal in competitions, Bulletin 500.00
award costs, receptions, etc., and a one-time cost of Journal 6,000.00
$3000 for the translations purchased last year. Re- Secretary 300.00
pairs and upgrades covers any society equipment as Library 500.00
well as updates to software. President's Reserve 200.00
If there are any questions about the Treasury, Estimated Budget Total $11,500.00
please feel free to write me for an answer. After all,
it is your money that I am in charge of, not mine. The above estimated budget does not take into
The following is a breakdown of the society's account any potential expenses involved with pub-
financial status as of 1 March 1993. lishing the translations which are expected to be
rather expensive. 0
Rossica Journal Number 120 91
April 1993







In the Back Room Membership Status

We have a limited number of back issues of the We continue to experience a modest rise in the
journal for sale, both in English and Russian lan- number of membership applications submitted.
guage editions. Russian editions available are num- Unfortunately, we also continue to experience a
bers 44-69; English editions available are numbers number of non-renewals.
69-119. Unfortunately, there are many holes, and
some issues have less than 5 in stock. Prices listed Membership in October 1992 357
for back issues are in US dollars. Resignations Received: 7
David Castaner
Single issue: Amil Chilese
Joseph Chudoba
Member 7.50 Non-Member 10.00 David Howard
Maurice Johnson
Single issues currently available are: J. Lambert
44-45,48,54-55,58,62-75,78-82,84-85,88- S. Robbins
89, 92-93, 110-112, 115-119 Members who have not renewed their membership
as of 15 March. Actual removal of names from the
Double issue: membership list does not take place until 1 April.

Member 15.00 Non-Member 20.00 Albert Ash, Robert Bain, Peter Baranow, Valentin
Belkin, John Buckner, Mrs. Donal Cantero Sr.,
Double issues currently available are: John Clark, Timothy Davis Jr., E. Joseph Dreger,
46-47,76-77,86-87,94-95,96-97,98-99, Arthur Falk, Heinz Fincke, Christopher Freeze,
100-101, 102-103,104-105, 106-107, Horst Gebel, Marge Gulyas, Martin Holmsten,
108-109, 113-114. Jozef Kuderewicz, William Lembares, August
Leppa, Daniel Levandowsky, Yakov Lurye, Alan
Back issues may be obtained from: McKenzie,ThomasMills, LesMitchnick,Raymond
Musante, John Pecoraro, George Peterson, Donald
Gary A. Combs Podratz, Jeffrey Radcliffe, Patrick Robitaille, Wil-
8241 Chalet Court liam Salomon, Igor Shukoff, Martin Starr, Adam
Millersville, MD 21108 Wyner
USA
Changes/corrections to address:
Payment must be made in $US. Payment by check Thirty members have changed their addresses
is acceptable only if the check is made payable in since September 1992. Please refer to the current
US dollars drawn on anAmericanbank. If payment member list included with this journal.
is made by check drawn on a non-American bank,
please enclose an additional US $10 to handle bank The following numbers have been accepted as
fees. Make checks payable to ROSSICA and in- regular members and the tentative status removed.
elude them with your order. If normal book-rate Welcome them! Numbers as listed in journal #119
(surface-rate for outside US) delivery is not de- are: 1464, 1467-68, 1470-1475, 1477, 1479.
sired, please indicate so, and include the added cost
in your payment.




92 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







In the Back Room Membership Status

We have a limited number of back issues of the We continue to experience a modest rise in the
journal for sale, both in English and Russian lan- number of membership applications submitted.
guage editions. Russian editions available are num- Unfortunately, we also continue to experience a
bers 44-69; English editions available are numbers number of non-renewals.
69-119. Unfortunately, there are many holes, and
some issues have less than 5 in stock. Prices listed Membership in October 1992 357
for back issues are in US dollars. Resignations Received: 7
David Castaner
Single issue: Amil Chilese
Joseph Chudoba
Member 7.50 Non-Member 10.00 David Howard
Maurice Johnson
Single issues currently available are: J. Lambert
44-45,48,54-55,58,62-75,78-82,84-85,88- S. Robbins
89, 92-93, 110-112, 115-119 Members who have not renewed their membership
as of 15 March. Actual removal of names from the
Double issue: membership list does not take place until 1 April.

Member 15.00 Non-Member 20.00 Albert Ash, Robert Bain, Peter Baranow, Valentin
Belkin, John Buckner, Mrs. Donal Cantero Sr.,
Double issues currently available are: John Clark, Timothy Davis Jr., E. Joseph Dreger,
46-47,76-77,86-87,94-95,96-97,98-99, Arthur Falk, Heinz Fincke, Christopher Freeze,
100-101, 102-103,104-105, 106-107, Horst Gebel, Marge Gulyas, Martin Holmsten,
108-109, 113-114. Jozef Kuderewicz, William Lembares, August
Leppa, Daniel Levandowsky, Yakov Lurye, Alan
Back issues may be obtained from: McKenzie,ThomasMills, LesMitchnick,Raymond
Musante, John Pecoraro, George Peterson, Donald
Gary A. Combs Podratz, Jeffrey Radcliffe, Patrick Robitaille, Wil-
8241 Chalet Court liam Salomon, Igor Shukoff, Martin Starr, Adam
Millersville, MD 21108 Wyner
USA
Changes/corrections to address:
Payment must be made in $US. Payment by check Thirty members have changed their addresses
is acceptable only if the check is made payable in since September 1992. Please refer to the current
US dollars drawn on anAmericanbank. If payment member list included with this journal.
is made by check drawn on a non-American bank,
please enclose an additional US $10 to handle bank The following numbers have been accepted as
fees. Make checks payable to ROSSICA and in- regular members and the tentative status removed.
elude them with your order. If normal book-rate Welcome them! Numbers as listed in journal #119
(surface-rate for outside US) delivery is not de- are: 1464, 1467-68, 1470-1475, 1477, 1479.
sired, please indicate so, and include the added cost
in your payment.




92 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993







New Applicants for Membership

Our membership now stands at 372 (includes names listed on previous page that have not remitted dues
as of 15 March)-20 new tentative members since the October journal! The new applicants are heartily
welcomed and, if you them happen to live near one, personally welcome them to our favorite hobby.
Please review the list of names. If for any reason you feel that an individual should not be granted
membership, please write the Treasurer with your reasons. If no negative comments are received on any
of the individuals listed below by the end of July 1993, they will be granted full membership status.
The new applicants are:

1480 William J. Hlifka 1491 Colin Roulstone
730 East 9th Street Kinreen
Erie PA 16503, USA 6 Babbacombe Downs Road
1481 Ronald G. Christison Torquay Devon TQ1 3LE
2112 Caulfield Lane United Kingdom
Petaluma CA 94954, USA 1492 John H. Kress
1482 James L Gorton 1236 Brainerd Avenue
DBA Fireside Stamp Co. Duluth MN 55812, USA
150 West River Road 1493 Curtis E. Gidding
Hooksett NH 03106, USA P.O. Box 161
1483 George L Brady Highland IL 62249-0161, USA
Box 535 1494 Joseph R. Morris
Pateros WA 98846, USA 230 E. 88th Street, Apt. 5C
1484 Robert G. Papp New York NY 10128-3383, USA
AMEMBASSY Vienna 1495 Alfonso G. Zulueta, Jr.
Unit 27937, Box 27 1835 Clayton Way
APO AE 09222, USA Concord CA 94519
1485 Michael Astashkevich USA
22 Great Hills Road 1496 Lowell D. Roop
Short Hills NJ 07078, USA 18 E. Susana Street
1486 Dr. Stephen J. Press Tucson AZ 85706
640 Grand Avenue USA
Leonia NJ 07605, USA 1497 Russell O. Burnham
1487 Mark N. Tartakovsky 1405 Gilbert Stuart Road
4315 Labyrinth Road, 1D Saunderstown RI 02874-2803
Baltimore MD 21215, USA USA
1488 Dr. Michael Douglas Smith 1498 Richard M. Major
7680 Tremayne Place, #210 P.O. Box 4074
McLean VA 22102, USA Arlington VA 22204
1489 Roy J. Wilson USA
55 Pleasant Street 1499 Alexander Epstein
Mystic CT 06355, USA Lembitu 6-19
1490 James G. Reichman Tallinn
7030 McShane Road Republic of Estonia
Colorado Springs CO 80908-4332 1500 Roger Owen Little
USA 86 Wallacks Drive
Stamford CT 06902, USA
Rossica Journal Number 120 93
April 1993






Member-to-Member Adlets Wanted: ZEMSTVO-ChuchinByelozersk#15
full sheet of 12 stamps. State condition and price.
Rossica cannot assume any liability for transac- Bill Nickle, 11201 Montgomery Road, Beltsville
tions resulting from member responses to adlets nor MD 20705, USA.
get involved with mediating disputes. Members are
cautioned to be fair in offering and in responding. Wanted: Trans-Siberian Railway. T.P.O.s.
Anymaterial considered tobe ofvalue by the sender Station cancellations and actual pictures of stations.
sent through the mails should be insured or regis- Send photocopy and requested price. Paul
tered for your own protection. Uppington, 18 Eaton Close, Bristol BS16 3XL,
The regulations and prices are as follows: Engln.
"* Rossica adlets will have no limit per se, E
however, members are requested to use
good judgment.
"* The price will be US $2 for adlets up to Expertization
25 words, and US 10 cents per word
thereafter. One of the privileges of membership in Rossica is
"* Each adlet must include the name and one free expertization per membership year. Policy
address of the member placing the ad. on these free expertizations is as follows:
"* No general buy or sell ads will be ac- Only one free expertization per mem-
cepted as adlets. The journal makes other bership year.
provisions for strictly commercial adver- The privilege must be used during the
tisements. membership year. It cannot be accu-
"* AdletserviceisavailabletoRossicamem- mulated. The service was begun in the
bers only. 1978 membership year, and prior mem-
"* All adlets must be accompanied by a bership in the Society has no bearing.
check for the correct amount made out The item must be submitted on an offi-
to the Rossica Society. cial expertization form available from
"* Mail all adlets and checks to: Gary Combs or Gordon Torrey.
Gary A. Combs Return postage must be included.
8241 Chalet Court Only one item per expertization form.
Millersville, MD 21108
USA Anyone wishing to avail themselves of this
service should write the Treasurer, Gary Combs, or
Wanted: MOSCOW cancellations prior to the Chairman of the Expertization Committee, Gor-
1918 forresearch article. On cover, loose stamps or don Torrey, enclosing a legal size (4 1/4 x 9 1/2")
CSQ. Send xerox or photo. Gary Combs, 8241 SASE for an expertization form. When submitting
Chalet Ct., Millersville, MD 21108, USA. material for expertization, the owner must provide
return postage to include insurance costs, if desired,
Wanted: SOVIETGEORGIANcovers from for the material. Items will be expertized by Rossica
1924c.945.PeterMichalove,307S.Mcnley, members specializing in the various aspects of
1924-c. 1945. Peter Michalove, 307 S. McKinley,
Russian philately.
Champaign, IL 61821, USA. R philately
Champaign, IL 61821,USA. Since we sometimes have to send items to more
Wanted: Ue Ab I rial d d than one member for an opinion, please allow at
least six weeks before you inquire about the status
numerals, and Balticforerunnersoncover. of an item submitted. Items are looked at on a first
Buy or trade. Send photocopy or description. Mike come, first serve basis.
Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara CA 95055, USA.

94 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993






The Russian Post in the Empire, Turkey, China The Russian Posts in the XIX Century
and the Post in The Kingdom of Poland by S.V. by K.V. Bazilevich, trans. by Dave Skipton
Prigara. trans. by Dave Skipton





S.y. !
m sIUNM IN p TH X aCENTnmY








The original work, published in 1927 in Moscow,
This is the standard upon which many studies and is today almost impossible to find. It is one of the
conclusions have been established. Written in most detailed overviews of the imperial Russian
1941, the book is considered by many to be the postal system to be found under one cover, and
authoritative guide for Russian postal history. Any contains a wealth of information and illustrations.
serious collector of Russian postal history must Dave has provided many illustrations not in the
have this book on his shelf. The translation can be original. If you want to learn about the whys and
purchased from the Treasurer or Librarian at the wherefores of old Russia's communications sys-
following rates: tem, this book will oblige.
Non-Rossica member $40 postpaid Intended as a companion to the Prigara transla-
Rossica members $35 postpaid tion, the Bazilevich book will be a handsome addi-
Dealer rate $24 per copy for single orders of tion to your shelf: 165 pages on semi-gloss paper,
5 or more. casebound, with a purple-and-white dust jacket.
Members may order directly from the Treasurer,
Compendium of the Table of Contents for Librarian, or Journal Editor of the society. Prices
issues 44 through 119 are as follows:
A list of all articles that have appeared in the
Rossica Journal since the 1950s. All proceeds Non-Rossica member $50 postpaid
beyond the cost of reproduction and postage go to Rossica members $45 postpaid
the society. This listing contains approximately 65 Dealer rate $30 per copy for single orders of
pages and covers all articles that have appeared in 5 or more.
the journal. An excellent index to your library. The
cost is US $5, which is very reasonable. This list
will enable you to decide what back issues to
purchase, if your set is not complete. (Many of the
issues can be ordered through the editor.) Send
check or money order to:
Bruce Bain
3132 Bayswater Ct.
Fairfax VA 22031 USA
Rossica Journal Number 120 95
April 1993






Imperial Russian Postal Placename List, Re- time I spend on typing the article, the less time I
verseSort(1858-1915)compiledbyDavidSkipton. have for anything else. Please cooperate. For
files that are sent on a floppy, I have both Microsoft
Have you ever had a partial strike on a loose Word and MacWrite. You may also submit them
stamp or cover, where the first few letters of the in Text file format or RTF.
placename are missing? If so, and you collect Pictures can be high-quality photocopies, or
imperial Russian cancellations, this working aid is prints taken with a camera. Please be sure the
amustforyou. Itcontains 18,187postalplacenames contrast is balanced so that the picture is not
gleaned from ten sources, ranging from the Prigara washed-out or overly dark. If you cannot see the
book to the official 1916 Postal List. The Reverse image, neither can I. You may also send the
Sort is 379 pages long, photocopy, printed on one original item. If this method is chosen, please
side only, and unbound. It contains an introduction, take any measures you deem necessary to safe-
an explanation of how to use the RS, compiler's guard your material. I will return them with the
notes, a list of cancellation abbreviations, format same safeguards in place.
explanation, a list of sources, province and oblast' If you wish to include drawings in the article,
trigraph listings, a cyrillic-latin alphabet conver- please ensure they are neat and legible. If you
sion chart, and 361 pages of cross-referenced draw them on the computer, save them as PICT
placenames. A must for the serious cancellation or TIFF images. I can handle either. If you have
collector. Members may order directly from the a Macintosh, I can deal with MacDraw II and
Secretary, Treasurer, Librarian or Journal Editor of Canvas files.
the society. Prices are as follows: Spreadsheets should be in Excel or Lotus
Non-Rossica member- $45 postpaid format. I have Excel on the computer.
Rossica members $40 postpaid (Overseas If you wish to use your personal scanner,
orders please add $3 for surface mail on all please save the files as gray-scale TIFF files, not
orders.) as PICT or plain TIFF or EPS. Check them to
Dealer and bulk purchase rates are available make sure they are of good quality before send-
upon request. ing them.
When submitting tables, charts, or pictures,
please let me know how you think they should
look in the finished article relative to placement.
I will try to honor your layout as far as possible.
Submitting Articles for the Journal Besides, it may save me some time. Thanks.
If you have any comments, want to know
Submitting articles for the journal has never what equipment or software we have, or any
been easier. The Editor can accept floppy disks- general information relative to the process, please
3 1/2 inch only- created on Macintosh comput- feel free to write and I will attempt to answer your
ers or on MS-DOS computers. questions. If anybody wants to volunteer to help
The text for your article must be typed if a with any typing, etc. that may arise, please let me
computer is not available. When using a com- know.
puter, please attempt to print the article on a laser Deadline for the October journal is 1 August
or ink jet printer. If a dot matrix printer is used, 1993. This will give me time to enter the article
make sure that you print it as close to letter and get the next issue to the printer by mid to late
quality as possible. This saves me an enormous August. Thanks in advance and SUBMIT articles
amount of time since I can simply use the scanner for your journal!
and an OCR package to bring it into the computer
for manipulation. Long articles (over 2 pages)
CANNOT be accepted if hand written. The more

96 Rossica Journal Number 120
April 1993






REVIEWS
"Russian Postal History 1857-1918," by Martin
Holmsten, Oy Rurik Ltd., VASA, 1992. Price: FIM
135 from the author.
A Request
A RWith explanatory text in Finnish, Swedish, and
English, this 95-page softbound book hasvery little
HELP! to do with postal history. The first 37 pages are a
cover-pricing guide arranged by Michel #, from 1
"to 122 and includes the 1963 City Post Stamps.
Prices (in Finnish marks) are given in three columns
for single, mixed, and multiple franking, with fixed
and added values for registered mail, RR mailcars,
steamers, etc. While very little has been done in
At our annual meeting the officers discussed philatelic literature where Russian cover-pricing is
reviewing philatelic works in the journal. The re- conceded, the variables present on any given cover
sponse was unanimous in favor of reviewing as render this approach dangerous at best. For in-
many new philatelic publications as possible. As stance, a cover with alone lO-kop. Romanov stamp
Editor I fully support that position, is priced at FIM 60. Let's say it received a RR
Many of our members are members of other mailcar postmark (smudged, # illegible, but add
philatelic societies that periodically publish jour- FIM 50 for that) and a dirt-common Petrograd
nals, translations, and other scholarly and informa- censormark (add another FIM 40). This could be a
tive works. Many of these works are not known to dog of a cover, but the table tells us it's worth FIM
all ourmembers. I feel thatwe can share some of this 150 (approximately $25). About right, perhaps, but
information in the journal. I'd love to pay $25 for the same cover bearing a
Reviews to date have been of a limited number pristine cancel from some Caucasian RR line and a
of periodicals and have been provided by a limited Dzhul'fa censormark!
number of reviewers. I would encourage each of The next segment (pp. 61-63) is a listing ofdot-
you to think about providing a review for the cancel towns. Alas, it fails to incorporate the consid-
journal. However, I do not need 100 reviews of the erable efforts in "The Post Rider" to identify the
same work. I believe the solution to this potential truncated-triangle dot cancels above #847. Mr.
bottleneck is for people to write and let me know Holmsten lists 43 above that number in this 1992
what they would like to review in the upcoming book. The first consolidated listing came out with
journal (s). A master list can be prepared to prevent 56 in April 1979! More followed in subsequent
duplicate work. I would also ask that we not try to issues of "The Post Rider," and there have been bits
review hundreds of items in every journal-my and pieces elsewhere. Pages 63-68 are a rehash of
fingers are already very short from this journal, the Luchnik article in Rossica #92.
Instead I can ask the editorial board to provide Following that is a hodge-podge listing of
guidance and make recommendations on what pe- postage due markings from 1861 to 1928 with no
riodicals to review, illustrations, sea and fluvial lines, avery incomplete
If you find yourself described in these para- postal-rate table, more pricing for various and sun-
graphs and would like to support this effort, but do dry items; and pages of unconnected cover illustra-
not feel that you can contribute in writing, send the tions, many of them worth less than the cost to
item to me, maybe I can find someone to review it produce them. If you want real postal history, read
or do it myself. If you feel like writing a review, the Prigara, the Bazilevich, and a host of articles in
please see my basic guidelines for submitting ar- the 4 major English-languagejourals. If alotmore
tides to the journal on page 96 of this journal, research and compilation were applied to this book,
Thanks in advance Gary. it would be most welcome. As it now stands, this
l reviewer cannot recommend it.-DMS U
Rossica Journal Number 120 97
April 1993