<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front cover
 Index
 Officers of the society
 Honorary members
 Representatives of the society
 Editorial
 Life of the society
 Goldsmith's marks and Zemstvo coats...
 Russian mail to the Monastic cell...
 The Andizhan postal forgeries by...
 Three solid triangles by Lt. Col....
 A new find in Soviet stamps by...
 Russian offices abroad by E. M....
 Foreward and introduction from...
 The ancient Russian posts by M....
 The transmission of mails on steamships...
 A catalog of the imperial Russian...
 A Bukharan receiving postmark on...
 The paper money of Blagoveshchensk...
 The recollections of Vladimir Trubacheev...
 Notes on the Russian military mails...
 The trans-Siberian postal route...
 Notes from collectors
 Book reviews
 Book note
 Advertising


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00022
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1966
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00022

Table of Contents
    Front cover
        Cover
    Index
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Honorary members
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
    Life of the society
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Goldsmith's marks and Zemstvo coats of arms by Fred W. Speers
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Russian mail to the Monastic cell of St. John Chrysostomos by A. D. Xanthopoulos
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Plate
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The Andizhan postal forgeries by Ya. M. Vovin
        Page 13
    Three solid triangles by Lt. Col. A. Prado
        Page 13
        Page 14
    A new find in Soviet stamps by S. Robbins
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Russian offices abroad by E. M. Faulstich
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Foreward and introduction from "Die Postwertzeichen der Russischen Landschaftsaemter" by C. Schmidt
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    The ancient Russian posts by M. N. Vitashevskaya
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    The transmission of mails on steamships in Russia by N. I. Sokolov
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    A catalog of the imperial Russian postage stamps by A. Cohen
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    A Bukharan receiving postmark on a Russian Shanghai cover by Melvin M. Kessler
        Page 47
        Page 48
    The paper money of Blagoveshchensk and territory of amur 1917 & 1918 by M. M. Byckoff (continued from no. 69)
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    The recollections of Vladimir Trubacheev - one of the founders of the Bulgarian Posts by D. N. Minchev
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Notes on the Russian military mails in Bulgaria by Franz See
        Page 63
    The trans-Siberian postal route by H. Tristant
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Notes from collectors
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Book reviews
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Book note
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Advertising
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
Full Text
THE JOURNAL
of the

* ROSSICA SOCIETY
of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY
Silver Medals at Belfrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937"and
the International Exhibition. Koen;isberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronse Medals at the International Exhibition "Prat 1935"and
Vienna International Exhibition "WIPA 1933"
Recent International Awards:
Silver Medals at Berlin."Bephila 1957", Parana.lEficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires,"Temex 1958"
Hamburg "Interposta 1959" Palermo "Sicilia 1959" "Barcelona 1960" -
Johannesburg "Unipex 1960" Warsaw "Polska 1960" Prague "Praga 1962"
and Luxembourg "Melusina '63"















No. 70 C19 66

OPFAH

PYCKIOFO 3APYbElHOI'O 4HATFJHIlIIEIECkOf0
OBI0 ECTBA.
Editor
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.








EDITOR IN CHIEF

Hon. Memb. Dr. G. B. Bondarenko-Salisbury


PUBLISHER

Martin L. Harow




EDITORIAL BOARD

Hon. Members: A. Cronin K. Adler 0. A. Faberge K. Jansson E. Marcovitch

I N D E X

Pages
2 Officers of the Society, Hon. Members and Representatives of the Society
3 Editorial
5 Goldsmith's Marks and Zemstvo Coats of Arms, by Fred W. Speers
9 Russian Mail to the Monastic Cell of St. John Chrysostomos, by A. D.
Xanthopoulos
13 The Andizhan Postal Forgeries, by Ya. M. Vovin
13 Three Solid Triangles, by Lt. Col. A. Prado
15 A New Find in Soviet Stamps, by S. Robbins
17 Russian Offices Abroad, by E. M. Faulstich
21 Foreward and Introduction from "Die Postwertzeichen Der Russischen
Landschaftsaemter", by C. Schmidt
28 The Ancient Russian Posts, by M. N. Vitashevskaya
36 The Transmission of Mails on Steamships in Russia, by N. I. Sokolov
42 A Catalog of the Imperial Russian Postage Stamps, by A. Cohen
47 A Bukharan Receiving Postmark on a Russian Shanghai Cover, by Melvin M.
Kessler
49 The Paper Money of Blagoveshchensk and Territory of Amur 1917 & 1918,
by M. M. Byckoff (Continued from #69)
58 The Recollections of Vladimir Trubacheev-One of the Founders of the
Bulgarian Posts, by D. N. Minchev
63 Notes on the Russian Military Mails in Bulgaria, by Franz See
64 The Trans-Siberian Postal Route, by H. Tristant
73 Notes from Collectors
77 Book Reviews
80 Book Note
82-85 ADVERTISEMENTS








OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arofiev

HONORARY MEMBERS

K. Adler J. F. Chudoba A. Cronin 0. A. Faberge M. Liphschutz
N. I. Kardakov A. Kotlar V. Kurbas A. N. Lavrov
E. I. Marcovitch G. B. Salisbury R. Sklarevski K. Jansson

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

New York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York 11225
San Francisco K. Jannson 624 16th Avenue, San Francisco, California
Washington B. Shishkin 2032 Runlaw Rd. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
Western USA L. S. Glass 1533 So. La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles, California


Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Ave., Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Belgium
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocago, Paris 15, France
Germany G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking St., Downsview, Ontario, Canada

Directors of the Society Kurt Adler Vsevolod Kurbas Konstantin Jansson
Auditing Committee Kurt Adler Joseph F. Chudoba
..... e e..................................................................

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors
disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $5.00, due January 1, for all mem-
bers. Application forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request.
Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists will be
sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to A. N. Lavrov, Treasurer
P.O. Box 406, Englewood, New Jersey 07631.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates are
as follows: Full Page Add is $30.00. Half Page is $15.00. Quarter Page is $7.50.
Five lines is $2.50. Members of the Rossica Society pay one half or 50% of the
above rates for the ADDS. Therefore the net cost of advertisements to members is
only 25 cents per line. We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal
for sale, both in Russian and in English at $2.00 each: Russian Editions No. 44 to
69; English Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.


Page 2 No. 70


S








OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arofiev

HONORARY MEMBERS

K. Adler J. F. Chudoba A. Cronin 0. A. Faberge M. Liphschutz
N. I. Kardakov A. Kotlar V. Kurbas A. N. Lavrov
E. I. Marcovitch G. B. Salisbury R. Sklarevski K. Jansson

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

New York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York 11225
San Francisco K. Jannson 624 16th Avenue, San Francisco, California
Washington B. Shishkin 2032 Runlaw Rd. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
Western USA L. S. Glass 1533 So. La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles, California


Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Ave., Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Belgium
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocago, Paris 15, France
Germany G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking St., Downsview, Ontario, Canada

Directors of the Society Kurt Adler Vsevolod Kurbas Konstantin Jansson
Auditing Committee Kurt Adler Joseph F. Chudoba
..... e e..................................................................

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors
disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $5.00, due January 1, for all mem-
bers. Application forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request.
Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists will be
sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to A. N. Lavrov, Treasurer
P.O. Box 406, Englewood, New Jersey 07631.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates are
as follows: Full Page Add is $30.00. Half Page is $15.00. Quarter Page is $7.50.
Five lines is $2.50. Members of the Rossica Society pay one half or 50% of the
above rates for the ADDS. Therefore the net cost of advertisements to members is
only 25 cents per line. We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal
for sale, both in Russian and in English at $2.00 each: Russian Editions No. 44 to
69; English Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.


Page 2 No. 70


S








OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arofiev

HONORARY MEMBERS

K. Adler J. F. Chudoba A. Cronin 0. A. Faberge M. Liphschutz
N. I. Kardakov A. Kotlar V. Kurbas A. N. Lavrov
E. I. Marcovitch G. B. Salisbury R. Sklarevski K. Jansson

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

New York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York 11225
San Francisco K. Jannson 624 16th Avenue, San Francisco, California
Washington B. Shishkin 2032 Runlaw Rd. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
Western USA L. S. Glass 1533 So. La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles, California


Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Ave., Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Belgium
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocago, Paris 15, France
Germany G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking St., Downsview, Ontario, Canada

Directors of the Society Kurt Adler Vsevolod Kurbas Konstantin Jansson
Auditing Committee Kurt Adler Joseph F. Chudoba
..... e e..................................................................

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors
disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $5.00, due January 1, for all mem-
bers. Application forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request.
Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists will be
sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to A. N. Lavrov, Treasurer
P.O. Box 406, Englewood, New Jersey 07631.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates are
as follows: Full Page Add is $30.00. Half Page is $15.00. Quarter Page is $7.50.
Five lines is $2.50. Members of the Rossica Society pay one half or 50% of the
above rates for the ADDS. Therefore the net cost of advertisements to members is
only 25 cents per line. We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal
for sale, both in Russian and in English at $2.00 each: Russian Editions No. 44 to
69; English Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.


Page 2 No. 70


S








EDITORIAL

Our Journal is now printed by offset, instead of mimeograph. Our new publisher
Martin L. Harow worked very hard to produce this issue, and he deserves our praise
for his efforts. We sincerely hope that our readers will welcome the clearer
print, and the professional results. We have many other plans for the future, all
of which depend upon the growth of our membership and the cooperation of our
authors. Our aim is progress.

We wish to thank our previous publishers, R. A. Sklarevski, of the English lan-
guage edition, and A. N. Lavrov, of the Russian language edition for typing the
stencils of the Journals No. 44 to No. 69, an arduous task, which consumed much of
their spare time. The former .can now devote more time to assisting the editor,
while the latter can carry on as the business editor of the Journal.

The Russian language edition is being discontinued. Those who have been res-
ponsible for its production, could not continue because of age and state of health,
others could not be found to do the tremendous job of translating, stenciling, and
editing. Other factors were likewise involved. Two editions cost double expensive,
yet the reason for the Russian language edition became less imperative with time.
The Russian emigres, in our society, mainly in the U.S.A., Canada, English speak-
ing countries, headed by the United Kingdom, have been exposed to the English lan-
guage, since World War I and II, most of them read English language publications,
many belong to the BSRP, our sister society which publishes in English only, and
most of our members who live in lands other than those employing English, corres-
pond, trade and barter in English, belong to BSRP, and can easily read the Rossica
Journal in English. The very, very few who do not belong to either one of the
categories, do not warrant the double expenditure of time and money, even if we
could find volunteers to continue the extremely hard task of two editions.

In conclusion we wish to stress again that we shall not consider for publica-
tion notes scribbled on airsheets, post cards, illegible letters, even if they do
come from revered, renowned philatelists. Articles and notes must be typed, in
duplicate, in English. Those who have no access to typewriters, or ability to
use them, must obtain help from those who do. Ours is a labor of love, done late
at night after long days of work of livelihood. Please cooperate, and help us
to create the finest specialist Journal in the world!

SPECIAL NOTE: The Rossical Journal has just won its 17th medal, A Silver Medal
for journalism at SIPEX.


LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

The Annual Joint Meeting of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately and the
British Society of Russian Philately took place on November 20, 21, 1965 at the
Manger Vanderbilt Hotel, producing another record breaking turnout for the two day
series of events. Inasmuch as this old meeting place of ours was about to end as
a hotel, being converted to an apartment house, our final meeting there marked a
honored milestone in our history.

An open house was held on Saturday afternoon, filling Dr. Salisbury's suite,
followed by a dinner. A lively meeting was held afterwards, during which it was
decided to have a lounge at the Sipex. A lively buffet supper was held afterwards,

No. 70 Page 3








EDITORIAL

Our Journal is now printed by offset, instead of mimeograph. Our new publisher
Martin L. Harow worked very hard to produce this issue, and he deserves our praise
for his efforts. We sincerely hope that our readers will welcome the clearer
print, and the professional results. We have many other plans for the future, all
of which depend upon the growth of our membership and the cooperation of our
authors. Our aim is progress.

We wish to thank our previous publishers, R. A. Sklarevski, of the English lan-
guage edition, and A. N. Lavrov, of the Russian language edition for typing the
stencils of the Journals No. 44 to No. 69, an arduous task, which consumed much of
their spare time. The former .can now devote more time to assisting the editor,
while the latter can carry on as the business editor of the Journal.

The Russian language edition is being discontinued. Those who have been res-
ponsible for its production, could not continue because of age and state of health,
others could not be found to do the tremendous job of translating, stenciling, and
editing. Other factors were likewise involved. Two editions cost double expensive,
yet the reason for the Russian language edition became less imperative with time.
The Russian emigres, in our society, mainly in the U.S.A., Canada, English speak-
ing countries, headed by the United Kingdom, have been exposed to the English lan-
guage, since World War I and II, most of them read English language publications,
many belong to the BSRP, our sister society which publishes in English only, and
most of our members who live in lands other than those employing English, corres-
pond, trade and barter in English, belong to BSRP, and can easily read the Rossica
Journal in English. The very, very few who do not belong to either one of the
categories, do not warrant the double expenditure of time and money, even if we
could find volunteers to continue the extremely hard task of two editions.

In conclusion we wish to stress again that we shall not consider for publica-
tion notes scribbled on airsheets, post cards, illegible letters, even if they do
come from revered, renowned philatelists. Articles and notes must be typed, in
duplicate, in English. Those who have no access to typewriters, or ability to
use them, must obtain help from those who do. Ours is a labor of love, done late
at night after long days of work of livelihood. Please cooperate, and help us
to create the finest specialist Journal in the world!

SPECIAL NOTE: The Rossical Journal has just won its 17th medal, A Silver Medal
for journalism at SIPEX.


LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

The Annual Joint Meeting of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately and the
British Society of Russian Philately took place on November 20, 21, 1965 at the
Manger Vanderbilt Hotel, producing another record breaking turnout for the two day
series of events. Inasmuch as this old meeting place of ours was about to end as
a hotel, being converted to an apartment house, our final meeting there marked a
honored milestone in our history.

An open house was held on Saturday afternoon, filling Dr. Salisbury's suite,
followed by a dinner. A lively meeting was held afterwards, during which it was
decided to have a lounge at the Sipex. A lively buffet supper was held afterwards,

No. 70 Page 3








lasting until the early hours of the morning. Over a hundred members, their wives
and guests were counted during the celebration.

On Sunday, our annual bourse proved success, and much valuable philatelic
material changed hands, from noon until 2 pm the starting time of the Joint meet-
ing. Dr. Salisbury presided as the head of Rossica, and of BSRP in the U.S., and
during the session, presented George Turner, our member, and head of the Sipex.
The latter invited both societies to attend the forthcoming international exhibi-
tion in Washington, and discussed the planned events there. After the meeting,
Kurt Adler, the Program Chairman presented a varied and a most interesting program.

Our representative in Belgium, Ing. I. Braunstein has been appointed as a
member of the jury at Aeropex, being held in June., in New York. He is exhibiting
his outstanding material in the Salon d'Honneur, a pair of frames of the Russian
Consular Post. He received recently the Richard S. Bohn Memorial Award, 1966.

During the recent elections of the New York Chapter, Joseph F. Chudoba was re-
elected as Chairman for three more years. Martin L. Harow was elected Secretary
and Abraham Cohen was elected Treasurer, all unanimously. Those members who would
like to attend the monthly meetings, held usually on the last Sunday of the month
at the Clinton Youth Center Y.M.C.A. at 314 W. 54th Street, N.Y.C. should contact
Mr. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225. Meeting time is 1 pm to
5 pm.

Recent meetings of the Washington area Rossica group were held in a most tempt-
ing fashion. The January meeting, at Dr. C de Stackelberg's house, featured a
bourse, APS Circuit books, the outstanding collection of forgeries, shown by the
host, and Russian blini, with sour cream, bel4iga caviar, Zubrovka vodka, and Russian
tea! The February meeting held at the Chairman Boris Shishkin's house was high-
lighted by choice albums, stock books, and shoeboxes filled with philatelic
material...and it being Russian Maslennitsa, more of the Russian blini (I wonder
whose were better, Boris' or Baron S's) plus caviar sent by special and confiden-
tial courier to the Shishkin household by the Imperial Majesty the Shah of Iran!
The March meeting was held at Dr. Gordon Torrey's house. This correspondent is
curious...were there any blini served by the Torreys?

At the end of 1963, our member R. Polehaninoff, of 411 Montauk Ave., Brooklyn,
New York 11208, inserted a note in the Russian newspaper, Novoe Russkoe Slovo,
about ex-libristudo Georgievitch, an Estonian, in the field of cataloguing Russian
ex-libris. His three volume major work "Description of Russian Book Marks" listed
2593 ex-libris during the period 1702-1918.

In 1905, U.G. Ivask established a "Moscow Society of Collectors of Book Marks"
however this society no longer exists. There is a large number of town societies
in U.S.S.R. interested in this field, with exhibitions, various activities, which
include publishing of catalogs. It is estimated that during the Soviet period
more than 30,000 ex-libris have been issued. B. Vilinbachov, considered the big-
gest collector of ex-libris in Russia has over 25,000 examples.

Collecting of ex-libris among the Russian emigres is very small, however our
member, Mr. Polchaninoff decided to catalog the Russian ex-libris produced abroad
after 1917, on territories not within U.S.S.R. at the moment of issue. At this
moment he has 18 ex-libris, and knows of the existence of 11 others. He would like
all those interested in the project to contact him, so as to aid in the formation
of a catalog, and in starting a section of ex-libris within the Rossica Society.

Page 4 No. 70








GOLDSMITHS' MARKS AND ZEMSTVO COATS OF ARMS

By Fred W. Speers


Designers of zemstvo stamps, like the gold and silversmiths of the 18th century,
displayed an almost medievalistic penchant for coats of arms. Stripped of the rigid
restrictions of conventional heraldry, their designs nevertheless owed their origins
to events of long ago or to attributes of their localities.

No writings or records are known which tell the stories of the designers of
zemstvo stamps save for fleeting references to the mass producers of the "key plate"
varieties at the Government Printing Office in St. Petersburg. Even those designers
who produced the first of the five "key plate" varieties in 1884 recognized the im-
portant role of the cities' coats of arms by making them (and the inscriptions) the
distinguishing characteristics.

Nearly two centuries before that, however, the gold and silversmiths had adopted
their respective cities' coats of arms into their inspection marks. In doing so they
followed the custom of the princes of the city states. Their utilizations of these
and the keys to their identifications may be found in a volume titled "Old Silver and
Old Sheffield Plate" by Howard Pitcher Okie (Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., Garden
City, N.Y., 1938). Another volume--which treats comprehensively of the flowering of
this craftsmanship--is "Peter Carl Faberge" Henry by Charles Bainbridge (B. T.
Batsford Ltd., London, 1949).

In thumbing through Okie's volume recently I was intrigued by a section near its
conclusion captioned "Marks on Other Continental Plate." Under the division headed
"O "Russia" were marks attributed to 26 cities, including several in Poland and Finland.

My interest centered on the marks of those Russian cities which had issued zemstvo
stamps. Noteworthy was the fact that the heraldic-like designs of the marks bore close
resemblances to those in the coats of arms so frequently found on zemstvo stamps. The
designers of both had obviously taken as their inspirations the armorial bearings of
their respective cities, governments or districts.

Take, for example, the inspection mark of the gold and silversmiths of the city
of Kazan. The mark dates back, according to Okie, at least to 1797. The mark (see
illustration) is a streamlined version of the wyvern. Ninety-eight years later the
same heraldic monster was displayed with much more detail in the brief-lived issue
of Kazan's single zematvo stamp. Because the coat of arms was that of the Government
of Kazan rather than that of just its chief city the wyvern later cropped up in
stamps of two other cities in that government. These were the cities of Chistopol
and Tetyushi.

In both those instances, the wyvern is displayed in the upper half of the shield
of the Ardatov type "key plate" varieties, first appearing in Chistopol in 1907 and
in Tetyushi four years later. The St. Petersburg designers' passion for uniformity
stopped short, however, of making the wyverns of the two cities identical. The
wyverns of Tetyushi's three values in this design are identical.

Chistopol had three printings from its St. Petersburg plates, all in the 2 kopecks
values, and the wyvern was, of course, unchanged. When, however, Chistopol undertook
in 1911 to print its own version of the design the Kazan wyvern underwent some minor
changes.

No. 70 Page 5








One unique aspect of the rather limited appearances of they wyvern on zemstvo
stamps is that it also appears in slightly different form on the Ardatov-type "key
plate" stamp of Kashira in Tula government separated from that of Kazan by those of
Ryazan and Nisni Novgorod. Kashira's stamps were issued in the same year--1907--
as were those of Chistopol's first "key plate" emission.

As is the case with the armorial bearings of most zemstvo coats of arms details
of their origins are lost in antiquity. However, in the case of Pskov, once a "free
city" dating back to 903, it appears clear that the basic design is derived from the
arms of its princes in the mid-10th century. Subsequently guildsmen who worked with
precious metals incorporated Pskov's basic design into their mint mark. The design--
a hand pointing down from a cloud to the back of a lion-like animal walking to the
left--is, of course, the basis for the official seal of the city and is related to
the oblast as a whole. (An interesting discussion of those early centuries is con-
tained in "The Towns of Ancient Rus" by M. Tikhomirov, Foreign Languages Publishing
House, Moscow, 1959.)

The design, it might be noted, appears in all stamps issued by the city of Pskov.
This, however, is not true in the case of other zemstvo-issuing cities within the
government. With variations in details it appears on some stamps of the cities of
Kholm, Opochka and Ostrov. (It does not appear on the stamps of Novorzhev nor on the
handstamped envelopes of Toropetz.)

Ostrov's initial issue in 1875 of lozenge-shaped stamps is of particular interest
because it is one of the few zemstvo issues the name of whose designer is known. He
was M. Chane of St. Petersburg who followed closely the format of his design for Pskov's
initial issue four years earlier. Ostrov's issue of 1884 (see illustration) also is
of interest because it was the first of the five "key plate" varieties executed by
the Government Printing Office in St. Petersburg.

Kostroma is another of the ancient cities (it dates back to 1152) whose govern-
ment's coat of arms is incorporated into its silversmiths' inspection mark as well
as into armorial bearings depicted on stamps of another city--Vetluga.

The basic design of the Kostroma coat of arms is a field quartered with a cross
in the upper left, an inverted quarter moon in the lower right and in the other two
quarters parallel horizontal rows of dots. The silversmiths' mark omits the dots,
blunts the tips of the moon and simplifies the cross from its true Maltese form.
The Vetluga design retains the Maltese form.

The inspection mark found on 18th century silverware originating in Tver (re-
named Kalinin in 1931) poses a problem. Question is whether the mark (see illustra-
tion) is an approximation of the district's distinguishing crown seen in its coat
of arms. In simple outline it somewhat resembles the crown surmounting the dbuble-
headed eagle in the upper half of Ostashkov's zemstvos.

Of interest, too, is the question of just what the silversmiths were attempting
to depict as the resting place for the crown--if that's what it is. It appears to
resemble most closely a pillow instead of the three-legged stool of Tver's stamps
or the chair (or throne?) of those of Vesyegonsk. Byezhetsk, fourth of the cities
of the Tver government to issue zemstvos showing a crown, simply "floated" it over
the figure of value in early issues although in its issue of 1894 the three-legged
stool is seen.

Page 6 No. 70








In the case of Korcheva, also in the government of Tver, no crown appears on its
zemstvos although one may be seen in the city's official seal.

Vologda's 18th century silversmiths' mark is a simple and plain representation
of the district's distinguishing feature of its coat of arms--an arm thrust to the
left whose hand holds an orb and a short sword. The city of Vologda itself issued
no zemstvos but six of the district's eight cities which did so incorporated the de-
sign in some of their stamps.

By cities, those which did are:

Griazovets--It occurs in one of the seven issues of 1894.

Kadnikov--The design appears in several issues as well as in its postal statio-
nery envelopes.

Nicolsk--All of this city's stamps display the design.

Totma--It appears in all of this city's stamps as well as in its postal statio-
nery envelopes.

Ust-Sysolsk--It appears in this city's "key plate" issue of 1902-15.

Velsk--The design appears on all of this city's stamps.

Yarensk--Both of this city's issues contain the design.

Six of the cities listed above issued "key plate" zemstvos of the Ardatov type
and each contained the "arms, orb and sword" design. Only one--Totma--did not issue
any "key plate" zemstvos. Another city--Velikiy Ustug--issued only "key plate"
zemstvos of the Ardatov type and curiously these did not include the Vologda district
design.

Some additional comments on inspection marks:

In his volume Okie attributes seven different marks to St. Petersburg (from 1736
to 1880) and four to Moscow (from 1734 to 1780). Most of these designs are reflected
in some of the zemstvos issued in the regions dominated by those two cities.

Perm is another familiar zemstvo name which appears on the list of cities with
silversmith marks. To it are attributed two marks, both in the form of keys. How-
ever, none of the zemstvos issued by Perm itself or the eleven other zemstvo-issuing
cities in the government display s a key.

The city of Vladimir, chief city of the government of that name, had an inspec-
tion mark showing a lion rampant and facing to the left. Pereyaslavl was the only
city in that government to issue zemstvos and none of their designs includes a lion.

Kiev, where the Faberge family had a branch store from 1905 to 1910, had three
inspection marks but the city issued no zemstvos. The marks were in the form of the
upper part of an angel's body, a small angel-like figure and, lastly, the letters
"KIOV." No mark was attributed by Okie to Odessa where the Faberges also had a
branch.

Page 8 No. 70







The crown reappears, incidentally, in the final Ardatov-type "key plate" issues
of Vesyegonsk for 1903-04 and 1912-13.

Rzhev, first city in the government to issue zemstvos (in 1867), utilized a
crown in its design but it was more in the form of a coronet than of an imperial
crown.
GOLDSMITHS' MARKS AND ZEMSTVO COATS OF ARMS by Fred W. Speers

Marks




CFl :riR naqi'
KAZAN ?P1l- ham I .
Kazan Chistopol Tetyushi Kashira
(Tula Gov.)







PSKOV
S Kholm Opochka Ostrov Porkhov
Pskov

-



KOSTROMA TVER
Vetluga Tver
Tver '
Byezhetsk Ostashkov Vessigonsk





VOLOGDA

Griazovets Kadnikov Nicolsk Totma Velsk Yarensk

No. 70 Page 7

*








RUSSIAN MAIL TO THE MONASTIC CELL OF ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOMOS

By Aimilios D. Xanthopoulos


From the informative article by Dr. G. B. Salisbury in No. 65 of the Rossica
Journal, pp. 38-42, I have noted the interest of Russian philatelists in the
postal history of the unique monastic republic of Mount Athos, or "The Religious
Community of the Holy Mount", as it is known to us Greeks. I am taking this oppor-
tunity of adding some details about this subject, so that your readers will be
better able to classify their philatelic material from this area. All dates quoted
are Old Style, unless otherwise stated.

First of all, there is and has been only one Russian monastery in the promontory,
and it is referred to by my countrymen as "To Rossikon", or "The Russian One" of
St. Panteleimon. Altogether, there are 20 monasteries in the district, and they all
enclose a series of churches both within the walls (ESOCCLESIAL) and without the walls
(EXOCELESIAL). The other Slav monasteries in the area are Chiliantarion or Khilendar
(Bulgarian and Serbian) and Zographou, literally meaning "of the Painter", which is
Bulgarian. The other 17 are all predominantly Greek, although Iveron ("of the
Iberians") has had strong Georgian connections and was, in fact, founded by three
Georgians about the year 980 A.D.

In addition, there were 12 "sketai" (monastic settlements or priories), which
were dependent on the various monasteries. One of the most famous of these was the
Russian "skete" of St. Andrew, to which I have seen addressed in Greek a highly in-
teresting cover in the Kurt Adler collection, sent through the Russian P.O. at
Cavalla on July 11, 1907. The "skete" was founded at a "kellion" (see below) of the
Vatopedion monastery on October 27, 1849 by two Russian monks from Bryansk named
Ilarion and Varsonofii. By 1886, it had already grown to house 230 monks with their
60 servants, so it was by then quite large.

We now proceed to the next subdivision, as denoted by the term "kellion". This
word applied to a monastic cell or sanctuary of 5 or 6 monks, together with an ad-
joining church and some land, and they provided their own food. Similar sanctuaries
which received their victuals from a monastery were known as "kathismata". Both
types of monastic cells, together with the numerous "asketeria", numbered about 250
in all. In passing, please note the difference between "skete" (a priory) and
"asketerion" (a hermitage).

Until the liberation of Aegean Macendonia by the Greek Armies in the Balkan
Wars of 1912-13, the Mount Athos district was under Turkish rule, and there was a
Turkish P.O. installed at the village of Karyai. Normally, the personnel of this
office was Greek. By the end of the 19th century, the number of Russian monks had
become considerable, as can be seen from the following statistics for the year 1902.
At that time, there were 3615 Russian, 3207 Greek, 340 Bulgarian, 288 Rumanian,
53 Georgian and 18 Serbian monks on Athos. A Russian postal agency was obviously
required and judging from the material in my possession, it appears that it did not
have any markings until some time in the 1890s. Although the Russian post offices
in the newly liberated Greek territories were supposed to close at the end of
December 1914, this proviso apparently did not apply to the Mount Athos area, be-
cause of its special religious character, as instanced by the arrival marking of
"Star. Afon", dated December 20, 1917 and struck on a censored cover from Petrograd,
again in the Kurt Adler collection.

No. 70 Page 9








Before describing the series of covers from a Russian correspondence now in my
possession, I would like to set out some introductory remarks. First of all, they
are all addressed to the "kellion" or monastic cell of St. John Chrysostomos, or
Svyatoi loann Zlatoustii, in the vicinity of Chiliantarion. St. John's last name
means "The Golden-Mouthed", in both Greek and Russian and this refers to the
famous preacher and theologian of the early Christian era, who was born about 347
A.D. in Antioch and died in exile in the Pityous district of Asia Minor in 407 A.D.
for having dared to stand up to the vain Byzantine Empress Eudoxia. His eloquence
was such that only "golden words" issued from his mouth and he is regarded by
Eastern Orthodox Christians as one of the main proponents of orthodox dogma. His
left hand is preserved at the Great Lavra Monastery (please see map herewith) his
right hand is in the Philotheou monastery and one of the exocclesiai of the
Zographou monastery is named after him.

The monastery of Chiliantarion, in whose vicinity the above-named monastic cell
was situated, was founded in 1186 A.D. by the Serbian king Stevan Nemanja and it
has been staffed mainly with Bulgarian and Serbian monks. Its most noteworthy
occupant was the Bulgarian monk Paisii Khilendarski (1722-1798), who wrote a monu-
mental work named "Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya" in the year 1762. He is regarded
by his countrymen as the initiator of the Bulgarian Renaissance and he is comme-
morated on -several stamps of Bulgaria. The origin of the name Chiliantarion is
somewhat obscure, but it appears to have been derived from either of the Greek
phrases "chilioi andres" (thousand men), or "chilia antra" (thousand caves), there
being many of the latter in this locality. We know that this monastery had a
total of 23 "kellia" or monastic cells near the village of Karyai and it is pre-
sumed that the one named aft St. John Chrysostomos was among them.

Now to the items in my possession:-

1. A registered letter with 20 kop. in Russian postage, mailed on April 19,
1891 from Simbirsk. The transit markings include Odessa 17, April 26, 1891 and
Odessa 9, a day later, as well as ROPiT Constantinople April 30, 1891. On this
last day it was handed over to the Turkish P.O. at Galata, whose cancel is dated
May 11, 1891 (New Style). From here on, it passed overland through the Turkish
postal system and received the bilingual Turkish marking of arrival reading
"AYNOROS / MONT-ATHOS, May 18, 1891" (New Style).

However, the most interesting thing about the cover is the address. This
is lithographed in manuscript style on the envelope in French and Russian in 10
lines as follows: "Turquie, via Constantinople / a Mont-Athos / Cellule de St.
Jean Chrysostome / au Superieur Pere Kirille avec / Confreri. ("e" missing') /
Turtsiya, Chrez Konstantinopol' / na Afon / Nastoyatelyu Kellii Sv. loanna Zla- /
tousta (v Khilendarskoi mestnosti) / leroskhimonakhu Kirillu s bratieyu'". The
Russian inscription translates as "Turkey, via Constantinople to Athos, To the
Prior of the Monastic Cell of St. John Chrysostomos (in the Chiliantarion dis-
trict). To the Father Superior Cyril and brethren".

Note the minor mistakes in the French text, while the genetive form for
the saint's last name should have been "Zlatoustago" in Russian and not
"Zlatousta". At bottom front, there is a handwritten French notation in typical
Greek handwriting reading "M-Athos, Cyrille", and at back a further note, now in
Greek and reading "Kyrillos".

2. A front from a registered cover, which had originally enclosed a remit-
tance of 50 rubles sent from Lipetsk, Tambov governmentship, on June 25, 1901 and

Page 10 No. 70





"A". rAimiIos A. Xanlhou.os
Si -R- ussian mail to the
i" ,-, .monastic cell of SainT
.,John Chrysostonos
-. r r (Sv. Ioann Zlatousti).

F* ront and back o1
a cover sent from
Chistopol', Augu3st2i
i9oq, and showing

unrecorded marking
'', "" aree strikes ofan

S" for he Russion Monastic
' C^y" Cel of Saint John
; 'ChrysosToios.


i
"(CEH.129.
"
for the monastic .
cell shown irn clear \ -rt
detail and dated
Sept. 12, 09.
Below: Map of the
Athos area. ". "
ATHOS
(\ / J (0fr ro f2 eocKiauJ ________________ ____;__
SYa. M. Vovin:"The Andizhan
SPostal Forgeries."



Genuin Forqed



"A .,^ _. One ruble 1941 issue



j.t M oW m...- Genuine _.- ed


One ruble 1948 issue
J''. -_ I I I_ l
f CIL ~Y *^'e f^Ioyr^








received at the ROPiT P.O. at Mt. Athos on July 8. The bilingual address is now
printed on the envelope and reads as follows in 8 lines: "CHREZ G. ODESSU NA
AFON. TURTSIYA / Russkaya Pochta, v Russkuyu Obshchezhitel'nuyu Obitel' / SV.
* IOANNA ZLATOUSTAGO / (v Khilendarskoi mestnosti) / Nastoyatelyu IEROSKHIMONAKHU
KIRILLU s bratieyu/ Ot......... /........ TURQUIE MONT-ATHOS POST RUSSE CELLUL
S-T: ZLATOUSTE PERE KYRILLE/."

The Russian address now translates as follows: "Via the city of Odessa
to Athos, Turkey. The Russian post office, to the Russian communal cloister of
St. John Chrysostomos in the Chiliantarion district, to the Prior, Father
Superior Cyril and brethren, from .....".

3. Another registered front from the same peasant woman sender, originally
enclosing 40 rubles and sent from Lipetsk on February 20, 1902. The double-circle
ROPiT AFON arrival is dated March 9, 1902. The printed address is now arranged in
9 lines, as follows: "Chrez g. ODESSU NA SV. AFONSKUYU GORU / RUSSKAYA POCHTA. V
RUSSKUYU OBSHCHEZHITEL'NUYU OBITEL' / SV. IOANNA ZLATOUSTAGO / (v Khilendarskoi
mestnosti) / Nastoyatelyu Ieroskhimonakhu Kirillu s bratieyu / ot ......./....../
Via Odessa / a Mont-Athos poste russe Au Pere Kyrille /". The Russian address
reads: "Via the city of Odessa to holy Mount Athos. The Russian post office.
To the Russian communal cloister of St. John Chrysostomos, in the Chiliantarion
district. To the Prior, Father Superior Cyril and brethren, from....".

4. A registered letter from Kazachinskoye, Yenisei governmentship, mailed on
March 12, 1908 and franked with a pair of 7 kop stamps on the flap. There is a
figure "6" also scrawled in crayon the back, apparently done on passing through
Krasnoyarsk, since at the latter place an additional pair of 3 kop. stamps was
affixed and cancelled two days later. It passed through the ROPit P.O. at
Constantinople on March 27 and was received at Mt. Athos on March 30, 1908. The
more elaborate 15-line address is as follows:- "Chrez gor. ODESSU / v gor.
KONSTANTINOPOL' (Turtsiya) / RUSSKAYA POCHTA / Nastoyatelyu Podvor'ya Afonskoi /
SVYATO-IOANNO-ZLATOUSTKOI OBITELI / Ieromonakhu VARSONOFIYU / DLYA PERESYLKI NA
SV. AFONSKUYU GORU NASTOYATELYU / OBITELI SV. IOANNA ZLATOUSTAGO I IGUMENU VY- /
SOKO DECHANSKIYA LAVRY IEROSKHIMONAKHU KIRILLU / S BRATIEYU / Ot....... /....../
Via Odessa / a Mont-Athos (Turquie) poste russe au pere / Kyrille confrerie/".
All this translates as: "Via the city of Odessa to the city of Constantinople,
Turkey. The Russian post office, to the Prior of the conventual church and house
of Athos of the cloister of St. John Chrysostomos, to the Reverend Father
Varsonofii, for transmission to holy Mount Athos to the Prior of the cloister of
St. John Chrysostomos and abbot of the monastery of Visoki Dechani, to the Father
Superior Cyril and brethren, from....".

5. By far the most important cover in the correspondence, this is the only
one without a printed or lithographed address and it is directed somewhat in-
correctly addressed by hand in Russian as follows: "Athos, Turkey, to the
monastery of St. John Chrysostomos, to be received by the Father Superior Cyril
and brethren". Insufficiently franked with a Russian 7 kop. stamp, it was sent
from Chistopol' on August 26, 1909 and collected en route a circled "T" and oval
"DOPLATIT' 6 notations on the front. It reached the ROPiT P.O. at Mt. Athos
on September 10, 1909 (faint strike at top right of cover), and it was then for-
warded to the monastic cell, where it received a clear strike on the front of
the cover on arrival two days later of a completely unrecorded oval marking
measuring 32 x 24 mm., reading at top "R. K. s. I. Z." and at bottom "AFON ,
with date in center in American style, reading "SEN. 12. 09" (please see illus-

No. 70 Page 11








trations for details). Two indistinct strikes of the same oval marking are to be
found on the back. From the preceding covers of the correspondence, we may de-
duce that the five initials at the top of this unusual marking stand for "RUSSKAYA
KEL'YA SVYATAGO IOANNA ZLATOUSTAGO" or "Russian Monastic Cell of St. John
Chrysostomos." It would be interesting to know if this marking was ever applied
on covers going in the opposite direction, i.e. from the monastic cell to the
faithful in Russia, especially in cancelling the franking, or even on loose stamps
of the Russian Levant.

6. The last cover in the correspondence is a registered letter from Bolkhuny,
Astrakhan governmentship, franked with 20 kop. in Russian postage, sent on April
18, 1914 and received at Athos on April 29. As Macedonia had been liberated 18
months previously from the Turks, there is now a significant change in address,
which is now in 11 lines, as follows: "Chrez g. ODESSU i KONSTANTINOPOL' / NA AFON
(Makedoniya) / Nastoyatelyu Obiteli SV. IOANNA ZLATOUSTAGO / (Khilendarskoi
mestnosti) / i Igumenu VYSOKO-DECHANSKIYA LAVRY / Ieroskhimonakhu KIRILLU s
bratieyu / Ot........./........./ Via ODESSA a MONT-ATHOS (Macedoine) / poste russe
/ Au reverend pere KYRILLE et confrerie /". The Russian address reads: "Via the
city of Odessa and Constantinople to Athos, Macedonia, to the Prior of the cloister
of St. John Chrysostomos in the Chiliantarion district and abbot of the monastery
of Visoki Dechani, to the Father Superior Cyril and brethren, from...."

From the foregoing details, it seems clear that there was a voluminous mail be-
tween this monastic cell and the faithful in Russia, going as far back as the year
1891 and continuing for at least 23 years. It was probably for this reason that
the monastic cell had specially addressed envelopes prepared, which it forwarded
to Russia for the convenience of its correspondents. It may well be that there
were other settings of these printed or lithographed addresses and I trust that
readers will advise us if such is the case. No doubt there is still a great deal
to be learned about the postal history of the Mount Athos district in its heyday.

The monastery of VISOKI DECHANI, referred to in the addresses of envelopes
Nos. 4 and 6, appears to be the illustrious fortified monastery founded by another
Serbian king, Stevan, in the year 1335, at Dechani, 10 miles south of PEC, in
Southern Serbia, Yugoslavia. Obviously, we need to know more about Father Cyril
and his brethren, as well as their activities, since they may well have been
Serbians, rather than Russians.

Readers who might be interested in the fascinating history of the Religious
Community of the Holy Mount will find a great deal of literature on the subject.
One of the best and most detailed studies is by the Greek author, G. Smyrnakes, and
it is entitled "To Hagion Oros" ("The Holy Mount", Athens, 1903). Since this will
be "Greek" to most of your members, they are advised to consult a perceptive and
genial English work by Athelstan Riley, called "Athos, or the Mountain of the Monks"
and published by Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1887.

Finally, may I say that it has been a pleasure for me to present the foregoing
details to your readership, bearing in mind the many cultural and religious links
between the Graeco-Byzantine world and the Russian Empire. The many names and words
of Greek origin used by several of the Slav languages testify to these contacts.
All of this stems from the pioneer work done by the great apostles to the Slavs,
the Saints Kyrillos and Methodios, who adapted from the Greek alphabet the Cyrillic
system which has become so precise and perfect a vehicle for rendering the various
languages of the Eastern Orthodox nations in the Slav world.

Page 12 No. 70








THE ANDIZHAN POSTAL FORGERIES

By Ya. M. Vovin



During 1949, a local inhabitant of the town of Andizhan, Uzbek SSR, forged two
postage stamps of the USSR, both of 1 ruble value and showing the Spasskii Tower
in the Kremlin, as follows: Scott's Nos. 843, 1260; Gibbons' Nos. 970, 1329;
Yvert Nos. 836, 1233; Zumstein Nos. 806, 1294; Michel Nos. 812, 1245. The forger
managed to place in circulation a small quantity of these stamps.

The forged stamps may be distinguished from the genuine by the coarser execu-
tion of the designs and details. The cloud formations do not correspond to the
originals. Moreover, the letters in the word "rubl'" on the first stamp, and
"rub" on the second stamp, differ sharply from those on the genuine stamps (please
see illustrations). The color of the ink used for the first forgery approximates
that of the genuine stamp, but it has a fresher shade, while on the second forgery
the color is not uniform. On some copies it is red, while on others it approaches
pale pink. The dimensions of the forged stamps almost match those of the originals,
but for the first stamp the forgery is I mm. too narrow.

With regard to the performations, which are com 12 x 12- on both the genuine
stamps, here again their faker was not able to reach perfection in the majority of
the forgeries. They are irregularly perforated and gage along each side of the
stamps from 14 to 16. All the known forgeries are cancelled with genuine postal
markings. The first forgery has a cancel with outside diameter of 30 mm., reading
"ANDIZHAN FERG. UZ. SSR" but the date is lacking, while the second forgery shows
a cancel with diameter 25 mm. and text "ANDIZHAN OBLASTNOI 1.9.49" or "3.9.49"
(Sept. 1, 1949 or Sept. 3, 1949). EDITORIAL COMMENT: The above article is, as
far as we know, the first recorded news of postal forgeries of USSR stamps, al-
though we have also heard rumors that the Small Heads issues of the 1920s in the
gold currency were forged in Odessa to defraud the mails. May we suggest that our
specialists dig into this hitherto unexplored subject and let us know their find-
ings on the 1949 forgeries and any previous attempts?

There is one final point we like to make. Why were these one ruble values
forged? We know that in 1949, the tariff for an internal letter in the USSR was
40 kopeks, and this would have been an obvious value to forge. Does any reader
know what common rate would have been covered at that time by a one ruble stamp,
thus making it worthwhile to forge?

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX



THREE SOLID TRIANGLES

Lt. Col. A. Prado


Recently in the BSRP Journal several mentions had been made about cancellations
with three solid triangles either OVAL or CIRCUIAR. To some people this kind of
cancel has some relation with Railway Dispatch due to the shape of the TPO cancels,
and others tentatively attach their significance to some kind of Censor's Control.

No. 70 Page 13








THE ANDIZHAN POSTAL FORGERIES

By Ya. M. Vovin



During 1949, a local inhabitant of the town of Andizhan, Uzbek SSR, forged two
postage stamps of the USSR, both of 1 ruble value and showing the Spasskii Tower
in the Kremlin, as follows: Scott's Nos. 843, 1260; Gibbons' Nos. 970, 1329;
Yvert Nos. 836, 1233; Zumstein Nos. 806, 1294; Michel Nos. 812, 1245. The forger
managed to place in circulation a small quantity of these stamps.

The forged stamps may be distinguished from the genuine by the coarser execu-
tion of the designs and details. The cloud formations do not correspond to the
originals. Moreover, the letters in the word "rubl'" on the first stamp, and
"rub" on the second stamp, differ sharply from those on the genuine stamps (please
see illustrations). The color of the ink used for the first forgery approximates
that of the genuine stamp, but it has a fresher shade, while on the second forgery
the color is not uniform. On some copies it is red, while on others it approaches
pale pink. The dimensions of the forged stamps almost match those of the originals,
but for the first stamp the forgery is I mm. too narrow.

With regard to the performations, which are com 12 x 12- on both the genuine
stamps, here again their faker was not able to reach perfection in the majority of
the forgeries. They are irregularly perforated and gage along each side of the
stamps from 14 to 16. All the known forgeries are cancelled with genuine postal
markings. The first forgery has a cancel with outside diameter of 30 mm., reading
"ANDIZHAN FERG. UZ. SSR" but the date is lacking, while the second forgery shows
a cancel with diameter 25 mm. and text "ANDIZHAN OBLASTNOI 1.9.49" or "3.9.49"
(Sept. 1, 1949 or Sept. 3, 1949). EDITORIAL COMMENT: The above article is, as
far as we know, the first recorded news of postal forgeries of USSR stamps, al-
though we have also heard rumors that the Small Heads issues of the 1920s in the
gold currency were forged in Odessa to defraud the mails. May we suggest that our
specialists dig into this hitherto unexplored subject and let us know their find-
ings on the 1949 forgeries and any previous attempts?

There is one final point we like to make. Why were these one ruble values
forged? We know that in 1949, the tariff for an internal letter in the USSR was
40 kopeks, and this would have been an obvious value to forge. Does any reader
know what common rate would have been covered at that time by a one ruble stamp,
thus making it worthwhile to forge?

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX



THREE SOLID TRIANGLES

Lt. Col. A. Prado


Recently in the BSRP Journal several mentions had been made about cancellations
with three solid triangles either OVAL or CIRCUIAR. To some people this kind of
cancel has some relation with Railway Dispatch due to the shape of the TPO cancels,
and others tentatively attach their significance to some kind of Censor's Control.

No. 70 Page 13








In the first instance I thought this was really a Railway mark.but my concept
was slightly altered to doubt when checking my covers and cards I saw the same
solid triangles in a circular cancellation: Bound by uncertainty I began to check
my covers and here I present to fellow collectors the result of the search with
my comments.

COVERS and CARDS

1. Card sent from MOSCOU to VARNA, BULGARIA
a) Stamps: lxlOOR and 1x300 Soviet issue
b) Cancellations: Black circular, bridge type, of MOSCOU,
24.10.21. Black oval with triangles, MOSCOU EKSPEDITIA,
28.10.21. No arrival markings.

2. Registered cover sent from MEJIROV to NEW YORK, U. S.
a) Stamps: 2xlOOR Soviet issue
b) Cancellations: Black circular of MEJIROV, 18.11.21.
Black circular, large bridge type, of MOSCOU, 27.11.21.
Black oval with triangles of MOSCOU EKSPEDITIA, 29.11.21.
Black oval of NEW YORK REG. DIV., 22.12.1921.

3. Registered card from ODESSA to BERLIN, GERMANY
a) Stamps: 7xlOOR Soviet issue
b) Cancellations: Black circular of ODESSA, 13.2.22. Black
circular with triangles of ODESSkii EKSP., 14.2.22. Black
circular of BERLIN, -5.3.22.

4. Registered cover sent from ODESSA to BERLIN, GERMANY
a) Stamps: 7x2250R (red) Volga Famine issue, 3x220R Soviet
issue
b) Cancellations: Black circular of ODESSA, 23.2.22. Black
circular with triangles of ODESSA, 21.3.22. No arrival
marking in BERLIN.

5. Cover from MOSCOU to MUNCHEN, GERMANY
a) Stamps: 2x5000/1R and 5000/20R Soviet issues
b) Cancellations: Black circular, bridge type of MOSCOU,
-7.3.22. Black oval with triangles, MOSCOU EKSPEDITIA,
-7.3.22.
Obs. This cover has two Moscou circular with MOSCOU T.
EKSPEDITIA, -3.3.22.

6. Cover sent from KIEV to WARSAW, POLAND
a) Stamps: 3x5000/2R Soviet issue
b) Cancellations: Black circular of KIEV, 31.3.22. Black
circular bridge type machine cancellation, MOSCOU, -3.IV.22.
Black oval with triangles, MOSCOU EKSPEDITIA, 4.4.22. Black
circular bridge type of WARSAW 1, 14.IV.22.

7. Cover from PETROGRAD to REVEL, ESTONIA
a) Stamps: 10x7R Arms issue, perforated with varnished
lozanges and 2xlOR of the same issue
b) Cancellations: Black circular of PETROGRAD, 3.7.22. Black
circular, large bridge type of PETROGRAD, -5.7.22. Black
circular with triangles of PETROGRAD, 15.7.22. Black
circular of TALLIN, 22.7.22
Page 14 No. 70








8. Registered cover sent to REVEL, ESTONIA from PETROGRAD
a) Stamps: 18x5k Arms issue, perforated with varnished lozenges
b) Cancellations: Black circular of PETROGRAD, 20.7.22. Black
circular, large bridge type of PETROGRAD, 21.7.22. Black
circular with triangles of PETROGRAD EKSPEDITIA, date un-
clear. Black circular of TALLIN, 29.7.22.

9. Registered cover sent from PETROGRAD to REVEL, ESTONIA
a) Stamps: 9xlOR Arms issue, performated with varnished lozenges
b) Cancellations: Black circular of PETROGRAD, 25.9.22. Black
circular, large bridge type of PETROGRAD, 26.9.22. Black
circular with triangles of PETROGRAD, 26.9.22. Black circular
of TALLIN, 4.10.22.

10. Registered cover sent from PETROGRAD to REVEL, ESTONIA
a) Stamps: 6x45R 5th. Year of Revolution, 3x220R Soviet issue
b) Cancellations: Black circular, large bridge type, PETROGRAD,
10.12.22. Black circular with triangles of PETROGRAD EKSPEDITIA,
10.12.22. Black circular of TALLIN, 12.12.22.

11. Registered cover sent from PETROGRAD to REVEL, ESTONIA
a) Stamps: 10xl4k Arms issue, perforated with varnished lozenges
and 2x5k of the same issue
b) Cancellations: Black circular of PETROGRAD, 19.10.22. Black
circular, large bridge type, PETROGRAD, 20.10.22. Black cir-
cular with triangles of PETROGRAD, 20.10.22. Black circular of
TALLIN, 26.10.22.

S COMMENTS: I have a lot of other covers of the same period with the same kind of
stamps, cancels and so on EXCEPT the OVAL or CIRCULAR WITH THREE SOLID TRIANGLES
and with this remark we can assume this type of cancel IS NOT:
1. Always present in covers sent via Railway routes.
2. Always on covers sent to Foreign countries and if we accept these marks
as a kind of Censor's control the service was discriminating or imperfect.
3. On covers sent via Airmail.
With the above comments I put not a full stop but an invitation to other collectors
to check the postal material they have to clear the matter with complete accuracy.





A NEW FIND IN SOVIET STAMPS

By Sam Robbins


In the Rossica Journal #64 of 1963 I reported a discovery of a variety on a
stamp issued in 1948, Scott 1257, Soviet Cat. 1331, Yvert 1227. Now after further
study and examination of many copies of this stamp I am able to report with more
details some facts that make me believe that this stamp is a major variety de-
serving of special attention by our members and compilers of catalogs.

No. 70 Page 15








This stamp is part of a set dedicated to the subject of Sports, 15 Kp. Violet,
30 Kp. Brown, 45 Kp. Sepia and 50 Kp. Blue. The 30 Kp. Soviet Cat. 1329, Scott
1255, Yvert 1225 exists in two frame sizes. The regular 32x22 M.M. and the
variety 32x21.5 M.M. They have a common design to hold the inscription (Postage
USSR) NOYTA CCCP of similar size in photogravure. In all the stamps examined by
the writer the variety was found in cancel to order stamps only. It may exist
mint but all efforts to find a mint copy have not been successful so far. In an
examination of the large holdings of Soviet stamps of our member dealer Lester S.
Glass not a single mint stamp of variety was found.

Now to the basic differences in the stamps as you see in the illustration.

The regular stamp is placed left and the variety is on the right. On the
regular these are the characteristics:

The inscription NOYTA CCCP is in thin letters.
The holder or cartouche is 14 m.m. The number 5 is thin and separated from
the 0 and the letter K is below the number 5.
The cumulus clouds are of entirely different shapes in both stamps.

On the variety these are the differences:

The inscription NOYTA CCCP is in thick letters.
The holder or cartouches is 16 m.m. (arrow #1)
The number 5 is thick and connected to the O and the letter K is not below
the number 5 (arrow #2).
Arrow #3 shows the clouds are dissimilar.
The Soviet Cat. of 1948 list the perf. as 12- but it is 12.
Also the paper is of the same thickness.

In conclusion all these factors point to a distinct printing with clear and ob-
vious differences which I consider of merit and should be listed as a major variety.

I welcome comments on these findings.






















Page 16 0 No. 70








RUSSIAN OFFICES ABROAD

By Edith M. Faulstich
(Kurt Adler's Presentation Before Collectors Club, N.Y.)
Kurt Adler took the floor at the Collectors Club January 18th to show and
discuss his collection of Russian Offices Abroad.

When program chairman, Herbert Bloch introduced the speaker, he gave a glow-
ing account of Adler's life. Born in Austria, he studied in Vienna and soon
played the piano and conducted orchestras all over Europe. When Hitler came into
power in 1933 Adler went to Kiev and two years later he lived in Stalingrad.
When all non-Russians were ordered out of that city he again returned to Vienna
and Prague. In 1938 he came to the United States and entertained audiences here
as a concert pianist and in 1943 joined the Metropolitan as a Conductor. Today
he travels extensively here and in Europe and is the author of a fine book on
music.

Philatelically he started to collect at an early age and found himself
especially interested in Russia due to his life in Kiev. Strangely enough at
that time he did not speak Russian.

When Mr. Adler took the floor, he modestly expressed grateful appreciation
for being asked to address such an important philatelic group but stated he was
not used to lecturing to such an audience and thought conducting a Metropolitan
orchestra was far easier Then he went on to deliver one of the finest lectures
one might possibly hear. Authorative and interesting, with a spark of humor,
Mr. Adler pointed to his covers and told us that he showed this particular phase
of his collection because he thought it would be of more interest to collectors
as it touched on so many different countries.

"There are nearly 300 offices abroad," he said and added that this competes
only with Great Britain in quantity.

He explained that Russia wanted places in Europe where there were warm water
ports, and in China so it could use the so called Silk Roads and Tea Road to carry
her trade to Europe and Asia. Then there were TOP's and railroad markings which
he discussed.

About 1781 the first trade routes of Russia were developed through Romania
and Bulgaria then under Turkish rule. Others were located at ports on the Yellow
Sea, in China, Korea and Japan, Mongolia and Sukiang.

In discussing offices, he explained that one had to distinguish between the
more or less permanent ones and the often moving ones, in times of war.

However, as a lover of field post material, he treated us to an array of
markings from various wars and told many interesting stories. After the Boxer
Rebellion, the Russians were supposed to demobilize their occupation troops.
Actually they had field post cancels and the speaker showed that these were still
in use at the time of the Japanese-Russian War in 1904-1905.

When Romania, a neighbor of Bulgaria took part in the Russian-Turkish War,
Bulgaria was liberated by the Russians as some of the covers pointed up. But the

No. 70 Page 17








strangest part of the story is that a monument in that country, of the Russian
Tsar, Alexander II still remains in Sofia in these Communist times. He also told
us most of the material from this area were field posts and that at least twenty
were known in Bulgaria; one a post. office marking and the rest postal department
markings. Later Russia had civil postal services in Bulgaria and Adler had bi-
lingual town names on some of the covers.

The Russian Company of Trade and Navigation also had offices on the coast of
the Black Sea and other places and covers were shown from these points.

He told an interesting story about Alaska which used to belong to Russia.
"Today," he said, "almost every American philatelist is eager for correspondence
from early Alaska. But in 1867, when Russia dominated the scene almost nothing
exists." He did mention script money printed on seal skin which is very desirable
but there are only two or three copies known. They were printed for the employees
of the Russian-American trading company.

The only correspondence known is one letter received by an American business-
man. It had no postal markings.

Recently one of the members of the Rossica Society, of which Mr. Adler and
this writer are both members, Mr. Rayhack, decided to make inquiries in Moscow.
By some stroke of fate, he received an answer and the Moscow correspondent became
cooperative. Then an American Librarian heard the story and began to delve, as a
curator, into boxes and found a number from the time that the Russians held Alaska.
Most of these were clerical accounts and business to and from the Mother Church in
Russia and in California. There were no postmarks. It is believed-that some were
carried on Russian and American boats.

We saw Austrian Lloyd postmarks on Russian stamps. We learned that the first
commercial Russian post offices in Turkey were established from 1781 and that the
route from Russia was across the Danube through Romania to Constantinople. He
showed one of the first covers from Bucharest dated 1826.

He proved that there were postal historians in 1906 by showing a cover from
China and Sin Kiang which were obviously "'prepared."

Frame after frame included gems from Mr. Adler's collection. There were 1899
Crete covers with provisional stamps; Russian officers in Persia and post marked
covers of Russian consulates.

He showed a Persian entire written'by an American Red Cross Nurse in World
War I which carried a Russian field post cancel.

Many covers were from hard to.find little towns where only one or two specimens
are known to exist.

With all his searching Adler yearned for early post office markings from Khiva,
but could never find any early markings, nor was there any reason for this that he
could find in philatelic books. Then one day was discovered a book written by an
English lady journalist in which she told of the postal problems in Khiva and
stated categorically that no actual post office existed in Khiva until 1916. So
finally the collector found the answer.

No. 70 Page 18








Mongolia, now a Republic, first, from 1878, used Russian stamps with a brush
mark through them. One cover dated 1923, when Mongolia became independent but
had no stamps yet, had a post mark that had to be initialled by the postmaster.

Unusual covers from Black Sea ports, from field post offices in Turkey, and
from Mount Athos were displayed. In this last named place, many nationalities
have monasteries and millions and millions of rubles poured in from Russia. It
seems that those that sinned felt a donation to Mount Athos would save their
soul. Adler showed the first known cover from Kavalla and the first Gallipoli
cancel of ROPit dated 1859 to Constantinople.

In 1872 there were no post marks but a post office seal and a Mount Athos
arrival post mark proved this was a letter from Gallipoli.

"Holy Land covers" are very rare, he told us "as many Israel collectors now
seek them for their collections." He showed ones from Acre with Russian post
mark and one from Haifa.

In Peking, in his Far East China section, he featured a two line Boxer
Revolution Emergency Legation post mark when it was under siege and the Russian
post office was busy but could not get hold of a post mark so they fabricated one
for this emergency use, in 1900, while under the siege. Three years later when
things were normal again, the cancel was used as registry cachet.

Just as field post cancellations were of interest to the war collectors, ship
letters were of interest to the ship collectors. Mr. Adler showed one which was
sent from Shanghai to Vladivostok to a captain on a British ship. He had left
there but received it a year later in London. Then there were the steamer post
marks from Vladivostok to Odessa and to Shanghai, and one Russian ship letter
with a Russian Paquebot #4 in French appeared used along with a Russian registry
label.

Port Arthur which had been leased by the Russians to build a fortress existed
until the Japs took over in 1905. We were shown post cards with Darien ship
cancels and with transit marks.

The Chinese Eastern Railway with its main terminus at Harbin was the subject
of more discussion and markings from some of the small places along the route are
of indelible interest.

The speaker said that a collector could write a complete history of the Russo-
Jap War by simply studying the covers and post marks.

Other items such as telegraph office mail, mixed frankings and so many other
desirable items were there to see and hear about.

"These days," Adler told us, "I conduct opera in Romania not only because I
want to perform in that country, but it affords me a chance to spend all my spare
time searching, ever searching for elusive covers."

We certainly hope that Mr. Adler will have many more years to conduct opera,
so that he may find more covers.


No. 70 Page 19







1. Registered Cover from Kuldzha, Sinkiang 9th May 1900 to Peking, arrived
there 18th August 1900 (new style). This hitherto unrecorded provisional arrival
postmark cut in wood by primitive means was used for a very short time by the
Russian Post Office, situated at that time in the Legation district which was
under siege by the Boxer Revolt Chinese troops. This particular postmark was
the first provisional one used in 1900. It deteriorated so quickly that in
November it already had lost its frame and a new one had to be cut which, instead
of being rectangular is almost square. The day and month date, in all cases had
to be written in by hand. The letter went from Kuldzha to Semipalatinsk 19th
May 1900, Krasnoyarsk 27th and 29th May 1900 and via TPO Zabaikalskoi Zh. D.
1st June 1900 to Vladivostok 20th June 1900. There it must have been laid over
until transportation to Peking became possible. The TPO postmark has never been
registered so far. All postmarks not seen in the illustration are on the reverse
side.

2. The first hitherto recorded postal marking of the R.O.P.i.T. Agency in
Gallipoli. Although the existence of such an office had been surmised by
Tchilinghirian in his Handbook of Russian P.O's abroad, it never had been seen
before. The postmark is of an oily green color. The cover was mailed in Gallipoli
on 20 July 1859 and went to Constantinople where it was received on 28 July 1859.




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Page 20 No. 70
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Page : 20, No 70








Forward and Introduction from
"DIE POSTWERTZEICHEN DER RUSSISCHEN LANDSCHAFTSAEMTER"

By C. Schmidt

Valuable Postal Adhesives of Russian Zemstvos the Data for Studying of These
Stamps as Compiled and Reworked by the Architect C. Schmidt.

Volume I. Akhtyrka Luga. Translation from German
Published by the Writer. Scharlottenburg


FOREWORD: With the present I am transferring to collectors my data for the study
of the valuable postal adhesives of the Russian Zemstvos, whatever I was able to
gather during over 40 years of investigation. The difficulties I had to overcome
were exceedingly heavy; in the whole world there was not a single collection that
could furnish the exhaustive material. Any study of the old archives was out -
there were none. So with difficulty I had to collect the material from all exist-
ing sources and collections; this demanded numerous trips and many years, enormous
amount of correspondence in all directions. In this way I was able to correct
the many errors of the previous catalogs and to introduce many new stamps to date
unknown or unnoticed.

Still, I realize fully that even this work has many omissions and gaps.
Chances are they may be filled in sometime, or maybe will remain so forever.
Probably many collectors will be able to make corrections and additions for which
I will be always thankful.

My special gratitude for the help given to me in this work of mine to my
colleagues of the old section "St. Petersburg" of the International Dresden
Philatelic Society, who always and willingly placed their collections at my dis-
posal, as did numerous collectors in Germany and abroad. In the first place I
have to mention Mr. A. Faberge' who used any means possible to collect the material
for this work and furnish it to me for study, especially the stamps in complete
sheets which made possible the detailed study. I remember gratefully two of the
collectors who are no more with us: Ferrari de la Renotier (Paris) who permitted
me to see his treasures and to photograph the rarities, and Mr. Herman Holstein
(Moscow) who was a most diligent collaborator, to whom I owe thanks for much data
and who without stint furnished me the material from some collections unknown to
me. Also I must remember thankfully Mr. F. Kosak who had willingly presented to
me for the study his large stock from the Moens collection in whole sheets.

This work was started in 1909 and was published by the above mentioned section
of "St. Petersburg". Since all of the written and organization work of the issue
rested on me only, having been overloaded with my business affairs, this work
progressed very slowly. Until 1916, 20 sections were issued in two completed
volumes of 884 pages of the text with 102 tables of photographs which developed
the study of the zemstvo postage stamps as far as the letter "L" inclusive. The
work was suspended due to the war. All of unmailed sections, especially the two
last ones became victims of the revolution. And only in 1930 I decided to complete
the work. Due to my completely changed circumstances, it became impossible for
me to edit the work as it was done before due to the financial difficulties.

No. 70 Page 21








So, I sat myself at the typewriter to put on paper all that I have collected
during the long years.

I am asking all friends-collectors to be lenient in their judgement of the pre-
sentation and contents.

October 1932 The Author.

ZEMSTVO: The Activities of Zemstvos and their Growth from 1864 to their Abolish-
ment in 1917.

Everything that was achieved in cultural work within the enormous Russian
Empire during the last fifty years prior to the world war is directly tied to the
activities of the zemstvos. They were attracting the industrious, progressive
elements of the people, they were supporting the hopes of the people in the better
future during the oppressive years of the autocratic reaction, finally they have
awakened the creative forces of the people, have shown the road to the gifted ones
and strengthened the forces of the fighters in their hard struggle with the re-
action. Each zemstvo had men whose activities the people remembered with touching
and fanatical love, whose names they preserved in thankful memory.

Here, in the zemstvo institutions, have met for the first time other wise
entirely divided classes of the society: the peasant, noble, gentry, and merchant,
as men of equal rights. Here they felt their common interests, felt that the wel-
fare of the people was equally dear to all of them, that it depended to a large
extent on their behavior. Participation in self-government resulted in the ap-
pearance of the sense of duty and of love of his fatherland. Until then the popu-
lation had to stand aside and take everything in silence. The elected representa-
tives were not acquainted with the letter of the law but tried to really solve the
vital demands and felt themselves not to be responsible to any authorities but to
their electors.

The government decided to give such self-government to the people very re-
luctantly. Only the complete collapse of local authority, only the loud complaints
of the nobility against the intolerable management of the officials and the demands
of introduction of government by the elected representatives of the people extorted
from the government the introduction of zemstvos or a guarantee of self-government:
But, the government's attitude towards the zemstvos was hostile and distrustful
until the last days. The rather limited rights that were granted to zemstvos with
time were not widened but there was a tendency to limit them. Everywhere, nearly
in every branch of zemstvo's activities there were always difficulties and obstacles
placed by the government. Many times the main work consisted not in satisfying the
needs of the population but in fighting the resistance of the government in the
simple and harmless matters. The government felt political suspicions everywhere,
was afraid of the political consequences of the simplest decisions and with such
contradictions even the existence of the zemstvos was imperiled. But, notwith-
standing all this, life itself carried the zemstvos far past the frames of their
original destiny. It was not possible to deaden their activities, their importance
as an indispensable and irreplaceable organ of government was growing each day and
their activities as the auxiliary organs of the state government, became the pride
of Russian people.

1. The Origin of Zemstvos During the time of serfdom all responsibility for
the good or evil of peasants was the duty of the landowners. The government did

Page 22 No. 70








not care about the peasants; it knew only the landlord who was responsible for the
taxes being paid on time. In his turn, according to the law, the landlord was
obliged to take care of his peasant serfs and to help them in case of bad crops,
fir and epidemics. Some of the landowners even opened schools for their peasants
and engaged medical help for them. But the peasants had to pay their taxes and to
work for the landlord on certain days of the week.

The freedom of serfs accomplished February 18, 1861 changed the above rela-
tions with a single blow. About 23 million peasants became free; it was
necessary to create the new life, anc direct on the new road, numerous local
management problems which were interesting both to the peasants and to the land-
owners.

Prior to the freedom of serfs the state also had its own peasants on various
state lands. If the management of these lands had been satisfactory, then the
government should have extended it to free such peasants. But the management of
these state lands was in Petersburg and it officially knew very little, if any-
thing about local conditions and necessities. Being strangers to the population,
absolutely uninterested in satisfactory and just solution of local matters, the
officials only complied with the letter of the laws that came from Petersburg,
and in most cases were spending money unwisely received from peasant taxes that
were entrusted to them. The central government tried many times to solve these
problems so far removed but they were not solved, and among them especially the
question of collecting taxes.

It is true that prior to 1864 there was no zemstvo activity in the sense of
the later meaning of this word. Still there were numerous management problems
which could have been classified as the "zemstvo" ones, to satisfy which there
were collected the "zemstvo" taxes. These taxes were very heavy; during 45 years
from 1814 to 1860 they were increased six times and were paid mostly by peasants
since the land and the commerce were taxed very little. Besides the above taxes
the peasants had to take care of the roads, furnish the postal horses and take
care of the quarters for the military and officials. The tax money was mostly
used to maintain postal stations and relay horses, to maintain the jails and
moving of the criminals, for the maintainance of the roads and for quartering
and victualling of the passing troops. The distribution of this money in the
provinces was in the hands of a committee which consisted of government em-
ployees and the representatives of the nobility and the cities, which met once
each three years to check the disbursements of the past three years and to pre-
pare the budget for the next three years.

This meeting was named "zemstvo taxes committee". The suggestions of the
members of such committee were only a formality, no consideration being given to
local interests since, later, they were completely changed by the government.
That is to say: they had to be studied in Petersburg by 7 secretaries of state
(ministers), by ten different offices in each province seat, by 4 in each county,
and by 3 in each city, each one of them introducing their changes. Thus was the
budget made of the expenses which did not answer real needs, which never satis-
fied the real needs and which frequently permitted the dishonest elements to
fill their pockets. Very soon such management was declared as incapable and the
idea of selfgovernment was on a firmer road.

The interrogation of the gentry that for a long time had been managing its
affairs finally convinced the government that the local needs may be studied only

No. 70 Page 23








by the representatives of the local population and that the elections of such per-
sons must be done by the same population. Numerous gentry meetings asked the
government to create in each province and in each county self-government that would
consist of the representatives of all classes. The idea was supported by the
society and the press and the whole country was so eagerly expecting the beginning
of this new life, so intensely, that the government did not have any thing left but
decided basically on the idea of self-government.

But the preparation of the corresponding law took an entire five years from
1859 to 1964, due to numerous disagreements about the rights of this new self-
government. Some were afraid of too wide independence of zemstvos and were afraid
that the authority would be taken out of hands of the officials. Others were of
the opinion that the population was sufficiently mature to be able to decide their
own needs for themselves without anybody's tutoring. Finally, under the pressure
from Emperor Alexander II, both sides had to agree, since he ordered that the law
would be ready by January 1, 1864. It was signed by the Emperor on that date.

From 1865 to 1875 self-government was instituted in 34 provinces: in 1865 in
Samara, Kostroma, Penza, Novgorod, Kherson, Pskov, Kursk, Yaroslav, Poltava,
Tchernigov, Moskva, Kharkov, Kazan, Petersburg, Nizhni-Novgorod, Riazan, Voronezh,
Kaluga and Tambov; in 1866 in Smolensk, Tver, Tula, Simbirsk, Orel, Saratov,
"Vladimir, Ekaterinoslav, and Tavrida; in 1867 in Viatka, Olonetz; in 1870 in
Vologda, Perm and Bessarabia; and in 1875 in Ufa province and in the Territory of
Don Cossacks. The last one existed only until 1882 since all of the population of
the Territory without exceptions was militarized and thus was exempt from taxes.

During the last decades there were numerous demands that the government in-
troduce self-government in other provinces, but without success. During these
years the autocratic reaction came in; the new liberties were not only not given,
but even the existing ones were limited. Only on March 1911 self-government was
granted to Vitebsk, Volyn, Kiev, Minsk, Mogilev and Podol provinces and on
January 1, 1913 to Astrakhan, Orenburg, and Stavropol provinces.

Due to the considerable difference between the points of view in government
circles during the preparation of the law, it resulted to being insufficient,
not very clear and full of controversial points. Thus, immediately after the law
was in force there started the struggle between the representatives of the govern-
ment and the elected representatives of the people, the struggle that did not
weaken until 1917 when the revolution destroyed the zemstvos. The officials did
not want to lose the old power from their hands and were afraid that the people
would encroach on their actions; on the contrary. The peoples representatives
based on the spirit of the law, on its unclear and imperfect form, fought more
and more to get away from the control and guidance of the government officials.
Finally, 15 years after it was decided to revise the zemstvo laws and the ap-
pointed commission worked four years on this revision when, by the 1885, the
government policy had changed completely. The representatives of the old con-
servatives were predominant and as a result on July 12, 1890 there was issued a
new law that took away part of liberties that were given to the zemstvos and which
gave again an increased influence to the gentry as the politically more trustworthy
element.

This law was in force until the last days of the zemstvos. Still, the self-
government had very beneficial influence on all the country. During these fifty
years the representatives of the population performed a gigantic task and actually

Page 24 No. 70








culturally elevated all of the large interior of Russia. The population learned
to defend its interests and to think politically; at the zemstvo assemblies the
representatives of the people have learned the first steps of the self-government.

2. The Interior Structure of Zemstvos According to the 1864 law there
should have been elected 13,329 members who would be defending the interests of
their electors in the zemstvo meetings. These interests varied with the different
classes of people: peasants, city dwellers, gentry. A unit of land was taken as
the basis for determining the number of representatives. Both the gentry and
landowners chose one voter per 3,000 parcels of land. The peasants also elected
one voter per 3,000 parcels of land according to the latest population census.
The above considerations were used to determine the number of voters and the par-
cel of land ranged from 200 to 800 "diesiatina's" (one "desiatina" = 1.09
hectars), depending on the value of lana.

Other immovable interests, such as industries, etc., gave full unit values.
The following persons had the right to be voters in the towns: all merchants with
the legal documents; factory owners and business owners with a yearly balance of
over 6,000 rubles and finally the real estate owners in towns which varied in
value in different towns from 500 to 3,000 rubles.

The small landowners who did not have a full unit of land but not less than
1/20 of it could participate in the elections through their representatives. They
could elect as many representatives as many full units of land were summed up.
Such chosen voters acted on the general elections as fully qualified voters. All
peasants had the right to vote. First they would choose their electors within
the county assembly and these later were having a meeting of several districts
and chose their representatives either a peasant, or a priest, or a landowner.

SThe following proportions existed in 1883-1886: gentry and officials 5,595
peasants 5075, priests 305, and from other classes 2,223. After the law was
modified in 1895 the proportions were changed considerably in favor of the gentry.
The law was modified in such a way that the number of representatives was dimin-
ished from 13,329 to 10,229. More than half were gentry, while the peasants in-
stead of 3357 representatives of their interests received only 3,167. City
dwellers, such as merchants, industrialists and priests were completely excluded,
while the amount of land required for the small landowners was nearly doubled.
The peasants chose their candidate in each district; from the number of the
elected representatives the governor of the province chose the ones he wanted,
guided by the political loyalty of the representative. This last ruling was abol-
ished in 1905.

As is customary at any election the lists of the voters were made public in
advance so that it would be possible to correct any erroneous entries. The re-
presentatives were elected for three years. They were usually elected in the
autumn, after the harvest, and very soon after it, mostly in the beginning of
September the elected representatives met in the county zemstvo assembly under
the presidency of the head of the gentry. According to the law the assembly
could not last over 10 days. After the representatives were sworn in, the
general assembly began to discuss all management affairs that had accumulated
during the year. Prior to the discussion the representatives received printed
reports with detailed explanations of every subject. The subject was discussed
the next days of assembly. Different propositions were made which were either
accepted or rejected by the majority. If the subject was so complicated that

No. 70 Page 25








the matter could not be resolved in the general meeting then a commission was
chosen. Such a commission studied the subject and presented its decision to the
assembly for voting. During such zemstvo assemblies many matters were resolved,
sometimes there were accumulated as much as 200 subjects. The most important
subjects, i.e. the election of the president, of the numerous commissions, ap-
proval of the financial budget of the zemstvo offices for the past year as well
as of the next year's budget were done on the last day. The assembly meetings
were held in the building of the zemstvo office and admission was free. These
assemblies brought fresh life into the quiet county towns and all of the interest
of the society was directed to these meetii-gs. Not only were there different
subjects of interest, the discussions enabled the people to take sides in many
matters and to spread the ideas of the zemstvo government among very wide circles
of population. Therefore, the meetings of the zemstvo assemblies were very im-
portant.

After the decisions on the submitted matters were made, the zemstvo represen-
tatives left for their homes. To be able to see that all the decisions made were
carried out during the year until the next assembly, the representatives chose
the heads of the zemstvo office, for the three years period which consisted of the
president and 2 to 3 members who were paid the salary as established by the
assembly.

The different classes of work were divided between the members or done by all
of them. To help them were the commissions chosen from the group of representa-
tives, experts on the matters, which met periodically during the year and took care
of the pending matters, made the decisions and sent them to the zemstvo office to
be carried out. The appointment of other persons, medical doctors, veterinarians,
school teachers, engineers, and agricultural experts, secretaries, bookkeepers and
other office employees was done by the president and the members of the zemstvo
offices. The zemstvo office was responsible for carrying out all decisions of the
zemstvo assembly and had to present accounts of the disbursements of all the
moneys spent. The members chose among themselves the control commission that
checked all the work done during the year, as well as after it, and in its turn,
submitted to the members its decision and at times its suggestions as to some changes
or additions.

During the last days of the elections, apart from the election of the president
and other officials of the county zemstvo office, there were elected the deputies
(2 to 7) for the province zemstvo. In this last one were discussed the matters
touching all of the province. It was much larger than the county one and consisted
of, apart from the above mentioned county deputies, all presidents, all headmen of
nobility and gentry of the province and of the officials of the state lands. Thus
such a meeting could have as many as 90 members and it was carried out once a year,
mostly in November or December. More important matters were discussed here, in a
similar way as was done by the county meetings. However, here it was imperative
to have wider knowledge and education as not only the local management matters
were discussed but other ones of national importance. In the case of an accumula-
tion of matters that could not be postponed, extraordinary meetings were called.
The decisions on the most important matters mostly of national importance, had to
be approved by the governor, or even by the state minister. Both of them had the
right of veto, which however was used very rarely. Doubtful matters about com-
petence were solved by the Senate.


Page 26 No. 70








According to the modified reactionary 1890 law, the governors were given the
power to control all decisions of the zemstvo members and cancel the ones which
according to the governor's judgement were contrary not only to the interests of
the government but also contrary to the interests of the local inhabitants. Of
course all these were very doubtful matters since the decision depended fully
on the arbitrary rule of this high official. Due to this, the zemstvo assem-
blies lost much of their past independence since they always had to give in.
Still, they continued their work without getting weary in all branches of their
activities mostly with very miserable funds since they found nearly everywhere
large areas untouched by culture. Tne activities of the zemstvos grew yearly
and very soon stepped out of the limits established in the beginning. Finally,
they have reached national significance by their presenting to the government
the problems of the land. Until the creation of the "Duma" (Parliament) the
zemstvos were the only route which the population could use to advise the
government of their needs and hopes. Their importance reached the summit with
the direct petitions to the Emperor. It was becoming clearer that the aims of
the zemstvo self-government were closely tied with the state interests and
could not be separated from them; that with the joint peaceful work the popula-
tion would be benefited best.

3. The Sphere of Zemstvo Activity It is natural that the philatelists are
interested first of all about the zemstvo being the organizer of the postal ser-
vice. But inasmuch as the postal service was only a small part of the zemstvo
activities it seems to be useful to describe their other activities so as to
give the full picture of their activities. And the postal service will be de-
scribed in detail in a special chapter.

The first problem that fell on the zemstvos, one may say the inheritance of
the previous management, was the necessity to supply the postal horses, followed
by taking care of the justices of peace, jails and transportation and feeding of
the arrested persons. Actually, the above duties had nothing to do with the
management of the life of the county but they had to be accepted by the zemstvos.
Then the government gave to zemstvos such matters as would have been handled with
difficulty by the distant Petersburg, i.e. fire insurance, aid to the population
in case of the failure of crops, maintenance of bridges, roads, care of the
hospitals and of the state sanitariums for the poor. In the first version of the
law nothing was mentioned about the education: this was added at the last moment
by the state Senate.

These duties were so heavy that only very modest means were left to satisfy
the main needs of the population. And the members of zemstvos considered their
aims to be not these state duties but the vital needs of the people and help in
its needs. The government soon arrived at the same conclusion and freed the
zemstvos from this load. But the zemstvos had such wide aims that their budget
grew very fast; for example from 14- million rubles in 1868 to 220 million in
1912.

a) Popular education The main activity of the zemstvos was in public edu-
cation. In 1868 education expenses were in sixth place 738,858 rubles and in
1912 they were in first place 66,403,300 rubles, reaching one third of all
zemstvo disbursements.
Prior to the creation of zemstvos, the rural schools existed only on
several landowners' properties. But the same government saw the necessity of

No. 70 Page 27








some education and tried to have the clergy become interested in this. The schools
were established in the villages and the parish priests were given their manage-
ment. But some priests were glad to pass the teaching jobs on to the other church
workmen, they themselves giving only the false reports to satisfy the bishops.
The pupils were treated badly, were punished corporally and were taught very little.
The bad conditions in schools resulted in parents not sending the children to
school. The schools were so empty that the parents were forced to send the child-
ren to these schools and only the richer people could buy off from this enforce-
ment. Such was the condition of the schools when the zemstvos took charge of them.
In the beginning, the peasants offered to open the schools and all aid was
given. The teachers' schools were organized and the peasants were given funds to
acquire books and school supplies. Five to six years later the zemstvos took the
next step and supplied the teachers. In the seventies the peasants of the 34
provinces gave for the schools about 3 million rubles while the zemstvos helped
them with 2 million. In 1890 the expenditures of both were 3,500,000 rubles. Ten
years later the peasants gave 2,000,000 and zemstvos 7,000,000. And in 1909 the
zemstvos gave 29,000,000 rubles (7,000,000 government subsidy included) while the
peasants contributed with less than 500,000 rubles. The zemstvos built and kept
up the schools and took care of education. After 50 years of wide experience and
love of this work, there was created in Russia the generally recognized "zemstvo
school".

XXXXX X XXX -



THE ANCIENT RUSSIAN POSTS

By Maria Nikolaevna Vitashevskaya



Chapter X: The Vinius Postal Service Andrei Andreevich Vinius conducted the
postal service for a period of 26 years. For about a year (up to 1676), he was
the "Master over the Post" under Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich, the next six years
(1676-1682) under Tsar Fedor Alekseevich, then seven years (1682-89) during the
reign of Tsarina Sofia, and finally about twelve years (1689-1701) under Peter I
(Peter the Great).

Vinius did not receive any salary at all for his work in running the postal
service, but he, like Marselius, charged fees on both the senders and receivers
and these takings went into his own pocket. There were occasions when the Govern-
ment had to force him to pay driving allowances to the mailmen. But in cases
where Vinius' expenses exceeded his income, the Government was obligated to com-
pensate him for his losses.

The postal service to Riga was handed over to Vinius in reasonable working
order, but the service to Vilna was hardly functioning at that time. As long as
the envoys were coming from Poland to Moscow, the mail service worked well, but
after the conclusion of diplomatic talks, the mails were hardly ever sent to Vilna.
Postal communications were finally suspended after reports of an outbreak of plague
abroad in the year 1679. Barriers were set up on the border with Poland and all
letters either returned or destroyed. A year later, the barriers were removed, but
in 1681, when there were fresh reports of a plague epidemic, they were set up again.

Page 28 No. 70







The postal service to Vilna was not officially terminated and so a few per-
sons sent letters there as before. However, they rarely reached the addresses.
In 1681, the Vilna postmaster, Reinhold Bissing, who was feeling the effect of
the interruption of this service, complained to the Ambassadorial Office in
Moscow that letters were only being sent once a month. In reply to Bissing's
complaint, Andrei Andreevich Vinius presented "articles" in which he stated
that the service to Vilna was unnecessary and disadvantageous. He sent the few
letters requiring transmission to Vilna via Riga, while foreign business people
had already become accustomed to patronizing regularly the postal service to
the latter city.

It was important for the Muscovite Government to receive foreign newspapers
in good time. Newspapers from Kdnigsberg were forwarded by the Vilna mail ser-
vice to Moscow. Vinius, in his "articles" asserted that the newssheets from
Riga had much better coverage than the Konigsberg ones and that the former had
very interesting news for Moscow about affairs in Sweden and Poland. Moreover,
the K6nigsberg newspapers could also be obtained via Riga. The Ambassadorial
Office agreed with Vinius' contentions and a ukase was issued by the Government
on June 16, 1681, stating that the mails were to be sent by the Vilna route
only in cases of extreme necessity.

In 1683, the new director of the Ambassadorial Office, Prince V. V. Golitsyn,
one of the most learned men of his time, was very put out to learn of its de-
cline when he was enquiring about the mail service to Vilna. He proposed that
Vinius revive it, but the latter repeated his arguments that it was unnecessary.
Whereupon, Golitsyn issued a ukase on June 16, 1683 in the name of the Tsarina
Sofia, in which the Relay Head Office was instructed to organize the transmission
of mail from Moscow via Smolensk to the Lithuanian border and back. It was de-
creed that the receipt and dispatch of mails be conducted in Moscow at the Am-
bassadorial Office in Moscow and by Cavalry Captain Faddei Kryzhevskii in Smolensk.
In the edict to the army commander at Smolensky, it was directed that Faddei
Kryzhevskii restore communications with the Postmaster of Lithuania.

However, the mail service to Vilna was only revived two years later. The
Polish envoy, Zembocki, arrived in Moscow in 1685 to conclude a lasting peace be-
tween the Muscovite Government and Poland. He informed Golitsyn that the king
of Poland (Jan III Sobieski) proposed restoring the service in accordance with
the conditions which were in operation previously. Golitsyn agreed with this
suggestion and Vinius was instructed to initiate talks with Reinhold Bissing, the
postmaster at Vilna. In the treaty with Poland, article No. 29 was devoted to
the question of the international mails. This article was practically in the
same words as the article on the same subject in the armistice agreement con-
cluded at Andrusovo in the Smolensk region, with the exception that the title
"Master over the Post" was now changed to the word "Postmaster". To expedite
things, the mail service to Vilna began working in accordance with the old agree-
ment.

On December 10, 1685, Bissing sent the agreement to the signatories and it
differed somewhat from the treaty of 1669. In the first article of this new
agreement, it was stated that all previous accounts were cancelled and there
were to be no settlements by either side. The articles which followed gave de-
tails of the postal route. Upon receiving the mails at the village of Lenken
on the Prussian border on Wednesdays, Bissing was to deliver them in Vilna on
Friday. After a two-hour stopover, the mail was to be conveyed to Minsk where

No. 70 Page 29







it was due to arrive on Sundays and from there it had to go to Mogilev, arriving
on Tuesday, and finally at Kadin on Wednesdays. Thus, the mail was to be trans-
mitted from the border within a space of 8 days. The couriers were not to be
held liable for delay in delivering the mails in the spring and autumn seasons.

A tariff of 18 groszy per letter was levied for the transmission of letters
from Moscow and K6nigsberg. This rate was to be received by Bissing every six
months in accordance with the presented accounts. In addition, Bissing was
given annually a pair of sables for running the service. The rate on boxes and
parcels was set at 90 groszy per pound. Government correspondence was sent free
of charge and for confirmation, it was only necessary to be satisfied that it was
a "presentation of the Sovereigns". A charge was to be made for the transmission
of mail of other notables, with the exception of that of the nobles of Muscovy
and Poland. Diplomatic mail was to be paid for at the same rate as for letters of
private persons.

In the final articles of the agreement, it was stated that if letters or
parcels were lost in Lithuania, Bissing was obligated to trace them. Vinius was
to be responsible for the same thing in Muscovy. The weight was to be clearly in-
dicated upon parcels and packages of correspondence. According to the new agree-
ment, the delivery of mail to the Polish-Russian border was to be slowed down
(instead of taking four days, it was to be extended to five), there was to be a
more exact reckoning of the tariff, and reduction in the amount of correspondence
which was being conveyed either free of charge or under preferential conditions.

The mail from Riga was received by Vinius in a much better state than that
from Vilna. In 1677, Vinius concluded a new agreement with Margarethe Giese,
the widow of the Riga postmaster. This agreement remained in force until 1684.

Although the postal service was not very punctual, it functioned. In 1683,
the postmaster of Novgorodok-Shvedskii advised that the Russian mail was very late,
and it turned out that the Swedish couriers had to wait for it at the border not
for one or two days, but as much as three. It was then decided in Moscow that the
mail for Riga be sent not on Tuesdays, but on Mondays.

In the meantime, Margarethe Giese's handling of her responsibilities was going
from bad to worse. She overcharged on the rates of transmission, packages were
being sent out without being tied up and the mail was being delivered to the border
on unscheduled days. In May, 1684, Vinius complained about the slow arrival of
correspondence, and for good measure mentioned that the mail from abroad was much
delayed. Finally, Vinius dissolved the agreement with Margarethe Giese and con-
cluded a new one with Andreas Max, the postmaster of Yuryev-Livonskii (Tartu or
Dorpat, in Estonia). Thereupon, Vinius addressed a request to the Government that
arrangements be set up for the transmission of all letters addressed to Russia and
Yuryev. The agreement between Vinius and Andreas Max has not come down to us, but
from the latest documents it is known that Max was sending the mail to the business
quarter at Pechory, where the mailman picked up the correspondence from Moscow from
the Pskov courier. Max received the sum of 290 yefimki annually for the transmission
of correspondence (a "yefimok" was foreign silver coinage and worth a little more
than a ruble by weight). This amount was handed over to him in advance and he also
received payment for mail from Riga to Memel, depending on the weight of the cor-
respondence. Thus, the Government widely used the postal service to administer
the country and it was required of provincial officials that all official corres-
pondence be sent through the mails.

Page 30 No. 70








80o YA3Y ErO BEAHrECTBA, C YAAPRl
K O H C T A H T H H A I A i A 0 :B;A -:-:
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_v,-' ,,b .e. .,m m--.-- -a.-r, .. ..,








Issued by Edic t of His Majesty, Lord Emperor CONSTANTINE PAVLOVI
SRuler of All Russias, Etc., Etc 4 E. (reign. for only 1 day from Nov.
,. .. ... .... *'** '--


r... .TR l r o l R Et ,E tc.(ig .or .C.. onl ,. .. frm' No .. 27)








From Moscow to Novgorod, For P procurement of Four () Horses and Guides From the Postal Service





By a Captain in the Leyb Guard Regiment and Personal Adjutant to a Titled Major General.
L II,, ,* .y ,; 1 ,^ i .^ ***O-" . '. ,*T ^












"Ruler of All Russ-as, Etc., Etc Etc (reigned for only 1 days ,r.o Nov.27)
By a Captain in the Leyb Guard Regiment and Personal Adjutant to a Titled Ma3or General.









At this time, there were not only a few foreigners who were writing, but also
"Russians of all ranks, walks of life and business people". Starting from the
first years of the reign of Peter the Great, complete lists of correspondents
were maintained for two years. Unfortunately, such lists no longer survive for
the period under review by us, i.e., up to the end of the 17th century. The of-
ficial rates for the Vinius postal service are therefore unknown to us and there
have only survived some notes by a person named Gordon, who entered into the
service of Muscovy and often utilized the mails. According to his words, the
rate for transmitting letters from the border to Moscow was 8 kopeks, from Novgorod
to Moscow 4 kopeks, from Riga to Pskov 6 kopeks, all on a per zolotnik (1/7 oz.)
basis, and a commission of 3% was charged for the conveyance of money. The
postal rates were very high, and as much as the Marselius family charged. Gordon
also noted that it took four weeks for letters to go from Hamburg to Moscow and
three weeks from Moscow to Danzig.

In 1688, Vinius received news from Novgorod that there was agitation among the
postillions who wanted to present a complaint that they were now being required
to convey "apart from mailbags", heavy burdens such as barrels of fish, casks
of vinegar and frozen fish. The majority of the postillions joined in the pro-
test and the relay station clerk harassed in every way those who did not wish to
support their comrades and refused to place their hands to the petition. He
beat these innocent men and fined them. The clerk demanded of the postillions
that they were to accept nothing apart from the mailbags and he saw to it that
this regulation was strictly adhered to.

Upon receipt of this information, Vinius tried to assure the Ambassadorial
Office that he never gave heavy burdens to the mailmen for conveyance. But from
the Vinius correspondence, we know that he often asked his friends to send him
through the mails a load of sandre (a kind of fish), or ten vedros of vinegar
(34 gallons U.S. measure or 27 gallons English measure) and even some small casks
of gang fish. Evidently such errands were known to the authorities and the Govern-
ment issued a resolution to the effect that no loads were to be sent through the
mails, while medicines and wine were to be sent by special designated messengers.
Only light parcels of fruit, furs etc. were to be conveyed by mail.

Some notations written on an order for post horses have been found to specify
the timetable, or times of transmission of the mails, there is an indication
showing when the mail was received at the relay station and when and with whom
it was dispatched. From this document, it has been ascertained that on a good
winter route, the mail, which was conveyed day and night from Pskov on "January
17th, day, at 8 o'clock of the night", arrived in Moscow at "January on the 23rd,
day and delivering in the night hours". The time in the olden days was not
reckoned as it is now; the 24-hour day was divided into "day hours" and "night
hours". The hour of sunrise was the first "day hour", and the hour of sunset was
the first "night hour". At the beginning of January, the sun rises (ih Moscow)
at around 8 am and sets at around 5 pm. Using this as a basis, we can say that
the mail was sent on January 17 at 1 am from Pskov and arrived in Moscow not on
January 23, but on January 24 at around 7 am, so that it was 150 hours on the
road. The distance between Moscow and Pskov was 690 versts (460 miles) so that
the postillions carried the mails at an average speed of roughly 3 miles per hour.
However, it should be borne in mind that they had to wait at the relay stations
to hand over the mail, carefully examine it and make notes on the order for post
horses, so that this speed was not exactly too slow, although less than that

No. 70 Page 31









established by order 7 versts or almost 5 miles per hour.

The driving distances between relay stations were great. Thus, from Moscow
to Tver, the couriers drove without changing horses for 180 versts (120 miles).
Mails sent from Moscow arrived in Tver' three or four days later. Leaving Tver',
the mailman, picking up the mails, barely got to Moscow when it was time to start
out again on schedule to carry the new correspondence.

In the same way as Marselius, Vinius had postal agents in various cities, chosen
from among persons who "are conducting the acceptance and dispatch of the mails".
But these officials now played a more modest role than those employed by Marselius.
They tried, on their own initiative, to improve the mail service and turned not only
to the local voevodes with this view in mind, but also the Ambassadorial Office.
Under Vinius, all questions relating to the organization of postal communications
came from Moscow. He energetically espoused the principle of centralizing the ad-
ministration of the postal system.

Gavril Petrov, who was the Moscow agent of Vinius, had a very great role in
things. He held no titles whatsoever, and he is referred to in all documents as
"the man of the Secretary of State Andrei Andreevich Vinius, who writes down in
the book the dispatches and acceptance of the mails". However Gavril Petrov not
only made notes in the book but he actually conducted all of the practical business
of the postal system. He sometimes signed for Vinius on "depositions", personally
handed them over to the Ambassadorial Office, advised of the misdemeanors of the
postillions, escorted them to the Ambassadorial Office and conducted a wide cor-
respondence with all relay stations.

Under the new Postmaster, the performance of the relay establishments did not
improve noticeably. As before, Vinius saw that the main reason for delays in the
mails was the poor standard of work of the postillions. However, his complaints
about the postillions only date from the year 1677, and it is clear that in the
first years of his postmastership, he was successful in improving the service.
But by 1677, he writes that the mail from Moscow did not get to Mignovichi until
8 or 9 days later, whereas it formerly arrived in 5 or 6 days. In April 1683,
Vinius presented a petition, and in it, as well as complaining about the posti-
llions, he referred to the poor state of the postal routes. Vinius wrote that
bridges which had been set up in marshy and swampy localities had deteriorated,
and in other places there were none at all. On such bridges, the horses of the
mailmen fell down and broke their legs...Just as an example, there were 533 bridges
in such a state between Moscow and Smolensk. As a result, the mailbags were
soaked. The postillions, fearing punishment, did not accept them from the mail-
men who had arrived, and the latter had to' return with them to the relay station.

All of this forced Vinius to request in the royal ukase the repair of the
roads and the strengthening of the bridges along them. The Government agreed
with Vinius and a few days after his petition, instructions were sent out to all
army commanders to put the roads in order and thus they were brought under control.
Five years later in 1687, the Muscovite Government, quite without any prompting
from Vinius, sent out ukases to the towns of Novgorod, Klin, Tver' and Torzhok.
It was directed in these ukases that bridges be erected in marshy and swampy places.
Indeed, in just a month later, several of the local voevodes were already report-
ing that the old bridges had been renovated and other bridges had been floored.

Page 32 No. 70








Finally, during the term Andrei Vinius held the postmastership, the question
of regular payment to the postillions for conveying the mails was resolved.
Vinius unwillingly entered into relations with the Relay Head Office and up to
1690, the money for the postillions was paid out from the Ambassadorial Office.
In the provinces, the postillions received driving allowances at the. local
managerial offices.

Vinius devoted a lot of attention to the formal dress of the mailmen. In
1675, rough white kaftanss" (peasant coats) were ordered for them. The kaftans
lasted for five years, and in 1681, it became necessary to order them again. The
postillions greatly prized their form of attire, and when it wore out, they wrote
to the Government with a petition to supply them with a new one. Each kaftan was
made up from 41 arshins (10 feet) of Hamburg broadcloth and all the eagle in-
signia were made from two arshins (56 inches) of red Hamburg broadcloth, while a
fee of 10 altyns (30 kopeks) was charged for all trimming and work.

Chapter XI: The Organization of the Internal Mails The Muscovite Government
wished, to examine the organization of the mails within the country, utilizing
its own resources and without recourse to foreigners. However, these attempts
were not very successful at first. The main reasons for the organization of the
internal mails were, first of all, the necessity to link Moscow with the newly
incorporated (in 1654) "Ukrainian towns", and secondly for military reasons.
Often, the terminal point of a new postal route was also the site of a regiment
of some local army commander. The first new postal route went from Moscow to
Kiev. In the "Treaty Articles of Glukhov", concluded by the Muscovite Government
on March 6, 1669 with Hetman Mnohohreshnii, there is a note "that the postal ser-
vice be set up at towns"

In 1670, it was suggested to Kozlovskii, the voevode at Kiev, that a postal
service be organized in the city for the quick dispatch of warning letters to
Moscow. It was ordered that mailmen be hired on a volunteer basis. However, the
attempt to restore the postal service was not successful at that time, and there
was a new order again in 1673 to establish a mail service from Moscow via Kaluga,
Sersk and Glukhov to Ukrainian cities. The Relay Head Office was charged with the
organization of the mails and it had to furnish information as to how many horses
there were available at each relay station, and "in which places to whom would
the mails be entrusted". The hired postillions were instructed "to be always at
the ready for his, the great sovereign's, urgent matters". It was ordered that
the postal service be conducted by day and night "as were also the mail services
to Riga and Vilna carried out".

It was proposed that on this service not only governmental correspondence but
also private letters be transmitted, and it was also ordered that "all letters be
delivered according to names and without any delay". A special official, the re-
lay route clerk Cheshikhin, was assigned to the Relay Head Office to organize the
mails sent from Moscow.

In 1674, the Government wrote to Trubetskoi, the new voevode of Kiev, about
the necessity of reviving the postal service to that city. It appears that this
was done so, because Tsar Fedor Alekseevich, upon sending Volkonskii, the voevode
of Pereyaslav, to the Ukraine in 1676, instructed him that if "he would hear of an
outbreak of plague in the surrounding areas, he was to write about this by mail
to the Sovereign".

No. 70 Page 33








In August 1678, Neplyuev, the voevode at Sersk, received a new ukase stating
that "for urgent sending" from Moscow to the troops of Romodanovskii, he was to
organize postal communications from Sersk via Glukhov, Konotop and Romny to the
Dnieper river, "to the regiment itself" and that the distance between each relay
station should be no greater than 30 versts (20 miles). In August 1686, an
edict was sent to the same Neplyuev, relating to the organization of mails beyond
the Dnieper rapids (the area of the Zaporogian Cossacks). It was laid down in
the edict that "the mails be sent through Ukrainian cities and settlements to
Perevolochna and to Kodak and to the Camp of the Zaporogian Cossacks". However,
in 1687, letters were still being sent only from Moscow to Akhtyrsk.

In February 1689, the voevodes at Serpukhov, Tula, Mtsensk and Kursk were
sent a communication stating that 20 relay stations were to set up on the stretch
from Moscow to Rublbvka for the swift transmission of edicts to the regiments.
In 1677, an edict was sent to Kolomna, referring to the establishment of postal
communications from Moscow to Tambov for correspondence with the army commander
at the latter city.

During the period of complete suspension of the mail service to Vilna, the
Muscovite Government restored courier communications from Moscow to Smolensk and
Mignovichi. It was ordered that special messengers with four good horses apiece
be maintained at the relay stations. However, when the mail service to Vilna was
revived, the courier services between cities were terminated.

Among the best organizers of the governmental mails was the Office of the
Peerage, especially since such mail concerned military matters. The Relay Head
Office also had a hand in organizing the mail service. The mailmen were chosen
from among archers or other civil servants, and sometimes from postillions and
the local population. In instructions to the army commanders, it was ordered that
they render every assistance to the "stroishchiki" or builders of the relay stations,
and to extend to the mailmen sent with the stroishchik, lodgings and spacious yards
with covered stables, sheds and storehouses with hay and oats at the station, and
not somewhere in a lane. The mailmen were to be watched so that they did not
drink or wander away from the relay stations. Also, their horses were to be al-
ways saddled and ready for driving, and they themselves were to take up the
letters and go off quickly without delay from relay station to relay station.

The mailmen did not receive uniforms but they were given insignia, normally
made of metal and in the form of an eagle. Mailmen who had not received such
badges, asked the Government that they be supplied with them. They claimed that
without insignia, people would not believe that they were conveying the mails and
they would be beaten and robbed and their horses taken away from them.

The governmental correspondence being conveyed was sealed in a package or mail-
bag. Instead of "columns of notes", as utilized in the "German" postal service,
the mailmen signed for the receipt of the mail directly on the package. "The ar-
rival of the mail and its onward transmission were carefully noted at each relay
station. The clerks took turns to keep track of the postal traffic.

The internal mails functioned as well as the "German" service. For instance,
letters sent from Kiev arrived in Moscow 15 to 20 days later, while urgent mail
was delivered in 6 to 8 days. Actually, this was now regular relay traffic and
the forerunner of the postal communications of today.

Page 34 No. 70








Editorial Comment: We know that by serializing Mne Vitashevskaya's erudite work,
we have given much pleasure to our senior members and revived nostalgic memories
S of their early lessons in Russian history. It is also felt that our English-
speaking members have benefited from this exposure to the fascinating life and
times of Old Muscovy and we like to point out that the doughty and conscientious
"yamshchik" or postillion has always held a position of respect in Russian life.
There are many songs and ditties about him, the best known probably being the
traditional folksong "Step' da step' krugom" ("Around and around the steppe").

We understand that Mme Vitashevskaja has been working on a much expanded version
of her book, now going to over 400 pages in the revised edition. We will keep
readers informed of any further information of postal interest immediately after a
copy of the new work has been received. In the meantime, we are setting out a
short Russian-English glossary of the most important terms and titles used in the
present text, as promised in Rossica No. 66, p. 40. It should be stressed that
the English meanings given here only refer to their usage in the context of
Mme Vitashevskaya's study and would not necessarily be the same where the Russian
words are used in any other context.

Russian English

dvornik yardman
d'yachok-pis'movoditel' recording clerk
gonets courier
gramota edict
mirskiye otpuski private dispatches
Nachal'nik nad Pochtoyu Master over the Post (Postmaster)
namestnik governor, mayor
okhotnik relay station volunteer, known as a
"yamshchik" or postillion after about
1620
osadnyi golova seige official
pochtar' mailman
podorozhnaya order for post horses
podryadchik supervisor of an intermediate relay
station
podvoda horse and cart
pod'yachii clerk, scribe
Posol'skii Prikaz Ambassadorial Office in Moscow
prikazchik relay station clerk
progony driving allowances
Razryadnyi Prikaz Office of the Peerage in Moscow
sloboda relay settlement
starosta internal manager of the relay station
stroishchik builder of a relay station
tseloval'nik bonded official
voevode army commander
volostel' director of a volost' or district
yam relay station
yamshchik supervisor of the relay station until
about 1620; after that, a postillion
yamskoi d'yak relay station secretary
Yamskoi Prikaz Relay Head Office in Moscow
Zemskii starosta county bailiff

No. 70 Page 35








THE TRANSMISSION OF MAILS ON STEAMSHIPS IN RUSSIA

By Nikolai Ivanovich Sokolov


B: Postal Services Between Russia and Turkey (continued from No. 69).

Subsequently, in February 1869, the agreement was supplemented with a new
article, as follows: "The agents of the Company in the Levant accept subscrip-
tions to Russian journals and newspapers, and after having charged the fees for
the subscription rate inclusive of postage, as advertised by the publisher, to-
gether with insurance, transfer and duty charges, are to forward this money in
its entirety to the Odessa Border Post Office, as well as notification as to the
number of subscribers from whom payment has been received, the names of the
magazines required, the period of subscription and the number of copies required
by each subscriber. Upon receiving the money and advice, the Odessa post office
would deal with all further particulars on the basis of the regulations for con-
ducting post offices in the handling of newspapers, with the one and only dif-
ference, that in this present situation, the Odessa office will not have any
dealings direct with the subscribers, and that its participation will be restricted
to the forwarding of the subscribers' newspapers and journals on the ships of the
Company in the same manner as other correspondence. In cases of incorrect trans-
mission of newspapers and journals, the agents are to communicate direct with the
Odessa office, and the Head Office of the Company may bring the matter to the
attention of the Postal Department, but the post office cannot be held liable for
eventualities, as outlined in article No. 8 of the regulations relating to the
handling of newspapers."

Finally, in November 1869, and also in 1871, articles 5, 6, 7 and 9 of the
agreement were changed by new regulations, which latter were in accordance with
the law of August 7, 1869 referring to wrapper sending, as well as the Provisional
Ordinance for Postal Affairs, dated June 12, 1871 and covering wrapper sending
and registered letters. Moreover, the revision of these articles, together with
the others remaining, was made uniform with their previous issue.

The Postal Department, wishing to expand even further postal services with
the Levant, concluded, upon a request from the ROPiT, a third agreement with the
latter, on June 8, 1872, relating to the transmission of the Levant mails by the
steamers of the Company....The new agreement, which was in conformance with the
postal regulations and conventions in force at that time as having been concluded
between Russia and foreign countries, consisted of 20 articles, of which the follow-
ing new articles were relevant to the position here:

Article 1: The ROPiT and the Odessa Railroad undertake:
(1) The dispatch by sea from Odessa and other ports along the Black Sea of mail
sent from Russia, and delivery of the same to the addresses at Constantinople 'and
all other ports of the Turkish Empire, visited by express steamers of the ROPiT,
as well as the receipt of correspondence in these ports and transmission by sea to
Odessa and other ports of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov of mail addressed to
Russia, as enumerated here below:
a. Ordinary sealed letters and registered letters.
b. Postcards.
c. Wrapper sending containing printed matter and samples.

Page 36 No. 70








d. Money packets enclosing Russian banknotes (currency bills), Russian coin-
age in small quantities (copper up to 9 3/4 kopeks, silver to 1 ruble and
gold to 21 rubles), Russian Government bonds, bills of the Government
Treasury, stocks and shares of private companies and corporations autho-
rized by the Russian Government, coupons and warrants attached thereto,
ordinary fiscal and promissory notes.
e. Bags of Russian coinage.
f. Unsealed packages of value, enclosing foreign banknotes, foreign coinage
and all types of papers and articles of value to the addressee, with the
exception of money, having circulation in the Russian Empire.

(2) The transmission by sea from Odessa and delivery to the addresses of or-
dinary sealed letters, and wrapper sending with printed matter and samples, pro-
ceeding from foreign countries in Europe in transit across Russia to Odessa,
Constantinople and other Turkish ports, as well as the acceptance in Constantinople
and other Turkish ports, visited by designated steamers of the Company, and the
transmission by sea to Odessa of the above-named types of correspondence, sent in
transit across Russia to European countries.

(3) The dispatch by sea from Odessa and the delivery to the addresses of mailbags
proceeding from Constantinople, as well as the acceptance there of mail from foreign
postal administrations, brought in by steamers, and the transmission by sea of
sealed mailbags proceeding to Odessa.
N.B: The above mentioned correspondence must comply with all conditions of the
postal regulations and conventions in effect in Russia, but only as far as the
latter do not change the present agreement.

Article 2: The Tariff for Correspondence, Forwarded from Russia to Turkish Ports
at which Scheduled Steamers of the Company Call, is to be fixed at the
Following Rates :
a. For ordinary sealed letters 13 kopeks for each 15 grammes (about oz.),
or part thereof.
b. For registered letters, a further 10 kopeks are to be charged for the
registration itself and 5 kopeks for a receipt, in addition to the basic
rate of 13 kopeks per 15 grammes.
c. For postcards at the rate of 10 kopeks per card.
d. For wrapper sending at the rate of 3 kopeks for each 50 grammes (1 3/4
ozs.) or part thereof.

This correspondence must be fully prepaid. The proceeds from the foregoing
will be allocated as follows:
a. To the credit of the Russian Postal Administration for mail sent from
Russia to Turkish ports, and
b. To the credit of the ROPiT for mail sent from Turkish ports to Russia or
to other Turkish ports (this last regulation is also to be found in the
agreement of December 9, 1867 and was based on the Imperial Injunction of
April 9, 1867).

Article 3: Payment for Ordinary Sealed Letters and Wrapper Sendings, Proceeding
from Constantinople and other Turkish Ports, in Transit Across Russia to
Foreign Countries in Europe, as well as in the Opposite Direction, is to
be Fixed as Follows:
(1) For transmission between Odessa and foreign countries in Europe, at the rate
in force in Russia for correspondence going abroad.

No. 70 Page 37








(2) For transmission between Odessa and foreign countries in Europe at the follow-
ing rates:
a. For correspondence proceeding from Constantinople to foreign countries, and
vice versa at the rate of 3 kopeks per 15 grammes (- oz.) for ordinary
sealed letters, and at the rate of 1 kopek per 50 grammes (1 3/4 ozs.) for
wrapper sending.
"b. For correspondence proceeding from other Turkish ports to foreign countries,
and vice versa, at the rate of 6 kopeks per 15 grammes (- oz.) for ordinary
sealed letters, and at 1 kopek per 50 grammes (1 3/4 ozs.) for wrapper send-
ings.
The above mentioned correspondence must be fully prepaid in either direction.
N.B: For the purposes of calculating the amount due the Company for the delivery
of mail from Odessa and proceeding from abroad to Constantinople and other Turkish
ports, the post office at Odessa will strike special accounts every quarter from
the duplicate ledger receipts together with which receipts this correspondence will
have been forwarded by the Company's steamers.

Article 4:
The following rates will be regarded as going to the credit of the Company for
the acceptance aboard ship, as well as the transmission by sea and delivery at the
destination of sealed mailbags exchanged between the Odessa post office and for-
eign postal administrations in Constantinople (articles 1 & 3): thirteen kopeks
for every 30 grammes (about 1 oz.) net weight of letters, and thirty kopeks for
every kilogramme (2- lbs) net weight of wrapper sending. The Company will not be
entitled to any payment at all for any official post office, undeliverable, for-
warded and returned correspondence included in these mailbags for postal trans-
mission.

Article 5: The Postage Stamps (of the Company) must Serve Exclusively for the
Payment of:
a. Correspondence, proceeding from the Levant to Russia.
b. The Transmission of correspondence by sea to Odessa, proceeding from Turkish
ports in transit across Russia to foreign countries in Europe. For the de-
livery from Odessa to the foreign place of destination of this latter cor-
respondence, the mail must be prepaid with postage stamps of the Russian
Government, which may be obtained by the Company at their face value.
Ordinary sealed and registered letters, postcards and wrapper sending from
Russia to Turkish ports, and vice versa, which are without stamps and not com-
pletely franked, as well as postcards which are not of the form prepared by the
Postal Department, are entirely unacceptable for transmission, and if such cor-
respondence is placed in the letter boxes, it will not be subject to transmission,
except in the following circumstances:
a. There will be a charge of double postage levied on the addressee, upon
the delivery of ordinary sealed letters, and
b. The same scale of charges as above, will also apply to the delivery of
registered letters.
This double charge will be fully allocated as follows: to the credit of the
Postal Department for correspondence conveyed from Turkish ports to Russia, and
to the credit of the Company for mail transported from Russia to Turkish ports.

Article 10:
For the loss of money, or packages and bundles of value, or for a portion of any
article of value enclosed by the sender in such correspondence placed in the mails,

Page 38 No. 70








or in transit between Odessa and the Levant, compensation is to be granted in the
amount of the valuables lost upon presentation by the senders of the receipt
given them when the mail was accepted and upon confirmation that the valuables
had actually been lost. This amount will be charged to the person guilty for such
loss.

Article 20:
The present agreement may be changed by mutual agreement between the Postal De-
partment and the Company, and will be binding until such time as one of the par-
ties to the agreement advises the other side one year in advance of its desire to
terminate its activity.
All other articles of the agreement, which went into affect on July 1, 1872,
were borrowed from the 1867 agreement, with the exception of articles 16, 18, 19,
23 (the notes to which being retained) and 24, whose regulations are no longer to
be found in the new agreement.
The latest agreement, now in force between the General Administration of Posts
and Telegraphs, and the ROPiT, was concluded on April 27, 1894. During the period
between 1872 and 1894, the regulations of the previous agreement were subjected
to several changes, in conformance with the new requirements of international pos-
tal conventions, and, moreover the charter of the ROPiT was also revised in 1891.
According to the new charter which was ratified on January 22, 1891, the trans-
mission of mails by the steamers of the Company was established under the following
conditions:
(1) The Company must convey the mails free of charge along all designated
essential and non-essential lines of postal communication, in accordance with pos-
tal regulations, carrying sealed mailbags containing letters, packages, wrapper
sending and written correspondence in general, the bags themselves being placed
in trunks or large sacks and sent to and from Russian post offices, and without
discrimination on the part of the Company against either the points of origin or
the places of destination of the correspondence.
(2) For parcels conveyed on steamers of the Company and sent to or from Russian
post offices payment will be made to the Company on a freight basis at the lowest
scale of its rates of conveyance.
(3) In places where there is no post office with which the Russian Postal and
Telegraphic Service may exchange sealed mailbags (paragraph 1), the acceptance and
dispatch of written and insured correspondence and parcels without value are to be
carried out by the agents of the Company, basing themselves completely on the re-
gulations of international postal agreements concluded with Russia.

The detailed conditions under which the Company must conduct the postal opera-
tion, and its responsibility for the loss of correspondence, were specified in a
special agreement concluded between the Company and the Director of the Central
Administration of Posts and Telegraphs, and it was ratified by the Ministry of
Internal Affairs. In addition to the mails the Company also had to convey free
of charge on its steamers, couriers, state messengers, postal officials accom-
panying the mails, persons serving in the Postal and Telegraphic Administration
and on assignment on official business. For its part, the Postal and Telegraphic
Service was obliged to see to it that the delivery of the mails to steamers did
not, under any circumstances, delay the departure of the steamers on the specified
days and hours (articles 4 & 5).

The revised agreement of 1894, referring to the articles of the charter of
January 22, 1891 and the regulations of contemporary international postal ex-
change, consisted of 28 articles, the first of which concerning itself with the

No. 70 Page 39








transmission of postal correspondence along internal routes and the remaining 27
with the conveyance of mail along foreign routes. On the basis of Article 1,
the transmission of all kinds of postal correspondence between Russian ports on
internal routes is to be carried out under the accompaniment of officials of
the Postal and Telegraphic Service. With regard to this, the Company is not
responsible, either for the internal enclosures in postal articles (sacks, bags,
pouches and trunks), nor for the seals outside, all of which remain the respon-
sibility of the persons accompanying the mails. In cases where it can be shown
that the Company was guilty for losses in the mails conveyed along internal
routes, its responsibility is to be reckoned. by the due processes of the law.

It is left to the Company to carry out all operations on foreign routes,
and in connection with this, it is to handle all existing types of postal cor-
respondence with the exception of C.O.D. sending. It does not even have the
right to provide at ports visited by its steamers for the acceptance from
strangers or business houses of sums of money to be transmitted in kind from
one port to another (article 5). Persons guilty of infringing this last regu-
lation are to be held liable for the consequences, as outlined in articles 1113
and 1114 of the Statute of Precepts.

The Company was obliged to display a sign at all agencies in Turkish ports,
with an inscription in Russian and French or Italian, reading "Russian Post
Office" (article 7).

The Company was permitted to transmit written correspondence (letters and
wrapper sendings, proceeding from Constantinople and other ports in Turkey to
Russia, or in transit across Russia to other countries, to Russian ports on its
own steamers, as well on foreign ones. In addition, letters and wrapper sending
addressed to Russia could also be forwarded along the Constantinople-Sofia-
Belgrade-Vienna railroad route in mailbags to the Russian border exchange post
office with Austria (article 3).

The rates for postal correspondence, forwarded on the steamers of the Company,
were fixed on the basis of the regulations for international correspondence in
force in Russia, and, moreover, they included an insurance fee, stipulated in
article.11 of the agreement, and which had tobe collected at the rate of 1 kopek
for every 75 rubles, which went to:
a. The credit of the Company for packages sent from Russia to Turkish ports.
b. The credit of the Postal and Telegraphic Service for packages sent from
Turkish ports to Russia.

It was specified that the transmission of parcels, proceeding from Russia to
Turkish ports, and back from these ports to Russia, be carried out on the basis
of the following principles (articles 12, 13, 14, 18 & 20):
(1) The necessary address and inscriptions must be in Russian or French on par-
cels, in accordance with the postal regulations in effect in Russia, and, in a4-
dition, the address must be placed directly on the parcel itself, and not attached
to it.
(2) A declaration in the French language must be included in two copies with each
parcel, and filled in by the sender, with a detailed description of the contents of
the parcel and with a notification of the quantity, grade, weight and value in
paper rubles.
(3) Neither the Postal and Telegraphic Service nor the Company are to be held
responsible for the accuracy of the declaration.

Page 40 No. 70








(4) It is the duty of the sender to tie the parcel securely, and neither the
Postal and Telegraphic Service not the Company are to be held responsible by
the sender for any damage whatsoever done to the contents as a result of poor
packing or loose tying of the parcel.
(5) The value of the parcels, as well as of packages of money and valuables and
bags of specie must be declared by the sender in paper rubles on the outside
wrapping of this class of mail.
(6) Fees in cash are to be levied on the senders for the transmission of par-
cels and bundles and the proceeds are to go to:
a. The credit of the Postal and Telegraphic Service on the basis of
the internal postal rates of payment.
b. The credit of the Company on the basis of a weight fee of 5 kopeks
per Russian pound, and an insurance fee of not more than o of the
declared value, while for parcels and bundles proceeding from
Turkish ports to Russia, a further 5 kopeks are to be charged the
senders for a receipt.
(7) Confirmatory declarations must be attached to parcels which have been re-
turned as undeliverable at their destinations, to the effect that they did ori-
ginally go thereto.
(8) There will be a charge on the senders for the return of parcels and bundles
of the postal rates in the same amount as for the original transmission and the
proceeds will go to the credit of the Postal and Telegraphic Service, or the Com-
pany, as the case may be.
(9) In cases where the amount realized from the sale of a parcel, which cannot
be delivered either to the receiver or the sender, is insufficient to cover the
cost of return transmission of the same, the Postal and Telegraphic Service and
the Company are to apportion the losses between themselves on the basis of the
expenses incurred by each of the two parties.
(10) In relevant cases, the parcels are to be presented at the offices of the
Postal and Telegraphic Service for examination at the Customs House.

Packages containing money or valuables, bundles of specie (hard cash), and
parcels either of value or valueless, proceeding from Russia to Turkish ports,
were required, on the basis of article 15 to be handed over to the offices of the
Postal and Telegraphic Service functioning in Russian ports, to the captains of
the Company's steamers, or to persons specifically authorized by them, upon the
presentation of special documents. By the same token, the captains of the
steamers, or the persons authorized by them were required to hand over to the
offices of the Postal and Telegraphic Service packages, bundles and parcels con-
taining money and valuables, proceeding from Turkish ports to Russia.

It was stipulated that compensation was to be paid only for the loss of cor-
respondence, and, moreover, its extent was to be determined on the basis of the
regulations for international correspondence in force in Russia (article 16).
Finally, on the basis of article 19, the accounts between the Postal and Tele-
graphic Service and the Company were to be settled every three months for!
a. The transmission of written correspondence across Russia in the
manner established under the international postal agreement in
effect in Russia, and
b. The conveyance of packages, parcels and bundles containing money
and valuables.
In connection with this, it was stipulated that the accounts be settled in full
immediately they were confirmed.

No. 70 Page 41








All the other regulations of the 1894 agreement were taken from the corres-
ponding regulations of the 1872 agreement. An order for the execution of the
1894 agreement went into effect on September 1 of that year and this order was
issued after concurrence between the Central Administration of Posts and Tele-
graphs and the ROPiT, on the basis of article 23 of the agreement.





A Catalogue of the
IMPERIAL RUSSIAN POSTAGE STAMPS

By Abraham Cohen

The author wishes to thank the members of Rossica and the British Society of
Russian Philately for their aid and for the information given in the articles
published in both journals of the sister societies.

SCOTT # 1 WATERMARK #166 DEC. 1857

10K BROWN & BLUE Imperf

a. Pen Cancellation
b. Penmark & Postmark
c. Postmark in Black
d. Postmark in Red
e. Inverted Watermark
f. Retouched "1" of "10" in upper R-H corner

SCOTT # 2 WATERMARK #166 JAN. 1858

10K BROWN & BLUE 14 3/4

a. Brown & Blue--------------------------------- Thick Paper
b. Deep Brown & Blue---------------------------- Thick Paper
c. Brown & Blue--------------------------------- Thick Paper
d. Retouched "1" of "10" in upper R-H corner---- Thick Paper
e. Retouched "1" of "10" in upper R-H corner---- Thin Paper
f. Retouched "12" of "10" in upper R-H corner--- Med Paper

SCOTT # 3 WATERMARK #166 JAN. 1858

20k BLUE & ORANGE 14 3/4

a. Blue & Orange------------------------------- Thick Paper
b. Uncolored dot center of top frame line------- Thick Paper
c. Uncolored dot S/W corner--------------------- Thick Paper
d. Bisected, used at Berdichev------------------ Thick Paper
e. Deep Blue & Orange--------------------------- Thick Paper
f. Deep Blue & Orange--------------------------- Thin Paper


Page 42 No. 70








SCOTT # 4 WATERMARK #166 JAN. 1858

30k CARMINE & GREEN 14 3/4

Sa. Carmine & Green------------------- Thick Paper
b. Carmine & Green------------------- Very Thick Paper
c. Carmine & Green------------------- Almost Thin Card
d. Carmine & Green------------------- Thin Paper

SCOTT # 5 UNWATERMARKED JULY 1864

lk BLACK & YELLOW 122

a. Black & Orange

SCOTT # 6 UNWATERMARKED JULY 1864

3k BLACK & GREEN 12-

a. Black & Light Green

SCOTT # 7 UNWATERMARKED JULY 1864

5k BLACK & LILAC 12

a. Black & Pale Lilac

SCOTT # 8 UNWATERMARKED OCT. 1858

10k BROWN & BLUE

a. Light Brown & Blue
b. Red-Brown & Blue
c. Chocolate Brown &.Blue
d. Very Pale Brown & Blue
e. Center Intaglio & Misplaced
f. Very Thick Paper
g. Bisected used as 5k

SCOTT # 9 UNWATERMARKED OCT. 1858

20k BLUE & ORANGE 122

a. Light Blue & Orange
b. Uncolored dot center of top frame line
c. Uncolored dot S/W corner
d. Bisected used as 10k

SCOTT # 10 UNWATERMARKED OCT. 1858

30k CARMINE & GREEN 12.


No. 70 Page 43








SCOTT # 11 UNWATERMARKED JULY 1863

5k BLACK & BLUE 122

a. Black & Light Blue
b. Postmarked in Red 1863-68
c. Retouched S/W of "u" of "ubHA"
d. Used in St. Petersburg
e. Used in Moscow
f. Used in Kazan
g. Used in Astrakan

SCOTT # 12 UNWATERMARKED JULY 1864

1k BLACK & YELLOW----------------------------- Thin Wove Paper 14-x15

a. Black & Orange---------------------- Thin Wove Paper
b. Black & Yellow---------------------- Thick Wove Paper

SCOTT # 13 UNWATERMARKED JULY 1864

3k BLACK & GREEN------------------------------. Thin Wove Paper 14xl5

a. Black & Light Green------------------ Thin Wove Paper
b. Black & Light Green----------------- Thick Wove Paper
c. Black & Green----------------------- Thick Wove Paper

SCOTT # 14 UNWATERMARKED JULY 1864

5k BLACK & LILAC------------------------------ Thin Wove Paper 14-xl5

a. Black & Lavender--------------------- Thin Wove Paper
b. Black & Violet---------------------- Thin Wove Paper
c. Black & Pale Violet------------------ Thick Wove Paper

SCOTT # 15 UNWATERMARKED JULY 1864

10k BROWN & BLUE------------------------------ Thin Wove Paper 14x15

a. Brown & Blue----------------------- Thick Wove Paper
b. Red-Brown & Blue-------------------- Thin Wove Paper
c. Center Intaglio-------------------- Thin Wove Paper
d. Brown & Green (error)--------------- Thin Wove Paper
e. Inverted Center--------------------- Thin Wove Paper
f. Brown & Pale Blue------------------- Thick Wove Paper
g. Period after "ZALOT."--------------- Thin Wove Paper

SCOTT # 17 UNWATERMARKED JULY 1864

20k BLUE & ORANGE---------------------------- Thin Wove Paper 14x15

a. Blue & Orange----------------------- Thick Wove Paper
b. Pale Blue & Orange------------------ Thin Wove Paper
c. Bisected, used at "ZHARKI",
Postmarked dots and 162------------- Thin Wove Paper
d. Bisected, used at "ZVENIGORODKA"---- Thin Wove Paper
e. Pale Blue & Vermilion-------------- Thick Wove Paper








SCOTT # 18 UNWATERMARKED JULY 1864

30k CARMINE & GREEN--------------------------- Thin Wove Paper 14-x15
Sa. Carmine Rose & Green----------------- Thin Wove Paper
b. Red & Pale Green--------------------- Thin Wove Paper
c. Carmine Rose & Green----------------- Thick Wove Paper

SCOTT # 19 UNWATERMARKED #168 1866-75

1k BLACK & YELLOW----------------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4

a. Black & Orange----------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
"b. Black & Orange----------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper Imperf
c. Black & Yellow----------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper Imperf
d. Black & Yellow----------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
e. Groundwork Inverted------------ Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
f. Groundwork Inverted------------ Med-Horiz. Laid Paper Imperf
g. Black & Lemon------------------ Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
h. Black & Yellow----------------- Thin-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
i. Black & Orange----------------- Thin-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
j. Black & Pale Yellow------------ Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
k. Black & Deep Yellow------------ Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
1. Frame Double------------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
m. Black & Yellow----------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper Imperf
n. Offset on face, looks like a
double print------------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
o. Black & Yellow----------------- Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
p. Black & Deep Yellow-Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
q. Black & Orange Yellow--------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
r. Groundwork Inverted------------ Med-Vert. Laid Paper Imperf
s. Groundwork Inverted---------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
t. Black & Orange----------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4x15-
u. Black & Lemon------------------ Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4xl5f
v. "F" for Roman numeral "I" bottom of oval 14 3/4
w. Groundwork shifted South 14 3/hx15

SCOTT # 20 WATERMARK #168 1866-75

3k BLACK & DEEP GREEN------------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4

a. Black & Yellow Green---------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
b. Black & Yellow Green----------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper Imperf
c. Black & Deep Green------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper Imperf
d. Black & Green------------------ Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
e. "V" in background (error) (1870)
Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
f. Black & Blue Green------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
g. Black & Green------------------ Thin-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
h. Black & Pale Yellow Green------ Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
i. Black & Green------------------ Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
j. Black & Deep Green------------- Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
k. Black & Pale Yellow Green------ Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4

No. 70 Page 45







1. Black & Green------------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
m. Black & Deep Green-------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
n. Black & Yellow Green------------ Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
o. Groundwork shifted East--------- Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4

SCOTT # 22 WATERMARKED #168 1866-75

5k BLACK & LILAC------------------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4

a. Black & Gray Violet------------- kd-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
b. Black & Lilac------------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper Imperf
c. Black & Lilac------------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper Imperf
d. Black & Red Lilac--------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
e. Black & Purple------------------ Thin-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
f. Black & Lavender---------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
g. Frame Intaglio------------------ Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
h. Black & Deep Purple------------- Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
i. Black & Pale Purple------------- Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
j. Black & Mauve------------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
k. Black & Pale Mauve-------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
1. Black & Purple------------------ Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
m. Black & Light Purple------------ Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
n. Black & Dark Purple------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
o. Shifted Background-------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper Imperf

SCOTT # 23 WATERMARK #168 1866-75

10k BROWN & BLUE------------------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
a. Brown & Blue------------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
"b. Center Inverted---------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
c. Brown & Blue------------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper Imperf
d. Red-Brown & Light Blue--------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
e. Upper left "10" broken--------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
f. Red-Brown & Pale Blue---------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
g. Center Intaglio---------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
h. Fine Embossing of center------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
i. Worn Embossing of center------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
j. Red-Brown & Blue--------------- Thin-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
k. Red-Brown & Pale Blue---------- Thin-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
1. Brown & Blue------------------- Thin-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
m. Red-Brown & Blue--------------- Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
n. Brown & Blue------------------- Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
o. Fine Embossing of Center------ Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
p. Worn Embossing of Center------- Very Thick-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
q. Red-Brown & Blue--------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 1,4 3/4
r. Red-Brown & Blue--------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
s. Brown & Pale Blue-------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
t. Center Intaglio---------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper 14 3/4
u. Brown & Blue------------------- Med-Vert. Laid Paper Imperf
v. Drop "0" of "KOP"-------------- Med-Horiz. Laid Paper 14 3/4
(Continued)
Page 46 No. 70


*








A BUKHARAN RECEIVING POSTMARK ON A RUSSIAN SHANGHAI COVER

SBy Melvin M. Kessler


In the fall of 1965 I acquired a cover that had the earmarks of being un-
usually interesting and probably very rare from the standpoint of contributing
to Russian postal history. I do not know how many covers from Shanghai with
stamps of the Russian Offices in China exist that have a Bukharan receiving
postmark, but I am recording this cover for the benefit of Russian philatelists
because the combination of used abroad from one place (China) and received
abroad in another (Bukhara) may not have been previously described or, for that
matter, not have been known to exist. The cover, stamps, and postal cancella-
tions are described below and illustrated in exact size elsewhere in this
journal. The types of cancellations are noted in S. D. Tchilinghirian's and
W. S. E. Stephen's excellent study Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad
(1959), Parts 4 and 6. References to pages in these parts are given in the
text.

From the illustration one can see that the cover front has the addressee's
name printed in four languages, starting at the top, in Persian, Russian, Hindi,
and English. Evidently, the addressee's name in multiple languages was to in-
dicate without misunderstanding for whom the letter was intended. At the top
the destination is given in two languages and reads in Russian V STAR. (UYU)
BUKHARA/(ROSSIYA) or Old Bukhara/(Russia) and at the bottom in English BOKHARA/
(Russi). The Shanghai registry etiquette in Russian is the ordinary type with
number 631. The black double-circle cancellation on the front and back is
Tchilinghirian's Sub-Type 6B (Figure 499, Part 4, pages 356-7) and reads in
French SHANGHAI POSTE RUSSE, has the Russian serial "b", and is dated on one
line (bound by straight lines) 24 7 09 (24 July 1909). The cancellation
measures 27- mm in diameter (outer circle) and 15 mm in diameter (inner circle).
The printed front suggests that an extensive commercial correspondence existed
between the sending firm or agent and the addressee.

The violet oval handstamp on the back of the cover shows the name of the
Shanghai firm or agent to be Hadjee Kh---bul Hadjee Karime Baksh, given in
English and in the center in Persian. There is also in Hindi manuscript that
which appears to be an address notation. The stamps on the back were struck
seven times with the Shanghai cancellation noted above but not with full strikes.
The stamps are those used during the period and are on horizontally laid paper
overprinted KITAY (China). These stamps are three 2 kopek value (blue over-
print), two 7 kopek value (red overprint), and one 10 kopek value (red overprint).
Originally there was another 7 kopek value stamp on the cover, but it had come
off as evidenced from the remaining part of the cancellation outside the area
where the stamp had been affixed to the cover. The total rating for the regis-
tered cover was 52 kopeks. How correct this rate was I do not know. Perhaps
someone has data about rating letters from Shanghai to the Central Asian
khanates. It is quite possible that the fee was double or triple because of
the weight of the letter.

The two 2 kopek value stamps were cancelled again (this time clearly) in
Bukhara with a black double-circle canceller, Tchilinghirian's Sub-Type 8B
(Figure 882, Part 6, page 564). This receiving postmark is indicated in the
illustration by an arrow. The cancellation or receiving postmark inscription

No. 70 Page 47






,..- -.- .i ,.

BhOTAP. SYXAPY







i ,,t

op 0 ..\.. -
., -XaAct'

































., 48 No. 70
Page L48 No. 70








reads in Russian STARAYA BUKHARA (without hyphen) and translates Old Bukhara,
has serial "b", and is dated 27 7 9 (27 July 1909). The year date for the
canceller had only the last digit to represent the year. This cancellation
O is rated scarce for outgoing mail from Old Bukhara in the 1900s. What rating
it might have as a receiving postmark has yet to be determined.

At first glance at the dates, one may question the validity of the receiving
postmark since the cover had been cancelled in Shanghai as outgoing on 24 July
1909 and received in Old Bukhara as incoming on 27 July 1909 -- three days later!
Indeed, a physical impossibility at the time. Tchilinghirian, however, makes a
special note about Shanghai dates (Part 4, page 355) and states that

Along among Russian P.O.s abroad, the Shanghai Office
went over from the "old style" to "new style" dating in
its cancellations at the beginning of the year 1900....
This different dating at Shanghai must be kept in mind
when examining markings on XXth century covers, which
sometimes show on this account the apparent discrepancy
of a letter mailed at Shanghai on a date later by
several days than its date of arrival at another P.O.
in China still using the "old style" on its cancellers.

The last part of the statement also implies that Shanghai "new style" cancellers
on covers will also show an apparent discrepancy in dating when sent elsewhere
in the Russian Empire and its "possessions" and receiving at destination an
arrival date in "old style." Converting the Shanghai "new style"' date of 24 July
1909 to the "old style" by subtracting 13 days for the XXth century, we obtain
a date of 11 July 1909 and arrive at a transmission time of 16 days from Shanghai
to Old Bukhara. The length of time then for the cover to reach Bukhara is
^B correct when one considers that it probably travelled by rail in China to connect
with the Trans-Siberian Railroad and connect in Western Siberia with the line to
Bukhara.

The cover is a remarkable one because of the Old Bukhara receiving postmark
on Russian stamps for use in China. In that respect, the postal markings document
another facet of Russian postal history for which possibly very few covers may
exist.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX



THE PAPER MONEY OF BLAGOVESHCHENSK AND TERRITORY OF AMUR 1917 & 1918
(Continued from #69)

By M. M. Byckoff


Due to the enormous number of the notes that had to be registered (over 3-
million pieces) and the short time given for the purpose, the management of the
Blagoveshchensk Branch of the State Bank apparently was prepared for the satis-
factory accomplishment of this work and, as we suppose, had prepared not less
than ten registry stamps made in the same shop, at the same time, and using for
this purpose the same matrix to pour out the rubber registry stamps so that in

S No. 70 Page 49








the final count these stamps could not differ much one from another either by the
form, or letters, or other characteristics. The differences resulted from entirely
different occasional reasons, such as the force of pressure, freshness, amount and
quality of the ink at the moment of stamping, the attention of the operator, the
speed of the stamping and the wearout of the stamp. These variations are numerous
and different and cannot be described; for example, the stamping using the same
stamp with different force applied may result in fluctuations in the length from -
to 1 vertically, and 1 to nearly 2 mms. horizontally. Among other deviations from
the standard are impressions that have the stamps not with two but one-line border,
frequently not quite straight. This was due to the wearout and the loss of the
elasticity of the rubber more on the edges than in the center. Some collectors
take erroneously such freaks as a variety. In our collection we have a note with
the stamp where the capital letter "Ya" (9), in the word "Yavlen" has the upper
part of the same line as other letters (photo 7); apparently when preparing the
matrix for the stamp the first capital letter was levelled not by the lower but by
the upper edge of the letters and the stamp was poured out in this way. We have
seen this variety in other collections and consider it to be a permanent one.

Apart from the registry stamp described above, there is seen, rather rarely,
another one the origin of which is due to various considerations, causing doubt
as to it being a genuine one; but since these notes, together with this stamp
carry the eagle seal of the Blagoveshchensk Branch of the State Bank, which do
not create and doubts as to being genuine, we shall classify them as doubtful
until some facts confirming the legal origin of this stamp is published. This
stamp is rectangular, frame of one thick line, size of stamp 32-331 mmms. high,
46--47 mms. wide. Inscription in four lines: "Presented Blag. Br. (State
Bank) 1918. Cashier (Photos 11 & 12). Letters slanting to
right; notable absence of Roman figure XI (eleven) for the month of November;
capital letters 3- others 2- mms. high; letter "a" ordinary Russian handwritten
letter, other letters have normal thickenings and rounded points. The stamp has
all the signs of being completely worn out and, when using this stamp, apparently
to achieve a good print, very strong pressure was applied resulting in the letters
of the text becoming flatened and losing clarity, therefore being hardly readable
as is the case with all the text, (photo 9). We have in our collection a 100 rub.
note of Amur Territory which we have not seen in any other collection of money
notes known to us. The stamp is oval, 48-49 mms x 29-30 mms., double frame, the
exterior oval with sawlike teeth to outside, other thin line oval inside; the
inscription inside around oval, up "BLAGO-VESHCHENSKOYE" and below "OTDELENIE
GOSUDARSTVENNAGO BANKA"; in the center of the stamp, in three lines: Has cir-
culation together with credit notes". Above the oval stamp, another stamp,
parallel to the longer axis of the oval, in a single line, 22 mms. long and 2 mmrs.
high; "October 1918.", photo 5. The origin of this stamp is unknown. It may be
an invention of some note collector who sought personal gain, or to create a
sensation; at the same time this stamp could have been issued in October 1918 by
the legal government with a very definite aim to show that the note with that
stamp was a legal one. We have mentioned previously that the Provisional Amur
Government almost from the moment it took power, due to the total absence of
cash in its treasury, was forced to issue Sept. 25 and Oct. 4,1918 180,336 notes
of 100 rub. denomination, the so called "Mukhinka's", that is to say, the Soviet
issues.

One must remember the history of that era and what was happening!!! In the
neighboring Khabarovsk at the same time, by the order of Ataman Kalmykov, all the
members of the symphonic orchestra that were playing in the park of Count

Page 50 No. 70








Muraviev-Amursky were shot by the firing squad only because all the musicians,
were war prisoners of the Austrian Army, were Hungarians by nationality. In
those days the Soviet Government had opened its doors to Hungarians to join
the Red Army, to balance the Chechoslovaks, war prisoners of the Imperial Army,
who due to the circumstances and due to the obligation of the Soviet Govern-
ment to the German Government according to the Brest-Litovsk Treaty not to
permit the return of Chechs through Vladovostok to their homeland resulted in
being drawn forcibly into the ranks of the Siberian, anti-Soviet Army. The
issue of the "Soviet" notes was caused by the necessity to avoid the money
crisis, still, at the same time this move could have been interpreted by the
ultra-nationalistic, super-patriotic politicians as an indication of "pro-
Soviet" sympathies, which could result in tragic consequences to the persons
that made this decision to issue the notes. We believe that in view of this
the Government decided to stamp all notes that were issued, moreover, in the
neighboring Maritime Territory (Khabarovsk), this system was in use and practice
since September 20th. We think that the stamp was used during a very short
period for two reasons: (1) the number of newly issued notes was enormous and
it would not have been possible to have them all stamped without delay, and
(2) Blagoveshchensk was more democratic than Khabarovsk and the Provisional
Amur Government by its spirit and structure was of Zemstvo type. Then the
Ataman (Commander) of Amur Cossacks Mr. Gamov, who by the decision of the
Cossack meeting changed his position of the teacher in one of the Cossack
settlements' schools to the Ataman's baton was entirely different from the
Ataman of the Ussuri (Khabarovsk) Cossacks and he did not use the extreme
measures to eradicate bolshevism but fully relied on wise decisions of the
Cossack council. The population of Blagoveshchensk was entirely indifferent
towards the appearance of the stamped money notes. The disappearance of this
stamp was met with absolute indifference and it was forgotten until October
19, 1918 when there came another order, this time from the Siberian Government,
to the effect that all the notes that were circulating in the territory must
have been all stamped, sealed and signed by the State Bank Branch Cashier. The
Amur money notes had penetrated to the adjoining territories downstream of
Amur River to Khabarovsk and Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. To avoid any kind of mis-
understanding in connection with the appearance of these new money notes in
the neighboring states the Blagoveshchensk Branch of the State Bank notified
the nearest branches of the State Bank of these issues sending them samples
and requesting them to accept them or to exchange them for the local paper
money. In its turn, the Blagoveshchensk Branch of the State Bank assured the
neighboring branches that there would be no obstacles for the exchange of their
money notes for the Amur notes and of the following exchange of such notes
between the branches. The Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank, together with
the registry of their "Krasno-Shchekov" notes were also stamping the Amur
Territory and City of Blagoveschensk notes that were presented at the branch;
once stamped these notes were back in circulation. The registry was done
with the stamp "A" September 1918. Khabarovsk Branch of the State 'Bank, ac-
cepted for circulation. This stamp is more frequently seen on the 100 r. and
50 r. Amur notes, rarer on the 15 r., still rarer on 1 and 3 rub., but the 25
and 10 rub. notes (photo 6) apparently did not reach the town of the Cossack
Khabarov (Khabarovsk).

Having received the order to register the paper notes of Soviet issue ac-
cording to the 17 Oct. 1918 law, which has limited the circulation of these
notes to the territory for which they were originally issued, the Khabarovsk
Branch of the State Bank issued an order to surrender the Amur notes, due to

No. 70 Page 51








We are.submitting in continuation the total tabulation of
the Amur Territory and the cities exchange notes of 1918.


Paper Remained with the
Money Total issued: Exchanged: population unchanged:
Notes
Amount of Value Amount of Value % Amount of Value %
notes notes notes

Cities:
1917 1 R. 375,800 375,800 Not exchanged, nor registered.
1917 3 R. 533,000 1,599-,000 367,555 1,102,665 68.9 165,445 496,335 31.1
1918 1 R. 331,600 331,600 269,179 269,179 81.1 62,421 62,421 18.9
Territorial
5 R. 1,326,000 6,630,000 1,184,800 5,924,000 89.3 141,200 606,000 10.7
10 R. 50,400 504,000 48,082 480,820 95.4 2,318 23,180 4.6
15 R. 264,250 3,963,750 250,993 3,764,895 94.9 13,257 198,855 5.1
25 R. 43,600 1,090,000 40,041 1,001,025 91.8 3,559 88,975 8.2
100 R. 749,866 74,986,600 734,001 73,400,100 98.1 15,865 1,586,500 1.9

TOTAL: 89,480,750 85,942,684 96.4

+ 1917 Cities: 375,800







the lack of cash, to the Branch either to the checking or to the savings accounts
in the local Savings offices and to send them later to Blagoveshchensk for the
exchange. Due to numerous reasons this surrender of the Amur notes was very slow
and in amounts smaller than was expected and therefore the matter of the Amur
notes was presented to the Interdepartmental Meeting of Khabarovsk District, where
the following resolution No. 20 as of December 3, 1918 was adopted: "The in-
stitutions, commerce and the population of the Town of Khabarovsk and of Khabarovsk
district are notified hereby that the Amur notes of 1, 3, 5, 15, and 100 rubles
denominations stamped by the Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank, by the Savings
Office and by the Zemstvo Institutions of the Maritime Province must be, during
the two weeks period, deposited in Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank, for check-
ing accounts or in all Savings Offices with the understanding that the payment
will be made when the Bank receives the re-supply of notes. The Amur notes,
either unstamped, or stamped by some other institutions excepting the ones listed
above, will be received for exchange, the special receipts will be given. The
original signed by: President of the District Interdepartmental Meeting, N.
Burdukov; Khabarovsk City Mayor, Zbaikov; President of the Khabarovsk County
Zemstvo Offices, Dolejal; Manager of the Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank,
Fugalevitch; Comissar of Khabarovsk County, A. Figin." This ruling, same as the
preceding one of the Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank gives solid reasons to
believe that the Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank did not stamp the Amur notes
with the type "b" stamp: "Presented. October 1918. In Khab. Br. (of) Sta.
Bank", since the 1917 law committed the Bank Branches to withdraw from circulation
the notes of the "alien" territories sending them to the place of issue, thus the
necessity of stamping them did not arise. We did not see in the collections any
Amur notes with the stamp "b" of Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank, nor any of

Page 52 No. 70








the above-mentioned notes stamped with the Savings office or the Zemstvo estab-
lishments of the Maritime Province. The total amount of Amur notes withdrawn
from circulation in the Maritime Province that went through the Khabarovsk
Branch of the State Bank reaches the imposing amount of 5,225,000 rubles.
Penetrating via the Amur River as far as Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, the Amur notes
have acquired legal status there by being stamped with the "Nikolaevsk na
Amure" stamp of the Branch of State Bank there, also with the two line stamp
of the same Branch (Rossika No. 68, photos 9 & 10), as we have seen then on the
Khabarovsk notes. These stamps are encountered on the 100, 15, and 5 rub.
Amur notes; we did not see in other collections any other Amur and Blagoveshchensk
notes with these stamps.

The violet colored stamp ink was used widely for stamping of all notes of
Amur Territory, same as in Blagoveshchensk, Khabarovsk, and Nikolaevsk-on-
Amur since this color, to a degree, is official for the stamps and seals of all
official branches of Russian State, except the postal service where black color
is official; the use by the postal branch of stamp inks of red, blue, green and
violet has not been clearly explained to date by philatelists. It is difficult
for us to explain why apart from the violet ink for Amur and Khabarovsk stamps
there was used the ink of magenta, black, blue and brown colors; the appearance
of the black stamps may be explained, stretching the point, by the lack of
violet ink, borrowing the black one from the post office; the appearance of
other colors may be explained only by the desire of the collectors to have the
notes stamped in colors to suit their tastes.

Due to the absence of a stock of money notes in the State Bank Branch, the
authorities ordered that when the Amur notes were presented for stamping, only
a part of them, up to some definite figure, will be returned to the customer
after stamping. The rest must be deposited either in the checking or savings
account of the customer. Due to war conditions, transportation disorder, and
shortage of labor, certain merchandise, such as dry goods, shoes, sugar, small
hardware, chemicals, etc., were absent on the market. These goods were some-
times brought by the Chinese merchants from Manchuria and, of course, the Amur
citizens bought this merchandise whenever the opportunity presented itself, and
not only in the amounts needed but in the amounts which they could buy with the
existing money notes on hand. Therefore, the population, to have always
sufficient notes on hand, abstained from stamping and from the process connected
with stamping, the surrender of the excess to the checking or savings accounts.
The Bank Branches existed only in three towns of Amur Territory, Blagoveshchensk,
Zeya and Alexeevsk, while the savings offices apart from these three towns,
existed also in 3-4 larger settlements. Therefore the withdrawal of money notes
from the accounts was connected with a trip by horse, or by rail for a con-
siderable distance. The Chinese knew well, of course, that the money notes
must be stamped, but not knowing the Russian language, or better to say, did
not know it enough to decipher and read the text of the stamp and of the seal,
frequently read with difficulty even by the Russians. The Chinese were
satisfied if there was an "eagle" on the stamp. If one would take old Russian
5 kop. copper piece, rub it gently with greasy fingers, then get some soot on
the obverse side off the flame of a candle, cool it and place carefully on the
paper, then press it hard, then there would be on the paper a print greatly re-
sembling the impression of the eagle seal, it is true that in such an impression
the text will be read from right to left, the eagle holding the sceptre and the
orb in the wrong paws, but such fine details were not understood by Chinese
merchants, just as the majority of our village population, so such stamps with

No. 70 Page 53














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ILLUSTRATIONS

1 Reverse side of town and territorial paper money 1,3,10 and 25 roubles.
2. Registry seal (shtempel) of Khabarovsk Branch of Govt. Bank (semi-
schematic).
3. Obverse side of town and territorial paper money 1,3,10 and 25 roubles,
with a round, metallic seal for wax sealing, and a rectangular registry
stamp.
4. Reverse side of territorial paper money, 15 roubles, with a registry
shtempel and a seal.
5. Obverse side of territorial paper money (Oblastnogo bileta) 100 roubles
with an oval seal of the Blagoveschensk Branch of the Govt. Bank
(Gosudarstvennago Banka) "Oatober 1918 has equal circulation to the credit
notes."
6. Reverse side of the territorial note of 100 roubles with the registry seal
of Khabarovsk Branch Govt. Bank "September 1918 genuine for use."
7. Obverse of a territorial note of 100 roubles with a metallic seal for wax
sealing, inscription and registry seal, in which the Russian letter "Ya"
in "yavlen" is lowered to the level of the other letters.
8. Obverse side of a town note of 1 rouble, 1918 to the right instead of
numeral letters AA (see text) round seal of Govt. Bank Blagoveschensk
Branch.
9. Obverse side of a territorial note of 15 roubles, with the inscription in
two lines of Nikolaevsk on Amur Branch of Govt. Bank.
10. Obverse side of a territorial note of 5 roubles. Round wax seal "for
packages" of Nikolaevsk Branch Govt. Bank.
11. Obverse side of a territorial note of 100 roubles, round wax seal "Blago-
veschensk Branch Govt. Bank and registry seal (Shtempel) in four lines.
"12. Registry seal or shtempel in four lines, semischematic.



(con't.)
the "Tsar's eagle" were passed as the genuine ones same as the ones that passed
through the bureaucratic procedure. Another type of forgeries was more skillful.
It consisted in transferring from the hectograph of the print of the stamp and
of the control seal to the nonstamped note. Normally the hectograph mass was
prepared from a mixture of glycerine and gelatine. In our case, this mass was
substituted by a plain raw potato. A potato the size of a fist was slashed in
two by a very sharp and wise knife, sothat the cut surface would be completely
flat; this flat surface was placed on the freshly stamped note, (the fresher was
the ink, the better), the other half of potato was placed in the same way on the
impression of the eagle seal, in such a way that between the surface of the note
and the surface of the sliced half of potato there would not be any bubbles of
air and that both surfaces would be completely touching one another; after some
time the ink of the impression dissolved in the juice of the potato mass,
penetrating it somewhat, as we have noticed this while preparing a negative on
a real hectograph. The time of the ink dissolving and of its absorbtion by the
potato was determined by the tests. A well-timed potato hectograph as many as
50 perfection distinguishable from the genuine prints on the notes. This method
was told me by men of Blagoveshchensk and of Alexeevsk, whom we have met here,
in the U.S.A., and therefore it is difficult to say how good were these prints
and how to distinguish them from the genuine ones, but according to my informers
the prints were perfect and the potato method of stamping was known along the

No. 70 Page 55








shores of Amur River and was used successfully not only by the plain citizens, but
also by the commerce when it was imperative to have the money notes urgently and
in large amounts.

In the preceding paragraphs, when describing the registry stamp with the two-
line frames we have mentioned the deviations from the normal stamps and were trying
to indicate the reasons causing such deviations. It is possible that one of the
reasons for such deviations was that the stamp was of the hectographic origin. We
think that the ink of the inner, thinner line of the frame dried faster and to such
an extent that it could not be dissolved fast enough comparing it with the other
much thicker elements of the stamp. Thus, the ink off this line either did/not
transfer itself to the potato-hectograph or was transferred in such small amounts
that it was sufficient only for a limited number of prints, hence the on-line frame.

While describing the second stamp with the four line inscription, we have
placed this stamp into the group of doubtful ones, since it is seen on the notes
that carry the eagle seal of the State Bank Branch, the seal undoubtedly genuine.
At the present moment, knowing that an illegal method was used to stamp the notes -
according to the witnesses the hectographic impressions were above suspicions -
we have the right to assume that the second, the four line stamp, was used, and,
in addition to it, there was added using the potato hectographic method, the im-
pression of the eagle seal with the Tsar's Eagle, that had practically a hypnotic
effect on the Chinese merchants. It is necessary to keep in mind that for the
hectograph there was used a special ink, "Chemical", as it was called in Russia
(Gentian violet, aniline paint), and for this reason only the notes for stamping
of which was used the stamping liquid prepared with the addition of this chemical
substance could be utilized for the transfer of the seals via the hectographic
process.

Apparently, due to the shortage of impressions of the stamps with the fresh,
recently applied paint which was fit for the preparation of hectographs, the
registry stamps could have been prepared illegally since the drawing of the
stamp was very simple, while the forgery of the seal with the eagle in the center
demanded more skill and better technique. Basing on this supposition there could
result a combination of the forged stamp and hectographed seal; we think that the
four line stamp was prepared illegally. However, until the moment of official
confirmation that this stamp was prepared legally, we will be of the opinion we
have formed.

In continuation we are presenting the list of the Amur Territory and
Blagoveshchensk City 1918 paper notes with all varieties of the stamps:

Amur Territory City of Blagoveshchensk

I. Original Issues:

1 10 rub. 1 1917 1 rub.
2 25 2 3 "
3 5 3 1918 1 "
4 15 "
5 100 "


Page 56 No. 70








Amur Territory City of Blagoveshchensk

II. With the five line stamp of the Blagoveshchensk Branch of the State Bank in
two line frame and with the eagle seal of the Branch (three varieties).

6 10 rub. 4 1917 3 rub.
7 25 5 1918 3
8 5 "
9 15
10 100

III. With the stamp of Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank, "A", September 1918.
"Authorized for circulation."

11 5 6 1917 1 "
12 15 7 1917 3
13 100

IV. With the Nikolaevsk-on-Amur Branch of the State Bank, "for parcels" stamp
and the name of the Branch in two lines.

14 5 NON E.
15 15
16 100

V. With the oval stamp of Blagoveshchensk Branch of the State Bank, "October 1918"
and: "Circulates together with the money notes", ( a very doubtful stamp).

17 100 NON E.

Explanation of the list of the photographs of the Amur Territorial and City of
Blagoveshchensk paper money notes of 1918:
(Turning the sheet clockwise 900, read the top line).

1. Reverse side of the City and Territorial notes of 1, 3, 10, and 25 rub. de-
nominations.
2. Registry stamp of the Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank, (schematic draw-
ing).
3. Obverse side of the City and Territorial notes of 1, 3, 10, and 25 rub.,
impression of the round eagle seal on the notes, (metal seal for wax stamps,
but used with mastic), rectangular registry stamp.
4. The reverse side of the 15 rub. territorial note with the registry stamp and
the eagle seal.
5. Middle row: The obverse side of the 100 rub. territorial note with the oval
stamp of the Blagoveshchensk Branch of State Bank "October 1918" and "Circu-
lates together with the money notes."
6. The reverse side of the 100 rub. territorial note with the registry stamp of
Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank "September 1918", "valid for circulation."
7. The obverse side of the 100 rub. territorial note with the metal (wax) eagle
seal and the registry stamp in which the capital "Ya" (R) in word "Yavlen"
(= presented) is lowered to the level of other letters.
8. The obverse side of the 1 rub. 1918 city note, on the right side Letters "AA"
(see text) instead of number, round eagle seal, mastic impression
*GOSUDARSTVENNAGO BANK BLAGOVESHCHENSLOYE OTDEL.*

No. 70 Page 57








9. The obverse side of the 15 rub. territorial note with the Nikolaevsk-on-Amur
two line stamp.
10. The obverse side of the 5 rub. territorial note, round eagle seal, mastic,
"for packages" of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur Branch of State Bank.
11. The obverse side of the 100 rub. territorial note, round red mastic eagle
seal: "BIAGOVESHCHENSKOYE OTDELENIE" GOSUDARSTVENNAGO BANKA" and the four
line registry stamp.
12. Registry stamp in four lines schematic drawing.





THE RECOLLECTIONS OF VIADIMIR TRUBACHEEV-ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE BULGARIAN POSTS

By D. N. Minchev


As is well known, the establishment of postal services during 1877-78 in the
liberated territory of Bulgaria was entrusted by Prince Cherkasskii, Director of
the Civilian Administration, to the Court Councillors Vladimir Trubacheev, super-
visor of postal affairs in the Smolensk governmentship, and Konstantin Radchenko,
who held the same post in the governmentship of Kovno (now Kaunas in Lithuania).
Both these experienced postal officials were appointed as "Administrators of the
Postal Services in Bulgaria."

The story of the first steps taken in the organization of postal services in
Bulgaria, although by now quite well known, still leaves some details and parti-
culars unknown. It is this impression which gives rise to a special inducement
to delve further so as to supplement or clear up the picture. In any case, we
had been advised that Vladimir Trubacheev had published many years ago his re-
collections about his work in the foundation and organization of the postal net-
work in newly-liberated Bulgaria. After close to three years of continuous
searching, we finally had the opportunity to see the text of the above-mentioned
reminiscences.

His memoirs entitled "The Fieldpost during the last Turkish War", were pub-
lished 20 years after his return to Russia and they take up 13 printed pages in
octavo size. The author gives in three sections a range of information, much of
it hitherto unknown and dealing with the initial steps taken for the establishment
of the mails on Bulgarian soil during 1877-78. These recollections are set out
in the Postal and Telegraphic Journal, Unofficial Section, pp. 1521-1533,
published at St. Petersburg in 1898.

As far as space allows, we will deal here only. with the most important data,
as we are sure they will be of use to collectors primarily interested in Bulgarian
postal history.

In the first section of two pages, Trubacheev, after emphasizing the importance
of postal services during wartime, states that as early as October 16, 1876, a
series of instructions was set out in a book of regulations entitled "The position
of management of the troops in the field during wartime" which was approved for the
use of the Russian Army delegated for active service in operations against European
Turkey. Among the series of projects with special designations to be set up at the

Page 58 No. 70








GHQ, as noted in the "positions", there were the following: the Fieldpost Admin-
istration and the Directorship of Posts and Telegraphs. The Fieldpost Administra-
tion was completely subordinate to the Chief of the Military Staff. The work of
the postal service started at Kishinev, where the GHQ were also situated. At
the beginning, its function was to assist the post offices in Bessarabia, as
the delivery of military correspondence had overburdened the latter and their
staffs could not cope with the work.

With the advance of Russian forces into Bulgaria, the GHQ, together with the
Fieldpost Administration and the Field Post Office were brought into close proxi-
mity of the fighting operations. Trubacheev notes the difficulties and the
great amount of work involved at that time in regard to the receipt, sorting,
distribution and delivery to the destination of postal correspondence and parcels.
Such was the state of the army postal service, when Prince Cherkasskii undertook
a series of measures to organize the "Civilian Postal Service" in Bulgaria.

The second portion of his reminiscences is more extensive than the first and
takes up nine pages. Bearing in mind the pressing needs of the troops and the
fact that there had been nothing done to meet the urgent postal needs of the
local population, the facilities of the army postal service were extended to the
latter. Prince Cherkasskii proceeded to set up the first postal establishments
on the model of those in Russia. Radchenko and Trubacheev were assigned to
Bulgaria to implement these tasks, on the orders of Baron Velyo, the Director of
the "Postal Department."

Before setting out for Bulgaria, Radchenko left for Kishinev and Trubacheev
for the former Bender and Akkerman districts in Bessarabia, so as to hire
horses, carts and personnel, all of which were required for the transmission of
the mails. Immediately thereafter, they both set out for Svishtov (Sistov) and
then on to T'rnovo, so as to begin work on the spot. At this point in his
story, Trubacheev gives some details in connection with their activities. After
a short time, Trubacheev was instructed to go back to Bessarabia and Odessa to
bring back the resources required for the transmission needs of the postal ser-
vice. With this view in mind, an appropriate agreement was concluded in
September 1877 with German colonists living in the Ukraine and Bessarabia. The
Bulgarian colonists living in the same area did not participate in this assign-
ment. At the end of October, when he arrived back in Svishtov, Radchenko in-
formed him that he (i.e. Radchenko) was to remain in the service of Prince
Cherkasskii, and that Trubacheev had been appointed Director of the "Postal
Service" in Bulgaria. In a short space of time, Trubacheev assigned supervisors
in towns along the postal routes for the establishment of post offices. In this
way, 14 post offices were opened.

There were another three branch lines assigned on the main Svishtov-T'rnovo-
Gabrovo route: the first to Byala, the second from Tsarevets via Gorna
Studena-B'lgarene and Pordim to Bokhot and the third from T'rnovo direct to
Lovech. A central office was established at the town of Zimnicea, on the
Rumanian bank of the Danube opposite Svishtov, to handle the Russian mails from
Bulgaria. The correspondence was sent from Zimnicea by the Rumanian railroad on
to Russia. A little later, a military postal agency was also opened at
Bragadiru, in the vicinity of Zimnicea and on the railroad to Becharest.
Trubacheev notes a very important date, November 10, 1877 when the postal service
began to work on a regular basis.


No. 70 Page 59










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With the advance of the Russian Army over the Stara Planina range, the ur-
gent problem arose of establishing constant and regular traffic across the Balkin
Mountains through the Shipka Pass to the south. Trubacheev also had to stop
short here because of the great difficulties and inconveniences which arose be-
cause of the harsh winter conditions during January and February 1878. The trans-
mission of mail at that time was accomplished by using mules; there was no other
way. Since the term of the agreement with the German colonists expired during
February 1878, Lt. General Anuchin, whose duties lay with postal affairs, re-
commended General Dondukov-Korsakov on the 22nd of the same month at San Stefano
to the post of Director of the Civilian Administration after the death of
Prince Cherkasskii, in a special memorandum which set out the measures that
should be taken for the continued smooth operation and maintenance of the postal
routes. Trubacheev reproduces this report in full in his article. A new
agreement was concluded with the colonist Schemer for the maintenance of a
regular postal service. Under the direction of Prince Cherkasskii and the ex-
perienced administrator General Dmitrii Gavrilovich Anuchin, says Trubacheev,
"the postal service in Bulgaria was extended systematically and steadily."
This was because many young Bulgarians were also enrolled in the work of organi-
zing the mails. Such was the healthy state of the postal service just a short
time after the signing of the Treaty of San Stefano on February 19 / March 3,
1878.

The third and final section of Trubacheev's article examines in four pages
the situation which arose after San Stefano. He relates here that some diffi-
culties arose in the day to day operation of the civilian and military mails.
Since closer cooperation between the military and civilian authorities was
always essential for the correct and rapid delivery of military correspondence,
Trubacheev suggested that a special "Commission for the Fieldpost" be estab-
lished. Because of the passage of the Russian armies over the Danube, the
primary tasks of this Commission would include the establishment of entry
points at Svishtov and Ruse (Rustchuk) for the exchange of correspondence and
sending with Russia, on behalf of the army in North Bulgaria. A similar postal
point was also suggested to be located at Burgas to take care of the needs of
the military units which were to be withdrawn from South Bulgaria. In addition,
postal agencies were also opened to serve the needs of each separate military
detachment and in this way the burden of. the postal service was eased. All
these measures were utilized to take care of the impending evacuation of the
Russian troops, which had to take place between the summer of 1878 and the
middle of the following year, in accordance with the Treaty of Berlin.

With this view in mind, the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, upon
agreement with Prince Dondukov-Korsakov, decided that "until the final evacua-
tion of the troops, the army postal service should be combined with the
civilian mail service." Trubacheev was appointed to supervise the new state of
affairs. He sets out a series of data in connection with the unavoidable
difficulties encountered in the postal service on Bulgarian territory. Here he
notes the many problems which were the result of day to day work with the
military, to whom he was temporarily subordinate. He records the cooperation
extended to him at that time by the Austrian postal service along the Danube for
the transmission of Russian correspondence. During September 1878, Trubacheev
was released from his duties, left Bulgarian soil and returned to Russia.
After his departure, the pace of evacuation of the troops was increased and thus
the army postal service was gradually wound up.


No. 70 Page 61








With that, the civilian postal services again passed under the supervision of
the Provisional Russian Administrative Commissariat in Bulgaria. The work of
further development of the postal service on Bulgarian territory went on. The
post offices established earlier were extended and new ones opened. The work and
help of the Russian liberators was markedly noticeable even in the newly estab-
lished national postal service of Bulgaria.

From the foregoing, related in abridged form but including the main facts, we
get an idea of the first steps and great difficulties inevitable in establishing
postal communications under trying wartime conditions. It speaks volumes for the
hard work put in by Trubacheev and his staff to overcome the countless inconveniences
that sprang up. The legacy left behind by Trubacheev was the basis upon which the
postal service of the Bulgarian state was founded on May 1, 1879.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: In connection with Mr. Minchev's highly interesting summary
given above, we like to report that our hon. member Kurt Adler has recently ac-
quired an item which has a link with the information given by Trubacheev. This is
in the form of one of the types of Russian postcards, addressed in Russian to
"Russia, Livonia Governmentship, town of Fellin", and in German to "Frau A. Schmidt,
Haus Gransberg, Fellin." It was apparently sent by a Baltic German on active
service with the Russian Army in the Russo-Turkish War, and the German text on the
back reads as follows:
"4 Dec. 1877.
Delivered the sick in Zimnicea. On the way, it was very
cold and unthinkably bad for the sick. It is snowing today,
but the snow is wet, the mud very bad. Just now, I am going
over to Sistov, intend to buy hay and oats in the town.
Tonight I shall stay in Sistov, continue on tomorrow. I am
quite well, no further news.
Adieu, Max"

Let us now consider the markings on the card (please see illustration). The
first one, indistinctly struck at upper right, is dated Dec. 4, 1877 and appears
to read "POLEVOE POCHT. OTDELENIE .14.(l).14." or "Field Post Agency No. 14", al-
though this last figure cannot be stated with absolute certainty. Four days later,
the card was handled by the Russian border post office at UNGENI, with its No. 8
cancel dated Dec. 8, 1877 struck on the back of the card and confirming the infor-
mation on this important exchange office during the Russo-Turkish War, as given by
Mr. Minchev in Ros.sica No. 68. We now know of No. 8 and No. 9 markings for Ungeni
in this single-circle type. After another four days, it was handled by Mail
Coach No. 39-40, Gang No. 8 (St. Petersburg-Riga Line) and dated Dec. 12, 1877. It
was in Riga the next day and remained there on the 14th, before being delivered in
Fellin on Dec. 17, 1877. A magnificent item.

Referring now to the data given by Mr. Minchev in the article above, we may
surmise from the message on the card that it was mailed either at Zimnicea or near-
by at the Bragadiru railroad station. In other words, Field Post Agency No. 14
functioned at one of these two locations and we need to see further material before
we can pinpoint the position exactly.

Finally, the Editorial Board feels that we have come a long way in research on
the Russian mails in the Balkans since we began publishing Mr. Minchev's erudite
studies, beginning with Rossica No. 62 back in 1962. It is up to our readers and
members to keep a sharp lookout for further material so that a coherent picture of
the postal arrangements in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 will finally emerge.

Page 62 No. 70








NOTES ON THE RUSSIAN MILITARY MAILS IN BULGARIA

By Franz See

S Translated from the Bulgarian Journal "Philatelen Pregled" of Sofia, No 11 for 1964


It is well known that the Russian Postal Service in the past was very well
organized and held in high regard in Europe. We may also find much information
in Russian and Bulgarian literature on postal communications in Bulgaria. The
most detailed study of the subject from the philatelic point of view was written
for the first time in the Bulgarian magazine "Poshtenska Marka" ("Postage Stamp")
during 1938, and the anniversary book "60 godini Poshta, Telegraf, Telefon"
(Sixty Years of the Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones), issued during 1939. Indi-
vidual articles were also published after 1944 in the journal "Philatelen
Pregled."

The Russian military postal service which functioned during the Russo-Turkish
War of 1877-78, which liberated Bulgaria, began quite early to convey also the
correspondence of the population in the liberated districts of Bulgaria.

Looking at figure 1, we see a letter sent on January 10, 1878 from T'rnovo
and addressed in Russian as follows: "To the town of Sistovo, in Bulgaria, to
the haberdasher Dmitrak Chelekov to be handed over to Dimitraki Rusovich." The
letter bears the postmark of the Russian main Field Post Office No. 1, dated
January 10, 1878 and the arrival bilingual Russo-Bulgarian marking of Sistov-
Svishtov, dated January 12, 1878. From this, it may be seen that at the be-
ginning of 1878, the Russian Field Post Office No. 1 was already functioning at
T'rnovo, and that a post office had been opened at Svishtov for the benefit of
the public and had a cancel showing the name of the town. The text of the post-
mark is in Russian at top and in Bulgarian at bottom.

Figure No. 2 shows the front and back of a letter from T'rnovo, sent on
January 23, 1878 and addressed in Bulgarian to "Mr. Nikolaki K. Russovich in
Svishtov", where it was received on January 27, both markings again being bi-
lingual. It appears from this letter that by this time a cancellation was in
use at T'rnovo with the inscription "Tyrnovo Post Office No. 1." During the
establishment of these post offices, the Russian Postal Administration did not
have any stamps at its disposal and the tariff was paid in cash. On the back of
this particular letter, there is a manuscript notation in violet ink reading
"- franc" and the T'rnovo cancel is placed above it. This procedure is very in-
teresting and was unknown until recently.

Figure 3 shows a letter almost a year later on January 3, 1879 from T'rnovo
and addressed in Bulgarian "to Mr. Ilarion K. Russovich, at the Military,College
in Sofia." By now, the cancel for T'rnovo is already in the second type, with
name in Russian and Bulgarian but without the words for "post office." Moreover,
the date is inverted in relation to the rest of the marking. The letter is
franked with a Russian 8 kopek stamp, Scott's No. 28, Gibbons No. 32, Yvert No.
25, Michel & Zumstein No. 26. The curious thing about the stamp itself is that
it has been cancelled with a portion of the date from the canceller, i.e. with
the month slug containing the abbreviation "YANV" for January, which was applied
three times on the stamp. Upon arrival in Sofia, the bilingual "SOFIA-SREDETS"
marking was placed on the letter. At the top of the letter, there is a manu-
script notation in Bulgarian which states that it was accompanied by two parcels.


No. 70 Page 63








In conclusion, it may be pointed out that some of the markings found on the
letters described above may also be encountered on the first stamps of Bulgaria,
the "centimes" issue.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The items described above by our esteemed Viennese member,
Mr. Franz See, are all showpieces, especially the last letter, which may be unique.
Our thanks go out to him for sending us such fine photographs, so that we could do
his treasures adequate justice in our journal.

xxxxxxx-x-yxxxxxxxxxxx



THE TRANS-SIBERIAN POSTAL ROUTE

By Henri Tristant


The Russo-Japanese War and the 1905 Revolution (continued from No. 69.)
It is worthwhile here to turn briefly to what the French "Bulletin Masuel des
Postes" euphemistically referred to as political events. In fact, it turned out to
be an armed conflict and was the consequence of Russo-Japanese antigonism. Tsarist
Russia was pursuing its expansive aims in the Far East, in the face of a Nipponese
Empire which was already over-populated and striving to extend itself to the con-
tinental regions of Asia nearest its own home islands. Korea and Manchuria con-
stituted the line of natural and geographic convergence of these two empires.

In a lightning war waged against China in 1894-95, Japan obtained for itself
the Pescadore Islands, Formosa and Port Arthur. Russia, supported by the Western
Powers, forced Japan to give up the idea of establishing itself at Port Arthur,
which it had occupied in 1896-97, and in addition, Korea became an independent state
recognized by China and was the object of Tsarist ambitions. However, Japan, which
did not consider itself beaten, attacked Port Arthur, where a portion of the Russian
Fleet was stationed, on February 8,.1904, and destroyed it the following August.
The base was finally seized in January 1905. It then went into battle on the main-
land and invaded Manchuria, seizing Mukden,, an important rail center south of
Kharbin, on the Trans-Manchurian R.R. on February 23, 1905. The final blow to
Tsarist military power was dealt in May 1905 at the naval battle of the Straits of
Tsushima, where Admiral Togo annihilated the rest of the Russian Fleet which had
arrived as a reinforcement from Europe.

Russia, which was obliged to sign the. Treaty of Portsmouth in August 1905,
abandoned Port Arthur to Japan, ceded to it the southern portion of the island of
Sakhalin and recognized its right to establish a Japanese protectorate over Korea.
This last act was transformed a few years later in 1910 into annexation. Thus
Nipponese expansion began, at the expense of Tsarist power. These "political events"
were the origins of an evolution which was to upset the world balance of power and
whose political and economic consequences are doubtless even now far from having run
their full course.

In spite of these difficulties, the work embarked upon to link the two sections
of the Trans-Siberian Railroad was pursued with the construction of a new line
following the south bank of Lake Baikal. This linkage was completed at the end of
1904, thus bringing to an end all transshipment, making the line open at all seasons
along the entire length of 7426 km (4650 miles) between Chelyabinsk and Vladivostok,

Page 64 No. 70








a distance which fast trains covered from then onwards in ten days. Unfortunately
for itself, Russia lost in 1905 the Manchurian terminus of Dalny, which now took
the Japanese name of Dairen, and which, together with Port Arthur, passed under
the control of Japan.

The suspension of postal traffic sent by the Siberian route, as from
February 15, 1904, was notified by the Russian Postal Service to the UPU at
Berne, as we have seen previously. However, this notice should not be taken
literally. Perhaps it was the case so far as mail going from Europe to China
and the Far East was concerned, a conclusion which may be inferred from the ab-
sence of such material known in collections. Nevertheless, in the opposite
direction from China to Europe, the suspension of traffic, if it had ever happened,
actually appears to have been very spasmodic. In fact, there is a certain number
of covers known, bearing the term or indication "Voie Siberie" and sent from
French post offices in North China during the years 1904-5, and the transit timed
taken to forward them to France show without any shadow of a doubt that this mail
utilized the Trans-Siberian route.

In particular, there are several covers of this kind in the collection of
M. Raymond Salles of France. They include two envelopes sent from Tientsin on
June 2. and June 27, 1904, being delivered in France on June 27 and July 23
respectively, i.e. taking 25 or 26 days in transit. A final example is in the
form of a cover sent from Tientsin on September 2, 1904 and showing as an arrival
mark the French RPO cancel of Erquelines-Paris dated October 5, 1904. The first
two covers were transmitted before the occupation of Port Arthur, and all three
predate the invasion of Manchuria by the Japanese.

The readers of the French journal "Les Feuilles Marcophiles" have already had
S knowledge of a letter from Tientsin dated March 6, 1905 and delivered in Charenton,
France on April 10, 1905. This cover must have gone by way of Mukden, which was
occupied 15 days earlier by the Japanese. It bears a cachet reading "Voie
Sibe'rie" and was cited two years ago as the first instance of the existence of
postal traffic along the Trans-Siberian route during the Russo-Japanese War.

We can see that all these items, which were forwarded by the Trans-Siberian
route from the Far East to Europe, fall within the period of hostilities which
lasted from the Japanese attack on Port Arthur on February 8, 1904 until
September 5, 1905, when the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed. The way they are
spread over this period leaves little room for interruptions of traffic for an
interval of more than a few months. However, it will be noted that the length
of transmission often went beyond the normal transit times, but there is nothing
exceptional about this in wartime.

Covers can also be found with the cachet "Via Siberie", which arrived in
France 40-odd days after leaving Tientsin. The length of such transmissions
would lead one to conclude that they had been conveyed by surface mail (by sea)
via Shanghai and Suez, as this could have been feasible. A Shanghai transit
mark on the backs of these covers would constitute the best proof of such for-
warding by sea. However, it could be equally argued that military operations
were responsible for delaying their transmission by the Trans-Siberian route and
thus extending the journey well beyond the normal schedules, especially where
the cachet "Voie Siberie" had not been crossed out. Of course, it is also
possible that this cachet had not been deleted by oversight. All we can say is
that, in the absence of any transit marking, no confirmation of the actual route
of transmission can be deduced for such correspondence.

No. 70 Page 65








"The Russo-Japanese War had a grave effect on the Tsarist Government, which was
weakened by its military reverses. From the beginning of 1905, the whole of this
immense empire was shaken by a revolutionary movement which spread to Siberia,
where some dissident governments were set up in several industrial centers such as
Krasnoyarsk and Chita on the Trans-Siberian Railroad, while a military revolt broke
out in Vladivostok. Rail traffic was interrupted and this same railroad carried
contingents of troops loyal to the government, leaving from Moscow on the one hand
and Kharbin on the other and arriving to meet each other to crush the rebellion.
Order was restored at the beginning of 1906, but it appears that international
postal traffic was not re-established until the spring of 1907. No material has
been seen or recorded as having been forwarded by the Trans-Siberian route between
the dates of March 6, 1905 and April 19, 1907. It is hoped that some new research
or new information will bridge this interval. In any case, it can be stated that
the internal situation in Tsarist Russia, rather than the war, was responsible for
the suspension of international postal traffic along the Trans-Siberian Railroad.

The Period of Stability 1907-1914 The Western Powers, disturbed by Japanese de-
signs on China, reconciled their differences with Russia and this resulted in 1907
with the Triple Entente, which brought together Russia, France and Great Britain.

Russia, whose communications with Vladivostok were henceforth dependent on
Manchuria, which remained a Chinese province but where Japanese influence tended
to be decisive, decided to consolidate its position in Eastern Siberia by construct-
ing on its own territory a railway line which branched off to the east of China
and north of the Amur River to reach Vladivostok.

The Universal Postal Convention of 1906 The Universal Postal Convention, signed
at Rome on May 26, 1906 between the various member countries of the UPU, devoted
the second article of its final protocol to the "settlement of forwarding charges
to be paid to the Russian Administration for the right to exchange mails by way of
the Trans-Siberian Railroad." The fifth paragraph of this second article specified
that "unsealed transmission is not accepted by the above-mentioned railroad." The
mail therefore had to be forwarded exclusively in sealed mailbags, as had always
been laid down from the beginning. Postal historians will regret this as no Russian
transit markings can be found on the mail and this is undoubtedly responsible for
the lack of interest with which it is still met even now among collectors.

A special clause referred to the Japanese mail, which could be forwarded "by
way of the Japanese Railroad in China (the Trans-Manchurian Railroad)", while all
the mail exchanged with China by Western Europe went by way of Vladivostok. The
new conditions for forwarding mail were also soon afterwards laid down by the
French Administration in the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes", No. 5 for May 1907, in
the following terms:

UTILIZATION OF THE TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILROAD FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF POSTAL
C CORRESPONDENCE
The Trans-Siberian Railroad is again available for the transmission of ordinary
and registered letters, as well as postcards, exchanged between France on the one
hand, and Japan, Korea and North China, including Shanghai and Hankow, on the other.
Mail for the southern provinces of China may also be forwarded by the Trans-Siberian
Railroad, but only if it bears a notation indicating the use of this route.

Letters and boxes with value declared, as well as all articles at reduced rates,
cannot be forwarded by the Trans-Siberian until further notice. Such articles will
continue to be directed by way of Suez or Vancouver, as the opportunity of departure
permits.

Page 66 No. 70








Departures to link with the Trans-Siberian are made in Paris every evening at
8.45 pm by Train No. 125. Transmission of the mails between Moscow and Vladivostok
is carried out by express trains leaving three times weekly on Sundays, Wednesdays
and Thursdays at 10.30 pm St. Petersburg time.

In the opposite direction, departures from Vladivostok take place on Tuesdays,
Wednesday and Fridays at 11.45 am Kharbin time.

The effective length of transmission from Paris to Moscow is four days, and
from Moscow to Vladivostok about 12 days 7 hours, thus making a total length of
16 days 7 hours.

Since the Trans-Manchurian line, which branches off at the station of Manchouli
from the main Siberian line to serve Port Arthur, Dalny, Tientsin and Peking cannot
for the moment, be utilized for postal traffic, the transmission of mail for South
Manchuria, China and Japan is being carried out by way of Vladivostok. Departures
from Vladivostok are as follows:
(1) For Tsuruga (Japan) on Wednesdays, arriving at the destination
on Friday; duration 39 hours.
(2) For Nagasaki and Shanghai every Sunday, arriving at Nagasaki
on Tuesday and at Shanghai on Thursdays.
(3) For Nagasaki every Saturday; duration of the voyage 61 hours.
(4) For Gensan, Fusan and Chemulpo, every fortnight.

There are also mailboat services linking Nagasaki and Shanghai with Dalny and
Tientsin. From the last-named, there is a rail service to Peking.

In comparing the conditions for forwarding mail in 1907 with those of the ori-
S ginal period in 1903, it can be stated that the minimum transmission time from
Paris to Vladivostok had decreased by three days (17 instead of 20), due to the
linking of the two sections of the Trans-Siberian Railroad on the banks of Lake
Baikal, but this apparent advantage was nullified or reduced by the fact that the
number of departures from Moscow had been cut back from seven to three per week.
Moreover, the closing of the Trans-Manchurian branch to postal traffic delayed
considerably the services to the offices in China, especially to Peking, Tientsin
and Chefoo.

In December 1908, the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes" in its issue No. 14 carried
the following details:
Departures from Moscow on Sundays, Wednesdays and Fridays at
11.30 pm.
Departures from Paris on Wednesdays and Thursdays at 8.40 pm
and leaving Moscow on Sundays.
Departures from Paris on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays, and
leaving Moscow on Wednesdays.
Departures from Paris on Mondays and Tuesdays, and leaving
Moscow on Fridays.

Until further notice, the Trans-Siberian Railroad will continue to be utilized
only for the transmission of ordinary and registered letters, addressed to Japan,
Korea and North China, including Shanghai and Hankow.

Other articles may continue to go by the surface route (by sea). Correspondence
for the southern provinces of China will only be forwarded on the Trans-Siberian
Railroad if they bear a notation expressly specifying the use of this route.

No. 70 Page 67








POSTAL RATES FOR THE TRANS-SIBERIAN ROUTE It is of some interest to turn our at-
tention here to the postal rates applicable to correspondence forwarded by the
Trans-Siberian route. It is a strange fact, but there is not even one specific in-
stance of the relevant rates published by the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes" until
the end of 1912, while on the other hand, for the English, as we have seen previously
the rates had been specified right from the beginning of the service.

In practice, the tariff for French postcards was 10 centimes, regardless of
whether they were exchanged between France and a French office in the Far East, or
with a foreign post office there. Letters exchanged between France and a foreign
post office were naturally franked at the international rate, namely 25 centimes.

As for letters exchanged between France and its post offices in North or South
China, it appears that the franking was in accordance with the international rate,
i.e. 25 centimes, at least up to 1912. Unfortunately, we have not come across any
cover addressed from France to the Far East during the 1903-1912 period. By con-
trast, covers having gone in the opposite direction confirm this tariff, judging
by quite numerous examples mailed from Shanghai. The registration fee was 25
centimes.

An important exception was made for the benefit of members of the French Corps
of Occupation in China, who could send at the internal rate, i.e. 15 centimes up
to 1906, and then 10 centimes, after the lowering of the tariff for franking an
ordinary letter, whose maximum weight was fixed at 20 grammes (2/3 oz.). The re-
gistration fee was 25 centimes.

It appears that, until December 1912, official French sources did not mention
the exchanges of mail between France and Indochina by the Trans-Siberian route.
However, from 1910 at least, mail originating from Tonkin (North Indochina) went
by this route when a special notation specifying it was placed on the correspondence.
The rate was the international tariff, as laid down by the Postal Administration of
Indochina.

The following notices, which appeared in the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes", be-
ginning from December 1912, made the rate for France and its Colonies applicable
to letters exchanged between the mother country (France) and the French offices in
China and North Indochina:

From the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes", for December 6, 1912 Decree fixing the
rates applicable to correspondence exchanged between France and the French colonies
on the one hand, and the French or Indochinese post offices in China:
Article No. 1: The rate for letters exchanged by the French and Indochinese
offices in China, either between themselves or with France, Algeria and French
colonies, is fixed as follows:
Up to 20 grammes weight (2/3 oz.) 10 centimes
Above 20 grammes, but less than 50 grammes 15 centimes
(1 3/4 ozs.)
From 50 to 100 grammes (3- ozs.) 20 centimes
Above 100 grammes, five centimes for every 50 grammes or part thereof.

Articles which are not franked, or only partly so, are to be charged at double
the franking rate or deficiency, as the case may be.

The weight of letters referred to in the present decree must not exceed one
kilogramme (2- lbs.).


Page 68 No. 70








Article No. 2: The date of the coming into force of the present decree is
fixed at December 1, 1912.

U Signed: Jean Dupuy, Minister of Public Works, Posts and Telegraphs
L.L. Klotz, Minister for Finances
A. Lebrun, Minister for the Colonies

From the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes" for January 1913 Notice concerning the
rate for letters exchanged between France and its Colonies on the one hand, and
the French and Indochinese offices in China on the other.

The preceding decree applies to the internal rate of letters. All other corres-
pondence continues to be subject to the international tariff.

It is reminded that the French Administration maintains post offices at:
Amoy Foochow Ningpo Shanghai
Chefoo Hankow Peking Tientsin
and the Indochinese Administration at:
Canton Mongtseu Tchongking
Hoi-Hao Pakhoi Yunnan-Fou

From the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes", March 1913, No. 3 Note on the rate ap-
plicable to letters exchanged between France and Indochina by way of Siberia.

"The tariff for letters between France and Indochina has been fixed by Article
No. 44 of the Law of Finances, dated April 8, 1910 and no restrictions are to be
placed on this rate regardless of the forwarding route to be utilized. Hence, the
internal rate is applicable to letters destined for Indochina, without restriction
S to the route employed for their despatch, i.e. by way of Suez or Siberia."

From the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes", May 1913, No. 5 "The forwarding of
correspondence from Indochina to France by way of Siberia. Up to now, the Indo-
chinese Administration has forwarded correspondence for France by way of the
Trans-Siberian Railroad only if it had been franked at the international tariff.
The General-Governmentship of Indochina has now decided that this restriction will
be abolished henceforth. Mail originating from the Colony and franked at the rate
for France and its Colonies will be sent by this route."

Thus, beginning from May 1913, all mail exchanged by way of the Trans-Siberian
route between France and the French offices in the Far East and Indochina enjoyed
the France and Colonies rate for letters, i.e. 10 centimes, or the equivalent in
local currency, for a letter whose weight did not exceed 20 grammes (2/3 oz.).

The World War I Period 1914-1918 The benefit of the reduced rate did not last
for a long time. The state of war between Germany on the one hand, France and
Russia as allies on the other, put a limit to the transmission of the French mail
exchanged with the Far East by the Trans-Siberian route. This was officially
announced in Circular No. 159 EP of April 13, 1915 "relating to the forwarding of
correspondence addressed to Indochina by way of the Trans-Siberian route", which
was sent to postmasters, but not made public, as mentioned in the "Bulletin
Mensuel des Postes" page 655 for 1915.

However, it must not be concluded that all traffic stopped during the war
years. Mail from the Far East, arriving in Moscow, could in fact proceed to
Petrograd and from this port continue on its way be sea to neutral Western

No. 70Page 69
Page 69








countries or allies of Russia. Also, the above-mentioned circular only refers to
mail for Indochina, which was forwarded with more security and doubtless quite
rapidly by the Suez sea route.

An example of transmission by the Trans-Siberian route during wartime is pro-
vided by a letter which left Peking on April 1, 1915 and was delivered in Melun,
France on April 28, i.e. after a 27-day journey, which was shorter than by sea.

The real cessation of traffic was caused by the Russian Revolution of 1917
ending in the seizure of power by the Bolsneviks, who signed a separate peace with
Germany (the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918).

The Revolutionary Period 1918-1922 These grave events marked the end of the first
period of postal traffic by the Trans-Siberian route. They gave way at the same
time to a new revolutionary era in Siberia which was to last until the end of 1922.

Counter-revolutionary movements sprang up in various regions of Siberia. A
provisional government supported by the Allies was set up with the cooperation of
Admiral Kolchak and the Japanese landed at Vladivostok, while the Social-Revolution-
aries formed a Provincial Duma or Chamber of Representatives of the People, which
was moved to Kharbin. This Duma found itself face to face with a local government
of monarchist tendencies, under the authority of General Khovat. Thus, Siberia
found itself in complete anarchy.

It was then that the Czech Volunteer Corps, which had been set up in Russia
under the authority of Marsaryk to fight on the Russian front against the Central
Powers, and which was augmented with Czech and Slovak prisoners taken from the
Austrian Army, decided on February 20, 1918 to continue the fight on the side of
the Allies by linking up with the French Army. Escaping from the Bolshevik Army,
which wanted to disarm and integrate them, and supported by Baltic elements, they
seized the Trans-Siberian Railroad, so as to get to Vladivostok.

At the end of 1919, the Omsk Government was set up in Siberia, by agreement
with the counter-revolutionary government of Samara, which latter city, now known
as Kuibyshev, was situated on an extension of the Trans-Siberian Railroad; at the
junction of the Volga and Samara rivers. Admiral Kolchak became the head of this
Omsk Government. However, his army, after many vicissitudes and diverse fortunes,
was pushed back by the Red Army during the course of the year 1919 from Ufa in
Russia to behind the Urals and then to Omsk and Novosibirsk. The troops revolted
and took to flight and finally Kolchak, who had resigned, got back to Irkutsk where
he fell into the hands of insurgents and was shot on February 7, 1920.

Meanwhile, the Allies had sent military missions and contingents of troops to
Vladivostok. The British, who had embarked at Singapore and Hongkong, landed at
Vladivostok on August 2, 1918 and were followed by Canadian troops. A French
military mission headed by CGneral Janin was also directed there. After the death
of Kilchak, the Allies evacuated Siberia and repatriated the Czechoslovak troops
to Europe.

These military contingents from various countries have left behind for postal
historians their franking marks and military cachets. The Czechoslovaks issued a
number of stamps whose postal usage is somewhat debatable, but which are regarded
by their countrymen as precious historical souvenirs, which are much sought after.


Page 70 No. 70








The Soviet authorities, who were set up originally at Irkutsk, advanced
towards the East where a Far Eastern Republic was established at Chita and
towards the Maritime Province which was still occupied by the Japanese. In
S October 1922, they reoccupied Vladivostok and the only thing left in the follow-
ing months was to put an end to local resistance which had continued to spring
up.

III THE SECOND PERIOD OF TRANS-SIBERIAN POSTAL TRAFFIC The Trans-Siberian
route for international mail between Europe and the Far East, excluding Japan,
was not resumed until September 6, 1923. A year later, it was extended to the
Japanese mail, beginning from October 1, 1924. However, in this post-W.W.I
period, there was a weekly service only. The conditions for transmission were
specified in the following notes:

From the"Bulletin Mensuel des Postes", 1923, No. 19
"NOTE ON THE SUBJECT OF THE UTILIZATION OF THE TRANS-SIBERIAN ROUTE: Beginning
from September 6 next, the Trans-Siberian route will be utilized again for for-
warding letters and postcards only, ordinary or registered, destined for Siberia
and the Far East, with the exception of Japan.

Senders who wish to avail themselves of this service must mention this route
at the top of their correspondence. Despatches will take place every Thursday
night from Paris, as the Trans-Siberian Railroad can, for the moment, assure only
a weekly departure from Moscow."

From the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes", 1923, No. 31
"NOTE CONCERNING THE UTILIZATION OF THE TRANS-SIBERIAN AND RUSSIAN ROUTES: -
(1) for Eastern Siberia and the Far East (Japan excepted) may be forwarded by
S the Trans-Siberian Railroad, if the notification of this route has been in-
dicated by the senders at the top of the articles. (2) for Persia may be for-
warded in transit by the Russian Administration on condition that the indication
"Via Russie" be placed on the envelope or outer covering of the articles.
Sendings for Northern Persia take two or three weeks to arrive at their des-
tinations by this route, while the present sea route by Marseilles and Bombay
requires five to seven weeks. The Paris-Etranger post office puts up daily
a direct despatch for the Persian exchange offices containing mail which bears
an indication of transmission via Russia.

Registered articles sent via the "Trans-Siberian" or "Russian" routes are
only accepted at the senders' risk, until further notice."

From the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes", 1924, No. 24
"NOTE ON THE SUBJECT OF THE UTILIZATION OF THE TRANS-SIBERIAN ROUTE: From
October 1, the Trans-Siberian route may be used for forwarding ordinary letters
and postcards destined for Tonkin (North Indochina), as well as for all articles
of correspondence ordinary or registered, destined for Japan. However, re-
gistered articles for this latter country must only be accepted at the senders'
risk.

The notification "Via Trans-Siberian" must be given in a very clear fashion
at the top of the articles. Moreover, correspondence for Tonkin, intended to be
forwarded by this route, must be franked in accordance with the international
rate.


No. 70 Page 71








Despatches take place from Paris every Thursday morning, so as to connect with
the special weekly train which leaves Moscow on the Wednesday of the following week.

The time taken by this route is 22 to 24 days from Paris to Tokio, and 27 to
29 days from Paris to Haiphone."

From the "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes", 1924, No. 26
"NOTE CONCERNING THE DESPATCH OF CORRESPONDENCE TO BE FORWARDED BY THE TRANS-SIBERIAN
ROUTE: From November 1, correspondence for the Far East (Siberia, China, Japan and
Tonkin) addressed to go by way of the Trans-Siberian route, is despatched every
Saturday morning, leaving the PARIS-NORD R. R. Station at 8.10 am, instead of
Thursday, to link up with the special weekly train which leaves Moscow on the Wednes-
day of the following week. This new arrangement will ensure the saving of a period
of 48 hours for despatches."

It is fitting to note here that the French offices in North China and the Indo-
chinese offices in South China were finally closed on December 31, 1922, prior to
the resumption of traffic by the Siberian route. Therefore, the only mail from
French offices in the Far East after 1923 can only have originated from Tonkin
(North Indochina) and the franking must have been at the international rate.

The Trans-Siberian route was in use until 1939, particularly for Japan and the
countries bordering on Siberia. From 1930, the development of commercial aviation
began to supplant it, just as it had itself superseded the sea route.

In the course of this study, we will review the different items which have been
examined, often thanks to the kindness of helpful correspondents, whose identify-
ing initials and names are given below in alphabetical order:

K. A. : Kurt Adler, New York, N.Y.,U.S.
G. B. : Gaston Berteloot, La Madeleine-lez-Lille, France.
A. C. : Andrew Cronin, New York, N.Y., U.S.
C. D. : Colonel C. Deloste, Bordeaux, France.
J. D. : J. Dumont, Vincennes, France.
J. G. : Dr. J. Grasset, Nice, France.
A. M. : A. Mabille, Montauban, France.
G. P. : Georges Petit, Bois-Colombes, France.
L. P. : Dr. L. Philippe, Paris, France.
G. B. S. : Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.
R. S. : Raymond Salles, Paris, France.
H. T. : Henri Tristant, Paris, France (items from my personal collection).
J.-P. V. : J.-P. Visser, Drachten, Holland.

(to be continued)

EDITORIAL COMMENT: With characteristic Gallic clarity, Monsieur Tristant hat
brought forward several important points and deductions, which we hope will be
studied carefully by our specialists. In particular, it would be very interesting
to hear of any material sent from Europe to China and the Far East by the Trans-
Siberian route during the Russo-Japanese War, as well as any evidence of utiliza-
tion of this route from March 1905 to April 1907, i.e. during the period of the
1905 Revolution in Russia and its aftermath. The attention drawn by Monsieur
Tristant to postal rates, especially from France and Europe to the Far East during
the 1903-1912 period is noteworthy, and all in all, we feel that there are many
discoveries still to be made in this fascinating field. We urge members to send in
full details of any such material they possess, so as to make this study as com-
prehensive as possible.

Page 72 No. 70








NOTES FROM COLLECTORS

D. N. Minchev, Sofia, Bulgaria

A. Pages from Bulgarian Errinophilia: In my article on this subject published
in Rossica No. 67, I dealt, among other things, with the lO-leva label, printed
in 1923 and having as its theme the well-known painting "All quiet at Shipka",
by the great Russian painter Vereshchagin. This particular etiquette was issued
on the occasion of the 45th anniversary of the liberation of Bulgaria and in aid
of the Russian veterans and Bulgarian militia who served in the 1877-78 war.

My surprise may readily be imagined when I recently had the opportunity of
finding another value in this design, namely 5 leva, and printed in grey-blue.
It has the same characteristics as the lO-leva stamp. The specimen of this 5-
leva value which is before me, is without gum and shows the trace of some kind
of marking applied in lilac.

In any case, it appears that this value is quite rare, as it has only just
been discovered while the lO-leva vignette is encountered much more frequently.

B. "La Postelnitzesse": In his interesting article "Notes about the Russian
Post Offices in Rumania", published in Rossica No. 69, Mr. Kurt Adler mentions
that the word "Postelnitzesse" in the address on the letter under examination
is unintelligible to him. I am taking the liberty here to give a few short ex-
planatory notes regarding this word.

The Rumanian word "postelnic", which is of Slav origin, denotes a title given
to a male courtier in the service of the Moldavian and Wallachian "hospodars" or
princes. This noble title indicated a great boyar and member of the Princely
Council, who also had to be at hand to carry out the functions of Marshal of the
Prince's Court, and who supervised the care of the Prince's bed chamber.

In Moldavia, the administrator of the province of Jassy was also referred to
as a "postelnic". During the Phanariote period of the 18th and 19th centuries,
the Minister of External Affairs bore this title. Later on, the boyars or nobles
were called "postelnics", although they did not carry out any special duties.
There were several categories of postelnics, including second class, third class,
etc.

The wife of the postelnic was called "postelniceasa", from which is derived
the attempt to gallicize the word into "Postelnitzesse", as given in the address
on the letter.

It appears from the data given by Mr. Adler that Alexandra Soutzo (or Shutsu
in the Rumanian version), was a member of the great Phanariote clan of Soutzo
from Constantinople. Alexander and Michael Soutzo, who were members of this
family, became the "hospodars" of Moldavia and Wallachia respectively, and were
appointed as such by the Sublime Porte (the Imperial Turkish Government at
Constantinople). The first of them ruled from 1818 to 1821 and the second from
1819 to 1821. They were the last Phanariotes to administer the two Rumanian
principalities.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: For the benefit of our non-Slav readers, we like to point out
that Mr. Minchev is correct in saying that the word "postelnic" is of Slav origin,
as the term 'postel' means "bed" in Russian. Mr. Minchev is an authority on

No. 70 Page 73








Balkan history and it would be well to explain here that the word "Phanariote" ori-
ginally denoted a dweller of the suburb of Phanar in Constantinople. Many wealthy
and influential Greek merchants lived there and they enjoyed certain economic and
political privileges in the Turkish Empire.

C. Further notes on the Russian marking for the Postal Department in T'rnovo: In
connection with the cachet notified by me in the article "A special marking of the
Russian Posts in Bulgaria during 1877-79" published in Rossica No. 68, I recently
had the chance to find out a few additional details about it.

Mr. K. Kopanov refers to this marking in his article entitled "The postal and
telegraphic service at T'rnovo under Turkish rule, during the liberation and imme-
diately thereafter", published on pages 307-312 of the manual "60 years of the Posts,
Telegraphs and Telephones", Sofia 1939. After the author has set out a series of
data on the workings of the posts and telegraphs in T'rnovo, we find the following
information at the end of the article, given here in summarized form "It is seen
from the files that undeliverable registered and valuable sending were sent after
the expiration of a period of three months to the "Postal Department" for storage,
but without specifying where this department was situated. With regard to this,
correspondence has been found which originated from the office at Gabrovo and sent
to the Postal Department as undeliverable letters. A cachet in circular form has
been seen placed on the correspondence and the text reads as follows: "Kommissiya
khraneniya nerozdannoi korrespondentsii". From this, it may be inferred that the
'Postal Department' was in T'rnovo".

As can well be seen from the excerpts quoted above, it is clearly evident that
the opinions expressed by us concerning this cachet have been almost completely
verified. A new fact that emerges is that registered and valuable sending were
also forwarded for storage after the expiration of a period of three months to the
Commission or Dead Letter Office, specially set up at the "Postal Department" in
T'rnovo.

Yaroslav S. Terlecky, Philadelphia, Pa. Re the excellent article by Viktor Indra
on the 3 kor. stamp of the Carpatho-
S.-----..-, Ukraine, which was published in Rossica
KAAhK YKI No..69, I like to announce a further can-
c eel found on this historic stamp. As
can be seen from the illustration here-
HA l' /T I^ with, a marginal copy of this stamp is
shown on piece with a special cancellation
in red dated March 18, 1939, 10 am, with
18 IIl.J subscript "a" and reading "PRAHA I-
a NAVTEVA VUDCE A RISSKEHO KANCLERE 15 A
16 BREZNA 1939" ("Prague I, Wellcome to
"the Fuhrer and Reichs Chancellor, 15 and
NOTES FROM COWTEC ORS 16 March 1939"). This was applied in the
Yaroslav .Terlecy.:Anomer cancel first days of the German occupation of
foiutid O th 3 ekorG.U'. staNp. Bohemia and Moravia, and the surprising
thing about the cancel is that the text
is still entirely in Czech, rather than bilingually in German and Czech which would
normally have been the case.

Michael Carson, Arcola, Illinois I wish to report a variety of a Russian stamp,
Scott No. 2440, 2 Kopeck green. The variation is in the lettering "CCCP" in the
upper right corner. As shown in my crude drawings, on the normal stamp, the tail

Page 74 No. 70














of the second "C" extends beyond the third and on the variety, it does not.

In regard to this variety (which was unknown to me), I would like the following
questions answered. Has this variety been reported previously? If so, it is a
constant one? What is its position in the sheet? Are there any other varieties
in this issue?
Dr. A. H. Wortman, London, England Dr. de Stackelberg will have read my comments
on Kessler's cover on p. 22 of No. 69. My cover with imprint of the Russo-Chinese
Bank, Dalny and stamp with cancellation of the No. 17 F.P.O. is fairly strong
evidence that this F.P.O. was near Dalny in December 1903. His comment on the
Cyrillic "i" following No. 17 in the cancellation is interesting. Do we have
here another of the Cyrillic errors referred to by Andy Cronin recently? I can
assure him that in the six or seven covers I have with No. 11, No. 13 and No. 17
F.P.O.'s they all have the Cyrillic "i" following the number.

Cronin's illustration of a label with "Taken out of a box" etc. reminds me of
a similar one which I have, also of St. Petersburg, indicating that the cover was
received damaged and officially re-sealed. The label is printed in black on
yellow, the top of the cover is torn where it has been re-sealed and the date of
the postmark is 1915.

Melvin M. Kessler, Yorba Linda, California Dr. de Stackelberg's comments in the
Rossica Journal, No. 69, pages 64-65, on my article "The Dalny Field Telegraph
Branch Cancellation on a Remarkable Cover" in Rossica Journal, No. 68, were very
S much appreciated, particularly about Cancellation No. 4 (pages 22-23) in reference
to the location of the 17th Field Post Office on the Lyaotung Peninsula in April
1903. The doctor's analysis of the likely location of the military post office
at the time serves to help clarify a point or add other interpretations to points
in question for which writers do not always have a ready answer owing to lack
of supporting data. The interpretative comments from studied researchers such
as Dr. de Stackelberg add a positive stimulus to find answers to postal history
questions and are indeed welcome.

When I wrote the article, I had no idea where the 17th Field Post Office was
located in 1903. To be sure, the location of the field post office could have
been up the line north of Dalny, as Dr. de Stackelberg suggests. The location
of this office on 25 April 1903, when the cover received its postmark, has not
yet been determined. If only the detailed history of Russian military units in
the Far East at the turn of the present century were available, how much easier
our task as postal historians would be.

I have taken the liberty of sending to Dr. de Stackelberg a Xerox copy of
the cover since it was illustrated in No. 68 in reduced size.

Dr. C. de Stackelberg, Washington, D.C. Mr. Walter E. Norton of Philadelphia,
the erudite Editor of the "Bulletin of the Lithuanian Philatelic Society" of
New York was kind enough to give me five stamps with faked "Postgebiet Ober-Ost"
overprints for my collection of bogus and faked stamps. I did not know that
these fakes existed, as they are even not mentioned in Michel's catalog, which
generally notes all known fakes. As these fakes might interest our members, I
will now describe them:


No. 70 Page 75








The stamps I was given represent two types of faked overprints on genuine German
stamps, all of which are cancelled. Unfortunately I am unable to distinguish
whether the faked overprints were affixed on already cancelled stamps, as I sus-
pect, or whether a faked cancellation was added later. Fake Type I. At first
glance the overprints are very similar to the genuine overprint. The print is
as heavy, but coarser, i.e. the letters do not have the type fineness of the
original overprint. One chief difference can easily be detected with a magnify-
ing glass: the top left flurish of the "P" in Postgebiet, instead of forming a
small "s", ending in a thin stroke to the left, looks more like a "c", ending
to the right in a thick stroke. Fake Type II: is easy to detect, as the letter-
ing is very thin, quite different from the heavier type appearing in the ori-
ginal or faked Type I overprints. Of Type I, I have the 3,15 and 40 Pf. stamps,
and of Type II only the 5 and 10 Pf. stamps. I never the less suspect that
they exist in all the original values. As Ober-Ost stamps are still compara-
tively cheap, it is odd that one would bother to falsify them.

John Lloyd, Colchester, England A Double sheet of the Arms Type, imperf. 1
rouble denomination recently found its way into my collection. On examination
this sheet was most unusual in that it appeared to have been torn and repaired
with pieces of gummed paper at the right hand lower corner, on the gum side.

On a closer look one could see that the original tear was due to the corner
of the sheet being doubled under when put through the machine applying the chalk
net. There are no chalk lines where the sheet was creased and doubled under.

On then being handled, preparatory to being fed into the machine applying
the design, the operator flattened the sheet, but not enough, as this crease in
the paper then became torn in its turn. Part of this second tear remained
turned under the sheet whilst having the background and the design printed over
the space where the turned under piece should be. On the fold being flattened
out, it now appears blank.

This stamp, number forty six, of the right-hand pane of fifty with the V's
below it is only half printed.

Fred W. Speers, Escondido, California Recently I circulated a memo among some
dealers that I was on the trail of so-called "aviation propaganda Labels" or the
"air fleet" labels. One of my good friends (who has visited here in Escondido)
sent me an astonishing one of 1923--the so-called "build a plane for Ilyich" one.
He says he believes there are only two copies of it in existence. Needless I
have come into possession of another prize item: A flown card from the Sibiriakov
ice breaker to the Kola Peninsula with the 50 K rose carmine 2nd Polar Year stamp--
and what's more--a printed in red ink air mail etiquette, printed on the card, that
is. True, the card obviously was prepared for the flight, but it's the first in-
stance I've ever seen of one of the three-line red on yellow etiquettes repro-
duced in printing on a card.

Vsevolod Popov, Nyack, New York Very seldom, at stamp auctions during the past
few years in the U.S.A., cancelled R.S.F.S.R. stamps have been offered of the con-
sular Post. Sometimes photos of the stamps were shown in the catalogs of the
sale, revealing the same method of cancellation four horizontal or vertical
lines, parallel, and of 1--2 mm in width. I acquired one such stamp "12 German
marks on 2r.25 Kop." (Cat. Sanabria) Type I, "Postage stamps of USSR" Type III.
Not having a quertz lamp for verifying the stamp overprint with one already having


Page 76 No. 70








a guarantee of SFA, I have nevertheless data confirming the genuiness of the over-
print of the bought stamp. As for the cancellation, not one of the examined
catalogues states anything about the parallel cancellations of these stamps. It
S is recorded that these stamps were cancelled by ink or pencil, and there is
general silence about the methods of cancellation. I sent a photo of my acquired
stamp to my correspondent in Moscow. He was a member of the jury for the USSR
exhibit at "Praha 62" international exhibition. I likewise asked him to tell me
all that he knew about this type of cancellation. His answer was, "stamps of the
consular post are known to me and my colleagues in Moscow never to have been
glued to the envelopes. They were glied in the ledger, according to which in
Berlin the consular mail was dispatched. Thus these stamps served as a receipt
for payment of postage. These stamps were cancelled by a chemical pencil. To
determine if this cancellation with lines is genuine, is probably impossible."
If we believe this statement it becomes clear why these consular stamps are not
found on envelopes. There are many dark spots in Russian philately. We hope,
that with the aid of other philatelists we may "liquidate" such dark spots in
the near future.

Dr. Rudolf Seichter, Soltan, Germany (Comments to #69, Page 7)
N 1. This cover is a simple philatelic work. It is not noted, if the card had
really gone through the post. It has a private text. The field post wanted no
postage stamps but philatelists affixed different stamps: Russian, Polish, German
etc. and asked the postal clerk to apply the field post mark. We also know of
postage stamps, used not for franking letters but for their "embellishment" only
from upper Silesia, cards, pre World War I, the 3 emperors, have one postage stamp
for franking, and others additionally from Russia and Austria, cancelled with
Austrian, Russian postmarks. Thus they went through the post. We know of some
kind from China 1900: German, English-colonial, French colonial, perhaps China
itself, stamps together with different postmarks mailed to Europe.
N 5. pg. 8 A well known "Schierhorn" letter, Ukraine 1918/20 overprint Ekaterinoslav
II. A great number of letters of major Schierhorn, written to his own address,
perhaps went through the post, perhaps not. With all the values of Ekaterinoslav
album of F. Hennig-Weimar 1920, (English language-priced in U.S. dollars). Thus
are conserved many numbers of good stamps and letters for collectors.

BOOK REVIEWS

"SOVIETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER N. 3" ("Soviet Collector No. 3 for 1965"). Issued by
the Moscow City Collectors' Society and published by the "Svyaz" Printery in an
issue of 25,000 copies as a paperback of 176 pages. Price 1 ruble and reviewed
by our honorable member Kurt Adler.

The third issue of the "Soviet Collector" prints in first place an important
editorial by Editor-in-Chief B. Stalbaum under the heading "Be friends with the
Post Office." In it, he condemns the lack of interest of many Soviet philatelists
in the postal history of their country. He criticizes the fact that they are
collecting only mint stamps and are completely disinterested in philatelic re-
search. Stalbaum cites as an example for the right approach to philately the work
done by French philatelists which the Moscow collectors could view at the Paris-
Moscow Exhibition during the summer of 1965. This exhibition, by the way, in-
cluded some splendid items from the collection of our honorable member Michel
Liphschutz, demonstrated by their owner.

Stalbaum calls on the Soviet philatelists to do research on the postal history
of the Turkestan-Siberian Railroad (Turksib), the different industrial projects
of the first Five-Year Plan, such as Magnitostroi, the postal services of the

No. 70 Page 77








developments on the Volga, .Angara and Yenisei rivers, and the Bolshoi Tyumen Oil
Deposit projects, as well'as the work of the Field Post during the Second World
War. He further criticizes the speculative character of the fabrication of
special cancellations by many City Collectors' Societies, for almost any topical
event such as Cosmos or Sport. He forgets to mention, however, that the Moscow
Society is doing exactly the same thing. Many such special cancellations are
not listed in the official Soviet catalogs of these cachets. He condemns also
the speculative issuance by the Ministry of Communications of topical sets such
as birds, animals, flora etc., usually being inferior to foreign emissions as to
technical execution.

We heartily endorse Mr. Stalbaum's criticisms. As collectors of Russian stamps,
we have come a long way to arrive at serious research of Russian and Soviet postal
history. Our collections of Russian Field Post, Railroad Post Offices (stationary
and travelling), Ship Posts, postmarks of different governmentships and districts
of the country, such as Transcaspia, Crimea, Ukraine, Bessarabia and the northern
areas such as Karelia, bilingual postmarks (Ukrainian, White-Russian, Tartar and
other Turkic types, Tadzhik, Birobidzhanian, just to name a few), the immense
spaces of Siberia including the former autonomous republic of Tannu-Tuva, the whole
array of Russian Post Offices abroad, are all being studied by us and serious
philatelic research is taking place.

The manual continues with an article on the first Soviet stamps by Yu. Parmenov,
Leniniana on stamps by V. Karlinskii and a further topical article entitled
"Moscow, yesterday and today" by A. Vigilev. Next come "The Zemstvo Post and its
stamps" by D. Karachun and an interesting article, somewhat on the lines of our
own "Notes from Collectors" by the noted Soviet philatelist S. M. Blekhman and en-
titled "First Steps". Under the discussion section we read an article by A.
Kolesnikov entitled "Variety or Freak?" and V. Yakobs follows with the special
cancels of the USSR for 1964. The next section on research poses a question about
an Imperial proof well-known in the West, details on a Rumanian series of stamps
prepared at Petrograd in 1917 but never issued, and a description of a medal in
honor of I. P. Kulibin, a researcher in mechanics.

Then follow sections on numismatics, collecting paper money, illustrated post-
cards, and matchbox labels. Notes from abroad include an article on the huge
collection of medals and badges held by Ferenc Karoly of Rumania, a survey of
Bulgarian philately by Todor Garvanov, the Editor-in-Chief of "Philatelen Pregled"
and a description of an unusual museum of matchbox labels in Poland. Next follow
book reviews, including a very good bibliography, some pages in a lighter vein,
and the volume concludes with informative notes, descriptions of exhibitions, de-
finitions of line and comb perforations and colors of overprints and with a list
of all clubs and societies in the country bringing up the rear.

"PUTESHESTVIE BEZ VIZ" ("A Journey without Visas") by Wolfram Grallert. An
abridged translation published by the "Svyaz" Printery, Moscow 1965 in an edition
of 14,000 copies. Priced at 1 ruble 15 kop. and reviewed by our contributor
D. N. Minchev in the February 1966 issue of "Philatelen Pregled", of Sofia.

During the past few years, philatelic literature in the USSR has become more
and more varied. Together with this, the quality of such work has been rising.
Among it is the recently issued book entitled "A Journey without Visas", which
contains 320 richly illustrated pages. This is actually a Russian translation of
the second edition of the well-known work by' Wolfram Grallert, published at Leipzig

Page 78 No. 70








in 1963 under the original German title "Erdball ohne Grenzen" ("The Globe with-
out Frontiers") and which has enjoyed great popularity among philatelists be-
cause of its interesting contents.

Notable and remarkable facts and events of all kinds relating to the postal
history of many parts of the world are related here in an absorbing way and thus
back up the sub-title which is given as "Book of the Posts and of Philately".

The interesting thing about the Russian edition is the addition of much ex-
planatory material which is inserted into the original text, together with
valuable supplementary commentaries which are to be found on the last 16 pages
of the book and which are the work of B. Stalbaum, under whose editorship the
book has been issued. The latter notes are mainly concerned with the history and
development of the Russian and Soviet postal services and philately, which
Grallert was not able to dealt with in a broader fashion. Actually, it is these
notes that make the Russian translation of the original book so useful. The book,
which appeared during the last few days of 1965, is highly recommended.

"KOLLEKCIONARS Nr. 23" ("The Collector" No. 23). A quarterly magazine of Latvian
philately edited in Canada and distributed in the United States by our member
Andrejs Petrevics of Perry, New York.

The number under review was issued in September 1965 and is almost entirely in
Latvian. Among much informative data, we note a very interesting article by
Mr. Petrevics on pp. 8-9 on the subject of the postal history of the naval base of
the Port of the Emperor Alexander III, or "Kara Osta" (naval port), as it is known
to our Latvian colleagues.

The subject was originally raised in the "Notes from Collectors" section of
Rossica No. 65 for 1963 and Mr. Petrevics reproduces the postcard about which we
had given details and adds further information to show that subscript letters "a"
"b" and "g" are now known to exist. The author rounds off the article with illus-
trations of two interesting German cards relating to the base and issued during
W.W. I.

"PHILATELEN PREGLED",December 1965 ("Fhilatelic Review" for December 1965).
Published in Sofia, Bulgaria every month by the Union of Bulgarian Philatelicsts
and the Ministry of Transport and Communications.

Already well-known to our readers through translations of some of its leading
articles, this particular issue gives many details of a Bulgarian-Soviet Phila-
telic Exhibition held in Sofia at the end of October 1965. Among other interesting
features, we note illustrations of some nice Zemstvo markings from Bogorodsk and
a combination cover to Buguruslan, a fine description, complete with illustrations
of the beautiful Tuvan treasures held by S. M. Blekhman, and last but not least
a mouth-watering photograph of a 10-kopek narrow-tail stamped envelope with a
clear strike of the single-circle type of cancel reading "MINUSINSK 20 JUN. 1869."
Any marking from that period emanating from Eastern Siberia is a nice item! All
in all, this issue of the magazine contains much of interest to collectors in our
sphere.

"LATVIESU FILATELISTS UN KOLLEKCIONARS" (Latvian Philatelist and Collectioner),
issued by the Latvian Philatelic Society 1966, February, No 1/60, Editor J.
Ronis, Woodward Ave, Brampton, Ont. Canada.

No. 70 Page 79








This is No. 1 of the joint magazines from Latvian Philatelic Society's publica-
tion "Latviesu Filatelists" and by A. Petrevics and J. Ronis publication "Kollek-
cionars".

Some of the articles are: "Cancellations on First Stamp of Latvia" by A. Veveris
is a continued story from "Kollekcionars" No 18 24. Here are description about
round cancellations of town Jelgava. 1) JELGAWA with 3 ears of corn and head of
deer in the end of 1918 with open bridge for date, year marked with two last
numbers, in the start of 1919 and under Soviet occupation with closed bridge,
year marked with 4 numbers. E. Becker in his table LE 15 gives the last one but
without dash over last "a" in "Latwija". 2) JELGAWA as the first Latvian cancel
of RIGA with 1 star and letter "a".

"Money or Tax Stamp" by well known numismatist A. Platbarzdis from Sweden,
continues from "Kollekcionars" No 1- about the Rezekne town administration's
stamp for tax or money and stated his opinion that this stamp was used also as
payment.

A. Balodis in his article "Somija Karelija Ingrija" tells about Finland
and her provinces and how the changes of Russian occupation showed up in post-
marks.

J. Ronis "Some cacheted covers 1965" issued in exile by Latvian Information
Service and by Sibergs Museum (Boston).

A. Veveris "Rainis in Exile Philately" Covers and postcards issued on the
poet Rainis 100th birthday with the designs from Rainis stamps which were issued
Latvia 1930.

J. Ronis "100 Latu banknote of Latvia 1923." Description about collection
of Latvia's 100 latu banknote proofs, detailed drawings, color trail prints,
with designers R. Zarrins handwritten marks.


BOOK NOTE

Karl Kurt Wolter, Die Postzensur, Handbuch and Katalog. Vol. I: Early Period
(before 1899); Middle Period (1899-1914); Modern Period (1914-1939). Munich,
1965. 147 pp. DM 28.50.

This carefully compiled German-language manual and catalogue provides a useful
frame of reference for the orientation of the collector of censored mail of the
world.

Not intended by the author to be a comprehensive monograph on the subject, it
provides not only a useful listing of pieces bearing censorship markings, with a
valuation of each censored piece, but also a number of references to studies by
other authors for further research.

Arranged chronologically, the material covers censorship markings on pre-stamp
mail as well, extending as far back as 1745 in the case of Great Britain and the
years of the French Revolution, 1789-94, in the case of France.

Of particular interest to us are references to Russian censorship markings in-
cluded in this volume.

Page 80 No. 70








The first to be noted is the "D. Z." marking of 1890. Unfortunately, these
initials are mistakenly explained as standing for "Department Zenzura," whereas,
in reality, these initials, of course, stand for "Dosvoleno Zenzuroi" (Passed
by the Censor). This error is repeated in subsequent listings.

Next to be listed are the censorship markings of the Russo-Japanese war
period extending from February 5, 1904 to September 5, 1905. This includes, on
the Russian side, the light-violet cachet with the double-headed Russian eagle.

In the description of the censorship markings of the World War I period only
the major types are included and no attempt is made to report the variety of
place names included in many of the cachets, nor to list any of the well-known
examples of the "Voiennaya Zenzura", or Military Censorship, cachets of that
period.

Censorship markings of Finland, treated separately, include those with in-
scriptions in Russian only, in Finnish and Swedish and in Finnish, Swedish and
German. Both the cachets and the labels are dealt with.

Markings of Poland are classed as "Old Poland" (with inscriptions in Polish),
the formerly German territory--giving place names in German and Polish--and for-
merly Austrian territory, with a like listing in these two languages.

While Estonia is given a brief separate mention, no reference is made to the
markings of Lithuania or of Latvia. Absence of adequate recognition of the in-
teresting and scarce markings of the formative period of independent countries
of the Baltic region is an important omission.

One does find a mention of Riga cachet of May, 1919--the lilac couble oval
with Russian text of Censor No. 3, and of the Libau cachet of June, 1919--the
violet two-numeral cachet "Censure a Libau/Censeur (signature)", but this is
noted under Soviet Union listing of 1919.

To list under the Soviet Union markings dated 1919 is, in itself, an anach-
ronism, failing to distinguish the RSFSR period from that of the USSR.

The Russian markings of the interesting closing period of World War I, or
of the entire civil war period of 1917-1921, are woefully neglected. This is
in contrast to a detailed listing of the markings of the Spanish Civil War of
1936-1939, which specifically enumerates such markings by place names both on
the republican side and on the side of Franco.

Another, obviously inadvertent, slip is an anachronistic attribution of the
place name Petrograd to St. Petersburg, much before the war-time change in the
name of the Russian capital.

These, however, are minor flaws in an otherwise excellent compilation,
attractively presented and well-illustrated by numerous cuts, a number of them
in color.

This work should be of interest and of help to the beginner, as well as the
advanced collector. We look forward to an early appearance of Volume II of this
most worth-while compilation.
Boris Shishkin

No. 70 Page 81








British Journal of Russian Philately #37, October 1965 Editor P. T. Ashford
presents another excellent issue with varied and pleasing contents which in-
clude: the Shagiv Issue of the Ukraine by 1. L. G. Baillie, the Eagle Stamp of
the Western Army by R. J. Benns outstanding covers by Kurt Adler and Michel
Lipschutz, the "Three Solid Triangle" Ekspeditsiya Postmarks of 1921-22 by
H. Q. Marris; "Ekspeditsiya Postmarks with triangles on Ukraine cards and covers"
by Dr. R. Seichter, Fourth Addenda to Russian Field Post Cancellations during
the Russo-Japanese War 1904-5 by Kurt Adler, A. S. Waugh's "Modern Soviet Stamp
Varieties", and many others.

The London Philatelist December 1965, January 1966 Russia: covers and can-
cellations 1773-1923 by Dr. A. H. Wortman.

The Collectors Club Philatelist May 1965, The Uncommon use of Common Stamps -
Ukraine 1919 Polish-Russian War by Derek Palmer.

January 1966 Kingdom of Poland-Russian Railway cancellations by Miroslaw A.
Bajanowicz.

The American Philatelist March 1966, Colors and philately by Fred W. Speers.

June 1965 Russia: Commemoration of Lenin's Death, 1924 by Joseph M. Sousa, Jr.

"Paper Money" Vol. 5, No. 1, 1966, reprinting from Rossica #68 "The Paper Money
Issued at Khabarovsk, Russia 1918" by M. Byckoff.







STAMPAZINE PHILATELIC CENTER


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Page 82 No. 70








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No. 70 Page 83







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Page 84 No. 70









RUSSIA
Armenia to Ukraine and Wenden.
Broke up 27 volumes including airs, covers, semi-postals,
special delivery, postage due, etc. Many duplicates of
singles, sets, broken sets, mint and used. Must sell.

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2600 So. Franklin Street
Philadelphia, Pa. 19148



WANTED

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beginning World War One from -

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Want Lists for collectors and dealers are filled by return mail. Better grade
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No. 70 Page 85