Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Honored member, officers of the...
 Life of the society by Dr. G. Adolph...
 Secretary's report by Robert B....
 The Rossica Library by David M....
 Bad days for Latvian philately...
 Russian union of philatelists by...
 Capitalism is alive and well! by...
 Soroki district, Bessarabian province,...
 Russian common folk by Dr. William...
 Dagestan by Peter A. Michalove
 Zemstvo: Forgeries, errors perpetuated...
 Northern Russia by Martin...
 Siberia - new varieties II by George...
 Khar'kov - a town getting above...
 The allied intervention in North...
 A new discovery by Michael...
 Ataman Semenov stamp issue, Soviet...
 Traveling post offices in Eastern...
 "Damaged" mail and the Soviet post...
 From the circular file by Leon...
 Covers: Zemstvos, British archangel...
 Vremennoe according to Leonard...
 Policy changes affecting membe...
 New members
 Back Cover


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00036
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1992
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00036

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Honored member, officers of the society, and representatives of the society
        Page 3
    Life of the society by Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman
        Page 4
    Secretary's report by Robert B. Bain
        Page 5
    The Rossica Library by David M. Skipton
        Page 5
    Bad days for Latvian philately by Eduard Voitkuns by Ivar Zeltins
        Page 6
    Russian union of philatelists by Ricardas Vainora translated by Dave Skipton
        Page 7
    Capitalism is alive and well! by Gary A. Combs
        Page 8
    Soroki district, Bessarabian province, and the history of its Zemstvo post organization from 1877 to 1917 by Vladimir Babich, translated from the Russian by Dick Dallair and Dave Skipton
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Russian common folk by Dr. William Nickle
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Dagestan by Peter A. Michalove
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Zemstvo: Forgeries, errors perpetuated by catalogs, and comments by George G. Werbizky
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Northern Russia by Martin Holmsten
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Siberia - new varieties II by George G. Werbizky
        Page 29
    Khar'kov - a town getting above its station by Leonard Tann
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    The allied intervention in North Russia - additional comments by George G. Werbizky
        Page 33
        Page 34
    A new discovery by Michael M. Ercolini
        Page 35
    Ataman Semenov stamp issue, Soviet use by Raymond J. Pietruszka and George G. Werbizky
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Traveling post offices in Eastern Siberia, 1904-1945 by Ivo Steyn
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    "Damaged" mail and the Soviet post by Dave Skipton
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    From the circular file by Leon Finik
        Page 57
    Covers: Zemstvos, British archangel censor, and Soviet occupation of China by Mel Kessler
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Vremennoe according to Leonard Tann
        Page 62
    Policy changes affecting members
        Page 63
    New members
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Back Cover
        Cover 2
Full Text


No. 119 October 1992

The Journal of the
Rossica Society of Russian Philately


Journal No. 119 for October 1992

Editor: Gary A. Combs
Editorial Board: Scott Allen, George Shaw, David M. Skipton,
Howard Weinert
Bulletin: Robert B. Bain


Article Page

Life of the Society-Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman 4
Secretary's Report-Robert B. Bain 5
Librarian's Report-Dave Skipton 5
Bad Days for Latvian Philately-Eduard Voitkuns, by Ivar Zeltins 6
Russian Union of Philatelists-Ricardas Vainora, translated by Dave Skipton 7
Capitalism is ALIVE and WELL!-Gary A. Combs 8
Soroki District, Bessarabian Province, and the History of its 9
Zemstvo Post Organization From 1877 to 1917-Vladimir Babich,
translated from the Russian by Dick Dallair and Dave Skipton
Russian Common Folk-Dr. William Nickle 15
Dagestan-Peter A. Michalove 17
Zemstvo: Forgeries, Errors Perpetuated by Catalogs, and Comments- 22
George G. Werbizky
Northern Russia-Martin Holmsten 27
Siberia New Varieties II-George G. Werbizky 29
Khar'kov a Town Getting Above Its Station-Leonard Tann 30
The Allied Intervention in North Russia Additional Comments- 33
George G. Werbizky
A New Discovery-Michael M. Ercolini 35
Ataman Semenov Stamp Issue, Soviet Use-Raymond J. Pietruszka 36
and George G. Werbizky
Traveling Post Offices in Eastern Siberia, 1904-1945-Ivo Steyn 38
"Damaged" Mail and the Soviet Post-Dave Skipton 44
From the Circular File-Leon Finik 57
Covers: Zemstvos, British Archangel Censor, and Soviet Occupation 58
of China-Mel Kessler
Vremennoe According to Leonard Tann 62
Policy Changes Affecting Members 63
New Members 64
Adlets 65
Advertisements 66

In the Back Room

We have a limited number of back issues of the journal for sale, both in English and Russian
language editions. Russian editions available are numbers 44-69; English editions available are
numbers 69-117. Unfortunately, there are many holes, and of some issues have less than 5 in stock.
Prices listed for back issues are in US dollars.

Single issue:

Member 7.50 Non-Member 10.00

Single issues currently available are:
44-45, 48, 54-55,58, 62-75, 78-82, 84-85, 88-89, 92-93, 110-112, 115-118

Double issue:

Member 15.00 Non-Member 20.00

Double issues currently available are:
46-47, 76-77, 86-87, 94-95, 96-97, 98-99, 100-101, 102-103, 104-105, 106-107, 108-109, 113-

Back issues may be obtained from:

Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Court
Millersville, MD 21108

Payment must be made in $US. Payment by check is acceptable only if the check is made payable
in US dollars drawn on an American bank. If payment is made by check drawn on a non-American
bank, please enclose an additional US $10 to handle bank fees. Make checks payable to ROSSICA
and include them with your order. If normal book-rate (surface-rate for outside US) delivery is not
desired, please indicate so, and include the added cost in your payment.

Joseph Chudoba


President: Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman, 629 Sanbridge Circle E., Worthington, OH 43085
Vice President: Dr. Peter A. Michalove, 307 S. McKinley, Champaign, IL 61821
Secretary: Robert B. Bain, 3132 Baysworth Ct., Fairfax, VA 22031
Treasurer: Gary A. Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville, MD 21108
Librarian: David Skipton, 50 D Ridge Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770
Auditor: Leon Finik, P.O. Box 521, Rego Park, NY 11374

Board of Directors:

Dr. Gordon Torrey, 5118 Duval Dr., Bethesda, MD 20816
Dr. James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park, IL 60304
Mike Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara, CA 95055


Washington-Baltimore Chapter: Dr. Gordon Torrey
Northern California Chapter: Mike Renfro
Midwest Chapter: Dr. James Mazepa
Great Britain: Dr. Raymond Ceresa

All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any
means without permission in writing from the journal editor. The views expressed by the authors
in this journal are their own and the editor disclaims all responsibility.

The membership dues are $18.00 annually if paid before 1 January and $20.00 if paid thereafter. The
postmark is the determining factor. Application forms are available upon request from the President,
Secretary, Treasurer, or Librarian. Membership lists will be sent annually. Payment must be made
in $US. Payment by check is acceptable only if the check is made payable in US dollars drawn on
an American bank or an additional US $10 is included to cover bank fees. Please make all checks
payable to:

c/o Gary A. Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct.,
Millersville, MD 21108

Copyright 1992
The Rossica Society

ISSN 0035-8363

Life of the Society

by Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman

Your new officers have gradually settled into New initiatives also are being pursued to in-
their jobs and are learning the ins and outs of the crease our membership and have met with limited
Society's activities. Back to back meetings in Chi- success. The reports I have had from our Rossica
cago at the special Eastern Europe exhibition last chapters in the East, Mid-West and West indicate
fall and again at the large World Columbian show that they are quite active with stimulating philatelic
this Spring allowed your officers to become much presentations and good attendance. I would encour-
better acquainted and to have serious discussions age those in the New York area and in southern
about the future activities and procedural issues of California, where we have a significant number of
your Society. The Secretary's report details the members, to try to form participating chapters in
happenings at our recent May meeting. these areas. The Rossica officers would be happy to
We have a serious need to increase our data base help in any way possible.
concerning the collecting interests and expertise of Our Society hasjust secured the English publica-
our membership. I consider this a priority item. Too tion rights to two important translations -
often I have attempted, with limited success, to find Voikhanskii ES: Postage Stamps of Azerbaijan
members who had knowledge about some special 1919-1923; and Blekhman SM: The Post and Post-
area or subject, both in and out of my own field of age Stamps ofTannu Tuva. These works are being
interest. This hasnecessitated checkingwithRossica carefully edited and will be published through your
officers, reviewing ourpublications and occasionally Society. The officers felt that there would be suffi-
remembering exhibits from the past. I guarantee cient interest by the membership and other collec-
your present officers have little knowledge of the tors to merit the time and investment of the Society.
membership's collecting habits, fields, and extent The Voikhanskii handbook will be the first on line.
of knowledge. Wewill have greatdifficultyprovid- We have a new membership application de-
ing sources and information to inquiries. Therefore, signed by Gary Combs. This is a result of a meeting
a well constructed computer data base for such in Chicago between Bruce Bain, Mike Carson,
information is essential. I believe that one of the Peter Michalove, and Gary at the request of all the
major roles of our Society is being able to provide officers. It is streamlined and better serves the
a communication link between its members. You purpose. Two new policy changes affecting pro-
should be receiving an appropriate questionnaire in spective and current members are posted in the
the near future. Please, we will need the help of each section of the journal where we list new members.
and everyone of you, beginner or long time devotee, Please take the time and read them.
in providing us with as much information as pos- The Treasurer's books were audited and every-
sible. Don't be negligent or toss the query in the thing balanced.
"round file." Lastly, there has been little interest or support for
A special Rossica award will soon be available at my proposal for a Russian philatelic seminar. If it
the National WPS stamp shows. This award will be had been supported and had wide participation, I
given to the best exhibit of Russian (and related firmly believe that itwould have had a major impact
areas) philately. This national Rossica award is an on our Society and could have increased our inter-
outgrowth of the earlier Mid-West Rossica award national prestige through publication of the presen-
and has been spearheaded by Michael Renfro and stations in book form.
Peter Michalove. A national Rossica award should I would be pleased to hear from any of our
help increase the Society's visibility as well as the members concerning new ideas, problems, or sug-
viability and recognition of Russian philately in the gestions forbroadening and improving ourSociety's
eyes of the philatelic judges and collectors. activities.
4 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Annual Officers Meeting, May 1992 The Rossica Library
by Robert B. Bain by David M. Skipton

The Officers of the Rossica Society held their The library has grown immensely in the past
annual meeting in conjunction with the Columbian decade, thanks to the generosity of many individu-
EXPO in Chicago on 23 May 1992 at 6:00 PM. als and to an aggressive acquisition and exchange
Roll Call of Officers: program. This growth has gained speed in the last
sidt Ad Ac p two years, due largely to the breakup of the Soviet
President Adolph Ackerman present
President Ar pre t Union and the resulting proliferation of new jour-
Vice President Peter Michalove present nals and newspapers.
nals and newspapers.
Secretary Bruce Bain present .n nwa
cretary Bruce ain r- p resent More publications crowding onto the shelves
Treasurer/Journal Editor Gary Combs present
Trar na io p t poses two major problems: storing it, and making
Librarian Dave Skipton present
Chairman of the Audit Committee headway against the "backlog" of subject index
Leon Finik prnt entries while keeping up with all the newcomers.
Leon Finik present .
Board of Directors: The subject index is very close now to 10,000
Board of Directors:
Gordon Torrey present entries, and continues to expand.
Gordon Torrey present .
Jas Mt In response to this space crisis, we decided to
James Mazepa present .
Mike Renfo excused divide our holdings along language lines: 1) Rus-
sian, 2) English, and 3) all others. Andy Medwid
Items discussed included: and Howard Weinert have graciously consented to
store these materials and serve as assistant librar-
Establishment of a Membership/Publicity ians in handling them. We realize this may prove a
Chairman was approved. Mike Carson was ap- bit unwieldy, especially for the membership when
pointed by the President. Mike will prepare ajob ordering, so please place your loan requests or
description for review by the National Officers. photocopy-purchase orders to that individual IF
The Treasurer and Librarian agreed to docu- you know the title and its language. Otherwise,
ment current policies and procedures of their write to me and I will contact the appropriate
positions for possible inclusion in a Procedures individual.
Manual by the end of June. No commitment was Russian Section, plus Archives and Subject In-
made by the other Officers. dex updating: Dave Skipton, 50 D Ridge Road
The Treasurer agreed to revamp the member- Greenbelt, MD 20770
ship application by the end of June. English Section: Andy Medwid, 16 Woodfield
The Secretary will send a survey form re- terrace, Tarrytown, NY 10591
questing collecting interests of the membership. All Others Section: Howard Weinert, 500
Members who write bad checks to the Society Stoneleigh Road, Baltimore, MD 21212
must make them good within 30 days or face
SIt will take some time to complete the transfer of
ex ulio materials, so please bear with us.
Peter Michalove agreed to look into estab- materials, so please bear with us.
I would like to express my thanks and appre-
lishing a National level award for exhibiting. e a
l g a N l ll a d fr e, ciation to Andy and Howard for their, help, and
All agreed to allow the Librarian to split the welcome them to a lot of work!
welcome them to a lot of work!
library into three parts. .
library into three parts. Also to the following individuals for donations to
Jim Mazepa reported no progress on the
i e eoted no oess on te the Library: Gary Combs, Leon Finik, Rusty Moore,
revised constitution. Mike Renfro, Ivo Steyn, HorstTaitl, GordonTorrey,
Members who do not pay their annual dues by and George Werbizky. of course, there is my
c wil *noe tit to tAp J and George Werbizky. Then, of course, there is my
31 March will notbe entitled to the April Journal.
The officers will meet again at BALPEX. computer support, without whom I would have to
The officers will meet again at BALPEX.
revert to 3x5" cards and writer's cramp-Scott
E Allen and Ged Seiflow. Thanks, guys! A
Rossica Journal Number 119 5
October 1992

Annual Officers Meeting, May 1992 The Rossica Library
by Robert B. Bain by David M. Skipton

The Officers of the Rossica Society held their The library has grown immensely in the past
annual meeting in conjunction with the Columbian decade, thanks to the generosity of many individu-
EXPO in Chicago on 23 May 1992 at 6:00 PM. als and to an aggressive acquisition and exchange
Roll Call of Officers: program. This growth has gained speed in the last
sidt Ad Ac p two years, due largely to the breakup of the Soviet
President Adolph Ackerman present
President Ar pre t Union and the resulting proliferation of new jour-
Vice President Peter Michalove present nals and newspapers.
nals and newspapers.
Secretary Bruce Bain present .n nwa
cretary Bruce ain r- p resent More publications crowding onto the shelves
Treasurer/Journal Editor Gary Combs present
Trar na io p t poses two major problems: storing it, and making
Librarian Dave Skipton present
Chairman of the Audit Committee headway against the "backlog" of subject index
Leon Finik prnt entries while keeping up with all the newcomers.
Leon Finik present .
Board of Directors: The subject index is very close now to 10,000
Board of Directors:
Gordon Torrey present entries, and continues to expand.
Gordon Torrey present .
Jas Mt In response to this space crisis, we decided to
James Mazepa present .
Mike Renfo excused divide our holdings along language lines: 1) Rus-
sian, 2) English, and 3) all others. Andy Medwid
Items discussed included: and Howard Weinert have graciously consented to
store these materials and serve as assistant librar-
Establishment of a Membership/Publicity ians in handling them. We realize this may prove a
Chairman was approved. Mike Carson was ap- bit unwieldy, especially for the membership when
pointed by the President. Mike will prepare ajob ordering, so please place your loan requests or
description for review by the National Officers. photocopy-purchase orders to that individual IF
The Treasurer and Librarian agreed to docu- you know the title and its language. Otherwise,
ment current policies and procedures of their write to me and I will contact the appropriate
positions for possible inclusion in a Procedures individual.
Manual by the end of June. No commitment was Russian Section, plus Archives and Subject In-
made by the other Officers. dex updating: Dave Skipton, 50 D Ridge Road
The Treasurer agreed to revamp the member- Greenbelt, MD 20770
ship application by the end of June. English Section: Andy Medwid, 16 Woodfield
The Secretary will send a survey form re- terrace, Tarrytown, NY 10591
questing collecting interests of the membership. All Others Section: Howard Weinert, 500
Members who write bad checks to the Society Stoneleigh Road, Baltimore, MD 21212
must make them good within 30 days or face
SIt will take some time to complete the transfer of
ex ulio materials, so please bear with us.
Peter Michalove agreed to look into estab- materials, so please bear with us.
I would like to express my thanks and appre-
lishing a National level award for exhibiting. e a
l g a N l ll a d fr e, ciation to Andy and Howard for their, help, and
All agreed to allow the Librarian to split the welcome them to a lot of work!
welcome them to a lot of work!
library into three parts. .
library into three parts. Also to the following individuals for donations to
Jim Mazepa reported no progress on the
i e eoted no oess on te the Library: Gary Combs, Leon Finik, Rusty Moore,
revised constitution. Mike Renfro, Ivo Steyn, HorstTaitl, GordonTorrey,
Members who do not pay their annual dues by and George Werbizky. of course, there is my
c wil *noe tit to tAp J and George Werbizky. Then, of course, there is my
31 March will notbe entitled to the April Journal.
The officers will meet again at BALPEX. computer support, without whom I would have to
The officers will meet again at BALPEX.
revert to 3x5" cards and writer's cramp-Scott
E Allen and Ged Seiflow. Thanks, guys! A
Rossica Journal Number 119 5
October 1992

Bad Days for Latvian Philately

by Eduard Voitkuns
(Translated from BRIVA LATVIJA, 20 April 1992 by Ivar Zeltins)

[Ed. Note: In lieu of a formal editorial page in this issue, I decided to present to the membership a few short items that help
us understand the turbulent times in the Independent States of the former Soviet Union. Of major importance, one should note
that there is an increasing and alarming number of items being offered as genuine postal articles that have not been observed
as yet genuinely used and, for the most part, probably will not be unless a "philatelic" cover is created. This is nothing new.
Members writing to me tell of overprints (inverted, double, etc.) being offered through Western dealers that simply are not
available in Russia. Others state that imperforate stamps are also available. Of course, all these "varieties" come with a high
price tag. So, BEWARE of desperate people trying to make a buck!]

LetushopethatthefourrecentlyissuedLatvian mint stamps for DM30, and first-day-of-issue for
stamp series will not undergo the same fate as did DM60; the second series, former Soviet stamps
the stamps issued in Latvia in the 1930s with their overprinted four mint stamps for DM20; the third
surcharges: two centimes for postage; 50 centimes series with the Latvian statue of liberty six mint
for various good-will purposes, such as the home stamps for DM30, and first-day-of-issue for DM60;
guard, the White Cross, or the aviation regiment the fourth series, Winter Olympics three mint
fund for airmen-victims. For years, these stamps stamps for DM20, and first-day-of-issue for DM40.
were boycotted by both English and American The new nine-stamp series has not been offered yet,
stamp catalogs, as they were considered to be but they, too, will no doubtbecome available athigh
speculative issues that took advantage of philat- prices. I recommend these prices be converted to
elists. This time, there could be another reason for rubles!
a boycott. In trying to find a way to print new stamps, the
East Germany, the former DDR, routinely is- Latvian government has allowed itself to be talked
sued stamp series for which one of the stamps could into having a former East German printing press
only be obtained in at most two copies through print the new stamps. It has permitted the sale of
philatelicassociation subscriptions. Speculationwith complete series of limited-issue stamps of the same
the rest of these small-issue stamps was done by the denomination through stamp dealers abroad with-
state, which sold them through its offices at high out giving a real chance for most Latvian philatelists
prices. In the end, after years of such state specula- to acquire the complete stamp series. Thus, they are
tion, the result was that no one collected East unable to develop their collections of restored
German stamps anymore. Shortly before the re- Latvia's stamps and trade via correspondence with
unification of Germany, the state abandoned this foreign countries.
practice, but by then it was already too late. With its return to the world of philately and the
The philately of Latvia finds itself in the same resultant interest in collecting Latvian stamps, re-
situation today. After spending the whole night in stored Latvia had a unique opportunity to issue new
long lines at the main Riga post office, the lucky stamps, whatever their design.
ones those who got there before supplies were In 1918, due to a shortage of paper, the first
exhausted were only able to get two full sets; Latvian stamp was printed on abandoned maps of
most of the missing stamps of what is a small issue the German General Staff, oron lined writing paper,
tobeginwith,remainin Germany, where the stamps' cigarette paper, and later, even on the blank side of
printers sell them at high prices through foreign unfinished monetary notes of the Bermont (post-
stamp dealers. WWI Germany) and Stuchka (Bolshevik)
Ads have appeared in the Latvian exile press governments. After the liberation ofnorthern Latvia,
offering complete series at the following prices: the P. Duna printing press in Valmiera hastily
The first series with the small state emblem eight printed a 10-kop. stamp designed by Eduards
6 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Brencens, albeit it on inappropriate paper, in a stamps be available at realistic prices and that
matter of a few days. In July 1941, just after the philatelists are not taken advantage of. Every day
liberation of Riga, abandoned Soviet occupation and all over the world, stamp exhibitions take place
stamps were overprinted with "Latvija 19411 VII." in accordance with international rules. Stamp series
Yet newly restored Latvia took a year to issue the must be complete. If this is not possible, then such
first four denominations of overprinted stamps, a series cannot be exhibited. A given country's
which could have been done in any print shop using stamp set should be as complete as possible, or else
the simplest of equipment, the exhibitor has no chance of getting one of the
Nations discovered long ago that philately is a awards everyone strives for.
good source of income. The stamp is a prepayment The world of philately saluted the rebirth of the
for services offered. Nothing could be cheaper stamp-issuing countries of Estonia, Latvia, and
thanselling stamps, knowing that many people will Lithuania, but was sorely disappointed. It will be
not end up using these services. Sometimes the only almost impossible to get a complete set from Latvia
effort is in the cancellation of the stamps to make through trading, which is the way most of the
them unusable for further services. In this way, world's philatelists get their materials. Let us hope
countries such as Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, San that we learn something from this just aswe do from
Marino, and many others, supplement their hard- other fields.
currency incomes. A prerequisite for this is that

Russian Union of Philatelists

by Ricardas Vainora
translated by Dave Skipton

With the collapse of the USSR has also come the Chosen as President of the SFR was Aleksandr
demise of the "Union of Philatelists of the USSR" Sergeevich Ilyushin, physicist, Moscow State Uni-
(SF SSSR). In October 1991, a group of philatelists versity professor, and a member of the FIP's
from various Russian cities met in Ul'yanovsk and Collegium of Juries.
created an Organizational Committee [to run] the The Organizational Committee took the initiative
Constituent Conference of the "Union of Philat- in having an overprint reading "YqPELHTEJ-bHAI
elists of Russia." V.V. Volkov of Smolensk was KOHCEPEHLHII COIO3A elected Chairman of the Committee. On 15 Febru- 15 4EBPAJI5I 1992 r." (constituent conference of
ary 1992, approximately 100 delegates from all the SFR 15 February 1992) applied to a stamped,
covers of Russia met in the conference hall of cacheted envelope issued on 15 November 1991:
Smolensk'sHotel Rossiya. During thecourse of the "Smolensk, Prospekt Yu. A. Gagarina. Yu. A.
conference, whichwasvery efficientlyrunbyDemid Gagarin's bust."
Aleksandrovich Ustinov of Ul'yanovsk, a resolu- Only a small number of these overprinted enve-
tion was adopted to consider it the First Congress of lopes were issued, and the Russian Ministry of
the Russian Union of Philatelists (SFR). This was Communications prepared a special cancel forthem.
made possible by the number of delegates and their Representatives from Ukraine, Belarus, and
authorization. The SFR Constitutionwas approved, Lithuania attended the congress as guests. The
and a number of other questions were discussed. second congress will be held in two years.

Rossica Journal Number 119 7
October 1992

Capitalism is ALIVE and WELL!

by Gary A. Combs

One hears so much these days about the inabil- worth catalog value. The "beautiful display folder"
ity of Russia to adapt to a free-market economy, was nothing more than a fancy piece of cardboard
Articles in the newspapers and magazines show the with some writing on it-and dam little at that!
art of bartering to be about the closest thing to a But don't go away, sports fans! There was still
western market. But have no fear, capitalism is alive more to come. The subscription rate for this fantas-
and well in the Russian stamp market! tic new-issue service was only "...an average ofjust
While in Chicago for the Columbian EXPO, I $13 per shipment, plus a modest charge for ship-
had the good fortune to purchase many of the new ping, handling and insurance." My heart pounded
issues of Russia from UNICOVER, who had set up furiously by now. And then the reality struck home.
a booth and billed themselves as the "Official "You can expect about 10 shipments each year..."
Agent" of the Russian Government. With my pur- Hmmm, 10 times 13 equals $130 (plus shipping,
chase they included a small flyer asking me to handling and insurance).
subscribe to their new issue service which offered Well, maybe it wasn't such a bad deal after all.
items at the "Official Rate" of the government. The What would I get for my $130? That was the
prices offered in Chicago were better than any I had "Standard Minimum Service" which included four
seen from the numerous dealers. Aha, I thought, cut mint copies of each new stamp and one mint copy
out the middle man and a fair deal can be had. So I of any souvenir sheets issued. Were the stamps in
sent in their flyer requesting information, blocks? Dunno, it didn't say. Snoop a little more.
When the information arrived, I could hardly The mint copies of the stamps offered only applied
wait to see what was in store. What I discovered to those stamps that were equal to $1 or less. If I
was, what I will call, a "SCAM" trying to happen, wanted the higher values, I must add to my sub-
The information touted that stamps of modern scription service. But, by how much? Dunno, it
Russia were available at the "Official Rate" and didn't say.
quantity appeared to be no problem-almost oppo- I could opt for half sheets, full sheets, Official
site what I have been told by the new-issue dealers First-Day covers, mini-sheets ofmint stamps, postal
here in the USA. Further examination of the litera- stationery, First Day of issue souvenir sheets, and
ture informed me that I could get a free set of the first maximum cards. All above and beyond the cost of
stamps issued with the word "POCCI51" (Scott Nos. the "Standard Minimum Service?"
149-50). A little further reading informed me that it The last I heard, the "Official" exchange rate was
was a $15 value given to me for FREE if I would 160 rubles to the dollar. That tells me that, for the
simply subscribe for one year. These stamps cata- minimum service, I would be paying roughly the
log in Scott for $0.16 for the set-$15? However, equivalent of 20,800 rubles. That is a lot of stamps
they are specially wrapped in their own display they plan on issuing. I don't think they have issued
folder. Such a value at only $14.84! that much "face value" in the last decade or longer.
Now suspicious, I took out the magnifying glass Simply put, I think this is a SCAM designed to get
and began to read the fine print. It says: money from people who are unaware. You may do
as you please, but I feel that we should not condone
"As soon as you subscribe...This beautiful display folder examples of blatant attempts to "rip-off" the phila-
is actually a miniature album ...and it's yours FREE, just telic community.
for remaining a subscriber for one year! (Otherwise H r t i
fo However, remember that is the same outfit that
you'll be billed the Official Selling Price of $15.)" tried to sell us duck stamps which were not duck
tried to sell us duck stamps which were not duck
The stamps shown in the "display folder" ap- stamps.
peared to have pulled and missing perfs-not even
8 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Soroki District, Bessarabia Province, and the History of Its
Zemstvo Post Organization From 1877 to 1917

by Vladimir Babich
(Translation from the Russian by Dick Dallair and Dave Skipton)

A another war in a series of Russo-Turkish Only three of the seven districts in Bessarabia
wars ended with the Treaty of Bucharest on 16 May had zemstvo posts for delivery of private and offi-
1812. The Sublime Porte ceded to Russia all of cial correspondence Orgeev, Soroki, and Yassy
Bessarabia, and the Prut River up to the mouth of the (Bel'tsy).
Danube became the border between the empires. By the 1860s, Soroki District (with an area of
From that time on, Bessarabia formed a part of the 40,000 square versts) consisted of 12 volost' ad-
Russian Empire. Initially, it was known as the ministrations, the centers of which were located in
Bessarabian Oblast', but it was reclassified as a Ataki, Arioneshty, Badichany, Vad'-Rashkov,
province in 1873. Vaskautsy, Klimoutsy, Kotyuzhany, Nadushita
Okolina, Pepeny, Tymrnova, and Floreshty.3 The
"Thus, a land which was formerly Russian, then O P T a F
more than 100,000 people who lived in Soroki
passed into the hands of Moldavia and Wallachia m ,
passed ito the hands ofMoldavia a acha District were served by three post offices: in Soroki
only to be seized from them by the Turks, once .
again passed into the possession of R A itself, the small town of Ataki, and the village of
again passed into the possession of Russia. Al-
though it had few indigenous Russians among its Keinar'-Veki.
"population, the land was literally drenched with The first mention of transporting mail via local
population, the land was literally drenched with
th blood of Rssia's bst sons, shed dring postal stations appears in 1874. Officials, police,
the blood of Russia's best sons, shed during
e, s t d and investigators travelling on official business in
numerous wars, and thus it was ready for Rus-
ne R the zemstvo would carry this correspondence along
sian civic recognition and Russian en-
i with them for free, nor were they charged for using
lightenment. "
the post horses. Thus, in 1874, 11,902 official
The rapid growth of the region's population packets and 802 private letters were sent by this
(240,000 in 1812,450,000 in 1855) required well- means. In 1878, those numbers grew to 20,032 and
developed and continuously-operating postal com- 1336, respectively.5
munications. By 1861, Bessarabia had 13 post It was only in 1877 that the Soroki Zemstvo
offices and 10 state postal branch offices which board (3EMCKAI YFIPABA) organized the post for
delivered mail over 9 routes via 58 postal stations.2 carryingprivate andofficialmail around thezemstvo.
Private correspondence was delivered to the The Board's enactment of 20 October 1877 stated
oblast's remote settlements mainly by Police Ad- that "according to the 12 October 1877 minutes of
ministration couriers, messengers detailed by rural the zemstvo meeting, the Board was ordered to
district and village administrations, and other per- establish a private-mail post in the district, using the
sons. This created many difficulties, especially in Orgeev zemstvo as a model. Having drawn up the
1869, when the zemstvo administrations were es- forms for postal books, instructions, zemstvo post-
tablished in the oblast'. age stamps, notices and so forth, the Zemstvo Board
Postal Outgoing Incoming Outgoing Sales
station letters letters local letters Envelopes Stamps
1861 1862 1861 1862 1861 1862 1861 1862 1861 1862
Sorokskaya 8349 8862 7459 8118 6526 7088 1550 1573 5335 6008
Keinar'-Vekskaya 212 182 196 212 182 669 254
Atakskaya 4823 4510 2600 2660 2991 2862 2744 2657

Statistics for the state-run post for 1861-1862.4
Rossica Journal Number 119 9
October 1992

had them printed at the Odessa Printing Office. be zemstvo postillions beginning 1 April 1879 were
After examining these materials and binding [the Honored Citizen G. Dubinskii, tradesman P.
books],the Board sent all of it to the volost' authori- Botezata, retired clerk I. Duvanov, and peasant N.
ties, to acquaint them with the regulations and Valyan. Each was paid 150 rubles per year.
[instruct them on how to go about] their prepara-
tions for starting the post..."6 After appropriating XOTWCKOH YE3A
1500 rubles for establishment of the zemstvo post, .,
the District Assembly accepted the report on start- / / n0OTOeblE TPAKIb
ing a zemstvo post in Soroki District and, on 26 / COPOKCKOro
March 1879, the Council decreed the following: \ / 3EMCTIA
"Postal service is to be inaugurated on the fifth / rY6EPnM
day of this April along two routes and will
conform to the established schedules. [These
will be] the northern and southern routes, and all \
offices and officials in the Council shall be
notified of this, in order that all mail sent about
the district be dispatched henceforth not to the /
usual stations but to those places designated to /
receive mail according to the schedules. In
Soroki itself, the mail shall be sent to the zemstvo \
post office located in the Zemstvo House ..."7 \ ,<

The following is a preserved inventory list of /
27 March 1879 for the zemstvo post office, ob- \r4 i
trained from the Soroki Zemstvo Council:
- large yellow cabinet with drawer /
- large table with inside drawers M- at t h
-small oilcloth -".
- covered table with drawers
- straw-stuffed couch with three side cushions /
for those on duty /"
- 12 leather bags for carrying mail
- 5 small leather pouches \ i
- 4 gray broadcloth overcoats for the postmen ( '
- 4 camelcloth hoods
- 4 oilcloth tarpaulins
- handstamp with letters and numerals
- postal seal for packages OPrEEBCKtUi YEA
- box with cushion and ink Postal routes of the Soroki district
- one pair of scissors
- 13 weights The zemstvo post was inaugurated on 5 April
- wooden outdoor mailbox 1879 along the two routes, northern and southern,
- 2 logbooks for recording mail.8 which were of equal length. The mail was dis-
patched from Soroki each Monday and Thursday,
The first to be appointed as the zemstvo postmas- and adhered to a schedule. The southern route
ter was the nobleman N. Kryzhanovskii, who was covered 181 versts and included 16 villages:
paid a yearly salary of 400 rubles. Those chosen to Solonets, Telemeutsy, Vaskautsy, Kuchureshty,
10 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Rashkov, Kobyl'nya, Kotyuzhany, Tarbutskany, does not occur, and in the event the postmen
Chutuleshty, Pepeny, Dragoneshty, Gura-Keinar', abuse their trust or fail to carry out their duties,
Floreshty, Izvory, Keinar'-Veki, and Okolina. The the volost' administrations must notify the Dis-
postillions on both routes met in Izvory and arrived trict Council immediately" 9
back at Soroki three days after their departure.
The postal regulations governing dispatch of And, while the postmaster carried out the postal
privateandofficialmailinSorokiDistrict'szemstvo duties in Soroki, the duty of supervising the accep-
post stipulated that: tance and dispatch of correspondence in the volost'
fell upon the volost' clerk or the village elder, who
"Item 14. The couriermustdeliverpunctually all were tasked with "... sorting the mail by destination
the mail along the route assigned to him by the along the postillion's route and detailing the corre-
Council. He must turn it in to the volost' admin- spondence to each destination in the 'dispatch log-
istrations thereon and accept correspondence book'" before the arrival of the post. "When the
from them, whether it be addressed to the city or postillion arrives, the individual in charge of mail
to other volost' administrations. receipt shall open the suitcase and accept the postal
packets addressed to that locale by checking it
"Item 15. Mail brought from the district to the against the postillion's way-bill, and sign for receipt
Councilshallbe sorted immediately. Mail bound of it on that way-bill. The postal packets he receives
for the post office shall be sent to it at once, while shall be opened in the presence of the postillion, the
that going to other parts of the district shall be enclosed correspondence checked against the reg-
sent on the day the next zemstvo post is sched- ister, and their numbers entered in the 'received-
uled to depart. Correspondence destined for mail logbook.' Once the mail brought by the post
[Soroki] shall be delivered to the addresses by has been completely received and accounted for,
one of the couriers. The addressees must pay 3 the man in charge ofmail receipt shall do up the mail
kopecks for a private letter, and official packets intended for dispatch and put it in packets in the
will be sent with a courier bearing the Council's presence of the postillion. It shall already have been
delivery register. registered and a corresponding register with his
signature on it placed in each packet..."10
"Item 16. The post box or trunk must be closed The SorokiDistrictzemstvo stamps were printed
with a lock, identical keys to which must be kept in 1878 at the Odessa Typolithography Shop of A.
at the Council and at the volost' administrations. Schultze. Release of the first issue was timed to
[This is to ensure that] when the mail arrives at coincide with the Council's October 1878 session,
each volost' administration along the route, at which the resolution to organize a zemstvo post
correspondence and packets can be removed was adopted. That particular style of stamp was re-
[from the box] or placed in it, and the box re- issued in 1879, 1880, and 1883 with numerous
locked. differences in the detail of the internal and external
frame, its coloring, perforation, type of paper, and
"Item 17. During an overnight layover or while many typographic defects and varieties.11 In its
the horses are being fed, the post box must replyof 11 July 1883 toaninquiryfromtheKherson
remain in the volost' administration and be Province Marshal of Nobility about all these varia-
watched by the [village] elder or the volost' tions, the Council wrote that "These stamps were
clerk, issued in three successive iterations. The first time,
they were inked on a yellow background with a
"Item 18. When the postmen are transporting the black [outer] border and thinner red borders within,
mail, they are strictly forbidden to accept and the ends of the letters in the word "rOqTbl" were
unfranked private mail for delivery anywhere. curled. The second issue was done in the same
The volost' administrations must ensure that this colors, but without the curls, and in the third, the

Rossica Journal Number 119 11
October 1992

color was changed. A bright red border on a rose In January 1884, the Zemstvo Post began deliv-
background was enclosed on either side by thin ery of registered correspondence in the district. The
yellow borders. Inside was a representation of the registeredmailwasnotfrankedwithpostagestamps,
Genoese Citadel, which stands over the banks of the but the 6-kopeck-per-lot fee was collected from the
Dnestr...[The river] is represented over the Citadel addressee when presented.15
[on the stamp]..."12 The Zemstvo Post stamps were in use through
The stamps entered circulation on 5 April 1879. 1901. On 28 September 1900, the Zemstvo Assem-
In 1885 the Zemstvo Council ordered a new stamp bly heard the Council's report on the post's activi-
designfromtheA.SchultzeTypolithographyShop, ties. In view of the opinion voiced by many mem-
and the correspondence between the two about this bers of the Council that paying for private corre-
matter has been preserved. spondence was a burden to the populace and pro-
duced no substantial profit, and [therefore] should
"13 July 1885. To the Soroki Zemstvo Council: be abolished, the Assembly tasked the Council to
Enclosed find seven specimens of the postage come up with simplifications in the way mail was
stamps you ordered, for examination and ap- distributed. On 30 September 1901, the Council
proval of one of them. Please inform me how decreed that "... while retaining the previous staff-
many you want printed when you return the ing and expenditures at the Zemstvo Post Office,
approved proof..." cease collection of the fee for delivery of private
correspondence and distribute the mail three times
"23 July 1885. To the A. Schultze Typolitho- per week rather than twice a week..."'6 From that
graphy Shop, Odessa. The Zemstvo Council has time on, mail sent by the zemstvo post was deliv-
chosen one of the specimen stamps (see enclo- ered without the use of postage stamps.
sure) sentby theTypolithography Shop, with the However, the Council returned to the issue of
stipulation that using the same orientation and using zemstvo postage stamps in 1909, when, on 30
internal oval, the Soroki coat-of-arms must be September, it resolved to "resume [the use of]
depicted in the middle. There must be not the zemstvo stamps for postcards at 3 kopecks and
slightest deviation from the coat-of-arms' de- lettercards at 5 kopecks, and submit a correspond-
sign as depicted on the old style of Soroki ing petition to that effect.""7
Zemstvo Post stamp, enclosed herewith. Also, Since the Zemstvo Post Office still had the old 3-
the words "COPOKCKOH 3EMCKOH no0Tbl" must be kopeck stamps in stock, the Council didn't submit
rendered in smaller letters than those on the a petition seeking approval to print new stamps.
Schultze specimens..." Instead it re-introduced the old ones, "desiring first
to explain why, after an almost ten-year hiatus, the
"4 September 1885. To the Soroki Zemstvo stamps are to be [re]introduced for postal commu-
Council. Yesterday I had the honor to send to you nications ... "18
the 10,000 3-kopeck stamps ordered by the However, that experiment in 1910 also produced
Soroki Zemstvo Council for 18.50 rubles. The negative results.
order has been executed precisely according to "From these figures it can be seen that of the total
the instructions given by the Honorable Council, number of private letters (12,448), only 1,994 or
and the inscriptions [have been done] to your 16% were paid, and the earnings from [sale of the
satisfaction."13 stamps] came to 59.82 rubles. This insignificant
amount of paid letters is explained by the fact that
This postage stamp type was reissued three the populace used unpaid correspondence for
times: in 1887,1892, and 1898. It too had numerous almost ten years, and grew out of the habit of
variations in printing, perforation and paper, as well paying zemstvo postage fees. They placed un-
as changes in the dimension of the stamp design paid letters in the zemstvo mailbox, and the
elements, thus producing a multitude of varieties.14 Zemstvo Council was leery of not sending them.

12 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

A considerable portion of the unpaid mail from Council recorded that "the cost of an envelope was
the district was sent to the post office via the set at 4 kopecks: three kopecks for postage and one
volost' administrations, too."19 kopeck for the envelope itself."22 A second issue of
smaller stamped envelopes with a new indicium
From January 1910 through 1 July of that year, was issued in 1892.23
postal statistics for the District looked like this: All correspondence that passed through the
zemstvo post was sorted and cancelled with special
Mu cat.orgy Number Amount handstamps in the
rSuble kopecks Soroki Zemstvo Post
Sent to tt Dtetrict
to the Office. The first of
Official letters 10168he frst of
Private letters, not franked them(shownhere)was
with zemstvo stamps 9,212 f T
Private leters franked with produced by the D
Zemsvo stamps 1,434 43 02 Kishinevsealengraver 8
Registered letters 1,486 0
Newspapers and urnals 6,816 B. Rubinstein on 22
Money mail 413 56,516 58
Official and private packages 710 -February 1879.24 It
Rcived from theDtrict was a double circle
O l tt 9,318 measuring 30mm in diameter, with an inner text
Private letters not franked reading "cOPOKCKOR 3EMCKOR nOqTbl" (of the Soroki
,Prvatlete stanke 1242 Zemstvo Post). The center had a three-line date and
zeTeo stamps 50 16 80 the bottom part sported two fir branches. Cancels
Money packets 382 7,118
Packages 286 can be found in gray, dark gray, grayish-green,
violet, or black. The earliest cancel known to the
Comparing the operations of the post for the first author is on a letter from Kotyuzhany village, dated
six months of 1909 and 1910, the Council estab- 7 April 1879, and the latest 8 September 1885.
lished that while the amount of correspondence sent When the new style of zemstvo stamp came out
TO the district grew by 1,972 letters, or 22%, the in 1885, the Zemstvo Post Office also began to use
number of letters FROM the district fell by 50% a new canceller (below). It was a 39 x 24mm double
(1,802 letters, down from 3,415). oval withaninner text reading "COPOKCKA- 3EMCKAR"
and "nOqTOBAR KOHTOPA" (Soroki Zemstvo Post
"This fact permits us to conclude that further use Office); a one-line date in the middle; and six-
of zemstvo postage stamps will undoubtedly pointed stars between the two sets of words. These
encourage a further diminution in the amount of datestamps can be found in black, darkgray, orblue.
private correspondence. Therefore, we hold to The earliest known to me was posted from Ataki on
the opinion that free correspondence is a great 31 October 1885.
convenience in postal relations, and that it is of
great cultural significance for the people, so few
of whom are literate."20 A
i* 31. DKT. 93
On 29 September 1910, the Council came out 31. KT.93
with a directive abolishing the use of zemstvo A o
postage stamps. Thus ended the history of zemstvo
stamps in Bessarabia Province's Soroki District.
Stamped envelopes of the Soroki Zemstvo Post
Office were first put into use on 5 April 1879.21 The
first of them measured 150 x 113mm, with 5,000
printed at the A. Schultze firm in Odessa. The

Rossica Journal Number 119 13
October 1992

It appears (documents have not been found) that The author wishes to express his gratitude to the
1885 was the year when the volost' postal branch St. Petersburg philatelist P. G. Staritskii for his help
office cancellers were introduced. Up to that time, in preparing this article, and will appreciate any
stamps on letters in the volosts were cancelled by information or observations readers might have.
pen in a cross fashion. The illustration below shows Comments may be sent to Moldova, 277012,
a 40 x 27mm oval with text "COPOKCKAr 3EMCKAI Kishinev, P.O. Box 50.
nOqTA" and the name of the volost' branch office

a 3Eeic 1. Batyushkov.P.N.-"Bessarabiya. Istoricheskoe
S?23^ EKA opisanie." SPb, 1892, p. 134.
2. "Zapiski Bessarabskogo oblastnogo
statisticheskogo komiteta" (ZBOSK).
Kishinev, 1867, pp. 61-64.
APHOHELUTCKOE OTA41EHIE (Arioneshty Branch 3. The names of the villages are given as they
Office), appeared in official documents of the 19th
ATAKCKOE OTaI lEHIE (Ataki), Century.
BAIH-IAHCKOE OTTIJEHIE (Badichany), 4. ZBOSK, pp. 48,56.
BA4IPAUIKOBCKOE OTTfJIEHIE (Vadrashkov), 5. Natsional'nyi arkhiv Respubliki Moldova
BACKAYUKOE OTfSbIEHIE (Vaskautsy), (NARM), f. 65, opis' I, delo 301, p. 9
KJlHMOYLKOE OTATbJEHIE (Klimoutsy), 6. NARM, f. 68, op. I, d. 19, p. 68.
KOTIO)KAHCKOE OT2IJIEHIE (Kotyuzhany), 7. Ibid, p. 89.
HAYIUJMITCKOE OTLbJlIEHIE (Nadushita), 8. Ibid, p. 90.
OKOJIHHCKOE OTITlIEHIE (Okolina), 9. "SborikpostanovleniiSorokskogouezdnogo
nEfEHCKOE OTIIbJ1EHIE (Pepeny), zemskogo sobraniya (SPSUZS) s 1869 po
TbIPHOBCKOE OTblItlEHIE (Tymova) and 1910 gg.". Moscow, 1911, p. 709.
cWOPEUITCKOE OTZtlIEHIE (Floreshty). 10. NARM, f. 68, op I, d. 19, p. 83.
11. Chuchin. F.G. -"Katalogzemskikhpochtovykh
The one-line date was set in the middle of the marok" (KZPM). Moscow, 1925, p. 181, &
cancellers, and five-pointed stars went on the sides. Schmidt. C. "Die Postwertzeichen der
Cancellations exist in violet, black, and gray-blue. Russischen Landschaftsaemter". Charlotten-
The author has seen only Kotyuzhany, Okolina, berg, 1932 (PRL), pp. 217-219.
Pepeny, Tymova, and Floreshty postmarks on cover, 12. NARM, f. 68, op. I, d. 19, sheet 201.
the earliest of them being 28 June 1887, from the 13. Ibid, sheet 246.
Floreshty branch office. 14. KZPM, p. 182.
One can find many circular handstamps on cov- 15. NARM, f. 68, op. I, d. 19, sheet 207.
ers from this District; they are the handstamps of 16. SPSUZS, p. 74S,
village elders and volost' administrations, and are 17. Ibid, p. 767.
not postal. 18. Ibid, p. 77S,
When the zemstvo postage stamps were with- 19. Ibid, p. 776.
drawn from use in September 1901, postmarking 20. Ibid, p. 778.
ceased too. Free delivery of incoming and outgoing 21. NARM, f. 68, op. I, d. 19, sheet 197.
mail (letters, wrappers, newspapers, magazines, 22. Ibid.
packages, and money orders) along the District's 23. PRL, pp. 221, 223.
zemstvo routes continued up to 1918. 24. NARM, f. 68, op. I, d. 19, sheet 79.

14 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Russian Deltiology (Part 5)
-Russe Types-

by Dr. William R. Nickle
A s Russia and Europe opened previously M. Dmitriev of Nizhnii Novgorod was one of the
closed doors at the turn of this century, photogra- bestproducersofhigh-qualityphotographsforpost-
phers scurried around Europe taking pictures of cards at the turn of the century. Although he was not
people for postcards.The "Russe Types" series was in the Moscow-St. Petersburg area, his company
developed during this period with various themes in took uncommon pains to have the lighting perfect
mind. Three themes commonly observed on Rus- and the subjects in interesting poses. A common
sian postcards are: ethnic origin, such as Siberians, thread throughout the postcards is that they are all
Ukrainians, Tatars; Russians at work doing various pictures ofmiddle-aged men with full beards, which
jobs like coachmen, masons, bread salesmen, icon was typical in "Mother Russia." Religious themes
salesmen, etc.; and interesting people about town. are expressed in three of the postcards shown here.
There were thousands of postcards made of the The next two parts of this series will highlight
interesting people commonly seen about town, Russe Types ofethnic origin and ofvarious occupa-
although mainly of men. This article will briefly tions.
cover the theme of interesting people about town.

Afp'oscrie puAlo.bu. 413 'rKrux, 6OCAiO(t'. 1BO.
Orb IICTOUKa o L;cBNflWmor. 03epo Once.zrj.

S. r.


Co*si. m. X. o MlnrTpile. H.-flooWpo.s.

Figure 1. Mirkovskil fishermen. From the headwa- Figure 2. Types of Volga vagabonds.
ters to Beishlot, Lake Ovselug.
Rossica Journal Number 119 15
October 1992

S.. ,'qr.. Z

'-" Bamoweo Kopentcuo* uwanaWoI l CTpauHanic.

^ Co.a..Mu. 4em. I- .AirplCe, TR.UBw Co6ac. rma. o3 M. MTwplesa, H.-loasrpoab.
Figure 3. Father Superior of the coastal inhabitants' Figure 4. Volga types A wanderer.
Korel'skaya prayer house.

,Ha spa.ns BoriS?'

.o.M sa.m pa U. erpos. ..-.oropm. .
Ca um. r. oa, u A-p-ls H-Homaran Figure 6. Volga types and scenes. The coachman who
drove Mel'nikov during the destruction of the
Figure 5. "To God's temple!" monasteries. (I am not aware of this event)

16 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992


by Peter A. Michalove

One of the most remote and exotic comers located in the Eastern Caucasus mountains. Among
of Russia is Dagestan, a small province in the the Russian soldiers sent to "pacify" the area were
North Caucasus. P.T. Ashford'swritings, especially no less than Lermontov and Tolstoy, both of whom
the eight-volume ImperialRussian Stamps Used in wrote about their adventures in Dagestan.
Transcaucasia, have done much to publicize the The list below was compiled mainly from David
Trans-Caucasian regions of Georgia, Armenia and Skipton'slmperialRussianPostalPlacenameList,
Azerbaijan, but there has been practically no re- Reverse Sort (1858-1916), showing postal estab-
search on the philately of the North Caucasus. lishments in Dagestan Oblast' in Imperial times.
Ashford's comments about the scarcity of Cauca- Alternative spellings are given in parentheses. With
sian material due to the sparse population, moun- each placename is indicated the earliest date that a
tainous terrain and low literacy are especially true post office is attested in the Reverse Sort. The
for Dagestan. notation "Prigara" indicates that the office is listed
The Caucasus region has always been known for in that work and existed during the period of the
the many languages spoken there, and nowhere is numeral dot cancels. The placenames marked with
this more true than Dagestan. There are some fifty an asterisk were not listed in the Reverse Sort, but
languages spoken in the Caucasus, of which almost appeared in the 1911 or 1915 Postal Guides.
forty are indigenous languages (as op- Apa6JnnHCKif (Apa6nHHHCKi,) 1913 MaAaRnHCb 1911
posed to Indo-European languages like 'ATnb,6ylOHb 1911 MaMeab-Kana 1911
Armenian or Altaic languages such as XTHHCKa (AxTb) Prigara *MaMpacb 1(Mapa91 ) 1911
Azerbaijani, whose close relatives are seninaw (BeneZnwH 1911 "MaTnacbi 1911
BepHKeH 1913 *MereKe 1911
centered in regions other than the borTHXbS e 1893 erHH 1916
Caucasus). But of these, almost thirty By"naK 1911 1eJlbTieBCKil 1913
FyHH6b 1871 leTpOBCKb 1871
indigenous languages are spoken within 'aapana-Mypana 1915 neTpOBCKb-KaBKa3KiB
the tiny region of Dagestan alone. The Aep6eHT' Prigara fleTpocKb-rnopTb 1911
RfleHryTa, 1911
most important of these is Avar, with olomunarapb (Aamarapb, *CanTHHKa 1911
TapKH 1913
some 385,000 speakers, and used as a feularapb) Prigara .Taxana 1911
H36eprb 1916 TeMHproe 1911
kind of lingua franca throughout HqKe (MHH4xe, HHMKa) 1911 Te -Xa-yp Prigara
Dagestan. Some of the other languages Kapa6yaaxKenTb 1916 'Tnoxb 1911
"Kapanaxb 1911 YnTaiuob 1913
have only a few hundred speakers and are "KH3Hnmb-pb 1911 YYpab 1913
KacyMb-KeHTa (KacyMKeHTb, YpMa 1911
confined to one or two villages. The KacyMb-KeHTb, aYcyxafl 1911
cXapianb-MaxH 1911
Ginukh language, for instance, is spoken KacyMKeHTa) 1893 'Xapaxa 1911
KaiKeHTb (KaareHTb) 1913 "Xapaxm 1911
in the aul (village) of Ginukh and had only 'KyMHHcKaS 1915 XyH3aXb 1881
Llynaxapb 1911
some 200 speakers according to the 1979 KyMyxb 1916 qaax axb 1911
"KynHHCKa 1911
Soviet census. Kypaxb 1916 LaHpb-IOpTb nIprapa
eBai 1913 UlaMxanb 1913
Dagestan was formally incorporated -MarpaMKeHTb 1911 inama (HMa) 1911
into Russia in 1813 with the Treaty of
SPostal establishments in Dagestan during Empire times.
Gulistan, after nearly a century of conten-
tion with Persia, which had previously claimed the In 1863, the Shemakha province was dissolved,
area. But nobody told the peoples of Dagestan, and with most of the territory added to the Baku prov-
there was heavy resistance to Russification. The ince and a small area to the north added to Dagestan
Imam Shamil (1797-1871) led a well-organized Oblast'. All of the Dagestani offices listed in Prigara,
and, for a time, highly effective guerilla resistance including Temir-Khan-Shura, the future capital of
until he was captured in 1859 in the village of Gunib Dagestan Oblast', were from this area and thus were

Rossica Journal Number 119 17
October 1992

intheShemakhaProvinceatthetimeofthenumeral 1, from the Brockhaus and Efron
dot cancels. 3HqHKc.oneHqMecKHi cioBapb, shows Dagestan
The last office given, Yalama, was listed in Baku in the Imperial period, with the railway line extend-
province in the 1913 Postal List and is discussed in ing as far as Baku.
Part Eight of Ashford's work. Yalama is on the None of the postal sources lists all the stations that
Samur River, which was the border between the operated on this line, but by considering all of them,
two areas, and which today is still the border we can draw a composite of the route. Beginning
between Dagestan and Azerbaijan. The border just north of Vladikavkaz, the line proceeded east-
town of Yalama today is in Azerbaijan. ward through Terek province. The last stop in that
In 1895 a railway line was opened between province was at Khasav-Yurt (which nowadays is
Vladikavkaz in Terek province and Petrovsk in just inside the border of Dagestan). Continuing into
Dagestan province. Mailcoach No. 137 was as- Dagestan, the line ran southeast through Chir-Yurt,
signed to the eastbound leg of the journey from Temirgoe and Shamakhal to Petrovsk-Kavkazkii
Vladikavkaz, and No. 138 indicated the return trip and Petrovsk-Port. The railway then proceeded
from Petrovsk. By 1900, this line extended through southwarddownthe Caspian seacoast throughTarki,
the entire Dagestan Oblast' and down to Baku. Map Manas, Buinak, Achi, Inchkhe, Kayakent, Berikei,

Map 1. Dagestan in the Imperial period.

""" 1' 1

-.. -. -' at,, .- .' ',4.

Map 1. Dagestan in the Imperial period.
18 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Mamed-Kala,Ogni,Derbent,Arablinskii,Belidzhi The following place names, taken from map 2,
and Yamala. Crossing the border, the first stop in include three "pa3be3t" (railway sidings) num-
Baku province was Khudat (if we consider Yalama bers. Perhaps, as sometimes happened in Imperial
to be in Dagestan). times, these sidings had postal cancels of their own.
Prigara (1981) indicates that line 137/138 was Skipton (1990) illustrates the rapid extention of
assigned to this route as late as 1913. But Luchnik postal services even to remote villages in the
(1978) indicates that by 1916, the 137/138 line was Caucasus in the early Soviet period, so it is likely
assigned to the Karshi-Kitab route in Central Asia, that all of these localities had postal establishments
and the Vladikavkaz/Baku route is not indicated on for all or most of the period. However, the situation
any later numbered mailcoach route, in 1987 undoubtedly reflects a certain amount of
The Dagestani ASSR was created in 1921, the renaming since the list of Imperial names. Except
capital moved to Petrovsk and renamed Makhach- for some of the obviously Communist names such
kala, after the Dagestani revolutionary, Makhab as Sovetskoe, the great majority of these placenames
(Mogomed-Ali) Dakhabaev (1882-1918), while are accented on the final syllable.
the old capital of Temir-Khan-Shura was renamed
Buinaksk. In 1936, the Dagestani AB KH3
ASSR was reorganized with AKymIKa Koqy6efl CynaK
changes to its boundaries. The north- AjIeKcaHApHRCKaq KpaRHoBKa CyIOTKHHa Koca
em part was ceded to the Checheno- AxTM KyMnH TapKH
Ingush ASSR in 1943-57. Inciden- AtH KyMyx TapyMOBKa
Ba6alopT KyH6aTap TeMnproe
tally, Ashford (1974) points out that Ba'H Kypax TepeKnH-MeKTe6
Be)KTa KyTaH T-nox
the so-called Dagestan "stars" issue 5e,,aH KamH TxpaTa
of 1922was used inTerekprovince, BepHKeR JeHHHKeHT Tnir
centered in Vladikavkaz, but not in BpRHcK MarapaMKeHT TioneHHHA
Dagestan itself. BpAHCKa Koca MaIa.jlHC YrnTau
ByAHaKCK Maina ApemeBKa YJnny6HeBO
Map 2, representing the modem repre6HJb MaMea-Kajia YHnyKyJIb
FyJInH MaHac (MaIaCKeHT) YpKapax
situation, is from the 1987 AT.ac rynH6 Mapara YyxKapa
)KeJne3HbiX opor CCCP The Sulak larecTaHcKHe OrmH MaxaqKaina I-COpT XaMaMaTIOpT
flep6eHT MaxamKaja Il-CopT XauaB-lOpT
river had been the northem bound- nLy6KH MexejibTa XHB
ary of Dagestan during the Imperial ZIM MOpHCTUpA XyH3aX
H36epu6a MopcKOA BSHpI0OOK XyL4HH
period, but soon after the ASSR was Hnqxe HwKHHA 2bKeHryTaA Ulaxyp
Kapa-Barinm HoBas Koca Uyaaxap
established, further areas to the north apayaaxreHT HoeaonaKcoe UypHi
and northwest were added to the KapaTa OpTaTio)e tepaneHnbie Bypynu
KaplnaH-1OpT Pa3ae3a 12 qeqeH
republic as shown on the map. The KacnHHcK Pa3be3,s 14 nHpKeH
added area had been in Terek prov- KacyMKeHT Paabe3n 15 WaMxaA
KaxH6 PyTyn 3qe2a
ince in Imperial times. Map 2, as a KaRreHT CaMyp 104HO-CyXOKyMcK
railway atlas, shows the route of the KH3JnlopT CeproKalia IOpKOBKa
former mailcoach 137/138 from Ordzhonikidze List of placenames as they existed in 1987.
(formerly Vladikavkaz) through Dagestan to Baku.
Skipton (1986) does not give a numbered route for But what about actual usages from Dagestan? I
this based on 1927 and 1928 data, and neither does can show only two examples: a pair of the Imperial
Cronin (1952) for 1931 data. But Skipton does 20-kopek arms issue of 1904 cancelled with a fine
indicate that by 1927, a spur had been added linking strike of IEBAUJH 2/LIAFECT. B01./22 4EB. 1904
MakhachkalawithBuinaksk,andthatspurisshown and a cover with a T-X WYPA IAFECT. 05OJ.
on the map. In the newly added northern section of cancel of 12 March 1921. This was the year that
the Dagestani ASSR, we also see the railway line Temir-Khan-Shura was renamed Buinaksk and
going north through Artezian to Astrakhan'. demoted from being the Dagestani capital.

Rossica Journal Number 119 19
October 1992

MK A J bl U h A
e ae / ".... r
-x pec

A." j /MeK ed "N"" O *'9.o I ,

r ". ,,, r. i '9
r- --y o '
S..... ,
y o

4-L '9 .A p '9' I

P., '' '* c, '', I =-
I(~i f ps.oe APe V-bA, A X

c I
SI e a3. poh,.A
U "Opw-A CY P8 0, "" -

I I - I "
)PC~3'a* E 0 e

roparopcK A -- o Kca
S*Si ".. N .
- L Al' '4I 4 E 10

*' '' -r- /t
"WJ,. %',.Woa a : e

Ir-,O ,' eIx 4" h

*"-.. .. ...acniim..,! ""-,
", T S'---, ,l -. -----.1 p

I- .. 1. ,1 ,. A -y3 -- -
I I""D e. t :", :., t.1 ie .-r u, -- .:'

-I I ^ ,K U-para Kp ape '
.0- -B "pe 1--

-My--,ryarn -.
ra jop Carape"t K Tnmr

Ma#paH~ u. l w_ iexste c 9 i7 .
""0. e .- ^ w ..M-f t .

20 Rossica Journal N 119 -er. >
O cter '99
'I A '. r I '

20 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992
C Knit~,.,

Cronin, A. "More about the Travelling Post." Brit-

V 268-271.

f 1 3uHKlJlonezlNecKifl cnoBapb."KaBKa3Kif Kpaf."
BpOKray3b H Eq)poHb, C.-HeTep6yprb, 1891-
1907. Vol. 11A, pp. 818-849.
Levashi postmark
Geiger, Bernard et al. Peoples andLanguages ofthe
The second example is from a cover, addressed to Caucasus. Mouton's-Gravenhage, 1959.
Moscow, which is from the period when ordinary
domestic mail up to 15 grams was postfree, and Hewitt, B. G. "Caucasian Languages." in Bernard
there is no franking on the cover. The letter arrived Comrie. The Languages of the Soviet Union. Cam-
in Moscow on 29 March. The cancellation reads bridge University Press: Cambridge, 1981,pp. 196-
"T-X UIYPA ZIAFECT. OBJI. 123.21" with serial 237.
letter "r." [Ed. Note: The strike is faint and the cover is a
darkish color, thus making the cancel hard to see and very Luchnik, N. "Russia's Railroad Mails." Trans. R.
difficult to reproduce.] Trbovich, from Soviet Collector, 1974. Rossica.
108/109 (1986), pp. 18-47.

nOqTOBblIi /IopO)>KHHKb PocCHiCKOR HMnepik C
HyMepHOR KapTOIO. C.-leTep6yprb, 1911.

[noqTOBblI n0opO)KHHKb PocciiCKOli HMnepiA.
HeTporpaanb, 1915.

Prigara, S. V. Trans. David M. Skipton. The Rus-
Temir-Khan-Shura postmark. sianPostin theEmpire, Turkey, China, andthePost
in the Kingdom of Poland. Rossica, 1981.
Surely, other members can add examples of usage
for this exotic and overlooked region. Skipton, David M. Imperial Russian Postal
Placename List, Reverse Sort (1858-1916). The
References: author, 1984.

Ashford, P. T. Imperial Russian Stamps Used in ,_ trans. "'Khronika' and the Transcaucasus."
Transcaucasia. London: The British Society of British Journal of Russian Philately. 69 (1990),
Russian Philately. 8 vols. 1972-1985. pp. 13-17.

". "Dagestan 'Stars'." British Journal of ."Soviet Railroad Mailcar Routes 1927-
Russian Philately, 50 (1974), p. 16. 1928."Rossica, 108-109 (1986), pp. 79-93.

ATJac >)enje3Hbax aopor CCCP. Moskva 1987.
Bo.nbtuas COBeTCKam 3HUHKAonewHts.
"LlarecraH."CoBeTCKaR 3HLWKioneHMRa: MocKBa,
1972. Vol. 7, pp. 492-496.

Rossica Journal Number 119 21
October 1992

Zemstvo: Forgeries, Errors Perpetuated by Catalogs, and


by George G. Werbizky

Alatyr' Forgeries In all cases, the letters of the forgeries differ
significantly from those of the genuine. To il-
The Alatyr' zemstvo issued two stamps in lustrate the point, compare the stamps in fig. 1.
1867 and both are rare. According to C. Schmidt The illustration from the Moens' catalog shown
in his 1934 catalog published in Berlin, only in fig. 1 has been used in the following publica-
three examples of the 1-kop. and 25 examples of tions: Chuchin, Bourdi, Bordewijk, and Artuchov
the 2-kop. are known to exist. The only differ- catalogs. Note the defect in the upper left orna-
ence between the two stamps is the denomina- ment; it is the clue to look for. The Wm. Herrick
tion. The ornament frame and lettering are the catalog of 1896 shows a genuine Chuchin No. 2
same (except for types). stamp, although the illustration is somewhat in-
Recently, copies of both stamps were dis- distinct. The accuracy of catalog illustrations is
covered in an old collection. Unfortunately, both discussed in more detail later in this article.
turned out to be forgeries. When one encounters a very rare stamp (only
The following chart (below) presents a com- three known!), that by itself should spell CAU-
parison of forged 1- and 2-kop. stamps with a TION! It is possible, but not probable that another
genuine stamp (ex-Faberg6). example of this rarity has been found.

1-kop. 2-kop. 2-kop.
Forgery Forgery Genuine
Paper Yellowish, ribbed, White, smooth Rough, yellowish
looks like photocopy
Ink Heavy, shiny black Very dense, Dull black
shiny black
Comparison of 1- and 2-kop. stamps with a genuine stamp.

Figure 1. ft to right: 1- and 2-kop. forgeries, 1-kop. illustration from Moens
1893 catalog, genuine 2-kop. on the right.

Figure 1. Left to right: 1- and 2-kop. forgeries, l-hop, illustration from Moens'
1893 catalog, genuine 2-kop. on the right.

22 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Belozersk Forgeries The third Belozersk forgery illustrated in fig.
4 is puzzling. Again, it is not clear at all what
The next three forgeries are from the Belozersk stamp the forger tried to fake. The numeral "2" is
zemstvo and come from the late S. Serebrakian's wrong for a No. 11, an "R-rated" stamp. The
reference collection. All three have indistinct color is wrong for Nos. 16,17, and 18. There is no
fantasy cancellations first clue to be on guard! stamp on light orange paper, nor are these three
Figure 2 shows an attempt to imitate Chuchin No. stamps particularly rare (1.5, 1.5, and 3.-priced
13 (priced at 25.- fairly high). In addition to the by Chuchin). Did the forger try to pass it off as a
fake cancellation, the frame is also a give-away: newvariety?-Possibly.The letters fairly closely
it is continuous, without any breaks. The genuine approximate the letters on genuine stamps, yet
stamps were typographically printed, i.e., from there are some differences. For example, the
individual letters and dashes. Therefore, breaks letter "3" and "C" in "3EMCKA5I" are not the
in the frame are to be expected as well as gaps at same.
the corners. Closer examination also reveals dif- '"'"'
ferences in the letters that are easy to spot. For
example, compare the letter "3" in . 38Mb0Bfi
"BBJIO3EPCKA5i" or the "5" in "3EMCKAR" for CEb A
differences. i W no TAl

2 eo:
Figure 4. Forgery of Chuchin 16-18? on left, genuine
stamp on right.

Lebedyan Forgery

The next item illustrated is also from the "Forged
Figure 2. Forgery on le, genuine on right.
SStamp, Forged Cancellation" category. The stamp
The next stamp (fig. 3) is supposed to be is from Lebedyan and listed as Chuchin No. 8.
Chuchin No. 24 (priced at 2.5) or No. 25, rated Again the characteristics of the forged stamp are
"R." The forgery is printed on cream-rose col- easy to spot: no breaks in the outer frame and
ored paper instead of yellowish-gray or yellow differences in the horizontal top and bottom
paper. Therefore, it is not clear what the forger lines. The stamp was typographically printed, so
had in mind when this item was created. Here | breaks are to be ex-
again the letters are different. Quite noticeable is pected. The forged
the lack of closure at top of the letter "l" in J stamp is an exact repro-
"HOqTA." The upper "2" almost touches the ductionof Moens' cata-
middle portion instead of closing on itself. Other log illustration No.
differences are also present. 4445. The stamp is
printed on light-violet
paper and is imperforate
.. with thin separating
[KAPKA lines. The color of the
J1 le6mesiof forged stamp fairly
5, closely matches that of
-'- --! 1the genuine stamp.

Figure 3. Forgery on left, genuine on right. Figure 5. Forgery on top,
genuine stamp on bottom.
Rossica Journal Number 119 23
October 1992

Rzhev Forgery Wm. Herrick's "Russian Rural Stamps" 1896
catalog (published by The Scott Stamp & Coin
The last forgery is also from the reference Co., New York) used them. I suspect that the
collection of the late S. Serebrakian. It is sup- 1897 Stanley Gibbons' "Stamps of Foreign Coun-
posed to be Rzhev No. 9 (fig. 6) which is a fairly tries" (published in London) catalog also used
rare stamp (Chuchin 25.-). The main difference is them.
in the shape of the letters like "a" throughout. Alex Artuchov in Canada has undertaken the
Also note the "K" in "KOn." it is reversed in formidable task of publishing a very complete
the forgery. and reasonably well illustrated zemstvo catalog.
So far, two volumes have appeared encompass-
ing zemstvos starting with the letters "A-K."
T4 S These volumes are an excellent start!
SThe reason for using Moens' illustrations is
P "a8t ican r relatively straight-forward. The illustrations are
S t5 full size and are very well executed. There is a
Problem with these illustrations though they
were not produced by photography, but from
cliches cut by hand. Secondly, whoever did the
actual work was not familiar with the Russian
Figure 6. Forgery on left, genuine on right.
language or alphabet. The result is that, in many
cases, the illustrations resemble the genuine
Errors Perpetuated by Catalogs stamps. Republishing an approximation in other
catalogs gave legitimacy to an inaccuracy. Forg-
A single, complete, and all-inclusive zemstvo ers used these illustrations to create their fake
catalog does not exist. Probably the most widely stamps. An example of this sequence of events is
used and referenced catalog is the 1925 catalog of described in my translation of an article by M.
F. G. Chuchin that was re-issued by J. Barefoot, Minskii covered in "Zemstvo Stamp Forgeries:
Ltd. in England a few years ago. The illustrations Summary of Articles and New Data" published
in this re-issue are much better than those in the in Rossica No. 118.
original Chuchin. The second problem arises from the printing
The next most popular reference is a catalog method used in the production of many zemstvo
by C. Schmidt that he published in 1934 in stamps lithography. As already mentioned,
Germany. It is quite complete, but the illustra- individual letters and pieces of type are used to
tions are smaller than the stamps themselves and create a design. Straight lines were frequently
are, therefore, poor in detail. One cannot easily made from several sections. This produced gaps
use this catalog to determine whether a stamp is in the line frame and particularly in the corners.
a forgery or not. There also exists what is called This "defect" was completely eliminated in
the "Big Schmidt," which is a two-volume mim- Moens' illustrations. These and other differences
eographed edition. It has few illustrations and is are described and illustrated next as examples of
rare. what one can find.
Recently, two more catalogs appeared: One
published by A. Bourdi (second edition) in 1978 Errors in Spelling
in France; another published by G. Bordewijk in
1980 in Holland. Both are useful. Chuchin No. 26 (Moens' No. 4244) of Belo-
All catalogs use some of the illustrations found zersk clearly illustrates this type of error:
in J.B. Moens' 1893 edition of "Les Timbres de "BMJIO3EPCIHI" instead of "BbIIO3EPCKA5I"
Russie" "The Postage Stamps of Russia." "CKASI" in the genuine is rendered as "CIIHI"

24 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

in the catalog illustration. Figure 7 shows the Frame (and Spelling) Errors
catalog version and the genuine stamp. It is
interesting to note that Chuchin used Moens' Two examples of this error type will be de-
illustration as well the same error is present. scribed, both from the Kotel'nich zemstvo. The
4 first stamp is Chuchin Kotel'nich No. 1, rated
4I44 P "RR," Moens' No. 4422. Moens'shows the
frame as being solid, continuous for both halves
S ll of the stamp. An examination of a genuine stamp
S reveals that the outer frame consists of four
pieces, cut at 45 in the comers (i.e., just like a
picture frame but not connected in the corners).
I The inner thin lines are also segmented rather
Than being continuous. In the word
"KOTEL'NICH," the first letter is erroneously
Figure 7. Moens' catalog illustration on left, genuine shown as the Latin letter "R." Figure 9 permits
stamp on right. direct comparison between the catalog illustra-
tion and a genuine stamp.
The next example involves a rare stamp from
Lebedyan: Chuchin No. 2, Moens' No. 4440,
rated "RR" (fig. 8). The first letter "E" in _
"JLEBEI5lIHCKOI" is an "0" in the catalog. |"| "*-'

i 3l 1 -. .-

Ae6e ser II
3eMcsofl noqit-

Figure 9. Moens' catalog illustration on top, genuine
Figure 8. Moens' catalog illustration on top, genuineon
stamp on bottom.

This error appears in the Moens' illustration but not The second Kotel'nich stamp to be discussed
in the Chuchin illustration. The absence of the is Chuchin No. 3 (priced 25.-), Moens' No. 4425.
period after the word "KOH." could be a "type" Moens'shows continuous inner (thin) and outer
difference since there are nine types of this stamp. (thick) frame lines. However, fig. 10 shows that
Moreexamplesofspellingerrorscouldbeshown, this is not the case.
however, these two should be sufficient enough to
make the point. Forthose thathave a Moens'catalog,
take a look at Belozersk No. 4246 and note the
errors in the spelling of "151103."

Rossica Journal Number 119 25
October 1992

m19 The last stamp to be discussed is that of
iI M W- 1 _Urzhum, Schmidt No. 4. Chuchin does not list
is wN this stamp. The design is the same as that of
I t Chuchin No. 3 or 3a, or Schmidt No. 3. The
".npr. sm, S difference is in the width of the stamp itself. The
distance between stamps is 2mm or 0.080 inches
18 04 a greater. It is not much, but when the stamps are
1s woa f /Q( positioned one below the other, the difference in
.Ac4 3 if. .. width is immediately apparent (fig. 12).
S.....f.. I

Figure 10. Moens' catalog lustration on top, genuine
on bottom.
Based on the discussion so far, one is urged to -
examine every characteristic of a stamp: paper,
color, printing, spelling of words, form of indi-
vidual letters, and postmarks. One does not need
to be an expert, but simply observant and patient
enough to separate the "wheat from the chaff."
And, above all, be critical of catalog illustrations.
Final Comments
There are only a few zemstvo stamps whose
denominations were altered by hand. Some of
these stamps are rare. If the stamp is heavily
canceled, the hand alteration may not be easy to
spot. The postal clerk who altered the value may
have been careless. This also adds a level of
difficulty to recognition.
One such stamp is from the Tot'ma zemstvo,
Chuchin No. 6. Here a 6-kop. (original Chuchin Figure 12. The "wide" and "narrow" Urzum
No. 4) was altered to reflect a new value of 3-kop. stamp.
(fig. 11) Examination of this stamp shows a "3"
(fig. 11) Examination of this stamp shows a "i. The reason for describing this variety is that
written over the "6" in each corner in black ink. Schmidt rates it "RRR" and states that possibly
Schmidt rates it "RRR" and states that possibly
The numeral "3" is poorly formed.
only six copies are known. Urzhum started is-
suing stamps in 1891. Although Moens' catalog
is dated 1893, this variety is not listed. The point
is that a common looking stamp may not be so
common after all! Good hunting.

Figure 11. 6-kop. stamp revalued to a 3-kop. denomi-
nation. Note the word "UIECTb" -"Six" was left intact.
26 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Northern Russia 1918-1919

by Martin Holmsten

In issue number 116 (April 1991) of the after some months, the Finnish forces were forced
Rossica journal Mr. Joseph Taylor wrote a very to withdraw to Finland at the same time the allied
interesting article about the Allied Intervention in forces left Russia.
Northern Russia in 1918-1919. In 1918-1919 Finn- In the area near Aunus a Finnish post office
ish volunteer forces also were engaged in fighting in operated using Finnish stamps overprinted with the
Northern Russia. town name in Finnish (AUNUS). The last Finnish
Finland became an independent state in 1917 post office located at Rajakontu closed 15 October
and was engaged in its own civil war in 1918. In 1919. These "AUNUS" stamps were in use from as
1919 Eastern Karelia (Russian Karelia) rose up early as 7 July 1919. Almost all "AUNUS" letters
against Lenin and the bolsheviks. Since the people are more or less philatelic. However, there are some
of Eastern Karelia are a Finnish tribe, they naturally genuine letters that are superb philatelic items,
turned to Finland for help. Finland allowed a volun- especially the "AUNUS" forerunners ordinary
teer force of approximately 3,500 soldiers to assist Finnish stamps used on covers from the town of
Karelia and on 23 April 1919 these Finnish forces Aunus with Russian "Olonets" postmarks.
captured the town of Aunus (Olonets) while the When the Finnish forces captured the town of
allied forces advanced toward Karhumaki Aunus (Olonets) on 23 April 1919, they found a
(Medvezhya Gora). There was a lot of fighting and, Russian canceller in the local post office that had
4. been used to cancel mail. By 12 may 1919, the
Srinjma Finnish forces were forced to leave the town.
S* "" Figure 1 illustrates a cover franked with two 20-pen.
\\ \Finnish stamps postmarked Ononets and dated 29
,A April 1919. Figure 2 illustrates a piece franked with
Sone 40-pen. Finnish stamp and cancelled Olonets
on 25 April 1919. These Aunus covers are great

~ -C-

L orIANpito Figure 1. Olonets cancellation on cover
Jerdated 29 April 1919.
Map of the Finnish Aunus campaign of 1919.
Rossica Journal Number 119 27
October 1992
Rossca Jurna Numer 19 2
October 199

IOtl axp c : 11%'.

.ltaaH oea,AaBao yan co znpaicI Ha.cf' aTV'eoiT.'.HTcKOieKo
O .RIa m MAopbr& --A.,]M&a -
Cr0Te o 0ec8T-td oaace eee i XrooxUa He- --
"DoTOWy,0To W peCeHft.M Tl., .H_0ep3-.rr.Kf-laCEr _TE.
oB&eT xR Dpeue0H namAoc. B'O EL AxA OA B0oro NChua..
-A-npTero Re onr .AaR- Toro-rqToIGu-ooT-O-aa-niH-GeMo-OTpi
A a s I MtTHoe0,HyZHoe arz- i .ectao w CI xopomeHn-IOi-
^Mci~aKBoASHie'l/a Ts Dcec AefClypHIeaei maniiamaii/ Hacr.
.-poeanie. .He teIy,mTaex y c era .ceilsags buenoL.TQ_
MaTpoTeiC,o yb CoH a-o cxyXa ozoitIR...OT, ieH-
B-XjRHifcaRXnCI mantcTIR-HtTi OTBaTB Ha-ADt Tezorpaiuu
A o..I.a8 FIOBptO H B CepA)ut... .BaiGHk -s itit i KOrO-

fsepCrT R Ijno xpan- bV-Mt]1fA:noxIa -RaWeLF- nTYAv Ty HaOTPaM-
Saem ce6 Ha atladpeHauht jaea,ra atreait mL, a o6pas -
dolos Hyt Bvle 0tZo sIth Rusa brder (r o lltionof
** em- *ce6- sapo do e H.ome. acaT:-cl 1Tyna.lipomnns2 .
oTw.s ;HeHi H onHTL TRiMmLCa SS Tout.ze HanpaDoenix,
wiro6u noBTopMxacV' npeafH zCTOpi A;YA.ensx- -- ciy'IaaH
acTopiA,Bt'hHO *oHa n Traxe H HOBHX6 MUtcTaxI 20 TCI
nops,norxa. e JinH eTl.Bapo4euIaJtcL nHaALfmTLC Ha9
-yfoBALO -HeB'$pMoe'Hi -pu-uM ano/cbr a.Ta ro,.zoaxQA.
xoIeTCH,KsI oTopoTa np0eBWiii. no cldoeuy DOcnHTaHIDnjM,
trTo yxe xyxe,oxoTHxKOBD>-pHLSoaOBi a Hee-xoTirOT-
Figure 2. Piece with Olonets cancellation 6asBXIt,a KXOHypHpoBaTL Ka2XT TO HO noaxoAMTI uHt aBS
dated 25 April 1919. Me0i se e coiAnoHAs 03Apa CT'. cTO oPao&BDOMoao
Part of the text from cover illustrated below.


-A''-6 /aVl Z'/ 7 ,

A letter from a Russian Captain in the Allied Forces in Murmansk to Finland via Norway in 1919. Note the use of a
Norwegian 20-0re stamp. The letter had been forwarded to the Norwegian town of Vardo where it was posted on 30
August 1919, and sent on to Finland. The town of Vard is situated very close to the Russian border. (Collection of
T. Termonen)

28 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Siberia New Varieties II

by George G. Werbizky

This article briefly describes two previously Admiral Kolchak issue No. 1,
unreported varieties of Siberian surcharged stamps. 35-kop. on 2-kop. surcharge
Since many examples of these particular varieties
have been noted, they are worth recording. This stamp is well known due to the missing
"5" variety in position 98. The error must have
Scott No. 4, 1-rub. on 4-kop. surcharge been discovered early during the surcharging
since many sheets have "35" on every stamp.
The lower portion of the last letter in the word Several sheets that I did examine, one with the
"py6.nb" the soft sign in the Cyrillic alphabet missing "5" and another that had been corrected,
is square rather than rounded. Based on the all have the variety reported here. The number
examination of several sheets, this variety occurs "3" in position 100 is "fatter" than the other "3s"
only once per sheet of 100 and is located in on the sheet. Figure 2 illustrates positions 98-100
position 90, which is in the lower right-hand 5x5 from a sheet with the missing "5." Again, the
portion of the sheet. Figure 1 shows the bottom stamp background is suppressed. The two
right-hand portion (positions 89-90, 99-100) in rounded halves of the number "3" are approxi-
which the variety is located. The stamp back- mately 0.5mm, or 0.020" wider than normal.
ground has been suppressed to allow better view- Although the difference in size is not great, it is
ing of the surcharge itself. enough to allow for easy identification of this
variety without magnification. This variety is
constant from sheet to sheet.
: : 'IA .'+,,.+,_.____ _____,____ _

'** r Figure 2. Positions 98-100 from a sheet with the missing
"5" illustrating the "fat 3" variety.

Figure 1. Upper right-hand surcharge shows the
"square" soft sign variety.

Rossica Journal Number 119 29
October 1992

Khar'kov A Town Getting Above Its Station!

by Leonard Tann

Several towns, including Khar'kov, have cir- and the registration label are shown since the cover
cular as opposed to oval postmarks clearly in- is far too dark even to photocopy nicely.
scribed "VOKZAL." This confused many collec-
tors, including myself. Even-
tually we were put on the right
track by Gary Combs, Philip
Robinson and others to whom
thanks are due (see Rossica
Journal No. 116, April 1991,
p. 28-29). Other towns having Figure 1. Khar'kov oval with simple registration label.
circular vokzal postmarks include Konotop, Orsha,
Grishino and Vil'na. The post offices using these Did the situation change in 1916-17? Did
circular vokzal types were ordinary post offices, Khar'kov station have its own railway postal desk
administered by State postal authorities, and were operated by the Railway Postal Administration?
located nearby railway stations. The name "vokzal" The 1916 postal list has a Khar'kov Vokzal, but
designated their location that is, the post office as a PTK an Imperial Post Office. The 1917 list
next-door-to, across-the-road-from, or even inside- includes Khar'kov as a "stantsiya." I have now
the-plaza of the station. The circular style of the found several examples ofstations listed as stantsiyas
postmark specifically dubbed it as a standard post that had standard oval cancellers, and operated
office type. under the Railway Postal Administration. And there
Railway station post offices administered by the were numerous such changes/additions in the 1917-
Railway Postal Administration used oval post- 18 period.
marks in the standard form with the name of the Figure 2 is from my own collection. I picked up
town above and vokzal or the abbreviation 'vokz' this cover a year or so ago because I was intrigued
below. Much, if not most, of the mail dealt with by by the oval postmarks. The cancel is in standard
the railway station post offices ultimately went on format reading "KHAR'KOV/VOKZAL 1-2-17."
a train to its destination. However, railway station I showed it to Philip Robinson, saying "There you
post offices, like any post office, could deal with are. Khar'kov opened a real station office in 1917!"
mail going locally within the same town. In that His reply, while pointing to the rectagular registra-
sense, the railway station post office operated as a tion handstamp, was "No it ain't! That's a PTK."
regular post office. And sure enough, the handstamp reads
Khar'kov fits the pattern. As Baedeker tells us, "KHAR'KOV VOKZAL / N../ POCHT. TEL.
the main post-and-telegraph office was in located in KONT." Philip suggested that the "near-the-sta-
the center of the town, on Voznesenskaya Square. tion-office" needed a new handstamp, rang the
Of course, there were other post offices in town, and local handstamp manufacturing office, and the
one by the railway station, using the circular type of office, hearing that it was for a vokzal, made an oval
the Imperial Postal Administration reading type by mistake with the curious serial letter "X."
"KHAR'KOV VOKZAL" the post office by the Figure 3 is a fine cover (back and front) from the
railway station, collection of Mike Renfro showing oval
Figure 1 (from the collection ofTimo Bergholm, KHAR'KOV / VOKZAL postmarks with the serial
Finland) came from a registered cover with circular "F" dated 27-7-17 and sent to Sweden. The cover is
Khar'kov Vokzal postmarks. It has a simple regis- franked by imperforate Arms types totalling 20k.
tration label dated 1-3-12. Only one of the cancels and has a rectangular registration handstamp read-

30 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

BAosa Ht nHac/tH W. X. La^eTrST^

I I ;

: ia.... -^ '.
.. .. .- .. -,. .I

rilt SaMe epfgtopc

967 *iNJI..

Figure 2. Khar'kov rail oval with P.T.K. registry marking.

S inna iiin 0- r we Purse **r'-;"t'll

Octr 19K 9 3 I

Rigr 3o.,r Nm*.e Mi e1ro.
ig 3. o-K'B fromMike atan." --""

I l .;: .0 .

..= .- i -.- .

*- .- .: ,'*.. ,> -
S. ... -: ;-' .- .- .** -- .--* .::,- '. "?W ,
.. .- -* ",. -. _. -

Rossica Journal Number 119 31
October 1992
Figure 3. Khar'kov/Vokzal from Mike Renfro.

ing "KHARKOV / NO... / VOKZAL" There is no registration label or handstamp that specifically has
reference to PTK. Is this a postal desk inside the the letters ")Kn1FO" as was the general inscription
Khar'kov Station operated by the Railway Postal on registration labels and handstamps throughout
Authority? the Russian Empire. While myself having a small
Figure 4 is another cover from the collection of reservation, I think that the difference between the
TimoBergholm. Bearingperforate and imperforate two types of rectangular registration handstamps
Arms stamps totalling 35k, it also has oval (one reading PTK the other not so) indicates that
KHAR'KOV/VOKZAL postmarks. The serial let- one is from the ordinary post office near the station
ter is not visible. There is a rectangular registration and the other from a new postal desk opened in the
handstamp reading "KHAR'KOV / No... / station.
VOKZAL" that is identical to Mike's type. I have In the case ofVil'na, there was a post office in the
a loose pair of 2-kop. Arms stamps with a February station plaza that was operated by the Imperial
1917 oval pmk reading KHAR'KOV/VOKZAL. It Postal Administration and a post office inside the
also has the serial letter "S" (Cyrillic 'C'). rail station itself that was operated by the Railway
The question is did Khar'kov Station have its Postal Administration. The first had circular post-
own railway postal desk opened in late 1916 or at marks reading "VIL'NAVOKZAL," the other used
the beginning of 1917, and do at least two of the standard oval postmarks reading "VIL'NA /
covers shown here (figs. 3-4) come from that station VOKZAL." I strongly suspect that in very late 1916
post office? It is indeed curious that these oval or at the beginning of 1917 the same occurred in
postmarks have very odd serial letters X, F, and Khar'kov.
S but that may well have been done deliberately Any further information or comments on this
to distinguish them from the ordinary Khar'kov subject are most welcome. Particularly if anyone
Vokzal post office that had the usual "a, b, v"..... might have a Khar'kov handstamp/label with
Philip Robinson says that he is very doubtful. He ")KI1n."
wants to wait until he sees a Khar'kov Vokzal

"T.'/: IOCHM b.B B0BMHCKi0, XapbHOtbb.

r.32 Rossica Journal Numr 1a

*; '' p: t

11OT.OTA. qlT' TU -rub

Figure 4.

32 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

The Allied Intervention in North Russia -
Additional Comments

by George G. Werbizky

I n a Rossica #116 article of the same title, Joe 1918 has only a "X20" censor's mark. According to
Taylor presented a great deal of information about Joe Taylor in his article, that is the mark used by
an area that previously had not been thoroughly Major J. Haig-Smith, who was the director of the
explored and studied. Recently, while examining Army Postal Services, Archangel. There were no
Russian-related material of the late Souren regular military postal facilities at first and mail was
Serebrakian, I came across a few items, not all of forwarded to England by any ship available. Note
them philatelic, thatprovide some additional knowl- the "21" located at the top of the card in the middle.
edge about this complicated period. It is reasonable to speculate that this is the 21st item
sent to the same address. The card also has a
Philatelic Items
signature in the address that appears to be different
The two postcards shown here (figs. 1-2) were than that of the sender; itwaswritten with a finerpen
mailed home by a member of the British Army and the ink is darker. Is that the signature of a
contingent. The first postcard, dated 20 August censor? Both sides of the card are shown in fig. 1.

ApxwatuW%. AtrbaalWl %I


Figure 1. Picture side: Fleet barracks, Archangel. Bottom: Text side.
Rossica Journal Number 119 33
October 1992

Only a copy of the second postcard's text side is Area Scenes
available. (fig. 2) The sender and the address in
England are the same as the card shown in fig. 1 and The same folder yielded several old photographs.
it is dated October 24, 1918. By this date the APO Four of them are shown here. All four have corn-
was operational. The circular cancellation provides ments written in English on the back that describe
the evidence. The meaning of the "25" in the upper the scene.
right-hand comer is unknown. Note the remark
"Mail closes 26-10-18" (26 October 1918) at the '
beginning of the text. Is that the beginning of icing
at Archangel so that mail had to go through the port
of Murmansk as Joe Taylor points out? A "1" in a
circle also is present. Does this indicate a new 1
sequence of postal sending?

4. '. .. ..- Figure 4. Bolshevik prisoners at work in the Troitsky
tmL^11 *t '>
t ...... t._ i The prisoners are clearing away snow while the
SRussian guards are watching them. I assume the
i guards are Russian based on their attire-long coat,
Figure 2. Text side of the second postcard, military cap (0YPA)KKA), and the M1891 Mosin-
Nagant infantry rifle with a long bayonet.
Leisure Time The next two photographs show the making and
laying of railroad ties. The people in these photo-
Two movie theater tickets were in the "interven- graphs are, in my opinion, Russians. There is only
tion" folder. Both were in sequence and are for the one word, Murmansk, on the back of these photo-
same "Third Place," i.e., the least expensive seats. graphs.
The name of the movie house was "North Pole."
Apparently the word "KINO" was not yet known
since the term "3nIEKTPO-TEATP'b-Electric The-
ater" was used. A used ticket is shown in fig. 3. Note
that the right-hand portion has been torn off. This
was/still is a standard way of invalidating tickets.

3-I. a Co T 0.

Figure 3. Used movie theater ticket stub. Figure 5. Sawing railroad ties in Murmansk.
34 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

A New Discovery

by Michael M. Ercolini

In going through dealers' offerings, I am con-
stantly on the look out for anything that just seems
right. Often times it yields some interesting research
and insights. Not long ago I was offered a cover, but
the price ..., so I did not take it. No sooner had I
arrived back home than the image of this cover
began to haunt me. I wrote to the dealer and happily
it was still available.
I realized as soon as it arrived that the sealing tape,
e while being of the general type described (black on
S. 1 dark red), was of different dimensions than the one
shown in A. Speeckaert's opus on Russian postal
"censorship "Russische Postzensur Russian Postal
Censorship 1914-1918," second edition, 1990.
I wrote to Mr. Speeckaert and sent him a copy of
Figure 6. Laying rails and ties in Murmansk.
the cover. Below is a picture of the sealing slip.
Figure 7 shows a photograph of an individual Imagine my thrill when I received his response! "It

ments. The photograph is of very poor quality, but
I thought it would add an interesting bit of flavor tor
this harsh climate.ly dre d fr te c B s

sealing slip from Tomsk, confirmed byto the copiesft

"his"name Lt. Evans on the backType 28of the photograph (thatnew
Figurereeived. Again, congrulat. Te for te edfy anie

!letter Vi is under the letter "i" farther to the left

the middle of nowhere. In the distance a orest cn be set in from border of tape
seen. used 9/1917 used 6/1916
TOMCKAIe TOMCKAIp in slightly larger
I hope these small items are of interest to our letters
readers, and that a bit more light has been shed on So, fellow collectors, feel free to add the note to
this harsh climate. p o R. .

The following chart lists the differences between

this complicated period of Russian history yourcopyofthecensor book. Also, be sure tocheck

d your collections. Are there any moreout there?
Rossica Journal Number 119 35
October 1992
October 1992

Ataman Semenov Stamp Issue, Soviet Use

by Raymond J. Pietruszka and George G. Werbizky

a year earlier. According to S.A. Pappadopulo's
0 n 6 January 1920, Admiral Kolchak, head of catalog "The Issues of Russia-in-Asia," Shanghai,
the White armies in Siberia, resigned in favor of published in 1923, these stamps were issued in late
General Denikinwho commanded the White forces 1919. Both Michel and Scott catalogs list the time
in South Russia. Shortly thereafter, Admiral of issue as 1920.
Kolchak, betrayed and forsaken, was handed over The issue consists of four stamps, Imperial Arms
to the Reds. He was executed by the Bolsheviks on perforated types, overprinted as follows:
7 February 1920 at Irkutsk.1,2 The political power 1R. on 4 kop.
vacuum thus created gave rise to a period of petty 2.5R. on 20 kop.
rulers and city states. This continued while the Red 5R. on 5 kop.
Army, which was still west of Lake Baikal, and the 10R. on 70 kop.
Japanese negotiated a settlement. The agreement Both these stamps and the stamps of Imperial
made between the two forces resulted in the estab- Russia were used simultaneously until they were
lishment of the Far Eastern Republic (FER).3 replaced by stamps of the newly-formed FER.
One of the petty rulers during this time was Unused stamps of this issue can be found, al-
Ataman Grigory Mikhailovich Semenov, who op- though they are not plentiful. Covers and postcards
erated independently against the Reds and every- that did see postal use are rare, especially those used
one else with strong Japanese help. He established after the Bolshevik takeover.
a military dictatorship in and around his capital city On 22 November 1920, the Red forces captured
of Chita. Chita. The remnants of Ataman Semenov's forces
POSTAL ISSUES as well as Semenov himself fled to Manchzhuriya.
The FER, established on 1 November 1920,
issued its own stamps late in the same year.3 Ataman The postcard illustrated in this article is a very
Semenov had issued his own stamps approximately interesting item of postal history. The front of the

'iweJ ^'tssjZb 33jafc^:r ^^^^--,;: ^r -wsj ..-''' *A...
Front of postcard.
36 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

card shows the city of Chita as it was during that Based on the preceding analysis of cancels,
time. The stamps, a pair of 5R. on 5 kop., are also dates, and correct franking, the postcard appears to
affixed to the front of the postcard. The stamps are be genuine and did see postal use.
canceled with a clear strike of Chita, dated 20 April O
1921. On the message side is another strike of Chita
dated the previous day. The strike is complete The flight of Ataman Semenov and some of his
although light and carried the serial letter "A." The troops to Manchzhuriya lasted until Manchzhuriya
cancel is illustrated in P.E. Robinson's book6 under fell to the SovietArmy in 1945. On 19 August 1945,
No. 1595.5. The latest recorded usage was April 14, Semenov was captured by a special military detach-
1922. Thus the cancellation is well within the ment and flown to Moscow. There he was tried and
known period of use for this cancel. Just about a hangedon30August1946intheinfamousLubyanka
month later, the postcard passed through Moscow cellars.8
(21 May 1921) as shown by the Moscow postmark. REFERENCES:
One should note that this Moscow transit mark is a Pr e Fe of A l K k,
"T rg. ty odnrs gao 1. Peter Fleming. "The Fate of Admiral Kolchak,
"0hree Triangles" type found on items going abroad RupertHart-Davis, ondon, 13, pp.191 & 216.
Si s e to za a i n- Rupert Hart-Davis, London, 1963,pp. 191& 216.
- in this case to Czechoslovakia and is consid-ce Lincoln. "Red Victoy," Simon and
2. W. Bruce Lincoln. "Red Victory, Simon and
ered by some philatelists to be a censor mark. c .
Schuster, New York, 1989, p. 267.
The sender was a resident of Chita as evidenced 3 hCar eBo kRevolut
3. E.H. Carr."IheBolshevikRevolutionl 1917-1923,
by the address in the upper left-hand portion on the Maillan Company, New York, 1953, Vol. p.
message side. The sender's address as well as the 356
text is written in Esperanto, which was popular in t, re o C trt,,
4. A.M. Rosselevitch, "Beware of Counterfeits,
Russia well into the 1920s. Esperanto was officially Russian PhilaistNo.7, New York, .
Russian PhilatelistNo. 7, New York, p. 3.
supported by the Soviets. Two stamps commemo- 5 S.Blem nICivilWariSiberiaandtheFar
5. S.Blekhman,"TheCivilWarinSiberiaandtheFar
rating the "40th Anniversary of the Creation of East in the Mirror of Filately (1917-1923),"
East in the Mirror of Filately (1917-1923),"
Esperanto" were issued in 1927 (Scott Nos. 373- Philateya M N. 1978, Moscow, p.44.
') Philatelya SSSR No. 2, 1978, Moscow, p.44.
374). 6. P.E. Robinson, "Siberia Postmarks," 2nd edition,
The FER switched to the gold standard in Octo-.
ber 1920 when the rate was established as 10 rubles Io S n, 1918-1924,"
7. Ivo Steyn, "Coldest War, 1918-1924,"
for 10 kopecks gold on foreign mailings.7 Thus, CHICAGOPEX '91 Exhibit
The pair of5R. on 5 kop. stamps reflect the correct. Stephan, Russian Fascists," Harper
8. John J. Stephan, "Ihe Russian Fascists," Harper
franking for the time. and Rowe, New York, 1978, p. 334 and p. 354.

R L Cuowriov. ,

CIrbo Qta sb. Vgmudh ?
N Ro, a

I'. s i r i *; *^ i

Back of postcard.
Rossica Journal Number 119 37
October 1992

Traveling Post Offices in Eastern Siberia, 1904-1945

by Ivo Steyn

Ever since the publication of the so-called to Robinson.6 Robinson stops at the "1916 barrier,"
Luchnik List1 we have been aware that the alloca- although the list of postmarks includes several
tion of mailcar numbers to certain train routes has marks which appear to have come into use just
varied considerably as the Russian railway network before or after the Revolution. Further data on
expanded. The only attempt known to me to bring postmarks was collected from my own collection.
any order into this chaos of route number alloca- The references quoted above were further supple-
tions is Pat Campbell's "Spreading Vine" theory.2 mented by information kindly supplied by Messrs.
Copies of the 1916 Postal List have circulated in the Robinson & Kiryushkin.
West for some time now and, for a long time, the The starting point for this overview is the end of
1916 list (which gives the situation at the end of 1904. The railway network in Eastern Siberia is
1915) was the final item of definite information we complete. The Transsiberian railway continues be-
had. However, over the last few years some infor- yond Irkutsk and passes around Lake Baikal to
mation on the way route number allocations changed reach Chita. From there, the railway continues East.
under Soviet rule has been published. Skipton3 At a certain point, one branch continues East to-
gives a list of route numbers which represents the wards Kuehnga and Stretensk, while the other
situationin1927-1928, while Belyaev & Kuznetsov4 branch continues southwards to Manchzhuriya,
include a 1937 list. The Rossica Library contains where the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) takes
1924 and 1931 lists, and a TPO route list dated 1945 over. The branching point is usually called "Kitaiskii
has since been unearthed. Along with the relatively Raz"ezd" (China Siding), but we will cheat a bit and
sparse data on Soviet TPO marks, this gives us a dim treat Karymskaya (a few miles to the West) as the
outline of the fate of the Russian TPO network after branching point. From Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk, the
the Revolution. The purpose of this article is to Ussuri Railway runs to the North to Khabarovsk
examine the situation in a small segment of the old and the Amur River. Plans for an Amur loop from
Russian Empire: Eastern Siberia. I chose this part Kuehnga to Khabarovsk were abandoned when the
for two reasons, the first and most obvious being CER shortcut across Manchzhuriya became avail-
that it is the region with whose postal history I am able. At this point, TPO allocations are straightfor-
most familiar. The second reason is that the changes ward as shown in diagram 1.
in Eastern Siberia may be representative of the The Russo-Japanese War changed all this. The
changes throughout the Soviet Union, although this CER became vulnerable to a Japanese attack, and
is, of course, pure conjecture. The final word on the plans for the Amur loop were dusted off and
Soviet TPO allocations
would surely be a Soviet- KUEHNGA KHABROVSK
period version of the
Luchnik List. STRETENSK
For the development of IRKUTSK CHITA KARYMS
the railway network in 241-242
Eastern (and, indeed, all
of Siberia) Siberia, by far M'CHZHURIYA
the most enjoyable refer-
ence is Tupper5, but for NIKOL'SK-USSURISK
TPO data and, of course, a
postmarks we should turn VLADIVOSTOK
Diagram 1. TPO network in Eastern Siberia, late 1904 situation.
38 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

approved attheendof 1907. The Kuehnga-Stretensk branch connecting Blagoveshchensk to the main
branch is relegated to the status of an unnumbered line at Bochkarevo, the short line from Vladivostok
lineand,from 1908 on, the slowandpainful progress to Kangauz and the Suchan mining district, and the
towards Khabarovsk is visible in successive Postal feeder line Rukhlovo-Reinovo. The fifth and sixth
Lists, as noted in Robinson: Karymskaya-Kerak, unnumbered routes in the 1916 list are the partially
Karymskaya-Taldan, and finally Karymskaya- finished stretches of the Amur Loop:
Khabarovsk. The 11/2-mile long steel bridge over Blagoveshchensk-TaldanandBochkarevo-Bureya.
the Amur River at Khabarovsk was the final link ir Robinson also lists the first numbered TPO marks
this huge project. The 1916 Postal List quoted by which reflect this new situation, with inscription
Robinson gives an intermediate stage in this pro- CHITA-243-BOCHKAREVO, although its coun-
cess: partially finished stretches are listed as un- terpart BOCHKAREVO-153-VLADIVOSTOK
numbered TPO routes (see diagram 2 for details). has not yet been seen with a 1917 date. The 153-154


S241-242 153-154


Diagram 2. The TPO network according to the 1916 Postal Lst. Unnumbered TPOs shown as dotted lines.

The redesigned railway network in Eastern Sibe- route now runs all the way down to Vladivostok,
ria in late 1916 in shown in diagram 3. Again, all and thus has a short run in common with the CER
TPO allocations are straightforward. Four unnum- route 263/264 to Kharbin. Oddly enough, post-
bered TPO routes in the 1916 list describe branch marks which continue to reflect the old state of the
lines, namely: the tiny branch line connecting Bochkarevo-Vladivostok section (i.e., inscribed
Nerchinsk to the main line at Priiskovaya, the long KHABAROVSK-VLADIVOSTOK or even

241-242 153-154



Diagram 3. The TPO network in 1917-1920, before the destruction of the Khabarovsk Bridge.
Rossica Journal Number 119 39
October 1992

KHABAROVSK-NIKOL'SK-USSURIISK)con- Finally, in the second half of the 1920s, a few
tinuedinuseafter1917eventhoughnewpostmarks minor changes were made. The Khabarovsk
inscribed BOCHKAREVO-VLADIVOSTOKex- breakpoint was removed and the Irkutsk-Chita and
isted, as shown further on. Chita-Manchzhuriya routeswere merged. This situ-
However, this time it is the Civil Warwhich ruins ation remained essentially unchanged until 1945,
this elegant scheme. In the first place, the CER is barring the following name changes:
formally "lost," although its marks continued in use Bo r K i
Bochkarevo renamed Kuibyshevka in 1935
until at least late 1922. In the second place, the steel r d b k in
(renamed Belogorsk in 1957)
bridge at Khabarovsk was at least partially de- Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk- renamed oroshilov in
stroyed, and provisional crossings of the Amur r r
1935 (renamed Ussuriisk in 1957)
River by ferry were reinstated only in 1921, thus
through trains from Bochkarevo to Vladivostok The line to Kangauz was extended via the Suchan
were not possible for a number of years. The date on mines to Nakhodka on the Pacific coast and the
which the Khabarovsk Bridge again became opera- starting point redefined as Ugol'naya, the point at
tional is not known to me, but it must have been in which this line splits off from the Vladivostok-
or after 1923. These changes are reflected in TPO Voroshilov line. The line to Manchzhuriya (which
allocations. The CER is removed from the TPO lies a few miles into Manchzhuriya) was terminated
system (although the Russians maintained a pres- at Otpor (renamed Zabaikal'sk in 1960), the actual
ence in Manchzhuriya for many years after the Civil border station, and the line to Pogranichnaya were
War) and its end points are "sealed." The route from similarly abbreviated to end at Grodekovo. The
Vladivostok westward now ends at the border sta- increased tension between Soviet and Japanese
tion Pogranichnaya. Vladivostok-Kangauz is given troops in this region must have played a part in these
its own TPO number, as is Bochkarevo-Blago- changes.
veshchensk. The Khabarovsk breakpoint necessi- Both the Voroshilov-Grodekovo and the
states a split of the old Bochkarevo-Vladivostok Ugol'naya-Nakhodka lines were unnumbered lines
route intotwosub-routes:Bochkarevo-Khabarovsk by 1945. Diagram 5 gives the organization and
and Khabarovsk-Vladivostok. While postmarks of names as they existed in 1945. The railway network
the latter sub-route are known, the TPO route in Eastern Siberiagrew a multitude of little branches
number for the former is, unfortunately, not known during the 1930s and 1940s, the most notable being
to me. Both known strikes of TPO marks from this the branch line to Komsomol'sk-na-Amure (later
line have the route number off the stamp. A 1924 list extended to Sovetskaya Gavan' on the Pacific coast).
from the Rossica Library gives the route number as For the sake of clarity, these post-Civil War expan-
273-274, but this cannot be confirmed from other sions have been ignored here. The Komsomol'sk
sources. Diagram 4 gives the situation in 1923. extension had an unnumbered TPO running on it in

241-242 265-266



Diagram 4. The transitional stage, 1922-1923. KANGAUZ
40 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

S 269-270

241-242 N-266


Diagram 5. The TPO network in 1945. KANGAUZ

For postmarks of the Imperial period, I am in the other "long-distance" routes introduced in the late
happy position of being able to refer to Philip 1920s and early 1930s.
Robinson's book for everything you would wish to The rebuilt Khabarovsk bridge made the use of
know. For the post-Revolution period, information the Bochkarevo-153-Vladivostok postmark pos-
is very sparse indeed. Some postmarks from Philip's sible. The 1924 cover (fig. 2) shown here is franked
"Soviet Siberia" file are illustrated to give an idea of with 20-kop. "D.V."- overprinted stamps used in
the types of postmark one might expect to find. Eastern Siberia in 1923-1924. These stamps lost
their validity on 28 February 1924, so this cover
S26,,I must be among the latest known. The "hard sign -
Sii W T-22 "b"attheendof"Vladivostok" clearly identifies this
-c 1 11 23 2712 -2 2 24
as a pre-Civil War postmark, dusted off when the
? f 153-154 line was complete again. A happy lack of
uniformity characterizes other Soviet TPO marks
i iy Cfrom this period. I would be interested to hear from
30k 6t in :readers who can add further examples.

1. An excerpt of the original article in Sovetskii
Vo" Kollektsioner 11,1974, was published in BJRP
S55, 1978.
i 52 ( 23937 i' 2. Rossica 110, 1987.
S3. Rossica 108/09, 1986.
SC^ j 4. M.I. Belyaev & I.G. Kuznetsov, "Mailcoach
sorting of postal correspondence," Yamshchik
A sample of post-Revolution postmarks from Eastern 24, 1989.
Siberia (courtesy of P.E. Robiason).
Siberia (courtesy of P. Robnson). 5. H. Tupper Towards the Great Ocean. London,
The "odd man out" is surely the 1965.
"MANCHZhURIYa-MOSKVA/EhKSPRESS" 6. P.E. Robinson Siberia, postmarks and postal
postmark, which was first described by Kurt Adler. history of the Russian Empire period, Second,
It is illustrated here used on a postal stationery card expanded edition, 1990.
of Manchukuo, franked with Soviet stamps to a 7. Also referred to as Kuibyshevka-Vostochnaya
total of5 kop. (fig. 1). The Moscow-Manchzhuriya to distinguish it from dozens of other place
Express train fell completely outside the normal named after Valeriyan Kuibyshev.
scheme of numbered/unnumbered TPOs, as did the
Rossica Journal Number 119 41
October 1992

Number Date Route
241-242 1900 Irkutsk Chita
1924 Irkutsk Manchzhuriya
1928 Irkutsk Manchzhuriya
1931 Irkutsk Manchzhuriya
1938 Irkutsk Otpor
1945 Irkutsk Otpor
243-244 1900 Chita Stretensk
1906 Karymskaya Stretensk
1913 Karymskaya Kerak
1914 Karymskaya Taldan
1915 Karymskaya Blagoveshchensk
1924 Chita Bochkarevo
1928 Chita Bochkarevo
1931 Chita Bochkarevo
1938 Chita Kuibyshevka
1945 Chita Kuibyshevka-Vostochnaya
259-260 1902 Chita Manchzhuriya
1924 and later: not Siberia
261-262 1902 Manchzhuriya Kharbin
1924 Vladivostok Pogranichnaya
1928 Vladivostok Pogranichnaya
1931 Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk Pogranichnaya
1938 Vladivostok Pogranichnaya
1945 not allocated
263-264 1902 Kharbin Vladivostok
1924 Vladivostok Kangauz
1928 Vladivostok Kangauz
1931 Vladivostok Kangauz
1938 Vladivostok Nakhodka
1945 not allocated
265-266 pre-1924: South Chinese Railway
(Kharbin Port Arthur, etc.)
1924 Khabarovsk Vladivostok
1928 Bochkarevo Vladivostok
1931 Bochkarevo Vladivostok
1938 Kuibyshevka Vladivostok
1945 Kuibyshevka-Vostochnaya Vladivostok
269-270 pre-1924: not Siberia
1924 Bochkarevo Blagoveshchensk
1928 Bochkarevo Blagoveshchensk
1931 Bochkarevo Blagoveshchensk
1938 Svobodnyi Bochkarevo Blagoveshchensk
1945 Svobodnyi Bochkarevo Blagoveshchensk
273-274 1924 only: Bochkarevo Khabarovsk
TPO Routes In Eastern Siberia, 1904-1945
(Soviet period based on lists dated 1924, 1928, 1931, 1938, 1945)
42 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

_- -

Figure 1. 11/2 Fen postcard of Manchukuo, used as blank and franked with 5 kopeks in Soviet stamps. Postmark'

Figure 2. Ordinary letter from BOCHKAREVO-153-VLADIVOSTOK, 2-2-1924, to Pogranichnaya (10-2-1924).
Franked with "D.V." overprints on RSFSR stamps. Imperial postmark serial "a."

s -A.$ I -.

s*t"^. tr i4P A I-C Z .'I

&tr*E,. b.* t aA"4 U
4&1 (& -4e-A. A U.J I

Postcard from VLADIVOSTOK-265-BOCHKAREVO, TRAIN #3,31-12-1929. Postmark serial "e."

Rossica Journal Number 119 43
October 1992

"Damaged" Mail and the Soviet Post

by Dave Skipton

During the mid-1920s to the 1940s, a consid- nucleus of the effort was there at the start. But the
erable amount of "damaged" mail emanated from overall quality of the Soviet censorship force
the Soviet Union. Some of it, almost all registered, would have been low in the first decade or so.
bore handstamps in French attesting to the fact that 3) Mail volume grew rapidly after the Civil War
the post office had received the correspondence ended, addingpressure to the censors'job. Hence,
with flaps poorly glued, or defective, or torn in some greater haste equals more frequent damage in
way. Messrs. Joseph, Knighton and Michalove opening letters.
remarked on this phenomenon in the pages of the 4) These markings have been recorded on FOR-
"British Journal of Russian Philately," and voiced EIGN-destination mail only. Corresponding
their suspicions that the handstamps were an at- markings in Russian on domestic registered mail
tempt to conceal Soviet perlustration (clandestine have yet to be discovered. It therefore follows
censorship) of foreign-bound mail. that Soviet "postal" employees were concerned
It is difficult to assert that ALL such examples only with maintaining their image abroad where
are evidence of clumsy perlustration; mail does damaged mail was concerned. Domestic corre-
indeed get damaged in transit, in bagging and in spondence required no such fig leaf; knowledge
sorting. Yet there is so much of it from that era, and of mail censorship within the USSR was wide-
when a number of other factors are considered, the spread.
suspicions the trio raised become a conviction. In 5) Wrinkles and tearing accompany many of these
this article I will present further evidence to support markings, evidence of steaming and haste. On a
the thesis of collusion between the Soviet Post and fair number of them, bucketfuls of glue have
theblackchambersoftheNKVD. And, sincepostal been slopped on the upper flap to reseal the
history collectors can actually collect this stuff, a envelopes. In one instance from 6 May 1930, a
listing of handstamp types and varieties is ap- "postal employee" even wrote "Podanopodkleit
pended. nam lakom" (Submitted to us for gluing with
Before we consider the physical evidence, here lacquer) in pencil and signed it. I've examined
are a few things to keep in mind: literally thousands of covers from the Soviet
1) That there was a large "secret" censorship of mail period that didn't have any "damaged" cachets
in the Soviet Union is an amply documented fact. on them, yet the covers were noticeably discol-
Abzeger, Medvedev, Grigorev and a parade of ored under the top, and only the top, flap. This
others lifted the lid, if only a little bit. It is beyond may be due in part to the reaction of glue and
the scope of this article to go into their discov- saliva on poor-quality paper, and then again at
series and surmises, but readers are invited to least some of it may be the only clue available,
consult the sources listed in the bibliography if showing a clean (at the time) ingress and egress
much greater depth is desired. by a Soviet censor. The only way to tell would
2) The Soviets probably obtained the services of a involve sacrificing the covers to run a chemical
few former Tsarist black chamber censors, but comparison between the glue under the top flap
most of the latter would certainly have put as and that under the bottom flap.
much distance as possible between themselves The consistencies and illogicality evident on
and the revolutionaries whose mail they had many of the covers in this article speak for them-
opened for years. We know that Mikhail Lemke, selves. I believe most, if not all, of these examples
who was very familiar with the operations of are indicative of only one thing: clumsy black
Imperial military and civilian censors, helped the chamber censors attempting to cover their tracks.
Soviets to form their own black chambers, so the
44 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992



.' 14

Q ,-.- z.
Figure 1.

Figure 1 is acoversentbyP. Duncan,Jr. to Mr. PJ. Duncan in New York,21December 1926. Posted attheKiev railroad
terminal, it met with some abuse. Heavy wrinkling is apparent, and both flap lines are tied with a handstamp reading
"Condiionnement defectueux." The younger Duncan was an American Army officer and a military attache in the USSR
at that time, a prkne surveillance target.



Figure 2a. Figure 2b.
.... .. --... ,,,-- *,: ., ,,

Figure 2a. Figure 2b.

A registered cover posted from Leningrad's 14th Branch Office to Paris, 24 July 1935, "Received at Leningrad
in damaged state, with the envelope's flaps poorly glued." This cover wasn't received in transit from someplace else,
and because it was sent "A.R." (Avis de reception Return receipt requested), it wasn't put in a mailbox; rather, it
was carried directly to the 14th by the sender (fig. 2a). Once again, heavy wrinkling is seen on the back (fig. 2b), and
so much steam was used to open it that the first page (but only the first page) of the enclosed letter shows ink runs.
(Fi. 3) Outbound mail to Russian emigres would certainly be of interest to the Soviets.
Rossica Journal Number 119 45
October 1992

,, m. 4/ ;. ..^ _....

A% i / -- ._
.Y ./,, .. ','// II-I ... ..
,ff~ityM^- t:f l, ^iS ie ,'.ic eJ -^c-^ ^^3e<^

taOf ie. '-?4' ,--- -,"-.,,

Figur 4a. Fiur b--

t m h p c y g t l t. his -,. ..
4Rs J
Figure 3 Note the ink runs in the middle.
L*ingrad to i on 'tu 1. silly'.,r, philatec I'n c
tio. Bl.ok. o f 'f reur a n d th f a posil cli with

"the stamps, the postmarks applied strategically, etc. etc. Why, after going to all this trouble, did Ms. Anan'eva
take it to the 24th Branch Office "In a defective state?" (Figs. 4a-4b)

46 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992


..?. -j/.-a a Wvi

Figure 5a.

Figure 5b.

This registered letter, posted from Nizhnii Novgorod's 3rd City Branch Office on 17 May 1928, was routed
through Moscow on its way to the Concordia Jugend Abteilung. In Moscow it received the "Requ A Moscou / aves
les soupapes, / mal colleges / Employe censor mark error variety, despite the excellent condition of
the flaps and the envelope as a whole. Wrinkling is more evident at the top than at the bottom. (Figs. Sa-5b)

Rossica Journal Number 119 47
October 1992


< i. . : ... .,
"".. .-.

'. -

Figure 6.
A registered cover from Murom, Gor'kii krai to Hamburg, 25 March 1936. The Soviet resealing job was
ineffective enough to cause the German Post further problems. Note the damage to the flap beneath the words
"bureau de poste," where it is obvious the flap was torn up. (Fig. 6)



"".r : ^. Vi o l" ....4

on 27 May 1935.
Oc r 1

"" ____ "_. ._,_ -

Two registered covers from the same correspondence between Tiflis and Portland, Oregon. The one shown
in fig. 7 (left) went via the Kiev railroad terminal on 21 February 1928; the one in fig. 8 (right) SEVEN years later,
on 27 May 1935.

48 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992


-. -. .i* '

.... ..- .,,* ,

Figure 9.

*. ,/-',^

\- I .

Figure 10.

Two registered covers posted from the Leningrad 14th Branch Office and addressed by the same hand were
sent to Leon Zitomer in Chicago. The cover illustrated in fig. 9 was posted on 1 August 1932; The cover in fig.
10 on 11 May 1933-almost 9 1/2 months apart. The envelopes are of slightly different size and different make.
Note also the different "damaged" markings.

Rossica Journal Number 119 49
October 1992


,t *

(Figs. 11-12) The censor marks on the reverses are the same.
Fi0 R ca J nalgure 11.N r

October 1992

Figure 12.

Two unregistered letters to the Henry L Scott Co. in Providence, Rhode Island. Both posted at the Leningrad
1st Dispatch Office, six months apart (11 March and 20 September 1933), and addressed by the same hand.
(Figs. 11-12) The censor marks on the reverses are the same.

50 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992


An die 7Frla
Albert l6uabuerg 011fatrlao

Aanda 7OLLr.

Figure 13b.

Figure 13a.

2 a ArEsl rra!,
'* "-'* ,- -

"" ..

Figure 14.

Two registered airmail covenrs from GOVERNMENT institutions, one to Holland and one to France. The first,
in fig. 13a, is from the "Soyuzpromehksport" (Union Industrial Export Association), located at 25 October
Prospekt, Lningrad. Figure 14 Is from the "Koverkustehksport" (Carpet and Handicrafts Export Association),
also situated at 25 October Prospekt. Both enterprises evidently made a habit of submitting their airmail items
to the Leningrad Post with "flaps up." (Same "damaged" marking on the back of 14 as in 13b.)

Rossica Journal Number 119 51
October 1992
October 1992


,-, *... ,

A AKT Jfi& ; g,.I ..
CCT,21I.eR u / g _- -"*. "',t. C('8
C non ____________________

i0'' ''_H' "
C aipecom _... :.. _. ___

fIpK ocuope o. .
_pH D M. ,:i .. i -. *,. -
-, 4 .. .4

HmeeT aec ur. rp. *. 51
Tn. .Kouumya rpyia" au 421. rip. 0lxJin

Figure 15.
-. r- _

'Pm npompce oKa_3,cb,
flp 1UpoBep-e OKBsa.ocb .- '--.- --

CTa-o. _.- ______

-_... ____"- ...-.--- .e- --------


Figure 16.

Lest our British friends feel neglected by the Soviet censorship offices, consider figs. 15-17. The Soviet Post
was legally empowered to open mail if a postal worker noticed damage or something suspicious. Then an "AKT"
was filled out explaining why the mail was opened, and that, together with the item in question, was sent on to the
addressee. Figure 15 is the front of a Form 51, filled out at Moscow's 8th Dispatch Office in November 19??.
"Received one bag / addressed to Moscow. During examination, ordinary correspondence was found, in which
an ordinary letter from England to the British Embassy in Moscow was included." The reverse, (fig. 16),
continues: "Upon inspection it was found to have torn edges on the flap." How the flap was torn is left to the
imagination of the addressee.

52 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Sr 'I-* "r rp

'7 ... .

< .. '. ,.

Figure 17.

The innocence displayed in fig. 17 is equally convincing. Despite the fact that the British were allies, the Soviets
examined mail sent to embassy officials. This cover, posted from British FPO 567 on 4 October 1943, went via
Egypt to Moscow after passing British censorship. The base censor had done such a good job ofresealing it that
the secret Soviet censor was forced to make entry by pulling and steaming his way through the top flap. Although
it doesn't show up well in the picture, the telltale wrinkling at the top flap is quite evident "Received at the Moscow
GPO / from abroad in damaged condition. / Department Supervisor.........."

Howard Weinert records a 4-cover corre- above are merely suspicious when taken sepa-
spondence from Kamchatka to Vienna in 1930 rately, but in their aggregate, plus the "embar-
and 1931, in which two covers bear Moscow rassing coincidences," they become something
"Damaged" markings, and two do not. How- more than an unhappy coincidence. Either we
ever, of the latter two, one from Kozyrevsk must believe that the senders made a habit of
(Kamchatka) 26/2/31 shows definite signs of submitting defective, poorly-sealed envelopes
tampering. The flap was re-glued by sloppily to the Post, or be convinced that security police
spreading new glue over the underside of the censors often used these postal markings in an
flap. It would appear from this that unlike appli- attempt to cover up their sloppiness. The check-
cation of glue or resealing tape, application of list which follows is by no means complete,
the "Damaged" handstamp was not obligatory, therefore no "types" have been assigned.
Now, there must have been an epidemic of
willful flap and envelope folderol going around If readers can expand on the ranges of these
to account for all this, and our sympathy goes out "damaged" markings, or report new finds, per-
to the saintly, patient Soviet postal workers who haps a clearer picture of their use will emerge.
had to deal with the buckets of glue and fumes There must be many other examples out there;
therefrom, all to see this correspondence safely they are a relatively frequent sight.
"off to the West. The "stand-alones" shown
Rossica Journal Number 119 53
October 1992
flp twud perfo hi htulkeapi teptt oe p hi lpies.Tecek
caio f lu r esain ap, pliato o is wih olos sbynoman cmlee
th Daaed ansam asnt bigtr. hreoe o"tps"hvebenasind
Now, ther must hav been an pidemic o
wilu lp n neop odrl on rud fraes a xad nterngso hs
toacon fral hian u smatygosou daaed akig, rreot e fnspr


Conditiontn em it defe ducRe au bureau d'echange de
"Kiev gare avec les plis saiernernt
col le5
Example 1. _____

Example 2.

Repi ao bureau d'change

de iev, gare en etat


Example 4.

Example Postmark Color Recorded Remarks
Number Range
1 "Defective condition" V 12/1926 The earliest recorded marking.
2 B 2/1928 5/1940 Very slight spacing differences in the letters
show that there were at least two handstamps.
3 A rectangular handstamp 8/1940 I saw this in a dealer's stock, but failed to
very similar to the one record the color or pay the kings' ransom
immediately above, with demanded for it. Sorry.
"soupapes" rather than
"plis." Line 1 "Requ au
bureau d'echange de,"
Line 2 "Kiev gare avec
les soupapes salement,"
Line 3 "coll6es."
4 B 3/1940 3/1941 Latest recorded for the Kiev RR terminal.

Regu a Riga en

6tat d6trilor6.
Example 5.

Example Postmark Color Recorded Remarks
Number Range
5 V 11/1949 The latest recorded marking.


54 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Save s soupipes mal collies

Example 6. Example 7.

"*'p. .r;
.... ... .. Hll par. Ia-losto l U .
Re4 u p-i-?a-"a post -'WscmiuL l'vieosvie Y,
avec, t's Upaap es aur 1e Ls js
-, s.s m cnilcp e ^ st
rnmaF otles mlid..

a __ + es

Example 8. Example 9.

ji --- --- ~- ------ -----

,,. ,|4 f tI ; '.IIC- f.

Example 11.

but --- -aler
Recu a8 L eh 6 Refu & Lenan: -"
en 6tat endbiriri.,. an dtat endon-,(;
ag6, les pls f s aplis L' P S
"L'enveloppc sal;- 1'envelopp -s,.&-
ment colifs: mient co11s.
Example 12a. Example 12b.
Example Color Recorded Remarks
Number Range
6 B 1/1930 Manuscript, in pencil.
7 V 5/1930 Earliest recorded Leningrad handstamp.
8 R 8/1932

9 V 3/1933 9/1933 The "short" variety, with "Mtat" on line 1 even
with "plis* on line 3.
10 Very similar in spacing and text to example 9,
but much smaller.
11 V 5/1933 10/1934 "Long" variety, with "etat" far ahead of "plis."
12 V 6/1935 9/1936 There is a minor variation in the marking: the
"I" of "l'enveloppe" can be found in either
upper or lower case. Slight spacing
differences and the presence or lack of a
period after "collos."
Rossica Journal Number 119 55
October 1992

All examples reduced in size.

s ..ea/los Aoupap e I Th l' iLI
-m coll y "111. I I avba !I.
Ep T./nyg^ gj *P i s. -Fpy E

Example 13. Example 14. Example 15a.

Sge n bur oaii poi Rec m

SExample 16. Emluye -

Example 15b. i :^;l L VSPiir.l'e.|. OH.rr Example 17.
I..k lPAHimhll ....; -.. --W'-t
-'Pd E ....-r, 'U ..........- --, .
Example 18.
Example Color Recorded Remarks
Number Range
13 B 8/1926
14 V 5/1928 1936 Spelling error "aves" instead of "avec."
There are two minor sub-types one has
the word "Employe" in italics, the other is
missing the comma. Sub-type 1 3/1934.
Sub-type 2 1936.
15 B 1/1934 3/1934 Spelling error "aves." Strikes show heavy
wear and varying damage to the frame
lines. Variations in the dimensions of the
16 V 3/1936
17 B 2/1941 Spacing error "en 6tat" is jammed
together as one word.
18 B 12/1943 Latest recorded for Moscow.

1) Abzeger, L. "Ya vskryval vashi pis'ma", in resentatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Ses-
"Vremya i my" #s 55-56, 1980, pp. 224-253 & sion on H. Con. Res. 579. U.S. GPO, Washing-
244-278. ton, D.C., 1978.
2) Cronin,A. -"NotesFrom Collectors",in"Rossica" 7) Medvedev, Zh.A. "The Medvedev Papers. Se-
#73, 1967, pp. 80 & 82. crecy of Correspondence is Guaranteed by Law",
3) Grigorev, V. "Soviet Military and Civilian Macmillan, St. Martins Press, London, 1971.
Secret Censorship", in "Postal History Journal" 8) Michalove, P.A. "A 'Damaged' Cover to
#74, Oct. 1986, pp. 23-32. Latvia", in BJRP #63, 1986, pp. 85-86.
4) Joseph, R.L. "An Interesting Soviet Marking of 9) Pavlenkov, V. "Postal Communications Be-
1935", in BJRP #62, Dec. 1985, pp. 38-39. tween the USA and the USSR and How to
5) Knighton, R.P. "More Soviet'Damaged' Mark- Improve Them", FC-IZDAT, New York-New
ings", in BJRP #63, 1986, pp. 81-84. Jersey, Aug. 1983.
6) "Mail Between the Soviet Union and the United 10) Skipton, D.M. "Soviet Control of the Mail",
States", Hearings before the Subcomittee on (exhibit, n.d.).
Postal Operations and Services of the Committee 11) Weinert, Howard Correspondence and photo
on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Rep copies, March 1991.
56 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

From the Circular File

by Leon Finik

This "rare" cover (fig.l) almost ended up in that we could have mailed an uncensored letter
the garbage with the rest of the junk mail that out of Russia to America." I stopped right there.
overwhelms my post office box. Yet I noticed Uncensored? Perhaps this one is. After all, why
something unusual about this one; it was com- would the KGB read the same letter a hundred
mercial junk mail from the USSR! The mailer thousand times or more? Even if it had been
was from one of the numerous joint international opened by the local black chamber censor in
enterprises created under perestroika (good luck Kiev, the fact that an open reference to mail being
to you Americans). Many similar business deals censored (privacy of correspondence being guar-
during previous thaws in relations between the anteed by Article 128 of the Soviet Constitution)
West and the USSR met with disappointment, was allowed to pass is in itself remarkable. Per-
but now they're trying again. At least the Ameri- haps this cover will be the end of Dave Skipton's
can side of this enterprise is saving a lot of money censorship collection, or the beginning of a new
on postage. The rate is 14 kopecks, which at the chapter "under perestroika." Amazing! How
then current exchange of 60 rubles to the dollar much we can say about an ordinary-looking
comes to $0.0023! The ad was mailed on 25 cover no different from the millions sent every
October 1991 and arrived in New York on 5 day, worldwide. This one is certainly "early"
January 1992 no rush. Thinking it would prob- Soviet junk mail, and possibly "early uncen-
ably go right into the wastebasket. I decided to be scored" as well. And how ironic that the father of
one of the suckers who actually reads such things. the Soviet system peers out from the stamp of a
Here's how it starts: "Dear Fellow American: capitalist mailing!
Who would have imagined, just a short time ago,

22050, r. KIMEB,
xXamnonoBCof namhyvaxJ 4

PO mOX 521
FLUSHING, NY 11374-0521

Figure 1. The final censorship cover!
Rossica Journal Number 119 57
October 1992

Covers: Zemstvos, British Archangel Censor,
and Soviet Occupation of China

by Mel Kessler

I always want to share with the members of "Ust'sysol'sk, Vologda Province," serial "a" and
Rossica covers that I have acquired which might dated 17 October 1905. On the back of the cover is
appeal to them. I am not concerned with the great a departure date of 18 October 1905. The cover
rarities, but with covers that I find having a special went to Moscow where the receiving postmark is
feature. I have selected four covers for the Rossica unclear as to the date. The cover is registered which
readership in the hope that they will be of interest, accounts for the 14-kop stamp.
The coverillustratedinfig. 1 hasa5-kop.zemstvo
stamp (Chuchin No. 24) of the Ust'sysol'skaya The cover illustrated in fig. 2 is quite small, but
Zemskaya Pochta and is canceled with a double- it also has some interesting features. Again this
circle black "BH3HHCKO 3EMCKOR nOITH" cover originated from a small village in the
(Vizinsk) dated 12 October 1905. Apparently Petrozavodsk district. On the cover front is a faint
Vizinsk was a small town or village in the purple double oval. The inscription reads
Ust'sysol'sk district (uezd). The cover then went to "HETPO3ABOLCK. 3EMCK. HOMT." on top, "C.
the "YCTbCbICOJIbCKAI 3EMCKA5I nOM-TA" OCTPbM?"--possibly an abbreviated adjectival end-
(Ust'sysol'sk zemstvo) where the large oval can- ing for OCTPbMbE on the bottom. The date 17
cellation was applied on 17 October 1905. Follow- August 1913 is in the middle. The cover then
ing that, the 14-kop. stamp on vertically laid paper received a 7-kop. imperial stamp alongwith a 1- and
was affixed to the front of the cover and canceled a 2-kop. zemstvo stamp and was canceled in

'iju .

S 6..

z ; : 5t

Figure 1. Ust'sysol'sk zemstvo cancel.
58 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Petrozavodsk on 19 August 1913; serial letter (or relief) number 25. The distinguishing charac-
"v"and forwardedoutofthedistrict. Petrozavodsk teristics of this cover are that it originated from a
is in Olonets Province. The cover reached Revel' small village that had no stamps, went to the
on 23 August 1913. district where the zemstvo and imperial stamps
The cover is addressed to Vasily were applied, and addressed to a warship in the
Aleksandrovich Shytikov (sic, should be Shitikov) port of Revel'. The use of two different denomi-
on the battleship Emperor Aleksandr II, watch nations of zemstvo stamps is uncommon.

) .//-.-v .; .

S-E,.-.,-t.. c .. '- .

,&<).. >>, .: V"

Figure 2. Petrozavodsk cover with OSTRECHE cancel enlarged at bottom.
Rossica Journal Number 119 59
October 1992
-, \*^^lS ''-.' y^^-
'~~~- -'''s^ <^ '
*^ S *^*. ,r

_________ Figre 2.Petoaodkcve ihOSRC'Ecnelelreda oto. _____
Rossica~, Jounal Nue 119 59
October 199

British Postal Censor, Archangel, 1916 the 3rd writer at the British Consulate who endorsed
at the top "On Active Service No Stamp Available."
Many of our Russian philatelists collect Ameri- The postcard is dated 26 November 1916. The large
can and British occupation of North Russia and oval censor mark reads "WAR OFFICE" at the top
Siberia as well as items of other occupying forces and bottom of the oval and in the center "POSTAL
toward the end and after World War I. The postcard CENSOR." The picture side of the postcard has a
illustrated here (fig. 3) has a large double oval photo of the Russian Customs House in Solombala.
censor mark and I thought that our membership I subsequently learned that British War Office/
would appreciate it. The postcard is from the British Postal Censor markings from Archangel are highly
Consulate in Archangel. This particular censor desirable.
mark seldom surfaces. The writer, J.C. Bishop, was

Apxamresnab -Archangel
Ts7o ma ri un-6dr.

S' < o T PO STA LE.

Figure 3. British Postal Censor, Archangel. Actual size cancel at bottom.
60 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Bilingual Cancellation of Soviet Forces in 'TA-LIEN," the Chinese names for Port Arthur and
China, 1950-55. Dalny (Scott 2L series). These stamps were re-
placed in 1950 by general issues of the Chinese
I was thrilled to acquire the last cover in this Peoples Republic. During the period until Soviet
presentation, because I never thought that I would forces evacuated the territory in 1955, the Chinese
be fortunate enough to get one in such exemplary supplied offices in the now reduced leasehold area
condition with a sharp, full cancellation. I do not with bilingual cancellers in Chinese and Russian
know how often such a cover might be offered. A with the Soviet star over the Russian inscription. It
little history, however, is in order regarding the would seem that the bilingual cancellers indicated
Soviet Forces of Occupation. The occupation oc- tacit recognition of the dual character of the Chi-
curred in Kwan-Tung Territory in what earlier was nese-Soviet rule that persisted until Chinese in-
known as the Lyao-Tung Leasehold. This area is scriptions were adopted after the Soviet occupying
noted for its excellent harbors. forces departed.
The history of the Soviet occupation in China is The bilingual cancellers were introduced in 1950
detailed inTchilinghirian & Stephen'sStampsofthe with the Chinese name of the town at the top and the
Russian Empire Used Abroad Part 4, 1959, pp. Russian town name at the bottom preceded by the
381-383. Tchilinghirian notes that the subject of Russian letter "" for "FOPOI" (town) with the date
Soviet occupation in the area fell outside his study, in Christian chronology. The cancellation on the
but included it because the issues and cancellations front of the cover I have (see fig. 4) is illustrated in
were closely linked to Russian philately. Tchilinghirian (p. 382) as Type K.5 (fig. 551 in the
The Red Army entered the territory on August book) which is Dalny. The cover has no stamp
18-20, 1945. Although the existing Japanese post because it was for official use. It is dated Jan. 21,
offices were closed because of the Japanese with- 1950, an extremely early bilingual cancellation
drawal, nopostal activityexistedforoversixmonths. introduced during the first month that the cancella-
The post offices began tobe reopened on March 15, tion was used. The Manchzhuriyan Telephone-
1946, under what seemed to be joint directives of and-Telegraph Company sent the cover to Hankow
the Soviet occupation authorities and the Chinese and it was received there on January 26.
Communist "Eighth Revolutionary Army." (The Tchilinghirian does not mention official use of the
Eighth had previously administered large parts of bilingual cancellation. He notes that Chinese stamps
Manchzhuriya that were liberatedby Soviet forces.) are recorded with the bilingual cancellation. There
Mail, however, was limited to the Kwan-Tung are seven Dalny cancellations recorded and one
Territory. each for Port Arthur and Ang-Tsin-Tse. The exact
From 1946-1950, special stamps of Japan and location of the latter is undetermined. A final
Manchzhuriya were used with the overprint "LYU- note.... For Type K.5, Tchilinghirian show Serial
TA," a compound form of "LYU-SHUN" and "2" whereas my cover shows Serial "5."
S.__ If any member can add to the above
S.or translate the text and cancels, please
contact me at 526 Cheshire Avenue,
NW, Fort Walton Beach, Florida
; ^ ".-- ---. .v .,. 32547.

- --

Figure 4. Bilingual cancel Actual size cancel on right.
Rossica Journal Number 119 61
October 1992

Vremennoe According to Leonard Tann
[Ed. Note: Leonard informed me that I owed him this one. I still cannot figure out why. However, since they are lovely covers,
I think they should be seen. OK Leonard, are we even now? Please note that these cancels are not circular railway marks.]


^ *s^ .. .^i, ....... .. .. ... ... .....
-- .- -................ .. ..

.. _.. ..__... 7 .- .

I^, I flL.AA' ,

~Octobe 1 1 9
CAliiE p 8T' ^
Ly^^ p .1 0j

Kazan'SPrivoizhskoe, dated 17 August 1912, serial letter "a." Note the two different sizes of the mark

2bo. ejiCfijjti^Zl^e

Sergievskii Poligon, dated 28 June 1913 with serial letter "b". Note registration label.
62 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

Policy Changes Affecting Members

At the first annual meeting of the society's October journal must have submitted their an-
Officers and Board of Directors which was held in nual dues for the year their acceptance would
conjunction with the Columbian EXPO, two policy become formal). The Secretary will officially
changes were approved, notify new regular members of their acceptance
Mutual concern about increasing the number of into the society.
members led to a couple of changes which have
been implemented. The first change replaced the All new applicants receive a letter from the
old membership application with one that is more Treasurer thanking them for applying and informs
functional. This task was completed by the end of them of the basic procedure. The following is a
June and all concerned declared that "this is good!" paragraph that is included in every letter sent since
The second change was in the way we enter new May 1992.
applicants into the membership. Previous policy
did not allow the general membership a voice in the "Current Rossica policy regarding new mem-
approval process. Effective June 1, 1992, the new bers is similar to that used by the American
policy requires the name of the applicant to be Philatelic Society (APS) with whom we are
published in the nextjournal and the members given affiliated. Your name will be published in the
a period of time to respond. The following excerpt October issue of the journal for the current
from the new policy statement explains the process, members to review. If I have received no nega-
tive votes from the membership by January 31,
The journal will contain a list of all new ap- 1993, your membership will be approved for
plicants that have been tentatively approved. 1992. You are still required to submit the dues
United Statesmemberswill have three (3) months for 1993 should you choose to continue your
to respond in writing should they have any membership. You may freely participate in all
objections to a particular individual. For ex- activities except elections that may be held prior
ample, responses to names submitted in the to your acceptance as a regular member. You
October issue of the Journal must reach the will receive all journals and bulletins of the
Treasurer by the first week in January of the Society and have full access to the library."
following year. Responses to names submitted
in the April issue of the Journal must reach the Memberswho fail to remit theirannual duesby31
Treasurer by the first week in July. Since mail March are dropped from the active roles. Members
overseas takes significantly longer than mail who wish to be reinstated and submit their annual
within the United States, overseas members will dues after 1 April will not be entitled to the April
have four (4) months to respond. Objections issue of the journal as part of their membership
submitted by members after these dates will be benefits. The reason is purely economical. I order
handled as an official complaint by one member just enough journals to cover: active members,
against another and be subject to the provisions potential members (based on history), exchange
of the constitution for settling grievances, copies, show copies, and some for commercial sale.
I cannot predict how many will be reinstated. I also
All applicants listed in the journals will be auto- have a limited storage area for extra journals that I
matically approved for regular membership in cannot sell.
the fifth month after their name appeared if no If you have any questions regarding this new
written objections have been submitted to the policy, please feel free to contact either the Presi-
Treasurer and their membership dues are current dent or Treasurer. Likewise, please send in any
(i.e., applicants whose names are listed in the suggestions that you would like to be considered.
Rossica Journal Number 119 63
October 1992

New Members

Our membership now stands at 357-22 new 1467 Colonel John L. Bates
ones since the April journal! The new applicants 9050 Belvoir Woods Parkway
are heartily welcomed and, if one of them hap- Fort Belvoir, VA 22060
pens to be your neighbor or a friend, personally USA
welcome them to our favorite hobby. 1468 Jordan Bernstein
The new applicants are: 679 Peach Tree Lane
Franklin Lakes, NJ 07417
1458 Daniel M. Tourtellot USA
465 Moe Road 1469 Mrs. Donal J. Cantero Sr.
Clifton Park, NY 12065 2419 W. Southlake Blvd.
USA Southlake, TX 76092
1459 Steven R. Greenup USA
2509 Hampton Road 1470 Peter F. Erickson
Kettering, OH 45419-2428 1500 SW 5th Avenue, Suite 701
USA Portland, OR 97201
1460 John L. Briggs Jr. USA
2153 Kessler Court 1471 Peter J. Gorday
Dallas, Texas 75208-2951 34 Lullwater Place NE
USA Atlanta, GA 30307
1461 David Castaner USA
Rt. 2 Box 565 1472 Paul A. Gulak
Warrensburg, MO 64093 11 Lanai Lane
USA New Paltz, NY 12561
1462 Charles D. Carrier USA
3333 W. Broad St., Apt-8 1473 Anthony H. Hill
Columbus, OH 43204 16203 Rapid Creek Drive
USA Houston, TX 77053
1463 Michael Krasnovitch USA
Hamilton, Ontario 1474 Betty Kemp
12 Strathcona Ave. South 951 Dan St.
CANADA L8P 4HP Akron, OH 44310
1464 Paul Kruger USA
819 Allardice Way 1475 Eric V. Liepa
Stanford, CA 94305 2630 Sequoia Parkway
USA Ann Arbor, MI 48103
1465 Dr. John M. Buckner USA
2839 NW 21st Avenue 1476 Martin Starr
Gainesville, FL 32065 2765 W. 5th Street
USA Brooklyn, NY 11224-4702
1466 Russel "Rusty" Morse Jr. USA
6100 Field Street 1477 Robin T. Wilderness
Arvada, CO 80001-0005 1040 Road 144
USA Burns, WY 82053

64 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992

1478 Raymond Musante Wanted: WENDEN stamps, covers, proofs,
285 Turkey Roost Road etc. Any quantity for plating purposes. Send for
Monroe, CT 06468-3127 exchange or requested price to:
USA Victor Kent
1479 Vassilios Opsimos 5738 Harris Cutoff
110 West 39th Street Mariposa, CA 95338-9759
Baltimore, MD 21210 USA
USA Wanted: SOVIET GEORGIAN covers from
1924 c. 1945.
Peter Michalove
Member-to-Member Adlets 307 S. McKinley
Champaign, IL 61821
Rossica cannot assume any liability for trans- h USA
actions resulting from member responses to adlets
nor get involved with mediating disputes. Mem-
bers are cautioned to be fair in offering and in
responding. Any material considered to be of Expertization
value by the sender sent through the mails should
be insured or registered for your own protection. One of the privileges of membership in Rossica
The regulations and prices are as follows: is one free expertization per membership year.
"* Rossica adlets will have no limit per Policy on these free expertizations is as follows:
se, however, members are requested to Only one free expertization per mem-
use good judgment. bership year.
"* The price will be US $2 for adlets up to The privilege must be used during the
25 words, and US 10 cents per word membership year. It cannot be accu-
thereafter. mulated. The service was begun in the
"* Each adlet must include the name and 1978 membership year, and prior mem-
address of the member placing the ad. bership in the Society has no bearing.
"* No general buy or sell ads will be ac- The item must be submitted on an offi-
cepted as adlets. The journal makes cial expertization form available from
other provisions for strictly commer- Gary Combs or Gordon Torrey.
cial advertisements. Return postage must be included.
"* Adlet service is available to Rossica Only one item per expertization form.
members only.
"* All adlets must be accompanied by a Anyone wishing to avail himself of this service
check for the correct amount made out should write the Treasurer, Gary Combs, or the
to Rossica Society. Chairman of the Expertization Committee, Gor-
"* Mail all adlets and checks to: don Torrey, enclosing a legal size (4 1/4 x 9 1/2")
Gary A. Combs SASE for an expertization form. When submit-
8241 Chalet Court ting material for free expertization, the owner
Millersville, MD 21108 must provide return postage for his material.
USA Items submitted will be expertized by Rossica
Wanted: MOSCOW cancellations prior to members specializing in the various aspects of
Russian philately.
1918. On cover, loose stamps or CSQ. Send
xerox, photo or item with requested price. Gary
Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville, MD 21108.

Rossica Journal Number 119 65
October 1992

Dealer-Member Ads
The Editorial Board of the Rossica Journal in- Forone-timeads: $52.50, $97.50 and $150, respec-
vites advertisements from our dealer-members as tively.
well as non-members who conduct the occasional
auction or mail-sale with a strong offering of Rus- For outside back cover ads (full page only) $150,
sian and related-areas material. The Journal ap- first come first serve (based on postmark date).
pears twice a year, and reaches over 375 members
and affiliates worldwide in April and October. If you should desire to place an ad in the Rossica
Deadlines for submission of ads are February 15 for Journal, please notify the editor as soon as possible,
the April issue, and August 15 for the October issue. together with the text of your ad, the rate and
We strongly prefer commitments for ads in three number of issues, and a check in $US made payable
consecutive issues to aid us in planning. However, to the "Rossica Society" drawn on an American
one-time ads for upcoming auctions or mail-sales bank.
can be accommodated. Thank You For Your Support!

Rates: 1/4 page $35 per issue (for 3 issues) Gary A. Combs
1/2 page $65 per issue (for 3 issues) 8241 Chalet Ct.
1 page $100 per issue (for 3 issues) Millersville, MD 21108

ILDoril St3aimip

Comprehensive Stock of Russian Material:
yearly units
wantlist service

Free price list

Box 521
Rego Park, NY 11374

Fax (718)271-3070

66 Rossica Journal Number 119
October 1992


V Tn :l*1 lL

A oo EA C. H

one, on the only small pieces of paper
available, in shl1c lots of 4 or 5!
Gibbons, Michel, etc.
1.25k black with gum -
2 horizontal perfs. 24.00
imperf. on 3 sides 36.00
ORIGINAL sheet of 5 210.00
25k slate blue w/o gum
2 horizontal perfs. 12.00 22.00
imperf. on 3 sides 18.00 30.00
ORIGINAL SHEET of 5 120.00 190.00
25k qrcin w/o <(um -
Imperf. on left & top 48.00 75.00
imperf. on left & bottom 48.00 75.00
VERTICAL left pair 120.00 200.00
50k green w/o gum -
imperf. on right & top 48.00 75.00
imperf. on right & bottom 48.00 75.00
COMPLETE COLLECTION (12) 625.00 (9) 735.00

P.O. Box 448 Monroe, New York 10950

Rossica Journal Number 119 67
October 1992

Buying & Selling via our

International Public Auction Sales

feld every two months in the heart of New York City, with
over 15000 lots offered annually, emphasizing world-class
rarities and sophisticated postal history from virtually every
facet of ph;lately.
Lots are meticulously described and illustrated in our deluxe
auction catalogues (each w;th over 90 olor plates) which are
available to serious collectors, exh;itors and dealers.
For our international clientele, we are constantly seeing
important collections of stamps and covers. Of particular
interest: classics and rarities, postal markings, m.rilime and .........
aviation, military histourv, docunlcnis .nd manuscripts,
signatures of famous people, pol ;tcal carmpa;gns and
-- specialized collections of conseCquencce.
"lThe international nature of our Iusiness counlineJ
with thorough knowledge of the world marlels,
permits us to offer you more for olur propcity.
SAhsolute d;scretion aulw vs a ssircd. ---- -.... --- -

Wrile, or fax your inquiry today, or call collect, and it .. .
ask to speak to Paul Buchsbayew.
(2121977-7734 Fax (2121 977-8653 (New York C(ity A 1 1 License #732052)


What Do You Collect?

I stock Russian Postal History items from the Imperial and
Soviet periods
Airmails, Republics, Space, Zemstvos
Semi-Postals, Inflation, Stations, TPOs,
Interventions and Offices Abroad.

I also stock the Baltic Countries.
Let me know what you are searching for.
Material sent on approval.
I am always searching for material to buy and
offer top dollar.
Please include references or Rossica number.

Member: Rossica Society, Canadian Society of Russian Philately,
British Society of Russian Philately, Australian & New
Zealand Society of Russian Philately, APS, ASDA, PTS
and others.
Webster F. Stickney
7590 Windlawn Way
Parker, CO. 80134