Officers of the society
 Honorary Members
 Representatives of the society
 Life of society by A. A. Chebo...
 Philatelic Expertization committee...
 Committee of Expertization of Russian...
 New York Section of Rossica
 Poland number one, 1860-1960 by...
 Poland number one by V. Domanski,...
 Covers and stamps shown by K. Adler...
 Russian coins of the XVIII & XIX...
 Correction for #57 of Rossica Journal...
 Postal issues and overprints of...
 Seeswegen or Sesswegen by F. W....
 A word about the Zemstvo map enclosed...
 Zemstvo Proof by P. Matishev
 The Luga issue, 1941 by Dr. C....
 Notes on Russia coins III by N....
 List of railway routes 1912-13...
 A new check list of the arms type...
 Wenden county post by A. Rosse...
 Sputnik stamps and cancellations...
 Contenary of the first Russian...
 The Crimea surcharge 100 ruble...
 The Pskov town post issue by Dr....
 Issues, printing and plate characteristics...
 Unaccepted stamps of Russia (reprinted...
 Tannou Touva, a general survey...
 Catalogue of Russian vignettes....
 Stamps of the Russian Empire, reviewed...
 Notes from collectors
 Literary review by Dr. G....
 Ukraine, reviewed by S. D....


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00023
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1960
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00023

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Honorary Members
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Life of society by A. A. Chebotkevich
        Page 4
    Philatelic Expertization committee - Rossica
        Page 5
    Committee of Expertization of Russian coins and paper money - Rossica
        Page 6
    New York Section of Rossica
        Page 6
    Poland number one, 1860-1960 by V. Rachmanoff
        Page 7
    Poland number one by V. Domanski, Jr.
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Covers and stamps shown by K. Adler at the joint meeting of Rossica and BSRP
        Page 10
    Russian coins of the XVIII & XIX centuries without indicated value by Nicholas A. Kormilev
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Correction for #57 of Rossica Journal (pages 32 to 37)
        Page 13
    Postal issues and overprints of South Russia 1918-1920 by A. M. Rossolovitch
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Seeswegen or Sesswegen by F. W. Speers
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    A word about the Zemstvo map enclosed in this issue of the journal
        Page 24
    Zemstvo Proof by P. Matishev
        Page 24
    The Luga issue, 1941 by Dr. C. de Stackelberg
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Notes on Russia coins III by N. Kormilev
        Page 27
        Page 28
    List of railway routes 1912-13 with distances (compiled from Russian time table) by W. E. C. Kethro and J. Barry
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    A new check list of the arms type issues of 1909-1923 by Dr. C. de Stackelberg
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Wenden county post by A. Rosselevitch
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Sputnik stamps and cancellations of USSR by K. Adler
        Page 43
    Contenary of the first Russian postage stamp by K. Adler
        Page 44
        Page 45
    The Crimea surcharge 100 ruble on 1 kopek by I. L. G. Baillie
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    The Pskov town post issue by Dr. C. de Stackelberg
        Page 50
    Issues, printing and plate characteristics of the one rouble arms type 1910-1923, Czarist issues 1920-1923, and Soviet Russia 1918-1923 by F. J. Fohs
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Unaccepted stamps of Russia (reprinted from old Rossica) by C. Schmidt
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Tannou Touva, a general survey by A. Cronin and W. S. E. Stephen
        Page 55
    Catalogue of Russian vignettes. Fantasies by E. Marcovitch
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Stamps of the Russian Empire, reviewed by Dr. G. B. Salisbury
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Notes from collectors
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Literary review by Dr. G. B. Salisbury
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Ukraine, reviewed by S. D. Tchilinghirian
        Page 69
        Page 70
Full Text
of the

Silver Medals at Belgrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937"and
the International Exhibition, Koenitsberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronze Medals at the International Exhibition "Paa 1935"and
Vienna International Exhibition "WIPA 1933"
Recent International Awards:
Silver Medals at Berlin."Bephila 1957", Parana."Eficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires,"Temex 1958"
Hamburg Interposta 1959 Palermo Sicilia 1959 Barcelona 1960 "

W ig

No. OCCHiK 19

OPA li
0 i IR E CTBA.
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.


Ion. Memb. Dr. G. Dondareokogalisbury

Fon. Memb R. A. Sklarevaki Hon. Memb. A. M. Rosselevitch


Hon. Memb. A. N. Lavrov

K. mdlie. BoH Membrs A. Ghobotkevich N. Kormilev E. Marcovitch


Pwk a
2 Officers of the Society, Hon. Members and Representative of the Society.
3 Editorial
4-5 Life of Society. A. A. Chebotkevich.
5 ThiIatelic Expertization Comnittoo Rossica.
6 Ocmmittee of ExFertization of Russian Coins and Papor Money Rossica.
6 New Park Section of Rossica.
7-8 Poland Number One. 1860-1960. V. Rachmanoff.
8-9 Poland Number One. V. Domandki, Jr.
10 Covers and Stamps Shown by K Adler at the Joint Meeting of Rossica & DSRP.
11-13 Russian Coins of the XVIII & XIX Centuries Without Indicated Value. Karmilfv.
13 Ccorection for #57 Rossioa Journal (Pares 32 to 37).
14-21 Postal Issues and Overprints of South Russia 1918-1920. L. M. Rosselevitch.
21-23 Seoswegon ar Seaswego, F. W. Seors.
24 A Word About the Zemstvo Map Enclosed in This Issue of the Journal.
24-25 Zemstvo Proofs. P. Matishov.
25-26 The Iuga Issue 1941. 0. de Stackolberg.
27-28 Notes on Russian Coins III. N. Krnmilov.
29-31 List of Railway Routes 1912-13 With Distances. W. E. C. Kthbro & J. Darry.
32-37 A New Check List of the Arms Type Issues of 1909-1923. Dr. C. de Stackelberf
38-42 Wonden County Post. A. Rosselevitch.
43 Sputnik Stamps and Cancellations of USSR. K. Adiler.
44 Contenary of the First Russian Postage Stamp. K. Adler.
44-45 The Standard Issues of Soviet Union. K. Adler
4649 The Crimea Surcharge 100 Ruble on 1 Kopek.. I. L. DalliC.
50 The Pskov Town Post Issue. C. ce Stackelberg.
51-53 Issues, Printing and Plate Characteristics of the One Rouble Arms Type
1910-1923 Czarist Issues 1910-1923 and Soviet Russia 1918-1923. F. J. Fohs.
53-55 Unaccepted Stamps of Russia. (Reprinted from GLd Rossica). C. Schmidt.
55-56 Tannou Touva, A Genercl Survey. A. Cronin & WSE. Stephen.
56-61 Catalogue of Russian Vignettes. Fantasies. E. Marcovitch.
61-62 Stamps of the Russian Empire. Reviewed by Dr. G. D. Salisbury*
63-67 Notes from Collectars,
67-68 Literary Review. Dr. G. D. Salisbury.
69-70 Ukraine. Reviewed by S. D. Tchilinrhirian.

#58 Page 1


ISENT A. A. hCebotkevich 11 Clement Street, Glen Cove, New York.
SECRETARY Russian Sgekin Section A. N. IYrov
SECRETXRY English Spcking Section Dr. G. B. Salisbury
ASS. SEGR A. M. Rosaselevitch

V. P. Cerny A. N. Lavrov J, Rubach
A. A. Ohobotkevich E I. Maroovitch G. Salisbury
N. I. Kordakov V. A. Rachmanoff N. A. Savitzky
N. A. Kormilev A. M.. E sselevitch H. M. Shenitz
"R. A. Sklarevski


NEW T!CC OCTP V. Oerny 91 15, 68th Avmnuo, Forest Hills, Long Island, N. Y.
SAN FANCISCO K. Jansaon. 624 16th Avenue, San Francisco, California.
JESIERN USA L. GLass. P. 0. Dox 36646, Wilshire La Drea Station, Los
ngeles 36, California.

NRGETINA D. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 287C, Buenos Aires.
iAUSTRA.L. V. Tvelkayeer, 45 Garnerts Avenue, Marricbville, Sydney, N.S.W.
ELGIUM I. Braunstein, 6 rue Mignot, Deletanche, Yaxlles, Brussela.
AI Rio De Janeiro Region. A. Vansovich, c/o Iivraria Freitas Dastes,
Caixa Postal 899, Rio De Janeiro'.
San Paulo Region. P. Deloff, Rua edtrozo 238, Gaixn Post 2960,
San Paulo.
SGSANAA. Rozday Woda, 29 Lyon Avenue, Toronto 10, Ontario.
MONO A. Liashenko, 1 Rue du tocage, Paris 15, France,
FRENCH MCGOCC0 V. N. Dutkov. 49 Rue Ljaprouse, Casablanca.
SGE* MN Y Dr D Woropinsky. O lpenestrasse 364, Koln-41erheim, U .S Zone.
GRELT:DRITIN J. Darry. 77A St. James Road, Suitton, Surrey.
II A. Trumpeldor. irba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv.

Viewsaexressed by authors are their own and the editors disclaim any responsibility;

Membership dues are $3,00 per annum for all countries. Application forms,
which must be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, codr,
bulletins and supplements to membership lists will be sent out annual. Kindly
make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov instead of Dr. G. D. Salisbury.

We welcome advertisements from members, non members and dealers. Full page
advertisement is $30.00, half page 15.00, quarter page $7.50, and twelfth of a
page (5 lines) is $2.50. Members of Rossica pay only 50% of the cost. With a
discount, per line cost to members, is only 25 cents. We have on .sale some back
journals at $1.50 per issue.

Page 2 # 58


ISENT A. A. hCebotkevich 11 Clement Street, Glen Cove, New York.
SECRETARY Russian Sgekin Section A. N. IYrov
SECRETXRY English Spcking Section Dr. G. B. Salisbury
ASS. SEGR A. M. Rosaselevitch

V. P. Cerny A. N. Lavrov J, Rubach
A. A. Ohobotkevich E I. Maroovitch G. Salisbury
N. I. Kordakov V. A. Rachmanoff N. A. Savitzky
N. A. Kormilev A. M.. E sselevitch H. M. Shenitz
"R. A. Sklarevski


NEW T!CC OCTP V. Oerny 91 15, 68th Avmnuo, Forest Hills, Long Island, N. Y.
SAN FANCISCO K. Jansaon. 624 16th Avenue, San Francisco, California.
JESIERN USA L. GLass. P. 0. Dox 36646, Wilshire La Drea Station, Los
ngeles 36, California.

NRGETINA D. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 287C, Buenos Aires.
iAUSTRA.L. V. Tvelkayeer, 45 Garnerts Avenue, Marricbville, Sydney, N.S.W.
ELGIUM I. Braunstein, 6 rue Mignot, Deletanche, Yaxlles, Brussela.
AI Rio De Janeiro Region. A. Vansovich, c/o Iivraria Freitas Dastes,
Caixa Postal 899, Rio De Janeiro'.
San Paulo Region. P. Deloff, Rua edtrozo 238, Gaixn Post 2960,
San Paulo.
SGSANAA. Rozday Woda, 29 Lyon Avenue, Toronto 10, Ontario.
MONO A. Liashenko, 1 Rue du tocage, Paris 15, France,
FRENCH MCGOCC0 V. N. Dutkov. 49 Rue Ljaprouse, Casablanca.
SGE* MN Y Dr D Woropinsky. O lpenestrasse 364, Koln-41erheim, U .S Zone.
GRELT:DRITIN J. Darry. 77A St. James Road, Suitton, Surrey.
II A. Trumpeldor. irba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv.

Viewsaexressed by authors are their own and the editors disclaim any responsibility;

Membership dues are $3,00 per annum for all countries. Application forms,
which must be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, codr,
bulletins and supplements to membership lists will be sent out annual. Kindly
make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov instead of Dr. G. D. Salisbury.

We welcome advertisements from members, non members and dealers. Full page
advertisement is $30.00, half page 15.00, quarter page $7.50, and twelfth of a
page (5 lines) is $2.50. Members of Rossica pay only 50% of the cost. With a
discount, per line cost to members, is only 25 cents. We have on .sale some back
journals at $1.50 per issue.

Page 2 # 58


ISENT A. A. hCebotkevich 11 Clement Street, Glen Cove, New York.
SECRETARY Russian Sgekin Section A. N. IYrov
SECRETXRY English Spcking Section Dr. G. B. Salisbury
ASS. SEGR A. M. Rosaselevitch

V. P. Cerny A. N. Lavrov J, Rubach
A. A. Ohobotkevich E I. Maroovitch G. Salisbury
N. I. Kordakov V. A. Rachmanoff N. A. Savitzky
N. A. Kormilev A. M.. E sselevitch H. M. Shenitz
"R. A. Sklarevski


NEW T!CC OCTP V. Oerny 91 15, 68th Avmnuo, Forest Hills, Long Island, N. Y.
SAN FANCISCO K. Jansaon. 624 16th Avenue, San Francisco, California.
JESIERN USA L. GLass. P. 0. Dox 36646, Wilshire La Drea Station, Los
ngeles 36, California.

NRGETINA D. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 287C, Buenos Aires.
iAUSTRA.L. V. Tvelkayeer, 45 Garnerts Avenue, Marricbville, Sydney, N.S.W.
ELGIUM I. Braunstein, 6 rue Mignot, Deletanche, Yaxlles, Brussela.
AI Rio De Janeiro Region. A. Vansovich, c/o Iivraria Freitas Dastes,
Caixa Postal 899, Rio De Janeiro'.
San Paulo Region. P. Deloff, Rua edtrozo 238, Gaixn Post 2960,
San Paulo.
SGSANAA. Rozday Woda, 29 Lyon Avenue, Toronto 10, Ontario.
MONO A. Liashenko, 1 Rue du tocage, Paris 15, France,
FRENCH MCGOCC0 V. N. Dutkov. 49 Rue Ljaprouse, Casablanca.
SGE* MN Y Dr D Woropinsky. O lpenestrasse 364, Koln-41erheim, U .S Zone.
GRELT:DRITIN J. Darry. 77A St. James Road, Suitton, Surrey.
II A. Trumpeldor. irba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv.

Viewsaexressed by authors are their own and the editors disclaim any responsibility;

Membership dues are $3,00 per annum for all countries. Application forms,
which must be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, codr,
bulletins and supplements to membership lists will be sent out annual. Kindly
make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov instead of Dr. G. D. Salisbury.

We welcome advertisements from members, non members and dealers. Full page
advertisement is $30.00, half page 15.00, quarter page $7.50, and twelfth of a
page (5 lines) is $2.50. Members of Rossica pay only 50% of the cost. With a
discount, per line cost to members, is only 25 cents. We have on .sale some back
journals at $1.50 per issue.

Page 2 # 58

1 *1

Weo are happy to anunoan o V adhloweonbt of two mne.- top nodals'fcar rhilato-
lie literature at the latest eto,4;toMational philatelio ozhibitions,
"S ICILI L 59I in iblormo, Italy aDd "D A R C E L p N A 6Q" in Dmrcelona
Spain. Thoso slloUr models, highest given in journal competition belong to
tho members who'hoav rendorod f1imtal assistance .by paying duosa and by
their donations t. thojournal,fund, Tboy likovise bolopg to' tb contributors
of articles, abd most a all to Ito hacd wclring oditcri4a tauff. We must
Sainglo out the two asA start pditcrs ind publisbore who hae bhelpd tho oditor
in chief in thb difficult:0nT)5twB eonsmaing tacc of crating the ismazs of
tur priso winning .publicau1on,. ,Or deep thanks to .kca. mberfa A. M. Rose-
etevlitch and R. SklarorVkil ,he. ontiro ataff viaboa'to extend its gratitude
o the PrBeidont, Hon. Member A.,A..:Chebotkodich far his visocoiunool and for
his cooporatiact during the poA:stlxiears.

Due to the change in tbho pduction of the Russian edition and because
of the neceaity to lighten 'the -herv load on Wan Member.A. ItAvrov, as wol
as uniting thb busimss eloernta of tho journal with that of the society, tho
.Editor has app&ontod Treasurer Mr. faIwS as hthe DualSnas MYanaor of tho
J.oui al. Hon. Membor A. M. Rosaelevitch now becmcs Assistant Editor and
Plbliashr of the Rtealan Edition;. WoO. Member R,. A. Sklarova retains a si-
ailar post in the English Edition. lll thr ee are to be congratulated far
their untiring and approciated vcak in the past.
S.. present imsua e aneo ara. reesentaa variod fr e to ait various
tastes in collecting, :Wo aro a rrinting. a a4nLimblo arttpol by..te late Ion,
'Member. of Rossica K. SchiLdty, in i EiM:with our policy of' giving. tb readers
the best material ftrc teo old Rossica Journals, publiabod in Jugoslavia in
the RusetiQ langbaO. An added feature in this issue is the beautiful colarod
malp'of.-Zenstvos, domPted by Frod W. Spears and it reprononts man hours of
Macting work by this authority in the field of Russian Locals. '*edlos to
*ste.,thoreost of producingg thie.S:ap. was very highs and Mr. Spors paid all
of the expenses. For this wo are most appreciative.
S t. A .r bt- Oditarital produocd' great resyts:in the sole, oftback issues.
The Nos. 44 & 45 are gon(English edition) and only a few are t4L. available
of Nos. 4/47, 48, 49/50, and 51. Kindly do not delay your orders, if you or
inbtrostod 'n. ecnploting. your fila'aof our' pbliction-, cmo nay pay for them
"bn intallpnt, at yodr converoono : .

Wo proudly annmonoo tho formation of revenue and owstvo cataloguo, with
Sthb' support of oa r..Joa rno s by t .th authors Em l Marcovitch and Caog Faborgo,
son of the late Agathon Faborgo, .fammou colloetc, rand' duthor. .Cur mombors aro
urged to give thoso specialists full cooperation and assistant.

"" In closing wo wish mr members the best of luck, 1 th U4 international
oaibitions in Londonr Warsaw and Johannesburg. .

S50 a. *., pge 3

by A. A. Chebotkevich

In March of 1960, our Journal received a silver medal at the Internationa
Philatelic Exhibition in DBarelQna, Spain. This award is the sixth one within
two and a half years, and it is usually the highest medal given in the catego-
ry of philatelic literature,

In celebrating such pm iDpjotant event in the life of our Society, we
should point out the coloseal work of dur Editor in Chief, Dr., Bondareoko-
Salisbury, his aesistantas'Hon. Mbnmbere R. Sklarovski and A. .M. Rosselevitch,
and Ton. Memb. N. A. Kormilov. Dr. G. D. Salisbury, devoting long hours late
at night to the editing of the journd1, likewise aids the Society in a matori-
al way. Ne donates $50.00 towards each idruo, personally pays costs of
English stencils, secretarial oaponsesp postage, costs of the Annual Meeting
in Now Yorkl expenses of entries at the International exhibitions, etc., etc.
My gratitude is to Hon. Member R Sklarovski for giving so much of his valu-
able time in preparing the stencils for the English edition, thus saving us
hundreds of dollars annually. Deep thank also to our Secretary-*Troasurer Hon.
"Member A. lavrov for his accurate handling of the treasury.

On Jan. 24, 1960 the auditifig committee consisting of Ron. Memb. V. P.
Cerny-Chairman, and fTon. Members N'. V. Savitzky and R. M. Shenitz chocked the
treasurer's books for the year 1959.. According to the protocol of the commit-
tee, the books of Sec.-Treas. A. N. Lavrov were found to be accurate and
covered by documerrts.

The governing, body thanks our members-authora J. Posell, F. Speers, I. D,
Draunatoln, K. Adleer, Pe. J. Fohs, Dr C. de Stackelborg and Dr. G. D. Sallta
bury, for donations of money into the journal fund of the Rossica society.

Our ReprosentArtiv in Dolgium, I. D. Draunstoen donated $10.00 into the
journal fund nd enrolled five new members. No has given several paeoches in
Cercle dtEtudes about various postal issues of Russia. We thank Mr. Draunsteir
for his activities and rish him further successes in strengthening our group.

Society thanks Hon, oaomb. N. I. Kordakoff for donating stamps of Germany
into-the journal fund.

Our Representative in California, K. A. Janeson writes that- members of
Rossica Society and their guests meet regularly in Spn F;ancisco at the Home
Sof League of RusaooAmnrican Women, 594 10th Avonue.
We welc-no our new member L. W. .Chritonson, President of the Intornation,
al'Socioty fcr Japanese Philately. -

Our member in France, Mr. Liphschuts again received high philatelic awarvv
for portions of his collection of Russia, at the International Exhibitions in
1alermo, Sicily, and Darcelona, Spain. We salute and pongralaulate Mr Liph-
schutz for these now medals and wish him further successoesr .

We have for salo a Chuchin Zomstvo catalogue, in Russian. It is in good
condition. Vontact Hon. Member A. M. Rossolovitch.

Page 4 # 58

Mombor #226 iiiabas to f -o1&l i6d;ction of England appro3xmatoly 300
nariotios, iriclidng a 1Wb'y-blak1a sairpouncd stamps, Also a collection
of Franeo, apProx1datoly .350 vriotioa (oemmeormatie and airport only).
Member #27 is intorostot1 in.4^subjoct loattor stanmps on Russian thonemes,
and Imearican Paidu onvelopos of various Rnssian organizations.
Member #433 (Frtncep last.suppiomontbal nmmborship list) wishes to
acquire several Ootes of tboe Rusian Rovolutionary Stamps 1924/27, Mongolia
it Stamps 1924-27 by K. .ae.iW.
p oooooopoooooo

In reply to queries from members and readers, we wish to announce that we
accept fca o eortiastion also-, tnmpp and ovorprintsfof Mongolia, although this
country carnot bo conasidtro c a territory. of Russi ar U.SS,.R. This export
ieation howover will roquiro a last two wooks and incroaeod cost of postage,

As for tho classic stamps of Europo, on and. off covers, North and South
Amorica, colonies and countries unrolatod to RussA', we have specialists on
the committee who' vll oz rtiso- such stamps. Tha sano tariff rulos apply as
for the stamps of Russia, i.e 2% of Scott valuation plus postage. The
guarantoo stamp of Rossica however will not be applied, as it is resorerd
"solely for Russan material.

"" .Stamps with Ukrainian and Amonian ovorprInts aro not accepted for expert
ieat.on. -hereo -co goveral prominent experts in those fields who should be
contacted independently.
Far the bomfit of new membors we ropeat that mony to cover oxportisatio.
and postage should be sent with the stamps, Stamps below CL.000 Scott valua-
Stion cost 10 .canta each for .lmbors, (first five aro free in case of a largo
munbor), 15 oonts for nonromibers beginning with- tho 1s stomp. Stamps ovor
LO.00 catalogue valuo are 2% of cataloguo for all, meombors and non-nombors.
If stamps ao tho overprint are forged, the cost of expertizations 20#
for oat. value of $0,00 to $99.00, 50# for those $00.0 to L99.00, CL.00 for
those $200,00 to $299.00 and $2,00 for those valued at $300.00 or owr.

Tho guarantee mark "Rossica" is placed on the back of the stamp. In case
of defect on face or back, guarantee mark is inertod,. on place of dofoct, on
back of stamp. It is not applied at all if tho gornin stamp has signs of
repair, _if the postmark c oRvrprint istampered with, if the gum is forged
or if tho perforations have boon repaired, etc., otc.
All prolT inary queries should be accompanied by return postage.
Stamps,. money. end all correspondonce should be sent only to Mr, A. Roesol-
ovitch, 90 51.-52nd Aro, Elmhurst 73, N. Y.

#5 hgo 5

; ;AZD'_ t Vo 'i NR SSICA SOCIETY. ..
It is difficult to identify early Russian coins" because of inability to
read the language, lack of dates,, or presence of dates. in old slavonic
letters, t and abbreviated' iEcriptidns. The same.'ias wthpaper money, which
was so pirolifio, during the revolixion and civil war, bearing only Russian
inscriptions. Therefore, for the benefit of the, interested members, who
$o.1et Ri-sgia coins a paplr moneyy a "Copmittee of.dentificatpq has been
established. t .is conipos*d of T : .. ICbjmilev, president of the' nmismatic
& bonistie circle, Prof. V. Shuiiie'VMki, formerly on the staff of "Iermi-
tage" Museum in teningrad, and .d K A., Janson, vice-president of the

Conditions for identification and evaluation are as follows:

1: All coinsbhduild be seit' iinsurd' tq Mr.i Kaii e 3.67 .. incoln
ac. Brooklyn l. Y l, ., .. .yh ::and a. Ja 624
S16th'Awv ue, SaFrancisco, 18, 'Calif'ornia.

2. Members of the Committee will function ,grati.a, but for the benefit
*; of vRosesica society a cmhilJ fea. has bee sta'lished .10 cents fcr
each' oin &i;: each piece of paper tony, if t eir -lue is 3.t0.00
d- r less while for thosovia- ted ovar .0,00 the wiwill be 1% of

3. Each letter of inquiry should 'bea -accompAniid byI a 4 dcent gslf
addressed envelope for reply, or for. a.proper return postage if
.. ." : : -!-f-brabroad.: 'Identif.caion feeaind'L money f'.'the i'etnr o of the t
*.lne ;o paie .ioney, lt othe- owne, alab insurod, should be
sent to the Committee prior to their .return. The due amount may be'
sent in U.S. mint stamps, or by check,, payable totp M, Kormilev,
S. br Mr ,Jnsao respect elyi.. .
.:It is adviableebore k 6nding the coins1;orlpa e rto inform
Sthe Committee, of0whait yPU wish:to seidc. Th i poin's with obliteratec
pattern. (miuch used),' or peiforated, are worth only othl from which
they are minted, and are not worth the expense of excpertizing,
S.'. . 00o00.0000. -'
:. ..~ ; ,t .. o d ':oooo ': -: .. '
S" .. YK "SE-0ION'" 'F -RCSSIA

. The meeting ofthe New ork groip of ossica Society i. heldmonthly,
eeopt .for Junb, J.uly and Agnst, drithe dlst Sinnday of each. month from
": ":0. ..:until:5 p ., at the': urters of'he Sioety of Rttapi Eigineers in
the House 6f Ire6 Russia,' 349'WJsi '86th Street, ewYor, oT York.

Admission is free, and the group invites members to brirg, with them
,their..friends and acquaintancos, interested In Russin':T Ahiatoly.

... At thsa- meetings, members and their' friends .ca'.nedt s'ecalists in
all branches of Russian -phila.tly-, nd Cdn recei' : ri'edd' information. The
head of the group, is its founder, Hon. Memb, V. P. Corny. Hon. Memb. A. M.
Rosselevitch is likewise present at these meetings who will gladly attend
i to the questions pertaining to the expertization and to the Russian'edition
of the Rossica journal.

Page 6 #58

; ;AZD'_ t Vo 'i NR SSICA SOCIETY. ..
It is difficult to identify early Russian coins" because of inability to
read the language, lack of dates,, or presence of dates. in old slavonic
letters, t and abbreviated' iEcriptidns. The same.'ias wthpaper money, which
was so pirolifio, during the revolixion and civil war, bearing only Russian
inscriptions. Therefore, for the benefit of the, interested members, who
$o.1et Ri-sgia coins a paplr moneyy a "Copmittee of.dentificatpq has been
established. t .is conipos*d of T : .. ICbjmilev, president of the' nmismatic
& bonistie circle, Prof. V. Shuiiie'VMki, formerly on the staff of "Iermi-
tage" Museum in teningrad, and .d K A., Janson, vice-president of the

Conditions for identification and evaluation are as follows:

1: All coinsbhduild be seit' iinsurd' tq Mr.i Kaii e 3.67 .. incoln
ac. Brooklyn l. Y l, ., .. .yh ::and a. Ja 624
S16th'Awv ue, SaFrancisco, 18, 'Calif'ornia.

2. Members of the Committee will function ,grati.a, but for the benefit
*; of vRosesica society a cmhilJ fea. has bee sta'lished .10 cents fcr
each' oin &i;: each piece of paper tony, if t eir -lue is 3.t0.00
d- r less while for thosovia- ted ovar .0,00 the wiwill be 1% of

3. Each letter of inquiry should 'bea -accompAniid byI a 4 dcent gslf
addressed envelope for reply, or for. a.proper return postage if
.. ." : : -!-f-brabroad.: 'Identif.caion feeaind'L money f'.'the i'etnr o of the t
*.lne ;o paie .ioney, lt othe- owne, alab insurod, should be
sent to the Committee prior to their .return. The due amount may be'
sent in U.S. mint stamps, or by check,, payable totp M, Kormilev,
S. br Mr ,Jnsao respect elyi.. .
.:It is adviableebore k 6nding the coins1;orlpa e rto inform
Sthe Committee, of0whait yPU wish:to seidc. Th i poin's with obliteratec
pattern. (miuch used),' or peiforated, are worth only othl from which
they are minted, and are not worth the expense of excpertizing,
S.'. . 00o00.0000. -'
:. ..~ ; ,t .. o d ':oooo ': -: .. '
S" .. YK "SE-0ION'" 'F -RCSSIA

. The meeting ofthe New ork groip of ossica Society i. heldmonthly,
eeopt .for Junb, J.uly and Agnst, drithe dlst Sinnday of each. month from
": ":0. ..:until:5 p ., at the': urters of'he Sioety of Rttapi Eigineers in
the House 6f Ire6 Russia,' 349'WJsi '86th Street, ewYor, oT York.

Admission is free, and the group invites members to brirg, with them
,their..friends and acquaintancos, interested In Russin':T Ahiatoly.

... At thsa- meetings, members and their' friends .ca'.nedt s'ecalists in
all branches of Russian -phila.tly-, nd Cdn recei' : ri'edd' information. The
head of the group, is its founder, Hon. Memb, V. P. Corny. Hon. Memb. A. M.
Rosselevitch is likewise present at these meetings who will gladly attend
i to the questions pertaining to the expertization and to the Russian'edition
of the Rossica journal.

Page 6 #58

Poland Number one 1860-1960 by V. Rachmanoff fWhen Russia started to ueo pAasgeo :sbmps. o4 January 1858 the postal
"service in,the Kingdom -of Poland at thp. tm .vws .n the hands of the
Russian PQstal Dopartment, Thoroporoe.U.Russiapt pae-wvore also used in
Poland and can be distinguished only, by the cancellations-. In Septombor 1858
the autonomy of Poland was oxtondod and the dirooction of the postal service
in Poland was put into the hands of the Governor and of the Council of State
of Poland. Soon afterwards the newly eosablishod Polish Postal Administra-
tion docidod to issue separate ',P',e!.ipbafiagb stamps and stamped onvolopos.

The dooroe, published in ,irei;ar No. ;13/18.9, contains.the following
information concerning the issuance-of now postage .stampsiT r. In accordance
with the trinsfor of the Postal Adinistration of t'ho.Kingdom..of .Poland to
the direction of tho Governor-Duk& and. theo council .of Statoe-of the Kingdom,
the Postal Administration has Qontaccto4 the StatcOrmniasion for Receipts and
Financo-s c3noorning the issuanco of postage stanps and stamped envelopes for
single letters which should ioplaeo thdse which up to now were provided by
the .Russian Postal Dopnartont.
The comnissionhw ho hs informed the Postal Dopartmont that. such stamps
,and envelopes, whici show the coat of.. arms of the Kingdom are rqady. After
*rooeipt of.tho now postage stamps and,stcmpod onvelopes fror-tho Stato Con-
S. .misason.f r Rocoipsa- and Financeos tho. ,Potal- Administration wii' supply
without delay the poet offices and..pootal agencies in the Kingdom.with the
". atruetitons to issuo them'in January 1860.- At:to. sno time, thq stocks, of
:- .Ruissiain-stamps and oenvolopos should be returned? to the Postal Dortnont. L
period of throo months is allowed for .using- the Russian stamps& and onvoloposs
due to the fact that the pub3nc'may :haye pso qus-antitis purchasedd previously
'at thoe pqat offices. 'hoy will be domonont$od on April 1,- 1860, which will
b 'c announcod in the nowppporss.

The post offices are advised that. the now.postage stamps and. stampod
onvelopos should bo.-usod for letters up to I lot (-.os.). of weight only. For
*hoavior lottors,,as many stamps as the -lottor woighs in lots should be af-
fi d. .
The stanps-wre printed -on the letter .press by the "Fabryka Stompla" or
the Governmont Priting-Works at.Warsaw. Several printings... wroe.mado, which
ciffor from coach .othor by the coloral the paper- and the gum, also.in part by
plate flqws which can be found in.spocific printings, only. 'i,.ho total print-
ing was.pproximatoly 3,000#0000 copies. .
ThI frame of the stamps was printed in bluo, the center and..the under-
print in red, Those colora.vary considerably from pale to dbrk and various
color combinations can be found of .which dark blue with. palo rose or palo
bluo with canmio.. Stamps.with-both colors in' dark doep shados.ore not only
the most attractive but also the scarcest.

The prftaation was rather irregular and varies .fromn. 11 o.l. since
the perforating device, which was used for the. stamps, was. Primitivoly
Sconstructod -by a Warsawytochniqian. It perforated a fWll .shoot of 100 stamps
in one operation. The centering is generally bad, thus making perfectly
centorod copies very rare.

# 58 Page 7

There are throo of four cancelled copies known which are without question
imporforate and we are of the opinion that they came from the shoots, which
due to accident- or shifting, partly escaped perforation. They wore sold
regularly at post offices. :
The Lone Polish postage stamp and stamped onvolopfe romainod in use for
Imoro than five years, the last day boeng April 13, 1866. Thoy loro again
Sreplaced.by Russian: stamps and iastampod onvolopos in 1865. '::'
J ;.. ; .' oooootodoooooooodooooo

by Vincent Domanski. Jr.

I commenced collecting stamps ih I.908 anrd hav chti cninodollpcting until
'theo iproont day, a span of oier 50 yfiads The stamps5'of sl.a'ic countries
S. intorosat Jd tho in6st arid' '1poializo in bach nation with no limitta as to
-variiOtiosy rbiorsr te*' Since over ait poirld of .50 years .f was abJlp to amass
a: groat doal 'of :philatlic' material, iyjr colldctIozis aoe hotMod' in .:pany volumes
SIn my .purait of this'hobby -I have f-bid real isatgsfacnion hi" nh that the
only difference botiebon the Slavic grbips is not tho cusitoa and, traditions
of Slavs but the politics which are controlled by the fow.' Howovor all the
Slavs have one thing in common, they are loyal, honesty and romantic people
with fabulous a talobs 'bf-their horoo sand individual who haVd mado a niche in
S history, Th hvio Sh eoiorful'customs and traits, 'gr'at' ovo of music and they
are alwaydaager to' shook knowledge 'They "are a veiy inieoijoitt group and
,:are hot, aQ many?' others elaitn them: to.bo b bBarbaic in'`rlgin. Back, in 1941, in
:tho Blub Bok -of tho "Stamp Specialisdt publishod by Harry L. iniquiat, on
Pageo 130: to 160,; 1intlusv ve is found a detailed resultt" of' ii-sar and study
S: on RoJ .'l stampibf Poland. 6f 1860 authorod by the late Stophon G Rich and me,
and aided by .the: oatonsive, corrtospobdenoo ;with .Mi. Rachtnanoff, who is among
is .to.day,, r. Grzowski, Dr. Kozakiowicz Mr. Stocrd and otors, who
-".., eadod with' the roseoarch.' Theo information in 'the Blu'e Booi is chiefly based on
the authoritative works of w0at; PolanKi Littlo' if any' of hfiis Information
has ever boon published in E rish. In the book we have endeavored to adhere
-: to those context,:of :original wo4 written by thoe.l2-d W.'do Polanski, but we
..-alsoi :included'.a great d6al of 'now friformation which' w have gathered after
S throd':yoars of study Thd articlb in Orange Book, whfTH' proceed the Blue
Book, is practically the result of own research and original work1c'
.. :,. a postal- proalamatiori, dated Doccmbor 14 1859, thoe Tusian government
S announced thdt. spooiaa staip for so$ith lo Kingd- oof Ph1id w prepared
a : ,and wastoa be put in tuso. Honryk Majora engraver f.or the Bafic:k Poland, in
S.:. : 'Warsaw, was commisaionod tod:ngrave the dies for tho admip. Ho p:dducod the
two necessary dies, sinco the stamp wasto 'be printed in two .dlors. One
die was cut for embossing tho red central design, and it included a Polish
S singl.o headed oagla on a bro-st plato"'of tho chest *f tho Russian double heade.
oagle'. The rod notwor. of"'thd background :oxt6hdod ovpr the ontire area outside
*of theo central oval9 including the portion of ,tho stamp occupied by,. the Imneri:
mantle and oven tho blue oval labble with Jbrditg. The dio cr tho, blue color
included a thin inner oval within the 'labols.t Froim*thso di6 s places of 100
subjects wore made, divided into panes of 25 stamps, oach. The.. stamps wore
'spaced 2nim; apnrt ahd' the' ghitor btwoon pprno were.mn. Theso stamps wore
typographod at -the "Fabrika Stoinplat" r'theb Govornmont Printing. Office in
arsaw, in t op"oFornticns'- Th 6 pafporfsod' as'ocbodinly variable e boing a

Pago 8 '" ''
"Page ''

Of local stod, prwai dd' aii W aw papor housos. Thick papor of wove toxture
with. white or.yoll.owsh tAt. s.carco. Four- thicknosseo aro know of whito
S. pe.por and Pf. somewhat,' yoi l sb tis hint. Laid paporis ncarco. Th papor was
"unwatormarkod. The vriou,.printings and the limitations oa: tho machinery
for'manufa.etring thsto.t aas together with the offocts o vowar give Poland
#1.a range of varip.tiosfl 'at is strictly romarkablo.

Colors Each collector and writerr on Poland #1!.has' his own criteria as
to how many colors to .dStingui4sh, wich to.call-more shades, etc., which you
can readily soo in my collection. A study of the numerous covers in my col-
loction with known. dates gives sus a dofinito time soquonco of colors which wo
list tontavily;as. follows .. ;:
1860 us.- a ino and bluo, 1863 ua -palo roao and milky blue.
"--.palo rose and .. .. sporadic cases of carmine
dark blue. .. ad: milky blue
1861 uso deep carmino and; 1864 usao pallo bluo with rose, and
dark.bluo. .:.-- pale rosa.
rose and.doop blue. 1865 :usa blue and carmine
1862 use carmine and doop blue, dull blue and deep carmine.
blue and dull blue

"In porf orating the .stamps a locally produced -machino was used, crudely
dosigned.,and built and itw,.as roportod thdt rit. was the only machine used.
"Tho -porforating .machine was originally sot..to'porforato to a gauge approxl-
matoly 12, but a range of gauges from 11 to 13 may be found as I will point
out in my collection. As .iiht have boon oxpocted, the centering of the
a... mps is..ocoodingly.poor. Imporforato copioe-odistod but probably wore
"dostroyod during the 1939 bombing of Warsaw, as they wore in the Postat
mo.uon of that city. Thoro wore numerous printings and I estimate .that approx
,imanto.y '3,00000 copies woro printed. A most interesting problem to day is
S.. how many copios 'of the Lono Adh esives now exist. Of the .3,000,000 copies
printed 2dC,515. copies wore turned in when;.it wvs ,sppprosasd. I may safely
sa that 'at last the same number was dostroyod by privaq holders at that
timo o dliring tho dangerous period inmodiatoly. following; :that about 75% of
the total 'issue wds never. sold and found its way to dostrution, including
thoso'turned in 1865, This would limit the number of copies remaining to
750,000, from which must be deducted 200,000 dostroyod by private holders.
From my own oxperionco and with the conversation with the dealers loads no to
boloivo that normally not over 5% of tho number sold of an older stamp over
.,...found. its way into,-tho stqmp tradq, stock or into collections.: This would
"give us 5% of 550,000 ;or. 27,500 copies of tho Lono Adhesive as tho top number
that might possibly have found its way into philatelic hands. This number
naturally has diminished in course of years, oven if it ovor was zoachod.
"Ware sJoppt across Poland ropoatodly from .1914 until 1922 wth" Incidontal
destruction of. goat dpal. of philatolic trrofeuro. Tho World -War II from 1939
on, especially the destruction of Warsaw in 1939, is, known to havo causod
destruction of many copies of the stamp, probably also all of the copies in
the Warsaw Postal Musoum. When wo count up the total number known to us as
existing or having existed in the oriobis known collection including the
duplicates hold by. thoqo collectors weo come up with 2,500 copies and loss
than.5.00 covers. Most of the dealers have either onp cppy in stock on none.
I thorofore boloivo that not more than 5,000 copies oxistped: iu939 and
possibly not more than 4,000 exist now.

# 58 Pao 9

1, Two ovq rQm Gldl to* "1d0s a,"with '10 op. L^vnt (Sott #11), and th
-are Galatz Oirclr ptsitmak. with arebok irilf,:blue-groon "'fGalaz, 10 Nov.
S.. 18. .-187 ;l r4'dato added: by-' miittacript. -Backstpmpod. qdssa,.'u Nov.
187i. iOn' co6or also boars tho Goastantinoplo- 4iaiond--shapod. dot postnark
Those postmarks ato illustratid in Tchllinghitians- and Stophon's Hand-
.book I,. pagpq 40 tQ 65. Tho authors give as latest data 1868. The two
covers dsO ibdd' dhtoted 'uinoi"& Novoib i; 18i. ar.y. so fari tho latest uso
.-kn'own cf th 'fiLar Gqalatz t6nWlllhtibn -on :stamps off Lovant.
S + Covor with 1 & 5 ?op. stamps: df Lovant (Soott- #14;2& fromm tBtum (13
Juno 1876) to Constantinople, with arrival .pmk. 17' Juno 16'6.. (Soo the
S ? illustration). This covor shows the hitherto unrocordod oval R.O.P.I.T.
0.,. .. "; .., 'Da.p mar 6f:: ftum. Tho' additional. bbraviation-'o. ZH. D." is
'.for o 0tdol"Zholozni Dorogi or Dopartmont of. Railroad, which existed
oonvri in placos whorQ.no railroad over oxistod'. This fact is explained by
an assumnpii n 'thai' th. aforomontionod. dancellor was copiod from a master
.caicollor" ad distributed to the various:postal agoncios rogardloss
whether tho;aaoncy in question had a railroad connection or not.
3. Cover from Burgas (7 July 1883)-'to Constantinopleo with arrival pmk.
S. ..(11 July.1 883). (Soo illustration). Oval "R .O.P.I.T. Burgas postmark
:.' .tis. a paic ev'iot, S Scott #22, -:artially. illustrated in Handbook 1, on
S pag;.g ,, with 'a statombnt "hat .rid.ta-ing co, orrith ath aforomontionod
: postmark wa destrd Sofia -in 1944l'. .'The o:r.. doscrib6d abovo is
S..horooro, the only oxaht 6bon 'up to dnto. i- ', ; .

O..6 &d of -thoi Eahdbook will, silusta an do srib.
S.. Rogisto.rd covor'with a'";blbdk f .four f 10kop LovantSeS #23 from
Aphon or "t. QAthos was posted on April 24,1`'899. To' bluoagron pmk. is
ill ustrat.d in'Handbook 1, pago 141.. illustration 183, with 'a rogistry
arkinto S. torsburg-. It:Sd batikstatpod Aprb1 30, .18)9. A circular
c achoetin.Jrpio, hows ac'rostastanding on- -a crescent wriib an inscript-
., ion 'oadifg, "S1chiongha Parfonii Sv.;:G. Aphon, 1863, g... is.:markod on tho
S, over .. Tho- latlor inscription ais the .naeo of th.,: monastory' from which
S to. tho"l9tqr Wansilod.': :

i Poof 0 of tovant
"5. Two proofs of kop. Lovant, Scott #1.. Oneo in brown and' ,ono in carmino
.roso originaly, came from Faborg :o bloctiQonL' ..
S6. mporforato block of 9 of Lovant l.cop..; yellow, 2 kop. griqa and 5 kop.
S- lilac, ov'prfintoedSpocimon (6 B R-A f .e T .horisoiitally in Russian.
Each block i, ovorprifltod with at last twovlotter of ,tho.'wrd Obrazots,
andl thd 6lttors ar so arranged that'oach ono covos at '16ast two stamps.

7. A icpllbction of 20"inbdbiin' comnfrcially used covers,, o.f ti o period from
1.945 to 195, 'with many i the pitoa issuep. iaiod fron Mongolia to
Russia '- ...:

Pago 10 ...: 58

/ ^ / I .- / S 1
t\ r

S"c" "'-.B ,S. .P.
"m@ /i r V% D + k- .



Fig.l. Timf 1

go d.

S i l.2 .J

Fig.2. Chervonetz,1751. -i I.-., .
_____________ __-v ,



Tracing Showing 7
"SES" Cancellation Cancellation Showing

on Wenden Stamp "SES" on Wenden stamp


I'. N1 t v -r S -m5
b. e. F- .
e. e..

C. Sc-h-ml&*

1 0

3 Io a
S f' p a
Kon. Kol

Nicholas A. Kormilev

Up to the end -of ti e XYi ent ert Russian coins, with very rare except-
ions, had no indicatiaiof the value e, iMle from 1700 the. value was regularly
marked on the coins. Thi4, article' deal with tinalued coins.

Between the years of '170 and 170 a special Russian Expeditionary
Corps was sent by Bater the 'ai t to operate in Poland and in East Prussia
to help the Polish King Stn4ci1as -uguEt in his desperate struggle against
the Swedish King Charles XII az1d bt>. postpone as long as possible the collapse
of the Polish armies) also to gv .0aber the Great enough time to reorganize
and rearm the Russian troops, after 0ihe Tdastrous defeat 'at SdNtvc, and also
to prepare them for the fiml shiwdon ' ith Sei6den.. To pay 'far the expenses
of the aforementioned Expeditionary Oc a ilir cqns of base alloy were
struck in the sise of German tyif,- and hrly (tymft. .ie tymf'e were probably
struck in East Prussia from 1706 to 1709," ile thp; hplf ,tymn s ohny in 1706
and 1707. In the first year only the:: perit s ol t'th *value a ver struck.
Of the' two coins the half tymfs are rarer than the t*ymfd, n'both now rare
coins, the bust of Iter the greatt in carma ad 'the thsian Iiseption
"Tear and Grand Duke Pter JLemeievich" appeds'on the obverae, while on the
reverse is the continuation of the inscriptions .reading 'All.Russias Poveli-
"tel (Ruler)", and a double headed eagle?.
During the monetary reform put in force by Ibtrer tb &eaot from 1700 to
1704 was established a basic unit of silver ruble which was used for in-
ternal'as well ts foreign payments. L f.'the' .te 'upe gpl coins of
ewry. fine gold ochervonetz" or Iducatas and dT 1bI6 ehe nett'1, were struck.
SThese coins had no ip dictated value and were' used :as trade' mbbo y and their
: value"compared with the silver rubles was fr.o 2 rubosa 20 kopeks to 2 rubles
'2 kopeks, and occasionally reaching as high as 2 rubles 45 kopelk. It was
only n' the reign of Paul- I that their value was changed to the rate of 2
rubles 86' kopeks and 2 rubles 90 and 1/5 krpeks.
S As had mentioned previously, the "chervoeo and "double chervonetz
were struck from vry fine gold, normally of 23 25 carats, but sometimes as
high as 237;'carats, whereas, the gold coins fa internal use, struck at the
same tine, i.e.- of the value of 2 rubles, and later half imperials (5 rubles)
and imperials (10 rubles), struck during the reign of Iter the Great were of
alloy of only 18f.5 carats, later of 22 carats all through the XVIII century.
Iti as only dining the reign of Paau I, that the half imperials were struck
of the shae alloy as "chervonetz,'i.e. -of 23.7 carats.
Chervontzy were struck, with certain interruptions, from 1701 to 1716,
thep again in the 2rigns of Bter II, ainn Ivanovna, Elizabeth I, Peter III,
Catherine II, and aiul I. Double chervontzy were struck only in 1701, 1702,
and 1714 of the reign of IBter the Great and in. the years of 1749 and 1751 of
the reign of Elisabeth I,

Besides anuorous varieties' the general pattern of the chervoatz was
also changed from time- to time. 'The first chervonetz had on the obverse the
head of Peter the Great, and an inscription in Russian, reading "Tsar hPter
Alevieovich...", while on the reverse appeared the double headed eagle and
the continuation of the inscription "Autocrat of A1 Russlas", or same-

5 ge U

times "Ruler of, All. Russias,-. In 1716,a chorvonetz. ith Latin inscription
"Thtrus Aleolievioh D.IG..RuGsiae' ppi. M. D. Muscovite" or "Peter Aleaievicle
by the Grace of God, Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Moscow" was struck.
It is significant that the title-of 'mEporor" was':accepted by Feter the Great
officially only -in 1722,. after, the .peace treaty of Nystad which concluded the1
"GCrat No;rthon War bi the idea of.an Emrpire,.l -s much older After the
fall of the Byzantine Empire in the middle of XV Century, Russian GrandDuke
Sof. MUscovy..Ivan III#, .who froedf Russia from the 2atars, accepted the title of
": Samodershetsn r, "Inclpendent. Ruler .* After the death of his first consort,
MIcriaof Tver (X1467), Pvan- :II-weddBd,..the Catholic;.Zoo Ploologae (better know
by her .rthodox. name of .ophia);, daughter of: hoeasi,;dospot .of the Morea, who
.claimed the. throne of Constatinopo as th. nmorest relativea of the last Greek
emporc. Through her influence he go,. the AIdea.,,:thattMoacow. was the Third
.Romue", and as such wa the heir of 'tho Bynantine Empir. -He also'adopted
the old Byzantine Empiro ooat of-- arms' of: th:'-imprial doubleeho'aded eagle.
is grandson, Ivap IV, called the, o".rible" .further promoted this idea by
adopting tho titlo of ."Ta"t slavonio name ,b o Oeaeor!! of "Emperor" On
Tauarn y .16, 1547, he was crowned the, firat Ru a.ia tear, by. the.:metropolitan
Sof Moscow. His pr so umptive: son$ :the a o. -callo. d, Doea triuft ,-the Falsoe was
c: v'ead. tsar on July:,21, 1605, by a_ new patriaXtch the Grook. Isidore, taking
.the title of Emperor, .
It is kndwn, that as early. as 1700, a copper :dgai r.asastr.uck, with a
latin inscription, reading "Pat, Alex. Russ. Imp." or "POter Alomievich, the
Empeoror. of Russia'1,.
Double o.hervonetzy were similar to chervonetz, only 1arger- In the
following years. the *pattern o0 ohervowetz was the sawe'o having: the head of W
".the.omp0ror or ompraoss ,and a.doublo headed.:oagloe .ffowover, in 1749, the
:,:paftrn' was :chbanod, so that tho r-overse had .St i Andreas. ,Ain.-:: state of
the 'oiuble hoeadod eagle* The samte: chervoretz..ind -tho double .chibbonetz of
.. ..151 as well as the c.hervoBptv, of,1752, b.hd besides the; "ST A:dreas"
marking the date f S.ssuo -.:!Mat 13" or: "Aprel" or: "Noyabr 3"* .'-In the last
years of the roign of Elizaboth, and later until 1796, a double headed eagle
again appeared non the- rove-rse. ,'WE:-o.typea: of .chervonotz are known of the reig:
,of Paul J; with doublee :headed oagle" .-and with cross: of moriogram", both
having .oi tho obverse a verse o fromm sal1m 115.: -Not unto us, not unto us,
S but. dn .hy amoie".- ThQse were the last cboervonety, .

The third- c oin wes the so called ,'LQbancbikl. -Durinh the XVIII and the
first half of XIX centuries, Dutch' ducats served as iritornational -trade money
As early as ,1730,.during thae reign of Emyroas Anna, Russian government started
to coin secretly the trade money with the pattern, and gold content of Dutch
S d'uepat.- The a coins in the officiqd papers of that period were mysterously
ca;l lta certainn money" or "izVestnaia monet .- Durin the: XVIII'century,
k when the Russian ducats were psruck, the number bof .:lobanchikst" wa not
,groat.' but after 1.810 they .wre struock..ri great numbers. During the Polish
uprising of 1831, "1 obanchiks" with a very small: Poll h .eagle were struck in
Warsaw# and they wore used by the Revolutionary Polish Government for payment%
n. foreign: countrios. Agter -numercP.s protests from the Dutch govornmont, the
S.eoinago.. of. "lobanchiks". was- otppe d' n 186 7. ..

* age 12. #58








I. Platinum coins : III. ilvor. doing.

12 rubles, 1840 Nicholas .I 10. 1 ruble "100th Anniversary of
the war with Napoloon", 1912-
II. Gold Coin Nicholas II
11. l- rubles/10 zloty, family" ,
2 2,rublose 1727- ItorII 1836 Nicholas I
3z 5 rubles, 1832 Nicholas. I
"i0 rossyp. kolyvan." IV. Cooppr Going
4. 25 rublos (2- imperials),
1876 Alexandor II 12.-"QGivna" (0lkopeks), 1726 -
5. 25 rubles (2j imperials), Cathorine I (So called plate-
1896 -Nicholas II coins)
6. 37 rublos & 50 kopoks 100 13. 1 kopek, 1726 Catherine I,
.franksJ 1902 Nicholas-II from the same series
14. 1 kopek, 1726 -Catherine I,
III. Silvr Coing from the sazm series
15. 1.kopek patternn), .1726 -
7, 2 rublos, 1722, Ibtor the Groat Catherine I
8. 1'"portrot" or "portrotnil rublo, 16. i kopok, 1762 Feter III
without dateo- Aloxandor I
9. 1 ruble "Dorodinski", 1839 -
Nicholas I (likonoss of


Pao 32 3rd line from the bottom "more" is omitted aftor "years"
Pago 33 Doforo first line is omittod "Gold coins of 2 rubles had tho likonoss
.of tho .Emperor"
Pare 33 9th line from the top in state of "struck in 1725 and 1725" should
"be "struck in 1725 and 1726".
Pago 33. Lines 22 to 24 should be "From pattern silvor coins wero struck: grosh
(2 kopoks), with and without head of the Empress, then polpoltina; from
the regular coins poltinass, rublos, and .two rubles (latter only as a
pattern); while in gold only the two rubles were struck"..
P -ae 33 14th line from the bottoms "two" is omitted after "gold"
Pae 35 1th line from the-top, "In 1741" is omitted after "Emporor"
Paeo 35 -. 8thline from the bottom, hfter whilee and to the half of the 6th
line from the bottom, should be lIn 1755 old 5 kopeks, from 1723 to
1730, were rostruck into kopeks, with a now pattern of Rone headed
eaglo, in the clouds "
Pag 36 22nd line from the top after "likeness" in state of "St. Androas"
should be. "the bust of the -Enpross"
Paeo 37 -.7th line from the bottom in stato of "went under Russian'Rulo",
should be "went under Polish rule"


# 58 Page 13

by A.M. Rossolovitch 0
"TUnitod Russian Issuo of Gonoral A. Donikin Govornmont
On: Docombor 26, 1918 (old style calendar) Armies of the Volunteers of
Don and Kuban united under the solo command of Gonoral A. Donikid, -.assuming
:. ; ho name of the "Arinod. Forces of South Russia"o In January and February
1919 the liberation of Torsk Oblast and' Northorn 'aucasus from the Bolshevik
Armies was completed. In Juno 1919 tho. advance of the White Army. on Kharkov
began, and it.':as. recaptured on Juno 12. 'Aftor iadking Kharkdv, the Army con-
centratod its efforts on tho advance tpwaids. Moscow, and sifultonoous widening
of its frozt to Malorossia or South Little Russia, occupying 'tho City of Kiov
Son Lugust 17, and port of Odossa on August 10,

Thust approximatoly around October' 1919, tho greatest territory occupied
by the Armod Forces of South Russia cobhistod of n froit oxtonding from East
to Wost through Saro.pta, Tsaritsin, Kamishin, Balashov, Tanbov, Orol, Sovsk,
Kiov, Bordichov, Ziorinka, Tulchin and tho course of .Dniestor Rive p to
-.Ovidiopol, at tho poiht whore it omptios into tho Black Soao This territory
included .Kuban, Don, Grimoan, Torkdi nd part oEf Daghostan Oblastbs, as well as
the -cities of Odessia, Khorson, Nikflaov, Ekr.torinoslaV,' Poltava,' Kharkov,
Voronozh, Kursk, Tambov, Orol, Kamishin, Tsaritsin, and others,

Tho purpose of the "Unitod Russia" issue was'-tho 'roplacomont and olimina-
tion of all local postal issue of which many woro ovorprrints, so as to bocorno
a solo omission serving all of Russid, and increasing its scope of sovico with
the occupation of now territory, up to that moment when the ond of the Civil
War would:allow a final postal. issue to6.bo cr6atod by the now, legally elected
government. Only in the Kuban Oblast, by the virtue of a special agrooment,
wor the Kuban-otvorprints sold instead of the stamps of the "United Russia"
'" (a:s stated by me in #57).
S*'The dU'nitbd Russia" issuo consists of 1l valueo, consisting of five
kopok values (5, 10, 15, 35 and 70) and six rublo values (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and
S1: 0);. The lattb values Lt o larger format. tha th k opok values Z All stamps
woro printed by. lithogralhodanhd in g6noral Way re'somblod the designs of the
'190918: issue of Russia, I"'nthe control oval. howovor, instead of the Imporial
Eaglo is St.' Georgoe, ndor which, in tho kbpok value stamps are found two
cro'sod posthorns and thundorbolt's symbolizing the: post andtoio.graph.. All
"bf thoso sthmps w6re issued imporforato.. 3, 5 and 10 rublo values .also oxist
perforated Il-, 'and about which I .shall writo later Also, BsoOe values of
the aforomontioned series aro soon (but very seldom) with sowing machine por-
for6tion, or with porforations of difforont gaigo i '.It- is impossible to clas-
sify those stamps and establish their origin, since alli.of'thoso perforations
aro "of private character, propa*od at the initiative. of postal. workorrs,
SK opefk :values wore prinbodl'n' Sdhobtaof 100, consisting "of tw.o.panos of
50 (5 rows of 10 stamps)," Ang:h totop border of thoesho't, in inverted
position in relation to the stamps, is the inscription, reading "Ekspoditoia
Zagotovlonia Tsonnikh Blankov" or the Factory for Manufacture of Valuable
Blanks, in the color of the stamps. Ruble values wore printed 12 shoots of
30 (5x6), with thick vertical lines, in the color of the framo, on side

Pa go 14 # 58

This iasue had numerous printings, each differing; froi others in typo
of paper, quality of tho gum, shadow of color, and in the dogroo of the
clarity' of tho designn. '

First, -and main printing woro proFparod in Novoohorkack in 1919, and tho
last ono in Simforopol, Crimea in 1920. There aro records that in the and of
1919 some printings wore proparod in Ekatorinodar. Thus, it is possible to
find shoots of varying moasuromonts, and that tho inscriptions and register
control liUo, "ontionod abovo aro not found on all of the printings'.

.It- is possible to distinguish from 7 to 10, and perhaps moro, distinctive
series of those stamps, by the quality and the color of the .papor and gum.
Thoro aro possibly moro sorios, bocauso somo, variations of .apor and gum aro
found only o. som: valuos. Although this belongs to a narrow specialization,
I shall mention that generally the .bolor of the .papor varies from yellow gray
to whito, quality from thick and porous to medium thick and smooth, while the
gum may'bo separated into the following typos:
a. brown with largo grains. o same as d, but in vertical lines.
:b. brown with small grains. f lomon-yollow.
c. brown rocrly witho-it *grains. g. cream with traces of brush lines.
'dark muddy-yellow. h. white
i. etc.

Various varieties oxist of roublo values, which are of philatolic characto
and do not como cancollod. They aro stamps with double, triple, inverted, and
shifted centers. A stamp of 1.rublo is known with a double framo. Panos of
70.kop. vtaluo of on printing woro printed toto-bocho, .thus making the two
midl.o rows in the shoot toto-bocho, with the widow gutter betwoon the two
rowve of stamps. Minor varieties of accidental nature are also known to oxist,
such as thin, straight linos crossing the entire stamp, folds of paper, otc.
Stamps also oAxst in largo rngo. of shadose onumeration of which belongs to
a narrow field of specialization.

Stamps of 3, 5 and 10 rubles perforated lli were printed on paper of
bettor quality, nearly white, with whito gum. Those stamps with br6wn or
other than white gum, also others perforated other than UlI, all without
exception have either private or forged perforations. Sometimes we encounter
stamps, perforated on one or two sidos only. This occurod when shoots of 30
stamps wore perforated on machine which was sot to perforate only 25 stamps.

Some catalogues mention the oxistonce of forged stamps of this issue,
but differ in the description of thoso forgorios) for oxmple, in one instance,
thoy statb that they aro dangerous and oxtromoly. wll done while in others
such as Chuchin thoy aro described as of foreign source, perforated and inp-
orforate, with dirty and unclear design and with difforont gun. I must note
that noithor I nor other collectors and specialists of this opoch ever saw
thoso frorgrios, thus we do not know. of their characteristics. -I question
"their 'oistonco. Those uncancollod stamps aro vory cheap, and woro exported
in largo qitantits abroad, and thus presenting no interest to the forgers.
Likowiseo the demand for them is very small. Novortholoss, wo must assume
that a certain number of shoots was exported abroad ungumod, and that the
gum was applied outside of Russia. Thus wo find stamps with gum that differs
from the normal, stamps that show caroloss printing, which is a vory common

"# 58 Po 15

Contrary to the data in the majority of catalogues, the cancelled stamps
are considerably scarcer than the mint onos, ospecially,thosq with clear and
full postmarks with:logible datd and nam' of town. ,On covors those stamps
are groat rarities. -.As' with Kuban.ovorprints,3 cancollod Asamps of "United
Russia" have to be sorted into two groups. of which the first belongs to the
periodd of White Army govornmnt, io. the Government of the. rmod Forces of
SouthRussid twhilo tho second group is theoone used by"tho Soviet government
after. th retreat of the Whito' Army .

Lot us f'ow consider those tw groups of cancollations soparatoly.

First Poriod. Govornmont ,of the Armed Forces of South Russia.

During the entire period when Commandor in dhiof was Goncral. Anton I.
Donikin, t he aforomontionod stamps wore usod for all postal noods, including
ordinary 'and registered lottors, postal cards, postal .monoy orders and parcels
Togothor with the "United RuAsia" stamps postal ostablishmonts sold the romn
..nants of tho'1909-18 stamps of'Russia, boti perforated and imporforato, stamp,
onvolopos and postacods without 6vorprints, as well as, in some instances,
postal savings stamps. The latter wore sold, because of the conditions of
Civil War, .already lost their moaning and purpose,. as no one 'Savod, and as the
value of ruble foll and the conditions wore not stable. 14okawiso in the
localities, formerly parts of Ukraine, Russian stamps overprintod with
Ukrainian tridents, also woro.usod alongside of tbo stamps' of "Unitod Russia"
and old Russian stamps. Thus mind frarkings do not appear as rarities and
should be considered as normal usagos, especially when.the mipd franking is
made of the stamps of tho "United Russia" and stamps of Russia of 1909-18.

'In 1919, prior to tho rotroat of the whites, postal rats i'o revised
upwards several timos, duo to the fall of the value of the rublo, 'and the
rise in the cost of living Ordinary mail at first cost 25 kop., later 35 kop
and at the end of tho year 70 kop. Registered lottor tost thro0 imeos moron
at first 1 ruble 5 kop. then 2 rubles 10 kop. As an ilustration., 1 like to
mention that in the beginning of 1919 monthly salary of a middle raek office
worker was approximately 150 rubles.

In theory, the stamps of "Unitdd Russia" should havo boon in circulation
"*in all of the cities takbn over by tho-Whito Armyt. 'Actually many localities
where in the hands of Whit&s such d short time that they did not got supplies
of'now stamps, thus the rarity of this or that' pstmark1 dopends on the length
of occupation of:that area by the White Army. It is important therefore to
mention a brief review of the development of whr "action in South Russia, which
will aid collectors to understand which postmarks are rare and which are common
*The base of 6porations of the White Armies of the South Russia consisted
of tho middle and southern sections of Don Oblast, with the towns of Novochor-
kask, Rostov on Dony Bataisk, Azov, Taganrog, otce Kubahn Oblast, in which cir-
culatod stamps with the Kuban ovorprints, and the part of 'the Baack Sea coast
with towns of Novorosaiisk and Anapao In Soptombor 1918 advance to the east
of Ekatorinodar bogan with theo aim of liberating Stavr6poj Gubornia, Torsk
Oblast and Nothor Caucasus.. Arnmvir was 'taken in the' boginnihg of October,
Stavropol on Nv..: 1, Kislovodsk and Piatigorsk oi January 7; 191, Tomir-
Khan-Shura on- uly 11, l1919. All of this groat region romainod in hands of
the Whito Army' until the bo ginning' of 1920 and tho majority of the postmarks
of those towns ond poriode are. not scarce. -
Pago 16 # 58

.. .** t a -
At the -conclusion of thoso operations, boBan an advance to the east
At tho. conclusion of thoso0 operations., began an advica to the north and
to the aqs of Rostov oni on.. Kharo6v was takon on Juno 12j 1919, Tsaritsin
on. Jun. 17, Kamighiri 6o uly 14. LItor thi.o bca n-tho northern advance to
"Modcow. Tambov was- takon on August 5, So.sk on September 4,:Kursk on Soptem-
ber 7,:Vooo.ish on Soptonbor 17and Orol on October 1i. ,At-tho same time, the
advance on the territoryy of former Ukrain moved 4tom theo south to the north
(Odessa .as. taken on Augutt 10, 1919). and from th .south oast on to north
soat; Kiev v talkon. on August 17 and Zjmorinkaaon Otober 30. Speaking of
iov, it: was rotakon by the. Soviot Armos.e.for two' days on Octobor 1 and 2,
1919, after that it was once, more takon.by tho White ArEy -, Special fato be-
foll Ekatertaosav and parts of, the Rivor Pniopor, region, whore bands of Red
Partisdn Makhno operated. The city of Ekatorinoslav itself was taken by tho
Whites on June. 16, 1919, but on October 14 it foil into -be hands of Makhno.
From NovOmbor O the .Whito Army advanced again in. this. region, taking Ekatorino.
slav on Novpibor 25, and clearing tho ontirp region of the -Rod partisans,

In spite of the inil.tary successes achieved froa the beginning of the
winter of 19.9,, tho situation at the fron deto-iorated in favor of tho Rod
Army and those Ahite .A,% bIghan to rotreat, giving up. occupied towns and local-
itios one by o1e. Roca-irs will find among the illustrations a map. of South
Russia, on which rob p-.:tod out by vi.'ca, lir. tho following positions:
boundariess of thoe.grontt. oroa occupicld t.y tbo 'WhiTos. during tho period of
thoir groatost succoce`a- thon tho posit.onsr of sho. front after the bogirming
of tho rotroat. ThiU m_.p.nmay be useo zo doto-min.. the length of time various
loealitios wore occap4.o. 'y tho Whitos.and w.ll aoip to ovalucto the postmarks
which may be oncount.rca from those places, n edition to the map I shall
add? datos when those tons wore rooccuplod by the Soyiotas

Poltava '.Nov. 27 Rostov on Don -.Doc. 26 Khorson Jan. 1
"Kharkov Nov. 29 Tsaritsin Jan. 4, 1920.
Kiov Dec. *3 Odssa Jan. 25 Ekatorinodar Mar. .
Novochorkask Dec. 25 Nikolaov Jan. 18.. Novorosiiak Mar. 1

Brloef historical notes allow us to understand that as tho .towns and villa-
gos of northern Itharkov and Poltava woro. in tha handa.of Whitoe f.oi noro than
3 to 4 oniths, .and many for a considerably shorter timo, all of their post-
'marks on the stamps of the TUnitod Russia" aro scarce and many are not evon
known, such as Orel, Tambov, VoronozIh, Kxrsk, Sevsk, and others. Whito Army
remained on the territory of former Dkraino. approoxlaatoly 4 to 5 months and
.all of the .postmarks of tho region between OdQssa and Kiov .aro, although loss
soarcq, nevortholdss. most intorosting.

In certain towns tho oquipmont of 'tho.postal establishmonts was carried
"away by the Rod Armios or wvs lost during the battle for the towns. Thus wo
moot with postmarks, made by the killovs preparedd by the. now authorities. For
example postmarks of Kiov, which can bo soon on the stamps of Ukraine and on
.stamps of United Russia. Quite rarely we oneountor. ovn3. postmarks of "steam-
ship Odesshbratumi .and "Batum-Odossa", but until now. I. io not seen these
oancellatiop .on ontlro lottors, ahnd it is possible. that they are of philatolic

Thoro oxist also stamps with bogus postmarks, probably of foreign origin,
such as "Gromni Torsk" with narrow, small lottors, in which lottor "a has a

# 58 PagCo 17

straight upper stroke, making the letter resemble numeral "3". On all of the
stamps with this postmark the date is Nowvmber 16, 1919.

T6 EkTH atorin6oslcv roion, as.I havostatod previously" '0 in a special
S class s itislf- as i had a war censorship for all the post..O establishments.
In mi collection is a very interesting envelope., iqgse'rod 6 July 19, 1919
from Ekatbrinoslav to Kharkov, which it reached 6on Augut.t ,'1 9. The letter
* was frankod yith de' 5. kop.. and three 3 kop. nd f fUnitod,6fussia" and
with 1 publoe poriofatod Russian stamp dvoprinopith .UkraiGnin',ridont
Kiev I. Both sidd'sof the onvolpo* aye stamped, w ta two l9iney,,uiramed
censor n arikings, 16o ding D"pe od by. Wr 'Consorship;'j EkatorinQIav War
SCeonsor". ,We have ,0o assume thad tho Ukrainian stamp was not bought at the
poSt;S 6fIcod,; but was in. pogs'seon of t4p sender, of the lottery otherwise it
wudid ave h'ad Ekaterinosiav tri4ant, and not that of Kiev. ,.
""Eastorn shoro of the Black Soa remained in the hands of tho..White Armios
up to the evacuation of Novorossiisk bn March 14, 192Q., 'ho. situation in
lnapa has already been covered in #56 Journal,' and' ai that was stated there
pertains to the present subjoqct as well. As to.4he ports oqf.Tuaps and os-
pocially Sochi, the conditions those mountainous regions hangod several
times'at, the beginning of 1920, due to the activities ofthq' hcialled "groon"
partisan, who hid in the mountains and wore reinforced by.tho desortors from
the White and Rod Armies.' Attacks by those bands' disruptod norinal postal
connections between the coastal regions and other regions.. 'Esp'ciallu signi-
ficant are tho attacks of these greon bands on A.ipa on 4arch3110, 1920 and in
Tuaps on Fbruary 11 of the same year. Sochi was 'fial1y taknp by the Rod
Army in the middle of April 1920, but until that tibt, it Qhchnged hands numorouf
t. ti bqi ng: occupied by White Army, Goorgians, 'gron part'iss, as well a&
the remnantss. of .the Kuban Army, which surrondorddl jro to the Rod Army on
April 19; '19206" *: ::'
Soond,riod The se of the, stamps of the "- united Russia" by the Soviet
.Governzn.nt hftor the retreat of.tho White Army
"' The 'aforommntioned period of uso continued un fl the stocks of "United
Russia" stamps were complotoly exhausted# which did not seem to be very long,
espogily:.in sma.le town.' We off a ono postmarks, .dates mdinlb ending July,
1920 sz;P6stmarka with.lato. datos are very scarce.o It may b statd hero that
"in Kuban l Obidst, stapa woro usod for prpaymont of.registqerd tail, money
".orders and pariOdlt. .

Together stanpS of "United Russia't unoyprprintbd stamps of
1909-18 issue of RUssia wore ,usod, as well. as posta1',;q yings, .control and
revenue stamps, while in theoareas of former Ukraine' remnantss of various
Ukrainian, issues wore in use. As a rule the kopek yvlves wore used at 100
timno thqirj ac9 value, thus I kQp. stamp was oquivaioht to 1 ruble. In some
... 'postal ostablishmonts stamps wora inscribed by pon or inhdllibOL"pencil to
.indicate rove nation. Following markings wore uso. .
pyb" -moaning rublo "kon" R.abbroviation "kop."
"lp" .-'Russian lottOr or' "r f i or word "kopook" "whore the
abbreviation 'of'rubleo. 'stamp indicated rqValuation
from kop. to rublo.'
Page 1 .. .... 1 .. .. : .. *5

Vitesb"sk" 6. ...

oGrodno Snoleisk
Minsk Kaluga Ryazan Simbursk
O ile STui

iansK Cern Ryah Pen
P'nsk oel r KoLov a 0 Kuznetzk

St7arub e, ag'0 tVVE of Petrovsi
KoVl l Fatiej GEe 6ay S rdobsk r VoIs
Vladim,.ir .
Ci r v ov Kursk AtKarsk

u J~ paCh rI it Sumi Sud8Oby oga '11M Mw

'K RomnLutg obfeOdr- Bie^ lo OiYalur.ks KKamisai
s oW iu B9 Kh.r ...Chu.ua ^

"f ^Sk p alvipJt ....^ PPylog ad Rs nsk KMvorVloie n saritin

\ tow w Mk Niko0ol B4 0
0 ^B Dec.2 0,I i 9.fl a __/ ~'v'*^ y~' e **v. su,'w _
t ew *%N#ikla&av Or ukkov i
innif" 809U.012V Kha r i Ch
4" POO Meek 0AogArakha

SSEA OF AZOV TIkore xlhloiag

a Bitta olvi erl 8240St Snavropol
-i Russiai frontier in 1914. M...wss Mako SEA
"f White Armis of the l

South of Russia in 1919. k
...-._ Prontline on Dec .1,199. BLACK SEA Petrovhk
n..... k Dec.10,1919.
... ...... R s 1 .20,1919 .


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A.C f.NIN And V. StEPHtiN -

Y VEB-Tr Nwu vw r

apng theoe.anollo4.atampa..f o*naitad Ruqsia up find quite 'ofton those
cancollod Rostov on Don. Among the caneollors of this town. w find for the
first timi a cancellation with small lotbors and a vory wide spaco for tho
data Samo typo of cancellor -wvs usod durng the aforonontioned period in
Jakhichovan on Don. It seems that tho old cancellero werwe either carried
away by tho White Army or dostroyod during tho, transfer of those towns from
onp govornmont. to tho mxz,. mpoasicting orororing of now killers.

Among tho rmaininz cancellations of this period, -of course aro the moro
ao loss scarco postmnrks, unfortunately it is difficult to dotormino the
degroo of their scarcity,: as .it is unknown whero and *how any of thoso stamps
remained aftor tho rotroat of the Whito Army. Among the most intorosting
cancellations are those of the Foold Post of the Red ATsy, which are found
with and without, a blpck olongated roctonglo aftor the mmbor. ,

Crimoan Poninsula .

Crimna. as woll as the othor regions of South Russia was involved in the
ovonts of tho Civil War and suffered changes of regime and foreign occupati-
on. Gorman-Austrian troops, occupying TU-aine and Moving to Rostov on Don,
occupiAd Crimea dlAkowiso Undor thoir protection tho Crimoan Bordor Govorn-
mnpt (Tartar) was opganisod, hoadod by GoaorQl. Sulkovich, minister of Crimeao
This:Govornmont, on Novnmbor 17, 1918 LL datos pertaining to Crimea are in
now style calendar. whih was introdncod thoroe at tho beginning of Gorman
occupation) yielded: power to tho autonomous Russian GovvrnoEnt of Crimea.
At th end of November, 1918, aftor tho capitulation of Turkey and Control
Powers, naval units of- Franco and England entered through Bosphorous and
occupied Crimoan ports.

Allied landing parties landed in.Crima. and occupied it. In February
1919 they captured Odessa n. the samo fashion and hold it. until April. On
Apr1 6 Froneh forces pulled out of Odessa in 48 hours leaving the population
and tho Whito Artm to their fato, thus allowing the Soyvit Armies to retake
Odessa again. The same happened in (riimoa, for on April 15, 1919, French
ovacuated Sevastpopol and on April 18 signed an.armistico with the Rod units,
which thon.took ovar the ontire Grimea..

,Tho aformontionod. situationod continued until tho ond of Juno, when
after the taking- of Ekatorinoslav by the Whites on Jun. 29, now style calonda.
Soviet Command was forced to pull its troops out of Crimoa, which after this
movo was completely occupiod.by the Araod Forces of South.Russia, under the
loadorship of Genoral Donikin. Thus the fate-.of Crimea was divided into
several periods, and this has to bo toakn into consideration when studying
the postmarks of Crimean towns of- that timo. Ono of the. periods to bo consid-
orod covers the timo,betwoon April 15, 1919 and theo end of Juno of the sanm
year when Crimoa was undor the Soviet rule,

In Octobor (oexact dato- .unknown), 1918, during tho Gorwman-Austrian Occu-
pation, the Govprnmont bf Gonral. Sulkovich found it necessary to issue stamp
of 35 kop. value, "for propayment of. postage on. ordinary out of town letters.
For this 1nrposo, stocks of imporforate I kop, of Russia, of 1918, which
romainod in post offices unusod .duo to tho fall in value of the rublo and
the rise of postal rats woro utilized. The aforoemntionod stamps wore over-
printed "35 kop." in black, by typography, the work being done in.the former

# 58 Pago 19

provincial typography in Simforopol, and the late honored member of Rosslka,
Mrp S. Manjoley wrote a detailed article on thoso overprints in pro war issme
# 22, 'Rosaila4.Joirnal. WO "6r ropoatin. Mr. Manjoley'a observations in the
Following paragraphs

Typographical overprintt was oeacutod quite clearly9 but as the cliche
Became worn, numerous letters oand'umoral more and more thickened. The ovor-
prints were well centered and are. always found in the center of the stamp in
a horizontal position. The major variotios known are as follows:

q* double overprint (quito scarce) b. overprint on the gummed side.

M. Manjoloy notes the following minor constant in the shoot varieties:
a. Stamp 47 in the shoot thicker "5" d. Stamp 54 in tho shoot round dot
b. Stamp -49 in the shoot thicker ,l5 o*. Stamp 81 in the shoot -comma in
c. Stamp 77 in the shoot thicker "' place of the dot.
f. Stamp 63 in the shoot almost absent dot.

Thoreo"ar3o ntmnoroui socohdary or minor varietido such as broken letters,

A largo quantity of these stamps wore oveorprintod thus, and a largo
number of thosd-.:staps are known in mint state. Thore has boon no ovidenco
of forging of those stamps. The 'aforbmentioned stamp in cancblied state are
very very scarce .while those on:, c6rs are: grodt raritiosa'do'spito the fact
that those stamps"woro in circulating for a long timoe.that thnr outlived all
changes of rogimie in Crimea and paid. for correpondence hot only within the
peninsula but- lso to: other regions of Rtassia; ".

Theoe stamps on letters sometimes show interesting details of the postal
history in'South Russia. "Froit eampol in- y collection I havo a registered
letter frnnkod by throo such stamps, a rate- 'of 1 ruble 5-k.op. sent from
Foodosia on April3, 119 to Ekatorinodarw.ero it aorriod on i.. .31, 1919.
Difforoenc ir dates' t first glanc 'is m6eplainable, howovor it is explained
.by the fact'that a now style of Calondak was used in GCd4inmiaPwh6ro it was
intoducod by the. Gormann and r6thinfd by tho Allies, while' in Kuban the old
style calendar was still in use .at'thAt time; Thus Marh '31 (old style) is
April 12 (now style) and it took this lottor 9 days to reach the capital of
'Kuban, via Black Se6a. At that time tthor was rgEiilr steamship service
and the post had to 4iit for the first ship' .t loft port Iii.thit direction.
S Another, ordinary letter, with onho 3'ops stamp ws. sdnt from Yalta on
May'13, 919 :toX'harkov, whore it arrived on:IMy6' 22T .This letter pertains to
the poribd when Crimea wis occupied by the Sovlots- and Kharkov was not yot
-takeo by the Whites. This lottor tavoailod 'o' i-Siot' territory, taking 9
'days to cover the distance from Yalta 'to Kharkov* .
Besides the aforementioned stamps, the unovorprintod Imporial stamps
"of Russia of 1909-18' woro in:. Usd; in Crimioa, as well as the 1916-17 overprints
of 10/7k k and 20/14 kopy Neither the Ukrainidn" nor Don and Kuban ovorprints
ior, ovaor uaod in Crimea. They woirehover sold in the post offices of
Criioa. ,Likowiso the postal savings control and rovbtiuo stamps were never
used in Orimtod for' franking corrosponddncoo

Page-20 5' 8, 53

oSuth Rusi-a (Scott -o. 52o). 5
.BeOides the last named stamp, early in 1919, a 50 kop. stamp of large
format was issued imperforate. :The stamp is inscribed "Crimean Border Govern-
ment", around the circle enclosing the coat of arms, and "revenue" (at the
left)#"stag" '(at the top), and."postagen.(at the right). The purpose of
this stnmpiwas'for overall useo,:iae both for postage and revenue, as well ar
currency (money). .There iasinformation that it was to be issued only on thici
paper, ungummnad with a, inaori'ti on ,on thJo reverse side reading "has cir-
culation as currency, *. '
"It was lithographed in- two -olors. Th, samp is printed in dark brown
.on. paper with buff netywm k background in. sheets of 150, consisting of 3
pWIse of 50 taspips -(5x0). The. oat of.a ums of Tavris Qubernia is printed on
.'both eideA' o theb stmp dark brown.,

SAccolfding 'to6-..ianjeley, who livod in Crimea at that time, and who was a
witness to all of these happenings, this stamp was 'never sold at the post of-
fico and was used only as money. Nevertheless this stamp is found cancelled
as well as on letters. I must state that the fact is, that it is possible to
find these stamps baneelled, but. it does not serve as a proof that these
stamps wero ised by. the post, as it was onppgh to have a friend or acquaint-
"ance who was a postal .employee who was willing to canoell this stamp as a
favcrr o canCell evn- a blank sheet or foreign stamps. As for letter franked
with this stamp, we 'find among them philatelic, cancelled by favor, as well
as those which travelled by normal postal means.
Phiatolic oovzrs, although having genuine postmarks, are considered
nevertheless as fant4sioes, however .letters normally travdlling through the
post; and having arrival postmarks on the back, pe ent groat interest and
should be considered as eo=options. to the rules, which'are allowed to have
a postal use either-through negligence or ignoranoo of thea postal employee.
The last period which we should discuss is between the middle of March,
1920 and thb'eWhcuation of Crimoa on November 11, 1920. This was the final
period of tho Civil War in the South, after the tiie when following the
evacuation of Novorosiisk by the Armod Forces of South Russia. the forces
were concentrated in Crimea.
(to be coninued)

by Fred W.Speers
"Sosswegon", is the name of. one oT the church localities or. "kirchspiole"
in the Wenden district. The. asin .o.. this article is to establish the proper
orthography of this name, which'h sometimes in error -is written a "Soeeswegen"
and due to the lack of knowledge of 'the Grman language, is sometimes con-
siaered as-a- sea route, (from the German words Nsee" -sea and "weg" road
Sor t route)..
'-Tt-is there purpose :of. this article to suggest, in absence of evidence to
the contrary, so far as the writer ca ascertain, that the so-called "Sea
Route" cancellations found on the stamps of Wenden constitute a philatelic
myth. ,

# 58 Page 21

The district of Wenden was comprised of 17 parishes of which one was
the parish of Wondon itself. The chief town of .the. 4itriot and the parish
likewise wore named Wendon. Baedotor (lJoip g-ris edition of 1902) dos
cribe the town as having a population of 3,600,. As is well known, of course,
it is the ite of: ,the. ruins :ofthe' olJd caste1"'.of t.e" Order of the Teutonic
:; igfht 'operaco.d in. 1237,, and .dopictegd oh Wendon Aipmps of, 901-103.
A.. :pparoIG toly 6o :miles s o uth: of the old Kirchsp4.e pa ah) situated
thb paiSh f. s wigen. A rail li ne .ortheat f.m. -.t.o nof run through
, .:; ,:Se' n to iardenburg. Anothat line throu gh 'So6s gon .wont, on to Moscow,
whild: the 'in t tp, tho, west oridod.i zitlithua utll,. iQthqer 4:ln .wung almost
South ',: out of Kroisburg, then voored southw' towards Vilna and on to
Kovno, whoro it crossed into tho oxtromo northeastern sector of the Gorman
Em4lro. Thus.mail originatingi in the s6uth6 art; of ,tho Wendon district
and "addro pd to points rC .Gormniny or"iitria eould e c::cared by that rail
"..lin.^e 4tout having to crossOourldd., :It' bhotqt tho most di rct routo, at
S. th6e uri of tho century, for:.th" iLA ado.soined for Germany from St. EbtorsburE
and Moscow and nearby communities was by rail which passod-, through the Soss-
wogon parish,. Shtodlsangqf and Kroltbsbuiarg 'fll ..iginating in:.tho southern
: portion of the Wqndon district dostinbd for f6irrm aiy o co dteo oxpditi-
.ously ia lhoSoe swoogen' routo..' 4a C- 7i t
S this poit it-bocomos dosir bl6e eo oiAi6on two, of.,the-;rather scorco
:'co6rs 'which bea..tho Kirchspiolo. can7elation oh 2 kopok .,o on stamps of
S.' th6 188 .,rm. issuo and also the circular 'Shtokmngof'..cancolJl.ations on the
Ifipbrial .Rusian -stamps. In theo thrdo Robso n TRwo auotions,,;of:.t1ho Goss and
: Stibbo collections only onoe such covoertwas "cffr." :%It;,appearod:in tho
e.: -,,a'cond Goss salo (Novomber 19, 1958)r The oveor, given an oatimated valuo of
40 pounds, bore a pair and a single of the Wendo. .tatmp and: al strip of throoe
of Imperial usaian stamps, ThoWondn'dft I 'tamp deacriptin. noted, wore
ti: dd'd yafaint violet ovala" fraitoda *KEraspioi of .th 19Pal.:poet." As tho
':- itlp i g aton tmake cloor, the c dot' 'I.'b ore.aa ShtdokTfiangof cancel-
t. lioqn, i detii6iod In the description a'bbing a' tbo, year ,1893. -The price
r. : realized," incidontally was: 24 pounds." Tte CWO&r was addressed to Woisbadon

: T. .o90l6r. of theO so-called SSooewogo.n bcafil tins .have boon variously
S describedd ad..iolet,.green ancdti6o bl ,..x plsesofrall hnppon to be in
": thoe wrto+ s election .
The writer also hapfpenstonzr: in possession of a cover with cancollatio:
similar to that of the Goss item described above. Although like the Gossls
item it gives no direct evidence as to where ..t was .mailed, the Wondon stamp
bears the so-callod Soo swgon lhe.llaitio wiith ton lottors appearing fairly
legibly in the pale blue strike o. The i anglo Imperial stamp of Russia has two
Shtockmangof cancellations, dated April 12 189.7, in black. .It'I addressoo
wase, Johanro. Sc.haPoschmnidt, 0 andidate'o'Tbf olpi, Tdarandt, noea the City of
" :. :'" Dresd6n:Rstor Friars. In lstiti Kingdom of Saxoy,' It is bgckstampod
S..ht "T at2:6..., 9.- : '
"Ap.promiiaatqoly tiroe-fourths of the Sdi'oegan or Sesqwegen cancellationss
:ppoaj on'the covers in the lower loft hand corner. Assuming the complete
cancellation is a normal oval, it would moasuer approximately. 40mm. across
and 26m, high.. .The" letters .o thoe .hs&itn are approad toly 5mm. high,

age ,2 :", ':, .: # 58

Beginning at top center and going.to the right, the letters of the inscript-
"ion appear to be "StS-OPS Below the. aforomentinad inscription, 6l-eer to
the lower portion of the frainp line and reading from the cetor out, the
Letters appear to be -.NUC.'. -:The small spiral ornaint appearing at both
ends of this cancollLitioil, iabre ly discernible :..
It seems significant ti-at'bdth of those oovere bearing the Seoswegen or
so-called Seoswegen cancellations areas
.1, bot1 addrewasd :to points outside Rusiia4iiiold Livonia (both in
O r:imihy, in these instances),
"* 2,. both aloa bear Shtookmangofoancellations.
Although the precise placess of'thir mailings are not known, it seems
likely'that the most direct rout into Gorman would haw been via the
Seowogen route through Shtockmangof.

.It is urnsual, in absc 6 of Qotr'sa to find the dual cancellations on
singles of pieces, Which are 4dequ4ate ediugh for indentificationi purposes.
The writer, however, does posses a pice with a Wenden arms stamps showing
"a greenish blue. Sesseogen or.SoswuZgon cancellation. Right next to the 2
kop. Wenden stamp is a 7 kop. Imperial Russia stamp, both tied by a
Shtookm4ngof cancellation in black-. Only the letters 'SS" are discernible
of the greenish blue cancellation on the Weaden n stamp

What probably is the stongost bit of su4pporting evidenco'that has come
into this writer's hands is a piece with a 2-k6., Wenden stamipand a 7 kop.
Stamp 3f Russia# the former bearing a remarkably clear violet or- light purple
cancellation with the word "KIRCPIELS-POSC T distinctly legible in the upper
half of the oval. In the lower left quadrant (below the small ornament) the
letters "SES" are readily distinguishable. (An illustration of this piece
together with a tracing of the cancellation accompanies this article as does
an illustration of the previously mentioned piece). -

Still further evidence of the importance of Shtockmangof cancellation
can be seen on the somewhat less scarce covers that bear it together with
numberod obliterator markings such as the triangle of dots enclosing the
numeral "691" which was used for postal stations and postal branches at rail-
road stations. Mail from the northern section of the Wenden district receive
those when routed through Shtockmangof, onroute to Germany.

Thus the idea that the word'"Nsswegon' is written as ."eeswogon" and
means a "soa route" is erroneous dpue to the lock of knowledge of the German
language. Besides, the Wonden district is not on the shore of the sea or of
the Gulf of Riga, by the means of which one could enter the Baltic Soa, The
author is therefore in agreeolont with the theory of Mr. Samuel Ray in that
"some author had mistakenly writt'eiSeeswegen'instoad of 3Sesswegon" thinking
that it denoted a "Soe Routle. -

; x rangel. Issue Nos, 2848, 2 I8 0 x
x "' x
x Rt. Rov. C.H. Doyle x
x Ladyliff Collegoeighland Falls, N.r - x
x#.58 Pae2xaxxxxxxxxxxx3xxx
# 58 Page 23


t 6:.'-.. lor ,. ''id :. mL -'= a m oyf Zom.stvos. ,nsi.dd with this
S"iiue of' tb' jti. e w.' orl .Q.f theRossae .mnboer, Fivd Spooeerr of
Escondido, California, ad his sister-in-ilaw, rse. ice Ray of Lyndon,
Kentucky, Mrs.a ,L .isa : oe -Ps.ona -,riabt .. ald it. is her artwork that
pp dthe .

T 1 The e4a, of doing just. this :srt of map c.uroed to"Fred some time ago.
i :.He Fit't'ih th ai able malps..'this: spciac.lie sort wero either too small
or difficult to follow, l.IPp, .y. c.o:-hso projectt was completed, it became
a complex operation' involig sending drawings back and forth between Califor-
nia, Kentucky and Davenport, :IOval wUero the., lthography was .finally done
"ud" '' u rhe, suprvlisi 1no rry.Bawdon of Badoen Bros., Inc.,1 a friend of
rods 'for many years........:. .

Nei.hoeP Mrs. Ray nr War.rry Bawden are stamp collectors tbt both became
:-. .. :" t st9din'i, ; 6 hen it.was leoxplained to them thdt the map
.e' duid fill I ga. i the'tO ia1.Qeid field of Zemoitvos. t e .:mp itself is
limit: ti d o 'di 'spla gte. ,tioba i asda in Europe which, seed Zemstvos,
:anid of cooSpe d key ties Dterburg and Moscow. The ,rail network
is rou9hly thdtf, hajor linos as. Mhy;od.stod around -1900. Dv iiae of small
"-;' .;.-.'illutrations, the oeonomiea of vorius ro gions are. Eicatc Names of
only those gvertnents in which were located cities issuing zemstvo stamps
appear on the map. ..Fred is theo author of a series of artitcls currently
S appearing in the British Society. .of Rusqia Philately ,oureuni ih which is
given a, bai.f abary of tho postal data, .the history and 'economy! of all of
S the' ties which. issued zemstvo: stamps. The serisis: i.entitlod.ttho "Zemstvo
Gate eer .,

Additional cops of th : mip may be obtaimd, from IMr '.Sp6orso at $1 each
or iftlt is desir'dt that thqy be sent: in mailing tubQst. teli5d of envelopes,
for 25 cents adbit'ioal. His address is 560 East Fourth Avenue, Escondido,
Californi ., :. *: .:' !' ,

Zemstvo Proof
by P. Matishev

Attention of .Zemstv.O collectors .should. be called t.o certainn zomstvo
iprpof'stihlch nay be unknown to ,many of them. I ei anad. illustrate by
facsimile of eact sio JofA.. tl -igixal, i 'm Clectio

Ac corfdint.' Agchher' s '&ta-ogu of t r :ent'eS 92th i states are proof,
of Zemas nnitire., ,; roofs differ tipm. -tamps of entiroebi-either in paper
'(1 'tTlt d) r it color of stamp and aper (Rhbe Yvesd) Thb .only unoxplain
stamp as to its origins is that of ZSinkof, which has on its reverse side an
inscription "0 B R A Z E T So. Kindly see illustratign, of -stamps .a, b, c, 6,
e and f- drdserb'ibed&'lowU 'whiok aro pdoofs 'or as otherwise marked..
a. Rzhev 3 kop. blue on yolldwishwhlit6 'paper, ribbed diagonally, un-
gummed, and issued imperforate.. A ,..imilar proof is in dark. blue,
b. Rzhov 3 kop. black on, bljish-g'iy th ,paper, issued imperforato
and ungui med.^

Pago 24 # 8


t 6:.'-.. lor ,. ''id :. mL -'= a m oyf Zom.stvos. ,nsi.dd with this
S"iiue of' tb' jti. e w.' orl .Q.f theRossae .mnboer, Fivd Spooeerr of
Escondido, California, ad his sister-in-ilaw, rse. ice Ray of Lyndon,
Kentucky, Mrs.a ,L .isa : oe -Ps.ona -,riabt .. ald it. is her artwork that
pp dthe .

T 1 The e4a, of doing just. this :srt of map c.uroed to"Fred some time ago.
i :.He Fit't'ih th ai able malps..'this: spciac.lie sort wero either too small
or difficult to follow, l.IPp, .y. c.o:-hso projectt was completed, it became
a complex operation' involig sending drawings back and forth between Califor-
nia, Kentucky and Davenport, :IOval wUero the., lthography was .finally done
"ud" '' u rhe, suprvlisi 1no rry.Bawdon of Badoen Bros., Inc.,1 a friend of
rods 'for many years........:. .

Nei.hoeP Mrs. Ray nr War.rry Bawden are stamp collectors tbt both became
:-. .. :" t st9din'i, ; 6 hen it.was leoxplained to them thdt the map
.e' duid fill I ga. i the'tO ia1.Qeid field of Zemoitvos. t e .:mp itself is
limit: ti d o 'di 'spla gte. ,tioba i asda in Europe which, seed Zemstvos,
:anid of cooSpe d key ties Dterburg and Moscow. The ,rail network
is rou9hly thdtf, hajor linos as. Mhy;od.stod around -1900. Dv iiae of small
"-;' .;.-.'illutrations, the oeonomiea of vorius ro gions are. Eicatc Names of
only those gvertnents in which were located cities issuing zemstvo stamps
appear on the map. ..Fred is theo author of a series of artitcls currently
S appearing in the British Society. .of Rusqia Philately ,oureuni ih which is
given a, bai.f abary of tho postal data, .the history and 'economy! of all of
S the' ties which. issued zemstvo: stamps. The serisis: i.entitlod.ttho "Zemstvo
Gate eer .,

Additional cops of th : mip may be obtaimd, from IMr '.Sp6orso at $1 each
or iftlt is desir'dt that thqy be sent: in mailing tubQst. teli5d of envelopes,
for 25 cents adbit'ioal. His address is 560 East Fourth Avenue, Escondido,
Californi ., :. *: .:' !' ,

Zemstvo Proof
by P. Matishev

Attention of .Zemstv.O collectors .should. be called t.o certainn zomstvo
iprpof'stihlch nay be unknown to ,many of them. I ei anad. illustrate by
facsimile of eact sio JofA.. tl -igixal, i 'm Clectio

Ac corfdint.' Agchher' s '&ta-ogu of t r :ent'eS 92th i states are proof,
of Zemas nnitire., ,; roofs differ tipm. -tamps of entiroebi-either in paper
'(1 'tTlt d) r it color of stamp and aper (Rhbe Yvesd) Thb .only unoxplain
stamp as to its origins is that of ZSinkof, which has on its reverse side an
inscription "0 B R A Z E T So. Kindly see illustratign, of -stamps .a, b, c, 6,
e and f- drdserb'ibed&'lowU 'whiok aro pdoofs 'or as otherwise marked..
a. Rzhev 3 kop. blue on yolldwishwhlit6 'paper, ribbed diagonally, un-
gummed, and issued imperforate.. A ,..imilar proof is in dark. blue,
b. Rzhov 3 kop. black on, bljish-g'iy th ,paper, issued imperforato
and ungui med.^

Pago 24 # 8

S. K5 5 kop. bladi on .inso vhit papers sud. .ngunme and
i mpr erfate. So pch ( .a.ot). Scnidt.- pe .- ;-tor 1890.
Sd. K iov 4,kdp. greeih-g on yellowish whito, .diionally ribbed
papor, issued iiporforato and ungusnd.
e. Zionkov 3 kop. gold on yellowis-whito paper, issued imporforato
and ungumed, with inscription '0brasots" on back in violet.
S'f. T '5 kop. gray on white horitsohtally loid paper. Facsimile pro-
p* od by the 'virtqr- anid'the inscriptions, established fro tho two
copies on hand. Th iwormo iroparod ,by ithoraphy with the printing
b1oing wvry unlboar. Has atyon such a proof, and is it from the
Tula Yozd.
Now I wish to comment on another subject dealing with the Zonstvo
Post. Sorting out slujobnia (service) stamps of Poltava Yesd I noticed a
peculiar thing: one of the stamps, namely the 3 kop. green, of 6th. Agronom.
branch (Schmidt #107) vas printed on, paper with olear watormark, resembling
a horisontally placed m6nogratm. to dctorrinDW thb ontiro watermark, from ono
stamp, is impossible. Eutining other copies of the- amn stamp, numbering
50, I _found 4 otherss, on- siMI iaer teiarit d paper, but not as clear as those
described earlier. Neither does Chpchin nor Sphmnidt motion the aforomentiono
watermark on these stamps. Schnidt dAscusses 25 types,in a sheet, known to
exist on this stamp. .... .

It is possible that one of our collector members may have service
stamps in blocks of four, thus enabling one to clasify with ease the entire
watormark, provided of course the stamp exists in blocks of four. It seems
that the overwholning majority of the aforementioned stamps wore printed on
ordinary, unwatermarked paper.

THE LUGA ISSUE. 1941 i..
by Dr C. de Stackelberg

.;- :-hile in Geimoan, I vs fiioil' to g1t some formationn on the so-
called Luga iswsu which was sup os dly, sued in, th fGe Min; Military Area in
front of Ieningrad in 1941.

Luga is small town. situated, in the Leningrad Oblast on tho Pskovl-onin-
grad Ri1iiad. -h August 1941, this town was occupied by the German armies
advancing towards Leningrad. The German field commander, probably copying
his colleguo in Pakov, decided to establish his own postal service and issue
stamps for that purpose. Current Soviet stamps, which were probably found
at the local post office, wer. sent to Pskov to receive black, typographic
overprint oftnwd valuee' The dtafhps of the Pakov Town Post woro overprinted
in the sano printing office. The five values overprinted for Luga woro as
S follows ,-

a a or ordinary lottors kop." on 5, 10 and 15 kop. Soviet stamps.
b. Fo registered letters -* 6&'on 20 and 30 kop. Soviet stamps.

Tho quainbitdos of stamps thus overprinted is not known.

HKwevor, On October 19, 1941, before the nowly overprinted stamps woro
to bo sent to. Luga the German Commander of the Noard Armies ordered all
local post offices and postal services closed for security reasons. Although

# 58 Pago 25

this order was re minded on December ...i:1941,,and..the town post of Pskov was
Saain i allodii dtq. operate -.the .ed Dimmander pf -Liga never received from his
: id'. titay upr9ors t he.. n essary perbtsiob to establish a local postal
S service'and to issue'for postal usqtho.. stamps which had 'inr meanwhile been
prepared. .

: hui, thesq stamps .wre A ,.vrt iasuod. for postal use, and therefore
Sb6elong' to the realm of vig itte. an asi s (p pa ed, but iot issued for use)
"11ke the stamps of'. "Western Arnmy'lt. "Bulnk-Baelkhovitah' and other similar
issdoes .so well doascribed by .'. Markovitch .In;I#6ournal of Rossika.

ooooooo0ooooo00c0.OoooooooopoQooooopoooo.oo.oo ooooooo000000oo0ooooooo o oooo0000000o
0 ... .0
So A T .E D o
S 0 .0 o
o .Ru so.papanese War Material, or any.Russia used -in: Manchuria, o

o' i I: a interested in anything Manchurian 'and philatelic.,; Also want o
0 0 :
o Russia Used rin Ale.andretta and Tannu.Touva, .. ... o

o Raymond 8. Ehrman 68 Woodland Road ittsaburgh 37 PaI. o

0 . .. 0 S

S 600000000oo0 000o00oooooooo0o6oo6ooooooooooooooooo O oppqop'0o(0?OOpooocoocooo
0 o
S. .
o All parts- all time. The Worlds la rgest" stock of stamps, entire, o
o 0
o covers, monoy transfer cards, .-to, Aso, wanted sm:n mEterial and o
", 0
SUkrainian paper mbnoey official andf lcals. 0.e o
O 0
o0 0
0 . .. . ..- ": . ..... ..* O
" 'ohn Buat 141 Elm Streo.t ., -once.re .w or .0 o
00oo 0ooo oooooooooooo ooooo ooooo ooooooooooo600ooio' 00ooo ocoocooo

"o00bo O'Oooo00oo0oO O0000o .o 00 0,0 60oo0po 0000000 qGOOO..00 OqOQ0O.QQ000OOOQ.oooo00000
R I: :'I-A. MI N,.T S A.L .. o
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to htamp contoBary (12) $*1L.5 Antarotic Souienir. sheet01.50o
o Fishes, animals (4) 0.60 50 diff. Russian Gommom.- l.00o
o. Famous men (face. 6 rubles) (15) ir 150 ..Poland: #539 (S.S..) canc.-0.45o
o- Np.. 1943a, 2002a (2 souv. sa. "- l .1.5 Poland,: 40- diff, .commem. -0.75o
So Stamp Oentonary (2 souv. sheots)- '.00 Lithuania, #916a (S.S.) -0,30o
o Architect souvonAr sOot .. .,, ,0.40. LithuapiA 290,:291, 293-0.25o
o Rusia-i covers aith now' issues ... detailss on roauest. o

ooooooooo00006o ooo.o0oooc oppoo.opo oo o00sc0Q00oooodcQoQoopoopoopopoooo 0oo ooooo

Page 26 7 4. # 58

by Nicholas Kormilev
The third period of Russian rnumamatics began in 1810, with an intro-
duction of a law fixing the lqgal contazu of pure silver in 1 rublo of
approximately 18 gramqa The6,AfqroMirionmd a continued.'%o b in effect
up to 1896, when thoe ruble was dovaluatod to 2/3 of its previous value, and
a gold ruble of 1/15 of an "Imperialr", in state of 1/lOth as it was before,
was introduced as a basic coin-
From 1810:.t 1885,: with rare Oxexptions, Russian coinsedii4not bear
the lkermsse o the emperors, but bore- any a double headed .egle.
The most remarkable foaturo :of this period was the introdgdtion of the
coinage of platu coins, which were struck from 1828 to 184$ in coins of
3, 6 and 12 rb.les. *The aforementioned coins were not popular .with the
populace, because they were easily miad with silver coin of a quarter
ruble half ruble and one -ruble, and -berefore in 1845 they were recalled
and ordered to be redeemed; ak- .atoe ato: treasury. (See Fig. 1y..
The gold coins struck during this rpriod were mostly the 5 ruble half
imperials. From. 1815 to 1832,- 25 and 50. zloty gold coins, bearing the like-
mne of the Emperor. Alexander w, wero struck: in Warsr a for use in Poland.
After the Polish Insurrection of. 1831, th aforementioned gold coins were
replaced by bilingual 3-rubles/20. zloty-eoins, which were struck from 1834
to 1840. After 1840 only the regular Russian coins circulated throughout
the Empire. From 1869 to 1885 the 3 ruble coins were also struck9 and from
1886 to. 396 .heo 10 ruble ;impErile with the Mikenesds of Emperors
Alen.der'..II and. Nicholas II. In 1836 a vory rare pattern imperial was
truck beating the l.lkenessaos of Eperor Nicholae I and Empraes. Alexandras
S romn 1886 on# the 5 ruble coins also- bore the -likenes of the-emperor. In
1876, an again 1896, 100 and 3QO s:eoioena respectively of 25 ruble, 24
imperials were struck, the latter with the likeness of Emperor Nicholas II,
(Soo Figs.4 and5.). :
In conjunction with the' epoted. devaluation of the ruble, a plan to
change the name of the now smaller unit of coinage from "ruble" to "russa
was proposed, but the change was not approved by Emperor Nicholas II. The
proposed mew unit of coinage "Russ" was a derivation from the word "Russia"
Gold cons. of.. O.and. 20 markkase, were struck
periodically fr.i.1860 for use in Finland. In 1832, 5 ruble coins, inscribed
"is roseapi kolyvanakikh" or"from Kolyvan gold.fields#P which are rather
rare, were struck. (See Fig, 3).,
Numerous coins from silver were struck during the 3rd period. During
the first 10 years of the reign of Emperor Aleander I tho following coins
were struck 10 kop, 25':kop,,:50 kops and 1 ruble. The additional 5 kop.,
15 kop, and 20 kop. coins also strl were suppressed by Emperor Paul I.
Silver coins 6f ., 1 and 2 abameao;wqrw struck by the Government in Tiflis,
urmiil 1833, for the use in "Grusia" or Georgia. From 1815 on, coins of 1,
2, 5, amd 10 zlotys as wefl aePoins of 5 and 10 grossy9from billon and
having a Polish inscription, were struck bearing the likeness of Emperor
alexanderr I. In 1831, during the Polish Insurrection, silver coins of 2 and
5 zlotys, with Polish coat of arms and an inscription "Krolewstwo Polskio"
or Polish Kingdom wore struck.
# 58 Page 27

After the Insurrection the silver.. coins .for. Poland became bilingual and the
coins of .th .following values wre- 'stuck ir 5kp./l oty, 20 kop./40gre.,
25 kop./50 er., 30 kop./2 zloty, rUblo/5 zloty, and 1j rubles/10 zloty,
as wll a. 5 kop/lO grpazy and, 10 op,/20 groazypf.op bilpon.
toitn 1861 on,'25 pen., 50 pen, 1.markka' nd2 arkkas eidvZe coins, were
stru .: -tu fo or land egad in 1861, nb vdry i, 'patern 20 pen, Roin was also

Of the rare silver coins of the 3rd priodwe' must first'nmontion the
exbromely rare ruble of the Emperor CQnstantine I, who.-nevSG regned.
.o: n-,Empdior. -i nacr'i was 6hild1ose i iand bis.-suboi:qor shoid bavq .boen his
younger brother iaid'Dke 'Cons tnitinid, hh at 'that time was the Viceroy
for Poland, and who lived in Warsaw., Grand Duko Conatantind was married
m.or gantiallj to Polibh bcoitos Jbianna aniqtzi a tic amd therefore in
ad : i Odnoe with the Russiari lawof c*so^i, wras not, eligible ot the throne
: of thd ars.. After hia marriage .h 'ormtnaly onounce. any qlai to the
:: uccd-asion to 'the "tsardon, but the' : ac f a' only revealed to two or threo
r so. pea n ct his brother "Niholas wds"ieft in ignijco cd ce: O:n Decomber
y1, X25,' Emperor Ax41lmnder :I, myteriouly died in a asall' South Russian
town of Taganrog, during his travels in South Russia. The death of Alexander
', T created eieoh' confusion and unoe* ttity oad at'ethree ,weeks..of hesitation
o:. nstantine s-ont an thconditional renuniaoio o bf y cl.ae hi to MINcholas,
S; whose aaoeseion was than announced* in inanwehile' 54 or 6 pattern, rublos,
. : -h:o oonsidored the rarept and fbrst desirbwi';of iT; o60Ps were struck
S: :- in ; tho; St Pet6raburg Mint, bearinghi. likens h3a the "EmpEr r .Oonstantine

::'. ong other aro sileur coins should be. imntioned It ruiles/10 zloty
:.... ..oin,: setoiuk in 1836, and having the ikeeiss" 'of mperor .lichQls I on obver-
s : ntse a nd Empreaes- qx-dra and'thoir sevon chld'e.h,.pn the reverse. (See
SFig. 11) Other aro coin'is the pattern ruble, Strub1k in 1827 and bearing
e: ie. of :Em Pr 6r Ni'pholf. I '. ..... '.' ...' -..
Below we shall describe a number of commemorative lubles, known aa the
"IMonument" rubles, which have, views of diffrT e.nt mo ptst onl the reverse,
-.nd.teiie seeS of-s .irper o' tie obversee,. '
: ; t:taMnd e Goluia^ one ruble was struck' ii 34, :t;4 oinmorate the
war with oeon.
.'". ..': 2. "Borodino Mornument",I nd 1 ruble, coin which, wre ,st. ui in 1839,
6 o imerior i t the:ba-thto on apoleOn m h oC _ol: on, ewl on
", ptbr 7, i1812'
3. "Nicholas Monument" ruble ,tith 'the 6riumdri' to Emperor licholas I,
struck in 1859, which is not rxarA andwhich, shouJd ,ot be confused
S with th" pat'orn roubleo ..1" 2',iboth ha ing .. of obvorso the likeness
..., :...... of the-er'or'Nidho1a Il (Seef g. 9) .a 9 ,).' ....
4 ;.-. o"oronation"' rubles 'of 1883 'and ,1896,;stek.. f o Alexandor III and
INicholas II respoctively which ar6 nd6' 'ri? e .' -
,- 5::.. .6 il 5,.eil8", very rare, m. .oro. Alfithder I, rble which- was
,; (To 'be 'a- -tinu y ,. -': ': u'... .
a stg"iik i- 18. ,
S : ...' : ; '. oo bobtoo pobd:ooo '.,',
S Pa. e .' 28. # 58

(ccimpiled frm Russian TIme Table)
by W. E. C.Kethro & J. Barry

Moscow Kiev" 803
Konotop Kursk 236
Kiev oltava 329
Brianak.... .....-.-..gov 196
Tikhonova Kaluga 17
Ichnaia Chernigov NG) 106
Moakovsro- Dnepr Krasnoe .- Zolotonosha NG 23
Kievo- Rilas. Krenovo Sudsha NG) 60
Voronmzhakaia Tereshchenskaia Pirogo*ka 27
Ziklevo Zhidra 10
Konotop Khutor Mikhailovski (NG) 186
Vorozhba Khutor Mlkhallovski 125
Verkhovie Marmizhi 128
Kursk Voronezh 231
Ckhoche*a 1olpni (NG) -56
----------- ------------rrr------r---- - -- - -- - -
Oriekhovo flinaci Pogost (OriekhovEcaia) 40
Moscow Riaszan 186
Liubortsi Arzamas 371
SRiasan .... ...... Ruzaevka 392
Timiryamevo Kazan .349
Ruaoka Sizran 287
Moekovsko- Voskresensk Ygorievak 22
Kasanskaia Ruzaoka rzamas Nizh. Nov. : 337
S Kustare.ka -Zemetchino 96
Inza Simbirsk .155
Ruzaevka Tenza 132
Golutvin Ozori 37
Lukhovitai. -.Zaraisk 26
--------- ----- ------------------------

W-rsea Kali8h 42
Warsaw Aleksandrovo (Berlin) .211
Varshavsko- Warsaw Granitza (Vienna) 288
Vienadala- Zomtkovitst Sosnovitai 16
Aleksandrovo Tsiekhotsinak 7
--- -------------------------- ------- -
Siodlots Vol1 ovisk 185
Malkin Osrolenka Lapi 52
Ostrolenka Ilava 124
Golonog Dobrova Goraia 6
Strzhomeshitsa Sosnovitai 13
PrIvalinakala ..-Ivangorod Golonog 279
Strshemeshitsi Frontier 8
Siodlets Malkin 63
SSkarzhiako Ostrovets
" Skarzhiako Koliuahki 108

# 58 Pego 29


.Warsaw Brest .' 199
Kfaroia ... ;*:::"Bjest;.:. .:... .: 107
Ivangorod Lukov .57
Warsaw Kov- 15
IPrvialinskaia Warsaw MWava 122
Lukov -LUblin 104
"Dielsk -:Biol6viozt h 49
Kovel BrOt' Graevo' 318
-------------- --------------------------

S Grodna ": -Iost 55
Polotsk : .- Vl. k9visk .9
"Vasilovichi Khb.t.i '
Polekliya Bar'anoovchi told'orto :.05
Liuhcha Kana 28
Vilna ---arn 297
"Brians -' : t rest 757

---- - - - - -

Kolius-ki -Lod'z ( LodzlnNalia-Fabriohnaia) '"- 25
todzintkaia Slotvi.ni -oLdtz (Koliushkinakaia) 35
Vidzhov Ld : (Obodnaia) 7

--------------------------------- 2 ---- ---------------*
-" C 113
Novozibkovskii- Novozibkov I'orodscvwrg& (NG) 32
Starodubskii Unocha. -tarodu'o. .,' .
----------------------------------------------------- ---- ----------------

ALkaandovataia Moscow Brost 1025

*kW--- ---------------------------- -------------------4-^

Rigo- Riga 'rel 940
Orlovdcala Zintiu!;ov Klr otria

..Vit.b.t. "-a- 29..hi-ia .' "u '25
----.... ------, --.--- ....--opov- --- Vrkhul-fl'-'-Ur ahb .--.. 67

"' Nizhovka Koriuovka .. 15
Ltbavo- Voroiti. ;" QGodiacna ... 32
Roonslcia Uboric' vZ .vidhin ; :. 3 17
Libava -. Rbrn 1077
Radzivilia aUlr i ; : 187

Libavo-Hasenpota:ii Libava -Henot (G) 46

---------------------------- ----------------

-: Page. 30 5
"-/ 58


O Kuvohinovskii- Torzhok Kuvshinovo 54
Tula-Likhhvinsaia Tula Lihvin (NG) 105
0 ------- -- ----------------------------- ----------------------------.......

Viazna Tula 279
'Tula -Riazhsk 184
Sirano- Uzlovaia Yelots 182
Viazemd-Bala Vornadovka- Zemrtchinc 25
Kenzino Uzholovo 7
Riazhsu BEtrai 622
---- -----------------------------------------
SKiov -Kovel 423
Sarni Kovno 83
Kiev Odessa 612
Kazatin Kovel 344
Zdolbunovo Radsivilov 86
Ozoriani Mizoch 9
Kivrtsi Lutzk 12
Dubno Krcnoncts 37
Zhmei-ika Volochisa 151
YuFo- Zhmir.Ika Cknitsa 145
Zapadnala Slobc-Za Novosolitsi 375
Benderi Reni 269
Razdoluaia Ungoni 212
Der ovka Trostianeto 13
Vaepriarka Tsviotkovo 252
Si-naceka Zlatopol 13
irzula Yolizavetgrad Znamonka 318
Fastov Znamenka 282
Kazatin Uman 183
Brobrinskaia Cher!assi 33

*******------------ ------------------------ w-----------------
Vadi Kol Vladimi oval V ir-i Volinl: 53
W-b ------------------------ -------- noo--------- -----

Skvirskii Popolnaia Scvira

S*-------n S--------------n--------------------------------
Biclrrod-Sur.s!aia Biolgorod Basi 139
n n nn---------------n--------------------nn n --------------------------------------
(to bo continued)

# 58 Pago 31


"by"" Dr.c De Stackelberg
(Continuation from #57)
6orrections in #57 of Rossica.

Page 21PFai p 1 lin should be "6 outer" instead of "8 outer
Pale 21, Paragraph 20 line 5 should be "6 spaces" instead of "8 spaces".
Page 21 PaLragraph 21 line 5 should be "6 were" instead of "8 were".

24. Size of Stamps

The sizes of the stamps are as follows:
10 koP. 15ix21mm, 20 kop. 15x2linm. 50 kop. 15x2linm.
14, 15. 25. 35 and 70 kop.. 16-x22mnm.

It is well known that since 1922 or earlier, the 15 kop. stamps were
also printed from new plates: made from a larger die, the sheet bearing the
plate numbers 6 and 7. The size of these "larger!' stamps is 16.8x23mm.,
reducing the space between the stamps from 2 to 1-mm.

I have also an upper right hand pane of the 15 kop. stamps, perforated,
of the provisional issue of 1922-23 overprinted typographically by the
Soviet star and overprinted "200 rubles". Here, oddly enough, the 13th
stamp is of normal size, whereas the other stamps on the pane are the so-
called "larger stamps". .

What I think is not known and which I recently discovered when measuring
my stamps, that there also exists a "larger" 70 kopek stamp. My sheet with
these stamps has no plate number, thus belongs to a very late, probably 1922,
printing. The size of the stamp is.16.5 to 16.8 by 23mm. The space between
the stamps is also reduced from 2 to 1inm.

25. Sizes of Rouble stamps.

The size of the 1 ruble stamp is 261-31mm., 3 rubles 50 kop. andl 7
rubles. Typo 1 is 24x29mma. of the 7 rubles, Type II is 25-230mm..:and of
the 5 and 10 rubles 24Lx29mm.

"The 7 ruble stamp of Type I of 1917 has a single outer frame. The Typo
II of late 1917 or early 1918 a double outer fame, thus making this stamp
wider and higher by 1mm. on each side.

26. Dies.

There are no known errors of dies as for instance when a die of one
valuo is inserted into a.plate of another value. The following error is

During the first printing of the 7 kop. stamp rejected Die I (with
3 instead of 4 pearls at the NW of the figure of value) which were used only
for essays, wore placed erroneously in a plate. Only duch stamps with Die I1
so tenant with an ordinary 7 kop. stamp printed with the accepted Die III are
a proof that they are not essays, even when postally used.
Paee 32 # 58

27. Dies of the "Center" and the "Figtro of Value" of 1 ruble stamp.
A word ought also to be said about' the dies or of the unit forming the
center and"the figure of vr2luo of the 1 ruble stamps. The numeral "1" varies
greatly in thickness from thin to thick. Then there also exist four dis-
tinct types of the unit formed by the three letters of the word R U D".

Tyro -letters "P", UY", and D"n are separated.
Tyro II -letters "01 and "Y" are joined.
Type III-letters "Y" and "Da are joined.
Type IV -letters "P", "Y", and "D" are all joined at the top.

28 .Retouches.
When a plate was damaged or a die was worn, it was either retouched or
a new die was .inserted in the place of the old die, often changing the
composition and the positions of dies in a plate of the same plate number.
The known retoudhes are listed in the check list.

29. Plate Numbers,
In the lower right or left border the sheets have the so called "Plate
Numbers", though on some of the later issues after 1920 they are missing
altogether. Mr. Fohs has dealt with this subject extensively in his article
the "Printings and the Plate Characteristics of the 1908-1923 Arms Issuo of
Russia" in the #7 and #8 issue of the Dritish Journal of Russian Philately.

30. First Printings of Arms Issue.
In this connection I want to say only a few words about the real first
printings of this issue. These stamps were first issued on January 1, 1909
old style cr January 14, 1909 new style (with the exception of course of the
2Ck. stamp issued in 1910, the 5k. issued in 1912, and the 5 & 10r. issued in
1915 and the 3r. 5Ck. and the 7r. stamps issued in 1917).

The first printing of these stamps therefore had to be printed in 1908,
and must'bear this year .on plate number. Dut as the first printing was very
small and a few corner plate blocks of the sheets were preserved, such plate
blocks, with the year 1908 marking, are extremely rarb and some even have
never been seen by the collectors. Nevertheless, they did exist and sometimes
appear in the trade. Thus, for instance, a block of the Ik. stamp with the
plate inscription, and "1908" was only recently found and sold by Romeko of
Paris, France.

31. The Printing of the Chalk Lines.
After the sheets had been printed a chalk net of vertical lozenges (or
obliquely intersecting chalk lines) was applied by a roller or a printing
block to the surface of the sheet. This was done to protect the Post Office
from stam;s being reused. In 1908 a large ring was discovered in Warsaw,
which after washing off postmarks and cleaning used stamps, was selling them
for reuse. The chalk lines vary in width from Im, to lmkm. especially after
1915 when they often became wider than the, normal width of to Inm. The
color pf the chalk lines is yellowish, and later even becoming brownish in

32. Ohalk& MInes.
This net of chalk lines extends only over the central area of the sheet,
an area which is only slightly larger than the area over which the stamps have
been printed. The size of this chnal line area also varies slightly and,

#58 Page 33

the lines re.. oft6n' misplaced. iThus,., somotlmes the outside rows of stamps
are only half covered by chrlk linos .r do not show any chalk lines at all.
The so are the stainps which- cro known as. the horror pf '"thalk lines omitted"'.
"Oddly-enough most of the "chalk lines .,omitted" stamps belong to the: 1909-
1912 period. After. 1918 sheets,; also o xist whuore the chilk not has not boon
printed at all or printed on the gum on the back of the sheet instead of on
the front surfaceoof the shoot-..: :..
Some stamps oxist with double chalk .:inas and with chalk'ilines on the
babk as well as on thb 'front. ..

..33.. Social Printins of 5 Ruble stamp.

In 1915 shoots of 5 ruble stamps wore specially printed on the paper
without chalk lines, to be overprinted with. "PIAS 50 TRES"," horizontally in
black, for the issub of the Russian Post Offices in Levant. Those stamps
were never issued without overprint.

S* 34. Horizontal *Chalky Net : .
T'hochalky net was changed-in 1920 froi vertical to ahobriittal
position, 'when the lay-out of the-1,I .3.5.0 and 7 ruble values was changed to
a new horizontal' (5xLO): stamp configuration on o a e,sht.-
35. .Perforations. (EMothoed}. ....

...inally, the sheets were prf orated. Bfore g.in further I have to
described the three typo a'of perforations used for" this issue: ..'
a, 'Harrow Perfordation, A Aiof th6 stamnips in: the shoO% are operf orated
at .on stroke of the perforating 'machino';
b.: omb -Per2oatitt&a: Oen-:str.oko -of .th perforating machine perforates
""one row f stamprs'on throes sidos,..goenerally on the 'right and left
sido and at the top o:bottom side; .This nocossiates .a further line
pqrforaiting :at the top or bottom .rob of the stamps to" -omplote the
porforation of the 'sheet:. :-..' "
". Line Porforation, --One stroke of- perforating machine perforates
only one horizontal or vertical..lind of prororati5ns.

36. Perforations,

jk Values :Ass mentioned by Manjeloy in.Reossica.# l and 16, the
"kopok values were harrow perforated 1.4-4 .

Ruble Values, vertical chalk lines.- were line perforated 134.

Ruble Values, horizontal chalk lino.s. .1 .,3.50 and'7 rubles were comb
perforated 13 L i probably by the same perforating machine which was
used to perforato the 5.'rubles Romanoff stamps of 1913.

uble .Values. othororforations Porforation 12- In 1919, the 1,
3.50, 5, and 7 ruble stamps wore also perforated ,12. They are known
as the Porm' issue, though they .were prob 'bly perforated 12- also in
Petrograd' and Moscow.:

Page 34 58

37. Perforated 11-.

The 5 ruble stamps, probably of the first issue of 1915, are also known
w to have been officially perforated 11 i, like its predecessor of 1906,
printed on vertically laid paper.
38. Pqrforations in Vibert Check List of 1927.

Viboet, iin his.Check Listof 1927 erroneously mentions that the 1 ruble
"stamps in tho color of the F. P. (chocolate/orange) were perforated 12. The
1 ruble 'stamp perforated 12j 6f the so called Perm issue, as mentioned above,
"id eoll known and is of much later printing.

The 3 rubles 50 kop. stamp of Type I of 1917 also never existed Perf.
:1 as listed by Vibert.
39. Sharp and Rough Peiforations. '

"From the sharp Out perforations of 1909-17, the perforations, especially
from 1917 to 1920/22 often change to rough, as the pins.of the perforating
machines became dulled. (Rough or Pin perforations). Sometimes stamps are
'.' fund with one or several perforations missing, the result of broken pins.
"' AfterVibert the perforating machines had apparently been again repaired in
1922, as thde Irforations during the last period of 1922-23 are again sharp.
40. Imporforate Stamps.

Cwing to a strike at the Government Printing Works in Petrograd in
1: I17, which according tb some authorities lasted from April to June, and to
o otherss from April to bNvSmbor1, printed shoots were issued imperforate in
Large quantities to the Post'Office Department for postal use. Imperforate
Sheets of the 1- 2, 3,#4, Ajid-5 kop..and the 3.50, 5, 7, and 10 ruble values
were still printed and issued between 1920 and 1923, the 1 ruble stamp
apparently from 1920 until 1922.
The printing of the 7 and 14 kopek stamps was discontinued in 1916 as
Sthe postal rates for ordinary'lotters were increased from 7 to 10 kopeks.
The remaining stocks of those stamps were overprinted 10 and 20 in black
respectively. Thus imperforate 14 kop. stamps are not known to me, but a
few 7 kop. stamps- exist, which are extremely rare.

41. Errors in PerfOrations.

As the ruble issues were line perforated 13, sometimes a line of
perforations Was left b'tt. To complete the missing poeforations, it seems
that' sometimes 'disused line perforating machine of 11 gauge, possibly
the onre u s6d tf' prforate the Russo*Japanese War Charity issue, r of the
1 and 5 ruble issue of 1905, was used in producing such extremely rare
stamps as the ones perforated 13 _xl1l3x131 or l1x3LiI_ 3+ These
one ruble perforation variety stamps are mostly of the first printing.
Stamps aiiging peforation gauging 11A instead of 11'&.- 1*3instead
of 13+j on one side are of course fakes prepared for" collectors and "made"
S from later issued, imperforate sheets.

# 58 Page 35

42 Private Perforations.
It is very important for collectors :to realize that t ho .stamps of the
Arms issue were officially perforated only as indicated above in paragraph
36. A great number of oddly perforated stamps manufactured from imperforate
sheets and perforated often irregularly'8, 8, 8-9,.9 11, and 11i, pin
,porforatd. and even roulotted were either prepared for collectors, made by
individual firms for their' own use, or:even by some Post Masters who sold
them over the counter for legitimate postal use. All of these perforations
*an at best be classified as "private perforations", as stamps even perfora-
ted by postal officials and sold by them over the counter doesn't make then
"It official" .
Early this year a stamp firm in Ireland, which since has applied for
voluntary liquidation, in one of its auction catalogues, listed a few sheets
of the "rare rouletted, 1918 Tiflis issue'1. I- discussed this matter with
Mr..Rockling (Romeko), the great stamp expert, who had given* me years ago a
S.few kopek values unofficially perforatedd 1.1, which supposedly originated
in Tiflis, '
SMr. Rockling, who as a lawyer,was living in Tiflis from'1918 to 1921,
,was already at that time a great collector.. H' asserts that though he was in
daily touch with the Post Office he never heard .that roulette stamps were
ever issued officially or unofficially in Tiflis.
Q4. Essays and Proofs.

S My chock list lists the -sseys and proofs known to me and those listed
S.,in the Reynolds catalogue of ;1917...Especially mentioned must 'be, however, the
.,.so'called "Essays of 1918" of the 1 ruble stamp on horizontally chalk lined
S. paper, with' green backgrounds, The Soviet Catalogue of 1933 menitions them on
Page 20 as proofs.

44. First Pulls of the 1 ruble.
It is known that the rouble values were only printed uponreceipt of an
order from the Postal Department.
Before a-neWrd`er was executed a "first pullr was made to see whether
any damage or scratches, flaws, etc. had occurred to the plate between
printings. The background color used for these"first pulls"was generally
black ..

"bOf course all "first pulls"t were destroyed, but at least one sheet of
1 ruble stamps on vertically chalk lipod paper with black background was sold
hat some post office in Russia, as two of these stamps wdro used postally in
1916 andj were later sold in Paris in. 1922. (Information kindly supplied by
,M.X N.. Vi. Savittky),
After the Revolution it is quite possible that employees of the Govern-
ment Printing Office were selling these "first .pulls", (as well as printer's
waste) to collectors, as I have in my ,collectio6r two of these stamps on the
horizontally laid paper:, one imporforate with a misplaced black background -
and a misporforated stamp with a misplaced black background.

Page 36 # 5

45. Definitions.

a. First Print -'(F. P.) is the actual first printing of a stamp.
b. offset is a mark or a print loft by a still wet ink of a newly
printed sheet, mostly on the back of the next printed sheet. Some-
times the offset is so bright and so well centered:that It can be
mistaken for an Intaglio (see definition c). Offsetssometimes
appear on the top surface of a stamp, and they-can be fragmentary or
misplaced. Sometimes the offset can be even of another value, than
the one to which it adhere.
c. Intaglio occurs when the color or colors ard pressed through or show
through on the back of a stamp. An Intaglio can be fragmentary or
only of the frame, background or center.
d. Double Printing occurs when the sheet by error was passed twice
through a printing process. Triple printings also exist.
e. Albiho Impression means that a stamp was printed without any color
or partly without any color. This happens when a corner of a sheet
is folded over, the back receiving the colored print, whereas the
stamps or stamp area under the fold get only a colorless impression.
f. Essay is a proof of a stamp which was roloctd' by postal authorities.
g. Proof is a stamp which was printed before the postal authorities
accepted or ordered same.
h. Printerts proof is a trial printing of an accepted stamp made by the
printer, for his own use and which has not been destroyed (Printers

46. Conclusion

I hope our readers will notify the Editor of any errors or omissions
they may encounter in this article and in my Chock List, so as to enable
him to rectify the errors in the next issue.

In this connection I must frankly admit that I am not at all happy about
my own classification relating to the frame, background and the center errors
of the 50 kop.-stamp. My classification by printing periods is based on
color and similar factors. On hand of those factors I had them initially
listed,under the I. Period (1909-1912).
This was obviously wrong, as very few errors of this period -' and until
1917 exceptt "chalk lines missing") have come to light. The'inspectors of
the Imperial Government Printing Office exercised a minute control and
rejected and destroyed any deficient sheets.

Though I had.to transfer them to the II. Period-column of the Check List.
Nevertheless, some of the listed errors might perhaps still belong to the
I. Period.
(to be continued )

#58 Page 37

by A. Rossolovich .

S As it is known, the stamps of Wonden (Latvian: Cesis') county, Govern-
ment of Liflandia' (Livonia) aro'enot Zemstvo 'tamps, because that government
had no Zemstvos. They were issued for postage within the limits of the
County; they wore invalid for other localities of Russia or for foreign
countries and.all mail directed outside the county had to be provided with
Regular Russian stamps according, 'to the postal tariff of that time. Thus
Wendents stamps were local, county issues with a limited statute. By some
strange misunderstanding however they were placed in all catalogues, although
the same catalogues recognize neither the Tiflis stamp nor'the Zomstvos ones.

The stamps of Wenden enjoy great success with the philatelists and their
study is very interesting. There are among thom many great rarities. To
collect a complete set of Wonden stamps is eo'romoly' difficult, moreover be-
cause many of them are scarce 'in superb condition. There is ample serious
literature about these stamps, of a general as well as of a special character.
-Not many collectors however possess these works, besides the descriptions in
many catalogues are not full, somotimos contradictory and often inexact. We
therefore wish to prosont in our journal a general survey of these stamps as
wbll as some details uninown'to all. Beside some characteristic details we
will not include detailed descriptions of differences among genuine stamps,
reprints and counterfeits. Collectors can.find these descriptions and illu-
s traions in 1925 Chuchin's catalogue as well as in a number of special works
by different authors.

The first stamp of Wondon was printed on January 1, 1863 and was issued
without gum or value marking but its denomination was 2 kopeks. These stamps
w re to be used for postage on packages and to be affixed above the string
Stied round, them. But the stamps were so small that at the slightest moving
of the string they sprang off the package and thus they could not be used.
These stamps wore not sold at the post office and remained unused.

SThe stamps were printed by lithography in a bright blue color on a
slightly yellowish paper changing its shade under the influence of light and
Stair Some shoots have dividing lines between the stamps ordinary or some-
times double and very thin so that they often cannot be soon, or they have
Interruptions. On some stamps there can be observed more or, less double im-
prossions of parts of the design but their origin is accidental and results
from negligence in printing. There occur'also deficiencies in individual
letters but this can be explained by defective painting.

:The tete-becho,of this stamp placed in all catalogues presents great
interest;: in fact it is'not a genuine tete-boche but-a pair of stamps, one
of which is in a lying position toward the other. Although such a pair is
priced at about 5 6 times higher than.two separate stamps it is actually
much more uncommon and probably very few collectors succeed in ever seeing it.
This variety occurs once in every shoot but the degree of its rarity can be
explained by the circumstance that the round design of the stamps presents a
difficulty in dotermoning the top or the bottom. Therefore many sheets had
been cut before attention was paid to the position of one of the stamps and
as a result a fair quantity of such pairs were separated.

Page 3 #58

In the same year of 1863 a set of stamps was issued for letters and
packages on a thick paper and of a longer size and in 1871 appeared the
:second issue of the package stamp but'in changed color. All these 3 stamps
;wore printed by lithdgraphy and have 'a black inscription of 3 lines on a
colored background of thin, tightly interwoven wavy lines with four square
at the corners. Among them only the right bottom -one represents a regular
square with each side of 1 mm., the remaining three being rectangles 1 mm.
wide and 4/5 mm. high, This is one of the main distinction signs for all
the three genuine stamps of these twq issues.

All stamps were printed on a rather soft though thick papot which is
easily damageable and can.be easily torn, especially by frequent remounting
of stamps frcm one album to another. Therefore a very large percentage of
theso stamps has paper defects, thin spots and folds. The number of superb
copies is very small and their value of course is considerably higher than
that :of medium quality stamp.

The first 1863 issue includes two stamps) both of them without designat-
ion of value: the first with the text: "Briefmarke....n of black slightly
shining color on.delicate pink background$ worth 2 kopeks, and the second
with the text: "Packenmarxe. ....." i.e. "for packages", with the bluish-
green background, worth 4 kopeks. Both of them, are ona white thick paper.
The size of the stamps is 28*xL8 mm., the corner squares included; the gum
is thin and white; the lines of the background and of the frame are executed
very carefully and fine, distributed evenly, and have no gaps, spots or
": blanks. .

The stamp for packages identical with the second stamp but with a yellow-
wish-green background belongs tc the second' issue made in 171. -Differing
from the preceding one, the background of these stamps was printed very poorly
and consists of spreading lines, with colored spots and blanks, :The paper,
the sizes and the gum are the same as in the 1863 issue; the value is 4
kopeks but it is not marked on the stamp.

: ,An ossay was mado for the pink stamp with the cherry-red text on the
pink'background; it is very rare. But the rarest unicuy is the misprint of
this stamp, issued for letters, with green instead of pink background which
is to date known only as one single copy on an envelope In the' issue #22
of the pre-war edition of our journal there was inserted a short article and
a photograph of.this envelope. This stamp really is one of the rarest stamps
not only -of Europe but of the whole world. It is quito possible that there
also exist other copies of this misprint which up to date remain undiscovered
because except for one word in the first line this stmp othorwiso is quite
alike the normal, bluish-green stamp for packages.

Besides this rarest misprint all three stamps: the pink and both green
ones are found with the inverted background which is almost invisible and
requires :an attentive examination to be revealed. The pink and bluish-green
stamps-.with the inverted background are much rarer than those. with normal one
"and are ,to be priced at about 50% higher. In the question of this pricing
the catalogues contradict one another and we therfobre'are'giving out figure
based on comparing different catalogues. Meanwhile the yollowish-green
stamp with inverted background is found considerably more frequently than
with the normal one. so that there will be not a mistake to conclude that
"those stamps with :the background in the correct position are very rare.

#58 Page 39

If in the Scott catalogue the yellowish-green stampswith inverted background
are priced at $40, the same' stamp with normal background should be priced at
least at $60 or possibly mbro. It is also necessary to mention that with the
pink stamp there exists also tto-beche which is not mentioned in the majori-
iby if catalogues. As far aswe know only one such teto-beche has been found
but we did not succeed in finding .out any details.

All these stamps of 1863 and 1871 wore cancelled by pen, by two crosswise
lines. In case when, an additional fee for special delivery had been received
another ink cross was put on the stamp. But, as an exception, these stamps
have been sometimes found cancelled with Russian round cancellation stamp
either simultaneously with pen cancellation or without.. it. This happened
in cases when a letter or a package went out of the borders of Wenden county
and reoceived.additional postage of an Imperial Russian stamp which in most
cases was affixedbosides the Wendon one. In many cases the round Russian
cancellation fell in part on the Wenden stamp and sometimes, by chance, the
Wendon stamp was so cancelled for the second time in spite of its cancelling
.by pen.

The 4.kopeks package stamps, i.e. the bluish-green one and the yellowish-
green one- both were used cut -in half by length or by width and it seems also
by diagonal in 'order tb bo used for letter postage as 2 kopeks stamps. Such
S:halves have value only and e-xclusivoly on whole letters and of course such
letters are very scarce.,

Among the Wenden stamps a special place occupy the official immitations
or reprints made in 1880 by the initiative of Wenden Post Administration.
Into this group of Reprints have come not only the above described three-
stamps but. also the following ones ending with the 1871 issue by which all
imperforated stamps came to the end.

All these Reprints wore printed by the means of new lithographic stones
because the old ones had been lost or destroyed, therefore they resemble the
original stamps in general appearance of the pattern only but differ from
them in details,.sizes and shades. One must-not confuse them with counterfeit
of private origin; on the contrary, thoy were made quite officially by the
Director of Wenden county post &nd so they are fully entitled to appear in
all collections, moreover because they are placed in many catalogues.

The Reprints of these three stamps were printed on a thinner yellowish-
white paper and have a brownish-yellow crude gum. Their shades are different:
with the pink stamps f6r letters they occur dark pink, bright pink or pale
pink, and with the green stamps for packages they occur bluish-green, pale
yellowish-green,. or dark yellowish-green. Neither the background lines nor
especially the inscriptions coincide with those of the originals; in particu-
lar after the word "Wenden" -there "is not a double hyphen but a single one
what represents the main sign of these new prints which are fairly rare.
Concerning the pricing of these Reprints therre ae great contradictions in
different -catalogues and in special editions? on average print'ss are priced
5 .to. 10 times cheaper than original stamps but it seems to us that the first
-figure is more: just. .

S Of all three stamps there also exist codunterfeits on a white paper of
different thickness with a rough? white or dirty-gray gum. The-signs of theses
counterfeits -(as wol as ,of R6,prints) areo described :fairly well, in particule

Page 40 #58

in the ,Chuchin catalogue but we. wouldadd that the counterfeits of lithograph-
ic make have the size of 28x17 mm. and all the corner squares of equal dimen-
sions but smaller than with the genuine ones. There exist also other counter-
Sfeits among which there are lithographic photocopies of the size 28J x18
(or 18l) mm. All counterfeits have the background lines shapeless, spreading,
or with white spots; the letters are of another form and the shades are dull
and of unclear color.

These Wenden stamps. are placed in the most catalogues not in the same
order as they were issued. Tho, first in line is a satep having around the
oenrtal green oval a thin green line representing the distinct sign of this
first issue of 1863 (Scott #4b or Yvort #Ia). This stamp the greoon line
represents an independent type and not a variety of the same stamp, as it
could be understood from descriptions in some catalogues; this thin green
line dlsadpeared from the-issues which were repeated in 1866 and 1870 and
produced tamps without the line (Scott 4 or Yvert #4)but we shall speak
of this later.:

These stamps wereoissued imperf orate, they were printed by lithographic
means on a yellowish-whitq paper. Their gum is uneven and also yellowish-
white, the'.colors are bright and clean the frame is dark crimson-pink, the
central oval dark "yeloiish-green and it is 6 mm. wide. The oval itself as
well as the'green line around it and the inner edge of the dark-pink ribbon
of the oval fofm which surrounds them have careless and irregular outlines,
meanwhile all the other, parts of the design are executed very accurately and
clearly,. Aroundthe t .pi ribbon of oval form there exists an outer oval
with 33 pearls slightly covering one another. With all genuine stamps having
the same pattern two bottom pearls are larger and wider than the rest and one
placed to the right of them is the smallest one; others are of different size
and are uneronly placed. The cancellations of these stamps are the same as
with the proceeding issue, i.e. crosswise by ink and sometimes by both ink
and Russian canceller, still more seldom by' stamp only.

As we have already said, in 1880 there were made Reprints for this stamp,
too. In general outline they are alike the original but in detail differ
strongly. First of all the central green oval is 5 rm, wide and of quite
regular outlines; there is a thin pink (and not green) line around it, the
background lines.and'the corner squares are quite different from those of the
originals. All pearls are of the same size and arqoplaced evenly; the Reprint
have 30 pearls'instead of 33. The paper is slightly yellowish-gray and a
little thinner; the gum is brownish yellow. The color shades are also dif-
ferent: the oval is green but without yellowishness, the frame is dark red
and not crimson-pink. As for the pricing of these Reprints here also the
different catalogues give different price quotations. While we do not lay
claim to be infallible we are of the opinion that a Reprint id to be priced
5 6 times cheaper than the original stamp in mint condition.
This stamp has also counterfeits of different origins and of different
quality, among them very crude ,on vwhih can be easily determined at first
sight. These counterfeits are fond with'the thin green line as well as with-
out it, the background lines are vague and confused, the corner patterns re-
sdmble neither originals nor Reprints, the central oval is of lesser height,
the pearls are of the Oqual size .and there are 33 of them as with the original

#58 Page 41

In the county name under the oval* the second letter "H" is missing and
this name is erroneously marked -as "Wendoschen" instead of "Wendenschen".
The colors of the counterfeits are dull: grayish-green and crimson-pink for
the frame but not So clean, and also with grayish cast.

The next stamp in ordor of issue :was ohne listed by Scott under #5 and by
Yvert catalogue under #6. It was issued in ,1864 and is in all its details
alike the preceding stamp except only that the central oval is not empty
but it has a white picture of the arms of the Government of Liflandia the
winged griffon with a sword in the right paw. This stamp is also imporforate
the shades are the same as with the preceding one, there are 33 pearls with
the same particular features and the same thin green line around the oval.

S The reprints of 1880'have the same characteristic peculiarities as the
reprints of the preceding stamp: 30 poarlsof the same size and the red in-
stead of green line around the green central oval. But the design of the
background is heavier and the inscriptions in'it stand out poorly, the
design of the griffon is different and in different position, its head is
without ears, t6 eye is marked by a spot and not by a point, there are
,green spots dn the body and the ,earth is scarcely marked. The green color
Sof the. oal is more yellow than with the originals and the -frame is printed
in dark pink -but duller color and without crimson shade The price is
approximately 5 6 times cheaper hnthanth originals.

The counterfeits of this stamp have been made in most cases very poorly,
especially the background consisting of: confused vertical lines which only
very remololy remind of the original' pattern.

1. In the county name the same error is repeated about .which we said
before; apparently these counterfeits are df the samo origin as
the preceding ones because the corners have the same.distorted design
2. The pattern of the griffon is very primitive and rough but in gene-
ral outline it. reminds of the original more than the griffon of
the reprints.

The green oval is yellowish olive-green, very light and the frame is
dark crimson pink; around the oval there is a green line almost coalescing
togetfaer with the oval. But the counterfeits of later originexscuted by
lithographic photocopy reproduce the original much better and to determine
them a more attentive study and comparison is necessary.

(to be continued)
0 0
0 I buy and exchange paper money. Please contact 0
O 0
0 K. J A N S N SO. 0
0 624 16 Avenue 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

Page 42 #58

(contino d' ft.f Rasica #56
by Kurt Adler
.Tea4OOth..c1t ling of the 3rd Sipnlk which* t.ok ,place on 27-2-59 was
.miked" by tho. town: of:ChjiiLtabinc by a special 'postmark in purple (see illus-
tration). The 5000th circling was. celebrated on 8-6-5,9 in Moscow (see illus-
tration). The po'stmark is in black. A little more than a month later, on
"15-7-99: the 600 .i.dircling was remembered by Cheliabink again* This town
has a -very active phintelic society which has the right to officially order
such special cancellations. (see illustrations). The color. is.'purplo but the
sam..postmark also appeared in magenta. On 21-9-59, the 7,000 -irecling was
also celebrated by Sverdlovsk by an unofficial cachet. May 15, 1959 marks
the first anniversary of the launching of the third sputnik. The Kiev City
Philatelic Soc.ieay issue.d:a Opecial .nvelopO and a special cachet to mark this
anniversary. (see illt action) :.'.

8. October 4, 1959 marks the second anniversary of the launching of the
. *.f: :first -Statnik A special caheollation in black was used in Moscow,
showing the: planetarium dome with the aputnik whizzing by. The legend
: reads "2aid:*anniversary of the launching of the first co;traveller of
S. -thqeoa-thI -A stpcial stanp was also issued of'40, kop. in light purple
,ad: -p a picture -the route of the 3rd' sputnik.
S .. ;9 T 'tw6 40 kop..stamps commemorating the succossfdul. auhing of the
". ; Soviet. :osoic -Rockot, discussed in #56, under section 7,'roceived a
S'firdt day cachet on April 13, 1959. The cachet is in black, having the
form of a successful rocket, and the inscription "F I R S. D A Y"
apoarsa in Russian, German, English, and French "
S .10.: To cdomnemorate the landing of a mew cosmic rocket on th. moon, the post.
al authorities issued two stamps of 40 kop, denomination, The first one
shows the flight route of the rocket and the landing 'qi 'he moon, while
t .he second one depicts the travel of the moon .and thd potk on the moon
,:'whore the rocket landed. The dato in both cases in'Septemiibr 14, 1959.
S A special cancellatation was issue (see illustrations), Y owing the
4 moon at the moment of the impact of the cosmic' rocket. ;A..flag planted
on the moon has the date: September 1959 (without "a dq ;dte). The ins-
cription around the moon reads the "Sovid Cosmic Rocket ,on the Moon",
This postmark is in black and was', applied in Moscow. A ..spcial onvolope
was issued on 3-10-59, picturing the 6cket' in flight twarids the moon,
"In honor of the reaching of the moon by the Soviet Cosmic Rocket, Sept'
ember 14, 1959" .
It is not yet clear whether the above mentioned markings are authentic
postmarks or cachets, prepared by the diverse philatolic socioties,..q though
most of these markings tie the stamps to the cover. In no ay nmay" they be
conciovod as booing of private origin, since only,the postal..authoritios and
official city wide philatelic societies have the right to use:.. pencil cancel-
lations and eachots, and issue envelopes in USSR. ,
(to be continued) "

#58 Page 43

(2nd addenda to article, U W.)

Special cancellations for the 100th Anniversary of Russian postage
S..stamps in my Qollaction, have the same patterns illustrated in #56. Un-
doubte'dl t0her e are y or moebtvs,,whicbh nsed the se cahsellatlona,
Loningrad ^atavka ( iit1tion) in ro andblack.
S Kiev. in ed blue and black 'Cheiabi Sochi Riga
"floscow .askent F 'unze
oin green black and olrve 1Minsk Kishine '
S.in red and black Erevan. ,Vilnius
S. oo o 0oob oo 'oooood
(continued from Roseica" #54)
by Kurt'Adler
During the first half: 9f 1927, postage for. ordinary .mail' was raised fror
7 to'8 kop., and since .the postage due. stampbsrwere abolished in 1926, the
whole array of .thesQ special stamps .wap overprinted "' KOP. ". Along with
S these sets, starting in June 1927 and ending.in Fabruary i928, the 7 kop*
standard stamp (soldier) in both perforations, watermarked as well as un-
watermarked was overprinted 1 8 KOP. and thus served as postage for ordin-
,alTy.letters ..The overprint was made by typography inblack, The two typos
of surchar g existing can be distinguished from each other by the distance
between numeral "8. and the abbreviation of the word Ikop.",
"Tpae 1 distance is 2mm.. T 2 -distance is 0.75mm.
:Type 2 was issued later than the Type 1 and is much scarcer. Mint stamp
with ovQrprint Type. 2, are even very .rare. The, igrchnrge appears on 7 kop. s
Stamps lofdifforent shades. The one major variety is the stamp with inverted
ov'" i erproint-, wh ch appears mostly on.the watermaoked stampqp and is always in
: yp 1'...-. I .Z also ha acancelled WpeSirn pf :the unwatermarked stamp, perf,
"". 3.,2, with itYer ded surcharge in Type Tbis' iist 6 c6nerdered a very un.
S., ;sua va ioty, since various Soviet, catalogues'do h!it mention it. Minor
"varietles, si h..h,as missing periods, or slight irregula.ities in the print-
ing ot the U8 koP.`! surcharge ca9t be expiainied as follows: During perforaw
t .. ng some. o fthe little circular' outouts. of, the preforatifn fell on the sur-
S face oft the ampssh en the6 ets of these stamps wee surcharged.

i nw matrkod' dark brown .
It. b1 cip -br'O
S ..... : o .^ : bot Surcharge invertedd (i'
3 n Watertnarked' drk. br6owi,
"a chocolate
"V n a brown Surcharge inverted (RRR)"
Page 44 5

pe 2

Ibrf. 14ixcl4 Unwaternarkod brown mint (RRFR
Ibrf 13 L2 Unwatormnarkod 1brpwn. .Pint.
"* atormarked brown* mint
:" Waternarked light brown..mint (RBR)
: oooccoooooooooooo "' '
-. .
.. .xxxx: x : :"XXXxxxxxxxxx 'x:.x7x xx^;xy c0y::y7C:x x:'(xxxxxx xxXx::x
S... .. '- X
x. -. EXCHAN GE x
S. .. x
.x ., .I offer ontiros of Argontina, .U, 100 years of stamps x
.CQcrriontesr Confedoration, Cordoba, Buonos Airos), stcaps, blocks on x
S.x lottors; international exhibition "Eficon 58", "Tonex 58" in which x
.x Rossica Journal competed and won. IGT, first flights of Transcorn-
,x tim ntal lino, "Comet-4" Buionos Aires -New York, otc. x
x.: WillU accept 'aoanps and entire of Pskov (Ploskau) and IGT'of the x
.x attiro world, Aretic and Antarctic covers. x
S. D. 6. V 0 S NE SE NS K Y Member of Rossaica #336 x

=Vx"xxx =xxx-: xx37xxxxxxxx XXWx7YXYXYXxxxxxxY:a xx7x.x xUxxxxx:x:xx-x :x1': : cx

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0 :- .
o .. 0 ;
o Now Issue Sorvico, covers, wvriotios & errors.. o
,o so want lists aro filled. 'Rusian Empire and. .. o
o Zcnstvcs are also sont on apFroval. ,
o 0
0 0
""0 ""

o Box #l. Grand LdRpob. Michigan o
"o .. 0
Do-oooooccoo aoCcoo.ccoC o oooocoooCCoCCcooooococcbooooocoooooooo0oo oc -'-cco C

XXXx:;;:::;x ;-xxx xxxxxXXXXXX x xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxCCxxxxXXXX:C
x : x
x Dack Issuos of English Edition of Rossica Journal, starting x
x with Nor:46 ro still availablO at $1.50 per issuo. No. 44 & 45 havex
x boon eomplotoly sold out. Thore ro' dnly a few copios"loft of the x
x oarlior issues. Kindly contact Dr. G. B. Salisbury, if intorostod.x
x" "Earlioricopios of the Russian editionn aro also available. Comploto x
x your filos of tho journal before it is too lato. x
x x

#50 Paeo 45

by I. L G. Baillie

"T'asic" Stamp "Basic Stamp "Dasiic" Samp "Lasic" Stamp
Grouping No, Groupin No. Grouping No, Grouping No.
n1l.1L2.XXX 50 cont) 55x D1l.lLl.NT 16 311M.a.WIU x
Y1.1bl.NSA 73x 59x D11.1L1.WXX 54x D11.2L2.WXA 94
83 68 D11.IL2.XXX 31 DU .2L2.WXX 87
Yll.lbl.NSX 15 78 D11 .bl.NSX 32 D11,2L2.XSX 19x
43 85 62 D11.2L3.XTD 96x
Y11.lbl.WXA 2 98 Dl11lbI.WSD 36 D11.2L4.1WTD 89
Y11 b1.WXX 3 Y11.2l2.WTB 80x Dl.lbl,XTX 71 D11.2G1 ..I 34
5x 90 BiDl.lbl.XXX 46x D11.2GC1 XSA 97
8x lO0x D lib2 =XX '12 Dl1.2G3 .XX 92x
23x Y1n.2G1.XXX 27x 4x D11.3bl.NTD 24
Yll .lbi.XXr 39 Yl.2bl.EXSX 70x Dll .1b4.NX 1 Dl1.3b2.NXD 44x
11l.lbl.XXX 28 Yl.3bl.NXX 25 Dll.lb4.WXA 26 D11 .4L.WSA 11x
30 Y11.3b3.XXX 45 Dl1.2L1.NSA. 86 D12 .bl.XTX 74
37 Y12.1bl.WXX 38 99 D12 .bl.XXX 51x
Y1 .1b2.NXB 13x Y12.1b2.NXD 7 D11.2.,1 .NXD 72x D12.1b2.WXX 21
11 .1b2.XSX 40 Y13.1b2.XXA 10 D11.2L1.WTA 95 B12.1b2.XXX 22
Y1.b2.XXX 35x Y21.Ibl.XXX 65x D.1.1.2.WTD 56 D12.5L2.XXX 6x
53 Y21 .1b2 .XXX 14x 69 D13 .bl.NSA 42
Y11 .1b3 .WSX 9x 20x 77 Dl13 .b2 .XTA 49
Y11.2Ll.NSX 60 Y21.2L1.WTD 91 D11.2L1.WXX 52 D21.1b2.XXX 29
YX1.ZL1.WTX 58 Y21.2L1 ,XXX 67x 84x 61x
88x 75 D11.2L1.XSA 81 D21.21 .XTX 64
Y11.2L1.WXX 93 Y21.2L2.N3X 33 D11.2L1.XXX 66x D31.2L1.XXX 76
211.2L1.XXX 18 Y21.212.XXX. 17 79x Lll.lbl.WXA 63x
.48 .l J.LXTX -4x l.L2.NXX 57x Ll.l1b2.XXX 47
The "basic" grouping is coded as follows:
1. Letter of PYDLEE uer 1 of 1CO: 7-9. Type and position of 2nd. O
D, ., or L. in 100 compared to lst. 0.
2. Type of Tin PYDLEN : 1, 2, or 3 7. Width; N narrower) W-
3.Typo of.J O in I-OGb: 1, 2, or 3 (wider), or X (identical)
4, Type of G in I-OGb: 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 8. Height: S (shorter), T -
5. Relative heights of G and b of I-0Gb, at (taller), or X (identical)
L level) G (G higher), or fbase. 9. Level of base: A (above),
b (b higher) D (below), or X-
6. Type of P in POCCIH: 1 (compromi- (identical)
sing two similar types), 2, 3, or 4
Table 2. quotes .the "special" .grouping ,which permits full plating when the
"above "basic" grouping" is inadequate, .
Table 3'quotes additi6nai characteristics of cortoin stamps (",x above).
After Table 3 there is an example of plating.
Page 46 #58 S



10 10 10
)y( 6r 6.ne y y y

()' TYPE OF lO INI 'O1b'. (P)TY p 'rO'lN o')b.

10 IO 10r F/ rJI
2 t t r

(E)nEIGYrs O F'rAI '1A IN (b) TYPE OF'P' IN POCaH.

Fr T% Fr'bP tP P R
L-LEVEL &.rwaIEmR b-'bu IsIER, I.MOC4L 2-SRiF .JLON6 4.UP-SwNP.

() EAMPLES OF o' IN 100
"WiTH M. W X
"00 o00
"o.iqWr S r X
O 00 00
A -0o. .00. .00.



cc ec Cdf -P Po- Po IH 1M- Iir
3a 3a 3 A 5 3 98 58 as i
) TYPICAL SERIFS i OF o10. (E)o TICALoSmoNq OFr'r'ro'C' (F)POSmTiONINq OF 'L TO ''.
i17 i 1r I 1 1
73 83 S >c )c c y
I-9 1s 's v3
(q)PosmnoNINQ OF 'Py
__ _j_________S5_ 1TWMPN-rNE 6SEET

(A) TYPES OF '5'or 'PYMB'Ei. (B) TyPES OF' OF'1Py5.E: '

6' 6 6 H H
NOMASL 8. 61. 7 NOM AL 1

SeH.y [JOR I ,1 1


o*I c P i e e"
19 51 66 13 80 NORAAL 3

-lgAPE P1lSorloN
'4I. :4l. I, 4. v1. v.j

STflIE 2: THE s EaCIcmPy. IooUiNGR S

"E asict "Spocial Stamp
ortrn jg otirdng 0, ,No,
Yll.bl1.SA Snall sorif to foot of 1 of 10CC; lower than H of
PCCCI at top. 73x
"Largo sorif to foot of 1 -C ICO; I lool with I of
POCCIH at top, 83
Yl1.1bl.X Small sorif to foot f 1 of1. 1C5.
Largo aorif to foot of.1 of 1CC, 43
nY.lMbl.WXX P lower than 0 of POCIH Lat top ,
Stop after PEILEH,is low; no large aorif to oithor
C of PCOCIH, 3
Stop aftor PMiLEH in lino; largo sloping sorif to
2nd. C of PCCdIH at top. Ox
P level with 0 of PCCIH at top
1 of 1CC aboas center of T of PDIEH. 5x
1 of 1CCO nbo rght roI of T of PYTLEH. 2x
Illi.bl .XX if A ~
I 16o1. t H of PCCCIH at top. 28
"I lower than H of PCCCIH at top. :30
Lareo serif to foot of 1 of 1CO
S. Large vortical sorif to let. C of PCCCIH at top. 373
Il..lb2.XX P level with Y of PTILEH top. 35x
----aP Yoer tn I of PYIBEH at top, f5
Y11.2LL WTX I level with H of POCCIRH t top. 58
SI lower than H of POCCIH at tP. e 88x
11.2L1.lX P lower than C of POCCIa at top
Doth C's of POCCIH of oqual shapo, 1
1st. C of PCCCIH almost closed & 2nd. 0 is tall. .
P lust lowor than C of POCCIH at top
Large sorif to foot of 1 of 1O. 68
P level with 0 of PCCIRH at top
No largo aorif to either C's of PCCCIH
E higher than H of PIDLJI at top. "
E lowl with H of PPIXEB at top. 78
SLargeo lo dinsorif to .2nd Cof PCCCIH at top
Vertical of G of I-OGb above 2nd. C of PCCCIH. 59x
SVorteal of G of I-OGb above ,lt. C of PCCCIH. 85
P higher than,0 of PCCIH at top
.Laraeo orifs to I of PCCCIH. 98
311.2L2.Wor Thick saena-erif 1 of 100; I level with H of P0CCIH
at top & base. : CCx .
Largo osrif to foot of 1 of 100; I shcrtor than H of
POCCIH and lovel at base. 9C
Small osrif to foot of 1 of 100; t longer than H of
PCCCIH and 4owaor at base, -OQx
Y21.1b2.XXX Large serif to foot of 1 of 100 & shorter than, st.
0; I lower than H of PCCIH at top .. 14x
Small serif to foot of 1 of 100 & 1 as tbll as Ist1 O;
oI lel with H of PCCCIH at top. 20x

#58 Pago 47

"Basic" ... alf"' 1 7.a7p .
Grouping Grouping sNo,
Ti.2Ll.XXX I level with H of PG8OIIH at base. 67x
I lower than H of k CIH at base, 75
Dlllbl.NSX Small serif to foot -of ..' of 100; I level with f of. -;:.,
POCCIH at top. .
Large serif to foot of 1 of 100; I lower than I of
POCCIH at top. 666 62
Dll.b2.XXX I level with H of POCCIH at top. 12
I higher than H of P00CIH at top.. .41
D11.2L.NSA 1 level with H of POCCIW a top; vertical of G of
I-OGb between Ist. and. 2nd.. 6 of PCOCIH, f 86
I higher than H of PCi.Gf'at top; Tertical of G of
I-OGb above 1st, C o'Io H.C 99
D11.2L1.WTD I lower than H of POCCI aqt top; large sloping
serif to 1st. I of POGCHat top. 56
I higher than H of P .CCIf at top; no large serif to
either C of POCCIHK., .. 69
S.... :I level with I of POCCIK at top; large sloping
Sserif to 2nd. 0 of POCCIH at top, 77
ll .2L .WXX I higher than H of PCCCIH at top.. '. 52
11 I lower than H of PWOCIH at top. 8x
D11.2L1.XXX I longer than H of POCC & llevel at top. 66x
".._.'.. 1I shorter than H .of POCCIH & lower at top, .79x
-;21.1b2.XXX- higher than lst 0. of 100 atibase; vertical of G
of I-OGb above Ist. of P60f;'00IH. 9 :
"" 1 love' with 1st. 0 of 100 at base; vertical of G of
-& ,,: ..__.-.b above 2nd. C of POCCIH 1x
above 2nd. C of
Table 1 contains details of the "basic" groupings.
Table 3 contains additional characteristics of certain stamps,
including those marked' "t above.


*.Stamp Additional Stamp Additional
No, Charactoristic No. Characteristic
4 Fainlprinter's blanks to left, 35 Simall E of PYDLEH.
"and right of PYDLEH,. .'4 D of PYDLEH: Type 2.
5 Squaie stop aftor"PYDIEH. 44 f of :-tIEH: Type 2.
6 1 for I of PCCIHT. 46 Square stop after PYDLEH.
8" -E of .DrIEH:.. Type 2. 51' L of. PDLEH damaged; H` of
"9 "k of'PYDLEHK: Type 2. PYDIEH: Type 2 ,
11 Squre. stop after POCOIH; D 54 1 of PYDIEH: Type 2$ H of
of PYD13EH. Type 2. FYDIEH;:.Type 2.
13 H of, PYIDEH:t Type 3; i for 55 1 for I of POCCIH HI of
"" I:4 .0 of :PIDLEH: Type 2. '57.: 1 for-I. of POCCIH.
19 0 bf POCCIt damaged, 59 of PYDLEH: Type* 2.".""
20 a -of E1 H: Type' 2 .61 .Dof PYr.LEH: Type 3.
2.. '2"Heavy pr1interts blank to 63 1 for. I- of POCCIH.
Sloft of PYDIEHR. : .......... -.65. of ,PDH: Type 3.
27 1 for I of POCCIH. 66 2nd. C of P00C'H damaed.

Page 48 # 58

Stamp Additional Stamp Additional
NO. Characteristic No, Charactristic
67 1 for I of POCCIH. 84 E of FY'LEH: Type 2.
70 1 for I of POCCIH. 88 Squaro stop after PYDLEH.
72 D of PYPLEH: Typo 4. : 92 Souaro stop after PYELEH.
73 P of POCCIH daman.[d; of 96 Squero stop after PYPLEH.
PYLFEH: Type 2. 100 1 for I of POCCIH.
79 Comma aftor PYFLEH.
80 L of PYIIEH damag-ed
82 Faint printer's blank to the loft of PYDLEH; stop 1.8 mm. from H of
POCCIH (n.b. 0.9 1.3 in all others).

NOTE. Floating may bo completed without the use of Table 3 as Trbles 1
and 2 contain sufficient information for this. Howovor, checking the
"additional characteristics" in Tablo 3 is recommended as a precaution
againstt mistake. whenever the mark "r rppeoars in Tables 1 and 2.

Delow is given an oeammple of plating which must be used tog6thor with
illustration shown elsowhero in this journal.


Takinr first the "basic" _- ourin- froM Table 1: -

1. 1 of 1CO is ovor the Y of YLLEH T
2. Y of FYIEH is Type 1. 1
3. I-0 of I-OGb is Type 1. 1
4. G of I-0Gb is Typo 2. 2
5. 0 and b of I-OGb aro level at base. L
6. P of POCCIH is Type 2. 2
7. 2nd. O of 100 is wilcr thin 1st. W
8. 2nd, 0 of 100 is taller than 1st. T
9. 2nd. 0 of 100 is below 1st, at base.

The "basic" coding is therefore Y11.2L2.WTD (see the numerals
and letters above, at the right) and the stamp is therefore No. 80,
No. 90, or No. 100. As there is more than one position having this
basic codinr, it is necessary to refer to Table 2 to determine which
of the throe positions is rolotvnt.

Takinr next the sociall groupinps"in Table 2: -

10. 1 of 100 is thick and sans-serif.
11. I level with H of POCCIH at top and base.

The stamp thus corresponds to No. 80, and not to No. 90 or to No
100. As there is a mark "x" in Tablos 1 and 2 against No. 80, the plel-
ting can be chocked by reference to the "additional characteristics"
given in Table 3.

The final check is in Table 3 of "additional characteristics" which shows:-

12. L of PYTIEH is damaged.

The stamp is therefore definitely NO. 80

#58 Pae 49

by Dr. de Stackolbeor

Dr. H. Schultz of Erlangen, having read the various articles, retorts,
remarks and refutations about the Pskov Town Post issue which were published
in the last two issues of the Rossica Journal, has asked me.to summarize in
English for the Editor, a lengthy letter he sent me in German on this subject.

1I Dr. Schultz fools.it is besido the point whether a town post was real-
ly needed in Pskov, or not. .When he arrived in Pskov in August 1941, the
Town Post already existed and was in operation.

S 2. ,eo agrees that the first stamps which were actually sold at the post
office were those overprinted Hindenburg stamps mentioned in paragraph 12 of
my article. He agrees that the overprinting of Soviet stamps on letters
found in mailboxs with the diagonal "Ploskau" hand stamp was a purely phila-
telic "Spioleroi" (play or game) at the Field Commanders Office. Novertho-
less, he points out that he has in his collection a letter with overprinted
Soviet stamps which was addressed to a veterinarian in the noxt village to
Pskov, actually did go through and was delivered by the Pskov Town Post. Dr.
Schultz also states that the Town Post of Pskov even delivered letters to a
few neighboring villages around Pskov, which could easily be reached.

3. Dr. Schultz fools it is most unfortunate and a dis-service to phila-
tely when people publish statements without knowing the actual facts and
when on generalizing conditions they roach false conclusions. Conditions in
occupied Pskov could be and were completely different from some other German
occupied areas, such as Delgium, for instance.

4. Thua, it is absolutely unfactual and erroneous to say ( as in the
comment on page 49, of No. 57 ) that the "Arboits Amt", the Labor Offico,
depended from the Ministry of War and was authorized to send its corrospoondon
ce everywhere free. Actually, the Arboits Amt depended from the Ministry of
Labor in Dorlin and rocoived all its funds from this Ministry, including sums
for the purchase of stamps at the post office ( Dr. Schultz recollects that
every time the Ministry of Labor had to transfer to Pskov a now sum for post-
age, they usually queried and critisizeod the size of the amount requested,
generally 3,000 MIk., but always paid up )* It must be again repeated that
there was no other postal service available for the Arbeits Amt to send out
its citations, oetc. as the Field Post could only be used for the correspond-
ence with Gormany. It was only on May 1, 1942 that the Dionstpost Ostland
took over the Town Post of Pskov.

5. Dr. Schultz and Dr. Gagarin both agree that the issue of the blocks
of stamps in 1942 was completely unnecessary.. Nevertheless, the sale of theoa
blocks produced an appreciable extra revenue for charitable purposes, as the
local kindergarten and lator the rod cross.

"Dr. H. Schultz died in irlanen on June. 10th 196"
,* *'__Ed1.'tor._

Page 50 #58 5

SISS1UES31019917 ND. SOVIET RUSSIA 191_8-19
by F.. Julius Fohs
(continued fro 7tr7)

Further details of cliches and spacings are:

(a). Dg. P. N. I, 1. Rt. below but in line with last Crossed Vts. Dg.
cliches on right (7th) row begin with 3rd from T., with 3, 4, & 5
down, then 6th is slightly up. .Loft vertical row of cliches up,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Porf. and imporf.

(b). Dg. P.N.2 between 2-3 and 2:6 in character, has a shorter base;
D.L. in line with last crossed Vrs (This is a part of a double
.shoot, the right hand.shoot being (a) described above). Cccurs
both perforated and imporforatop and both Dg.P.N.1 and 2 are saom-
times worn so sheets show only remnants or no P.N. at all. Such
are very late printings, hence the colors vary, particularly the
Framcs and Centers. Dg.P.N.2 occurs printed with two distinctly
different groups of Centers and Numbers. Imporforato.

F.N. 2 shows 1g. of the bottom row and particularly the three to the
right, are of a lighter shade, probably due to a slightly depressed
die; likewise for tho Eg. of the first stamp at loft 2nd row from
bottom and some others. The distance botwoon backgrounds in this
shoot varies and the closest spacing is between the 4th and 5th
stamps in 3rd row from bottom. Tho rgs, of the right hand stamps
in the 2nd and 3rd rows from bottom are definitely lower than the
rest; and the 3rd and 4th Egs., bottom row show increasing divor-g
Sgonco to right.

In the perforated (earlier) printings, the Eg. cliches are loss
worn, hence more oven colored, but aro also sometimes depressed as
are the 3 lower Rt. cliches of shoot with P.N.2.

Detailed descriptions of variants of this sixth issue follow:

P.N.2 at E. Rt., with normal printing of shoot,. but also with Eg.
inverted so as to cover.lower half of shoot, this inversion being
at an anglo of 20 degrees to T. Rt. Has regular 2 dots at upper
right and lower right, also 2 dots color of Dg.T.Rt. for misplaced
Dg. The Dg. cliches are very pale-brown. Imporforato.

One.shoot with worn centers, dry-print, has orange colored centers.

One double shoot P.N.I rnd 2, has Eg. shifted and rotated right so
that on shoot P.N.2, frenos are centered so Pg. is mmn. toward T.
Rt., and on I so that-Dg, is moro to bottom and right, and centers,
whilo in correct position with Fr., nre out of place as to Dg. in-
creasingly to L Jt. Impcrforato.

#580 Pag 51

Dg. of P.N.2 and part Dg.P.N.I mailed from Odoesa 21-7-22 addressed to
Derlin; this shoot was folded and croased on diagonal on right of shoot so
that stamp-at T. has small portion of background absent; increasing so stamp
at D.Rt. has one half L. sid6 of 13g. absent with half of V. blow missing.
Imperforato used.

Shoot Mariopol Ekator.:G., dated 24-1-23, with P.N.2; also shoot of P.N.I;
,both shoots probably belong to sano letter. Late usageo Imporforato, used.

*r. light-brown, same color and plato printing, same contors and numerals as
or' shoot usod at Evator CG-,' Dg. of P.N.2 olsowhereodescribod heroin, oxcopt
C, is nearly normal position at D.L. of shoot but showing increased fraction-
al moroment on D.Rt. bottom to Ttt. and T. of shoot, slight if any shift to
ono-quartor shift. Imporforateo used.

A full used shoot P.N.I, color Dg., Fr. light-brown, C., vermillion-rod. 0.
good ombossing, Dg., doop color, mailed from Ekatorinoslav, Jan 3, 1923.

-Somo used shoots have Dg.P.N. torn off but plato characteristics clearly
identify thom.

Tariants, Fourth issuo ( May-bo oithor from 5th or.6th printings ),

5c All Cls inply similarly related numeral 1.

5c 6 Centers absent and show blank space only.

(a). From ,. of shoot, Fr. brown, Dg. darker than usual. bsoncoo of C.
may be duo to C. having boon shifted sufficiently to T. so that no
portion appoars on the stamp. Position of Fr. and Dg. also of
double VIs slightly L., almost normal. Imporforato.

(b). Stamp from L. sido.-of shoot, position of Fr., and Dg. normal. T.
portion of 0. appears' on stamp. C. probably shifted to Rt., Imp#

(c). Fr. shifted to T. Rt'. about nm. and to Rt. 2 mm. Imporforato,

(d). Fr. shifted to D.Rt. about 2 mm. and Rt. 1 mm. stamp from Rt. side
of shoot; medium DEg, Imporforato.

*(o)., C. inverted and shifted 16 mm. to L. of normal so that C. show for
2 mm. only on Rt, side of Dg. Imporforato,

(f). C. displaced 4 mm. to D. and 12 mm. Rt. of normal; Fr. brown;
Dg. medium light-brown, Imporforato.
5c 3 Double Contors:

(a). Second C. shifted 10 mm. directly to e. of, stamp and of normal C.
Cg. light color, numeral 1 of normal C. is. oyorprinted by second
C. Imporforato.

(b). Second C shifted to T. Rt. 122 mm. and Rt. 4-0 mm. Imporforato

Page 52 #58

(c). Center dinaonal'shifted to D.L. 6mn.; Second C. almost obliterates
normal unmoral 1. Imporforate.
S(). Second C. in block of 4 shifted to L 3 nm.; and to T., lr mm.
rp. light-brcwn, Fr. dark-brown. Imporforato.

5c 6 Inverted centers:

(a). Soo (c) of absent centers.

(b). On block of 4, Fr. brown, Fr. shifted T. Rt. sufficiently to over-
lap 1 to 2 mn, onto nc;S stamp to T. and like amount onto next
stamp to Rt. C. inverted but almost in normal position to Eg. Cg.
a muddy light-brown, Fr. brown.

Partially Shifted Centers:

(a). Soo (c) of absent centers.

(b). Shifted T. 4 rnm on used block of 4, Fr. brown Dg. medium light-

(c). Shifted PG. 4 Mn., Fr. brown, Dg. dark, but well dclinoetdcT.

(d). Shifted diagonally .L. 2 mm., Fr. deep-brown ( used copy ).

(o). C. shift almost L. 1 mn., Fr. brown, Dr. darker than usual.

5c 7 Center Intaglio.

(a). Fr. brcwn, nueciun, 6. Intarlio.
6olor of contors rango front deep cranre through oraneo-rod to
vermillion, and where printed over shifted CL. nay approach the
colcr of carrino. Iznorforato.

by C. Schmidt
(roerintcd front R- Rossica Journal Dec. 1933)

The first stanp of a new series was issued on January 14, 1909. It was
the 7 kop. blue. During the supervision ora of F. M. Koplor, G. Skanoni and
their collc--uos, the Expcditsia for Proparation of Governmont Papers onjcycd
a hir;h level of quality in the engraving art. The results astounded the entire
world and they continually received the highest awards at the international
exhibitions. When the riuiding and creative loaders in the Expoditsia wore
replaced by other men, the extistic level of production was lowered, and this
affected first of all the rublo values of 1906 issue, lator on, the designs
of the now series.

Several storeotypoc were prepared of the 7 kop. stamp, one of which was
Ssoloctod, others were not arjrovod. The storootypoa were joined on the cliche
* board in rToups of 25, all in all 100. Ty mistc1o, three stereotypes which
woro rojocted, were placed in the cliche, an error which was notod only after

#5Q Pago 53

the first batch of these stamps was printed, approximately 1,000 sheets, and
the entire output sent to its destination. As a result the stereotypes in-
sorted by error wore removed and replaced by cthors.

The difference between the dosignsy the original and the one finally
approved is very fundamental. If we compare the details, we note the

1. At the beginning and the and of the upper inscription "Postage Stamp"
we find two ornamental curls, which aro not present in the approved

2. The curl, an both sides, in the center of the stamp, ending in a
rosette, shows three lines, of which two wore removed in the final

3. Under the laurel leaves on both sides we find throe circles
instead of four.

4. After the word "kop." we find two dots, or periods, replaced lator
by one.

5. Side circles between the inscriptions "son" (soven) "kop." do not
thicken on the bottom, as in the approved design.

6. Oval with the numeral "7" is narrower, and the numeral "7" is more

From all this and the illustrations we find that we have before us two
entirely different stamps, which at a first glance aro extremely similar.

First to point out this variety of the ordinary 7 kop. stamp was the
"Gibbons Stamp Weekly", Vol. XI. 6, February 1910 issue. In spite of this,
the catalogue of the same firm did not mention the o)xstenco of this very
interesting stamp. Only in 1915, "Kohl's rriofmarken Hanbuch" decided to
point out in the footnote its oexstenco, after I had sent the editors two
original stamps, the error and the normal, along with the description of the

In any case, this stamp was issued, sold at the post office and served
as postago, thus it has the right to be included in the list of Russian stamps
oven taking into the consideration the error of placement in the cliche.

This stamp is very rare, it is not available for purchase, and to-day
one can only find it by accident. As far as it is known to me, there are
only three mint copies, one of which is illustrated in this article, also a
cancelled copy on a letter. I regrot that I lost my note book which containoc
the data about the letter, the date and its destination, and I cannot reproduce
the details from memory.

The rarity of the stamp cannot serve as an excuse for ignoring it, thus
the Russian philatelists should busy themselves and see to it that all the
issued Russian stamps are listed in the cataloguo odited in Russia, and the
foreign catalogues will then follow its example.

Pago 54 #58

by A.Cronin W. S. E. Stephen
c Dontinucd- fr omn 57i
The Landsca.e issue approved around March 1935 and consisted of 7
stCans plrforatod 14. The following stands are listed in Yvort catalogue.
47. 1 k. orange (map of Touva) 51. 15 k. clive-aroon (rocky outcrop)
4C. 3 k. roen (river scone). 52. 25 k. blue (Doi-kom rapids).
49. 5 k. corninc-rcso (river scone). 53. 50 k. black-brown (mounted hunter).
50. 10 k. violet (rivor scono).

No. 50 exists imporforate and it is possible that tho.cther values of
the sot may be found in the sno condition. Numerous plato flaws occur on
the stamps of this issue, consisting of constant various cQlored blobs on
7#47 and 50, while on i52 a distinctive white flaw may be found running from
the bottom loft to top ri;ht across the rapids, occuring; on the last stamp
in the 3rd. row. Incidontally, this vory saco scone is found in Carruthor'l
book facing p. 174, Vol. 1. Figures 2 & 4 illustrate the plato markings
found on the margins of shoots of 7#51 at the bottom right hcanr corner and on
#53 at the bottom loft hand corner rospoctively. The entire set is known on
cover to Mcscow, canceled K y z y 12.7,36 (Fifuro C).

At a-prodcximtoly the sanwi tino, the Animal sot made its appeoranco,
Iorfcr-tod 14. The follcwinr sta-ps aro listed in Yvort catalogue.

54. 1 k. crange (bad.'cr). 59. 50 k. dark blue (lynx).
55. 3 k. fToqn (squirroll). 60. 1 t. violet (elk)
56. 5k. qcar.inc-rcso (ornino). 61. 2.t. violot-blue (y?:).
57. 10 k. brown-lilac (fox) 62. 3 t. sepia (camnl).
50. 25 k. rod (otter). 63. 5 t. black (boar).

Figures 5, 6 & 3 illustrate plato nmrkings on shoots of ,'59 at right hand
side, on j;62 at top corner nargin and on #63 at the bottom corner mnrgin---
the Russian initials rcad "V 1", rcsixctivoly. #63 is known imporforato and
perhaps the whole sot oxists thus. A pair of #157 hs boon soon usoe on a
connmrcial cover with a typcwritten Russian adcross (Fir:. 15), from the Tuvi-
bark at Kyzyl to the rarL of F foreign Trado of the USSR in MoscoV and cancelled
with the unusual Kyzyl "Control" type datod 1 7. 35 (Figuro 16).

An unrecorded surcharge appears to have boon usod during 1936. It ccn-
sists of tho numeral "20" handstanrpod in black over the previous value 15,
on Yvort #45. The cancellation is illoriblo. A Moscow collection has in
addition a cover front Chadan, bearing Yvert 1#45, 47, and two copios of #'55p
as wol as #45 with the surchargo "20" inverted, all cancelled TZADAN
1.0G.36 (Fi,-uro 4).

The 15th Lnnivor.anry of the Ropublic in 1936 was the occasion for rclc.s-
inr; 22 postaro and 9 .air nail values, perforated 11 or 14, the higher unit of
currency boing now chanrn-o frcn "turTu" to "aksha". The following stamps
are listed in Yvort catalouo:

64. 1 k. grcon (arns of Ropublic), 1-rf. 14.
65. 2 k. brown (Prosidont Gyrnittazi), porf. 14.
66. 3 k. blue-black cancell driver), perf. 11.

#'5 PaCe 55

67. 4 k. orango-rod (wrestlers) porf. 11.
68. 5 k. brown-carnino (archors porf.ll & 14.
69. 6 k. croon (wrostlors), Ierf. 11 & 14.
70. 8 k. violet (archors), porf. 14.
71. 10 k. carmine-rose fishermenn), porf. 11 & 14.
72. 12 k. black-brown (boar hunt), perf. 14.
73. 15 k. groon (fishermen), rorf. 11 & 14.
74. 20 k. violot-bluo (bour hunt), perf. 14.
75. 25 k. orange herdsmann), perf. 11 & 14.
76. 30 k. violet ( camel & train), porf. 14.
77. 35 k. carmino-rose (hordsman), perf. 11 & 14.
78. 40 k. brown (horse racing), lorf. 11 & 14.
79. 50 ko blue-black (horse racing), porf. 11.
'80. 70 k. violot-brcwn (sports meeting), porf. 11 & 14.
C1. 80 k. green (1921 partisans), perf. 11 & 14.
82. 1 a. orange-rod (native gathering), porf. 11 & 14.
83. 2 a. carm ino-rose (native gathering), pirf. 11 & 14.
84. 3 a. blue-black villageo scene), perf. 11.
05. 5 a. black-brown (1921 war scono), perf. 14.

Stan inscribed "I A I R--M A L Yvort airs.-

10. 5 k. bluo-black & buff (yak transport), perf. 14.
11. 10 k. violet & buff (native cart), perf. 14.
12. 15 k. dark-brown & pale blue (yak transport), perf. 14.
13. 25 k. violet & buff ( horseman & airship), perf. 11 & 14.
14. 50 k. carmine & buff (native gathering), perf. 14.
15. 75 k. groon & buff (horsonan & airship), prf. 14.
16. 1 a. greon & palo-jlue (allogoric design), porf. 14.
17. 2 a. carmino & buff (allogoric design), porf. 14.
18. 3 a. dark brown & buff (allogoric do sign), perf. 14.

According to a Mozhdunarodnaya Kniga price list, the entire sot oxists.
inporforato. Nos. 67, 69, 77, airs 11 & 17 are known with fantail margins.
Air No. 13, porforatod 11, exists in horizontal pairs, imporforato botwoon,
mint and cancelled to order Kyzyl 9.12.36 (Fig. 8). It is interosting to
note that on 25 and 75 k. airs, the initials "E. Z." flank the words "AIR
MAL" and evidently are the initials of the well-known Soviet stamp designer
V. Zavialov.
to bo continued

by E. Marcovitch


Fantastic ovor-rints of Siberia.

Series of overirints on Russian stamps csu sillyy issued during the war
(1916) in Onsk. They wore considered groat rarities at one time and wore-
listed during the early 20ts in Zenf and Michel catalogues. Lator, it was
found that they wore fantastic and that the cancellations wore false.

Page 56 #58

The total number of stands overprinted and issued was very small, thus
pointing to the speculative nature of this issue. These stamps were issued
for the benefit of the Airfleot, and the post office did not receive the
money from the sale of these stanps. The post office was merely the collect-
ting agency for the lottors bearing those stamps, which woro then turned
over to the roproscntativos of tho Airfloot. The letters were transmitted
by an Airfloct plane and not by the postal department. Thus, those stamps
can not be considered as regular postage stamps, issued for postal use, but
have all.the earmarks of benefit stamps or of a class known in this country
"as Charity staps. They also nay be classed as vignettes or labels. The
details of this issue can b' found in "Soviot Philatelistn 1924, No. 3.1923.
28 July Rcl overprint with design of an airplano (biplane) and a throoe line
inscription: Vladivostok (1st line), 1923 (2nd line) and 20 kop. (3rd line),

Editorial Noto,- A w.ll illustrated article describing this issue in detail
apc;rrc:c i.i Roscicc. #4/50.

2Orn rforated stamps of 190

1. On 1 kop. (75) 4. On 10 C-. (25) 7. On 35 kop. (50)
2. On 4 kop. (50) 5. on 15 ro". (300) 8. On 50 kop. (100)
3. .On 5 kop. (25) 6. On 20 kop. (100) &a. On 50 kop. (25) Iivertod Ovit.
9. On 70 kop. (25)

On 1f orfr.tc otans f 1915-1917.

10. n- 10 oLO,./7 ko:. (25) 11. 0:- 20 ?:,c./14 hop. (25)

Oi- 1917 i:;nrf or tc5 issue.

12. -O 1 hop. (25) 13. On 2 0.-). (25) 1'. On 3 kop. (25) 15. On 15k. (25)

On 19!9 stem,) of Si -.ia.

16. On 35 kop./2 kop. perforatod (125)

Lecauso of the snallnoss of this issue the labels listed above are
very rare.

Vladivostck Control Stamps f Fo Forcign Echange.

The aforementioned speculativo series was issued by the Fr Ecst Dcpart-
nont of Philately and Paper Money. It was not roccgnized by the Sovicts and
was inrmmdiatoly removed from circulation.

1923. Black, lithographic overprint of a five (5) pointed rstr and an
inscription reading "Correspondence of Philatclist" on the stanp
of Ronanov sorios of 1913 and stamps of 1909/17. An additional ins-
cription is found on Ronanov stamps, reading "for hunger starved".

On 1913 issue of Ronanov otanps

1. 10 on 4 kep. 2. 10 on 1/, hop.

58 Pare 57

(according to -aron Scharfonbor').

121. Horizontal. sinlo lino ovoery int

1. lCr. on 3r. 50k. black & gray. 2. lOr. on 7r. black & yellow.

Horizontal, two lino overiLnt.

3. 50k. on 1k. impcrforate. 12. 3r. on20/14k. perforated.
4. 50k. on 2k. imlorforato. 13. 10r. on 3r. 50k. black & grey.
5. o70k. on' k. imperforate. 14. 10r. on 3r. 50k. rod-brown & green,
6. Ir. on 4k. imiporforato. imperforato.
7 '3r. on 3k. imporforato. 15. 10r. on'7r. black & gray.
C. 3r. on k. imporforato. 16. Ton rub. on 3r. 50k. black & grey.
9. .3r. on 10/7k. perforated. 17. Ton rub. on 3r. 50k. rod-brown & groon.
10. 33. on 15k.-imporforato. 18. Ton rub. on 7 r. black & yellow.
11. 3r. on 20k. imperforate,

Diagonal two lino overprint.

19. Ten rub. on 3r. 50k. black & gray. 21. Ton rub. on 7r. black & yellow,
20. Ton rub. on 3r. 50k. rod-brown & groon. 22. Ton rub. on 7r. dork groon &

Fantastic overprints on Russian issue of 1909-17, according to J. Posell.

Provisional Zemstvo Governmont. Iribaikal. 5

Fantastic overprints on Russian stamps. Posign of the ovqrprint is
copied from Siberian paper money. ottors with those stamps have forged -
cancellations. During 20ts those stamps wore listed by the Michol catalogue.

1921. iOrintoed 1Vrmonnv Zgmskkly p Vl.st Pfribaikalia" on stam-ps of 1909-

1. Ir. imporforato. 5. 5r. imporforate
2. Ir. Iprfcrated. 6. 5r. perforated.
3. 3r. 50k. imperforato. 7. 7r. perforated.
4. 3r. 50k. perforated. 8. 1Cr. perforated.

Inverted Overprint Overrprinted on Korensky stamps

3a. 3r. 50k. imperforato. 9. 35k. red ovpt. 10. 70k. black ovpt.

Vladivostok Air Post ovorprints..

These stamps cannot be considorod as fantastic, as they wore sold for one
day, July 2", 1923, in the Vladivostok post office. Those stamps however
cannot be listed as a regular issue of the airpost as they wore designated
for one flight only, from Vladivostok to Nikolaovsk-Ussuriiski and Spask. In
the official notice of sale of those stamps we road letterss frankod by those
stamps and dropped- into mail boxos, after the flight of the airplane, will be
considered as not covered by postage, just as the letters addressed toothor
places than Nikolaovsk and Spask" .

Page 58 #58

On stamps of 1909/1917 issue ..

3. 15 on 3 kop. inporf. 4. 15oni 5 kop.-porf. 5, i5'on.50 kopy porf.
la to a Stamps of tho previous issue with inverted overprints. The
ladivostok-0. nrtrol stamps are' vry scarce.

Sr Osacaohslovdk corps in Siborit. *.

SStam ps: suppododly issued by the Czech military forced in"Siberfs belong
.; Ito % fioldao debatable :dsuob. -Although those stamps are listed in the
European and American cataloguo'sy majority of collectors of Russiah stamps
consider then fantastic.
1918. Stamps of various designs printed by lithography and issued perforated
.. 14. 1, 14. arid iporfoato -
1. 25 (kop.) rod (Church in Irkutsk),Porf. 11-. (See Fig. 36 in Rossica #57).
-: 2 0 50 (kdp.) yollow-groon (train),Pcrf. Uli. (Soo Fig. 37 in Rossica #57).
3. 1 (rub.) yellow-brown (sontinol), Frrf. 11- (Seo Fig. 38 In Rossica #57).
la to _a. Sano as above, except perforated 14.
'b to 3b j Sanas above, excopt i:porforato.

1918. Starps with design of Lion of B'ohbnia. Those stamps are ebtossod and
Shave Ibrce on Arc in Blue separations. (Soe Fig. 39 in Rossica #57).
There are two typos of this stanp.
T I. Six points 6n star-ikco maco head at right -of'oblot; large
sabor handle.
Type II- Five points on maco hoad, s-all saber handle.
4. 25 (kop.) tbl'uc and rod. Typo I.4a. OSae as No. 4, oxcorpt Type II.
1920. S-banp of the provious-dosign ovurprintod "l920" n in

5. 25 (kop.) blue and rod.
1920. No. 5 stamp of the previous issue boring overprint "1920" in black,
S "with -now ovorrints of -valUo in groon', 'Ko`p." values- do not show the
word"Kop."' while the 1 ruble value hhs "R" aftor ho nral. i",. (Soe
SFig. 40 in Rossica-#/57).
6. 2 (kop.). blue ahd rod 11-. 25 (kop.) blu'and rod '-.
7. 3 (kop.) blue and rod 12. 35 (kop.) blue and red
8. 5' kop.) blio.-:nd rod 13. 50 (kop.) blue and rod
9. 10 kop.) blue and rod '14. l:R.4luo and rod
10. 15 kop.) blue and rod
#58 Pago 59



L-O i.o n i s.t o p' P p s k ,i n -

A sorios of 4 otaips of unknown origin with an original design of Polish
eaglo and crown, issued rforated Hl and inporforat.e Inscription roads
"Logioniston Polskin". (Soo Fig. 41).

1916. Stamps of rectangular format 29x34pm. Value in hollers. Porf. 11-

1 2h. dark brown '.2a. 5h. light oliv: groon 4. 20h, dak violet
la. 2h. light brown. 3 lOh. bright rod: 4a. 20h. light violot
2 -5h. olive groon. 3a. 10h. cqmino

lb to 4 Sameno as 1 to 4, oxcopt imporforato.

1916. Stamp similar to #3 (soo Fig. 42), oxcopt the valup in "groay". Vorti-
cal rectangle 28x33m. Porforated 10.

5'.'10 gr. carmino-rosoe. Sa, Samo as No. 5, oxcoypt rorforato at right
Po s ca Pol and

A series of 3 stamps in a vertical -format 222-29mnm Poltsh Eaglo on a
shield, in a circle, and a crown above the circle. Issued porf. 11. Inscrip.
tion in Polish and Russian Poleca and Polsha ( at the top;) and tho value
in:"kop .

1. 3k. rod yelloww paper). 2. '5k lilac gray. 3. 0Qk. dark blue.
R u s ai an G al c i

Stanips of,i original design, Idllustratod by Fig. 44, and showing tho monumno
of M.inin and Pojarsky in the background consisting of a white to w hoadod oaglo
Stamps aro f Vertical format 21-.x20nm.. and iasued. -rforftoqd 11l-.

1. 7 (kop.) black-brown. 2. 10 (kop.) dark-blue.
Po c zta P o ca

Fantastic series, probably -of Polish origin.; ebsig n ih al' fralmo consist
. ihg of a.fomale head,, rolrosentinf- tho Republic, with a Phrygian cap. Ins-
cribod "Poczta Polska". (See Chapior listing: in 1936 handbook, pago 48).

1918. Vertical rectangle 21x32mm. Issued imporforate.

1. 5 fon groon 3. 20 foi, rango 5. 50 fen light brown
2.10 fen rod 4, 25 feo ,bluo

Pago 60 #58

*. .

Krclostwo Polskio

Probably issue in Gorman part. of Poland, as .tho values are indicated in foni-
Sb.e and marks. Stanips of 3 10, 104. & 4fon. (.0qs. 1.to 4)'havo Polish oaglos
S id : orpcratod in' various designs.. in. features a crown, v 1do.tho' 00fon
pictures a horsonan, Stamps aro in dcrk brown on yollbw pIpr'. Thoy also
havo boon soon in other colors.

1918. (Erobably). Issued inporforato,

1. 3f. (18i23mn.) Fige. 45 3. 1f. T18x2JZn.) Pit. p .
2.1e. n n 4 4. 40. (29322 .)
5. da. (29x2imn.) : 6. 100f. (29322jta.) Fig. 46.
O O 0 O, .. .

0 ... 0
o 0
0 25c codoicablo from first ordoyr... o
0 0
o F.rTz Hi:l Iv o
c ..168-39 HiChland 1v.. o
c ..Janaica 32, N. Y.. o
0 0
c o .r2500 lots with many photographs." Covoring most fields of o
c philatoly. Cataloguos froo on request. o
: .- ..* r o
o LILLIG & RICH 55 West 42nd Stroot Now York 36. Now York. o
So" "" .. ~ ". :" '- -- o
O000OC COC ,-C C2CC C '"'-'C'Co cC .? r .. C T:, r'.0 ?" OC c cCOOC.OC COCc'C" ?C'?.""? ? CC C,'?

Usc". f cr.` Part VI
S. D. Tc'Ailin1hiric n and W. S E. Stephen

The last book of the groat serious covers the ship mail to Korea and
Japan, Russian America and a Supplomont to all of the previous sections. It
is difficult to Sanlo uit. amy particulor highlight, however it is this rovioe
orts opinion that the forged cancellations of the town ovorprintod issues of
Russian lovant, the Orote chapter and the Ulankon now discovery in Nongolia
are tops.
Tho chapter on Korea is well documontod by geographical, historical note
and postal history, as well as a fine nap showing Russian ship lines to Korea
and Japan. The chapter on ship mail to Japan is most helpful in its covorago
of the Volunteer Fleet. The chapter on Sakhalin Island is nicely illustrated
by this roviowor's postmark ",loxandrovski Post of the Island of Sakhalin".
The following chapter covers Russian Anorica and contains much that was in-
eludod in this reviewer's "Russian America" in the #14 Rossica Jcurnal.

The Supplement is of immonso philatelic importance as it contains ori-
cus important additions to the previous books, sont in by nany philatelists.
It is indood a significant milopost of cooperation and combined rosoarch, and
a tribute to the enthusiasm aroused by the authors. A bit o ..sound advioo is

58 Paog 61

"the purchase Qf thrie book of bart UI '. ox6 for; tho libYrpry, andtwo to bo
Iroken up and soctiond of Supplhorit 'addod to r ue ci chapter tof previous

Wb were vwry impressed by the forged coernollations on Romanov and 1913
high values (ROPiT), as well .a pf .tho.coimomorativo 1909/10 qots., tho addit-
ions to Dulgaria and Roumolla and tho supplmt oin to the Aegean P6 S. The
Salonica -Emergoncy mail by .rook Warships (1912) sootion-was.most interest-
ing, also the Mdunt Athoa in th l'.io14t we discovered one of our. own post**
marks. The j]rt on Croto aloneo "is irth the price of teo bPook,

The section on Mongolia is well down and we welcome the additions to the
UTrg cancellations. The p.oeo de resistance is the Ularkom, unlisted in the
1914 and 1916 Postal Guides and unknown to the reviewer. The postmark sub-
mitted by Mr. MI Liphsehutz is indeed an 9y op. Qr ,.

We roconmon4 the bock, and.tho entire series and deem it the product of
grratost philatblic research in our field,
O00000000000000000000 0000000000000000oo0000000000000
O 0
0 0
0, Far sale philatelic literature and over; 1000 photostasts of important 0
0 0
0 articles on stamps. lease attach reply coupons to all inquiries. I 0
0 0
so hate 'to complete series of Ri16sia and Mikrainian trident 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0-. "
0 0
o C .0
n0 .. .. 0
0 0
0 ........ .............. .. .... ... ....-.. 0

0 0
o 0 0 0

o 0


3lb. A. Krooenber. "iematis", 39 Kirchweg, Binninpsn Switzerland 0
0 :. .' C C
". .. .. .. ... .. .
o`ooo 0ooood00d0ormoooohdooaooodoooooo

Page. 62'. #58

S.TE. FR Q.1E .G0SI: t C T 0 RpS. 7
Kurt Adler Now York City. Now York, U.S.A.
"" ; *. ~
I i hayve an. iiterosting postmark 'on tioe abmp of 1883 issue 'It is
S.. '. I A ROAt S K.: L -K H E R S O N f o r : u llni .1 e t b p &a c a n c e l l a t i o n i nh f o u r l i n e s
. ) wbii.ti n.'oval34 nd a skotchof a .tbor in the' ottoi: portion of tho oval.
: It. s a Rivr Dnieper SS. marking. Do .y of the roaderf:know the
hto0tary 6. this markhg..

In a recent letter, Dr. L. H. Wortman of England informed of acquiring
somo nice itoms as "Doistouushi Flot" or "Activo FleetO cancellation, out of
the way, censor markings of BIeraEul: tkhn-MTdink arid Kurgan, and also a
*Verblushi Transport" or Gasel Transpodrt' baohot with F.P.(. postmark, and
r khabad as well as Baku censor markings,. all of 1917.

:-Rriwee R. Gagarin prankfurt on Main, Gormany.

Enclosed please find my recent article :in "Dor Saanoler-Dionst Coburg
Hp- .; 9. 1960 "Notgoldmarkon von RusalAb .

S:: It would bo-a ood. thing for our society to hbae a:dopartient' of quost-
Lonsa and answors. At. tho. request of my baquariiannce I would like ask this
question. What is.khown about the Soviat "FAST CST" or 'Spechnaya Pochta"
which was organisod by tho'."1Poplos. Comnittoo for Posts and Telegraph".

SA,. Bosablovitch .'Elmhurst, Novw York' U-.S.A.

Mr. Rovost, our mombor in Prance sont thoe'E rtisatidn. 6ommittoo
a copy of 2 kop. black and red of 1875 (Scott No. 26) printed on papor unlike
S;,.thP papar usually- uaod for -this ioeuo. The horizol eight lies hav in-
'tervils t-btroy jrt between them inatoad of 1.7mt. -In othor wbirdas theso
horizontal lines aro laid more thah 3' tiie closer 'on to anbtheAr than in
other such stamps. Mtr. Rcaost is intorosted in our opinion and desires com-
ments from other ombors, who may posAibly tov soon' = aor ach 'aamps on
same papor

: :I examined this stamp and showed to soveral members of Rdsica at ono of
"".our. meetings in. Nowv'rki, B oth of the othor members and I 'c .der that in
: this instance this is not a special diffornt papor but mnroly a special
S ff-oot produced by.. some special circumstanco on: rdinlary 14apof
; .0 : '. Isem cases when .e gaining 'theso steps in bonmrnj-'we c&n noto, along
with'the linos of watorthak, alsa thinner horizontaslliDesp p lacd closely to
a,: ..ach: otho, presenting not- a watormdrk..,lut .a'structid of the paior itself.

,' Stamps .oro.oncountorod in which thoso limns dre not. viibldat all, but
tho watermark, howover- is'clearly visiblo- At th6 tm6m tino, :btf considor-
ably loss often we may find stamps in which the watermark is barely soon or
not oon .atc:all wvhildo'tho linms:'are soon. moro or loss 4trarty'

Wo aro of tho opinion, that tho stamp of Mr. Rovot presents procisoly
such a rare instance, whon the watormnrk2 is nnt doen 'while -th .toxturo of
Sthe papor is soon clearly and presents an impression of a special watermark,
,. ... smalland clod. Tho Editori'roqeosts.Apinion frota weibor6 who have soon
such stamps of 1866-75 IEuo.

C IfBgas 63

Prince R. Qagarin-F akfurt on .ain. Germany. (Continued fromtremarks:
made on trovious pag. '

It was organized in 1923, and used a special label of red and reddish
color, with a four ;.line: inscription in a roctanglo. I havd'*-bifore me two
covers, both addressed -to PrImtorg (a Russian trade office) in Nijni-Novgorod
One letter is from Kaluga (;23,1.24), while the other one is from Kiev (7.2.
S24). The numerals and the, ancellations are not postal and the special
cancellations road "Bolshaya Sposhnost" or "Groat Speed" and "Speshnoi
Pochtcoit or "Special Delivory They are franked with 90 and 60 kop. post-

Tho following Informatipoi t6o tho aforemontioned query may"bo found on
page 22 of G. M. White fsy",Tho. Postao Stamps of the Soviet Republic 1917-
1925" : We qroq quoting frontn Soction Vl. Special Post (Express Mail). "In
1922, October, Spocial post labels were issued for use on.Expreas letters.
Their use varied' throughout. th. country, being with or without the use of
stamps. The labels wore inscribed R,S.F .S.R. (ussian Socialist Federal
Soviet Republic) :,SIESHNAyA-:POCHT1 speciall post or more literally rapid
Spott, N-.K .P.T. (tbopl9 tsnaomisaricat of Posts and Telegraphs;). Those vary
greatly in shape and type) for the most part they are typog:iaphod in rod on
white paper, both perf. and imperf. Lator, rubber. .amps were- ised, impresa
sed .n various colors either on eadhesivt paper and. uasd .as stamps or direct
oni the oenelope.. Registration libels oedst inscribed Speshnoe by hand; also
labels printed d in black on pink tapor ."
"Special labels exdst for, the.1-Tkrainian S.S. Rep. (lithographed with
ornamental frame, black on white paper) and the Transcaucasian S.F.S. Rep,
(printed in black ,on pink paper,) .t
"Lateri,, labels: iriscribe.d. S.S.S'R. (U.S.S.R.) instead of RdS.P.S.R.
Appeared (in irod on white, both perf. ana imperf.) but the old labels are
Still (1924) use'd'oEtensively." .

D 0. de StackoTborf Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
Unfortunately, I must disagree with that portion of Mr,. Fohts article,
given on page 23,, line .12 froti tho' bottom, where, he states that the chalk
likts wore addOed before printing. This is not so,. The old, isanosb of 1864,
1865, and 1866-'7. were prinrrod on .chalky paper,, that is ,, on the -paper on
Swhich:thd chalk linos were appliod before printing. Thus, should thoso
stamps be wotted, the print comes off. In the 1909-1923 issues, the chalk
lin not was added after inting. oe knows to. well how odaily the chalk
lims wash 'off, but hnt. theq prtt-ing. This is 'the proof ,that they are on
top -of the. pFint,,, Further, whenn oiatibing ca shet, it is quite obvious that
the chalk not has boon printed on to of the printed sheqt.- Ayhow, I chockc
this problom with. many oor'pSr hero and, in Eu*ope. Thpy al iay tr.at the
stamps of .thi issue were prntod as'f 61owsi -,. :
First gum. thon the .print, followed by :chalk lines, and finally perforated,
as I indicated in my article published in Rossika NoqC. 56 and 57.
:'Frod W.' Spoersa Calif ornia. U..S-. --
I' ias ithteorsted in lr.;Fohs .article on the 1902 ot soq arns stamps.

-age 64 # 58

I had aJroady finished my displayf.or the .JS show in TA .and, -believa it or
,'. 'ot, I had arrive t the same conclusion Mr. Fohs did .in breaking the serious
: .itOf our .groupi.ng .

Ono thing he didn't go int6 (which I have in considerable detail) is the
variations in perforations. It ray.bo the gauge -I..arrn*ung (-I' boliove itg
a Stcnloy Gibbons one), but I an finding a lot of'1l3 Most authorities say
14, 14, and 4i. Suro, I find some of those, too, but I really think we ll
find. i cl.os .a.somont that lot of l .apo actually -r I am pretty
S ,u carful in' AIiai'irc ;,prforations, invariably 4oing it under a magnifying
..... ,asp, usually 2 po ,r. ... : .. ..-

S" As an addition to the dtat ixr tho.lagt..issuo of Rossica Journal, I wish
t oencloso an article by Major ap.low:, whic, should answer all. quorio s:
"' *. RUSSIA 1917 AND ON S .
r .* by J. Drlow ..--
Early in'0l17, boforo the comnoncom q.of the great Russian dobaclo,
tho porforaicoh.machino in use at toh State printing office brak down, and
as et that time Russia was at war with Austria and the machine had boon mado
in that country, it was not practicable to got it repaired. Consoquontly,
the next omission of stamps was conpulsorily imporforato. All values of the
1908 .sot on papor with the pattern of shiny bars on the face are to be four
'thus oexopt the 7 and 14 kop., the whole of which had boon uo.di.n 1916 to
-provide the provisional 10 and 20 kop. stamps to meet the increased shargo
for postage. The imporforate stamps not commonding themselves to tho offici-
als, an effort was mde to soparato the stamps by roulettng, -and I have
soon tho 5, and 1I kop. values .roulotted about 11 These wore o bought at
"I btrogad in 7917; I boliove in March. I do not know if any .othor values
': oa t. The ila ntitios is'gpd woro very small, and. .he RqvolutiQn which
happened in April and May 6f that year put an end to Russian rule and ovary-
thing bolongingj.o it. .Th. throo values, 2 and 5 kop. and 1 ruble, nxt
k i, I myself ought iflis, in Transca asia in March 1919:.r Those ar
",roift-ottod about -, and I gathered from the officials at tho.Post Office that
"thy Lworo an off t' of'oon :of the Goorgian officials to solr ithe separation
problem. This effort not rpoving as successful as anticipated, only the first
supply of 200, 400, .and 100 respectively was doem ,eSomo wore- acldin the
ordTary ways but thb bulk was cast on cne side as being moro'tr&ible to
divide than by using the scissors, and I was fortunate enough to be able
to secure thom; in fact, the Postmaster expressed himself gaqeful3, for that
by taking them off his hands," I saved him the trouble of rickoniin their
valuo in his stock.,.. .
P. iiepnov -'oa~sr~a~io. wedeno
'.T apal t 'the collotor of omtvo' stamps of Russ -th Chuhin
'ctcb .^.1925) is very sarco., Vni fow haivo. it.- THei oro datil d Schmidt
catalogu6' ii, ., great rority. Those ac alogums do not, priqo tho. s- aps
according tb- prosont day conditions, valuations are obsolete. There is no
pricing of ontires, pro.fs, stamps .on colors, otc,p Doeides. thpro. oxist many
unlisted i-ihr "ctloguos variotios. "(roat intorost in Ziristvo issues
.hag boon arovoed in Soviot Russia mnd..tho priieos for. them haye rison.
#58 Ph.ge 65
', l

It is imperative t6 former now catalogue., accessible to l all..-collootors, to
be basdc'on' ll oxisting'Zemstvo' catalogues and literature as well as hold-
ings of prominent collectors. I appeal to the members to establish a group
S:-for creating the needed catalogue. I am ready to help
M tch aracas, Vonzuola,: ...

My myauscript of Russian fiscal stamps .was -Itudiod by 'CeLog'Fbergo, son
-of latd Agathon' Faborgo. o '. had the complete collection of the sod'.ptamps
"loft by his father: and 'ho adlod more 'than sixty typed pagos of additions to
my catalogue. Hb likewise agreed to joint authorship of a catal0oguo of
revenue and fiscal stamps of Russia. In his latest letter he oro'ssed in-
torest in the Rossica Journal and Society and.wishes to join, and to contri-
bzbuto much material to the publication. Hb writes I"According to' all greater
port of .Zomtvo collectors use Chuchin catalogue. Chuchin was moroly a party
commissar,andc according to my father :know nothing of stamps. Tho .catalogue
was formed by a group of old philatelists mobilized for this work." Unfortu-
nately this catalogut.-contains.incorroct datad lack of certain issues, non-
existent varieties, etc. It is impossible to collect by this catalogue pro-
perly;. Thoe, best and complete effort in this line:: was by Carl Schmidt "Dio.
S PostwortzQichon dor Russichon' LandSbhaftsamter" (407 pages) issued in DBrlin
(50 copies) aided by his material and that formed by my father, unfinished
by both.' '

'I, colloot my Zomstvos by Schmidt catalogue as I do not havo `'ho
Original manuscript of the 'Schmidt and Faborgot. I correct and. add to this
,.cataloguo of C. Schmidt."
"What do you think of-issuing a now catalogue, aided- by other Zomstvo
collectors of Rossica Society. Of course I'll have to got apyi'ovl from
Norman Schmidt, the son of C.C.Schmidt. We can olininato lQngthy, descript-
S.ios jubstituting same by illustrations" .
"Su"'ch. a 'cataloguo, issued in English will be the "biblo .of:Z6mnstvo col-
Silect4ors, of. the whole world. It will consist of all *ampS entirs, project,
proofs,, roprients$, first dates of use and data of known blook', pwhro shoots
,.,are unknown, as w,I as falsifications-." -

Editor' Thd editorial board is ready to help with hoe pr-ojot..,

2Jacauos Posll Cleveland, Ohio,: UAS. A.,.

I would like to add tc the information in,#56,Rossica.Jour.al, and to
the article by Frod W. Spoors, and the editorial comment on the Zomstvos in
Siberia. Masloff mentions in #48 ,th&o'statmp of Amur .Oblastb. Intho Carl
Schmidt catalogue of 1934 (Zemstvos) you will find this issue o0 1919 ill-
Sustrattod on pago 19. I havoe o of theeb in my collection. which I enclose
..in this Jlotter. 'At any rate, s- tamp;, issued.by local Zomstvo.S did emanate
.from the Siborian regions' after the big uphoaeval of 1917,

"CA. W. Roborts Shoiept6 Dohucham 'ilijnrstoreo ome set ri..Enia
With regards to! tho article "Wrani:ord se -r the Imper.ial Russia' by
Pago 66 #.,

R. Sklarevski in Rossica #57, I would mention that thoro were other ovor-
p irints of tho Ukraine than tho ,solitary one mentioned by him. bPrhaps there
woro'no intentidn dn his part to cpmpl.ot, but-as soime.of theso items cro
rare tho omissQan may. bc accidontal.

"4 comploto list of these knhwn to mo will *bo found in Part 4 of "The
Trident Issues of the Ukrainoe" but th typos known arose

Kiov Typos 2f and 2gg Yokatorinoslav Type 2
KJhanirov .Typps 2 and 3 Poltava Typo 2

Vinccxt Linck Ohio. U.SA.

..Whila' oing through smo 10 ruble stdmps (Scttt #109) j4^o carmino
"Irlko shadow roceorrly. I found an1 ifieresting flaw or varioty.. .Zn a vertical
S.. strip of four, tho. second stimp frii the top had the zero in tie right
nmxa al "10C opan at'the top. The stamp wa' not a'light print .and no other
Sport of the design was missing. Have you hoard of any one also seeing this

oooooooooccoooocococOoccoccoccocccoccocoo .09'ooo occ ?ooccppi.oooocOcc ,,ccco
0 0
o ALE A NDE R TII 'K. .... o
o 280. Riversido Drive
o Now York. 25 -N.Y '
o C
S .. .-.. O
o Wiat iists for' collectors and donlors are filled'by re.turi)4ail. Dottoro
o grado approval books by country also aVq.1biob l. Mcy,.traritios and o
o oddities for specialists. 0 '
-. 1 .

o 0
c Other Countries on hand, although woCkor. .
0 O
ocbcbo3ccoocooCooo "ooccoooeocoecococccc0c0coo0oecodoc0c ooacccoc :rcccoc
o- C

Dr G.B Salisbury
IntostinR iclo .... ,...

"Tlo. ryzowszd i-" R adkosq ih Znaczka 'P1sdkiogo Z 1860 Roku Filatolista
S.1. Styczni l60. ..
E. Nowxk, Sr.- Polnnd's Postal Situation During Second Helf of XVIII
S. Rich Poland's 10 kop. 1860. Western Stanp'Colloitor. Fob.
20, 1860.
F. W. Spoors Zonstvos -Prrt of Shrinking "Last Frontior" of Philately.
Western Stanp Colloctcr. 4-18-60.

#58 mPag 67

"J3'J-. Veornor PhildtoliY in tho. Soviet TUnion. SOtmp. Fobrupry 13, 1960.
. acon. :* Phony PhilaoLty. Dataum.
C0 H. Collier- Some Forgottoi Czars. Wookly Philatelic Gossip. 1.9.60.
Polonus Buletin All 1960 issues of the Bullotin which, is celebrating
S"Co'ten oncry of Poipnd .

Tho Journal of B.S.R.P,

P. T. Ashford Dritish Army Post Offices in Transcaucp.sia .919-20,
Dr.. A. H. Wortman The First 4 kop. .Pgt Card,'
R. Christia. Finnish T.P.O* -Somo Supplomontary Inforpation.
E. Iowman The 1917-18. Tpo, RPblo. A list: of Plating Elawsa,0
S, .* I.Tchilighian ;' '.ianchhrina. The Sedonteary Russiap Fiodc, Post Offices.
J. N oua- .Whatare6 th2sos Tuvqn Covyss Worth.
IX .G.. Iaillie and S.W. 'Robeirts. -' Ukraina. .Moro. Noteq on 1920O Field Post
: ssue .;::
Kurt Adler..- A Suploment to the Oval Postmarks of Imporial 'ussa.
W.X.L, Kothro The Dot Postmarks of Imporial Russia (III)
F. W- Spoors The Zemstvo Gazettor
J. Nogus Soviet Stamp Cataloguos

Congratulations on an o tesllent issue Editor Kothrot

The Dullotin Np ,3. January 196.. BSRP.

P. T. Ashford A Col;loctorts Calondar.
C. W. Roborts.'- News from the Study Groups.
Roevows of now publications, including :ou Rossica: Journal..
.. G.1 .iSalisbuiy The Amorican Samovar'.,
S-ibrary, notos, Exhibitions nnd Mooting ntocs.

Editor Ashford deserves roat prais for. his.y oann work in coating this
Fine 21 pv.1o bulletin, on top'of hiso Xcting stencil work, producing the
SSRP Journal.

So ok ..

S. D. Tchilinghirian and W.S.E. Stephen Stamps of the Russian Empire
Used Abroad. Part V1.
Dr. R. Soichtor Ukraine 1918/20 Deziok Poltawa.
Ron Nogus PolishDeofinitive Issues :120-C925. A Summary of the
recorded paperss', 'ofoc ations and major variotioa. 102
Norfolk Rod, 'rtford, EBssex,England. Highly Recommended.
F. Dillig Dillig's Philatolic Handbook, -Vol.. :28 coverS Zoiatvo Post
Officos, Wrangel Issues, No. 1 Russian tovant and Gorman
Ocqupation.issuoes of.Rudsiar Wcrla W'dr' E2 collont.
F. ,illip Pic'6ist of PhilatelieQ toraturo, 1960
OO9OOOOooOOOOO .: .: .... .

Page 6 ....
.. . ; "- :' ''# 5... .
.. .. .

"UKRAINE 1918/20. DEZITK PFcTAWA". by Lr. R. Soichtor. Soltau
: oviowvd by S. D. Tchilinghirian

S -: btainablo froe Dr. R;. Saichwrt, 7,Vtorialuisratr a, Sooltau, :
Serman. Price 6 DM.o' .
S' -. i -, s.'inco. publication. of th '1996 dition- of his Spocial-catloguq Dr.
Soichtor has boon ongagod in writing what appears to bo asorios of handbooks
dealing with coach facet of tkrainizn philately in a nmor elaborate. and comp-
rohonsive manner than the gonoral coverage given in the Spocial-Cataloguo.
S- Aftor his"Yokatorinoslav", his "OSadings and Fiscals", and his "Late Usas", wo
now havo.tho ploasuro of studing rig h Dibtrict of Poltava? handbook, which
this roviowier ip. inclinocl to Jcon it r'as the best of the fowr publiahodT so

Lavishly printed as usual on fine coato dart papor, this 27-page book-
Slot comprisos 9 pages of half-tono illustrations of acarco stamps and covers,
S including ry cloar. .nlacGomort f all the listed typos and sub-typos of
the P oltava tridefts, which1 as' most specialists, will concur, r .a- ong the
: cro-difficult. Ukrainian types as : dgds proper classification, duo to the
: ,; snal.si aszoof the oveprint- and it complicatedd design. With theso fino en-
S: largoments at this disposal, the colldetor should now find it much easier to
,a-isgn, the correcttypM applicable to all genuine Poltava tridonta in his
Possession, eacopt-porhaps tho very pooroat inpressdons,which could not be
idontifiod.undor ay condition.

.-': Anthor 6 pages ro devoted to reproductions in outline (in roducod size)
... tho various multif-stamps u6ed in Poltcva. The 1956 Spocil.-0etaloguo had
S oedy stated that thoso consistod of four different '5-stampsy-and of no loes
than 22 difforont 25-stanps, overprinting a whole pane, at -. operation. Dut
S. ,,tho illustrations now given' in this handbook nre the osaontial requisito neod-
.;. :od in order to allot each p.no to its corroct multi-stamp. In this rospoct,
S thW's reviewer has a suggestion to offor: Dr. Soichtor. states in his text that
most of these nultisstamp consist, of a mixture of. Sub-Typos l: and Ib, in vc.
ricuis formations. This .biring tho case, it would have boo.n a good idea to giv
undor occh multi-stanp its o3ect,formdtion, by oiurtting asparatoly the
fields with Sub-Type 16, and toseo with Sub-Typo Ib. This would perhaps allow
-' : collectors oyning blocks small ;than a full piano to identify thq correct
*: Qlti-stap t-o .which they belog. *.itorhaps r Soichtor will supply this info-
S .. rmation -on somo lator occasion (It may be noted hero thAt.tho. District of Pol-
tara is:theo only one in the Ukraino whore mnlti-stamps of ,25 subjects woro
.. Used,' and this. explains why.pomo of'these Poltavc tridonts. are poorly printed,
S as the 25,, single subJocts assembled in the multietacmp could vner be made to
hold together proporly9 .and pmn of them would fail to- print, ololy, or would
-show in various. positions' other than- vertical),

A -third feature of this handbook is its rovisod catalog. list, which now
auroraodos tho,.list given irithe 1956 edition -of the Spocial-Catalogue. This
.. alone should make .this handbo.ck "ist' to all users of tho; S.cial-Cataltouoe
It..is cojmon knowledge amongr'.ikr spr apcialiats that the. Plta.va tridonrs are
very hard to got (o6aept for the 2c. porfo and a *ry few.other values), and
.''. .. : ,thoir .scarty is .ro.loctod ,in.tho many rises registered in this now catalogue:
: 'at, those ise.s boin g particularXly noticeable in the middlo-pricod itoms.
Another highlight is tho additiOn of'a :good marlyfrtosh vqxiotiog all of
major rarity rank recently notified to 2r. Soichtar from vnrious quarters.

#58 Pago 69

Examples known otfa of'thee Inowcomors aroq. limited at the moment to ono or
two. only bu, *-but.m ;;.u.cky'.cajrg of:the handbookk may now find Aiong their
h6cdings an odd' item thoy had boon- idwinges-.o far with suspicion, sinco it ms
not listed in frriorr editions' of the' catalogue, but which ma belong to this
frosh hazryst, anU,.be, thus raised to the statusti o major-'rarity,. This is all
the norb possibleo.as, some o, those frosh additions appear to' 6f philatolic"
origin, as.thoy. iclufo double and. inverted tridonts .:
.Then rther..ar.o 10 pages of:aonpact and most' vr.luablo toxt, containing a
mi s of.intorb.ting infprprItion covorin'g ll aspects of the' PoFtva tridents,
: u.:, ciripstahcos of their use, probl.mons facing the t'udont., Kngo-ous' forgeries
Sand ftkes, many of the items mentioned being illustrated in th:9' pages of
half-tone plate, and thus made readily available to the student for compari-
son with- his own material.
"*" I' n this orgy of illustrations, the ro-ador may ovon notice' (Cig. 52) a
st atiopry. letter-card from Romnyj whey:;tho imnpQestt staio has received' a
. : forged 'ltava tridonty and which, displays.in iddition'a'liiXtur'iof various
od.ss.a.nid Podolia tridentp, some genuino- :others cdtdo f goAio'l all with
"f". rg4ed cancellations of departure and arrival : Ans th' te.' in handbook cites
Sth' is. r.-Viewer aq. tho. owner of many s .d' orverOS ift may'be'o sfor for him to
;omphati'aClly tato'ti .that ho is not- epecialisih-g i.in fogogrio s 6lot he be offer-
d '6inor 'of thoem. The story of these, -.cdvosa calledd: for coinjrioe nc the
"Marseilles covers", just because they were purchased at Marseilloes although
S. there is pno reason to believe. they were: manufactured there) -is already well-
.khown toU lading specir1ietar opnur EuropeLan'a ide of theiAtlantic,'but it is.
rhaps proforable to relate it her' for tho:.bennofit of" the Aleican readers
p ,f RVssica:, while transiting through .Marseilles a hunbor 'bf yearsa ago, this
eview ior.wa offered a collection of Ukraine with looab staipsi limited to the
o'mnonhir varieio4, but, cont.aininin in nrddition 16 rachtonborr Povers, one
Sgnuirp Femmorcial-'ov rfra nkod with the rarxD.KharlovvType VI, pisa "n
: array..f fiOgodi covers frankod: with. mixturosof- All 'sorts of genuine and'
forged' tridentsa with a,few of-the so-callod: .fUtight typo:s'l added -for good'
me'..,asure .often .with t-rionts of several districts:..ontheo snmo bovYi, the whole
further docoratod with- 6gis.atiion labols, as me goauiifo .-'"oliovod stolen -
som .forged, and displaying dbparture and arrival caoellati6fstof"Eromo 15 or
m. : oro differZ.nt ..Ukrainian towns, .ovidently all forged, but rdthr ''good imitati-
": .ns.,, Fort4natoly, ;th6 deoalor -knewothat ;thsao covers vero::forg6Aot'o this re-
e veor cpuld acquire: this. lot,. t what:.. thought .tha. 16 Trachteonborg covers
a lo'ne were worth .As so oftonohappens no-.,one. pdd much hovd +o:thbso lattor5
.nor botho-ro'd much bout those perhaps unique: Cor. frarlod'.:wth a'Kharkov Typo
"Vl, whilo he -picturosqu. for goed t'Mar soles .covers" stold thd show, and
caused d Ukraino-mindod frionds,.-at Soltau, Ilminstor and .Bristol t, spond many
busy hours studying them. Incidentally, one important question remains un-
apswerod: the forger..roponsiblo for manufacturing' s M'aliy forged tridents,
d n" d .canellors cann t havo. covered his. codst .with; thb .eoro of such covers
n; w .iowknowmn inEur. o .To must; thoof a oro ha. prod.cod nany morro w a have
al 'tioseo gon.,. Qould. it bho that they :aro eomfortably'lodgod11 in. sbme respeet-
O d i.morican collections. it;, might, be wise. for .roadors to' cho k.-'

Nod more: be sad to aphow all -the.fiascination Atitchintgto, ,P'.Soichtor's
1.. 4 ..lat publication .Indispensiblo as la; catalogue, itt' isihvaluAblo as a
Sro ronco wok. -#, .

Pago 70 "' 58