Officers of the society
 Honorary members
 Representatives of the society
 Life of society by A. Chebotke...
 Wrappers of the imperial Russia...
 Postal emissions of South Russia...
 A new check list of the arms issues...
 Issues, printing and plate characteristics...
 10 ruble stamp with a blue oval...
 Retouch of the 10 ruble arms type...
 Flaws by W. H. H. Huddy
 Russian post in China
 List of railway routes 1912-1913,...
 Notes on Russian coins, part II...
 Reply to Messrs. Baillie and Kethro....
 The Crimea surcharge 100 ruble...
 Overprints of General Wrangel in...
 The Pskov German occupation post...
 Comments on Pskov articles by A....
 Comments on Dr. Gagarin's article...
 Note from Dr. R. Gagarin
 Tannoou Touva. A general survey...
 Modern Mongolia by G. J. Raymo...
 Notes from collectors
 Catalogue of Russian vignettes...
 Fantastic stamps by R. Polchan...
 Fantasies of Russian levant by...
 Fantasies of Russian levant by...
 Literary review
 Stamps of the Russian empire and...
 Literary review in brief, by Dr....
 Description of outstanding covers...
 Field post cancellation from the...


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00024
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1959
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00024

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Honorary members
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Life of society by A. Chebotkevitch
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Wrappers of the imperial Russia by R. A. Sklarevski
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Postal emissions of South Russia 1918-1920 by A. Rosselevitch
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 14a
        Page 15
    A new check list of the arms issues of 1908-1923 by Dr. C. de Stackelberg
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Issues, printing and plate characteristics of the one ruble arms type 1910-1923, czarist issues 1910-1917, and Soviet Russia 1918-1923 by F. J. Fohs (addenda to article in no. 56)
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    10 ruble stamp with a blue oval by B. Zworykin
        Page 27
    Retouch of the 10 ruble arms type stamps 1915-23 by M. Liphshutz (addenda to Dr. Stackelberg's Article in no. 55, Rossica journal)
        Page 28
    Flaws by W. H. H. Huddy
        Page 29
    Russian post in China
        Page 30
    List of railway routes 1912-1913, with distances, (compiled from Russian time tables), by W. E. C. Kethro and J. Barry
        Page 31
    Notes on Russian coins, part II by N. A. Kormilev
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 34b
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Reply to Messrs. Baillie and Kethro. General Wrangel overprints in Constantinople by A. Rosselevitch
        Page 40
        Page 41
    The Crimea surcharge 100 ruble on 1 kopek by I. L. G. Baillie
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Overprints of General Wrangel in Crimea and Constantinople. Further comments on "10" instead of "100" overprint, by A. M. Rosselevitch
        Page 45
    The Pskov German occupation post issues 1941-1942. Reply to Dr. C. de Stackelberg and to editorial comments in no. 56, Rossica journal by Dr. R. Gagarin
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Comments on Pskov articles by A. M. Rosselevitch
        Page 49
    Comments on Dr. Gagarin's article by Dr. C. de Stackelberg
        Page 50
    Note from Dr. R. Gagarin
        Page 51
    Tannoou Touva. A general survey by A Gronin and W.S.E. Stephen
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Modern Mongolia by G. J. Raymond
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Notes from collectors
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Catalogue of Russian vignettes by E. Marcovitch
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Fantastic stamps by R. Polchaninov
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Fantasies of Russian levant by F. W. Speers
        Page 66
    Fantasies of Russian levant by W. H. H. Huddy
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Literary review
        Page 69
    Stamps of the Russian empire and used abroad. Reviewed by Dr. Salisbury
        Page 70
    Literary review in brief, by Dr. G. B. S.
        Page 71
    Description of outstanding covers and postmarks by Kurt Adler
        Page 72
        Page 72a
    Field post cancellation from the theatre of war of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877/78, by Kurt Adler
        Page 73
Full Text

of the



Silver Medals at Belgrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937"and
the International Exhibition, Koenigsberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronze Medals at the International Exhibition"Pra"a 1935"and
Vienna International Exhibition"WIPA 1933"
Recent International Awards:
Silver Medals at Berlin,"Bephila 1957", Parana."Eficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires,"Temex 1958"

No. =. 19n

Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.


Dr.G. B. Salisbury


R. A. Sklarovski L. N. Lavrov


K. Adler N. Kormilov E.L. Wisewoll
A. i. Rossolevitch. A. Chebotkevitch E. Marcovitch


2 Officers & Representatives of the Socioty; Honorary Members.
3 Editorial
3-4 Committee of Expertization, Rossica Society.
4-5 Life of Society. A. Ghebotkovitch.
6-8 Wrappors of the Imperial Russia. R. A. Sklarevski
9-16 Postal Emissions of South Russia 1918-1920. A. Rosselevitch.
16-21 A Now Check List of the Arms Issues of 1908-1923. Dr, C. do Stackelberg.
21-27 Issues, Printing and Plate Characteristics of the One Ruble Arms:Typo
1910-1923. Czarist Issues 1910-1917 and Soviet Eusaia 1918-1923.
F. J. Fohs.
27-28 10 Ruble Stamp with a Blue Oval, B. Zworykin.
28-29 Retouch of the 10 Ruble Arms Type Stamps 1915-23. Addenda to Dr. C. de
Stackelbergts Article in #i55 Rossica Journal. M. Liphshutz.
29-30 Flaws. W. H. H. Huddy.
30- Russian Post in China
31-32 List of Railway Routes 1912-1913. With Distances'. (Compiled from Russian
Time Tables). W. E. C.Kethro and J. EBrry.
32-40 Notes on Russian Coins, Part II. . A. Kornilev.
40-42 Reply to lMssrs. Baillic and Kothro. General Wrangel Ovorprints in
Constantinople. A. Rossolovitch.
42-45 The Crimea Surchrrge 100 Ruble on 1 Kopek. I. L. G. Baillio.
45- Overprints of General Wrangel in Crimea and Constantinople. Further
Comments on "10" Instead of "100l Overprint. A. Mi. Rosselevitch.
46-49 The Pskov German Cccupation Post Issues 1941-1942. Reply to Dr. C. do
Stackolberg and to Editorial Comments in #56. Dr. R. Gagarin.
49-50 Comments on Pskov Articlos. A. E. Rossolovitch.
50-51 Comments on Dr. Gagarin's Article. Dr. C. de Stackelberg
51 Note from Dr. R. Gagarin.
51-53 Tannou Touva. A General Survey. A. Cronin and W. S. E. Stephon
53-55 Modern Mongolia. G. Raymond.
55-59 Notes from Collectors
59-63 Catalogue of Russian Vignettes. E. IMarcovitch.
64-66 Fantastic Stamps. E. Polchaninov
66-67 Fantasies of Russian Levant. F. W. Spoors
67-68 Fantasies of Russian Levant. W. H. H. Huddy.
69-70 Literary Review. J. Mcksimchuk Bibliographic Hhndbook of Thilately,
Revenue Stamps, and Bank Notes. Erviwoed by E. Marcowitch.
70-71 Stamps of the Russian Empire and Uncco Abroad. Reviewed by Dr. Salisbury.
71-72 Literary Review in Brief. Dr. G. B. S.
72- Description of Outstanding Covers and Postmarks. Kurt Adler.
73- Field Post Cancellation from the Theatre of War of the Russo-Turkish War
of 1877/78. Kurt Adler.

# 57 Page 1


PRESIDENT A. A. Chebotkevitch 11 Clement Street, Glen Cove, New York.
SECRETARY Russian Speaking Section A. M. Rosselevitch
SECRETARY English Speaking Section Dr. G. B. Salisbuty


V. P. Cerny A. N. Lavrov J. Rubach
A. A. Chebotkevitch E. I. Marcovitch G. B. Salisbury
N. I. Kordakov V, A. Rachmanov N. A. Savitzky
N. A. Kormilev A. M. Rosselevitch H. M. Shenitz
R A. Sklarevski


NEW Y (RK GROUP V. Cerny 91-15, 68th Avenue, Forest Hills, Long Island, New York.
SAN FRANCISCO K. Janson, 624 16th Avenue, San Francisco, California.
WESTERN U.S.A. L. S. Glass, P. 0. Box 36646, Wilshire La Brea Station, Los
Angeles 36, California.
ARGENTINA B. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires.
AUSTRALIA V. Tvelkmeyer, 45 Garner's Avenue, Marrickville, Sydney, N.S.W.
BELGIUM I. Braunstein, 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Yxelles, Brussels.
BRAZIL Rio De Janeiro Region. A. Vansovich, c/o Livraria Freitas
Bastes, Caixa Postal 899, Rio Do Janeiro.
San Paulo Region. P, Beloff, Rua Fedrozo 238, Caixa Post 2960,
San Paulo. |
CANADA G. Rozday Woda, 29 Lyon Avenue, Toronto 10, Ontario.
FRANCE A. Liashenko, 1 Rue du Bocage, Paris 15.
FRENCH MCROCCO V. N. Butkov, 49 Rue Laperouse, Casablanca.
GERMANY Dr. B. Woropinsky, Olpenestrasso 364, Koln-Merheim, U.S. Zone.
GEAT BRITAIN J. Barry, 77A St. James Road, Sutton, Surrey.
ISRAEL A. Trumpeldor, Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv.
VENEZUELA E. I. Marcovitch, Edif. "Camuri" Apto. No 25, GCllo Real de
Sabana Grande, Caracas.

Views expressed by authors are their own and editors disclaim any
re sposibility.

Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries. Application forms,
which must be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, code,
bulletins, and supplements to membership lists will be sent out annual. Kindly
make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov instead of Dr. G. E. Salisbury.

We welcome advertisements from members, non members, and dealers. Full page
advertisement is $30.00, half page $15o00, quarter page $7.50, and twelft of a
page (5 lines) is $2.50. Members of Rossica pay only 50% of the cost. With a
discount, per linn cost to members, is only 25 cents. We have for sale Journals
#45 to #56 at $1.50 per issue, #44 is sold out.

Page 2 # 57


PRESIDENT A. A. Chebotkevitch 11 Clement Street, Glen Cove, New York.
SECRETARY Russian Speaking Section A. M. Rosselevitch
SECRETARY English Speaking Section Dr. G. B. Salisbuty


V. P. Cerny A. N. Lavrov J. Rubach
A. A. Chebotkevitch E. I. Marcovitch G. B. Salisbury
N. I. Kordakov V, A. Rachmanov N. A. Savitzky
N. A. Kormilev A. M. Rosselevitch H. M. Shenitz
R A. Sklarevski


NEW Y (RK GROUP V. Cerny 91-15, 68th Avenue, Forest Hills, Long Island, New York.
SAN FRANCISCO K. Janson, 624 16th Avenue, San Francisco, California.
WESTERN U.S.A. L. S. Glass, P. 0. Box 36646, Wilshire La Brea Station, Los
Angeles 36, California.
ARGENTINA B. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires.
AUSTRALIA V. Tvelkmeyer, 45 Garner's Avenue, Marrickville, Sydney, N.S.W.
BELGIUM I. Braunstein, 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Yxelles, Brussels.
BRAZIL Rio De Janeiro Region. A. Vansovich, c/o Livraria Freitas
Bastes, Caixa Postal 899, Rio Do Janeiro.
San Paulo Region. P, Beloff, Rua Fedrozo 238, Caixa Post 2960,
San Paulo. |
CANADA G. Rozday Woda, 29 Lyon Avenue, Toronto 10, Ontario.
FRANCE A. Liashenko, 1 Rue du Bocage, Paris 15.
FRENCH MCROCCO V. N. Butkov, 49 Rue Laperouse, Casablanca.
GERMANY Dr. B. Woropinsky, Olpenestrasso 364, Koln-Merheim, U.S. Zone.
GEAT BRITAIN J. Barry, 77A St. James Road, Sutton, Surrey.
ISRAEL A. Trumpeldor, Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv.
VENEZUELA E. I. Marcovitch, Edif. "Camuri" Apto. No 25, GCllo Real de
Sabana Grande, Caracas.

Views expressed by authors are their own and editors disclaim any
re sposibility.

Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries. Application forms,
which must be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, code,
bulletins, and supplements to membership lists will be sent out annual. Kindly
make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov instead of Dr. G. E. Salisbury.

We welcome advertisements from members, non members, and dealers. Full page
advertisement is $30.00, half page $15o00, quarter page $7.50, and twelft of a
page (5 lines) is $2.50. Members of Rossica pay only 50% of the cost. With a
discount, per linn cost to members, is only 25 cents. We have for sale Journals
#45 to #56 at $1.50 per issue, #44 is sold out.

Page 2 # 57


PRESIDENT A. A. Chebotkevitch 11 Clement Street, Glen Cove, New York.
SECRETARY Russian Speaking Section A. M. Rosselevitch
SECRETARY English Speaking Section Dr. G. B. Salisbuty


V. P. Cerny A. N. Lavrov J. Rubach
A. A. Chebotkevitch E. I. Marcovitch G. B. Salisbury
N. I. Kordakov V, A. Rachmanov N. A. Savitzky
N. A. Kormilev A. M. Rosselevitch H. M. Shenitz
R A. Sklarevski


NEW Y (RK GROUP V. Cerny 91-15, 68th Avenue, Forest Hills, Long Island, New York.
SAN FRANCISCO K. Janson, 624 16th Avenue, San Francisco, California.
WESTERN U.S.A. L. S. Glass, P. 0. Box 36646, Wilshire La Brea Station, Los
Angeles 36, California.
ARGENTINA B. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires.
AUSTRALIA V. Tvelkmeyer, 45 Garner's Avenue, Marrickville, Sydney, N.S.W.
BELGIUM I. Braunstein, 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Yxelles, Brussels.
BRAZIL Rio De Janeiro Region. A. Vansovich, c/o Livraria Freitas
Bastes, Caixa Postal 899, Rio Do Janeiro.
San Paulo Region. P, Beloff, Rua Fedrozo 238, Caixa Post 2960,
San Paulo. |
CANADA G. Rozday Woda, 29 Lyon Avenue, Toronto 10, Ontario.
FRANCE A. Liashenko, 1 Rue du Bocage, Paris 15.
FRENCH MCROCCO V. N. Butkov, 49 Rue Laperouse, Casablanca.
GERMANY Dr. B. Woropinsky, Olpenestrasso 364, Koln-Merheim, U.S. Zone.
GEAT BRITAIN J. Barry, 77A St. James Road, Sutton, Surrey.
ISRAEL A. Trumpeldor, Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv.
VENEZUELA E. I. Marcovitch, Edif. "Camuri" Apto. No 25, GCllo Real de
Sabana Grande, Caracas.

Views expressed by authors are their own and editors disclaim any
re sposibility.

Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries. Application forms,
which must be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, code,
bulletins, and supplements to membership lists will be sent out annual. Kindly
make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov instead of Dr. G. E. Salisbury.

We welcome advertisements from members, non members, and dealers. Full page
advertisement is $30.00, half page $15o00, quarter page $7.50, and twelft of a
page (5 lines) is $2.50. Members of Rossica pay only 50% of the cost. With a
discount, per linn cost to members, is only 25 cents. We have for sale Journals
#45 to #56 at $1.50 per issue, #44 is sold out.

Page 2 # 57

SOr heartiest congratulations to the editorial staff our authors and
members in general for oir ;fourth silver medal in a little over a year, this
time at I N TE R P 0 S.T A ", 'ambtirg. We are now leading all of the
world specialist publications in the international awards, "growth of
membership" percentage, and in the amount of researchh accomplished, Our
members have also distinguished themselves, and a study of the names of
International and National medal wvriners in our field reveals that our
specialists have- captured nearly all the prizes. Of this we arie very proud.

Our journal invites these medal winners to send us articles based on
-their exhibits and detailed studies. It likewise offers space t.o the non-
competitors who have valuable. data and interesting collections 'that should
be recorded. At the present time i.tis suggested that the Pre-stamp eIriod,
the Imperial Issues, Offices Abroad sa'h as -in Levant and China, Zemstvos and
Postal Stationery should be stressed. Several members have asked for such
material in the past, and althikigh we have always given preference to it,
and published all that was contributed, of merit, we still seek more, rather
than the flood of items. on -labels- and fantasies.

As promised earlier, we are reprinting a valuable article from the old
Rossica Journals, published in the Russian language in Jugoslavia. Only a
few of these old journals now exist, they command fancy prices and are
unavailable to most of our members,. two..thirds of whom cantt read Russian
anyway. Thus our plan will help all, and we shall continue it in the future

The early issues of the revived bi-lingual editions are depleted. We
have only a few left of #44, 45, 46/47 and #48. We have wisely refused to
sell them to booksellers and offer them and the more recent issues to our
members. We have an ample stock of the latter, due to a policy of printing
extra copies for our stock. Incoming members have been -bUying up complete
sets, but not all of the new members have done so. We urge you as wall as
the older members to purchase complete sets for your libraries, and a spare
set, to break up and to insert into your albums alongside of the mounted
stamps and covers, as explanatory material. Thi is always done by success-
ful collectors who need.data at finger tips. .Thus you will help yourselves,
our treasury, and some day your investment for limited- editions of 280 300
journals rise in price quickly and are soon unobtainable. Payments can be.
made in annual installments. Happy collecting. Happy New Yeor

Dr. G. Bondarenko Salisbury


Conditions under which functions this committee, approved by the
officers of the Society, were published in #55 Journal, and additional
explanations in #56. Thus, the large number of new members that entered
since. those publications had appeared need merely data about the most
pertinent questions which consistently arise,

S #57 Page 3

Readers can apply to the committee, whether members or not, rules
apply equally to both. .E-xpertization i free to members., however, up to five
stamps sent, above five stamps :Ib'st is -10 cents .per stamp. Non-members pay
15 cents per stamp, from the fist. oin.

"Stamps valued in Scott: at. 1O.,00 and up, 2% of catalog for members and
others. In case the stamps of. 10,OO valuation and up prove to be forgeries,
price of expertization diminishes according to rules in Journal #56, and the
excess, of money sent by the '0ol6octor will be returned to him.

Postal expenses are to be :borne by the sender, at the time of sending
of the stamps. They correspond:to the U.S. postal rates forregistered or
insured letters. Money for expertization shall be likewise sent at the time
the stamps are sent for expertization. A11 expected replies' should be cover-
in advance by stamps.

All correspondence should be sent to
o A. R 0 S S E L E V I T C H, 90 51, 52nd Ave. o
o Elmhurst 73, Long Island, New York. o

L L, F E .O -F S O C I E.T.Y
by A. Chebatkevich

Our journal won a Silver Medal at the international exhibition Inter-
Sposta in Hamburg. At the same show the following members received awards:
In V.classe dthonneur",. was the famous collection of Russian Zemstvos and
Russia #1, owned by-Mr. Liphshutz with 120 superb copies, and 30 on envelopes.
Mr. Braunstein of. Belgium received a silver medal for the stamps of Gen.
Wrangel, Pr. Seichter of Germany, a silver Medal for Ukraine, and Prince
eagarin of Germany, a bronze gilt in silver medal for precancels of U.S.

At the.C 6 M P E X in U.S. members who received awards of Highest
Merit were -
Dr. Frank 0. Brasch -Shanghai Local Post and Mongolia
Richard W',Canman Junk Issues of China
Charles W. Dugan Chinese Treaty Ports and Tibet
Raymond S. Ehrmen Issues of Various Governments of Manchuria

Secretery-of Russian Section, A. M, Rosselevitch informs us that he
has received requests from abroad for exchange, especially from Eastern
Europe. One offers 1st day cancellations of various countries. There are:
similar offers from others living in Jugoslavia, Italy and Western Germany
for U.S. and U.S.S.R. material'. Those who are interested kindly contact
Mr. Rosselevitch.

Member of Rossica, Mr. Revest, No. 69 (France) states that he has a
large selection of Caucasus stamps 1919-23, including rarities, varieties.
Solicits correspondence for sale or exchange.

Pae 4 # 57

Hon. member Rosselevitch is interested in cancelled stamps of Don
overprints and of Crimea, also in stamps of Russia without overprints, used
in Crimea in 1920s. -Sale or barter,

T: treasurer A. N. Lavrov has souveniz.blocks of our society honoring
X100th Anniversary of #1 (25c. each) also in sheets of 49, perf and imperf
at $1.00. per each sheet.

Member #402 has a large supply of stamps of various countries for
or exchange for Asiatic lands. .

Member- #194 inquires where he can.purchase Muellerls catalogue of
First Day Covers of U.S. and U.N.

Member #27 wants exact,.name author, place, year of edition, number of
pages of books, which have -the. following .approximate title s.
1. Russian Postage Stamps (various authors) issued by Rus. Am. Soc.
N.Y 1923.
2. John onov Stamps of Civil War,. Moscow.
3. 100 years of Russian Stamps.
He also wishes to know who collects" Ex Libris "

"Member.#18 (Canada) wishes to buy. Scott Catalogue 1959 and stamps of
Vatican City.

oHn. member Kordakov presented to the society German catalogue Borek,
and a book "About Soviet Stamps". We are gratefully acknowledge his gift.

The following members passed away -

Staff Capt. N. Kniazev San Francisco, California.
Engineer N, K.ovirshin- France
Paulson Gamn Brazil
F. T. Haskell United States

Member- Fred Speers won a high award in gold at the A.P.S. convention
"in Los. Angeles for Imperial Russia.

Member Seymour Gibrick, 402 No. Soto, Los Angeles 33, California is
now a- dealer in specialist and postal history items and is interested in
Russian Covers.
S. .. .. 0
o I 1 have many duplicates of paper money for sale and exchange o
O .. .. -. .. 0
o o
"O .- -- o
:o P P.. Box 90t BRYIE. C-AtIFCRI o
0 .. .. O

# 57 Page 5

by .R'. Sklarevski

.Wrappers -or "banderoli" for printed matter, with imprinted stamps
first ,appeared in 1890, and the blanks had no imprint. The paper used
was of yellowish gray texture of varying quality and shades, with dull and
shiny surface. The users of wrappers in many cases used them in any manner
they pleased. In many.instances they were cut down and that is why many
cancelled wrappers vary considerably in size, One interesting use was a
wrapper prepared by cutting of the standard wrappers, specially the wide
ones in half, the long way, and using the half with th. imprinted stamp,
while discarding the remaining blank portion.

A number of wrappers measured indicate that the sizes are very close
to those recorded by Dr. Ascher, which are-as follows:

Size a 376x88mm.
b 376x134mm.
c 444x177mm.

Prigara's catalogue lists two additional sizes ( T and e ); plus f and
g, which are merely variations of Ascher's sizes b and c.

Additional sizes given in Prigarats catalogue.

d 314x80mm.
e 408xl34mm.
f 375xL35mm.
g 44Ox177mm.

Evidently the cutting of blanks was haphazard because of the uneveness
of shape found on numerous examples. In our listing we disregard sizes d,
e, f and g. Size d and e because they very well can be wrappers produced
by cutting down the larger ones, and sizes f and g because they are the same
as sizes b and c, In other words all of the sizes given are approximate
or a product of a number of measurements divided by the number of wrappers
measured or average. haphazard cutting is also proven by the fact that the,
distance of the imprinted stamp from the straight, ungummed edge of the blank
varies. The width of the gummed portion of the wrapper varies, as well as
the angles at the ends of the gummed portion of the wrappers are different
on many examples.

There is a green band of 2+ to 2'- mm. in width which separates the
wrapper into two halves, placed to the left of the imprinted stamp running
vertically or lengthwise and parallel to the vertical edge of the stamp.
It is found only on the 2 kopek wrappers of ell three issues.

The 1890 issue, as stated before hpr no imprint. It features the
arms of the Empirr on the stamp. We do not separate the variation in the
shape of the gummed portion, because it may be shaped at will. The 1 kopek
wrapper had no vertical colored line printed lengthwise as found on the 2
kopek wrapper, and it was printed in size a only. Largest 2 kopek wrapper

Page 6 # 57

(size c), when trimmed, can be separated from the smaller variety by
examining the distance of the imprinted stamp from the vertical green
line which is twice as far.

The second issue appeared in 1891, 1.and 2 kop. values, :hnd with
added inscription above the imprinted stamp, in the color of the stamp.
The inscription reads -

"When more than l. op is necessary- for mailing, additional stamps
are to be pasted next to the imprinted stamp ."

S-the inscription on 2 kop. wrapper is the same
as on the 1 kop, except 1 kop. is. replaced by 2 kop. "

Evidently the vertical green lines, the- inscription pnd the printed
stamps were printed in one operation, because there was no variations in
spacings noted.

Second issue presents a wider array of color variations of the paper,
7anying from cream to light yellowish gray, to biege to yellow with orange
tint of varying depth. The color of the imprinted stamp varies from light
to dark shadings.

The third issue was the Jubilee Romanov Issue of 1913 with the pore
traits of the Emperors. The 1 kop. value had the portrait of Peter I, while
the 2 kop. value bore the image of Alecander II, thus corresponding to the
postage stamps issued for the same purpose.

1 kop wrapper .continued to serve as the town post issue while the 2
kop. was used for out of town mail. Many wrappers are seen with the 2 kop.
postage stamp affixed to the wrapper for .use abroad. The latter are
extremely interesting to collect as they offer a variety of postmarks of
Russia and foreignlands, as well as censor markings of World War 1.

Below is the list of wrappers given in a table form, listing all of
the varieties, with sizes corresponding to the 'ones given in Dr. Ascher's
monumental catalogue of the postal stationery of the world.

Size a -376 x 88mm. b 376 x 1U. mm. c ,4 x 177 mm.

W1 1890 a 1 kop. orange 1 1
W2 b 2 kop. green 2a 2n
W3 c .2 kop green -2b 2b
W4 1891 a 1 kop. .orange 3- 3
W5 b 2 kop. green a 4a
W6 c 2.kop. green. b ,/b-I
W7 1913 a 1 kop. orange 5 5
W8 b 2 kop. green 6a 6a
SW9 a. 2 kop. green 6b .6b

# 57 Page 7

Other uses of Imperial wrappers

Ukraine It is interesting to note here that wrappers were used in
Ukraine with Kharkov, Type -II overprint.

Far Eastern Retublic Wrappers W4, W6, WT7 and W9 were overprint
DVR for use in Far Eastern Republic and used at the same time as Far
Eastern Republic stamps Scott #2 to #36. These wrappers are quite scarce.

The examples of W4 and W6 in our collection have an overprint which
varies from the one used on postage stamps, thus making us believe strongly
that they are counterfeits.

Zemstvo There are a number of wrappers in existence issued by the
Zemstvo Post. They have been written up in early issues of Rosaica in
Russian and are also listed in Ascher.

Russian Offices in China In 1905, three wrappers were issued for
Russian Offices in Chine by overprinting Imperial wrappers W4, W5 and W6
with word "K I T A I" or China. W4 was overprinted in blue black, while
W5 and W6 were in red.

o 0
o Sputnik I 2 stamps $0.60 o
o I. G. Y. 1956 3 stamps $0.35' o
o Stamp Centenary 12 stamps $1.75 o
o Famous Men (Face 6. Rub.)15 stamps $1.65 Russian Covers with o
o 40 Years Soviet 6 stamps- $0.65 New Issues are o
o Cities 15 stamps -$1.70 available also. o
o Tourists 4 stamps $0.48 Prices Very Low. o
o Ships 6 stamps $0.75 o
o Cent. Souvenir Sheet 2 sheets 22,00 o
o Ant&rtic Souvenir Shhet 1 sheet $1.50 0
o o

o .. ....
o E XC H A N GE o
0 .,
o I offer entire of Argentina, UP.U. 100 years of stsmps ( Corr- o
o ientes, Confederation, Cordoba, Buenos Aires), stamps blocks, on o
o letters; international exhibition,'Eficon 58" ,Temex 5'8 in which Rossicao
o Journal competed and won. I. G. Y-, first flights of Trandontinental
o Line, "Comet'- 4" Buenos Aires -New York, etc.
o Will accept stamps and entire of Pskov (Pleskau) and I. G. Y. of
o the entire world, Arctic and Antzrctic covers, o
o o ^
o D.C. V S:NESE N SK Y Member of Rossica #336 o
Page 8 #57

S by A. Rosselevitch

I have already' stressed that not one country is developed and classi-
fied. in the catalogues as poorly as Russia. I can boldly add that out of
all the sections of Russia, the worst write up and valuation is of the
issues of the period of the Civil War of 1918-1921. Because of this, and
mare so because of existence of large number of forgeries, fantasies, doubt-
ful and speculative issues, passed as genuine. This phase of the Civil War
is not popular with the collectors. Actually, forgers and speculators,
utilizing the absence of accurate information about this period, flooded the
market with their creations and there is no overprint which was not falsified,
either crudely or extremely well, all this, not counting the mass of fanta-
sies of foreign origin, which were listed in many catalogues. The afore-
mentionid facts were greatly responsible in cooling of the interest of many
collectors in the issues which appeared during the period of the Civil War.

The above view is completely erroneous and should be discarded. First
of all, there is not one forgery which cannot be recognized by utilizing
pertly the data published in our journal, and in many others. In cases
where the collector is not sure, the services of the Rossica Expertization
committee are readily available.

"Besides this, this periodof philatelic endeavor, offers such richly
historical.pages of Russian history that it cannot be compared with anything
in the philately and history of other lands which also had undergone civil
strife. Especially, if we do not merely concentrate on the acquisition of
mint series of these stamps but endeavor to give depth to our collection by
research'into when, where and how these stamps were utilized, as postal
emission.. Those who study cancelled stamps, their use and'spread over the
territory held by this government or that army, will-receive rare pleasure in
unexpected discoveries, as many cheap and ordinary stamps become great
rarities, if they have cancellations of one or another place whore they were
used only several weeks or even days.

In writing up the emissions of South Russia, it is necessary to note
that among them there is not one speculative or doubtful issue, except only
one stamp, of Crimer., the 100p. on 1 kop. All others, without exception
were issued because of real postal need. They were normally sold at the P.O.
and pre-paid postage on all types of .correspondence in a normal manner.
Because of the fact that study of these stamps is impossible without a brief
acquaintanco with the history of the Civil War in South Russia. I must warn
the readers that all the dates will be 'given in QLd Style Callondar, i. e.
the one that was used by the post on its chancellors.

I. DON (Don Oblast or Oblast Voisk. Donskogo)

The first anti-bolshovik forces began to concentrate on the Don at the
beginning of November, 1917. At first these groups were weak and disorga-
nized, being merely small islands of resistance in a stormy sea of bolshevism.
Early in 1918, Don Atoman General Ktlodin, committed suicidcr realizing the
hopelessness of arousing the will to resist and the conscioece of the Don
Cossacks. The anti bolshovik forces called the Volunteer Army (Dobrovolches-
keay Armia) headed by the ipremo command, of General Alexev and command
# 57 Page 9

of Generak Kornilov left Rostov and Novocherkask on February 9, 1918 and
went to the Kuban Stoppes, in the legendary First Kuban Campaign (Pokhod).
Shortly after this, during the first half of 1918,ossacks nearly to a
man, rose up against bolsheviks. In April 1918, Goneral P. N. Kpasnov was"
elected ataman of Don Cossacks, and'afteir organizing the army he began the
liberation of the Don from the Red Forces, This army united with the
Volunteer Army in Jno .1918 and in November of the same year all of Kuban,
Stavropolsk and Chornomorsk Gubernias and a part of Northern Caucasus were
liberated. At the hoad of the, Volunteer Army was General A, enikin, who
took over the command after the death in battle of General L. T. Kornilov,
in April 1, 1918.

General Krasnov, upon liberation of the Don from the bolshevils,
occupied himself with domestic problems of rebuilding the territory, and re-
construction of the destroyed facilities, including the postal services.
Because of the rapid fall in the value of the rouble, and absence of large
supplies of stamps of higher denominations at the post offices, Don Govern-
ment was forced to utilize the sheets of not needed low denomination stamps
of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 kop. value by overprinting them with new values, coress-
ponding to then prevalent rates of 25 kop. for ordinary and 50 kop. for
registered mail.

Thus early in November 1918 (some authorities give 1st and some 7th)a
series of eight stamps for Don was overprinted on Imporial'stamps and
placed on sale. The values are-

1. 25k. on 1k. porf.. Scott 1) 5. 50k. on 7k. perf. (Scott 5)
2. 25 k. on 2k. perf. (Scott 2) 6. 25 k. on 1k. imp, (Scott 6)
"3. 25 k. on 3k. perf. (Scott 3) 7. 25 k. on 2k. imp. (Scott 7)
4. 25 k. on 4k. perf. (Scott 4) 8. 25k. on 3k. ip (Scott 8)

The overprint was made by typography in black ink (not shinnier than
the stamp itself). Most of the overprints are cleaY and accurate, although
occasional one finds some that are spread, with thicker ink. All of the
overprints have characteristics of typographic print light black contour,
relief impression on the. gummed side of mint stamps.

Following varieties are known-
Inverted Overprints Double Overprint of Basic Stamp
la. 25 k. on 1k. porf. (Soott la) 2b. 25 kop. on2 perf.
2a. .25 k. on 2k. perf. (Scott 2a) 7b. 25 kop. on 2k. imp.
3a. 25 k. on 3k. perf. Scott 3a)
4a. 25 k. on 4k. perf. Scott 4a) Overirint at the Top
6a. 25 k. on 1k. imp. (Scott 6a) 6c. 25 kop. on 1k. imp.

There are numerous minor varieties, such as-

1. Strong shifts of overprint to ,the left or right, or'towards the
2. Chalk not on both sides of the stamp.
3. Shift.of perfor-tions.

We should notoethat the overprint 50 on 7 kop. is of poorer
quality than the overprint 25 found on other stamps.

Page 10 # 57

As oxpected,.all overpritts, without .any exception, rao soon quite
often forged. Thqee are, wriod,'bogiining with very cleverly done ones simi-
lar'to tho genune,. and ending- with largot size of muerals, or smaller, and
of fform different from the original. Wj must likowiso examine the luster
of the overprint, as tho forgorios cro often dull, or.to the opposite, very
bright. They nro either handstaped, having unven, grayish, gray-blue or
slightly violet color and lack of thin contours, or lithographed in muddy,
gray-black color without contour and relief on the gummed side. Illustra
tions 1 and 2 show the appearance of genuine overprints, onl.rgod 4 times,
with measurements in millimetors. The forgeries were proparodin Soviet
Russia in 1924, and abroad ar various times.

Don overprint issues aro .very rare logitomatoly cancelled, and are
groat rarities on letters. The more frequent postmarks found are those of
Rostov on Don and Novochrkask. Scarcer postmarks are those of toams near
Rostov, and those of -villages (stanitzas)

Nakhichevan on Don Bataisk Lksaiskaya

All other postmarks are considerably rarer; date of postrarks between
beginning of November 1918 to about July, 1919. It is important to note that
there are forgeries of postn-rks on stamps with genuine or forged overprints.
There are also some fantastic overprint, even some with letters of Latin
alphabet. All of the forged postmarks are not clear, with sproadingcharactor-
isbic, and in many instances having undecipherable date or the namo of the

Don overprints wore in use up to the exhaustion of supplies and issu-
anoe of "Yodinnaya Rossia" stamps of Genorl Donikin. They wore sold eox
clusovely in the territory of Don Oblast concurrently vith unoverrrinted
Imporials, which retained their face value, ard vore not revalued.

Theoretically, the Don overprints should have beIn sold at all post
offices of the oblast; but actually this did not occur, since many of the
points were not liberated until quite late, others remained for a long time
in the battle zone, plus the fact that for a long time 'the post was not re-
vived. Postal communications were limited to -the Don Oblast and 'occasion-
ally (raro letters) into the liberated part of Crimea Qnd Kuban. Letters
to Halorossia and abroad, to the end of Novembor, 1918 dould only go through
oblasts occupied by the Austo-Gormnn Armies, which occupied. UkrTcai and
Grimoa. Rostov on Don and Novochorkask were held by Georbns up to the end
of November of the year.

After the lifting of the Bosphorus blockade, the capitulation of
Germany and the appearance of. the Allied Fleet in the Black Sea, mint Don
overprints as well as mail prepaid with them addressed to Western Europe,
made its appearance in Europo. The regular postal communication with the
Wos were established during theo first four months of the year. This ex-
plains the fact that as mint Don overprints were found in the West in large
quantities, and the pricing of tliom was not high, the cancelled onos, espe-
cially on letters aro groat rarities.

# 57 Page 11

K U B A N: 0 B-.L A S T. tVoliiTteer Army 'under General Denikin in July*
1918 destroyed the bolshevik forces at Station Tfkhcretckaya, and forced the
remnants towards E1aterinodar, which was occupied on August 3, 1918. In
November of the same year, thel Volunteer and the Don Armies completely
cleaned out the remnants of the bolsheviks from the Kuban Oblast. Towns of
Armavir and alkop were liberated in September, Eisk on July 12, Stavropol
in Stavropol Gubernia on November 2, followed by liberation of North
Caucasus and during January 1919 of Terskland parts of Daghestan Oblast.

Kuban Krai (Border) Government simultaneously with the revival of nor-
malcy began to reorganize the postal communications, and found that the
stamp stocks had insufficient supply of high denominations. The low values
were useless because of the fall in the value of the trouble and subsequent
rise in postal rates. Question of Kuban stamps of original designs was
raised, with the designs to be obtained from a contest, as well as plans for
special combined stamps for Don and Kuban territories. Several projects of
designs were approved on September 14, 1918for a series of 8 values, very
little resembling.stamps. These intentions were not realized, and because
of great need far stamps, according to the report of Chief of Ekaterinodar
P.O., member of the Department of Internal Affairs, Kalabukhov gave an order
on September 16, 1-918 to- overprint Russian Imperial stamps with new values.
Kuban overprints can be divided into three groups, having separate dates of
issue, necessitated by the fall in the value of the rouble and a rise in
postal rates-thus creating a need for stamps of higher and higher denominat-
ion. All three of the Kuban overprint issues were prepared by typography in


Unoverprinted Russian stamps, beginning'with 10 kop. value and higher
(including the 1916-17 overprint of C1k/7k.) also were sold at the P.O. and
were used without revaluation up to the time of occupation of Kuban by Red
Army in 1920, after which time they were sold at 100 times face, i.e.
1 rouble for 1 kop.

FIST ISSUE. DATE OF ISSUE -End of Se pteber 1918.
1. 25 kop. on 1 kopo Scott 20 Scott 35 5
2. 50 kop. on 2 kop 21 36 6
3. 1 rub. on 3 kop.. (Thin numeral) 23 38 7
4. 1 rub. on 3 kop. (Thick numeral) 24 39 8

_1l of these overprints are known inverted (la to 8a), also double
(except lr/3k. thin numeral ( Ib to 8 b, except 3b and 4b), double overprint-
one inverted 25k/lk. perf and imperf.) (ic and 5c).

Minor varieties
Overprint at the top of the stamp -E exist on all values (ld to'8d)
Wide Zero 50/2k. perf and imperf. (2e and 6e)
Comma used in place of a period Ir/3k, thin numeral, perf. and imp. (3f &
Square Period lr/3k. thick numeral (4g and 8g) 7f)
The stamps of this printing edist with periods of various sizes and without

Page 12 #57

9. 70 kop. on 5 kop. (Scott 22) 13. 10 rub. on 1 kop. (Scott 47)
10. 3 rub. on 4 kop. (Scott 25) 1. 10 rub. on 5 kop. (Scott 48)
11. 10 rub. on-4 kop, _(Scott 26)- 15. 10-rub. onlO kop. (Scott 49)

I M.,P E RF 0 R AT E Minor variety over-rint at the
12. 70 kop. on 5 kop. (Scott37) tog 70k/5k. perf. (9d)

M.jor varieties Inverted overprint-(9a. to lla,-13a--and 14a)
Double -Overprint (14b)
Double Overprint Inverted --(14I:)


7i. 70 kop. on 1 kop. (Scott 45) 22 70 op on 1 op (Scott 46)
17. 10 rub. on 15 kop. (Scott 27) 23 10 rub, on 15 kop. (Scott 40)
18. 25 rub. on 3 kop. (Scott 28) 24. 25 rub. on 3 kop. (Scott 41)
19. 25 rub. on 7 kop. (Scott 29)
20. 25 rub. on 14 kop. (Scott 30) NO P 0 S T AL S A--VI N GS
21.. 25 rub. on 25.kop. (Scott 31) 25. 70.kop, on .kopp. (Not in Scott)
70 kop. on 1 kop. postal savings stamps is a very rare -overprint.

Major varieties Inverted Overprints (16a to 25 a)
Double Over-ritts (17b)
Double Overprint, one inverted-;: (16c and 22c)
10r/15k. perforated double overprint, one without numeral
"1,0", the other without word "Rublei". 17d
Triple Overprint one normal-, one munis 10 and one
minus "rublei .
Besides the varieties listed above, there others, secondary varieties,
complete list of which ismost difficult: overprint on the gummed side, shifts
into all directions, in some instances the numeral is found on one stamp and
the word rublei on another, etc. One can suppose that among these varieties
are genuine 'errors caused without intention, and printers waste, which fell
into private hands, or varieties produced on purpose with speculation in mind.
In the above category will fall the satamp ,where in the word "rublei", letter
"4b (Russian)" is replaced with numeral "6"; this variety is considered by
many philatelists as a very clever forgery.

All, without exception, Kuban overprints e-sst forged, principally in
mint state, but sometimes with postmarks either undecipherable and fantastic,
or with names of Kuban and other settlement points, 'but with the date, which
is too early. These forgeries are either Soviet (1924) or foreign. The most
frequently encountered forgeries are. those of rarer overprints. The two types
are -
1.' Hand Stmp crude e caution, uneven pressure and ink, position of
the overprint not where it is supposed to be, and not parallel to
the design edge of the stamp, dull color of overprint.

# 57 Page 13

2. Lithography color too biright or-dull, absence of relief, thin
contour on edges, same grayish, dull or muddy color, different
formation.ofletters and numeralso.,-

SUsually the forgeries are of crude appearance, and can be found without
much trouble. Figures 3 to 8 illustrate some of Kuban overprinti. The over-
prints are enlarged 4 times, and the measurements are in millimiters. The
word,"rublei" on all 1Q. ruble and 25 ruble, overprints is of absolutely the
same form,

Kubam overprints were sold only 'at the -P. O. 6f Kuban Oblast, and had
circulation within the borders 'of the -oblast They were used for foreign
correspondence, as well as the points in South Russia, freed from the
bolsheviks. They are scarcer cancelled than mint, and very rare on letters,
although less so than those with Don overprint. I'It is'very important to
state here that while the Don overprints were fully utilized until exhausted
in the mid 1919, after which, time, they were supplanted by the issue of
"Edinaya Rossia" of General Donikin (Scott Nos, 61 to 71). Kuban overprints
were sold all over Kuban, before and after Soviet Occupation. Overprints
of Third Issue (1920), mainly 70k/Ik and all 'of 25 ruble values, were nearly
all utilized by Soviets. Same thing happened to the remnants of 'the other
issues. Thus we .must distinguish two periods of use, sharply differing from
each other: first the period of Kuban Border (Kraevoi)' Government and the
period: of the Soviet Rule. Cancellations of the first period are much
scarcer, especially when stamps are found tied to the letters. At the same
time cancellations applied during the Soviet period are less scarce; letters,
money orders, complete or cut 'out on piece, are mot with rater frequently,
especially pieces of money orders.

Retreating, the Volunteer Army and Cossack-units for a short-time, at the
end of .December 1919, were concentrated in the region of Rostov on Don and
Novotcherkask. Both of these towns were evacuated 25 -26 of Decomber;
Tsaritsin fell January 4, 1920, Station Tikhoa.itskaya of February 9, (Rostov
was reoccupied by the WIhite Army on February 7 and a.'.in given up on February
16), after that the retreat became general. .Ekatorinodar was given up MVarch
,' and finally Novorossiisk was evacuated- on March 14, 1920, after which all
of: the forces were concentrated in Crimea. Thus in the east of Ekaterinodar
postal services fell into the hands of the Soviets approximately from the end
Sof February 1920, and in the. West and North, between 4th and 14th of March.
In many places the post was not functioning while the power was transferred
from one hand onto the others, and the inhabitants were not in a letter
writing mood.

First Period Use.

Postmarks are found more frequently on stamps from' 25 kop. to 10 rubles;
the most frequent use is on Ir/3k. with thick numeral. Postmarks of large
cities are found most frequently,- Ekatorinodar, 4rmavir, Maikop, Eisk and
-loss frequently Tamani and station P. 0's. Ovorprints of 50k./2k. and both
Types of Ir./3k. are seen often in blocks of 4 to 25 stamps, taken off
postal mdony orders, or from packages.
Page #57

Iq (6-191.0
25 -IQ 70; K.
p,- / puc 2.
112 P
6 p.
__2513/vy pc 6

-_ 501 jp. /,Ipy jieHtii/
sp- <.y p,. 7 p : 8-

" -TH C.RIME SURCHAR6" -"NOTrSe" by K.^ FVYM,'
tby L.G. Bc.rIL-IE

1 00

py6jne .
Tannou Touva


SC.17 65r6 C

It is interesting to noto that the Kuban overprints can be sometimes seen
with cancellations of non-Kuban towns, such as Novo'ossiisk (Chernomorskoi
Gubornii), Kislovodsk and others. They woro used there by accident. Stamps.
of course wore not sold there at the P. 0. but wore brought there by people.
Post Offices in areas adjacent to Kuban had no directives to hold up letters
with Kuban overprints, taken from mail boxes and it would have boon dif-
ficult to convince the postal employees that these stamps wore "foreign".

A special problem exists in case of A iT A P A, which until revolution
was within the- Chornomorsk gubornia, and not in Kuban Government. Thus in
inapl wore sold at first the former Russian stamps, and front 1919 stamps
"Edinaya Rossia" of Goneral Donikin. Kuban Govornment, not having posts on
the Black Sea, in the fall of 1919 succeeded in incorporating Anapa into its
fold, and after that sold Kuban overprints instead. of Donikin stamps. Thus
these last stamps with postmark of "Anapa Cher" wore supplanted by Kuban
ones with postmarks "Anaia Kub. Obl ".

Second Period of Use

Utilization of Kuban overpripts by the Soviet Government continued until
the entire supply of -Kuban overprints was oxhausted. After that they wore
supplanted by Russian stamps without an overprint, and soon by the first
Soviet issue of August 1921. Majority of the Kuban overprints of this period
havo cancellations with dates up to the end of December 1920, but in some
stanitzas they were used oven into 1921. The latest date known to us on a
postmark is that of Juno 28, 1921, but such postmarks arc rare. Du "ng this
second period, first appear overprints of 25 roublos, nanoly on 3 kop. stamps,
and secondly, more often one may see blocks of 4 and blocks up to 25 stamps.
This is explained by the fact that under mho Soviets, ordinary correspondence
for a certain time was free, and starys were used for prepayment of registered
nail, money orders and parcel post blanks a calling for use of many stamps,
as the highest rate was 25 rubles. I have in my collection a blank for a
parcel from St-ro-Scherbinsk, Kuban Obl. to Kostrona, dated September 14,
1920, and receiving date of November 15. The weight of the parcel was 22I
Ibs. and the payment for mailingwcas 161 roublos in lr/3k. thick numeral
overprinted stamps. ..On the blank was pasted an entire shoot of 100 stamps,
a half shoot of 50, a strip of 10 and a single stamp.

Concurrently with overprints, ordinary uno-erprinted stamps of Russia
were used at a 100 times face. This applied only to low denominations. The
postal savings stamps (more often) control and more seldom revenue stamps
were used under the same conditions.

In this period, the most frequently met cancellations appear on the fol-
lowing overprints 5Ck/Zk.,lr/3k. thick numeral, 10r/15k. and 25k/3k.; loss
often 25k./Ik. and 70k./5k., and rarer 25r on 7, 14 and 25 kep. As to the
overprintt of 70k./lk., it is nearly impossible to find it with normal and
clear postmark, for majority of known examples of this overprint are cancelled
with undecipherable and doubltful postmarks, or cancellations in the corner,
which are impossible to classify.

#57 Page 15

In'connection with the change of the political regime in Kuban, the
Kuban overprints spread" out into neighboring gubernias and blasts. They
can be found frequently with podtharks of Novorossiisck, Stavropol, Kislovodsk,
and other towns and villages beyond Kuban. These and the Kuban postmarks of
Soviet period are relatively equal in price and among them it is difficult
to single out rare ones. Exception. should be made for postmarks of Field
Post of the Red Army. Those cancellations, regular type, double circle,
had after the word "kontora" a number and a figure, and then black elongated
rectangle. It is said that this symbolized red flag but this explanation is
not convincing. These postmarks are scarce, especially those with legible
numbers of the kontora, so often not found on stamp because of its small

Generally, valuable postmarks on Kuban overprints may be considered only
those bn which we may read the name of the town kr village, and a full date,
or at least the month and the year. Only then we can determine to what
period this postmark belongs to; to the scarcer of the two periods
or not.

Overprints of 10r. on 15 k. and 25 r. on 3 k. eAst of local manufacture,
of town of Armavir. The belong to the provisional locals of 1920, and their
description does not come under the heading of this article. Both overprints
are rare.
to be continued


by Dr. C. de Strckelberg

I N T R O DUC Ti 0 N

1. To commemorate the 50th Anniversary of--the Arms Type Issue, the
Editor of our Journal intended to reprint in the last issue of Rossica, the
excellent article of Col. Me I.E. Vibort on these stamps. This article,
though it appeared as long ago as July-August, 1927, in the Stanley Gibbons
Monthly Journal, is still probably the best article published until now on
the subject. Unfortunately, owing to lack of space this could not be done.
Instead, in that number, ir. F.:Julius Fohs, the great authority and collect-
or of these stamps, published a most interesting and exhaustive article on
the One Rouble stamps of this issue.

2. Since 1927, however, much new material based on specialized collect-
ions and on scientific research has come to light, mrcing the Vibert Check
List of 1927 obsolete. The Editor therefore had asked me to assemble data
*for a more up-to-date and more detailed Check List.' Using the Check List of
Vibert and for Proofs and Essays Reynolds Catalogue of 1957 as basis for the
new Chekt List, the results of my research will be published in this and the
following numbers of our -Journal.

3. Before listing all the varieties, errors, proofs, flaws, retouches
and fakes which are personally known to me or which have been brought to my
attention (and I am sure that there exists many more in scattered collections*
Page 16 # 57

the world over) I have to draw readorts attention to various pcrticulrrities
and to the basic printing operations of this issue. L thorough knowledge
of the printing process itself is..neoessary to undorstand why certain horrors
aad varieties oan occur and why some -cannot.

4. Until 1917 these stnaps were printed typographically at the State
Printing Works in St. Potorsburg (Petrograd). After 1918/20 they were also
printed in Moscow and some denominations maybe in Kiev and Odessa.

The preparing for printing of the paper and sheets and the actual
printing of this issue consisted of the following basic operations:

a. Preparing the paper or sheets to be used for printing.
b. Gumming of sheets.
c. Actual Printing.
d. Oveprinting of the chalk net on the sheets.
e. Perforating.

These five operations will be discussed below in some detail.

5. Paper and watermark, sheets and their size

The paper used for this issue was a whitish wove paper of varying
strength, hard, soft or even transparent. During the war years and especially
after the Revolution, inferior paper was used, the color 9f the paper some-
times changing to a muddy yellowish and even grvaish tone. Even slightly
porous or soft paper of different thickness was used, alongside it seems with
the original white paper. It seems that for the last Soviet Printing in
1922/23 a white to very white paper was again used. 25 kop. stamps and per-
haps others were also printed from 1915 to 1917. on oily looking paper.

Some authorities have mentioned the existence of-st.mpst and especially
the 3.50 rouble stamp, printed on quandrille -paper showing blue squares on
its surface. The explanation of this non-existant variety is simple:-
School notebooks, with blue squared pages, were often used, especially by
children, as stamp albums. The blue squares were printed on the notepaper
with aniline colour. Should such a page become moist or humid, the aniline
squares would be transferred, offset, to the surface of a stamp on the next
Spage. A close examination of such stamps will show that the square netting
is not a part of the stamp paper itself, but shows only on the top of the
already printed surface of the stamp.

6. 'he paper used shows a border watermark resembling a chain with
.triangular links. From 1909-12:this watermark appears horizontally along the
upper or lower margin or border of the sheet. From 1912-23 this border water-
mark appears vertically along the right or left border. Finally, probably
after 1920, these stamps were also printed on paper not having any border
watermark at all.

7. I would like here once and for all to draw'the attention of collect-
ors, especially of those who only collect single stamps to the difference
between the printings of 1909-12 and those after 1912. As explained above,

#57 Page 17

this diff ernce is whetherth he border-watermark is' horizontal or vertical.
The difference can, of course, only be detected on sheets or stamps which
have pieces of the border attached to them. Nevertheless the stamps printed
during the first period 1909-12 can also be distinguished from subsequent
printings by their very fine and clear impression, and delicate coloring.
(See. paragragraph 14, below).

8. As a general rule'the sheets were cut to size before being gummed.
However, it seems that later (after 1920) they were used uncut and the stamps
printed on large sheets, 4 times the size of an ordinary sheet. These were
only divided before perforation. Two sheets se tenant horizontally are
known to exist of one rouble imperforate.

9. The size of the sheets of kepek values varies from 24.4 cm. to
25.4 cm. by 30,3 to 32,4 cm. The size of the sheets for the rouble values
with vertical chalk lines varies betwen 23.8 cm. to 26.4 cm. by 32.5 cm.
to 33.0 cm. The size of the sheets used for printing of the rouble values
with horizontal chalk lines are 22.2 cm. by 32.4 cm.

Thus the statements, often repeated in the philatelic press, that
sheets of the kopek values were used for printing the trouble values with
horizontal chalk lines and that they were inserted in the printing press
horizontally, are obviously incorrect.

10. Mr. Serge Rockling, "Mr. Romeko" of Paris drew my attention to some
Imperforated printing, probably made after 1918, where one kopek stamps were
joined vertically or horizontally with 3 kopek stamps se tenant across the
white merging or border. This seems to show that oddly enough at some time
the 1 and 3 kop. stamps were printed on one large ( at least double ) sheet
at the same time.

Since then Mr. Rockling has been able to' find for my collection
suvh a vertical pair se tenant across the border.

SMine are imperforate on a rectangular strip of grayish paper 8,9
cm. long and 3 cm. wide. The 3 ko. stamp is at the lower end of the strip.
The upper end of the strip shows 1/3rd of of the one kopek stamp. The
distance between the stamp is 6 cm.. Half way between portions of both
stamps is a colored control dot in the color of three kopek stamp. The three
kopek stamp is the extreme right stamp (No. 5) of the top row of the upper
right pane (or No. 10 of the, sheet).

The one. kopek stamp is No. 25 of the lower right pane or stamp No.
100 of the sheet and, As stated before, only shows 2/3rd of complete stamp,
the top having been cut off. "The outside right margin has also been cut
off, showing only 1,3 cm. of the right margina."

11 G ping: After the sheets had been prepared and cut, they were
gummed. From 1909 to 1917 the gum used was white. Since 1917 the xan is
often yellowish to yellow in'color,'though in 1922-23 white gun was a use
again.. "As a general rule the gum covers the whole back surfaeo of th' sheet.
Only later,.probably after 1917, some kopek and all rouble vales show long

Page 18 # 57

theo right or left vertical border ungurmed strips, about 2,54 cm. wide. To
Smy knowledge., there, are" no sheets or stamps which have been printed without
any gum, except perhaps first pulls or printorts waste.

12. Printig; i;fter gunning, fhe sheets wore ready for printing.
ll of the stamps listed below were printed by typographic process.

a. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10 kop. stamps were printed in one
'opordtion andione color only.
b. 14, 15, 25, 35iand 70-kope straps-were printed in two operat-
--ions and in two. colors. First the frame and the background
were printed in one uiit, then the center which was embossed.
c. 20 and 50 kolpk stamps, and 1, 3 rubles 50 kopek, 5, 7, and
10 ruble stsmps were printed in three operations as follows:

1. Background 2. Frame 3. Center and figure of value.

In the 3 rubles 50 kopek and 7 ruble stamps the colored center was
embossed with the Imperial Eagle. This embossing was opitbod. later, in
Soviet 1920-1922 printings.

13. As the stamps were in use from 1909 to 1923, and millions were
printed, there is enough material available to distinguish various printings.
Initially, the higher values at least were not printed continuously, but only
when ordered by the Postal Department. Those various printings can be group-
ed in four major printing periods as follows:

I. 1909 tc 1912 III, 1918 (but probably only from 1920) to 1922
II. 1912 to 1917 IV. 1922 to 1923

14. Period I, coverin- 1909 to 1912 encompasses two printings. The
impression is fine and cle6r, the' colors are soft. ana delicate, especially
in the first printing. The embossing of the 20 and 50 kopek stamps is well
centered, clear and in high relief.

15. Period II, covering 1912 to 1917, which probably also encompasses
two printings. The impression is not as good as of the second printing of
the first period, but the greatest change appears in the colors. They are
now 'hard and brilliant anid often differ greatly from the original colors of
the first period, owing to the lack of aniline colors which wore imported
from Germany before the war. The embossing is fainter.

16. Period III, covering 1917 to 1922, which probably more correctly
should cover only the years 1920-to 1922, encompasses at least two or three
printings. The impression is very poor to smudgy, as the plates are getting
more and more worn. The colors are coarse and the embossing shows little
relief. Towards the end of this period the 3, ruble 50 kopok and 7 ruble
stamps wore not embossed.

17. Period IV, covering 1922 to 1923. Finally at the start of this
period (1922-1923) the Sviet authorities had-some-new plates made (some
with larger dies for .the 15 and 70 kopek values, see Paragraph 24), had
# 57 Page 19

others qeaned and the perforation machines repaired, etc. etc. (See
paragraph 39). One printing only of the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 kopek stamps
and of the ruble .values, excoptprtobably of the 1 ruble stamp. Thus the
impression is'botter that in the Printings of Period III, but the colors
are still hard and fugitive

18. Layout of the stamps in the sheet.

"The kopek values wereio-continued'to be printed through the four (4),
previously mentioned-periods, in a layout of 4 panes' of 25 stamps (5x5) each,
or 100 stamps to a sheet, the 4 panes being divided by gutter margins. It
might be noted that in 1916 the printing of the 7 and.,14 kopek stamps was
discontinued when the -postal rates were raised from 7 to 10 kop. for ordinary
letters. The remaining stocks of these stamps were surcharged in black with
now values of 10 and 20 kopek respectively. From a cover in my possession
addressed to Germany, with block -of six of 14 kopek stamps, perforated, and
two 5 rouble stamps, cancelled Petrograd 16/.10/22, it seems that the Soviet
authorities reissued around 1921/1922 these 14.kopek stamps, using the old
plates, The aforementioned stamps show the typical characteristics of the
Period III, 1917 to 1922, that is, indistinct print and eagle not embossed
as described in paragraph 16. It is also to be noted that the space between
the stamps varies on some later printings (see in the Check L.st the 20 and
"25 kopek stamps, and compare also paragraph 24)

The layout of -the ruble- stamps in the sheet is somewhat' complicated.
The one ruble stamps have been described by Mr. Fohs in the previous issue
of the Journal. Nevertheless, I will summarize here once more the layouts
of all printings of the ruble vnaloes.

19. First Period

I First Printing. 1909-1912. 40- (8) stamps per sheet with
one continuous vertical, orange (same color as the center)
band along the right and left borders of the sheet.
II Second Printing. 1912. 40 (5x8) stamps per sheet with one
continuous voftical, 3x4i- mmV brown band- albng the-right and
.left borders of the sheet. These .sheets were prepared for use
in Russian Post Office in Lovant (issue of 1910) and were to
be overprinted "10 Piastres".

As some of the sheets of this printing are known without
the above mentioned overprint, it can be. assumed that after
: completing the order for a fixed number of sheets to be over-
printed, some sheets were printed in e xoss, and were lator
added by the' Governmint Printing Works to the next order of
the one rouble stamps and then issued to the Post. officee De-
partment. I have., hoover, two stamps with thd left border
which instead of a continuous brown band, only show on the
border a short vertical brown bar 4m. wide and. 2.06 cm. long.
Whether thpq ,stamps represent a printing different from the
"Second Print in-hontioned above is not kfown to me,. However,
these stamps seem to be unique.
Page 20 # 57

19, Second Period. 1912-1916, 40 stym:s (5x8) per sheet with 3
brown (same color as the frcno) bands running along the right and
poft borders of the shoot.
Third and Fourth Poriods. 1916-1922. 50 stamps, in a shoot
consisting cf 7x8 spaces. Of the 56 positions in the sheet, 8 out-
or ones have instead of a st-mp crossed V's. One V is normal
and the other one is inverted.
Fourth oPriod. 1920-1922. 50 stamps (1Ox5) -printed on paper with
horizontal chalk lines,

20. B. The 3 Rouble 50 kopek stamps appeared first in 1917 (probably
first issued imperforate) and continued to be printed during the
IIIrd and IVth periods (1918-1923). The laydut of the sheet was
the same as of the One Rouble stamp of the third and fourth periods,
i.e., 50 stamps per sheet (7x8). 8 spaces of the sheet of 56 had
crossed Vts. Since 1920 the stamps were also issued in a horizon-
tal layout of 50(10x5) stamps per sheet with horizontal chalk

21. C. The 5 Rouble stanm was first issuadin 1915, during the Period
II, in a layout of 25(5x5) stamps per sheet. The borders of the
sheets were overprinted with large horizontal, green V's. In
1916 the layout was changed into sheet of 56(7x8) of which 50 were
stamps and 8 were spaces with crossed Vs. 'This now layout was
used until 1923, i.e. through the remainder of II, III & IV Period.

22. D. The 7 Rouble stanrp hs the same layout as the 3 Ruble 50 kopek
stamp, with the followinC exception: -Type I was issued in 1917,
probably imperforato at first, and at the end of 1917 and the be-
ginning of 1918 it was substituted by Typr II (See paragraph 25).

23. E. 10 Ruble stamp has the same layout as the 5 Rouble stamp,
except that from 1915-1916 the borders were overrinted with
horizontal Vrs in yellow instead of groon color as on 5 Ruble stamps,

to be continued

ISSUES 1910-1917 !'D- SOVIET RUSSIA 1918-1923
Sby Julius Fohs
I(ddenda to Article in # 56)
From a study of a number of sheets bearing crossed VIs of the Fourth
Issue,.Fifth Printing, perforated or imperforate9 it is clear that sheets
with Pj 2 and 1, FT 2 and 3, and IT 3 and 9 (First No. Color is Bg., Second
Color is that of Fr.) ll have the V both color of Bg. and the V color of
Fr. of rapvroximately equal length; but some variations are noted: These
were earliogeand distinct from the plates of Fourth issue, Si:,h Printing
in each shoot which has only a single Bg. PE. 2 or ThI. 1 with the two sheets
* 57 Page 21

printed together; it is these sheets that show the short v both top and
bottom, dark brown color of frame only, which occurs on both perf. and imi W
perf. shoots, and hence represents a later troe of Vus. Pieces with this
.short Frame colored V definitely belong only to this printing. No short V
is known in the 3, 5, 71, or 10 R. issues.

FIFTH PRITING: The shoots with PN. 2 and I, show slight variance in
height and width of V's. Heights are 29 and 291im.; widths are 19, 19- and
20 mm. compared with height of stamp of 30 to 300mm. In goneral the shorter
height carries the relative shorter maximum width. Positioning of Vts is
irregdbar, the center one almost balanced, while Fr. V lower both at Rt. and
L. corners, are higher above, yet frames are not shifted from central position
of Bg. In cases where Bg* or Fr. are shifted from normal the Vts are also.

Sheets with PI. 3 and 2 have the Vts almost in balance, above and below.
The dark brown color of frame V's are 29 and 291nm. high and 19mm. wide below;
and 29nmm. high and 191nm. wide above. The light brown (color of Bg.) Vts
measure 19- mm. wide and 29- mm. high. Sheets PN. 3 and 9 show V heights
of 29 and 29j- mm. and widt of 19 and 19i mm.

SIXTH PRINTING: Shoots with PN 2 and PN I are both color of Bg. only.
V, dark brown color of Frame, is shorter than V color of Bg. and measures
only 18- mm. wide and 26- to 27 mm. high and is down from top in topirvw3
and up in the bottom row, 2j- mm. The Bg. V is 191- mm. wide and 29j- mm. high,
in color of Bg.

The exact positioning of the V s may vary in relation to each other
and in relation to the stamps and should not be considered indicative of
separate dies, hence-the 3rd type suggested by A to Fawcott is not a sepa
rate type as A supposed.

For description of If of Fifth and Sixth Printings, reference should be
made to the paper inRossica, July 1959, issue.

There is no doubt that Bg,'s are typcgraphed. It is characteristic of
typograph printing that the. letters or edges of other marked features show
a heavy impression on the back of the paper and this is true for background
Vts and for the elipsos that surround the oval of the center, consequently,
though much lighter, the fine guillocho of the background must also be typo-

These Plates began use in 1917 and were used, particularly the PN. 2 and
I shoots until early 1923.

Credit is due MR. John W. S. Fawcett of River Garth, Kingston, England
for raising questions on the occurance of a short V type, typographing, etc.,
hence this study was undertaken to determine the exact printings and other
variations of the crossed Vts.

Answering again Mr. Rossolevitchts detailcd statement on the proofs or
essays of the 1 ruble issue of 1920 in Rossadc #56,
age 22 #57

SThe copies in rW possession with both the- black and light ;roon back-
roiunds show no chemical .altor--ti-on. .t opinion is that they were printed
by the Soviet Government but they may weol have been so printed and still
bo speculative. Shifts appear in. m collection of, some of the regular
stamps both used and unused,

Answering the editors questions regarding their reriars on the first
portion of my papor:

1. I have followed the practice of some earlier writers in calling
the double-crossed ,Vts "St. Lndreas Grosses", which name may be
incorrect. Had the editors clleol my attention to this before the
printing, I would not have used the term. 'As t is, it is too
late now to rewrite the. paper

-2. I appreciate the advice that the 1 R, with a single browm band
also exists without the 10 Piastre overprint.

As to my statements regarding plate numbers it is only reasonable to
regard where two colors arc involved, one color of frame, and one color of
background that theso numbers wore printed as I have stated.

As to 1 Ruble imperforates: If I have referred to those (as was the
old.usago) as a new issue, I -a in orror, as I am firmly convinced that the
imporforates were due to wesrizig out of nmchines since similrx plate numbers
occur on both prforratod and imperforate sheets. I quite agcoe with the
editor that come of the irregular perforations were of local origin, prepared
Sfor Greater facility in sopar.ting the str-mps, and this may have been true
of rouletting, also as I havw some of the issues of stamps roulotted and
regularly used.

I wish to rkeo one other correction: Under 5. (7) p.93, 5th line of
paragraph says: (absent or mutilated on part of the 3j and 7 : staps); this
should have said on the 7 R" only.

-halkc-net and Size of Shoots:

The obliquely intersecting chalk or varnish lines not was added to the
paper before printing, and first used, beginning with this issue to prevent
postal frauds. It occurs on most of the issued stamps. Rarely, there may
possibly exist a sheet to which the not was not applied, but usually the not
is only absent where the paper was bent over at a corner or end, before the
net was applied. Occasionally the stamps were printed on both sides or on
the wrong side of the paper only, so the net is on the back instead on the
face of the stamps; and double printed are rare. Their presence is fre-
quently difficult to detect and on used stamps may have been washed off.
Whore the paper was creased before the net was applied, the stretched papor
shows -. net in the creased portion. It is now certain that there wero
three sopcrato papers with chalk-line not for the several issues inclusive
of the 1920 issue; measurements of those show:
# 57 Page 23

For comparison, thd size of kopek values, perforate and imperforate,
the overall size of vertical chalk-line not is 8 1/2 8 9/16 in. x 10 15/16-W
11 in. Size of printed stamp group is 7 9/16 in x 10.in.; size of sheets
is 9 1/2 x 12 12 1/8 in.-for first issues; and 9 3/4 10 x 12.- 12 1/2
in. for later issues with vertical margin Winm the latter have Wm, on left
or Rt. only and must have been printed on double sheets.

1 R. 1910 issue vertical chalk-not is 8 5/8 in. x 11 in. size of printed
stamp group is 10 in. x 12 3/4 in. x 10 15/16 in. and the sheet 10 1/4 in. x
12 7/8 in. The 1 R., one brown band measures 8 5/8 in, x 10 5/16 in. for
chalk-net and 10 1/4 in. x 12 7/8 in. for the sheet The 1 R. with 3 brown
bands, the chalk net measures 8 9/16 in. x 10 15/16 in., and the sheet
10 1/4 in. 10 3/8 in. x 12 7/8 in. If four sheets were printed together,
the paper must have measured 20 3/4 in. x 25 3/4 in.

For 1 R. (crossed V's) double sheets measure 20 1/2 in. x 12 7/8 in.;
the vertical chalk-net measures 9 7/8 in. x 12 3/4 in. If as is believed,
four sheets were printed simultaneously, the paper must have measured 20 1/2
in x 25 3/4 in.

On 1 R., horizontal chalk-net, size of sheet 8 5/8 in, 8 3/4 in. x
12 3/4 in. with horizontal chalk-net measuring 8 5/8 in. x 11 3/4 in. It is
clear that a new chalk-net was prepared for this issue, as the measurements
do not fit either the other Rouble or Kopek issues. The 3- R. and 7 R. of
this issue measure: chalk-not 8 9/16 in. 8 5/8 in. x 11 3/16 in. 11 3/4
in. ; shoots 8 3/4 in. x 12 3/4 in.. If four sheets were printed together as
is probable, the paper must have measured 17 1/2 in. x 25 1/2 in.

Sheet-mar ,in Watermarks

The watermark on the sides or ends of the sheets is the same, only that
it appeared on both top and bottom in the early issues of 1908-1912 and on
the sides in all later issues; these show it vertical on right or left only,
where double sheets were cut apart. This marginally watermarked woven paper
replaced the watermarked laid paper of earlier issues. (See Fig. 6 in #56
for character of watermark). The pointed side is always toward the papers
edge, the parallel side toward the stamps

The sheets commonly referred to are actually only one-fourth of the size
of the sheet fed the printing machines this is.true of those with vertical-
margin watermark, and possibly for the 1909-1911 horizontalmargin watermark

Issues, Printings and Plate Types

1. First Issue. Format D 3; horizontal sheet margin watermark, verti-
cal chalk-net.
(1). First Printing, late 1909-1911. Imprint, color of center,
orange in Russian "Kred. Typ. 1910." Bg. evenly spaced in
fawn to pale brown; Fr. light chocolate-brown. Printing fresh
and clear. Lrms embossed in high relief. Perforations harrow,
clear cut 13v, 12- rare. Sheet consists of 40 stamps arranged

Page 24 # 57

in 5 vertical rows of 8. stamps each, Format D 3 with vertical
orange colored band, inm. wide, on L., 13- 14 mm. from stamp
growp and on Rt., llz-l2rn. distant. Stohman thirzs such bands
were to avoid fraudulent use of extra paper. Two centrally
located control dots, one color Bg., and one to Rt. color Fr.
appear above and below group of stamps. (See D 3 of Fig. 4 in
#56). Vertical chalk-net thin, Imm. Size Bg., 26inm.x31mm.,
Size Fr., 21i x 25 m- Distance betwoon stamps i2m, Numeral
LIs slight uneven in size and character, measure: pedicel 4 mm.
high, some slightly loss with width of nnm., slightly thicker
in some than in others, length of base line 2Mm. or slightly
less'. BPrforations absent at bottom on one sheet; also known
with perforations absent at top of shoot. Printed on white
wove paper with horizontal-margin interlaced watermark, (Soe
Fig. 6), both top and bottom of sheet, watermark rarely present
in full width.

(2). Second Printing, 1910-1911. Format D 3, similar to First Print-
ing excot colors ccarser, impression less clear, chalk-not
lighter, Fr. somewhat deeper brown.
2. Second Issue. Format D 3b; Vertical chalk-not; vertical sheet-margin
on wove Wm. pa1er. No P.N. No imprint.

(3). Third Printing. 1912-1914. No. P.N. No Imprint. One brown
band Size of Bg.: 27nmrx3lm.; Size of Fr.: 21- mm. x 25- mm.;
distance of Rt. band from stamps 23 mm., distance of L. band
from stamps 22- mm. width of Rt. band 4 mm.; width of L. band
3- 2m.; Sheet of 40 stanms. bPrf. 13-2 harrow.

D 3b differs from D 3 in having four centrally located control
dots, above and below the group of stamps, two in color of Fr.
Bg. somewhat darker. Color of C. orange-red to vermillion-red
*in later-issues.

3. Third Issue. 1912-1916L. Format D 4; vertical chalk-met.

(4) .Fourth Printing. Vertical sheet-margin Wm. on wove paper. P.N.
9J8 color of Fr. and. 301 color of Bg.; 9 at C. of B. of sheet
with 3 to L. across first row perf. Size of Bg. 26- x 31-31-nm.
Size. of Fr. 21j- x 2- mm. Distance of bands from stamp groups:
L. bands 4 m.a, interval 10.. nn band 4 mm.; Rt. bands; interval
8 mm., band 4 mr., interval 10 mm., band 4 mm., interval 10 mm.,
band.4mm. Outer bands broken once on L. and Rt. Intervals be-
tween stamps -. rn. Color of stamps: Fr. chocolate brown, C.
red-orange, and' D,. pinkish. pale-brown. C. well embossed.
Vertical chalk-not, slightly heavier than normal.

P.1;. 8H2 color Fr. E.L. A1i8 color Bg. to Rt. of 8. Size Dg.
S27 mmm.. x 31- mm., Size Fr. 21- x 26 mm. Interval between
staEhps i mm. L. bands:-band 4A amm., interval 10 En., band 4 I
m m., interval 10 mm., band 4-a mm., interval 7T nm. Rt. bands:

5 57 Page 25

Interval 8 mm., band 4 mm., Interval 10 mm., band 4A mmM in-
terval 10 mm., bomd-4L- mm. Color of stamps: Fr. light brown, C..
orange-red, Bg. pirkish' palobrown. V. well embossed. Vertical
chalk-net, slightly heavier than normal.

P.N. 9A8? Color- of Fr. and BB8, color of Bg. (Wisewell) All
Therf. 13w harrow,

4. Fourth Issue. 1917-1923. Vertical chalk-not, vertical sheet-
margin Wm.

(5) Fifth Printing. Format D 1. with two plate numbers. P.N. 2-1,
3-2, 2-8, and 3-9; first P.N. In color of Bg., second in color
of Fr. Probable that the first two groups are the L. and Rt.
halves of a double shoot, and the next two may be also. All
ibrf. and Imperf., except 8-2 seen perforate only. Pbrf. harrow.

Consists of six crossed Vts and 50 stamps. The crossed V1s
have one, brown color of Fr. and second, pale brown color of Bg.
Me asurements:
P.N. 2-1. Bg.26 x31mm.,26&i31i-32mmFr. 21l226mm.
P.N-. 8-2. Bg.262- 3lEim., 261 -27x31r mmi.; Fr. 21y-25mn .
P.N. 9-3. Bg.26-x31-mim., 26,x31-mm.; F. 21z25 mm. 25-x25zm.

Backgrounds are unevenly spaced,

For this Format, printing control dots alternate Bg., Fr., Bg.
Fr., center of sheet bottom and top; on Rt. side, T. and R.,
one Br. dot each occurs, while on L. side single Bg. dot has
been noted opposite T. first stamp, and opposite base of crossed
V's at B.L.

Bg. P.N.2,BJ t with white dot in right curve. Fairly evenly
spaced Eg. cliches; exceptions: in 2nd vertical row, 2nd stamp
down, perhaps slightly shorter since bottom is even with next to
L. and PIt. 3rd. stamp is also shorter at top; sace between
stamps is thereby increased. 3rd stamp, 3rd vertical row, also
slightly shorter at top, increasing space between 2nd and 3rd
stamps in this row. Perf.

Sheet reported by Wisewell has P.N. 2B2,. light brown, color of
Bg. and P2.. 8H2, dark brown, color of Fr.

(6) .Sixth Printing. Format D 5. Vertical chalk-net, vertical shoot-
margin Win. on wove paper. Only P.N,2-1 observed, and sheets
without P.N. probably worn off. Six crossed Vts and 50 stamps
with single plate numbers.

Printing control dots are located centrally above and below the
group of 50 stamps on each sheets 2 dots, color of Bg with 1
dot color of Fr. between. On the right side and probably on the
L. side of each double sheet are for example, on the Rt. side T.,

Page 26 # 57

2 dots color of Bg. and one color of Fr., located one above the
other, while the same occur in inverse position at the B. Rt.

For comparison, D 6 used for 3 R. and 7 R. only, is shown. Has
dots color of r,, one just above center of sheet *t R. and one
dot just below center or sheeatat L. Centrally located above and
below are 1 dot color of Fr. followed by'2 dots, color of Bg.
Differs from D 5 used for 1 R. which has centrally a slightly
different 3 dot arrangement above and below the stamp group, but
no dots on either sido of center.

B. 2533l mnm., 26k-3l- mm., 26x3-1 mnn.
Fr. 21lx26 mn,, 21Tx25 mm.

Perforated sheets show Bg. P.N. in good condition. No. Fr. P.N.
for this printing. Perf. harrow.

Imperforate sheets show P.N. from fresh to worn to absent.
P.H.2,B.Rt is on L. shoot and P.N. 1 B.Rt., on Rt. sheet. This
is probably lower half of four sheet printing.

Bg. ranges from fawn to light .pinkish brown.

C. orange to vermillion red, and orange in 'on dry print.
Shifts of Bg. and Fr, are common.


by B. Zworykin

Reprinted from #28 Rossica Journal.

The 10 ruble stamp, with chalk net and with perforation 13- differs
from the ordinary by the blue oval in the center, instead of the gray and
is thus an error of color. The German catalogue considers this stamp a
forgery, created by chemical trickery.

Knowing well the origin of this stamp I would like to establish the
truth and to secure for it its rightful place in the catalogues, as it is
possible that no one besides me can do this with full accuracy.

In 1921, emigrating from Russia I brought to Paris my collection of
stamps and duplicates, among which wore fifteen, of this stamp from a sheet
of fifty, as these ten ruble stamps were printed, to which testified existing
alongside of lower stamp a symbol of two angles, existing on all the stamps
of this issue (values of 1 trouble, 3-, 5, 7 and 10 roubles).

This block had a small shift of the blue oval in the center, upward,
thus all of the stamps of this sheet mlist have had a more or loss significant
shift of the center; without this shift these varieties do nct exist.
7 1 57 Page 27

I acquired this block from. a.prominont stamp dealer in Moscow in 1919s,
by the name; of FhSptilvo-Blumberg, who' died latdc ih Riga in 1921, after
arriving there from Russia.

S-Mr. F. Spalve-Blumberg received these stamps from a person who came
from the province, where he purchased these stamps at post office as a part
sheet of 32. The remainder of the sheet of 18 stamps was used up for postal
"use It is possible that at some future time these stamps will appear as
postally used. What Mr. Spalve-Blumberg did with the remaining 17 stamps I
do not knc; I only know that he sold one copy to a Moscow collector, Mr. V.
Repinan and one was given as a gift to a Tr. L., who had rendered him great

I have never seen,, nor heard of. these stamps -before, or read of them in
print. Being at that time the President of the Moscow Society of Thilatolists
and. having made acquaintance and connections with a large number of collectors
I as well as our members, thoroughly searched everywhere for these stamps but
in vain.

.I consider tatt these 32 stamps are according to all data available to
be the pnly existing mint copies of such stsmp. This part sheet with full
gum, and mint freshness cannot be considered to be a chemical changeling,
nor a forgery of some: other'type. .Thus we must recognize this variety as one
of the majpr rarities among the stamps of Russia, and the stamps of the world.

Finding myself ppon arrival, in Paris in dird financial straits, I was
forced to sell my stamp collection and the duplicates, and among them the
aforementioned stamps; in my collection I had a block and a single of these
stamps, possibly the only such in existence.

These five stamps were :sold at,.an auction in sale Drout in December 1924,
and I do not know who purchased them out of remaining ten stamps I had to
give along with some others: two to'a person who brought my collection out
of Russia, eight were sold to Mr. Kestlin of London, to Mr. Lvov (later
purchased back by me), Mr .-Rockling of Maison Romeko 2 stamps, Mr. Lomer
(Maison Maury)-, Mr. Brown of London, Mr/ Sredinsky and Mr. Barton who resold
it to Mr. Rocking.

Addenda to Dr. Stackelborl s ;rticlo in #55 Rossica Journal
by M. Liphbhutz' .

In looking over my stamps of Russia 1909-23 found the following
varieties, written up by Dr. Stackolborg, which I am now reporting to these
interested in this phase of our research. '

1. Huddv Flaw On 10 rble imperforate stamp:with greatly shifted yellow

2. Retouched Huddy Flaw On 10 ruble (ill. C. #55) 'on two money orders.
Ekaterinburg, Nov.20. 1919. Dahilov, Yaroslav Gub. 'Apil 7, 1920.

Page 28 # 57

3.. E. C. Peel Flaw- Wide "A" ill. D ini 55." This defect is.found on
on stamp #13 in my sheets. orforated both l2- and 13-, but not on
imperf rate shoot.

4. BHddy Flaw on 1 Ruble stamp with horizontal chalk lines (ill. E in
#55). This is stamp No. 38 in a shoot.' It is found in my collection
on a sheet with horizontal chalk line-perf. 13-, on a sheet without
chalk e lies perf. 13- and on- sheet with horizontal chalk lines
imporforate, with shifted-center.

5. Sklarevski Flaw on 10 ruble (ill. F in #55). 2nd. stamp in the
shoot. In the same 49th. stamp hrs retouched Huddy Flaw (ill C in
#55). I found the Sklarevski flaw on the following money orders:
Tyavcvyaa Saratov Gub. Dec. 16, 1920. Sukromni, Tvor Gub. Oct. 29,
1920. Danilov, Yaroslav Gub. Lpril 7, 1920. It seems that this defect
exists on two different cliches: on one 2nd. stamp in the sheet, while
on the second it is 41st. ar 44th. stsmps.

6. 15 kop. with broken 3 .variety (ill. H in #55)
a. Perforated. Kred. Typ. 1910., 94th stamp: Another shoot with a
marking "5" below, to the right of 51st and 10th stamps; third sheet
with a numeral "6" 3rd, 5th, 23rd, 51st and 78th stamps; fourth
shot with 4 dot marking has no defects.
b. Imperforate. Sheet with 5 below, to the right of 23rd, 73rd and
78th stamps, another sheet samo with numeral" 51st, 60th stamps.
Third sheet without 4 dots. 78th and 80th stamps on this last sheet
(and only on it) 57th stahp has the Cronin retouch.

F *L 1 1 S
bI W.H.H. Huddy.

About 35 years ago I purchased a large number of the 7 kop. stamp on
vertically leid paper 1902-04 issue, and devoted a large slice of a holiday
in going through them looking for plate flaws. "Squiggles", broken frame
lines, or brooks in the oval were quite common and always representedd by two
or more copies. These however, did not interest me greatly but the one ill-
ustrated was, to me, of far greater interest. Illustration No. 1 is merely
to show the direction of the flow and No.2 the flaw itself. It consists of
a very fine hair line running right across the stamp but whether it is due
to a scratch in the plate or a crack I do not pretend to know. Ls it ex-
tends to the borders of the Stamp one might reasonably expect to find a
continuation of this crack or scratch on the adjacent stcnps above and below
but this I have always failed to do. Actually I must have found at least
5 copies bearing this-defect so it obviously is recurring variety

mAothor most interesting flaw was one in the little ornament following
the A of OUWA on the right side of the stamp. Here the upper section -
like a letter C printed bac'.rdards ends in a very definite white loop, but
in site of much searching I have never found its counterpart.

# 57 Page 29

10 kop. Envelo-e Recurring flaw in the 10 lp.stationery envelope of
1875-79, not yet 'recorded. The flaw in this stationery item the 10 kop.
occurs very slightly below the half way line in the numerals contained in
the circle below the oval containing the arms. It came to my notice while
mounting up my collection of envelopes and is definitely recurring variety.
As for as I am aware it has not been-noted and some Rossica members may be
interested to look for it.- The flaw consists of a "smnll white dot joining
the 1 with o.: It stands out very proainontly in my copies even more
apparent I would say than the photographed copy.



"Reader of our Journal, M\r. V. Popov of US informs the editors that he
discovered among his duplicates a stamp of the Russian Offices in China with
"KITAI" overprint on 1909-12 issue of Russia with chalk lines, 1 Ruble, but
with 12- perforation (Scott No. 87b). The cancellation is of Type 8 (Soe
Used Lbroads by Tchilinghirian and Stephen) and reads "S H A NI G H A I
Z A GR A N IC H. P. K 0 N T.: a 4..106".

1ir. Popov adds'that gr. Tchilighirian, in private correspondence
writes that' although this stimp is catalogued in Michel...Catalogue, lr. Popov
seems to be the first collector wh D infornied that he had the item in his
collection. It is desirable that our readers exnmine their stamps for the
possibility of a discovery of this rare -stamp.

Editorial Comment' According to the wishes of Mr. Popov, Hon. Mombor
A. Rosselevitch examined the stamp: perforation elicited no suspicion, normal
format, clear postmark, and it d.oo not differ from other such postmarks.
However there is one point which needs an explanation. The 1916 date of the
postmark. Normal Russian stamps with perforation gauging 12-j appeared only in
in 1917-1918. Up to this time we know only the charity stamp of largo
format issued in 1914 and 1915, having various *perforaticns, of which 12- was
one of them while the regular postage stamps always had other perforations.

It is possible td have two explanations.

(1). It may be an-accidental perforation of which merely a fo, sheets
e sist.
(2). It may be a special additional issue issued for the needs of
Russian Post in China. If this is the case, the stamps are less
scarce, and since the majority of the catalogues did not mention
this variety, no one looked for it, and therefore since they were
not hunted for they were not found. Such cases do occur in philately.


Page 30 .# 57


(Compiled frcn BRussima Time Tnble)
by W .E.. Kethro & John Barry



St. Petersburg Revel Baltiiskia 346
Taps Riga 341
Revel Baltiski Port 45
Gatchina Tosno 47
Revel appeal 98
St. Petersburg Vilna St. Petersburg Warsaw 658
or Vilna Verzhbolovo 179
Orani Suvalki 133
NCFTH4ES'ERN Suvalki Grodno 98
Viln Warsaw 388
Pitalovo Sita 63

Vietvi (Branches) Riga Kemmern Tukklum Rigo-Tukkuaksika 60
of Riga Muravievo Mitavskaia 129
RIGO Riga Miulgriben Miulgrabenskaia 11
GRLOVSKOI Riga Damba Gavan Rigo-Bolderaaskaia 17

Bologoo Polotsk Bologoe-Volkoviskaia 434
St. Petersburg Moscow 610
Nikolaevsknia St. Petersbjrg Novi Port Portovain 16
Lushino Morskaia Eristbn 9
Likhoslavl Rzhev Viaszm Novomorzhskeia 244
Uglokea Boarovichi Bor oviche skaji 29

LIFLANDSKIE POD- Valk Stockman'shov N G (Narrow gauge) 197

FERVCE 0-VO POD- Valk Perncv Pernov-Reveski 117
IEZHDNIKI PTEI Moizhekul Revel 184
Allenkiul Veisenstein- 13
Novosventsinni-Rost-avi-Beres vech Sventsianki 119
Novosventsicni-Poneve zh 136
Berdichev -Zhitomir YuLhni uskok 50
Rudnitsa -CLvicpol 183
A L L N A RR 0 W Kholonevsk.-ia Gaivoron 220
Sokhno Chechelnik 1I
G A U GE Gummenoe Vinnitza 15
Berdichev Kholonevskai. 55
Semki Kholonovskaia 40

S57 Page 31


Ribinsk Bologoe 280
Sonkovo Kashin .. 53
M0SCOVSKO-- Sonkovo Krasni Khlm 31
VINDAVO- Bologoe Pskov 334
RIBINSKAIA St. Petersburg Vitebsk 533
Chudovo -Staraia Russa ( NG ) 157
Moscow Vindva 1027

MC3 OVSKQ- Glazunovka Diachie Zinoviovskaia 35
KURSKAIA Moscow Kursk 502

MCSCOVSK O- Kovrov Murom Mur omskaia 103
NIZHNEGORODSKAIA Moscow Nizhni Novgorod? 412

VOLM'RSKII POD. Gainash Smilten ( N G ) 107

ETRCKOVSKO-. etrokov-Suleev-Trtak ( N G ) Petrovsko-Guleovskii 16
GERVI-KIELETSKAIL Kieltsi Gervi .. 125
to be continued

by Nhichols .. 'K ormiley

The second. period of Russian numismatics started with the beginning of
XVIII century. .,t that time Russia entered the so called Northern War, which
brought all of the participant states to the verge of collapse. In 1700
Russia, Poland and Denmark allied .against Sweden, which after the end of
30-years War became a large nation. It included, Norway, Finland, .Baitid
Provinces (Estonia, Tivonia and Courlnnd), Pomerania and Schloswig-fIolstein,
with 12,000,000 of population, and with the best army in Europe. At that
time, Russia was a semi-barbaric state of some 14,000,000 population, very
poor, with a bad administration, and an old fashion levy army, in which only
two regiments of the Guard had a modern, West-European training.

Swedish King Charles XII defeated Denmark in two weeks, then attacked
the Russians, and during a snow storm completely defeated .the Russian Army
at Narva. Moscpw was defenceless, but Chari se'utderestimated Czar Peter I,
and attacked the Polish King Stanislaw August, forcing him to abdicate after
three years of warfare. Peter I reorganized the Russian Army, and began a
counter offensive, occupying the Baltic Provinces and founding his new
capital St. Petersburg. When Charles XII moved against Peter, it was too
late, he was defeated at Poltava, a small Ukrainian I'town. Russians captured
the whole Swedish army, Charles escaping with a few officers to Turkey. 'The
war lasted for 12 years and Sweden lost all of her possessions in Germany and
Baltic Provinces, and was reduced to a third rate pow er, Russia emerged as
a new powerful Empire, which replaced Poland in the Middle-European balance
of power.

Page 32 1 57

All these struggles, which drained from Russia all her human and
material resources, had their repercussions in the Russian nmnismatics.

About 1700, Poter reintroduced the copper coins, this time only aux-
iliary money, striking kopeks, dengas ( kopek), and polushkas (- kopek).
In 1700 there was struck alsb a pattern polpoluski (1/8 kopek) and from
1723 copper 5 kopeks. Copper coins were struck at different mints in Moscow,
with different patterns of which numerous varieties exist. Their weight and
size decreased with the progress of war. A silver ruble served as a basic
unit in a size and weight of a thaler. Also were struck, the silver polti-
nas (+ ruble), polupoitinniks (4 rubles), grivnas or griveirtdks (10 kopeks)
S and 10 dengas, which later were substituted with coins of 5 kopeks, silver
altyns (3 kopeks) and silver kopeks. Numerous varieties exist also of
silver coins. Up to 1714 silver coins had a plain rand, from 1718 a rand
with inscription. In 1722 pattern silver two rubles were struck. Silver
coins at first were struck in Moscow, later also in St. Petersburg. Up to
1723, with afew exceptions, the year of issue was stamped in old slavonic
letters. From 1718 the size of silver coins struck in Moscow was a little
smaller, while those struck in St. IPtersburg remained the same.

From 1701 for the payments in foreign countries gold coins were struck
without nominal, called "chervonets", with a value of about 2.26 rubles.
From 1718 Russia started to stike gold coins for internal circulation, of
less.fine gold, and with nominal of 2 rubles, but the basic unit still
remained the silver ruble.

In the first decade of the XVIII century there were struck other coins
without nominal, this time in silver, presumably for the payments in Poland
by the Russian Military Corps which were sent there to bolster the military
strength of the Polish King. These coins are timf and hiLf timf, struck
from 1706 to 1709. In relation to Russian money they were equal to 17 kopeks,
and 8- kopeks respectively.

At last, we should mention so called "baptizing rubles", struck in gold
with the stamp of a silver ruble, which presumably were used by Peter the
Great as gifts to his god-children.

Gopper coins of Peter the 'Great bear on the averse a double headed
eagle (polushkas and dengas), or a mounted figure of Czar with a lance; on
the reverse the inscriptions and the date in slavonic. In 1700 a pattern
deng. was struck with the head of the Czar and inscription in Latin, and
another, with the eagle and Latin inscription; both are very rare, but
exist restruck. In 1719 "kopeika" with a monogram of the Gzar was struck.
Copper 5 kopeks were struck at first (pattern) with the figure of Mars or
St. George respectively; later with a double heated oagle, and on the reverse
with a cross made from inscription.

Silver coins of 1 kopeika, earlier altyns, ten dengas, five and ten
kopeks, have a double headed eagle on the averse, and an inscription on the
reverse. Later altyns, mounted figure of the Czr. Pclupoltinniks, poltinas
and rubles had a head of the Czar on the averse and a double headed eagle on
the reverse. From 1723 the eagle was replaced with a cross shaped monogram
of the Czar. The silver two rubles, the head of the Czar and a monogram.

# 57 Page 33

on the. averse and St. Andreas cross on the reverse; chervonetz, the head
of the Czar, and a double headed eagle,

In January 1725 the great Czar died, and was succeeded byhis wife,
under the name of Catherine I, who reigned only two and a half years, Not-
withstanding such a short reign, a great number of silver coins, particularly
the rubles, .was stuck, with numerous varieties. The first ruble struck, in
1725, had no crown on the head of the empress, and was called the "mourning
ruble". On the reverse of these rubles was the eagle. The profile of the
empress was.facing to the left on the coins struck in 1725 and 1725, but
from 1726, as always on Russian coins, the head was facing to the right.

During Catherine I reign the following pattern coins were struck;
copper polushkas? kopeikas, grosh (2 kopeks) and 5 kopeks, the latter being of
of the same pattern as that used during the reign of I ter the Great, In
1726 pattern grivenniks were also struck. In addition to previous an attempt
was made to introduce copper coins of higher values, so from 1725, to 1727
square plates were struck with eagles and inscription on the averse and
plain on reverse. Six plates of different values struck were kopeika, 5
kopeks, grivna, polpoltina, poltina and ruble, the latter weighining more
than three pounds. The overweight, clumsy plates were soon taken out of
circulation, and restruck in smaller units. The originals are very rare,
but the restrikes (movodiels) may be found easier.
From the patterns silver coins of grosh (2 kopeks), with and without
the head of the Empress, polpoltinn, poltinas, roubles and two roubles of
.later patternwere struck, while in gold only the two rules were struck.

The short reign of Catherine I was succeeded by a short reign of Peter
II, the grandson of Peter the Great, and the son of unhappy zCarevich llexis.
During his reign the following pattern coins were struck: copper Polushka,
kopeikas, 5 kopeks (more common); silver kopeika, 3 kopeks, poltinas and
rubles, the lattr with a monogram, while later in 1727 a ruble with eagle
appeared; gold rubles and chervonetz. With the death of Peter II the
direct line of the Romanov dynasty ended.

The Russian senate invited to the throne the daughter of the elder
brother of. Peterthe Great, the late Czar Ivan Llexoievich, Anna, the widow
of Grand Duke of Courmand, With Empress Anna started, with brief interrupt-
ions, the reign of Empresses, which lasted for more than 60 years

An improvement in small copper coins began with the reign of Empress
Anna. Polushkas and dengas were doubled in size, -being restruck from the
patternsof dengas and kopeiks respectively, used during the reign of Peter
the Great. These coins had a double headed eagle on the averse and an ins-
cription on the reverse. Besides these pattern coins of kopeikas and grosh
with the head of the Empress were struck* In 1730 striking of 5 kopeks was
stopped, but in 1740 they were struck from a pattern, with the head of the
Empre a s.
Page 34.. # 57














S ,29




B ?I
OsSi~ '


;F:flA T'

In 1730 the following silver coins were struck from patterns: kopeika,
grivnas and grivenniks, some with an eagle and some with the head of the
Empress (some of these were only struck in patterns-), polupoltinniks (
rubles), in 1730 only a pattern and in 1739 and 1740 for circulation,
followed by poltinas and rubles, all of. these coins having the bust of the
Empress. In 1736 and later the so called "Hedlinger" type of rubles were
struck, with the Empress in the gown with eagles. In gold only the chervo-
netz was struck. The number of varieties for each year and value is smaller
than for the coins struck during the reigns of Peter the Great or Catherine

In 1740 Empress Anna died, and one year old Ivan, son of the niece of
Empress Anna was proclaimed as the Emperor. The son of duke of Braunschweig,
who was named Ivan III, was overthrown and imprisoned by Elizabeth, the
youngest daughter of Foter the Great, who proclaimed herself Empress
Elizabeth I. 11 of the coins with the effigy of Child Emperor had to be
returned to the treasury to be restc-ck with the likeness of the new Empress,
under the penalty of Exile to Siberia. The coins bearing the likeness of
Child Emperor are very rare.

During the reign of Emperor Ivan III, the following coins were struck
in copper patterns: polushkas and dengas of the same pattern as those of
the proceeding reign (not rare), the grosh with the effigy of the Emperor.
From silver, with the effigy of the Empervr were struck grivonnik, pattern
polupoltinnik, poltinas and rubles, having on the reverse of grivennik an
inscription and eagle on all others. In 1740 pattern rubles with monogram
were also struck. No gold coins were struck. Copper coins were struck in
Moscow mints and silver both in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Elizabeth I reigned for twenty years and during her reign Russia defini-
tely won her position as a Great Power, and took intensive part in European
politics. The secret police, the tortures used during the court investigat-
ions and the penalty of death wore abolished by her.

Numismatically the reign of Elizabeth I may be roughly divided into two
unequal periods: first, covering the period of 1740 to 1754, and second and
shorter one from 1755 to 1760. During the first period the coinage proceeded
as in previous reign, the coins remaining of the same size and weight. From
1755 the silver coins were made smaller in size and the patterns of the
copper coins were changed,

Copper coins of pattern polushkas, dengas and kopeikas were struck in
1743, the last with St. George. In 1757 polushkas and dengas showed St.
George, in state of an eagle, while in 1755 striking of cld 5 kopoks was
started again. From 1723 to 1730 kopikas with new pattern, having "one
headed eagle, in the clouds" were struck. Starting in 1757, these new kopei-
kas were overstruck into grosh, with a now, St. George pattern. Besides
these, from 1757, new plate-like, five kopek coins, weighing about 50 grams
each were struck. The 5 kopek coins, normally had a double headed eagle on
the averse and a monogram on the reverse. Some patterns are also known with
with St. George and with arms of Siberia and St. Petersburr respectively.

5 57 Page 35

In 1756 Russia entered, the so called "Seven Year War" against Frederick II,
King of Prussia. After a couple :of.years of indecisive warfare, in 1759,
Russia completely defeated the Prussians at Kunersdorf, and a little later
Russian cavalry took Berlin. In 1760 all of East Prussia was annexed to
Russian Empire. The war was costly, and demanded a great deal from the
treasury, which started a copper coin inflation. At first the number of
copper coins coined was increased, but when that was not enough, all of the
copper coins were overstruck with a double value, in 1760. Polushkas were
changed into dengas, dengas into kopeikas. kopeikas into groshes, groshes
into new "four koper as'l five kopeikas into ten kopeikas. The smaller coins
had St. George, while the ten kopeikas a double headed eagle on the averse,
and inscriptions with Ttrophies" on the reverse.

From silver were struck from 1755 5 kopeks with one headed "eagle in
the clouds' on both sides of the coins, followed with a grivenniks bearing
the bust of the Empress. In 1760 new pattern values of 15 and 20 kopeks
were struck with the bust of the Empress, as well as regular polupoltinniks,
poltinas and rubles. There also exist a so called "Dacier" type ruble coin,
having a large head.

A number of gold coins of new value were also introduced: poltinas
(1756), rouble (1756), then common two rubles. (1756), chervonetz with like-
ness of St. Andreas and eagle (some with the date of issue), half imperial
or 5 rubles with likeness of St. Andreas and cross made from arms respect-
ively, double chorvonetz with St. Andreas (some with the date of issue),
imperial or 10 rubles, normal (with the bust of Empress) and "Dacier" type
respectively and with cross made from arms on the reverse, and the last, a
pattern double imperial or 20 rubles.

Besides the regular coins for the whole Empire, special coins for the
Provinces of Livonia and Estonia of 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 kopeks'were struck
in 1756, with the bust of Empress and an inscription "Eoneta Livoestonica"
on the avers, and a double headed eagle with the arms of Livonia and Estonia
on the reverse. A few varieties of each denomination are known to exist.

When East Prussia was annexed to Russian Empire, special coins were
struck in Koenigsburg in copper and silver, bearing the bust of the Empress,
and an inscription in Latin "Elizabeth I Imp. tot. Russ." on the averse, and
a Prussian one headed eagle. Some of these coins had on reverse an inscript-
ion "Moneta regni Pruss.1 From thecopper was struck the "escalin", with a
monogram "E.I." and in silver 1, 2, 3, 6 and 18 groschen and 1/6 and 1/3
thaler. A few varieties of each value are known to exist. First coins were
struck in 1759 and the last in 1762.

Since the Empress Elizabeth I was married only morganatically, her
children had no rights of succession, so in 1753 she elected as her heir
presumptive, Feter Anton Ulrich, the son of her elder sister Anna, married
to Grand ruke of Schleswig Hblstein, and brought him to Russia. A special
commemorative thaler was struck for the young prince, bearing his effigy and
an inscription "Petrus D.G. Magnus Dux Totius Russiae" on the averse, and a
double headed eagle, but without sceptre and orb, and with two arms on the
breast: Russian Imperial and Schleswig bolstein, respectively.

Page 36 # 57

Empress Elizabeth died during the Christmas of 1761,: and the young
prince ascended the throne of Russia, as Petor III. Emperor Peter III was
Russian only from maternal side, for by his education and tastes he was
German, and he was also a fervent admirer of Frederick.II. Lt the moment
when the "Seven Year War" was nearing its end, and Frederick II was at the
end of his resources and was about ready to capitulate, Peter III ordered
Russian armies to evacuate the whole of Prussia. Russian Emperor returned
the country to the Prussians and offered Frederick II an alliance.
Frederick II grabbed this opportunity and in a few strokes defeated all of
his adversaries and regained all of his lost possesifis. Indignation in
the Russian Army and in Russia was very great, and a few months later, on
June 28, 1762, a"coup dtetat" overthrow Peter III, after a reign of only
six months.

Notwithstanding that Peter III only reigned six months, numismatic
efforts of his reignnre well remenorfed. Overstriking of the copper money,
which only begun during the last years of reign of Elizabeth I as strikes
of pattern coins, was executed on a wholesale basis, and was a very unpopular
measure. The pattern of the coins was the same. The following coins were
struck from silver: pattern of 5, 15 and 20 kopeks and regular poltinas and
rubles. Of the latter coins,regular type, with double headed eagle on the
reverse are known as well as pattern rubles with the monogram. Gold cher-
vonetz, half imperial and imperial, all rather rare are also known.

The wife of PIter III, later known as Empress Catherine II, was born in
a small and poor German state of Anhalt Zerbst, and as a girl of 14 was
married to heir presumptive of Russian throne, in a purely political
marriage. Peter III after ascending the throne schemed to get rid of
6atherine by An old Russian device of putting her in a cloister; once a nun
she would lose automatically all her rights and woulc be divorced from him.

Catherine lost no time and when Peter III went to the suburban town of
Gatchina with his mistress, she acted. Brothers Orloff, both her lovers,
mutinied the Horse Guard, and proclaimed her an mpross, and moved toward
Cratchina. Peter lost his head and surrendered. A few days later, in a
drunken brawl, one of the Orloffs strangled him and Catherine was free.

Catherine II, known alse as Catherine the Great, was knownm as an out-
standing ruler and a skilled administrator. Luring her roign, which continued
for 94 years, she extended the Russian frontier on the South, to the Black
Sea, and on the West to the rivers Bug and Nioman, annexing from Poland the
Rest of the Russian Provinces, which previously were part of thegreat Duke-
dom of Lithuania, taking along with them, Lithuania and great Dukedom of
Gourland, a vassal of Poland. Only Galicia, ancient Russian principality,
which after Mongol invasion went under Russian rule, was loft out of Russian

Catherine II stopped the copper inflation, and rostruck coins again
at their previous values. Now all the ccins "with the trophies" are rather
rare, particularly in good condition. During her reign the following copper
coins were also struck: polushkas dengas, kopeikas and the grosh, all with
St. George on the averse and a monogram on the reverse. The large, plate-

# 57 Fage 37

like 5 kopeks, and later in 1796, also 10 kopek, In 1771, in Ekaterinburg,
were struck very largd,.round plates, weighing 2.2 pounds and with a face -
of 1 ruble. The idea behind'the issue of those plates was to use them
to pay the wages of the workers ih the copper mines. The copper in these
plates was worth 1;25 rubles, and it was assumed, that the workers receiving
them for 1 ruble, would sell them for 1.25 rubles, and all would be happy,
The government payments to workers would be in copper instead of silver,
and the workers would gain the difference, Contrary to expectations the
"stores were soon full of these plates, and their market value dropped below
1 ruble. The workers started a mutiny. The government ordered all of the
plates redeemed by the treasury, and restruck into smaller nominal, mostly
5 kopeks. Now these plates are extremely rare. American Numismatic Society
in New Tork has one such plate. These plates in the center of the averse
and reverse had an impression, the size of a normal ruble A pattern of
that impression was used to make a few strikes in silver, in the size of the
normal ruble, so called"Pugachev Ruble'! At that time, a Cossack, from Don
District, named Pug-atchov, headed a rebellion against Catherine, calling
himself "Emperor Peter III", who presumably, miraculously escaped his
murderers. The struggle with rebels was very bitter and Catherine had to
send her best generals to end it. These silver rubles are the only rubles
without the effigy of the Empress, and it was erroneously assumed that they
were struck by Pugatchev.

From silver, during the reign of Catherine, were struck 5 kopek
(pattern), regular grivenniks, 15 kopek 20 kopok, polupoltinikks, poltinas
and rubles; from gold, poltinas (1777)., trouble (1779), two rubles (1766,
1785 and 1786), chervonetz, half imperial and imperials.

From 1764 and 1781, as an inflationary measure, special copper coins
were struck for circulation in Siberia, Their weight was roughly 1/2 to
2/3 of the normal weight of the coins circulating in Russia. The following
values were struck: polushkas, dengas, kopeikas, grosh, five kopeks and 10
kopeks, with the arms of Siberia on averse and a monogram on the reverse.

From 1771 to 1774 Russia was at war with Turkey. Russians penetrated
into the Rumanian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, then under
Turkish rule. For the use of the occupation army copper double currency
coins wore struck in Yassy, The denominations struck in Russian and
Turkish were; one para 3 dengas, 2 para 3 kopeks, and 5 kopeks, latter
only as a pattern. Strikes of the first two also exist in silver.

In 1787, Empress Catherine II made her first trip to. Crimea, which was
conquered and annexed to Russia some years before. In a new founded Russian
nasVal base of Sevastopol, Catherine held a review of the young Russian navy
in the Black Sea. To commemorate these events in Theodogia (Crimea) silver
coins of 2, 5, 10 and 20 kopek value were struck. Avers had a monogram, and
the reverse the inscription of value and around it "Czarina of Kherson and
Tauridia". In this bold inscription was an insinuation to the aspiration
of Russia as an heiress. of the old Byzantine Empire. Crimea and Greek
Tauridia, centuries ago was a part of Byzantine Empire.

Page 38 # 57

In 1796, Catherine II died, and was succeeded by her son Paul I. He
was murdered in 1801, but his short reign, brought many changes in Russian
numismatics. Small copper coins of polushkrs, denga, kopeika and grosh
got a new pattern, with moncgram instead of St. George. The. large 5 and
10 kopoiks were abolished, and replaced by silver. From silver only
5 kopek, 10 kopek, polupcltinniks, poltinas and ruble coins with now pattern
were struck, all with a monogram. Only a very rare pattern ruble exists,
with an effigy of the Emperor, all others (also the polupoltinniks and poltins
the effigy was-replaced with a psalm inscribed in a square. First the
Emperor Paul wanted to raise the value of the ruble to its ancient height
of five franks, so in 1796 and 1797 he ordered to be struck, the so called
"heervy rubles" with double headed eagle on the reverse, and later with a
monogram; but from 1798 the weight of the ruble diminished and in 1800,
after the war with France, again the ruble became worth less than four
franks. In 1798 a pattern "ofimok" was s;rack in size of a thaler. The
following coins were struck from gcld: chervonetz and a half imperial,
both in a new pattern, without the eff'gy on the Emperor but with a mono-

In 1801, the. eldest son of Paul I ascended on the throne of Russia,
as Alexander I. For the first 10 ycr of his reign the type of the coins,
and the method of coinage remnirnrd the same, only the patterns were changed.
The monogram was changed to a double headed eagle and the square with a
psalm to an inscription reading "Psian state money".

From copper following coins wore struck: polushkas, dengas, kopeikac,
grosh, and again reappeared the la-.rpe. plate-like 5 kopek coin. From silver
were struck 10 kopeks, polupoltinni-, poltinas and rubles. Of the latter a
few different pattern rubles exist, with the effigy of the Emperor, and they
all are rare. From gold half imperial and imperial wore struck with a cross;
of arms on the averse and inscription on the reverse.

In 1806, Russians bought modern machines for striking rubles, in
Birmingham, and the resultant strikes were much improved, as compared with
the strikes from earlier machines. In 1810, a new law was proclaimed, which
fixed as a standard the silver ruble, with a weight of fi#e silver of 4
zolotniks and 21 dolias (21 grams of silver of 900) and with this started
the third period of the Russian numismatics.

Below is an explanation of the illustrations.

Table I. Gold Coins.

1. Empress Elizabeth I. 1756. Poltina ( ruble)
2. Empress Elizabeth I. 1756. Ruble.
3. Empress Elizabeth L. 1756. Two rubles.
4. Emperor Peter III. 1762. Imperial (10 rubles)
5. Empress Catherine II. 1777. Poltina.
6. Empress Catherine II. 1779. Ruble.
7. -Empress Catherine II. 1796. Cnorvonetz.
8. Empress Catherine II. 1764. Half Imperial (5 rubles).
9. Empress Catherine II. 1773. Imperial.

# 57 Page 39

Table I. Silver Coins

10. Emperor Peter 1 1704 Altyn (3 kopoks)S
11. Emperor Peter I 1701 Grivennik (10 kopek)
12. Emperor Peter I 1707 Poltina
13. Emperor Peter I 1705 Rouble
14. Empress Catherine I 1725 Rouble (Mourning)
15. Emperor Peter II 1727 Rouble
16. Empress Anna I 1737 Rouble (Hedlinger type)
17. Empress Anna I 1739 Polupoltinnik (T Rouble)
18. Emperor Ivan III 1741 Rouble

Table II Silver Coins

19. Empress Elizabeth I 1759 Five kopeks
20. Empress Elizabeth I 1752 Grivennik
21. Empress Elizabeth I 1751 Rouble
22. Empress Elizabeth I 1757 Four Kopeks (For Livonia & Estonia)
23. Empress Elizabeth I 1761 1/3 of Reichsthaler for East Prussia
24. Emperore btor III 1753 Commemorative thcler. Struck when he
was proclaimed an heir to the Russian
25. Emperor Peter III 1762 Rouble
26. Empress Catherine II 1785 15 kopeks
27. Empress Satherino II 1785 20 kopeks
28. Empress Catherine II 1762 Rouble
29. Empress Catherine II 1771 So called Pugachev Rouble.
30. Empress Catherine II 1787 20 kopeks struck in Crimea 0
31. Emperor Paul I 1796 So called Heavy Rouble
32. Emperor Paul I 1798 r Reichsthaler for levern, then under
Russian protectorate.
33. Emperor Alexander I 1807 Rouble, Improved pattern.
34. Emperor Nicholas I 2 abases (40 kopeks), struck for Georgia
to be continued'

(Continued from Page 79, # 56)
by A. Rosselevitch

In order to conclude the discussion of these stamps on letters, I can
add the following to that which I had written previously: there are articles
which present many photographs of covers and postcards which had supposedly
gone through the Russian Post or the Post of the Russian Army in Constantino-
ple. All of these articles and catalogues were written by honest and sincere
people, who however allowed in spite of it all one great error, i.e. they
did not note and compare the handwriting of those who had addressed the
letters. I have before me such articles and catalogues, profusely illustrated
with photos of many covers and postcards; I take now only one handwriting
well known to me as it is met on most of the documents of the archive of
which I wrote in the past. Adding the letters which I described in #56 I

Page 40 # 57

gather the following list of postal missives with addresses, written by one
and the same hand.

1. -Letter from Bizerte to Constantinople, postmrzked March 15, 1921.
2. Letter from Prinkipo to Constantinople, postmarked April 10, 1921.
3. Letter from Antigone to Buiuk-Dere, postmarked January 4, 1921.
4. Letter from Constantinople to Island of Lemnos, postmarked Feb. 8, 1921.
5. Letter from Camp Lann (Zeiton-Burnu) to Constantinople, pmkd. Feb. 11.
6. Postcard from Constantinople to Belgrade, postmarked April 7, 1921.
7. Postcard from Belgrade to Island of Khalki, postmarked Del. 31, 1920.
8. Postcard from Khalki to Constantinople, postmarked January 2, 1921.

I took as an example only one bit of handwriting and already it appears
that in the period from remember 31, 1920 to April 10, 1921 same person
managed to be in Constantinople, Principo Islands, Belgrade (Serbia),
Bizerte, Tunis and in the Camps of European Turkey. A11 this was done then
when all movements from one camp to another were most difficult for a refugee
from Russia, let alone the travels from one country to another'.

Another point is most interesting. Crder for the 1st, issue was done
on December 17, 1920 and Mr. Essaian obligated himself in the contract to
finish the work no later than after three weeks, i.e. approximately on
January 7, 1921. Thus it is impossible to print stamps, give then to the
Russian Post in Constantinople, be able to send them to the postal branches,
be on letters 31st of recomber from Belgrade and on 2nd and 4th January, 1921
have them on postal missives going from the Island of Khalki and other
Principo Islands. One simply had to be a magician Such a magician was
found, and how many people, serious and honest did he fool.

Now, about the rare overprints on letters. According to the documents,
treasury reports, acts and audits, etc., wecan establish that 10% of each
value were turned over to Mr. Essaian of the 1st issue, 2% of the 2nd issue;
Mr. X took with him to Western Europe 50% of the entire total of all issued
rare overprints, immediately after the stamps were printed, then by diploma-
tic pouch more were sent to him on 12th and 16th of April, and on llth of
May, majority of more rare ones; to Mr. Tchebikin of Belgrade on 3rd & 18th
April, and to Tkhorzjovski in Paris on January 21 Stamps were likewise
sent for liquidation, among them also the rare ones. 12 complete collections
were given free to the highest and mos t important personages, and 20 to 25
collections were sold at nominal price to Representatives of stamp firms,
collectors and officials of the Russian Post. Finally 24 series with over-
prints on Russian Levant were among those stolen in a hotel on April 26,
1921, from the suitcase of the Superintendent of Posts.

Thus if we take a stamp with an issue of 50 stamps, check it with the
data in lists of the documents on hand, we find that after deducting all that
were given, sent, and presented as gift, there remain no stamps which may
have been sold in the postal, branches of the camps. If we take a stamp with
an issue of 2,000, after all the data of deduction, there remain 65 to 75

# 57 Page 41

From this we find that td be sold at camps, the issue could not have
been less than 1000 to 1500 stamps, and then those sold could have been
only in negligible numbers. Letters with rare stamps, belong to the catego-
ty of those prepared in advance by Mr. X for publicity and sale in Western
Europe. For this he sorted out at once 50% of all overprinted stamps. As
for the collections and others, receiving them free or at a nominal cost,
on complete collections, we cant suppose that any one of them would have
started to throw around or break up their sets, or to send for-no reason at
all, to himself or to his friends letters with rare stamps,

With this I close my review of this issue, with which we find connected
one of the greatest of philatelic manipulators.

Among articles, brochures and catalogues devoted to these two issues,
we find clearly, and in detail classification of the types of overprints,
and signs by which we can recognize forgeries from genuine. We shall not
add anything to these efforts and research, and merely advise the collectors
and dealers to be careful regarding these stamps, especially the rare ones,
letters, inverts and various curiosities and varieties.


by I.L.G. Baillie

In Rossica No. 55, dated 1958, there is an article by A. M. Rosselevitch
on the Crimea surcharges and on the Wrangel refugee post issues. In k56
issue, W.E.C. Kethro and I comment on the Wrangel refugee issues in the light
of the Rosselevitch article; my purpose in this brief article is to comment
only on the lOCR/lk. Crimean surcharge which he mentions.

The fact-of major importance which seems nowhere to be contradicted is
that the 10CR/IK. stamps do not exist postally used. I have not seen any
genuinely used copies, and in fact not even any purporting to be cancelled;
the mint stamps, of course, are not uncommon although joined pairs, blocks,
etc. occur relatively infrequently. Further, a forgery of 100 different
typographed subjects is a considerable feat of the imagination, and from
these two considerations alone I feel that the "prepared for use, but not
issued" category which Rosselevitch derives in other ways is likely to be

In this surcharge therefore it does seem that we are dealing with an
item given full official backing, and that it was only the final occupation
of the Crimea by the Bolshevik forces that prevented the surcharged 1k.
stamps from being issued and used. On this basis it appears to me to be
fully Jastified to accept the surcharge as completely authentic; argument
and conjecture about the way the stamps came on the philatelic market does
not strike me as of great importance, although the story obviously holds
great interest.

The article by Rosselevitch caused me to refer to notes which P.T.
Ashford and I prepared some years ago on the plating of the 10R., surcharge.

Pago 42 /#57

Because. of the greater knowledge now available, in particular of course
the background discussed by Rossalevitch, I have arranged with Dr. G. B.
Salisbury to submit those notes (suitraly arended whore necessary to bring
them up to date) for publication in-this Journald I hope this will result
in further information being forthcoming from other members. The questions
which one would most like to see. aswered include:

a. -Does anyone possess copies which-really are genuinely. used.
b. Does the 10 R. surcharge exist in joined pair with the 100 R.
surcharge, or does it only exist as a separate proof as discuOgUo
by Rosselevitch,
c. Can any significant changes of state of the printing plate be

The surcharge we discuss below is shown at the top of the first of the
two phges of illustrations. For obv-ous reasons a convention had to be
adopted in representing the charactors- the one we have adapted is as
follows witha translation of the surcharge entered alongside) ;-


100 100-

The surcharge occurs cn the 1909. perforated 1 k. "Arms" type of
Imperial Russia (wove paper; intersecting chalk lines) and on the cores-
ponding 1917 imperforate 1 k. stamps Standard catalogues vary consider-
ably in their recognition of the surcharge, as the following comparison
-- ---------------------------------------- ------ ----------------------------
Romeko Yvert & Scott .Michol Zumstein Gibbons Gibbons
Catalogue 1927 1927 1959 1938 1949 1955 1959
Franks Franks Collar Marks. Marks Shillings
Ik. .Prf.
Normal 15. 40. 0.50 6. 2. N .L. 3/6
Inverted 75. 150.x N.L. E N.L. N.. E
Double 75. 150.x N.L. .L. N N. N.L. E
10 error 225. 500.x N.L. NVL. N.L. N.L. E

1k. Imperf,
Normal 15. 20. 0.60 6. 2. N.L. 3/6
Inverted 75. 150.x NL. E N.L. N.L. E

Prices; Unused specimens (in appropriate currency)
E : exists, but no price quoted.
NL. : not listed.
x ; not listed in the 1924 edition.

# -57 Page 43

According to the majority of the catalogues recognizing the surcharge,
it was applied in.the Crimea during 1920, under the authority of General
Wrangel before he was 'driven from Russian soil.. It is interesting that the
catalogues often.give prices for the normal stamps in used condition, and
a few even for some of the varieties or "errors"; however, we have never
seenused copies and believe that, if used copies do exist (i.e. if the
stamps were in fact issued surcharged), they must be very rare.

Ronmko (1927 catalogue) and.Rosselevitch (in-Rossica.No. 55) both
state that the surcharge was typographed. There is certainly a distinct
"-bite" on many specimens,'and the plate make-up described below is also
fully in agreement with typography.

We have been able to examine the surcharge (on 1 k. perf.) in full
sheet and have as a result been able to plate it completely. The method
of plating is as follows:-

a. Check from Table I the "basic" grouping,
b. Check from table 2 the "special" grouping when Table 1
does not permit complete plating
c. Check from Table 3 the "additional characteristics"
when relevant.

The data in Table 1 lprmits complete plating of 55 stamps; the further
data in Table 2 permits complete plating of the remaining 45 stamps. The
"additional characteristics" in Table 3 give useful checks for 37 stamps
(19 plated, from Table 1 and 18 from Table.. 2). An example of plating is
given at :the end of this article..

"Most of the differences used for plating arise' from,tho use of a umber
of fount's of type these are shown in the illustrations as call for no
further comments. It is of interest that the arrangement of the founts is
completelyy irregular, and that there are no regular subtypes recurring in
the sheet as with the Refugee Post surcharges of General Wrangel.
'There is one process the comparison of the "0"s of .100.which involves
degrees of difference, and it is necessary to use the method we used in order
to get the correct results. We used a transparent millimeter scale and a
magnifying glass. For the width and height comparisons, differences less
than about 0.1 am, were considered negligible. For the base level comparis-
ons, the scale was aligned parallelto the tops of the letters of "PYIBEH"
just touching the base of the low6r'"O"; if the bther "0" were not signifi-
cantly higher (relative to the variations which could be.expected from vary-
ing impressions) then the two "0"s were deemed to be level,

We had ho.ed that it mi*ht be possible to plate the surcharge solely in
terms of founts of type and major additional locational variations, none of
which would involve questions of "degree" of difference. Unfortunately this
did not prove possible; we Velieve the method wo have adopted is about the
simplest to apply.

Plating of the surcharge is not, however, a difficult operation, and
we hope that the data which we have presented will be of use and of interest
to members. Differences are generally quite well marked and, in addition to 0

Page 44 # 57

permitting. plating,, enable the genuinemeP of specimens to ha determined
(on the assumption, which appears to us to be justified, that the sheet we
examined was, itself genuine ). ..:

Finally, we would like to comment that the apparent existence of "10"
for "100' (a surcharge we have not seen) suggest that:-

a.' The printing plate suffered damage during use (which would not be
surprising bearing in mind the condition in the Crimea at the time),
b. or the "10" for "100" -represents a district surcharge.

Rosselovich is not clear on whether or not he believes that the "10"
for "100' exists in pair with the normal 100 R. surcharge, but he does
state that a separate 10 R. surcharge exists on several values including the
1 k. However, it is anyway likely that some damage did occur to the print-
ing plate, so that it would seem probable that various states of the 100 R.
surcharging printing plate remain to be identified. all that we can say
about the sheet wo have examined is that it does not appear to be a late
state .

"If any members have further information to provide on this most interest-
ing surcharge, your editor will be pleased to hear of it.

to be continued
by L. i. Rossolevitch

On page 7 of #55 overprint "10" instead of "100" is discussed by me.
I wrote that if it was an error (forgotten or fallen-out second zero) of
that issue, of which speaks Mr. Baillie, it should be in a pair with a normal
over;pint n"00". Separate specimens with "10' are those' proofs whiuh I
described in my article, they exist likewise onl kop. and another values
(in my collection is a "10" on 3 kop. imperf. and on 10 kop. green of Gen.
Denikdn series "Yedinaya Rossia").

I have never seen a pair of 1 kop. with 'one stamp "10" and "100" On the
other6 I do not think such a pair exists and that "1C0 overprint is not an
error but a proof which was balled an error by a misunderstanding.
------ ------ ----- ------------------ ------------
Meetings of the Rossica Society, San ?rancisco Branch, are held on
First and Third Friday of each month at'-the home of the League of Russo-
AMericari Women. .Guests are invited. Those interested please contact Mr.
JanSson, Representative of Rossica at 624 16 -Avome, San Francisco 18,
Clif ornia. -.-------- ------------- ------

57 .. ... Page 45
0 ,- 1 '

Reply -to Dr. ;-. de Stackelberg .and -to
editorial comments in r6,l Pages 5 to 16
by o R. GaRarin
The background of the issues mentioned above is not as complicated as
Dr. de Stackelberg means it to be in his paper and I hope to be able to en-
lighten some of the points which seem to be 'questionable.

Before starting with this task I think I will have to tell about my own
relations to the philately of the Pskov issues. Being mobilized into the
German Army with "a rank of War Administration Cbuncillor (Kriegsverwaltung-
srat) I went to Pskov about October 16, 1941 and remained thbre until
February 4, 1942. I was not there either during the first period nor at the
time. when the last issues of Pskov were issued. I had no influence on issu-
ing of these sets, but I was an interested observer of the philatelic events.
Furthermore I gained at Pskov a splendid friend, Mr. Waldemar L. Rempen, a
first class philatelist of the old St. Petersburg school, a gentleman of
impeccable honesty and one always searching for truth in philately. Mr.
Rempen was in Pskov from the start of German Occupation until the end of it.
To remain completely unaffected he refused to have any connection with the
Field Commandment as the editor of the issues. He did not even visit the
printer were the stamps were printed. There were no advanced philatelists
in Pskov and since both Mr. Rempen and I were masters of Russian language
we were at a greater advantage than the others, and were able to enjoy the
confidence of the town inhabitants. Nearly each day we were able to visit
the post office and obtain wanted information from the Russian postal clerks.
Mr. Rempents entire collection of Pskov issues is composed only of stamps
and entire which were sold to:him over the postal counter (the only except-
ion being the overprinted, unwatermarked 1 kop. yellow Soviet stamp, listed
by Michel as No. 672), which he bought- in Riga 'after' the evacuation of Pskov
by Germans We do not know whether this variety was really sold at the post
office in Pskov). The testimony of Mr. Rempen relative to all philatelic
events occurring during the periods when I was not in Pskovj is absolutely
convincing to ms.

From 1943 to 1945 at the order of the Authority for the. Investigation
If German Occupational Issues in East Europe (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Ostland-
ausgaben) I was in charge, of expertization of the. Pskov issues, Later I was
put in charge of the Authority mentioned and continued in that capacity until
1948 when I had to give it up to Mr. Eberhard Keiler, who is still at the
head of it. I have written all.of the text on Pskov issues for Michel
G..Calogue. and determined the basic prices of .stamps.

Beginning with the review of the editorial remarks I fully agree with
the main portion of the "Editorial Comment"'. I am convinced that it was
unnecessary to establish a Town Post in Pskov and that it was started not
because of the needs of the towns peopleo.. A esenger boy or two would have
been sufficient to trake care of the needs of the Labor Office (Leader Dr.
Herman Schultz) as the later, the main and practically the only user of the
Pskov Post., This postal institution actually existed and operated with no
restrictions and no difficulty for free correspondence, even for the towns-
people. I have never observed traces of inspection or censorship.

Pqge 46 # 57

The lone post office had operated only within the circumference of the town,
and it -ought to have been. difficult for the populace to buy -stamps at the
post office, since-its daily quota of stamps'was very. small and they were
sold out in an hour or two to German soldiers standing in line. It was
easier to walk a few blocks -.d deliver a message. Nevertheless, letters
actually going through the-post east, and they- re extremely rare, since
99 percent of letters and cards were cancelled by favor. I have saved an
envelope, which was picked from the waste paper basket of the Mayor of
Pskov. It was a registered letter, with a petition inside. I also
received some greetings by mail during Christmas as well as investigation
results made by Russian hospital and pharmacy, which were sent to the labora-
tory of which a friend and I were in charge. There were no postal communi-
cations to villages and no other post offices, except the one.in Pskov.
The Labor Office, mentioned previously -by me, which used this post, was not
the branch of the Ministry of Labor, but a branch of the frmy Industrial
Headquarters (Wirtschaftsstab Ost). It is correct that the cards sent out
by this office were to be returned to Dr. Schultz by the addressee

The Town of Pskov was inside of a military zone, served by a Field Post,
which was used only by military personal, and which was not used for postal
communications within the town. Because of the small use -of the Town Post
by townspeople (although there were no restrictions to its use and it is
possible that the Russian postal employees would have been helpful to Russian
users) the necessity of Pskov issues has not been established.

The opinion of the editors that Berlin esmrted influence is not correct.
The authorities in Berlin had nothing -to do with establishment and operation
of post office in IPkor Only the Field Commander of Pskov was responsible
for all of this. The only reason Berlin protested is because Hindenburg
stamps were overprinted without a special permission.

Certainly the Pskov issues are neither private nor phantastic. I class
them as Military Occupation issues.

I agree with the editors that the percentage of illiterates among the
Russian population of Pskov was not as great as indicated by the author.
Illiterates- were most of the German soldiers, and it was for these that
three postal employees used most of their time in writing fictitious names
and addresses on-the envelopes and postcards boring Pskov stamps. The
above is the source of numerous envelopes addressed in same handwriting.

Now I will make some brief comments on Dr. Stackelbergs paper. The
statement that Dr. Schultz spent months in negotiating with Berlin in refor-
ence to Pskov issues io exaggerated. Actually the time was limited, and Dr.
Schultz was too busy at his Labor Office to devote a great deal of time with
;the matter which was not his responsibility. I was in close contact with Mr.
Chereperkin, the Mayor of Pskov, and it was perhaps he who suggested that a
postal service be .established to stimulate the redevelopment of life in
Pskov. I do hot believe that this was the only reason vhy the .postal servi-
ces were opened. I suppose the initiators of Pskov issues had an idea that
creation of an issue from hn out of ordinary locality would be'a profitable
matter I have no idea who was responsible for these issues, but think that

# 57 Page 47

.a friend of .Field Commander Bolognaro Grevenna played an important role in *
their creation. Since I have no real proof I can not mention his name. I
believe too that the Initiattos had no zeal love far philately. Later on,
at different occasions I had a..few talks with Mr,. de Bary, the officer in
the Field Command, who had charge and control of. the postal service and I
tried to'keep him from issuing more.'and more new Souvenir Sheets, as being
harmful to philately, but my. task was in vain. This. was the. only influence
that I tried to exrt on philatelic events of that period

The history of the philatelic developments in Pskov, given by Dr.
Schultz, first of all lacks-the description .of the significant facts that
the entire played on these.eents. It was.difficult to obtain even the
Soviet stamps, for the overprinting for use in Pskov, but a certain quantity
of these was purchased. in Estonia .at the start of the postal service. It
was easier to obtain a quantity of Soviet stamped envelopes and -post cards,
and those after overprinting were available at Pskov post office, before the
appearance of.the overprinted stamps,u A very large quantity of Soviet
entire were overprinted, without respect to philatelically noticeable dif-
ferences,, such as face value, design, shape, variations in printed propaganda
*slogan, '-and etc. There are at least 49 varieties of such entire that have
Seen sold by the post office. The first entire were overprinted by a
rubber handctanp, which was mentioned in Dr. Stackelberg's. paper, and which
was cut from a piece of pneumatic tire (not from a mat) Two days later a
few entire made their appearance with a framed "20 kop" overprint and the
word "Pskov" in Russian. This overprint-was made from a zink etched plate
we: pared.by MI. Ale eev-Gay, It was followed:by a Pramed overprint in
G- erman, reading "Phlskau 20 kop." in purple ink, and finally with the same
overprint in black and also one of.'160kop... The last two overprints are
common. There also exist a few entire overprinted only with the upper
Portion of the .German "leskau 20. kop." overprint, which-was done when the
die for the "60 kop." was not ready Ae very interesting material to collect!

The main point on which I can not agree with.Dr.. Schultz is the story
Sof.the rubber handstamps on postage' stamp.* I state that stamps with
rubber handstamp overprint "PLESKAU1. were never sold at: Pskov post office
and all such existing varieties ai'e fakes. I suppose that during the first
days of the postal service there was no effective control in use of stamps
of various values, and a number of different persons ( I can name a few)
took an opportunity to have all kinds of Soviet, Estonian and Lithuanian
stamps to have them overprinted with handstamp mentioned at the headquarters
of the Field Command, and then force the Russian postal clerks to cancel
these stamps after they were pasted on envelopes, Fictitious registered
letters were prepared in the same manner.

The worse thing that I met with in my long philatelic career was the
act that was perpetrated on the letters that were found in the mail boxes
after the occupation was completed. These letters, with already affiYd#
different Soviet stamps, and addressed to various, widely scattered parts
of Soviet Russia, were rubber handstamped in purple or red ink and then
cancelled. These overprints are known in different positions, as well as

Page 48# 57

inverted. I do not. agree with a statement that these stamps were affixed
on the envelopes after the mail boxes were emptied. Dr. Stackelberg men-
tions such a letter addressed to Leningrad. I have seen numerous examples
of such letter and possess some. I also had an occasion to read the messages
on some post cards and letters. All of these seem to be addressed by Soviet
military personal' I have never seen any of the above addressed to Pkcev or
its vicinity. The justification that the product of this unhealthy phila-
telic phantamiog on letters, as stated in some articles, was intended to
be distributed to the..addresses on letters, is -absolutely unacceptable.
The envelopes, the stamps, the cancellations and the overprints all all
genuine, but the combined product is a fake. It is strange to observe that
a large number of these fakes has a signature of Dr. Schultz.

It is also interesting to note that the Framed Overprint "PSKOV" in
Russian appeared only on entire, while the same overprint on stamps was
made "by favor".

The statement made by Dr. Stackelberg in his article that stamps over-
printed with a rubber handstamp are mentioned in Michel is incorrect. Only
the use of the rubber handstamp on letters found in the mail boxes after the
occupation was completed is mentioned, and each user of the catalogue rndes
his own deductions of this curious phenomencu Nevertheless, counterfeit
examples of this type still appear in various auctions and even in exhibits.

It is correct that the overprinted 3 pf. Hindenburg stamps did not
reach the post office. A rather large number of registered envelopes exists
with this stamps, as well as with 4 pf. Hindonburg stamp and also with
"60 kop. Pskov" overprint. All that I have seen are addressed to Field
6onmander Bolognaro Crevenna and all are prepared "by. favor".

In closing I would like to correct the listing of Soviet stamps over-
printed with framed "Fleskau" in black, The Michelts numbers,given in Dr.
Stackelberg's article, of the Soviet stamps is incorrect. The numbers should
be 365C, 672,.367A, 676, 677, 679, 680, 682, 683 and 684 respectively.

Sibrhapsat a later date,I will have an opportunity to give more detailed
information on stamps, entire and postal event of Pskov during the period
covered by years 1941 and 1942,

by A. E. Rosselevitch

Allow me to disagree with the statement that the occupation authorities
concerned themselves with the postal employees of Pskov. From what can be
gathered in the.articles by Drs. Stackelberg and Gagarin in Journals i'56 &
4'57, it is slear that the postal issues of Pskov were created by philate-
lists for philatelists as I had suggested in the editorial comments in #56.

Sums of money for postal expenses in Arbeitsamt could not exist. This
department was a part of German Ministry of War, and it sent papers & notices
free, and this can be corroborated by those who lived in any occupied
European country.

#57 Page 49

We know however. that the majority of. Pskov stamps were used up by
Arbeitsamt. We wont even spoak of the Fqld, Co6mmandant 'and others who re-
presented the occupation authorities. Tho question is from what fands were W
these stamps paid for, the stamps used by the German establishments and
responsible people, who had the right of foee correspondence. Did the
people that printed the stamps pay themselves, or did they take the stamps
free without paying for them.

by Dr. C. de Stackelberg

I am delighted that Dr. Gagarin has written notes on my article on
Pskov issues and on editorial comments which appeared in Rossica #56.

During my recent stay in Germany, I was extremely pleased to have an
opportunity to meet him and to discuss .wih him the problems relating to
these issues. An independent review of the "postal" situation in Pskov as
it existed in 1941-42 by a well known philaelist is of great..importance to
collectors the world over. I fully agree .with'him that the Pskov emissions
cannot be considered either as.przivate issues or phantasies. He correctly
classifies them as local military occupationn issues,. Similar issues appeared
in various parts of. the world during the last war and whether one likes it
on not they are good colleotorts items.

It-is unfortunate that Dr. Gagarin arrived in Pskov so late, and left
it so early. Thus he wasn't there dating the so-called first period -
Auguat and September, 1941 and had already left Pskov when the negotiations
between Dr. Schultz and the Post Office Department in Berlin were taking place;
not to "save" the Pskov issues but to be taken over by the German Dienpost.

However, I have to disagree .with Dr. Gagarin only on two small points:
From the literature reviewed'I think that originally the black Hindenbutg
stamps were overprinted with "Fleskau 20 kop." in black and that to distin-
guish the overprint better on a black stamp, the black ink was changed later
to red.;-or: purple, and not the other way round as he mentioned. Further,
I do not think that I said that the. Sovit stamps overprizted with
Pleskau only (lst Ituc ) were issued over the the counter. They were over-
printed on covers only, mostly for philatelic purpose, at the Field
commander s Office.

While in Germany I also had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Schultz in
Erlangen, and I obtained from him, I think, a rather important and significant-
information as to why postal services were originally established in Pskov.

The Field Commander of Pskov, Col. Bolognaron Cravenna, did not want to
disband the existing nucleus of the Pskov Post Office., composed of old and
experienced postal employees, but wanted to have this unit retained for
future eventual civilian use. As the imilitay mail was taken care of by the
German Fieldpost, he did not have any appropriations or funds to maintain
this unit, i.e. to pay the salaries of the Russian postal employees.

Page 50 # 57 ^

This, of course, could not hav been achieved s1ould the Arboitsamt (Labor
Office), headed by Dr. Schiultz, had not had special appropriations for
Spostal.expenses and was thus able to supply the necessary large sums of
local funds for buying stamps especially to be iued -for their citations.
Thus originally the necessity for opernng a local postal service in Pskov
did not exist, but this service was nevertheless established to maintain
the Pskov postal unit by the German occupation Authorities.


I received a copy of the remarks rzcad by Dr. Stackelberg. I agree
completely with him that the first stampsof Pskov sold at the post office
were two 1 pf. Hindenburg stamps with overprint reading "Pskov 20 pf." At
the bottom- of page 2 of the Russian edition of our Journal, there is a
mention of .a report of the Mayor on the stamps which were overprinted with
a rubber handstamp, as well as a statement that these stamps were sold out
within three days. I can not agree with this statement. The overprint
was applied only on stamps pasted on-envelopes which were found in the
mail boxes, and although this overprint may exdst on other stamps, these
stamps were not sold at the post office. The first stamps issued were the
overprinted Hindenburgs.o 1so the statement, that the stamps with the
rubber overprint were affixed on the letters found in mail boxes, is not
correct. I also wonder who has paid for the stamps which had to be affiied
on the letters found in the mail boxes.

(Contimned from )56, Page 102)
by A. Cronin and W. S. E, Stephen

Between 1934 and 1936, a spate of 73 pictorials, beautifully produced
by the photogravure process in assorted shapes and sizes and obviously de-
signed for the juvenile trade flooded the market, retailing at below their
nominal face values. As commercial covers wore not forthcoming as evidence
of their widespread use in Touva, neither of the two major English-language
catalogues list them. Although very rare in the Western world, genuine
covers do exist and those known to us are described under each issue.

Philatelic covers abound bearing these stamps, the 1935 Lanscape and
Animal sets being on registered covers cancelled Turan and bearing type-
written Genoa and New York addresses. Sundry values of the 1936 Jubilees
are on registered covers to Luzerne (Switzerland) and New York, the printed
addresses in both cases being set up in exactly the same type of envelopes
of the same size; the stamps are cancelled Kyzyl (type of Fig. 13) ear-ly in
1937. As the above covers generally took 23 to 26 days to reach New York,
and a correspondingly shorter time to get to Genoa and Luzerne, it is hard
to believe that they were actually posted in Touva, especially when compared
with the transit times taken for commercial and philatelic mail from Touva
to Moscow. Indeed, some of the above covers bear the handstamped Moscow
address of the Soviet Philatelic Association on the flaps, struck in the

#57 Page 51

This, of course, could not hav been achieved s1ould the Arboitsamt (Labor
Office), headed by Dr. Schiultz, had not had special appropriations for
Spostal.expenses and was thus able to supply the necessary large sums of
local funds for buying stamps especially to be iued -for their citations.
Thus originally the necessity for opernng a local postal service in Pskov
did not exist, but this service was nevertheless established to maintain
the Pskov postal unit by the German occupation Authorities.


I received a copy of the remarks rzcad by Dr. Stackelberg. I agree
completely with him that the first stampsof Pskov sold at the post office
were two 1 pf. Hindenburg stamps with overprint reading "Pskov 20 pf." At
the bottom- of page 2 of the Russian edition of our Journal, there is a
mention of .a report of the Mayor on the stamps which were overprinted with
a rubber handstamp, as well as a statement that these stamps were sold out
within three days. I can not agree with this statement. The overprint
was applied only on stamps pasted on-envelopes which were found in the
mail boxes, and although this overprint may exdst on other stamps, these
stamps were not sold at the post office. The first stamps issued were the
overprinted Hindenburgs.o 1so the statement, that the stamps with the
rubber overprint were affixed on the letters found in mail boxes, is not
correct. I also wonder who has paid for the stamps which had to be affiied
on the letters found in the mail boxes.

(Contimned from )56, Page 102)
by A. Cronin and W. S. E, Stephen

Between 1934 and 1936, a spate of 73 pictorials, beautifully produced
by the photogravure process in assorted shapes and sizes and obviously de-
signed for the juvenile trade flooded the market, retailing at below their
nominal face values. As commercial covers wore not forthcoming as evidence
of their widespread use in Touva, neither of the two major English-language
catalogues list them. Although very rare in the Western world, genuine
covers do exist and those known to us are described under each issue.

Philatelic covers abound bearing these stamps, the 1935 Lanscape and
Animal sets being on registered covers cancelled Turan and bearing type-
written Genoa and New York addresses. Sundry values of the 1936 Jubilees
are on registered covers to Luzerne (Switzerland) and New York, the printed
addresses in both cases being set up in exactly the same type of envelopes
of the same size; the stamps are cancelled Kyzyl (type of Fig. 13) ear-ly in
1937. As the above covers generally took 23 to 26 days to reach New York,
and a correspondingly shorter time to get to Genoa and Luzerne, it is hard
to believe that they were actually posted in Touva, especially when compared
with the transit times taken for commercial and philatelic mail from Touva
to Moscow. Indeed, some of the above covers bear the handstamped Moscow
address of the Soviet Philatelic Association on the flaps, struck in the

#57 Page 51

same shade of gray-black as the cancels on the stamps, so it seems certain
that such items were postmarked in, and sent from Moscow. Any further doubt s
may be dispelled by the fact that the Turan cancel has also. been seen on a
stamp of GECRGIA (I). Apparently someone in Moscow.picked up the wrong
handstamp when cancelling Georgian stamps to order., Although never having
seen Touva such.covers definitely have a place in a collection of the country,
if only for the reason that we cannot think offhand of .another instance where
the stamps of one country were placed on registered mail posted from another
country under such unusual circumstances---almost a case of "used Abroad" I

As a guide to classification, Yvert numbers are quoted for the stamps
which consisted of the following sets:-

1934. Registered set. Inscribed in Totan and English. Line perfo-
rated 124 and imperforate (same values ) Yvert Numbers.
39. Ik. orange (mounted hunter) 43. 5k. blue (milking yak)
40. 2k. oliw-egr.en (hunter). 44,. 10k. brown (camel. train)
l4. 3k. rose-red (household scene) 45. 15k. lilac (native & reindeer)
42. 4k. brown-violet (tractor) 46..20ko black-brown (fox-hunting)
Nos. 40 and 42 are known perforated 11. and #44 perforated 11x10. The
earliest known usage is in the foorm of an interesting philatelic cover with
violet MSS registration numbering bearing the complete set imperforate can-
celled Kizil 12/9/34 (Fig. 4, Rossica #54), being damaged in transit and
officially resealed in London G.P.O. on arrival (Dr. A. H. Wortman collect
ion). Another registered philatelic cover franked with ##43, 45 and 46 is
known addressed to Moscow and cancelled Kyzyl 12.7.36 (type of Fig. 8, W
Rossida #56), while a further item shows an even later usage of the complete
perforated set and unframed registration type (Fig. 14) which appears to
have been employed only at Kyzyl, being postmarked Kyzyl 21.1.38 (Type of
Fig. 8, Rossica #56) in black and arriving in Berne, Switzerland on Feb. 10
(W. Frauenlob collection).
The design for the 5k. (#43) was adapted by removing the.word
"REGISTERED" and substituting a cow for a yak, to produce a 20k. stamped
envelope, which exists printed in both black and blue.

1934. Air Mail. Inscribed "Air Mail" in English and perforated 14.
1. 1k. red (plane over two yaks) 6. 50k. green.(plane over yaks)
2. 5k. yellow-green (plane over camels) 7 7 5k. lilac (plane over native
3. 10k. brown (native bird) cart)
4. l1k. rose-red (plane over camels) 8. It. blue (plane over yaks)
5. 25k. violet-brown (plane over 9. 2t. Ultramarine (plane and two
mountain sheep) reindeer)

Proofs are known of all values in.rose, and of #2, 5, 6 and 7 in ultra-
marine. Proofs of #1 are known in about 6 or 7 different colors ranging
from yellow to deep blue, while the 25k. exists imperf between in unused
state. No. 8 also exists perforated 12- and is elusive thus, while No. 9

Page 52 # 57

comes in two sizes,' 60x30m. and 55327mmi, the letter being the scarcer.
The following covers are known.-

(a). Registered cover to Berne,. Switzerland, franked with airs #-1,
4 and 9 cancelled Kyzyl 17,6,-36 (Fig, 13) and backstamped at
.Usinskoye 9 days later reaaching its destination on July 12.
(b). A cover to Moscow (registered) bearing J'/6 and 8 and cancelled
Kyzyl 12,11.36 (Fig. 13).
(c). A registered cover (philatelic) with the complete air set cancel-
Irid Kyzyl 21.1.38 (Fig. 8) and showing the unframed registration
type (Fig. 14)., arriving in Berne, Switzerland on February 10.
All markings are in black iW, r oieiiiob "collection).
(d). A registered philateli' "oer to Ncw Tork, showing a very late
usage of air i/8 together with registration' set #39 to 46, imperf.
with the unframed registration handstamp in violet and cancelled
Kyzyl 20.6.40 (Fig. 8) in black arriving August 25. (Dr. G. B.
Salisbury collection).

to be continued

by G. J. Rymond
In answer to Mr. Ressellts querry for further information on the
Czechoslovakian-Mongolian Archaelogical Expedition, I am the American who
received and reported the covers from this expedition to Mr. Russell and
others (which fact Mr. Russell erroneously neglected to acknowledge). A
detailed story of this expedition, covers, postmarks, and postal facilities
can be found in an article by me in VWEKLY PHILAMBLIC GCSSIP, March 28,
1959, page 108, to which interested renders are referred.

SIt has recently been my delightful experience to receive a letter in
perfect English from a collector in lman Betor who, encountering my name and
address in a European philatelic magazine, wrote to inquire if I might like
to exchange stamps and covers'. (YES) It has been suggested that the recent
"Male Animals" set was cancelled-to-order on FDCs prior to date of actual
sale in Ulan Bator. .My earliest nonphilatelic covers bearing some of these
stamps, (registered, to Moscow) is dated April 4, 1959 at Ulan Bator; would
readers please report earliest dates. Re the new "Sports" set issued June
6, 1959, I have examples from this set on nonphilatelic Embassy mail post-
meirked at Ulan BHtor on June 30, 1959. Many of the official booklets, etc.
published 1in Ulin Bator now include a full translation in English, a promi-
sing development.

From TLNNU TOUJA, recent covers show a slightly different new Kyzyl
registry mark. A small number of nonphilatelic covers (early 1959) from
Touva to Moscow, indicate that at lenpt several USSR commemoratives are on
sale at the Kyzyl P. C. Cne especially interesting covers bears the current
postmark of Taran, in.Tannu Touva.

# 57 Page 53

by G. J. RryMond

We are Quoting below from an article "Mongolian ,olegs Republic" by

"the postman handed me a letter from the expedition leader, its cover
resplendent in colorful Mongolian.stamps with a strange postmark." The
leader of the expedition "told of their-work at Karakorum,. in central Mon-
golia, at the site of that ancient capital of the mighty empire of Genghis
Khan. The nearest mail facilities were some 45 km. away, where their expe-
dition truck met with the Ipost auto .(mail car) serving the villages of
Archangai-Aimak (where his letter was postmarked) and Cecerleg, an 164 km.
mail route .1

"At Cecerleg the mail was transferred for transportation to Ulan Bator,
550 km. away. He wrote he would be glad to post covers to me from Mongolia
during their brief stay, and would be happy to do so with his compliments
on return to Ulan Bator about Septembe 15, 1958. My remittance was returned.
with the hope that instead I might have a few used books on archaeology which
could be sent to his Czochoslovakian address for him. Ans so at last I had
my first cover from the Mongolian Peoples Republic'. Not only it was a
gentune cover with interesting new stamps of the M. P.R., it was an even
more elusive expedition' cover, with a small village postmark-a real prize t

"Astonishingly the total time enroube from Ulan Bator (by backstamp) to
Houston, Texas was only FIVE DLYS My own deduction from this (gnd subse-
quent covers) was that the famous Soviet TU-104 jet transport planes stop
for mail and passengers at Ulan Bator enroute to Moscow from Peiping."

"My reply was quickly on the way, enclosing some light-weight self-
addressed envelopes, apologizing for-my imposition but offering a larger
sending of books if he would be so kind as to post the extra envelopes to me
from Hongolia. In a very short time the covers began arriving by air mail,
to my great delight, bearing a variety of Mongolian P..R. stamps on each
cover of differing values and sets. Of 24 different stamps, only three are
listed by Scott catalogue and four appear to be unrecorded anywhere. The
front of each' cover:bears two handstamps. one in Czech, the other in
Mongolian-cyrillic characters, which, translated, read'CZECHOSLOVWKIAN-
MONGOLIAN/ARC14QAEOLOGICAL EXFEDITION/to Mongolian Pe oples- Republic 19581
Also, excepting a few bearing three different types of Ulan Bator postmarks,
the covers had all been posted at small village post offices Translated,
the postmarks read tRCIHANGAI (two different types), 'KHUZHIRT' and ?OVC-,
KHANGAI. Allocations do not appear on any maps in my possession. Mr. A.
Cronin, of Toronto, suggests that those may be newly-ascribed names to older
post offices. It would appear that these stamps were purchased at the Ulan
SBator post office, applied to the covers, and posted along the route to and
from the expedition headquarters. I have since received a letter from him
(in English) from Prague, and a package of books is well on the way to him,
needless to sayt 'And this- is how a.. .ingle small news item brought not only
some very unique texpeditionn covers from Mongolia, new knowledge of stamps,
postmarks, postal rates, postal facilities and transportation of the
Mongolian Peoples Republic, but also a bond of friendship across the Iron
Curtain ."

Page 54 j 57

Addenda: "Since' -iriting 'the above, I havo boen informed that a Thila-
telic Bureau of the Postal Administration ha- boon .ope.ned.at UIan Bator, and
that 'a new pictorial trai-'nal set role asod N3ov 1'1', -" and printed in
Hungary to dealers throughout the world. While covera .ay yet be scarce, at
least new knowledge of Mongolian staps will. te maoe readily available to
the philatelic world."
.. 0000000000000000000000


A. A. Chebotkevich

Enclosed please find three postal etiquettes or labels, two of which are
on heavy paper, ungummod, perforated and 40x45mm. in size. The following
inscriptions are enclosed in a double lined square frame; at the top and
bottom "1918 yearn, and at the sides "Private Stamp" which is correctly
spelled and not showing an error as stated by Marcovitch in #55. Enclosed
within the inner frame', in ten lines, is an inscription reading "In accord-
ance with the agreement between the sender and the recipient, the postman
delivering this letter should receive ten (10) kopeks." One stamp is orange
and the other is biege. The..printing is in black ink.

The third one is on thin paper, white, imporforate, with a purple,
framed inscription in large letters,, reading at the top "FRIE", underlined.
A smaller six line inscription.below it reads "Accarding to the ruling of
Sov. Peoplest Committee of 26.XII.1922, Dept. Peoples Comm. Posts and Tele-
graph of 20.II.1925 yoar, No.32-212." Below it, in manuscript, "Instead of

A. M. Rosselevitch

States, that he has found Russia, 2k. green of 1889, with horizontally
'laid paper cancelled Lodz. The postmark has "Lodz" at the top, "Post. Tel.
Office" below, date "12.Dec.06" in the center, ad "UTR --at. the right angle
to the date "06", and located at the right of the date lino. "UTR" is abbre-
viation of word "Utro" or morning. This word has never been seen in that
position. Has any one seen similar abbreviation on cancollationsof other
towns, or the abbreviation of the word "Vecher" or evening, as "VECi .

Asdrubal Prado, Sao Paolo, brazil..

A close scrutiny of the War Charity stamp of 1914/15, on so called
orange rpaer, shows that the stnmp is not on orange paper at al1, but on a
paper that has a thin orange color film. The back of the stamp is nearly
white. Reynolds in his catalo-ie, Part I, mentions the 3 kop. on orange
paper, however, no other catalogue lists this stamp.

This question was given;to *A.M.. Rosselevitch" who stated that he is in
agreement, and that yellow, cream, .orangep.gr;y, grFay blue, and blue colors
have been applied to the 3 kop. War Charity, stamp of 1915 by Mr. X of Paris,
and that these. stamps are cotncidered.to be forgeries.

# 57 Page 55

K_ Fre.Yman, Capetown, South Africa. Discussion by A. Rosselevitch.
1. O. K. C. A. 3 line inscription, unframed of 50 kop.

*...Vaya Pocht This is not a postal obliteration, as
....Nyesh, Snoh .... it has no date, nor the locality. It is
C.-ZoA. either a phantastic cancellation or a
cancellation applied on a stamp used on
official papers, or on an envelope, The stamp has gum on back, thus we
assume it was never on a letter and therefore is not a postal item.
2. 0. K. C. A. Blocks of 4 of 5, 10, 20 and 50 kopek, cancelled
"Zadvcie, Fetrogr, 26,8,19." The stamps were not affixed to letters. The
cancellation was either applied by a private individual, or by request. The
color of the postmark is gray-lilac, which was not used by post offices but
by offices and other types of establishments for cancelling various papers.
The cancellation is not clear. Theoretically the postmark of this town can
be seen as a rare exception on stamps of NW Army or 0. K. C. Ao
3. Russia 70 kop. with chalky network, and with incomplete Moscow
postmark. The stamp is covered with regularly spaced crosses, which perfo-
rate the paper. It is not a postal perforation, but one .made either by a
commercial establishment or a private bank. In Russia. control of stamps
by perforating was seldom used, but we may meet with various types of control
markings, such as perforations, letters, round holes, etc.
4. Russia 7 rubles, black and yellow, postmarked "Pol. Gl. Pocht.
Kontora Tila Manch. iArmii" or Field Post, Main Post Office, Rear of Manchrian
Army "17.3.07". It is a very interesting and a little known postmark.
(see illustration). .
5. Russia -3r. 50k. green and red brown. The block of.four is canoel-
led "Nizhni-Novgorod No. 2 Telephone 11-6-19". (Seeo illustration).

W. Stephen, Scotland

Kindly advise postmark collectors not to pay fancy prices for Levant
(Russian Offices in Turkey) Commemorative issues overprinted with various
towns, issue-of 1909-10 cancellations. Most of these cancellations have
been found to be F OR GE R I E S

"Jacques Posoll

I have recently received from Mr. Riche of Mons, Belgium a photo of a
postcard used by the Russian Brigade in France. It is similar to the ones
previously described by me, exept this one has a double ring, violet cachet,
not recorded as yet, and which reads "ETAT-MAJCR ME LA BRIGDE ARMEE IDME-
RIAIL RUSSE", with the arms of Empire in the center. It is cancelled
"!TRESOR et POSTES 188" and date "8-2-17."

Dr. G. B. Salisbury

Mr-. Poso3l, first bass and the head of basses of the Cleveland Orchestra
recently wrote in the program book of the organization an article, "Russian
Composers on Postage Stamps". He also exhibited his collection of Music on
Stamps in the Green Room of the Cleveland Auditorium.

Page 56 # 57

*We have.'recently received several letters from.Tannu Touva. One was
from FEDCORVKA, TOUIA, LUTONOMOUS OBLAST,- showing a pictorial T.T. stamp
completely covered by four Soviet stamps, indicating that the Touva stamps
are-no longer valid.v The date is 10,8.59,

Another was from S.RIG SEP, Touvan Oblast, 6.4.59, bearing Soviet stamps
only and the usual "ME Z H D U N A R 0 D N A Y A" framed marking.

The third one, had the International. Letter Week, October 1957 6ok.
stamp cancelled KA1 KEM 27.4.59. The name means Kaa river. This may be
a mobile cancellation used on a steamer travellinr on river Kaa. The river
runs through the lower portion of the country. Tho over was originally sent
to TC(ERKHEM, in the north, being misdirected. Date on the postmark is in-
verted in relation with the rest of the postmark.

G. S. Russell New Zealand

I have just acquired a fine registered cover from SHLRASTUE, dated
October 18, 1919, bearing a pair of Ir, Russian stamps plus 9 cents in
Chinese Turkestan stamps 'All with Sharasume Russian postmark. The cover is
the usual native type addressed in Chinese to Peking and backstamped there
(plus another fhinese cancellation, not yet deciphered). The two Russian
stamps are tied by a purple cancellation of Japanese P,O, (the town name
at the top is illegible, but I presume it is Peking, though why the letter
would need to pass through the J.PO. at all is whatinftigues ne). I
believe that the only Japanese cancellations with the ''I.J.P.O." at the
bottom were those that were used on mail posted at Japanese post offices
to addresses abroad, and not to addresses in Japan itself. Gibbons7 Catalo-
gue states that the Japanese stcmps overprinted for use in China ceased to
be issued from December 31, 1922, so presumably the Japrnese Offices in
China closed down then so the date on my cover-brings it within the period
of use. The Japanese have their own calendar of course, with a different
system of dates. The Chinese cancellation on the cover has date 11.1.21.

The use of Russian and Chinese Turkesten stamps in combination is also
intriguing. May one assume that the Chinese stamps were available at the
Russian P.0, or did China have its own P,0. in Sha'rsume at this period.
It is not clear on page 324 (Part IV,.of Russina Cffices Lbroad). Simon
Tchilinghirian mentions "Chinese Authorities of Sin-Kiang' in Sharasume, but
does not say there was a Chinese P.O. If there was a P.O., one would assume
they would use Chinese cancellers on. mail. So far as I know, there are no
covers reported from Sharasume bearing only the Chinese stamp, with Chinese

I have another Sharasume cover (mentioned on Page 324, in "Used Abroad")
but it bears only Russian stamps (five 5k. imperforate and one 70k,). The
cover is dated April 6, 1918 and is addressed to ebking, and is backstampod
with a Russian postmark of that city.

I once held another Sharasume -registered cover bearing Russian and
Chinese Turkesta- stamps, as mentioned on page 10 of Rossica #54, but I no
longer have it. Incidentally, the date on that cover was February 3, 1921,
although the literature states that covers dated after 1919 are not known.

#57 Page 57

.I have just acquired a Mongolian. overe. with Soviet stamps (a pair of
.10k .Scott f/256), cancelled Troitskosavsk (nowI'Kakhtca) in Buriat-Mongolia,
in Russian, and dated 29o2.24, The cover has Chinese transit markings of
Kalgan and Peking, plus another one not at all clear though the: name of the
town appears to be in English, On the address side of the cover is a red
oval handstamp with Cineso characters meaning 'IKiakhta"e so I am told, and
with a date in the center written by;hand, in red idk. It is quite a novelty
to me. There are four Chinese symbols meaning "Urgent". The-..Troitskosavsk
S postmark on the Soviet stamps is quite different from the one illustrated
on page 312 of the Used Abrad, Part IV, It is of course dated 18 years
later than the one described in the handbook.

J. Barry -England

Concerning the notes on T.P0. margins on pa g 55, Rossika.-155, at the-
end it says, "We never knew when the Soviets discontinued T.P.O. markings."
Soviets have never discontinued T.P.0's. We have received letters with
T.P.0. markings "P.V. Archangelsk Moscow, 29.7 .58"1 placed in railvan mail
box at Rostov-Yaroslavsky, Moscow Province and "P.V. Tiflis-Rostov, 5.9.58",
put in at Sochi. Both of the letters arrived bearing only the aforementionedd
cancellations. It will be noticed that the 'former "Pocht. Vagbn" oblitera-
tion has been modified to "P.V." and no route numbers are now used.

E. Collins .
I acquired some Zeppelin stamps and looking them over I- noticed that
there was a difference in length of the frame and also in the.length of the
Zeppelin.. Could there have been more than one printing -.where on the second
'there may have been a change in dies..

The stamps in question were sent to J. Barry for comments, and the
following is his reply "The enclosed stamps appeared in .several perforations
12-2. 12. 12x122- and13. Some stamps have, frames of different sizes, not
necessarily the same for each perforation. They are 47x2O0mi., 44x20mm.,
48x20mm., 4Sx19lmm. and 48x2:0-mm. There may be even more sizes in existence.
The variation in sizes probably happened in some cases through wet printing,
although the' gap between Z44x20 and 48 sizes is too great. "

I have a Nijni Novgorod Fair cancellation,, dated 22&gig.1884. Mr. Barry
states that a special Fair cancellation was used in Nijni Novgorod, and as
far as he knows the aforementioned date is the earliest he knows of. It
would be interesting to know if other collectors have earlier dates.

I have a marginal horizontal pair of 40 kop. imperforate of revenue
stamp,. Forbin #17 (1901), 'perforated with last three letters of Russian
word meaning "S P EG I M E N".

I have picked up a few items, which I am enclosing for you comments.
He ard of'the Huddy LFawtand the Gronin Retouch, I am sending Scotts Vertical
laid 14 kop. blue and rose (Collins Bend) The lower right hand corner of

Page 58 # 57 A

the. ,four" of ."fourteen". has:quite distinct bend in it.

`r. C. de Stecklberg .
I disagree.with 'r. Fohs that the later Rouble isasus can be distinguish-
ed by the absence of the chclk -nete feel that the chalk not. somehow, is
more commonly absent in the first printing than in the period of 1917-18,
perhaps ip to 1922; but definitely not during the very..last printings of

r. Huddy has made .a most interesting contribution Everyone else
tells me, as mentioned in my article tht.-.the otrnmps privately perforated
11i were issued in Tiflis but never rouletted stamps. ro we know where and
how Major Darlow obtained his rouletted sheets. Perhaps they were made for
him and passed through the post at his request and far his benefit, as
Apparently all of the cancelled cover a addressed to him, I look upon
them as privately roulette, of no philatelic value, as they were never
Officially issued.

A, Rosselevitch

There is a disagreement and erroneous views on the so called Tiflis
stamps perforated 11i, caused by improper terminology in :ome cases,
statements are made which can be interpreted as if in Tiflis Imperial stamps
perforated 11- were issued. Thfs creates a faulty understanding, as in
Tiflis there were no printings of Imperial stamps of 1909"17 type, but in
Tiflis after the" .revolution, during the Civil War, some sheets of Imperials
(imperf orate) were perforated 11- at tne instigation of postal clerks for
easier separation of stamps At the same tioe, probably in some typography,
beginning from 1918-19 stamps vere Z.rtinted by Goeorgi. ap later by Soviets,
partly imperforate and partly perforated li4 in-1923 The remnants of
Russian Imperials of 1909-17 were overprinted with, new values and Soviet
emblem. The overprints were made,on imperfbort, perforated 14ax15 and
perforated 11 stamps. Those prforrated 11- are 75,00Cr. on Ik. and 300,O0,-c
on 3ke

At first stamps perforated li- were of private origin, while later
in 1923 they appeared officially with an overpritt. It is important to
underline that the sheets of Russian stamps perforated 'll' already existed,
and up to to this year, wore at first privately perforated before the Russian
dtaimps perfaoated 14Axl5 and imperforate were used in Georgia. While the
perforating was done in typography and not,-by hand method, it should be
called a private perforation, especially as only a few sheets were perforated
thus. There of course exist-many' Imitationsa and fantastic perforations,


by E. Marccvitch
(C. ontired from pare, 56)

4. aergdt' (overrinted with Rod Army five pointed star)
Fantastic overprints of five .pointed, ster n-.'.straps of first issue of
Georgia, 1919. Scott Nos. 12 to 20. (Chapier 1936, page 35).

#157 Page 59

1919. Georgian stamps overprinted with Soviet` 5 pointed "star.
1. 10 kop. 4. 60 kop. 7. 2 rub.
2, 40 kop. 5. 70:kop. 8. 3 rub,
3. 50 kop. 6. .:1 ub. 9. 5 rub,

4. Georrgia (original Designs)
Fantastic series of.original--design of primitive type, with following
designs church, woman holding sickle and sheaf of whet,, mountain
peaks, and the rising sun. The inscription is in Georgian and the
values of all vignettes is in black. Size-38-329mm. Imperforate.
(Illustration Fig. 40).
1.. 5,00 r. blue 4. 15,000r. sky blue 7. 100.000r. rose-
2. 5,000r. green 5. 25,000r. yel. greon 8. 250,00r. lemon yel.
3. 10,000r. violet 6. 50,000r. greenish gray 9. 400OO00r. red
5. Georgian Levant

First issue of Georgia (1919 Scott Nos 12 to 20) overprinted
"IConstantinople" and value in "piastres" is red, black and blue.
The series was supposedly in use- frdm January 10 to March 31, 1921.
A ll authorities agree that this issue/is private and speculative.

*1921. Overprinted on perforated stamps. The color of overprint -in paren-
1.. 1pi./1k. (red) 6. 7pi./70k. (blue) 13s. 20pi/3r. (red)
2. 4pi.140k, (black) .7. 7pi../70k. black) 12( 50pi 3. Spi.i50k. (black) 8,l0pi/lr. (black) 13. 50pi./5r. (blue)
4.: 5pi./6Ck. (black) ,9.20pi/2.. (black) 14. 5Opi./ r. (red)
5. 5pi./60k. (blue) l0.20pi/3r. '(black)


1. Idt'-4a *.(Qcifinal design)
1918. Series of 4 stamps of original designs. Appeare on sale at Riga on
IDeember 12, 1918. The author of this private issue was prosecuted
by law (Chapier, 1936, page 38).
Imperforate, inscribed "Latwija"

1. 5 kop. rose (horn & crown in center). 3. 25 kop. rose (flag)
2. 10 kop. rose (sun in oval) 4. 50 kop. rose (sun in
2. Idthuania (Overprints)
1919-20. 5 and 15 kop, of 1909 of Russia, overprinted with Lithuanian Gross,
letters "L.P." and new value "10", in decorative frame. (2nd. addenday
Chapier 1953, page 27).
1. 10 on 5 kop, 2. 10 on 15 kop.

age 60 # 57

Sy F MaT rcovzz' c/

"' 31-3

28 30

35" 35B
33 3

*mim Mi,,,

"36 37 8 .39, 3q9-q


q qS q6

3. Estonia (Hapsal) ... .. ..

1918. 'Provisional overprint' fa1s acm o rmn Occupatiamn tamnps pverinted
"rPostgeb6it Gb Ost. .
S.-2- pf 3. 5 pf. 5. 10 pit. 7, 20 pf. 9. 50 pl.
2. 3 pf, 4. 7ipf. 6.15 pt. -8.' 40 pf.t

4, Estonian (Wesenber" overpints "Eesti .

1918. Iasued in Docember. Handstampod fEesti" on German Occupation stamps
oorprinted Postgoboit Ob Oat."

11- -p. 13. 5 pf. 15.10 pf ,. 17.i20 pf.
12. 3 p 14. 7.-pf. 16. 15 pf1. 18.-25 pf.

5. Estonia (Series issued 1b bolshevikfI )
Stamps of original design. In center numeral of value and inscript-

19. 5 k. yellow 22 40 k. brown 25. 3 r. violet
20. 30 k. green 23. 50 k. ultramarine 26. 10 r. light lilac
21. 35 k. brick red 24. 1 r. black
The data on fantastic stamps of Estonia (1, 2, ahd 3) ias taken from
the Mon6graph of Chapier, 1936 (page .33) and addenda, 1939 (page 15).


1. Ibrsidskaya Fochta (Porsian Post)

1920. Stamps of original design supposedly issued by Srviet detachments during
a military expedition into Persia in 1920, when th Red troops pursued
brsians to Tehoran.(ClhapierT.rihes de Fantasieo 1939). Origin unknown.

Inscription in Russian "Persidskaya Pochta" r Porsian Post. Vertical
and horizontal rectangles, 27x35mm. and 35227mm. Perfcrated 1i-.
1. 1 shai :(Iig. 29) violet 7. 12 hai (Figure 29)iyellow
2. 2 shai (Fig. 29) dark brown 3 r khr. (Fig i 30) dark gray
3. 3 shai (Fig. 29) gicpn 9. 2 khr. (Fig. 30) light green
4. 4 shai .Fig. 29) grcon., black 10. 5 khr. (Fig. 30) ultramarimz
5. 5 shai Fig. 29) red' 11. 10 khr. (Fig. 30) orange red on
6. 10 shai Fig. 29) blue yellow paper.

Figure 29 Sharpshooter, above him a heraldic lion.
Figure.-30 '- Group of five sharpshooters, with smn. above them.
Ia to lUa. Imerfor ate Same values as Nos. 1 to 11.

S57 Page 61

2. Turkestan (Overprints)
1920. Russian stamps of .1918,. imperf o'ate, 1. and, 2 kop., overprintedd .10 kop.
to '-i rubles. These stamps' wer supposedly coro=ted with the occupation
of a portion of Mongolia by General Baron Ungern-Stornberg, where he
retreated from Eastern Turkestan. (Figs 31. and 33.)... (According to
late Capt; Shramcherko,4 these..stamps are fqond canceledd on letters
with "Khotan" 'and "MerJ& cancellations, most likely counterfeits. In
the early 1920s they wore-, listed in many catalogues;. '.When it became
obvious that they WOe' fantasies, nearly all catalogues deleted then,
S' .I 10./k../1 .' 35 k./lk 0 7 ./l k i,. r./l ik. 17. 5r./lk.
2. 10 k./2 k. 35 k./2 k. 1. 70 k./ 2k ri./2 k. .8. 5r./2k.
3. 25 k./l k. 7. 50 k./l kI. ro/.1 k.. 3 3 r./l k. 12. 1Or./lk.
^. 25 k./2 k. 50 k./2 k. 12, 1 r./2 k. 16. 3 r./2 k. 20. 10r./2k.

192-. Russian Ruble values of-1917 overprinted,- 5 pointed star, in center -
sickle and hammer and "1000'" in 'hsa writing. Perfor ated. (Fig. 27)
Reported by J.. :EP sell
1. 1000/1 r. '3. 1000/5r. 5. 1000/10r.
2. 1000/3.r. 50 k. 4. 1000/7 r,
"3. TurkeTstan (Criinal desidns)l -

1923/24. This series of fantastic 'stamps of original designs. first appeared on
philatelic .market in 1924. The: catalogue of Baron :on Scharfenber
collection states that they are of Italian origin. Late Capt.
Schramchenkots notes indicated that they were printed in Paris. The
stamps picture vi-ewes and natives of Turkestan. Size so. 33*23inm. and
23-x33mm. Imtperf orate.
1. 1k. lemon yellow (types of natives) 5. 25k light blue (ruins of
2, 2k. light green (camel & rider): : a fortress): (Fig. 35)
3. 5k..4lac (amel -& .rider) (Fig 33) 6, 50k. yelow -brown (flock of
4 4. lk..dark brton (mountain viow) (34) : sheep') .
"la"to 6a.` Same values as Nos. 1 to 69 except perforated.
lb to 6b. Same as Nos, 1 to 60, except overprinted:by :hand, in violet
S..... "RUB" ..

1924s. Iandstamp 5-lino overprint in violet ori,prvious,:series.... These stamps
also exiSat. cancelled in black ,-doubble ring ..with inscription "Field Post
E. E .Turkestan" (White Army) and a date in- the center of the ring. Accord-
ing to late Capt. Schramcheniko these stamps were '.supposedly for the post
o- f Eastern iTrkestan White irmy of :General .Siche,.. for use in March, 1924,

""The overprint is as follows:-

Line 1 Cr own Line 3 Dawn. of Liberation. -. - BRusisa Line 5 192v
L .ine '2 B.T.. Russian letter P. (Abbr. of Eastern Turkestan Border Gov.)
Ic td 6c. Overprints of Nos. 1 to 6.
Page 62 # 57

4. Eastern Bekhara(added, not -in-outline .in, #55)

1922. Listed in Soviet Philatelist No. 1, 1922.; The article states that
the stamps were Issued for Bukhira Rebellion -ganis+t Bolshevdk
Government, 1922. Later, the Soviet Phil:atelec 'Associition declared
thdse stamps to be fantastic'- The' overprints are in Bokharoa language

Overprinrts on 1907 -1918 stamts o- Paussi&a. -

1. 1k. prf. 5k. perf. 7. .r. orf.. 10. 2k.-Imp. 13. Ir. imp.
2. 2k. pr. 5. ?k. perf. 8. 5r. perf. 11, 3 im
3. 3k. perf. 6. 20k.. perf.. 9. .k. imp. 12. 5k. imp.

On Soviet stamps'

14. lOOr. 16. 300r. 18. 100C.
15, 200r. 17. 500r.

On 1919 stamps of JLzrbai.an' On Persian Stamps of 1889 and 1894

19. 60k. 20. 50r. 21. 2ch(1889) 22. 5ch(1889)
23-. 8ch(1894)

ThO illustration page for this article also includes material which
will be described in #58.

to be concluded in #58

o 0
o 280 Riverside D-ive o
o New York,. 25, NY. o

o. 0
o Want lists for collectors and dealers are filled by return mnil. Better o
o grade approval books by country also available. Many rarities and o
o oddities for specialists. o
o 0
"o o
6 0
.o Other C untrias on hand, although weakr. o
S. o
000o000000C0000000000C003CCO CC 0000 occo0oocooo000z0000o000 c 00C00 oc00000oc000000

# 57 Page 63


Fl-A.N TA S.T 1 C .S TAM P,S
by R. Polchaninov
I. read with great interest -Hon. Memb.E. E. arcovltcEts article on fanta-
tic stamps in #55 of Rossica. !Las-we can hot up t6the, present day, state
with assurance, if certain stamps are fintasits or not,. and several catalo-
gues at the present time list fantasies, some at high prices. If the status
of certain stamps. continues to be debatable and .questionable, the determina-
tion of the items as to whether they are fantastic or not is not debatable
"at all. Depending on.this criterion I wish to ask the author whether it
would have been better to transfer thel issue' ussiai Empire postage
stamps' to.fantasies and not to vignettes. Thls stamp (in my collection I
have a maximum card with the "cancelled" stamps) is included in the list of
vignettes, See Rossica #54, illustration 64.

It is a different story with the sc called "Generals Series". These
items look more like vignettes than .stamps. There,is; an absence of numerals
of value, with the exception of Gen. Denikin and Gen. Mai-Maievsky, lilac
and blue items, which are overprinted, so that the numerals are covered by
black squares, and the word "kop." by year -1919"t

As the contemporaries of this issue do not have accurate data on it, I
shall forward my theory. I suggest that "Osvag" issuing all sorts of propa-
gandaU atoris&1, ordered a series .ofpropaganda vignettes or labels abroad but
the foreign firm created so many errors that they became useless for propa-
ganda. Let us compare them with the paper currency of "Western Volunteer
Army" (in which, in these words were placed letters"Russian I) instead of
"Russian D". These were accepted by'the treasury in spite of terrible
errors. Further, I suppose that "Osvag" refused to accept the order and
the firm then sold all of the printing to a dealer who attempted to sell
these labels as an issue of stamps printed but not issued.

The article '0Overprints of'General Wrangel in Crimea and Constantinople"
in #55 Rossica is likewise most interesting for use in completing the list
of fantasies. I am sure that the members of Rossica will thank the author if
he will compose a list of fantasies created by "Mr. X0, which he detailed in
the article, i.e. such items s sScott No. 261A, listed at $200.00, and most
"important bf all -give the numbers under which they are listed in major

Prior to completion of this article I received Rossica #56. I am sorry
I did not have the opportunity of seeing the second article by Mr. Mareovitch
prior to its publication, so as to g.ve the source of:information on many
items, which I think are erroneously listed as fantasies. Here, it will be
appropriate to define the torm "fantastic stamp". First of all, fantasy,
be it a basic: stamp, or an overprint, is not a falsification, but creation
of a so called stamp, a figment of imagination of a person or persons.
Secondly it is not an item which was issued by both warring sides for propa-
ganda, and not for commerce. Thirdly, occasionally stamps are issued by un-
scrupulous dealers for the purpose of gain, where the origin is not indicate
or is clouded, thus fooling both experienced and novice collectors. After

Page 64 # 57

1' 945 an era of "rite 'teirtamps"- deoeloped- and a large number of varieties
(especially of Ukrainian origin) first with a propaganda purpose and
secondarily with eoorercial- gain" appex rd, but as their .creators do not
hide under anonymity, I can not consider- them as fantasies. The flood of
stamps produced by tho-"governments in exile" in our era, have their own
enthusiasts, and are listed in special catalogues, for example,for Ukrainian
stamps there is a catalogue compiled by J. Maksimchuk.*'

Michel catalogue lists three "Asobny Atrad" stamps, stating that they
were issued in 1920, and printed in Latvian Government Typography. I have
no other data, but my opinion is that they should not be considered as
fantasies, but as "zarubezjia".

Those listed in 1'56 Rossica ae fantastic* are:

1. Inaiiitations of Denikin "Yedinaya Rossia" stamps (Single, undivided Russia)
2. Western Army overprinted tYedinstvo i Svoboda" tSingle and Free).
3. Western.Army overprinted with -Maltese Cross and swords.
4. Western Army "In honor of freeing Russia".
5. Western Army. Overprints on stamps of "Postgebeit Ob Ost" (I have in my
collection overprint "3 A." in a circle, on 5pf. stamp 'of Germany).
6. Ukraine, overprint of Polish Eagle.
7. Ukraine, overprint "Youg Rossii" or South Russia.
8. Ukraine, trident overprints on Romanov Jubilee issue.
9. Azerbaijan, overprints.
10. Azerbaijan, original designs.
11. Batum, overprints.

In the category of stamps ordered by an authorized governments, but
not issued, the following are listed in Michel.

1. Northern Army stamps of original design..' Michel states that they were
not used for postage. I have information that they were printed in
2. Western Army, original design. Michel states that they were not used
for postage. There are documents signed by the commanding general of
the Army, Kniaz Bermodt-Avalov, ordering the issuance of these stamps.
3. White Russia-Bolarys stamps of original design. Author mistakenly
states the year of issuance as 1921 (unknown origin). Michel gives
*1918 as the date of issue in the Lithography of Minsk Government.

In the third category, i.e. stamps of doubtful origin, as stated by Mr.
Marcovitch we must refer to the issue of RCPIT, 1919. I wish to conclude
my comments by adding the missing fantastic issues not included by Mr.
Marcovitch in the Journal #55 and 56.

1. North West Army. Overprints on imperforate 1,2,5, 15, 35, 70 kop. and
1 ruble which are not listed either is Scott or Michel, issued after
the original issue, printed in the same printing office in Pskov, but
not issued. Stamp of .35kop1,vmpevforate was issued in a quantity of
25, according to A. Rosselevitch.

# 57 Page 65

2. Western Army. German 5pf 6 and other values of. "Germania" type over-
printed "3.A."..ia a circle,
"3. .raine Overprint "YCCI on stamps of,'RSFZSR (Yvert Nos. 152 to
S154 or Scott Nos. 170-172 with a note giving them:a questionable
status) 7,500r./iO0r., 7,590Q/250r, ane 22,500r./lOOr. Including
varieties there are 7 stamps in-the set. .
4. rain.e Courier Field Post, 10 given overPit inn 4 lines noted
by Scott as fantasy. It is not clear, whether all of the stamps of
This issue have a 10 given overprint, or.the overprint is different.
Overprints on stamps of Ukraine, Scottvs.-Nos. 62 to 66 (Karbutov
issue). Who knows more about these stamps Editor See BJRP, #23,
5. Ukraine. Trident in a wreath. Violet handstamp overprint on the
Romanov 10k.k.k. and in black on the ordinary 2 kop. perforated of
6. Western Ukraine. A-private handstamp overprint in violet, handstamp
either of rubber or wood on stamps of Austrian Field P'st with a
portrait of Emperor Carl. Values are 1, .2, 12, 40, -60,and 80h.
Some stamps also exist with a fantastic one line or round overprint
"BR 0 D Yt'.
7. Kuban Peoples Reapblic. A violet, three line, nhandstamp overprint on
10 kop. stamps of Russia.
oooooooooooooo .
ooooooooo0oooo oooooooo ooooooooo oo OQQooo0oooooooooooo ooooopooooooooooooooo0
0 .0
o Extensive Stock........... .

o o
0 0
o .Stamples. covers, postal stationery, stamp, rarities and regular issues, o
o" proofs, essays, varieties, cancellations, covers.*' Inquiries invited. o
0 0
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"F ..-. N T A S, 'I ... ~b y r e d W S ..ee r. ..

Following are some additional notes, based on exmnle's' n my possession,
on the Russian Levaantfantasie described by E. 1,arcovltch in Rossica Journal
#55, pages. 42 and. 43.

A...These four color variations. my be .ade: to.the list Mr. Marcovitch
provided: lIfLia. light violet & tlie (the first color given here
is that of the background); 2-pia. tan & rocidish brown; 50pia. light

Page 66 .# 57

blue &,orange.and.70pia. In same color.
B. I have 4 blocks. of four of ipia. red & light, blue, 2pta. gray & dark
green, 3ipia. light green & *violet, and 5pia. brown & gray, in which
the upper pair is etet beche. All stamps, exept the one in the upper
right hand corner are normal, the latter stamp is inverted.
8. I have a vertical pair of the' 2-pia. yellow & green, tete beche, with
the upper portions of the two stamps adjacent to each other. I also
have a block of 4 in yellow and green, the top pair being 2Jpia. and
the bottom pair being of 3hpia. Both pairs are tete beche, with left
hand stamps being normal and the right hand stamps inverted. It might
be noted that Mr. Marcovitch does not list a 34pia. yellow & green.
D. I have the following vertical pairs consisting of two different values,
where the upper stamp is of higher value in each instance:.

1. 2- & 2pia. blue & red 5. 50 & 35pia. light blue & orange
2. 2- & 2pia. gray & lilac 6. 50 & 35pia. gray & light blue
3. 5 &3Upia. blue & red 7. 100 & 70pia. light blue & red
4. 7 & 5pia. blue & red.. 8..100.& 70pia. gray & light blue

0 0
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o F R IT Z B.I L L I G o
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o ...Jenaica 32, N. Y... o
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o BITLI.G & RICH 55 West 42nd Street New York 36, New York o
o o

by W.H.H. Huddy

Comments of E. Marcovitchts article in #55 on Fantastic Stamps of
Russian Levant on pages 42 and 43.

Paragraph commencing. "All values exist tete beche, horiz. & vert.
etc" This reads as if all stamps must appear this way, but if my reading is
correct then this statement is incorrect as by far the greater numbers of my
pairs are not "tete .beche", neither are my blocks of four either horizontal
or vertical, Further, in -the margins some are marked Controls A others
Controls B. One stamp, 100 piastre light blue and light red must have been

# 57 Page 67

in my possession almost from the date of appearance*, Where it came from I hai
haven't the remotest idea, but my "write up" states "Stamps issued by the
Provisional Goveriment of Odesa,, replacing the, surchrged.:stamps of 1918
before the arrival of bolshevist .toops.," Obviously this was copied from
the source, which: source I should imagine was an Exchange 'Packet but it is
quite, beyond my recollection. Lastly I have compared this ne. with the
others received from Eddie, and, I a detect no difference other than in the
lettering which appears a trifle thinner in the old .one.

Editorial Note .

SFrom March 1917 to January 1920, there were 'many. changes in government,
but never an autonomous temporary government. Soviet-trcrops finely took
Odessa on January 25, 1920.
0000o 00 0 0 0 0 0 o o0 0 0o 0 0 0 0ooo 9 Q.o, 0 o-0,0 0 0 0 0 0 000oooo
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ooo000 0 0 0- o 0 .0 0 0O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0o O O.0 0 0 0 0 :O0O 0 0 0 0 0 C0 0 000
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o For sale Philatelic literature and over 1000 Photostats of important o
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o also have some complete series of Russia and Ukrainian Tridents. o

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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Page 68 # 57

Sby'E. MarccvitCh

J. Maksimchuk Bibliographic Handbook of Ukr-nian Fhilatel.y Revenue
Stamps aBant Ba Notod.

Recently J.L. Macksimchul, expert and researcher of. Ukrainian stamps
aind labels, published a new work, in: Ukrainion This book is a result of
iany years of study. -The title of the book ddes not. state that the book
"includes: not only the field of Ukrainian postage stamps and revenues, but
also errinophilia. It is a well known fadt that this phase of collecting
is covered by numerous monographs and articles. The author likewise has
also written a great nmiber of -books and catalogues on Ukrainian unofficial
stamps and labels. All of these efforts are listed ain this handbook.

Literature on Ukrainian philately first appeared at the moment of the
issuance of first Ukrainian postage stamps, ie. from the second half of
1918. First .articles appeared in-German philatelic press, in July 1918.
This literature at.present time is a bibliographic rarity and is found only
in great libraries.

Another rarity is the journal "Ukrainian Philatelist' published in
Vienna from 1925 to 1939 under the editorship of Dr. Ivan Turin. The only
complete set of this journal, known to the author, is in .the library of
Osip Kochan, proinonrit Ukrainian philatelist. Other collectors have but
single issue s .

Similar source publications are the first works on' the overprints of
Ukrainian tridents on Russian stamps. These writings appeared in the
Stwenties and weae authored by such specialists as Sekretar, Capt. Shramchenko,
Gergavaer, Arnold, Ieters, Kretz, Svenson, Touber, Armstrong and others.

The handbook list 1,893 titles of various books, monographs catalogs,
journals and articles, written in 16 languages.

Material issued in USSR and in the countries of the Communist block is
not included'in this handbook. They-will be listed ,in a separate publication,
which the author hopes to publish soon.

In order to obtain material for this handbook, the. author used libraries
in many lands, such as Munich Town Library, Philatelic Library of Philadelphia
and private libraries of private Ukrainian collectors.' .

Much material was taken from the philatelic press, and from cooperative
efforts of coleagues-philatelists.

This virk was hampered by many handicaps. and it is not surprising that
it took 10 years to complete this monumental wyrk, which will serve many
future generations of Ukrainian philatelistiss a a priceless: source of infor-
mation. This book is well produced, printed on fine paet, and contain 98

# 57 Page 69

pages of text. :The price of this volume is $3.00 and it may be obtained
from the author, Mr. .J' M-ks:imcZi, .1014 N. Moz'rt Street, Chicago 22,
Illinois, USA. The price does not include the cost of mailing.

At the present time author is getting .t.ady to'publish a large number
of other books. Besides the Bibliographic Handbook of Ukrainian Philately
in USSR and lands of the Communistic block, he is working on 2nd addition
to the catalog .of Ukrainin Unofficial stamps (vignettes) which will
-'cover new material,. previously unpublished. Simulttn&oust y he is composing
.a book on foreign labels with Ukrainian motifs and a brochure on Ukrainian
philatelic terminology,

:At some future date, the author intends .to publish-a. catalogue of
UkrAinian Postage stamps and entire, but;-this work will be done only after
the publication of the material mentioned above.
Sooooc0oooo .: .

"- -EV- EWEV by. Dr, Greeory.Bondrenko-,alisbuy- -
Part Five-Manchuria and Chinese Eastern Ril-ay .
S. D. Tchilinghirian and W. S. E. Stephen Price 30/ (US and Cahda $4.50)
'' ay be"obtaithed- at 94, High Street Aberlour, Banff shire, Scotland. This
v-oluwm is profusely illustrated.
Without: a doubt we are witnessing the creation of. the finest classic
in the field of Russian philately, and one of the greatest reference books
in any field of stamp collecting. The present section, or part V, is a
'' scholarly, yet: most. absorbing study of utmost interest to. the students of
Sttsaia,: Far East, Chinese Empire, Field Post, .Railroa3. and Ste.apship special-
Sties, Muchi of the material-ia new, culled: from the vast collections of the
authors, and of-the. f remostphilateltsts throuout the world.-. -

Manchuria, is. thoroughly covered by. an oxtensivo bibliography, geographi-
cal notes, historical notes, 'postal .history and ratess, stamps used, handstampe
Kitai overprints, closing dates and standard types of Sedentary Field Post
S. fioeftis Mobile .-P.O, ; town. names, and classifications. The authors give
unprecedented total of 117 P.0,ts,4n Manchuria, not counting the ambulant P.
0. on the postal waggons, f the C E.R. The previously unknown ,offices are
well covered and documented. QO the ones that are well known, Kharbin should
"--be singled, out as excep.tionally well done, .The .Cent" Issues of 1920 are
clearly ceoVerddand, surcharges are well illustrated. The .posmarks, thirty
six in all,- many. that are, not recorded. The authors illustrated some of the
reviewers cancellations, and described most ably the covers in his collect-
ikLs of Kharbin, as well as those of Ashikne, and others.

The authors performed an important service in giving va=ious name used
S':for the :same towns and office.0,, It is,:most difficult to render Chinese and
Maichurian: names: ain European annguages, since the .same 'nne. -may sound differ-
e; 'ntly. in different provinces-, as. spoken by. the natipjs, and.duplicated by the
aRussians, who addbd difficulties by using various .spellings-.. Thus, to find a
town cr an office on a map presents hardships. Discounting the Russia anglq
Page 70 # 57

we can cite- Kwangchentze 0 which was also Changchun'^ andHsin-King. Kirin,
,in Chinese 'is Yung-_i, and written in Russian as Girint. The useful map, at
the end of the book, which locates various placos,'mentioned in the book,
should be welcomed by all.

The Chinese Eastern Railway is well written up, and is one of the high-
lights of the book. Various lines composing the main line are treated in de-
tail, along with the stations and halts. Various cancellations are given, as
well as check-lists of stamps. The G:ME. Maritime Obmmpany,- subsidiary
created for the needed shipping activities during the building of the line,
is another feature of great interest to the student,* The book likewise co-
vers the steamship lines used after the completion of the railway, as the
International 'Lines, Manobrian Eluv.ial Lines and Fluvial Lines on the Amur.
Lack of space does not allow a detailed survey of the tretise. We recommend
it, and the entire series highly.

S Part ':VI',of"Used Abroad" will be ready in January 'It will contain
much new information, and consist of 96 pages, and 233 illustrations, It
will deal with Korea, Ship Mail..to Japan, Russian America, and supplement.
Price is $.50, but the. Rossica members can obtain the same for- 3 .,00 if
the' order is sent at once, upon the receipt of this journal. Orders should
be sent to W.S.E. Stephen, 94, High Strret, Aberlour, Banffshire, Scotland.

by.Dr G.G B. So

Excellent contents. Varieties of 5 &-10r. Arms, Dot- Postmarks of Imp.
Russia, Recent Finds in Russian Levant, Zemstvo Gazetoer, Zemstvo Post,
Mongolia, Russian Field P.O. in Russo JapanesaWar, PRailway Postmarks, USSR
Centennary #1, Tannu Touva, Sputniks, Latvia and Finnish. PR. Congratulations
to our member, and editor of BJRP W.B.C. Kethro.

B.S:RJP. Bulletin. EditorrP.T. Ashford surpassed the high quality of Bullet-
in #l, by this recent second number. Beside the society news, it has des-
criptions of exhibitions, American Samovar, a Column by the Editor of the
Rossica Journal, and a breezy, American style, "A Collectorts Clendar" by
Mr. Ashford, who is .informative, and. chatty. John.Porry, the :Sage of Sutton
completes the Bulletin with a fine .short history, of BSRP. Cheers

It has articles: Russian Post Offices in Palestine. (Aug-Sept. Issue),
as well as$ Townr Overprints of the Russian levant, and. a story of the Jewish
Post'in Russia. In the. last oxticle mentioned there is grave error, for a
postcard with a St. Petersburg Town Post, six star and "511 in center, cancel-
lation is pictured as a "Mageq David" postmark,. Which of course is ridicu-
loust It is not a Jewisi Star.

S It contain. an article on erinophilia by. Hon. Member E., Marcovitch,
"Catalogue Des Vignettes Russee" epoch of- 1914 18491 which is 'ery well

# 57 Page' 71

. f: oTHE-GaEAT WALL ..
January, 1959 issue .has. an excellent arntcle,,.on Mongolia by our member
George Rusesell.

CUANS SUPtLEMENT, Vol7, Chapter 12
C contains Poial Histcry of Outer MongoliaC and M1anchurian Local

S A' fine article on the Russian Offices in Crete is embodied in the write-
"up on Crete., .

A six page detailed study, "Western Ukraine: Some Notes" by WB. Haworth

H: s an interesting article by 4, Cronin on, the local post in Russia,
entitled the. German 10th. 1rmy, (Aig-re. 1918)n"

S: as two articles by -Thaddeus Grywewski about t 0he. Odessa PPolish Postal
S Ageny,. and the Court Delivery Fee Revenues during the Russian rule of

by 1tifct Adler

1909. For the .benefit of the Mail Man, I polzy,pochtali.ona)..

This steamp .hd to be affixd to correspondence of LaE Courts to cover
p payment for special delivery. For-thise purpose, a.15 ko op fiscal stamp was
overprinted in 1909 with the above legend,.
A definite stamp,for the benefit, of the mailman was issued in 1911,
7 again of 15 kop. denomination. .

"Both:stamps, but especially the first one, are very, rare on cover,
which in all cases would have to be: Law Court correspondence. .The illustra-
*ted cover is the first one, hitherto recorded: with 'the 19e9 'provisional
stamp. It is a registered letter mailed from the Saratov District Court to
a petitioner in the village of Dergachi, Novouzemsky pe-zd. The mailind date
Si February 2, 1912, and'the arrival, postmark .on the retvrse side is Dergachi,
February 15, 1912. .These dates prove that, althoughth. definite For the
, Benefit of the' Mailman stamp was issued in 1911, the PDistrict Law Court in
S Sarat ov still had enough .of the 1909 provisidnal stampP on hand to use
them. In addition to.the provisional :stamp, the covr is fained with an
ordinary 7 kop. stamp of the 1909 issue

The cover enclosed some documents .which.were returned to the petitioner,
such-as :a statement of claims power of attorney ,deod of -pIrehase, decision
S. ,aof :the :tourt, inventory, petition, last will and testament, and the original
of the summons.

Page 72 # 57



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p*ua..f. o*npxfcIASiSi cya*, *emcx, nposaH-i n


w RCHol^ udovC republic 195
ST1r HAflPAN1AX NoH-o APU Iyc JAXb -\Rt

ON 0 l1 AH APXEOJ1OrfBlH 3KCBEAiM 1958

G'.3.1Pt MONc G.J aymond
6035 Hornwood Drive
Houston 36,Texoas,U.S.A.

by Kurt Adler

This item belongs to the group of Russian Post Offices abroad. It was
written and mailed on Bulgaria soil just before the battles of Plevna and
the Shipka Pass. Although the contents are highly interesting, this is not
the place to publish them.

The 4 kop, stamped envelope is the first known copy of a Field Post
cancellation of this war known, on a franked cover or on an entire. Most of
the known covers are official, free frank, correspondence.

It shows the 12th Field Post Department postmark and is dated July 16,
1877. It went to Zaraisk, Riazan Gubernl., rnd took a remarkably little
time to arrive at its destination. It was received, at the City Post Office
in Moscow on July 25, 1877, transferred from there to the Transit Mail
Office (the very unusual postmark shows Moscow Perh. Kor. "Transit Corres-
pondence" with the July 26 date). An illegible postmark of the same date
is probably the cancellation of the Riazan Railroad Station in Moscow. It
arrived in Znraisk on July 27, 1877, taking only 11 days from the theatre of
war, unless one assumes that the Field Post cancellation was in the new
style, which does not seem very plausible.

000C0000000000000000000000000000000O 00000 0000000000000000000000000O0000
0 0
o I buy and exchange paper money. Please contact o
o o
o o
o K. J ANSS N o
o o
o 624 16 Avenue o
o o
o San Francisco 18, C-lifornia o
o o

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0
o Back issues of English Edition of Rossica Journal, starting with No. o
o 45 are still available at $1.50 per issue. No. 44 has been completely o
o sold out. There are only a few copies left of the earlier issues. Kindly o
o contact Dr. G. E. Salisbury, if interested'. Earlier copies of the Russiano
o edition are also available. Complete your files of the journal before it o
o is too late. o
oooo0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ooo0 0 0 0 0 0ooo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 o 0 o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

# 57 Page 73