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HIDE
 Front cover
 Index
 Officers of the Society
 Representatives of the Society
 Editorial
 Life of the Society
 "Chita" cancellations of Mongolian...
 Russian advertising labels with...
 Japanese Siberian intervention...
 The establishment of Zemstvo posts...
 A Bulgarian letter of 1879 with...
 Poland-Odessa by Jozef Kuderewicz,...
 The original "Control Labels" of...
 What the watermark tells us by...
 The development of the postal services...
 Legal status of Zemstvo stamps...
 Stamps of western Ukraine by J....
 Rossica and B.S.R.P. welcomes Cecil...
 Ukraine-Kiev by C. W. Roberts
 Soviet postal rates by Vladlen...
 The first Russian St. Petersburg...
 Notes from collectors
 Book reviews
 Advertising


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00019
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1967
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00019

Table of Contents
    Front cover
        Cover
    Index
        Page 1
    Officers of the Society
        Page 2
    Representatives of the Society
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
    Life of the Society
        Page 3
        Page 4
    "Chita" cancellations of Mongolian mail by W.H. Adgey-Edgar
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Russian advertising labels with place for stamps to be affixed by Kurt Adler and Jacques Posell
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Japanese Siberian intervention military cancellations by Robert M. Spaulding, Jr. and Harry Waymer (as compiled by Melvin M. Kessler)
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The establishment of Zemstvo posts in Russia (Compiled by N. I. Sokolov) translated from Russian by C. P. Bulak
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    A Bulgarian letter of 1879 with the Russian postmarks by D. N. Minchev
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Poland-Odessa by Jozef Kuderewicz, M.D.
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    The original "Control Labels" of 1918 by Kurt Adler
        Page 30
        Page 31
    What the watermark tells us by Nikoli Viktorovich Luchnik, Ph.D.
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The development of the postal services in the Transcarpathian province of the Soviet Union by Miroslav Blaha
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Legal status of Zemstvo stamps and why they disappeared from the catalogues by C. P. Bulak
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Stamps of western Ukraine by J. S. Terlecky
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Rossica and B.S.R.P. welcomes Cecil W. Roberts F.R.P.S.L.
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Ukraine-Kiev by C. W. Roberts
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Soviet postal rates by Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    The first Russian St. Petersburg aviation meeting 1910 by C. W. Roberts
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Notes from collectors
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Book reviews
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Advertising
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
Full Text
THE JOURNAL
of the

* ROSSICA SOCIETY
of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY





















Silver Medals at Belgrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937" and
the International Exhibition, Koenigsberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronze Medals at the International Exhibition "Praga 1935" and
Vienna International Exhibition "WIPA 1933"
Recent International Awards
Silver Medals at Berlin, "Bephila 1957", Parana, "Eficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires, "Temex 1958"
Hamburg "Interposta 1959" Palermo "Sicilia 1959" "Barcelona 1960" -
Johannesburg "Unipex 1960" Warsaw "Polska 1960" Prague "Praga 1962"
and Luxembourg "Melusina '63"
Silver Medals Paris "Philatec '64" Vienna "WIPA '65" Washington "Sipex '66"




No. 73 1967









EDITOR IN CHIEF

Hon. Memb. Dr. G. Bonderenko-Salisbury

49th and Locust Streets

Philadelphia 39, Pa., U.S.A.


PUBLISHER

Hon. Memb. Martin L. Harow

ASSOCIATE EDITOR ASSISTANT EDITOR

Hon. Memb. Andrew Cronin Hon. Memb. R. A. Sklarevski

EDITORIAL BOARD

Hon. Members: K. Adler, 0. A. Faberge, A. N. Lavrov, Emile Marcovitch

members: C. P. Bulak, J. Tarlecky (Ukrainian Editor)

INDEX

Pasea

S2 Offices of the Society, Hon. Members and Representatives of
the Society
3 Editorial
3 Life of the Society
5 "chita" Cancellations of Mongolian mail by W.H. Adgey-Edger
8 Russian Advertising Labels with Place for Stamps to be
Affixed by Kurt Adler and Jacques Posell
14 Japanese Siberian Intervention Military Cancellations
by Robert M. Spaulding, Jr. and Harry Weymer (as compiled
by Melvin M. Kessler)
18 The Establishment of Zemstvo Posts in Russia (Compiled by
N. I. Sokolov) translation from Russian by C. P. Bulak
24 A Bulgarian Letter of 1879 with Russian Postmarks by
D. N. Minchev
26 Poland-Odessa by Jozaf Kuderewicz, M.D.
30 The Original "Control Labels" of 1918 by Kurt Adler
32 What the Watermark Tells Us by Nikoli Viktorovich Luchnik, Ph.D.
37 The Development of the Postal Services in the Transcorpathian
Province of the Soviet Union by Miroslav Blahs
44 Legal Status of Zemstvo Stamps and Why they Disappeared from
the Catalogues by C. P. Bulak
48 Stamps of Western Ukraine by J. S. Terlecky
53 Rossica and B.S.R.P. Welcomes Cecil W. Roberts F.R.P.S.L.
55 Ukraine-Kiev by C. W. Roberts
62 Soviet Postal Rates by Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii
74 The First Russian St. Petersburg Aviation meeting 1910
by C. W. Roberts
77 Notes from Collectors
83 Book Reviews









OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President Dr. G.B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section A.N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R.A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A.N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic & Paper money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arefiev

HONORARY MEMBERS

K. Adler J.F. Chudoba A. Cronin O.A. Faberge
M.L. Harow M. Liphschutz N.I. Kardakov A. Kotlar
A.N. Lavrov E.I. Marcovitch G.B. Salisbury R. Sklarevski
K. Jansson

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

New York Group J.F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y.11225
San Francisco K. Jannson 624--16 Ave., San Francisco, Calif.
Washington B. Shishkin 3523 Edmunds St. N.W., Wash., D.C.20007
Western USA L.S. Glass 1533 So. La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles,
California
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Ave., Paddington, Sydney,
NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Bel.
Canada G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking St. Downsview, Ontario, Can.
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Germany E.P. Fomin Munich 54, Rudinstr 9, West Germany
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv

Directors of the Society: Kurt Adler, Konstantin Jansson
Auditing Committee: Kurt Adler, Andrew Cronin, Boris Shishkin

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and
the Editors disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $5.00, due January 1,
for all members. Application forms, which must be filled out, are
available upon request. Membership lists, codes, bulletins and
supplements to the membership lists will be sent out annually.
Kindly make all checks payable to A.N. Lavrov, Treasurer, P.O. Box
466, Englewood, New Jersey 07631.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers.
The rates are as follows: Full Pae Ag is $30.00. Half Page is $15.00.
Quarter Pace is $7.50. Fiv lines if $2.50. Members of the ROSSICA
Society pay one half or 50% of the above rates for ADS except for
covers which is full price for all. Therefore, the net cost of ad-
vertisements to members is only 250 per line. We have a very
limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in
Russian and in English at $2.00 each: Russian Editions No. 44 to
69; English Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.


-2-









OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President Dr. G.B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section A.N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R.A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A.N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic & Paper money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arefiev

HONORARY MEMBERS

K. Adler J.F. Chudoba A. Cronin O.A. Faberge
M.L. Harow M. Liphschutz N.I. Kardakov A. Kotlar
A.N. Lavrov E.I. Marcovitch G.B. Salisbury R. Sklarevski
K. Jansson

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

New York Group J.F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y.11225
San Francisco K. Jannson 624--16 Ave., San Francisco, Calif.
Washington B. Shishkin 3523 Edmunds St. N.W., Wash., D.C.20007
Western USA L.S. Glass 1533 So. La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles,
California
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Ave., Paddington, Sydney,
NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Bel.
Canada G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking St. Downsview, Ontario, Can.
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Germany E.P. Fomin Munich 54, Rudinstr 9, West Germany
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv

Directors of the Society: Kurt Adler, Konstantin Jansson
Auditing Committee: Kurt Adler, Andrew Cronin, Boris Shishkin

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and
the Editors disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $5.00, due January 1,
for all members. Application forms, which must be filled out, are
available upon request. Membership lists, codes, bulletins and
supplements to the membership lists will be sent out annually.
Kindly make all checks payable to A.N. Lavrov, Treasurer, P.O. Box
466, Englewood, New Jersey 07631.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers.
The rates are as follows: Full Pae Ag is $30.00. Half Page is $15.00.
Quarter Pace is $7.50. Fiv lines if $2.50. Members of the ROSSICA
Society pay one half or 50% of the above rates for ADS except for
covers which is full price for all. Therefore, the net cost of ad-
vertisements to members is only 250 per line. We have a very
limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in
Russian and in English at $2.00 each: Russian Editions No. 44 to
69; English Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.


-2-








EDITORIAL

We had a great and an enthusiastic response to the giant #72 issue,
way over 100 pages thick and profusely illustrated. Members liked
the varied and interesting articles and the way our talented
Publisher Martin L. Harow produced the number.

Our staff can repeat this routinely in the future, provided that
our members do their little bit -- pay their dues promptly for
1968 due in January, and pay up their delinquent dues for 1967.
We cannot dun them via the treasurer as he is not a paid officer,
our membership is too large. It takes money, plenty of it to pro-
duce a journal, to envelope it, mail it with increased postage.
We do not mind working hard without financial compensation, often
digging into our own pockets, but our members must do their little
bit. All those who have not paid 1967 dues are being dropped end
this is their last journal

Our editorial staff asks again for articles on stamps themselves.
We need fundamental contributions of wide appeal especially for
the medium collector, the average member. We need this to balance
out the research material on postmarks, postal history and rarities.

Ukrainian collectors please note that we now have Mr. J. Terlecky
as Editor of the Ukrainian philately. Our past several journals
have carried interesting material in this field. Please inform
your fellow collectors to join us, and to help us build up this
department. We intend to do the same in Baltics, Poland, other
allied spheres to ours. We have carried articles of great in-
I terest to the above fields, also to Czech, Greek, Bulgarian,
Romanian, German, Japanese, Chinese and other collectors. A num-
ber of them have joined us because of our varied fare. Let
ROSSICA be the parent group. In unity there is strength.

We must have philately free and unadulterated by political angles,
chauvinistic trends, old world discords, historical grudges of
long ago. Lets have a mighty, fruitful, ROSSICA joined by groups
of varied interests in allied fields. We can then have a great
journal, hold big conventions, worthwhile exhibitions which will
attract big crowds because of varied appeal.

Lets forge ahead in our wonderful hobby.

LIFE OF THE SOCIETY
r
John Bulat, internationally known expert in Ukrainian philately,
and "prufer" for U.S. of the U.P.V. will speak before the ROSSICA
Society on Sunday, November 19th, during a varied and interesting
program. He will discuss his copy of an original list catalogue
issued by commission on postal authorities in Uzjgorod. It dealt
with all stamps overprinted "1944/45 POSHTA ZAKARPATSKA UKRAINA"
on Hungarian stamps.

Dr. C. B. Salisbury will also participate in the program by pre-
Ssenting a large number of valuable books on the Russian Post,


-3-








EDITORIAL

We had a great and an enthusiastic response to the giant #72 issue,
way over 100 pages thick and profusely illustrated. Members liked
the varied and interesting articles and the way our talented
Publisher Martin L. Harow produced the number.

Our staff can repeat this routinely in the future, provided that
our members do their little bit -- pay their dues promptly for
1968 due in January, and pay up their delinquent dues for 1967.
We cannot dun them via the treasurer as he is not a paid officer,
our membership is too large. It takes money, plenty of it to pro-
duce a journal, to envelope it, mail it with increased postage.
We do not mind working hard without financial compensation, often
digging into our own pockets, but our members must do their little
bit. All those who have not paid 1967 dues are being dropped end
this is their last journal

Our editorial staff asks again for articles on stamps themselves.
We need fundamental contributions of wide appeal especially for
the medium collector, the average member. We need this to balance
out the research material on postmarks, postal history and rarities.

Ukrainian collectors please note that we now have Mr. J. Terlecky
as Editor of the Ukrainian philately. Our past several journals
have carried interesting material in this field. Please inform
your fellow collectors to join us, and to help us build up this
department. We intend to do the same in Baltics, Poland, other
allied spheres to ours. We have carried articles of great in-
I terest to the above fields, also to Czech, Greek, Bulgarian,
Romanian, German, Japanese, Chinese and other collectors. A num-
ber of them have joined us because of our varied fare. Let
ROSSICA be the parent group. In unity there is strength.

We must have philately free and unadulterated by political angles,
chauvinistic trends, old world discords, historical grudges of
long ago. Lets have a mighty, fruitful, ROSSICA joined by groups
of varied interests in allied fields. We can then have a great
journal, hold big conventions, worthwhile exhibitions which will
attract big crowds because of varied appeal.

Lets forge ahead in our wonderful hobby.

LIFE OF THE SOCIETY
r
John Bulat, internationally known expert in Ukrainian philately,
and "prufer" for U.S. of the U.P.V. will speak before the ROSSICA
Society on Sunday, November 19th, during a varied and interesting
program. He will discuss his copy of an original list catalogue
issued by commission on postal authorities in Uzjgorod. It dealt
with all stamps overprinted "1944/45 POSHTA ZAKARPATSKA UKRAINA"
on Hungarian stamps.

Dr. C. B. Salisbury will also participate in the program by pre-
Ssenting a large number of valuable books on the Russian Post,


-3-









issued by Sviazizdat of U.S.S.R. These were procured by the
British Embassy in Moscow and sold to Dr. Salisbury recently by
one of our British members. The books will be condensed and
featured in the future ROSSICA journals.

Mr. and Mrs. Cecil W. Roberts of England were honored by ROSSICA
at a luncheon on October 8th at the Sheraton Atlantic in New York.
After lunch, Mr. Roberts presented an amazing display of Kiev
rarities. His talk is described elsewhere in this issue.

Jacques Posell, our member and famous double bass player for the
Cleveland orchestra returned recently from a three week triump-
ant tour of Europe. A large photo of Jack and his lovely wife
being greeted by Mr. and Mrs. Derek Taylor (daughter and son-
in-law) appeared in the major Cleveland newspapers.

Member J. Geraci of Upper Montclair, New Jersey wrote an exten-
sive article on Russian Alaska in the NOJEX 1967 catalog. It
was based on the original articles by Dr. G. B. Salisbury in #44
and Michael Rayhack in #68 of the ROSSICA journal.

Boris B. Shishkin, head of the Washington Chapter of ROSSICA
informs that Dr. Gordon Torrey is back from England and Ed. Wolski
is back from Florida. The October 28th, 1967 meeting of the
Chapter is to be held at the Shishkin home.

Joseph F.Chudoba, head of the New York Chapter informs us that
the next meeting of the New York Chapter will be held on SUNDAY,
September 24th, 1967 at the Sloane House Y.M.C.A. at Ninth Avenue
and 34th Street, New York City; commencing at 1:00 P.M. Our
meetings will be held in the Banquet Rooms located on the Main
Floor in the rear of the Cafeteria. All future regular meetings
will be held on the LAST SUNDAY OF EACH MONTH. In order to de-
fray operating costs the membership had voted to increase the
annual Chapter dues to $3.00 which amounts to about 300 per meet-
ing. You are cordially invited to attend these meetings and par-
ticipate in the activities of the Chapter. THERE WILL BE NO
FURTHER NOTICES ISSUED REGARDING THE REGULAR MEETING DATES.
Rossica Society to Meet On Sunday, Nov. 19th, starting at noon,
During A.S.D.A. Show the annual bourse will be held in the
T HE Rossica Society of Russian Windsor Room of the Hotel, during which
Philately and the British Society of time scarce and specialized material is
Russian Philately will hold their annual bought and exchanged; among those
joint meeting during the A.S.D.A. Show in present will be important dealers in
New York, 18-19 November 1967. The last Russian material. Members pass around
two years over 100 members and guests their albums for viewing also during this
have met at Dr. Salisbury's suite for the period.
Saturday night party, breaking all previous The combined meeting of the two
records. societies will be called together by Dr.
On Saturday, November 18th, starting at 3 Gregory B. Salisbury, president and editor
p.m., members will gather at Dr. of Rossica, and U.S. representative of the
Salisbury's suite at the Sheraton-Atlantic British Society.
Hotel, Broadway & 34th St. for an informal After the meeting Kurt Adler, maestro of
get-together until dinner time. At 7 o'clock the Metropolitan Opera will present a
the Rossica members will meet at the suite, varied program, as he has done in the past
and many important matters will be as the chairman of the Program
discussed. At 9 o'clock the usual buffet Committee.
supper and a well-stocked bar will precede
the annual party. All members, their wives
and friends are invited. -4-







"CHITA" CANCELLATIONS ON MONGOLIAN MAIL
By W. H. Adgey-Edgar

"Reprinted from the December, 1966 "Journal of Chinese Philately".

The question of the "CHITA" transit cancellations on mail from URGA to
PEKING and KALGAN has intrigued me for quite a while as I have been unable
to find any logical solution for their application. As I have not seen their
appearance mentioned elsewhere it may be of interest to detail what I know
of them. To make the subject a little more interesting let me elaborate on
the postal conditions in Mongolia in the 1920's.

We know that when the Mongolians brought out their own stamps in 192L China
refused to recognize them and postal dues were levied by the Chinese at the
Frontier towns. The amount charged had to be collected from the addressee.

Up to 1924 the mail from URGA to CHINA went south by the Trade Route along
which went the caravans carrying tea and silks from China and bringing back
Furs and Siberian goods for the Chinese. Ponies were used over the mount-
ainous region and camels for the crossing of the desolate GOBI Desert. Many
of the Chinese soldiers fighting under the various Warlords were deserting on
account of the lack of rations and the lack-a-daisical method of army pay.
Often it was weeks before they saw any money at all. Between 1926 and 1929
when civil war existed between the Warlords there were more desertions and
they discovered that the easiest way to earn a good living was by becoming
bandits. They were particularly active along the Trade routes but more so
along the great South route to KALGAN. There were many deaths along this
rovte among the Chinese and foreigners. Many were badly tortured for not
pa-ing the dues demanded by the Bandits. About this time the Chinese mer-
chants in Mongolia began numbering their letters. This was a great help to
the addresses as they knew at once what letters were missing.

This Bandit racket became quite an established business and the Govern-
ments, both Mongolian and Chinese, seemed powerless to stop it. The safest
way of guaranteeing no molesting on the way was to pay the dues demanded by
the Bandit office in URGA. A "Pass" or a special flag was then carried by
the caravan and these passes were honored by Bandits met en route.

There must have been some hundreds of Chinese Firms established in URGA and
the correspondence between them and their Head Offices in KALGAN and PEKING
was considerable but when they found a great deal of correspondence was
missing other means of routing had to be devised. It was then that the
Chinese merchants resorted to sending their mail via the Manchurian frontier
town of MANCHOULI to HARBIN and then South by the South Manchurian Railway
to MUKDEN and West to PEKING. This was a very round-about route but a great
deal safer than the direct one. In this case the postage due was collected
either at MANCHOULI, HARBIN or on arrival in PEKING or KALGAN. In a few in-
stances mail got through without payment of dues.

When ChangeTso-Lin, the Manchurian Warlord was at the height of his power,
the mail was beginning to be censored and delayed. The Merchants in URGA
then decided to send their mail by a more circuitous route via Vladivostok.
Here it was put on the first coastal vessel for Dalny or TAKU, the port of
TIENTSIN, then on by rail to destination. Although the Vladivostok tranist
marks appear very occasionally I have never seen a maritime cancel on these
covers which leads me to think the mail was not disturbed on the boat. A
very few covers are marked "Via Vladivostok and Shanghai". In this case they
went North from Shanghai by rail. The time taken must have been consider-
able.
-5-








Mail travelling by these circuitous routes from URGA went North by caravan to
the frontier town of KYAKHTA then the Russian frontier town of TROITSKOSAVSK
and then on to VERKNE-UDINSK to meet the Trans-Siberian Railway going East.
Mail from the middle of Mongolia crossed the frontier to meet the railway at
IRKUTSK. Further West from places like SHARASUME the mail crossed the fron-
tier at KOSH-AGACH to catch the Siberian Railway at OMSK.

All this mail, carried by the Trans-Siberian Railway, passed through CHITA.
This was one of the bigger stations where the train stopped about half an
hour to take on water and load wood for the engine. This was the usual fuel
in the early days. The long stop at this station allowed passengers to get
out and stretch their legs and buy Siberian butter, bread and excellent Salami
sausage or have a quick meal in the Station Buffet as a change from the Din-
ing Car. It was also a gala occasion for the wives of thelocal officials to
parade up and down the platform dressed in their Sunday best for the edi-
ficiation of all and sundry. The enormous women presiding behind the Buffet
had a habit of dilly-dallying with the change when you paid, while the bell
on the engine was clanging to announce its imminent departure. The idea being
you would not wait for it but rush off to the train. This happened once to
me. I had just finished a large plate of "Borsh", at least it sounded like
that. It was a plate of vegetable soup like Italian minestrone but with a
huge piece of stewed steak in the middle. The idea was to drink the soup and
then eat the meat with the vegetables. It was a meal in itself. When I
tended a 5 rouble note there was the usual fumbling. The bell was clanging,
so not to be sold a pup I picked up the biggest Salami I could find and shouting
"Ni-Chi-Vor", which I believe translated means "O.K.", I fled to the train.
I never discovered who came off best but we enjoyed the sausage.

This brings us to the cancellation question. Why was some mail, not all, des-
tined for Manchuria, unloaded here to receive the "CHITA" transit mark? There
are no signs on the covers to show they had been opened for censorship although
I have seen many Chinese covers from other parts showing the censor mark with
no signs of having been opened. I have an idea they steamed them open as this
is easy with native covers. What makes it more puzzling now is the fact that
Chinese Junk values were cancelled in CHITA. These were fixed on the covers
jy the senders to save the addressees paying the postage due on arrival at
Chinese frontier towns. One explanation may be that when a mixed bag of mail
reached CHITA destined for Harbin and Vladivostok it was unloaded and cor-
rectly sorted and caught the next train going East. The Trans-Siberian Ex-
presses passed through twice a week. The question remains a puzzling one,
especially as it occurred on covers posted during the latter part of 1927 and
early 1928. One cover I have shows a CHITA cancellation of 1932. The covers
were always those franked by Mongolian issues.

From a study of a substantial quantity of covers I find there were three types.

1. A small machine type with double circle. "CHITA" at the top and
three stars below. In the center are the letters "ORT". Under
this the numerals "20" and below this "1927" with a short line
under it. Measurements are outer circle 23mm. Inner circle
lhmm. This type is followed by seven wavy lines as seen on many
machine cancels.

2. This is a double circle type and larger. "CHITA" appears at the
top and below are two stars with the letter "A" as a serial num-
ber. The date across the middle is between horizontal lines. Meas-
urements are Outer circle 29 mm. Inner circle 18mm.

-6-








3. This is a similar type but bolder, with the center circle smaller
allowing "CHITA" at the top to be of larger type. Measurements
are Outer circle 29na. Center circle 16mr. and the lines are
Sllmm apart.



ORYk


A 7

2 3
These cancellations may appear on covers of different dates to what I have
mentioned. One final suggestion is that if the Russians were afraid of
Chang-Tso-Lin making a raid on Mongolia from the East it may account for
some of the more suspicious mail being detained at CHITA.

EDITOR'S NOTE: Mr. Adgey-Edgar's most interesting article set me straight
away examinng my own Mongolian covers. The result was two with Chita tran-
sit marks; both the same and having an outer circle of 28mms, and an inner
circle of 161xms. Allowing for inking differences thee are in all probabil-
ity the same as Mr. Adgey-Edgar's Type 3. Both are heavy but clear strikes
and show the index letter to be "n". One cover dated 19.12.27 is from Urga
and the other dated 6.6.28 from Khankentei Ula.







Fo r Dealers Only

"Around the World with Stamps"

RUSSIA
at
WHOLESALE


I s My S p e c i a t y A. S. D. A. & P. T. S.

S T S mint and used. Packets ......................

Inquiries & offers welcome ..................






IRVING LAPINER
39-23 49th St.
Long Island City, N. Y. 11104

S Tel. Area Code 212 HA 9 3325 Cables: IAPINSTAMP, NEW YORK
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-7-









RUSSIAN ADVERTISING LABELS WITH PLACE FOR STAMPS TO BE AFFIXED
Kurt Adler & Jacques Posell

Between 1923 and 1929 the Agency "Svyaz" of the National Commissariat for
Post and Telegraph of the USSR and other related organizations issued a num-
ber of advertising labels with room left free for postage stamps. These
stamps could be affixed to the labels and the labels thus used on letters for
franking. Although these advertisement labels which were very varied and
colorful, being printed in many different colors must be classified as lab-
els, the affixed and cancelled postage stamps gives them some amount of in-
between philatelic status that makes it desirable for the Russian specialist
collector to have them represented in his collection. These label-stamp
combinations are in a way comparable to the Italian, German, or other stamps
with advertisements. Collectors have come upon these labels which, by the
way, are not at all easy to find, from time to time but could not do much with
them for want of a classifies listing. Such a listing, however, exists and
is being given here for the first time in English. It is taken from its
only source, the 1933 catalogue of the Soviet Philatelic Association. Al-
together, there are 57 listings, with some sub-numbers. The labels were
printed by lithographical process, are multicolored and perforated. Imper-
forate labels and those in different colors are proofs, still rarer to be
found. The size of the advertisement labels is being given in mm. The
name of the printing office and amount of issued labels is usually printed
in fine print on the margins and serves in some cases to distinguish dif-
ferent printings of the same labels. The listings are in most cases given
in Russian (with English spelling), with an explanation of the title in
English.

1. Avtopromtogg (Automobile Transport Industry Commerce Co.) Moscow. Black
and red (4Ox56). Agency "Svyaz", Moscow.

2. Bashprom (Bashkirian Industry, Ufa). Yellow and black (40x58).

3. Vicuna Trust (MSNKh. Moscow). Black, light blue, yellow, red, pink and
orange (42x56). Agency "Svyaz", Moscow. Printing plant "Mosgublit",
order No. 27230. Printing: 50.000.

h. Vsyerossiyskiy Sindicat Shveynoy Promyshlenosti (All Russian Syndicate of
Sewing Inuustry), Moscow. Black, red and green (39x51). Agency "Svyaz",
NKPT SSSR.

5. Vsesoyuznyiy Electrotechnicheskiy Trest "Electrosvyaz" (All soviet Electro-
technical trust "Electrosvyaz "), Moscow. Black, red and yellow (42x56).
Agency "Svyaz", Moscow.

6. Goslaborsnabzhenie (State Laboratory Supply), Moscow. Blue, red and yel-
low.(hlx56). Agency "Svyaz", Moscow. Printed by "Gublit", No. 27016.
Printing: 300.000.

7. Goszentr (Statecenter) NTO, VSNKh., Moscow). Text on top: (in Russian):
"Gosmetr". (Government Office for Production and Sale of metric measures
and weights.) Yellow-brown and black (43x54), Agency "Svyaz", NKPT SSSR.

8. The same but without the word "Gosmetr" in text on top. Orange and black
(43x54) Agency "Svyaz", NKPT SSSR.
-8-








9. Gospromtzvyetmet (Government Production of colored metals) Leningrad.
Red, blue and yellow (38x53). Agency "Svyaz", Leningrad. Was printed on
one sheet together with No. 27 of this list.

S10. Gosrybsindikat (State Fish Syndicate). Samara office. Black (L0x56).

11. Gosselsindikat (State Agricultural Syndicate) NKZem, Moscow. Blue, yel-
low, brown and green (4lx55) Printing by "Mosgublit" No. 1292. Printing:
100000.

12. The same, but different picture (harvesting). Red, brown and blue (klx56).
Agency "Svyaz", Moscow. Printed by "Gublit" No. 1292. Printing: 100.000.

13. Gostorg RSFSR. (Government Import-Export Commerce Office, Moscow). Black
and red (4Ox54). Agency "Svyaz", Moscow. Printed by "Mosgublit", No.
25708. Printing: 50.000.

14. The same, but inscription in French. Black and red (40x54) Agency "Svyaz",
Moscow. Printed by "Mosgublit", No. 25708. Printing: 50.000.

15. Gosudarstvennayg Universalniy Magazin (State Department Store) GUM, Moscow.
Picture of GUM building, the former Higher Business row in Moscow, at the
time of printing the house of the Central Committee of USSR on Red Square.
Dark blue, red and yellow (42x57). Lithography "Svyaz" of NKPT.

16. The same but different picture: globe in circle, Black, blue and red
(55x38). Agency "Svyaz" of NKPT SSSR.

17. Dongostabfabrika ('Don State Tobacco Plant), named after Rosa Luxemburg,
SRostov on Don. Picture: cigarette packs '"P" and "AZA". Black, blue and
red (41x55). Agency "Svyaz" Lit. Yuzhpoligraphotdyel, Rostov, Don.
Printed by "Donlit" No. 1457.

18. The same but different picture: cigarette packs "DGTF" and "Elite". Black,
red and blue (56x49). Agency "Svyaz" Lit. Yuzhpoligraphotdyel. Printed
by "Donlit" No. 1457.

19. Donskaya Gosudarstvennaya Tabachnaya Fabrika, byvshe V.I. Asmolov (Don
State Tobacco Plant, formerly named V.I. Asmolov). Rostov on Don.
Picture: cigarette packs "KP" and "Spartak". Black, blue and red (61 x
50) Agency "Svyaz", NKPT SSSR.

20. Zhurnal dlya khosayek (Journal for housewives) Moscow. Black (69x51).
Agency "Svyaz", NKPT SSSR.

21. Kablitz (Richard Kablitz, Commission Form, Moscow). Black, grey, red and
yellow (h3x54). Typo-litho. commissioned by agency "Svyaz" of NKPiT.
Printed by "Mosgublit" No. 21100. Printing: 50.000.

22. Kozhsindikat (Leather Syndicate), Moscow. Purple-brown on orange-yel-
low background. Text in French: "Syndicat de cuir de 1'URSS". (4Ox53).
Agency "Svyaz" Moscow. Typo-litho. firm VIT, Mosgublit No. 27851.
Printing: 100.000.

S23. Krassniy Proletariy (Red Proletarian). Typo-litho, zinc printing of-
fice, formerly named Kushneyev, Moscow. Red and black (45x58). Agency
"Svyaz" NKPT.
-9-








24. Krymkonservtrest (Crimean Canning Trust), Simferopol. Red, yellow and
blue (53x41) Agency "Svyaz", NKPT.

25. Krymtabaktrest (Crimean Tobacco Trust), Simferopol. Picture: cigarette
packs "Renomme", "Zhemtshuzhina Kryma" (Pearl of Crimea), "Chernomorskiye"
(Black Sea Cigarettes) and "Groin" (Thunder). Blue, yellow and red (1lx53).
Agency "Svyaz", NKPT.

26. The same but different picture: cigarette packs "Antinikotin" "DE", "Nash
Boyevik" (our fighter), "Zhemchuzhina Kryma" (Pearl of Crimea) and two
others. Light blue, blue, red and yellow (4lx51).

27. Leningradskiy Tabachniy Trest (Leningrad Tobacco Trust). Pictures of
cigarette packs: "Extra", "Neva" and "Smychka" (bond, union). Blue,
red and yellow (38x56). Agency "Svyaz", Leningrad. On the margin:
Leningrad Gublit No. 21218. Printed by 1st Gos. Lit. Leningrad, Ul.
Mira 3. Printing: 800.000. This label was printed on one sheet to-
gether with No. 9. Look also under Petrotabaktrest.

28. Moskovskiy Mashinotrest (Moscow Machine Trust). Black, grey, yellow and
blue (5lx40). Agency "Svyaz", Moscow. Typo-litho VIT. Mosgublit No.
27424. Printing: 50.000.

29. Moskust Stock Co. Moscow. Black, red and yellow (39x55) Agency "Svyaz"
NKPT.

30. The same. Leather plant "Krassnyi Kozhevnigko." Bakhrushina (Red Leather-
works formerly Bakhrushin). Black, red and yellow (55x39). Agency
"Svyaz" NKPT SSSR.

31. The same Textile material factory, named after Peter Alexeyev, formerly
Yokish. Black, red and yellow (39x55), Agency "Svyaz", NKPT SSSR.

32. The same Pig Iron Steel Plant, formerly Kerting. Black, red and yellow
(5Lx39) Agency "Svyaz" NKPT SSSR.

33. Mospoligraph (Moscow Polypgraph, Trust MSNKh., Moscow). Brown and green.
(40x50). Agency "Svyaz" NKPT SSSR.

34. Odesskiy Pishchetrest (Odessa Food Trust) Blue, red and yellow (I4x61).

35. Petroodyezhda (Petrograd Clothing, Leningrad). Black and red (40x53).

36. Petrotabtrest (Petrograd Tobacco Trust, Leningrad). Picture: cigarette
packs "Yoo-yoo", "Ala" and "Zephyr". Black, light brown, purple and
light blue (38x55) Agency "Svyaz", NKPY, SSSR.

37. The same but different picture (39x52) Agency "Svyaz" NKPT, Leningrad.
Look also under Leningradskiy Tabachniy Trest.

38. Petrotextil (Petrograd Textile, Leningrad). Black, grey, light blue and
red (0x57).

39. Pobyeda (Samara ) (Victory) Text: "The best, strong, choice makhorka
Pobyeda No 0" (Makhorke is a cheap Russian tobacco). Green and black
(h0x57).
-10-









40. Progress (Ist Samara Tobacco Factory). Rose and black (h0x58).

41. Proletariy ("Proletarian", Cooperative publishing firm, Kharkov). Black
Sand red (5x63). Litho DVU (printing plant of Ukrainian Publishing
House ). No. 92377. AM. 357. Printing: 100.000.

42. Prombank (Russian Commerce and Industry Bank, Moscow). Black, red and
yellow (T6x56). Agency "Svyaz" NKPT SSSR.

43. Sovtorgflot (Soviet Commerical Fleet, Moscow). Black, blue and red (39x
50). 5th typo-litho Mospoligraph printing plant. "Mosgublit" No. 24128.
Printing: 200.000. Printed on one sheet, together with No. 53.

43a. The sao, re-issued. Black, blue and red (39x50). Agency "Svyaz". Litho
"Svyaz", "Mosgublit" No. 32196. Printing: 46.000.

44. Soyusflot (Soviet Fleet, Moscow). Black and red (1lx54). Agency "Svyaz",
Moscow. "Mosgublit" No. 1180. Printing: 55.000.

h4a. The same. "Mosgublit" No. 31189. Printing: 55.000.

45. Tochnaya Mekhanika (Gostrest Moskva) (State Trust for Exact Mechanical
Production, Moscow). Black, red and yellow (39x56). Agency "Svyaz",
Moscow. Typo-litho VIT "Mosgublit" No. 20544. Printing: 100.000.

46. Ukrainskiy Tabachniy Trest (Ukrainian Tobacco Trust, Kharkov). Picture:
cigarette packs "Kreml", "Salve" and "Salve". Black, green, olive-brown
and red (38x55).. 2nd State lithogr. plant.

47. The same but different picture: cigarette packs "Algiers", "Zakaznye"
(Registered) and "Komintern". Red and blue. Agency "Svyaz", Kiev.
Kievpechat (kiev printing plant).

48. The same but different picture. Yellow, blue and red (59xh9). Agency
"Svyaz" NKPT Kharkov. Lithogr. plant VRSU, URUP NO. 9187. Order 6420.
Printing: 200.000.

49. The same but different picture and in Ukrainian. Blue and yellow (42x
56). Agency "Svyaz", Kharkov. Ist State Lithotyp. "Kharkiv-Druck".
Printing 100.000

50. Farfortrest (Chinaware Trust, Ukraine, Kiev). Light brown and black (69x
5). Kiev-Pechat (Kiev printing). Agency "Svyaz", Kiev.


51. Farfortrest central Chinaware Trust, Moscow.) Blue, green, red and yel-
low (40x56). Agency "Svyaz", Moscow. Typo-litho VIT. "Mosgublit No.
26542. Printing 50.000.

52. Khleboprodukt (Grain Produce Stock Co. of Samara Government Office). Brown
light blue, green and yellow (43x60).

53. Sharikopodshipnik SKF (Ballbearing Swedish Industrial Concession, Moscow).
Black and red (39x50). Agency "Svyaz", Moscow. 5th typolitho Mospoli-
graph printing plant. "Mosgublit" No. 21296. Printing: 50.000. Printed
on one sheet together with No. 43.
-11-







53a. The same. Agency "Svyaz", Litho "Svyaz". "Mosgublit" No. 32196. Printing:
46.000.

54. Elektrobank (Electrification Bank Stock Co., Moscow). Black, red, blue
and yellow (40x55). Agency "Svyaz", Moscow, typo-litho VIT. "Mosgublit"
No. 2554o. Printing: 100.000.

55. The same but in French. Agency "Svyaz", Moscow. "Mosgublit" No. 30976.
Printing: 10.000.

56. The same but in German. Agency "Svyaz", Moscow. "Mosgublit"No. 30976.
Printing: 10.000.

57. Elektropomoshch (Electrohelp, Leningrad). Black, light blue and red.
(38x55). Agency "Svyaz", Leningrad.





















22

















27
-12-.






















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2 4 43

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19 24










JAPANESE SIBERIAN INTERVENTION MILITARY CANCELLATIONS

By Robert M. Spaulding, Jr. and Harry Weymer

(Compiled by Melvin M. Kessler)

Introduction

The postal history of the Japanese intervention in Siberia (1918-1922) has not
received the attention it deserves from Russian oriented collectors interested
in the philately of Russia in Asia. Such history expands our knowledge of the
philately associated with the occupation of Russia and also serves as a logical
adjunct to further specifically the efforts of Siberian philately of our organ-
izaxion's Russia-in-Asia study group. These two factors are all the more im-
portant because serious philatelic research and resulting publication have been
available about the various intervention campaigns which operated on Russian
soil after World War I. It should also be noted that a large share of research
has been accomplished by the non-Russian oriented collector.

Dr. Robert M. Spaulding, Jr., is President of the International Society for
Japanese Philately, Incorporated, and is also editor of that society's publica-
tion Japanese Philately. Mr. Harry Weymer is a member of the society and has
concentrated on Japanese military and naval mails, known in Japanese as GUNJI
YUBIN or Military Mail.

In February and March of this year, both graciously responded to my queries
about Japanese occupation post offices and markings used during the Japanese
occupation of Siberia after World Wor I and especially of the Japanese occupa-
tion of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. they have given me permission to present the

gleanings of their knowledge to Rossica members. As compiler, I have rear-
ranged some of the information and have checked certain historical dates.

The interest in Japanese Siberian occupation philately was generated by the
compilers article "The Nikolayevsk-on-Amur Provisional Issue," Rossica Journal
No. 71. Rossica readers who have further information about Japanese postal
markings, postal data or material, and covers should communicate with me at
my new address: 526 Cheshire Avenue, NW, Fort Walton Beach, Florida, 32548.
In my article I asked readers if they knew of the existence of any Nikolayevsk-
on-Amur issues on cover. I reiterate the request for this information. I
would also appreciate information about Siberian cover holdings of the various
Siberian issues that our members possess.

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

A Japanese consulate existed at Nikolayevsk-on-Amur as early as 15 August 1908
and suggests that Japanese citizens or residents lived there long before the
intervention period.

The first of an eventual 73,000 Japanese troops sent to Siberia landed at
Vladivostok on 5 April 1918 initially to control the Trans-Siberian and Chinese
Eastern Railways between Vladivostok and Irkutsk. Most of the approximately
45 to 50 known or conjectured Japanese field post offices were located in sta-
tions along these railways, but troops were also sent to Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
at a date yet not established.
-14-











The Japanese and Russian authorities at Nikolayevsk-on-Amur apparently got along
satisfactorily until 5 February 1920, when Bolshevik partisans led by Try-
apitsyn (Tripitzin) surrounded and besieged the city. The Japanese garrison
surrendered on 28 February, and approximately 720 Japanese soldiers and civ-
ilians (the garrison commander, the Japanese consul, 327 soldiers, h2 Japanese naval of-
ficers and men, and about 350 Japanese civilians) either died in the battle
or were executed. Another 122 Japanese military and civilians were imprisoned
apparently after an unsuccessful Japanese counterattack on 11 or 12 March.
Another Japanese relief force was sent to Alexandrovsk on Sakhalin Island
and landed there on 22 April. This force evidently did not know what had hap-
pened on the mainland. This force moved to the mainland on 14 May and re-
took Nikolayevsk-on-Amur on 3 June. Before the Japanese contingent arrived,
the Bolsheviks had massacred the 122 prisoners, approximately on 4 May, and
many White Russians living in the city fled. Tryapitsyn and his accomplices
were shot by the Bolsheviks on 20 July.


JAPANESE SIBERIAN POST OFFICE CANCELLERS

Japanese Field Post Offices (FPO) were designated by serial number rather than
place name. Most of them appear to have changed locations one or more times
during the four year duration of the occupation. Official records have been
found only for the first nine months of 1920. As of 9 January 1920, Dai 29
Yasen Yubin Kyoku (29th FPO) was located at Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, but the date
that the FPO was opened is unknown. This office presumably ceased to function
in February or March of 1920; but it is again listed as of 10 June 1920 ( a
week after the relief force occupied Nikolayevsk-on-Amur). In the list of FPO
issued 30 September'1920, the 29th FPO is not given although the Japanese forces
there apparently remained until 1922.

Meanwhile, the Japanese had moved into northern (Russian) Sakhalin and opened
a few FPOs there which had numerical designations of a new series starting with
50. At least one of these eventually moved to, or at any rate. operated in
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. Two covers have been reported from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur,
dated 28 July 1921 and 19 October 1921, with postmarks of the 54th FPO. The
54th FPO is not reported from any other location.' Withdrawal of Japanese
troops from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur was completed on 26 September 1922 (New Style),
from Siberia as a whole by the end of October. The Japanese forces remained
on the Russian part of Sakhalin until May 1925.


The date for the beginning of Japanese occupation is taken from Department
of State: Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1918:
Russia, Vol 2 (1932) p. 100.

The above is based on brief accounts in standard Japanese historical dic-
tionaries. About Tryapitsyn, see the compiler's article mentioned above.
3
The most recent and detailed of the very vew Japanese accounts of the
postal history of the Siberian expedition was written by Urata Minoru in
Y Keshiin to Entaiya, No. 122, May 1961.
-15-









Japanese Army postal detachments landed at Vladivostok soon after the first
combat troops landed (presumably a week after), but the 1st FPO was reportedly
in existence at Vladivostok. It appears that FPOs were set up quickly in many
other places, but very few covers have been seen from 1918 and only a few from
1919. The figure of 45 to 50 FPOs in Siberia included several in Manchuria,
and several that were classified as "branches" or "relay offices". Photographs
of the two recorded 54th FPO covers from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur have not been
published. Presumably the post mark canceller was in the following style as
found on covers from other FPOs of this campaign: the typical Japanese comb-
style circular date stamp with Dai 29 or Dai 54 (No. 29, No. 54) at top, and
Yasen Kyoku (FPO) at bottom, both reading from right to left, date in the center
in the order year-month-day (the year being the Japanese regnal year, 7 equal-
ling 1918, 8 for 1919, and so on). Vertically-rectangular registry labels
are known from some of the Siberian FPOs. The private mail of Japanese sol-
diers in Siberia was sent free, but limited to letters (not exceeding 20 grams)
and postcards. Official military mail also included parcels, all free. The
Japanese postage stamps overprinted 'gunji' (military business) listed in cat-
alogs evidently were not used in Siberia. Official regulations limited their
use to China, Korea, and the mandated Pacific Islands. However, an obsolete
3 sen purple Japanese letter sheet was overprinted in the same manner and is-
sued in Siberia sometime in 1918 (identical to copies issued in 1914 at Tsingtao
and later), distinguishable only by the postmark. In addition, numerous
varieties of semi-official or private postcards were supplied to the troops
in Siberia, all for free mailing. Urata (see footnote 2) quotes from the un-
published official record of 1920 -- compiled in Vladivostok -- the figure
of 9,942 letters and cards and five official parcels as the mean of military
mail dispatched from the 29th FPO in the last three months of 1919. It is
possible that he meant' that the monthly average was this amount during the
three month period. He notes, however, that the figure does not include mail
sent through the 29th FPO by persons not entitled to free mail privileges (Jap-
anese civilians except for reporters accredited to the Army). Japanese FPOs
normally accepted mail from civilians for transmission, but whether the pri-
vilege was extended to the Russians is not known.

(Compiler's Note. Mr. Weymer supplied me with descriptions of some cancellers
used by the Japanese soldiers in the Siberian campaign. The examples he noted
were "franked" military stationery with the words GUNJI YUBIN (Military Mail).)

There is some difficulty in dating the cancellations and the return addresses
of mail used in Siberia between 1918 1922. This mail is naturally dated
from the 7th year TAISHO Era (1918) to llth year TAISHO Era (1922) and, un-
fortunately, the infamous China Incident began in 1932 (7th year SHOWA Era)
was in full swing until the end of World War II. As the Japanese rarely put
down the "Era" with the year, it takes careful study at times to decide which
Era a piece of mail belongs to.

Following are some examples of Japanese Military Mail used in the Siberian
campaign. It must be noted that some of the mail originated from Manchuria
and much of it was not geographically identified as FPO numbers were used:

1. Postal card franked with STAR canceller 1st Army PO 9 April 8
Taisho (1919) from 68-9 Infantry at HOCHIN.



-16-








2. Cover franked GY from No. 2 Section, No. 6 Company, No. 68 In-
fantry at the front; cover dated 5 Feb 8 Taisho. Censor chop,
3. Postal card franked GY by handstamp from No. 12 Div at the front,
cancel 4 YA SEN KYOKU (4th FPO) llth 8 year Taisho, month illeg-
ible, to Military Police, Keijo, Korea.
4. Cover franked GY from No. 3 Company, No. 26 Regiment Cavalry,
Chonan Dispatched Army, canceller HOTEN 13 Jan 8th year.
5. Cover franked GY from No. 7 Company, 3rd Regiment Field Artil-
lery, Manchuria, canceller 5 Dec year Taisho (1920).
6. Postal card handstamp frank GY from No. 5 Company, No. 68 Regi-
ment Infantry, No. 3 Division at the front, cancellation at top
reads "The Eleventh" 31 July 8th year (illegible bottom section
probably would read) YA SEN KYOKU "FPO".
7. Postal card handstamp frank GY from No. 5 Company, No. 68 Regi-
ment Infantry No. 3 Division at the front. Cancelled 30 April
8th year. Message states the writer just landed from the vessel
SHANKON.
8. Postal card franked GY from No. 2 Section, No. 9 Company, No. 3
Battalion, 68th Regiment. Cancelled 1st Army PO, 11 Feb 8th
year.
9. Post card picture type franked BY. From No. 5 Company, 68 Regi-
ment, Manchuria. Cancelled 31 Dec, year illegible. Colored
pictured on front was drawing titled "Engineering Corps in Action".
10. Post card franked with STAR and GY. From Machine Gun Company,
No. 16 Regiment Infantry, Ryoyo, Manchuria. Cancelled RYOYO PO,
2 April 7th ye4r (1918). On reverse is picture of Army trans-
port AIDA MARU. Very early, US troops did not arrive in Siberia
until August 1918.
Another note of interest: A great deal of Russian postal stationery was ac-
quired by the Japanese troops during the Russo-Japanese War and also in the
Siberian campaign and used the Russian postal stationery simply as stationery
without regard for the imprinted stamps. Such mail, of course, was military
mail and sent free.

The names and addresses of Japanese collectors interested in Japanese Siberian
philately or those who have extensive knowledge of the Japanese postal history
field are:

1. Mr. Urata Minoru, care of Dr. Nakagawa Tioiti, 296 Kakegawa--
City Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. (Dr. Spaulding did not have
Mr. Urata's address, but the letter would reach him this way.
Incidentally, surnames cone first in Japanese.) Dr. Nakagawa
is the editor-publisher of Keshiin to Entaiya. When writing
to Mr. Urata, keep the English very simple and ask specific
questions.

2. Mr. Yoshihisa Hirota, No. 4, 1-chome, Itachibori-Kitadori,
Nishi-ku, Osaka, Japan. A famous collector of GUNJI YUBIN.
Correspondence has to be in Japanses as he does not speak
English.

Members of Rossica Society are indebted to Dr. Spaulding and Mr. Weymer for
supplying Rossica readers with the above information. By piecing together
bits of information, and consolidating the information, we will have a better
appreciation of the postal history of both Siberia and of the occupation of
Siberia after World War I -- both fascinating subjects with a great deal of
research yet to be done.
-17-








THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ZEMSTVO POSTS IN RUSSIA.
(Compiled by N. I. Sokolov from Official Sources)
Translation from Russian by C. P. Bulak

From: Postal-Telegraph Journal. 1897 pp. 823-848

Non-Official Section.

Postal Division.

Due to low budgeting, funds assigned to the postal department, in this century,
were inadequate for the postal requirements of the empire's populace. Remote
districts were especially hard hit. Some were completely cut off. Others
were inconvenienced by inaccessibility of postal establishments, as Article
348 of the Postal Statute stipulated the personal appearance of the addressee
or of his representative.

Often the addressee, in most cases a peasant, was unaware that correspondence
awaited him. Letters accumulated. Lack of funds prevented their delivery.

The attention of the postal authorities was drawn to this state of affairs.
They had been earnestly endeavoring to facilitate the interchange of corres-
pondence between the dwellers themselves of the individual counties as well
as to provide a rapid to-and-fro movement at the post offices.

In 1849 to achieve this aim the "Counties Delivery Post" was envisaged. A
courier from the addressee was to call at the post office and return with
the missive. This system enjoyed only limited success despite all government
support measures.

In many provinces letters conveyed by relay and thus considered urgent were
dispatched to the villager in the same way as telegrams, i.e., by the same
courier as that used by the local judiciary to transport their own business
papers.

Within the limits of Vishnievolotsk County of the Province ofTver, beginning
at the time of the peasant reforms (liberation of the slaves C.P.B.) an in-
crease in efficiency of postal service was achieved by the introduction of a
progressive innovation. By order of the community convention a weekly postal
service was established from each community district to the town of Volotchek.
The purpose of this service was to provide rapid communication between the
community adjustors (regional mediators) (mirovoy poarednik) and district
managements on the one hand and the different government institutions and
persons within county limits on the other. The villagers, at their request,
were allowed to use this service and the tariff was as follows: 3 k. ea.
for letters, daily newspapers 1l k. ea. Weekly newspaper, 1 k. ea. Periodicals,
5 k. ea.

The delivery and receipt of the items of village correspondence were entered
in a special record book at each district management. This system of village
postal service was accepted by the director of the postal department as the
most convenient under the local conditions. This same director, Toltoy, was
anxious to extend this system to all of Russia. He was desirous of sending
through the minister of the interior and through the Provincial Governors to


-18-








the community meetings a proposition in which the postal system of Vishnivolotsk
County was described. They, the community meetings, could then discuss it
and take appropriate action. This laudable initiative however was blocked in
the Interior Ministry. The Minister Valuyev did not consider the community
institutions as possessed of the requisite administrative or executive power
for organizing said postal service. When however the Zemstvo organizations
became active, then all needs and requirements which affected the Zemstvo col-
lectively came under their jurisdiction, such as the matter of village postal
service. Valuyev therefore decided it would be most proper if said posts were
instituted through the initiative and care of the local Zemstvo. The admin-
istration decided however against any advance decisions on the part of the
government administration in relation to this subject.

Actually, since the introduction of the Zemstvos (1865) nearly all of them
made application for their own Zemstvo posts. These applications were granted
by means of a routine form. It was stipulated that the corresponding postal
entities should deliver to the Zemstvo Boards ordinary post, such as the no-
tices of receipt of money, ordinary letters, newspapers and periodicals as
well as money orders, insured post and parcel post. This single condition was
imposed: those who desired to receive their post through the Zemstvo Boards
must present to the post offices a written authorization or the formal de-
cisions of the village assemblies to which they belonged.

The existing rules for the receipt of money, insured and parcel post were left
unchanged as far as the Zemstvo Boards were concerned. A person desiring to
receive anything of value by proxy via the Zemstvo Boards must provide his
emissary with power of attorney as established by the rules given to the Zem-
stvo Board.

SThe main bases for the organization of the Zemstvo Posts during 1865-1866, as
well as may be judged by the projects presented by the Zemstvo Boards to the
Postal Department consisted of the following:

.The Zemstvo Posts were established to effect the delivery of ordinary mail
such as letters, newspapers, periodicals and the notices of insured and parcel
post the destination of which was more or less remote from the post office.
They were also invested with the responsibility of collecting postal matter
at these same remote localities as well as providing postal connections between
localities of the county where no empire postal service existed.

2. On arrival, Empire mail, intended for distribution in the county, was
taken into custody by a Zemstvo employee. Official mail was delivered according
to postal rules. Private mail (letters, newspapers, etc.) were, however, de-
livered in accordance with theZemstvo Charter.

3. Such a universal system was necessary to enable the Board to trace lost
postal matter. Account books for such purposes were furnished to thepost of-
fice by the Zemstvo. All correspondence was also noted in a special book at
Zemstvo Headquarters, official mail by name and number, private mail by gen-
eral count. Zemstvo Boards also had the right to accept letters for localities
which had no regular postal route against payment of 5 k.

4. Following receipt, postal matter was sorted by districts (these were ad-
ministrative subdivisions called "volosts" C.P.B.). The number and class
sent to each district was noted, racked separately and affixed with the (wax -
SC.P.B.) seal of the Board. The amount and kind was duly noted on each postal
package as well as its date and time of departure. These packages, after being
sorted and placed in bags corresponding to the routes, were padlocked, the keys

-19-








being guarded for each area by the district management.

5. By the time of departure, the postillion with mount was to be on hand at
the Board House, receiving the padlocked bags he proceeded to the next relay
point. There, if there were a district management office, he delivered the
bag to the elder. This functionary after inspecting the bag, dismissed the
postillion. Were there no district management, he delivered the bag to the
relay postillion but could not begin the return journey until the relay pos-
tillion had set out on his route. The delivering postillion must also be
acquainted personally with the relay postillion and was required to report his
name to the administration, i.e., either to the Zemstvo Board or to the man-
agement. Had the bag being delivered been damaged, regulations required that
it be opened in the presence of the postillion and two witnesses. Then its
contents were counted and inspected for damage. A prepared statement was then
sent by the first mail to the Board.

6. The speed per hour of the Zemstvo post was as follows. May 1st to Oct-
ober 1st and December 1st to March 15, not less than 10 versts (kilometers);
during the remaining portion of the year, not less than 7 kilometers, in-
cluding here time required for the transfer of bags at the relay station.

7. The station master was fined 5 rub. in favor of the Board for each proved
disorder of his coachman.

8. The District Elder, on opening the bag, took from it the parcel addressed
to the District. Immediately thereon he closed the bag and forwarded it
either with the same postillion or with the new one if this happened to be
at the relay station.

9. All correspondence in the parcel opened in the District Management was
entered in a special book. Later there was an annotation of when and by whom
the mail was received. A receipt for official correspondence was signed by
the person receiving it. The delivery of the correspondence was at the dis-
cretion of the District Management, either delivering it or advising the ad-
dressee to call for it personally or sending a representative with power of
attorney. In either case, the management had the right to collect 3 kop. for
each letter or notice, one kop. per newspaper and 10 kop. for each magazine.
Official correspondence was exempt from exaction.

10. No arrears in these payments were permitted. These arrears were to be
paid to the Board on the completion of each third of the calendar year (every
four months).

11. The mail bag of each route after arrival at the last district remains there
until the time for departure to town.

12. Prior to the departure of the mail for town, the District Manager took
possession of it, recorded and affixed the seal as previously described.

13. Letters for the Empire Post were received either franked with Empire
stamps or in stamped envelopes. The senders were debited with 3 kop. for
each letter. Letters for the town inhabitants of the same county were franked
with 5 kop. each.

14. After each 1/3 year, these charges, together with charges for mails re-
ceived, were presented to the Board. The books of the District Management
were then checked against those of the Board.

-20-








15. All mail received at the post of the Zemstvo Board was entered in the book
and sorted. Official correspondence was then delivered to the addressees.
Private letters for the Empire Post were delivered there against a receipt.
Letters to the town inhabitants were delivered against a charge of 3 kop.

16. Prior to initiation of the Zemstvo Postal Service all landowners and com-
munities were required to indicate their intention with regard to its use.
This data was turned over to the post offices for their guidance.

17. The extra bookkeeping work for the post office employees as well as the
loss in income to the Imperial postmen entailed in the creation of the zemstvo
was provided for in a 200 ruble grant by the latter, of which 100 rubles went
to the postmaster, 50 rubles to his assistant and the rest to the postmen.
Finally, in 1867, the Zemstvo Boards were granted authority to issue their own
postage stamps, provided that these stamps bore no resemblance to those of the
Imperial Post. Thus, the zemstvo posts were intermediaries between the Im-
perial post and regions that were very far from the post offices, or very
completely cut off from them. For this reason the duplication of the Imperial
postal routes was avoided by zemstvo posts. With rare exception, little need
was felt for the zemstvo post along these routes. Being located more or less
close to the government post offices, the inhabitants could send and receive
their correspondence without any trouble.

It was felt .that zemstvo competition would deprive Imperial post of revenue
amounting to the income going to zemstvo, both from the official correspondence
as well as from that derived from private correspondence between the county
towns. Zemstvo service was potentially much cheaper and Art. 11 of the
Penal Code protected sources of the Imperial revenue from such damaging com-
petition. The common existence of the Government and Zemstvo posts on the
same route could hot have been admitted by the Postal Department. On the
other hand, however, knowing zemstvos' greater experience and wider know-
ledge of the local conditions, the Minister of the Interior Affairs resisted
any interference in the matter of organizing the zemstvo posts and gave the
zemstvos complete autonomy on condition that they would not infringe on the
rights of the Government post. On such conditions the zemstvo posts existed
until 1870.

Decisions of the Voronezh Province Zemstvo Assembly, dealing with Zemstvo
correspondence and which were protested by the Voronezh Governor, which pro-
test was presented by him to the Government Senate, prompted the Ministry of
In-erior Affairs to issue general rules to be used for the establishment of
zemstvo posts in the future.

Whereas the Voronezh Zemstvo was planning to transport the zemstvo corres-
pondence within the limits of the province via the zemstvo stations using the
shortest routes, including the postal routes of the Imperial post, and as
long as the zemstvo posts were obliged to receive the intermediate corres-
pondence in both directions, the Government Senate decreed that the establish-
ment of such an order of transportation is contrary to: 1) Art. 1114 of the
"Penal Code against sending of letters, money and small articles by any pri-
vate institution; 2) His Majesty's order of May 1, 1870 (consonant with the
position of the Committee of Ministers), according to which only the corres-
pondence of the Zemstvo Boards with the government personnel and institutions
is free from the payment of the postal tariff, all other correspondence of
Zemstvo Boards with private persons and institutions, including those of the
Zemstvos, is not exempt from the payment of the postage; 3)That the correspond-
ence of the Boards themselves, as well as that of other persons and institutions

-21-







located on the Imperial postal routes must be sent only via Imperial postal
service and that any deviation from this is contrary to the aforementioned
rules. In conformity with the foregoing resolution, therefore, the Govern-
ment Senate cancelled the decisions of the Voronezh Province Zemstvo Assembly.

Notification of the above resolution was given to the Minister of Interior
Affairs by Senate Decree dated August 27, 1870.

On the basis of the above ruling of the Senate communicated to the Province
Governors in Circular No. 12602, the Ministry of Interior Affairs in another
Circular No 12725 of September 3, 1870 commissioned the province governors to
offer to the Zemstvo Boards the following rules for the establishment of the
zemstvo (rural) posts:

1. The zemstvo cost is established: a) to transfer ordinary letters, maga-
zines, newspapers and notices of the receipt of money, insured and parcel post
from the post office to more or less distant places within the county, and
b) to transfer correspondence of all kinds from more or less remote places
to the nearest post office, and c) to transfer all kinds of correspondence
between parts of the county which have no postal communications.

2. Persons desirous of receiving correspondence from the post office in the
form described in Art. 1, paragraph "a", are to present to the post offices
the individual permits or the formal decisions of the rural communities to
which the persons belong.

3. The itinerary of the Zemstvo Posts must be established only by rural roads.

NOTE: The correspondence of the Zemstvo Boards between themselves or
with private persons and institutions which are located on the postal
routes, the correspondence of private persons with all government and
private institutions and persons located on the postal routes, these
may not be handled in any other way than through the postal institutions,
and any deviation from this rule is contrary to Art. 11 of the Penal
Code (1866 issue) and to the ruling of the Committee of Ministers ap-
proved by His Majesty May 1, 1870.

h. The zemstvo posts are allowed to have their own postage stamps, with an
unalterable condition that these stamps in their designs would have nothing
in common with the stamps of the Empire post, and

5. The messengers of the zemstvo posts may use on their bags the province
or county coat of arms, but without the postal horns.

Later with the aim of developing and making easier the movement of the corres-
pondence via the zemstvo posts and also because in the provinces, besides the
rural roads, there are provincial and county roads which are without postal
connections, Articles 2) and 3) of the rules issued for the establishment of
the zemstvo posts are modified as follows:

Article 2. The persons that desire to receive from the postal institu-
tions their correspondence in the way explained in Art. 1, paragraph "a", must
present at the post offices their individual written notices or legal decisions
of the rural communities to which the petitioners belong. These documents
may be presented, at the discretion of the petitioner, for each case or for
some definite or indefinite period. Apart from that, if the sender makes an
anotation on the cover of the letter that he has confidence in its safe arrival
by the zemstvo post, then for this sending by zemstvo post there would be no
need for the above-mentioned documents.

-22-










Article 3. The movement of the zemstvo posts may be established on all
except postal route roads, i.e. on roads on which the Enpire mails are moved.

The change of these articles (made at the request of the St. Petersburg Pro-
vince Zemstvo Board) was communicated to the province governors by the cir-
cular of the Ministry of Interior Affairs, October 25, 1870, No. 15271.

Article 2 of the establishment of the zemstvo posts in the month of June of
the next year of 1871 was modified again to be in accord with Article 439 of
the Postal Code of 1863.

This Article 439 had a rule that "if anyone desires to receive from the post
office ordinary mail through his representatives, then he must write to the
post office from which he desires to receive the correspondence and then the
said post office will issue a printed, yearly card charging 1 ruble 3 kop.;
such a card will be renewed yearly on payment of the above-mentioned sum, but
the letters will not be issued to the agents without their presentation of
this card each time at the post office".

In conformity with this article of the Postal Code, the second Article of the
rules about the zemstvo posts in the circular of the Ministry of Interior Af-
fairs :'o. 9020 of June 20, 1871 was modified in the following way: "Persons
desirous of receiving correspondence according to the rules explained in Art.
1, paragraph "A", must present to the post office a written power of attor-
ney, or the formal decisions of the rural communities where the petitioners
reside. Then the corresponding postal institution will issue a printed an-
nual card, the charge for which will be 1 rub. 43 kop. per person if he should
decide to receive his correspondence separately, or from the inhabitants of
a settlement if they should express the desire to receive their correspond-
ence together on a single card. These cards may be renewed each year against
payment of a like amount. Correspondence will not be delivered from the post
offices without the presentation of these cards in the post offices by the
representatives of the Zemstvo Boards that would be authorized to receive
the correspondence. Cards may be dispensed with if on the cover of an ordi-
nary letter the sender makes an anotation that he has confidence his corres-
zondence will finally be delivered via the zemstvo post."

TO 3B 30 TINJSED

NOTE: It should be pertinent to note here that the word "Zemstvo" in its
application to the Zemstvo Postal Services, as it is understood today, took
some time to be acknowledged and fully accepted. The same refers to the
translations of the term "Zemstvo". In the absence of any simple and brief
translation of the term "Zemstvo", Herrick uses the words "rural" and "local".
The first line of his Circular dated 3 September 1870 reads: "I. The local
post is authorized, etc.", while Sokolov starts the first line of the Cir-
cular 12725 with the words: "1. The Zemstvo Post is established, etc." And
in the preceding phrase, Sokolov uses the expression: "zemstvo (rural) posts".

It seems as if in the early years of the Zemstvo Postal Services there was
no uniform terminology, as may be seen from the following inscriptions on some
Zemstvo Postage Stamps: Belozersk (1872-1885) uses the term "Zemstvo Village
Post"; 1887 stamps 31a and 32a (Schmidt Nos.) use the term "Village Post";
"Zemstvo Post" from 1889 on. Vierkhnednieprovsk "County Village Post".
Solikamsk (1887-#1) "County Zemstvo Post". Pskov "County Zemstvo Post",

-23-








"Zemstvo Village Post". Nolinsk and Kotelnitch "Zemstvo Office Post".
Kazan "Village Post", etc., etc. Even K. Schmidt in his major works,
although fully explaining what Zemstvos were, nevertheless, in the absence of
other translation, uses the equivalent of "Provincial Land Post". All of
these terms should be understood as "Zemstvo Post", since with the passage of
years, the Zemstvos of all counties that had postal services had adopted the
same term, "Zemstvo Post".





A BULGARIAN LETTER OF 1879 WITH RUSSIAN POSTMARKS
by D. N. Minchev

An opportunity recently presented itself to us for viewing an interesting
letter, originating from the first few months of activity of the Bulgarian
national postal service. In essence, its appeal lies in the markings placed
upon it, which had also been utilized by the Russian civilian posts in Bul-
garia during 1877-79.

The letter, which relates to commercial matters, consists of a sheet of paper
measuring 23x29 cm. and folded lengthwise, in the fashion of those days. On
its back there are traces of red sealing wax with a monogram impression. The
letter, dated "1879 July 28 Vidin", is addressed to the Papazoglu Brothers
(The Papazovs) in the city of Kazanluk, who were well-known suppliers of the
famous Bulgarian attar of roses. In going from Vidin to Kazanluk, the letter
went by way of Silistra, T'rnovo and Gabrovo.

Two Bulgarian postage stamps of 10 centimes and one of 5 centimes of the first
series, which was placed on issue on 1 May 1879, are affixed to the address
side of the letter (11. 1). The stamps are cancelled with two strikes of a
barely legible double-circle marking, reading "VIDDIN / VIDIN, 29 VII 79" (Fig.
63 according to Tchilinghirian). The same postmark, now very clear, is
placed on the back of the letter (Ill. 2). The interesting route taken by
the letter begins with this postmark and the journey is very eloquently traced
out by the series of other markings it bears. The letter went direct to
Silistra by a ship of the DDSG (the Austrian Danube Steamship Company), as
it apparently did not stop at Ruschuk. The post office at Silistra placed
its postmark (Tchilinghirian Fig. 71) on the back of the letter and it is
very hard to read. The letter must have been in Silistra during the first
few days of August, but the exact date is not visible; it looks like August
3rd. The office at Silistra forwarded the letter via Ruschuk (even though
there is no transit strike of that office) to T'rnovo, where, according to
the dated cancel (Tchilinghirian Fig. 66), it arrived on 9 August 1879.

In turn, the letter was dispatched from T'rnovo to Kazanluk, which latter
town was then situated in the autonomous province of Eastern Roumelia. It
went by way of Gabrovo, this office serving as one of the border exchange
points for mail between the Prinicipality of Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia.
The post office at Gabrovo processed the letter on 10 August 1879 with, in-
terestingly enough, the first type of dated cancel used by the Russian civ-
ilian postal service (Tchilinghirian Fig. 727). The letter then arrived in
Kazanluk, but, as usual, that postal office did not note the event by ap-
plying its marking.

-24-











In conclusion, we take the liberty of pointing out that the above very in-
teresting letter proves, in a very clear fashion, the usage by the Bulgarian
national postal service for quite some time of the cancellers inherited
from the previous Russian civilian postal system. Moreover, the aforesaid
letter tends to support our thesis regarding the classification and activity
of the Russian posts in Bulgaria during 1877-79, as well as those of the
Bulgarian postal service, from 1 May 1879 onwards.














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I/In. 2.





-25-








POLAND-ODESSA
Jozef Kuderewicz, M. D.

It is a known fact the geographical positions of some historical and inter-
national events are bringing people, cities and countries together. Such
situations and events are becoming even more interesting when they are dis-
covered and confirmed by philatelic material. An example of such a situ-
ation can be found in the relations of Poland and the City of Odessa. This
philatelic relation can be divided into three periods each precipitated
by this significant historical events.

1. XIXth Century (pre-philatelic and philatelic eras) Historically we
found that Poland underwent partitions and that the Congress of Vienna,
in 1815, confirmed this partition.

Geographically the Polish Western Territories are taken by Prussia, the
Southern by Austria (so called Galicia), the Eastern, including Warsaw,
by Russia, forming the so called Kingdom of Poland. Additionally, the
city of Krakow was formed as a Free City or so called Republic of Kra-
kow. It is a known fact that although the city of Odessa, being a
large port on the Black Sea, preferred to send mail by land. Postal
routes to Western Europe went through Polish territories, therefore such
mail is bearing tranist markings from Polish cities some from Brzesc
Litewski (Brest Litowski), border town of Polish Kingdom and Russia -
sone of them Brody, border town between Galicia and Russia. This situ-
ation existed not only during the pre-philatelic era, but even later
when postal routes were improved and when railroads were built and trains
were used for postal purposes.

2. I World War (Russian Revolution) Historically, Poland became an in-
dependent country on the llth of November, 1917. Russia, at that time,
was in the throws of a Revolution. The city of Odessa was still free
under army protection of General Denikin. For escapes and evacuees of
Polish extraction from Communist territories, the Polish government,
with permission of General Denikin, opened a Consulate in the city of
Odessa in September, 1919.

Philatelically, although it is known that some mail from the Consulate
was delivered in the month of September and October, but it is consid-
ered unofficial. In October 1919, due to the increase in mail, the
Polish Consulate was supplied with Polish Regular Stamps without over-
print of values 5,15 fenigs imperforated 10, 15, and 25 whalers 10,
20, 25 and 50 fenigs and 1 mark perforated, all were used having been
cancelled with Polish Postal Agency Cancellation. Then in the middle
of November, 1919, the Polish Postal Agency was officially opened. This
agency was under the complete jurisdiction of the Consulate. Mail from
Odessa was brought by the Diplomatic Couriers and delivered to the Min-
istry of Foreign Affairs, then to General Postal Service in Warsaw, who
in turn delivered to the addressees. Stamps were overprinted by the
Printing Establishment of FESENKO NAWROCKI in Odessa. Overprint is in
black slightly glossy ODESA. This overprint is in two forms one
13 mm in length and 2 3/ nmm in height for fenigs value. The second
form 14 3/4 mm in length and 3 mm in height for marks value. Values
and amounts of overprinted stamps:

10 fenigs 598 including 50 stamps with red overprint and 3 with inverted
overprint
-26-








20 fenigs 601 including 5 inverted
25 fenigs 213 including 5 inverted
50 fenigs 612 including 50 with red overprint and 6 inverted
1 mark 706 including 6 inverted
15 whalers 6 (?)

Stamps with red overprint and overprinted 15 halers values are considered
as proofs. All stamps with inverted overprints are considered as specu-
lative. The above mentioned figures were changed many times and opinion
regarding inverted overprints and overprinted 15 halers values, is not
yet clear.

Postal Rates were as follows:

20 fenigs for postal card
50 fenigs for letter up to 20 GM.
30 fenigs for additional weight over 20 mn.
50 fenigs for registry

All mail was cancelled with 24 x 14 mm triple frame ODESA, in black or
dark violet colors. Additional markings are Registration on frontal
portion of cover and Czytanow Konsulacie Polskim w Odessie (Read in
Polish Consulate in Odessa), Komendant Etapu on the back of cover. On
some of them there is the signature of the censor on the front cover.
This Polish Postal Agency in Odessa was forced to close under the pres-
sure of the Red Army on the 31st of January, 1920. During the two and a
half months, the agency sent 599 registered letters and 135 pieces of
regular mail.

3. II World War Historically it is known that the second World War started
with the invasion of Poland by the Nazi Third Reich on the 1st of Sep-
tember, 1939 from the west, then on the 17th of September, 1939, the Red
Army entered Poland from the east.

Philatelically, all mail to foreign countries in the eastern part of
Poland which was found at the post offices, was sent to USSR, then later
forwarded to the addressees. Some of this mail is bearing cancellations
of Odessa. If this mail was delivered by land or by sea, it is not known.

PHOTOGRAPHS

1. Stampless cover sent from Odessa on the 1st of November, 1836 bearing
tranist red oval postmark of BRODY in Galicia, and red double ring re-
ceiving 4th of December postmark.

2. Polish Postal Agency in Odessa Cover Overprinted with Odesa (mark value
stamp) cancelled with dark violet triple frame Odesa.

Registration marking with usual R then hand written date 9th of January,
the Odessa and number on front of cover.

Black round receiving cancelation then Czytano w Konsulacie Polskim w
Odessie in two lines, Komendant Etapu in one line dark violet color.

3. Postal Card Mailed in MANIEWICZE on 15th of September, 1939 Bi-lin-
gual (Russian and Ukrainian), Odessa ? November 1939, then receiving Buc-
arest 30th of November 1939.

-27-










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-29-









THE ORIGINAL "CONTROL LABELS" OF 1918
by Kurt Adler

I have noted with great interest the fine article on the 1941 Sarny Control
Stamps by fellow-member R. Polchaninoff, and the appended illustrations of
beautiful covers, sheets and varieties from the Yaroslav S. Terlecky Col-
lection.

As Mr. Polchaninoff points out, the Ukrainian inscription "Kontrol'nii Znak",
or "Control Label" was inspried by a set of local stamps, inscribed "Kontrol'
nyi Znak" in Russian and issued during August-December 1918 by the German
Tenth Army Occupation Authorities to at least 28 known "Landesbotenanstalten"
or "local messenger offices" situated throughout Byelorussia. These offices
used the Russian cancellers of the towns in which they were set up, to cancel
all mail. To give members some idea what functions the original 1918 issue
performed, I will now describe two covers and a card in my collection:-

1. A cover sent from Baranovichi on 26 Sept. 1918 to Moscow. Franked with
the 60 pf. stamp for the local letter rate and a 20 pf. "Germania: type
stamp of Germany to take it out of the occupation zone, it was censored by the
Germans en route at Vil'na (Vilnius, Wilno), where a large encircled 'W" was
struck in black. It arrived in Moscow on 18 Oct. and delayed there until 10
Nov. at least for examination and sealing by Moscow Censor No. 86. Please
see fig. 1.

2. An example of the 30 pf. local card rate on the distinctive printed post-
card specially provided for this service and sent from Pogost, Minsk province
on 19 Oct. 1918 to the village of Kamen, Borisov county, Zembin district.
Note the blue-pencilled capital "B" at bottom left which might indicate cen-
sorship when the card passed through Borisov. (see fig. 2).

3. A registered cover sent during thelast days of the occupate of Baranovichi
on 4 Dec. 1918. Addressed to Mitau (Mitava, or Jelgava in Latvia), which was
still under German control, it shows the usage of the 60 pf. stamp for the
local letter rate, a 20 pf. "Germania" stamp to take it out of the Tenth Army
territory, and an additional 50 pf. made up with two copies of the 10 pf.
"Germania" stamp and a 30 pf. Control Label, apparently affixed to cover the
registration fee. The letter arrived at its destination eight days later (please
see fig. 3).

Any details on further usages would be appreciated from fellow-members so that
a fuller picture of this service will emerge. Confirmation is especially re-
quired for the registration fee as there was no mention of such a service in
the original German notice authorizing the issue. In addition to the two values
noted on my material, there was also a 40 kop. surcharge on the 30 pf. stamp
to pay for delivery changes, but I have never seen it used.

For additional information on this unusual local service, readers should con-
sult an article by fellow-member A. Cronin, entitled "The Local Post of the
German Tenth Army (Aug.-Dec. 1918)" and published in "The London Philatelist"
for Dec. 1958, pp. 205-7.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Cronin has a set of rouletted currency stamps, printed
on thick card with a security "burelage" or wavy-lined overprint and inscribed
"I. Armeekorps" (please see fig. I). The values and colors are as follows:-
-30-









1 pfg. lilac 50 pfg. brown
10 pfg. red 1 mark green
20 pfg. blue

These may have been circulated as paper money by the occupation authorities
in Byelorussia. However, more evidence is required to prove this, since the
Tenth Arny operated in other theatres of war prior to service in Byelorussia.


S-' FIG. 1 (at left):

"" -'- ..- '' A cover from Baranovichi
S Minsk province, showing
..---"" .-".rII -- -" usage of the 60 pf.
-.-... ... ., stamp for the local
S' -- letter rate, with a
*-- furIther 20 pf."Germania"
stamp to take it out of
-- -' the occupation zone
S- and on to Moscow.









S" FIG. 2 (at left):
o T ,------ ...........
An example of the
OTrnD 2^ _.-..-- / / *5' special postcard
provided for this service
Or TOW Kp TO K KO t, and sent from Pogost,
OMTOBas KapT04Ka. M linsk province, to the
"". ,. village of Kamen. Note
.- "- .... the 30 pf. stamp for the
:local card rate and the
Sprinted rectangle for it
S, ...2.....^ at upper right. The
.-.. card measures 134 x 89 mm




. -i .......
-Bb







-31-








9 i jCM "^ FIG. 3 (at left):

Si A registered letter
sent under No. 221
S( 21b/ from Baranovichi to
^__NO Mitau during the
Last days of the
- e j... ; German occupation.




S7, \ .'Tenth Army Corps.
Rua. \ ''v-. ." '- k',- : \ .6.b-


.-, /- -- ,- .--- -.- i.N "
../ .. y.... .. .. ..





WHAT THE WATERMARK TELLS US
"y Nikolai Viktorovich Luchnik, PhD.

(Translated from "FILATELIYA SSSR", issue No. 2/1967, pp. 20-21)

Anyone who collects Russian stamps knows the series with thunderbolts. These
stamps were on issue from 1889 to 1909. They were printed on horizontal and
vertically laid paper. Three values, the 15, 25 and 70 kop. stamps, were only
on vertically laid paper, as stated in most catalogs. But what was the con-
nection in this? The story behind the first two stamps particularly interested
me.

For a start, I compared the values of this set with those of the previous series
without thunderbolts, which was issued in 1883-83, up till the unification of
the Postal and Telegraphic Departments. The face values of the previous stamps
were 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 1U, 35 and 70 kopeks, 3 r. 50 k. and 7 rubles. The sig-
nificance of such values is clear to anyone acquainted with Russian postal hi-
story. In accordance with the rates at that time, the 1 and 2 kop. values
were designated for the prepayment of newspaper wrappers, the 3kop. for post-
cards, the 5 kop. for local letters, the 7 kop. for ordinary intercity letters
weighing up to 1 lot ( os.) and so on.

When the stamps with thunderbolts were issued in 1889, all the previous values
were repeated. Of course, they did not come into use all at the same time,
as there were apparently large stocks left of unused stamps of the previous
set. Most of the values appeared on 14/26 Dec. 1889 and several others later.
Thus, the 50 kop. came out in 1891, the 35 kop. in 1892, while the 70 kop.
did not appear until 1902 and then only on vertically laid paper. The fol-
lowing new values were added to the set: 4, 10, 20 and 50 kop. and 1 ruble.
-32-







OTP H YnoH EPEBOA-b no nOHTI ,
OTP-b3HOO KY[1OH-b. MOcTO



-,I

S.HloToprb cpip-fmlhll np,)llli. aI hX IPUu). '
|. '.. 'k ,n _.: a.

S.no p o .i &lp6e i : ony. iaen. .n .

.' --." ,: a *,. ,- .. ..-
HionHOie aJppeoc ornpnaltma:po6 pe










... ym 6 *e6 H bl a T M t T TK .
.. 3 9 --





N *a 0-0cOhT cr i i n ca po, N p uK Ho ;io 9-aeTca

-B'e KN e' -r. oxpyr. .'
S -' o e a ...... .. .. ...
............ ... C .. .. e '
f "i 2'.:.,, .w lab I




; ,ibMrHloe coo6iHCH!0 Ha o5opOTt;,BTcro HH, HMialX nonapo.b 6 nolipaBOK, HO ornyciaercio.
* --2 131.' .:A BleHcKiii rr.-r. oKpYr'b. I h

FIG. 1: Unstamped money-order card printed by authority of the Vil 'na Postal & Telegraphic
Region. Note the "tear-off coupon" at left.
ILLUSTRATIONS FOR
31 fOCTIAKY Y ATITb ID RI. THE ARTICLE
"WHAT THE WATERMARK
TELLS US", BY
FIG. 2: The handstamp denoting the 10 kopek delivery fee DR. N. V. LUCHNIK.
for parcels.


a pHoe 06IecTBO ,JIEKTOPFb", BaJIbHa- FIG. 3:
A C.O.D. card
'e3 3AKA3HAH BAHA EPOnb.
printed by the
Lektor Publishing
\ T oiheH-b niaTe7Kcb Ha ---... p-----. K. and Bookselling
Company of Vil'na
for the collection
VS. n: of amounts due for
material sent at
33 V the registered
wrapper rate. Note
the postage and tht
space for the
Registration label
at the left of the
--------- card .
? AIa noq I. apanbla. A e nojiyeuin afpeca npocir no ucTeuenin
Mtcnla B03BpaTHTb.










All of these were in new designs. Now, for what reason were these values
needed in 1889, bearing in mind that they were issued on 2/14 May, which was
earlier than the other values? In the catalog published by the SFA under
the editorship of F. G. Chuchin, it is stated that "the stamps were issued
for the prepayment of foreign correspondence as a result of the introduction
of the rate of 10 kop. for 15 granmes (1 oz.). Quite a short note. And it
is not clear why a U kop. stamp appeared. I looked for an explanation and
happened to discover a Circular No. 16 for 17 March 1889, issued by the Postal
and Telegraphic Department. From this I found out that upon a directive from
the Council of State of 24 Jan. of the same year, there came into effect an
increase in rates for all mail addressed abroad. By now, I had found out the
complete details. An ordinary letter going abroad cost 10 kop. as we know,
a postcard 4 kop. and the registration fee was also 10 kop. Obviously, the
values of 50 kop. and 1 ruble were designated for heavy sending and the 20
kop. value for registered letters.

Now about the paper. In 1889, the stamps were printed on horizontally laid
paper, but in 1902 they appeared with the watermark laid vertically. But
even by this year there were still no 15 and 25 kop. stamps, which had started
off my search. They did not appear until 1905. For this reason, these two
stamps are listed in the SFA and Lipsia catalogs as a separate issue, while
several other catalogs, such as Ivert and Scott, do not separate them. It
is now clear why the stamps were issued only on vertically laid paper; by
1905, the previous type of paper did not apply.

What, then, casued the 15 and 25 kop. stamps to be issued in 1905? The only
catalog which gives any information is the 1928 edition of the SFA catalog.
It stated that they were "issued for the payment of fees for money orders".
However, it was still not clear why these stamps were not needed earlier.
Was it perhaps that a change in rates had come out again? No, that was not
the case.

For a long time I pored over the official "Postal and Telegraphic Journal",
where all the circulars of the Postal and Telegraphic Department were printed.
Finally, in one of the numbers for 1904, I found what I was looking for,
contained as part of Article No. 24 of the "Directives and Orders". This
article is so interesting that I wish to reproduce it in full, as follows:-

"ABOUT THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW POSTAGE STAMPS IN THE VALUES OF 15 & 25 KOPEKS.

I.

From 1 Jan. 1905, new postage stamps in the values of 15 and 25 kop. will be
brought into use for the payment of money transfers through the mails, as well
as for other classes of postal correspondence. A description of these stamps
is appended herewith.

II.

The latest issue of special forms produced in 1896 and 1899 with impressions
of 15 and 25 kop. values (see "The Government Gazette", Nos. 270 and 58) for
the transmission of money through the mails is to be terminated and, moreover,
the sale of these existing forms will be tolerated until they are completely
sold out.

-34-







III.

Transfers of money through the mails may be carried out on privately prepared
forms, without impression of value, as permitted by an order of the Ministry
of Internal Affairs in 1899 (see the Government Gazette, No. 221), with the
proviso that the payment of the postal charges for the transfer of money be
made by means of affixing postage stamps of the corresponding amount to the
forms. Cards of this type are available, among other items, at all post and
telegraph offices at the selling price of kop. each."

Immediately after this there follows a detailed "description of postage stamps
of 15 and 25 kopek values". There is no sense in reproducing this as the
design of the stamps is well known and is similar to that for the 1l, 35 and
70 kopek values. However, the design does differ somewhat; after the word
"KOP", there is not just one period as before, but two. Is that all? No,
not by any means. The circular, which has been found, raises new questions.

In fact, the commission on money orders in those days was paid for, not in
cash as now, but with postage stamps. But why were 15 and 25 kop. stamps
specifically issued to pay for money orders when the rate could have come
to something else? What was all this about "special forms with 15 and 25
kopek impressions"?

I searched anew. It was not difficult to get on the track of the "special
forms"; tney are also described in the SFA catalog. To find actual examples
of these forms was more difficult. And, in any case, after the issue of the
two stamps which interested me, these special forms continued on sale until
all stocks were exhausted. Moreover, the filled-in forms stayed with the
postal service and were destroyed after a time, while only the tear-off coupon
with written notations was delivered to the addressee. Finally, I happened
to get hold of a few money-order forms, which had stamp designs impressed on
them. It is curious to note that the amounts on the money orders varied, but
the impressed stamp was always either 15 or 25 kop. value.

This design is itself interesting. No postage stamps were ever issued like
it. However, I was able to ascertain their origin. In 1896, a new issue of
stamps was in preparation, but it did not materialize. Essays were printed
in quite new designs, perforated and imperforate and in various color. These
essays are rare. I even unearthed illustrations of them It can be proven
from them that the impressions on the money orders reproduced the design for
the 2 and 3 kop. essays, with only the ornamentation slightly changed. In
other words, it appears that this rejected stamp design was used as an im-
pression on the money-order forms. Thus, together with old money-order forms
I also obtained illustrations of rare essays!

Only one point now remains to be cleared up: how to explain the commission on
money-orders. I picked up the corresponding postal manual and soon found out.
Any money order at all, whether postal or telegraphic, cost 15 kopeks. That
is, the 15 kopek form covered a money order without delivery, and the 25 ko-
pek form included the delivery charge. Nowadays, it seems strange to us that
there was a flat commission on a money order, regardless of the amount trans-
mitted. But there is some logic in this. The money itself was not sent
through the mails, but only the form. With regard to the transmission of
actual cash through the post, there existed at that time a class of mail
known as "money letters", for which an insurance fee was charged, in an exact
ratio to the amount being sent.

So that is what the watermark on the 15 and 25 kopek stamps has lead us to,

-35-









EDITORIAL CONEZ.T: Dr. Luchnik's absorbing investigation will be of great
value to the postal historian and postal stationery collector, and we can now
add further information based on material held here. Thus, readers can turn
to the illustration of the Talienwan money-order card held by member C. P. Bulak
to see what the impressed 15 kopek die looked like (please see Rossica No. 65,
bottom left illustration facing page I).

We now refer our members to fig. 1 herewith for an example of an unstamped
money-order form, ass issued by the Vil'na (Vilnius) Postal and Telegraphic
Region in the 1910s, with the "tear-off coupon" shown at left. The form mea-
sures 210 x 143 mm. and is printed in pale blue on cream colored card. There
are inscriptions on the back denoting where written notations and the signa-
ture of the recipient should be made.

The next item of interest is a parcel address card, sent from Baku on 11 July
1912 to Warsaw (16 July) and printed by authority of the Tiflis Postal and
Telegraphic Region. An examination of this item shows that the 10 kopek de-
livery fee also applied to this class of mail, as witnessed by the single-
line cachet struck in violet on the back of the card and reading in Russian
"10 K. TO BE PAID FOR DELIVERY" (fig. 2).

Finally, we can now consider another class of mail, as demonstrated by a C.O.D.
card, privately printed for their own use in a total of 20,000 copies on 9
Mar. 1912 by the Lektor Publishing and Bookselling Co. of Vil'na (Vilnius).
The card covered the cost and charges totalling 3 r. 90 k. on material being
sent by registered wrapper rate from Vil'na 21 Sept. 12 to Biala 22 Sept. 12.
Note the space at left for the postage (in this case 15 k. plus 4 k. stamps
of the Arms type) and registration label at the left of the card (fig.3).

The significance of the 15 kop. stamp is apparently explained by a printed no-
tice on the other side of the card, which reads as follows:-

"Dear Sir,

The payment obtained from this wrapper sending, with a deduction of 15 kop.
for transmission being paid as agreed by the subscriber, is to be applied to
the gradual liquidation of the amount owing by you for the receipt of pub-
lications from us.

Yours faithfully,

The Lektor Co. Ltd."

In other words, it appears that there was also a flat 15 kopek commission for
any amount collected on C.O.D. cards.

We feel that this is a collecting field worthy of further serious attention
and we would like to have details from our readers of additional material
they may be able to bring to light.






-36-









THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE POSTAL SERVICE IN THE TRANSCARPATHIAN PROVINCE OF THE SOVIET UNION
I by Miroslav Blaha

(Translated from "Filatelie" of Prague, Nos. 19-21 for 7 Oct. to 9 Nov. 1966.
the fortnightly organ of the Federation of Czechoslovak Philatelists, by kind
permission of the author and the Federation.)

One of the least studied fields in philately is the postal history of the
Transcarpathian Province. This article has for its aim the coverage of this
extensive field in a concise and documented outline, which cannot therefore
be comprehensive and is far from giving the total picture.

From historical sources, we know that upon the breakup of the Empire of Greater
Moravia, the Slav population dwelling below the Carpathians was subjugated
and in the year 1030 A.D., the territory was annexed to the Hungarian crown.
In effect, it then remained under the rule of the Hungarians until November
1918, and thereafter, following the occupation of a part of the country by
the Roumanians, it was taken over by the Czechoslovak Anmy on 8 May 1919 (fig.
13).

In what way did the postal service come into being? Upon the establishment
of routes and post stations at the end of the 18th. century, there were only
twelve post offices functioning. The city of Uzhorod was linked, for postal
purposes, by the highway which ran from Kosice to Michalovce, Uzhorod, Muk-
acevo and finally to Chust. The postal markings on prestamp covers are
either in German or Hungarian (see figs. 1-4).

From 1 June 1850 to 1 May 1871, the stamps of the first five issues of Aus-
tria-Hungary were used in this territory (figs 5, 6). Since this province
formed part of Hungary, stamps and cancels of the latter country were utili-
zed from the year 1871 onwards (figs. 7, 8).

Upon the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in November 1918, Rou-
mania occupied part of the territory. During the period of existence of the
Hungarian Soviet Republic (21 March to 8 May 1919), the remaining part of
the country was linked with Hungary. By the Treaty of Saint-Germain, all of
the territory was ceded to the Czechoslovak Republic. The writer Ivan
Olbracht has described very well the whole range of this eventful period of
changes, as he has been interested in its history and knows the situation
here.

Czechoslovak stamps were valid here during the period of the first Czecho-
slovak Republic. Until the year 1921, Hungarian cancellers were used (fig.
9) and they were gradually replaced by bilingual Czech-Russian types (fig.
15). Markings for the RPOs (TPOs), as well as those of the airmail services
in Uzhorod come in a whole range of types (figs. 14, 16). Also, there were
three stamps issued with scenes of the country, which was now called "Pod-
karpatska Rus" or "Subcarpathian Russia" (60 h. Jasina stamp of 1928; lk.20.h.
stamp of 1936 with a view of the Palanok Castle at Mukacevo; 3k. Jasina
stampe of 1939). In addition, fifteen cards were issued with various scenes
from Subcarpathian Russia. The names of the towns were changed or given
Czech equivalents, e.g. Beregszasz to Berehovo; Dolha to Dolgoe; Dvhoje,
Dovhe, etc. (figs. 10-12).

S After the treachery at Munich in September 1938, the Vienna Award followed
on 2 Nov. 1938, in accordance with which the whole of the southern part with

-37-








the districts of Uzhorod, Mukacevo and Berehovo were torn away from this ter-
ritory (figs. 17-19).

In the rump part of the Czechoslovak Republic, the convened deputies and dele-
gates of the national administration were to have come to Chust on 2 March
1939 and an autonomous Carpatho-Ukraine was to have been proclaimed (see figs.
20, 21 for impressions of tentative cancels). The Constituent Assembly was,
however, first cancelled and then again hurriedly convened on 15 March 1939.
It had barely done so when the occupation of the Czechoslovak Republic was
carried through to its conclusion. It is true that the Assembly came together
on 15 March 1939 (figs. 22, 23), but in the afternoon hours of that very day,
Hungarian Fascist troops crossed the frontiers and by the following day they
had then occupied the whole country. The number of letters, which has act-
ually been delivered through the mails, is small. They bear an arrival marking
of the basic Czechoslovak lands dated 23 or 24 March 1939. Other items with
later arrival markings must be either completely forged, or examples of genu-
ine cancels placed on letters fabricated later on.

In fig. 24, there is a cut showing the application of a genuine Czechoslovak
cancel, but on a Hungarian stamp and showing the hour when the post office
was occupied (4 p.m.). Philatelically made covers also exist with the 3 k.
Jasina stamp, used in the protectorate of Bohemia & Moravia (fig. 25).

Upon seizure of the entire country, the post offices were supplied with rub-
ber cancels, inscribed "MAGYAR KIR. POSTA", with the coat of arms and the
number of the office (fig. 26.). At a few post offices, these markings were
changed, the numbers altered and metal cancellers utilized (fig. 27). A
small part of the territory of Slovakia, taken in a previous occupation, was
attached to the newly-seized province and it contained the post offices at
Sobrance, Ulic, Ubla, Remetske Hamre, Stakcin, Bezovce and the postal agency
of Klenova, which latter was elevated three years later to a post office
(figs. 28, 29).

In the first occupied portion of the Transcarpathian area, which occurred on
2 Nov. 1938, the stamps, postmarks, postal stationery and registration labels
came only with Hungarian inscriptions (figs. 30, 31). In the rest of the
country, the cancellers, registration labels and four other types of postal
stationery had inscriptions in Hungarian and Russian, with Hungarian franking
(figs. 32-35).

During the course of the Second World War, the Czechoslovak Army in the West
utilized various cancels, and among them, one sole type in commemoration of
the territory of the Transcarpathian Province, wh ich was not applied offici-
ally. It comes in a cancel of the Field Post in England with the date 24
Apr. 1941 in honor of A. V. Duchnovic (A. V. Dukhnovich), the national awakener
of the Ruthenians (fig. 36).

During W.W.II, the Transcarpathians were conscripted into the Fascist Horthyite
Hungarian Army, but a considerable number of them went over to the First
Czechoslovak Independent Unit on the Eastern Front. Upon the liberation of
the Transcarpathian Province by the Soviet Army in October 1944 (Uzhorod was
freed on 27/28 Oct. 19W4), the official authorities of the London Government
came over, in accordance with international agreements, to administer what was
then still our liberated territory. The delegation of the London Government,
lead by Deputy Nemec, had its seat at Chust (fig. 37). Its activity started
with the beginning of Nov. 1944. On the llth of the same month, Deputy Nemec,
as representative of the Government, issued a decree directing that the pre-
vious Hungarian stamps be provided with an overprint reading "CSP/19W4 (fig. 37a).
-38-









Hungarian postal stationery and stamps were therefore concentrated at the
G.P.O. in Chust in accordance with an order by Dr. Krudsky, the attorney for
the postal service (fig. 38) and overprinted there by hand under the super-
vision of Michal Fedeles, the director of the post office. By a notice,
under No. 97 of 4 Dec. 19U4, issued by the post office in Chust, stamps and
postal stationery with the "CSP / 1944" overprint were recognized as being
valid. Dr. A. Prazak, a member of the Government delegation, has written
thoroughly about the production of these overprinted stamps and the dislo-
cated conditions in the postal service, in an article featured in the Czech
magazine "Zpravodaj nase filatelie" ("Report our philately"), issue of 20
April 1966. There is no doubt that these stamps were actually and legally
the first valid stamps of the liberated Czechoslovak Republic (figs. 39-
44).

All post offices which our Government delegation administered (i.e., in the
eastern portion of the country, with the district town of Chust) sold the
stamps. In the western section of the territory, there were post offices in
the cities of Uzhorod and Mukacevo under the administration of the National
Council of Transcarpatho-Ukraine, resulting from a congress of Ukrainians
which had taken place on 26 Nov. 1944. The National Councile of Transcar-
patho-Ukraine gradually acquired powers, both in negotiations and in the
signature of an Act of Separation from our republic, which was performed at
the Kremlin on 29 June 1945, whereby Transcarpatho-Ukraine was placed com-
pletely under its own administration, and our delegation left Chust.

The official report about the act of separation is worded as follows: "In
accordance with meetings which have been carried out in a friendly atmos-
phere, an agreement was signed in Moscow on 29 June 19h5 between the USSR and
the CSR, whereby Transcarpatho-Ukraine is now enrolled in the USSR".

With this, the validity of the stamps and postal stationery with the initials
"CSP / 19h4" also ca.Te to an end. The unused remainders of stamps and postal
stationery were overprinted in Uzhorod with a new inscription reading "Poshta
/ Zakarpatska / Ukrayina" (figs. 45-49).

At that time, there were three currencies circulating on the territory of
Transcarpatho-Ukraine: the Hungarian pengo, the Soviet ruble and the Czecho-
slovak corwn, and so, the stamps issued by the National Council of Trans-
carpatho-Ukraine only had a numeral designation, without specifying the cur-
rency (figs. 49, 51-51).

On 15 Nov. 1915, i'anscarpatho-Ukraine was attached to the USSR, politically
and also postally. For a short time, the cancels reading "ZAKARPATS'KA
UKRAYINE / POSHTA" were utilized (fig. 50). At the beginning of 1946, these
were again changed to small circular markings, on which the name of the post
office was given with an abbreviation for the Transcarpathian Province (figs.
55, 56).

At the present timn (lyo), there are 244 post offices and agencies altogether
in this province, of which as many as nine are in the capital (Uzhorod). The
cancels come in various types. There are seven post offices with bilingual
markings in Ukrainian and Russian (figs. 57, 58), and the remainder are either
with bilingual Russian-Ukrainian inscriptions (fig. 60), or in Russian only
(fig. 59). The registration handstamps are in Cyrillic for internal sending
(fig. 56) and in 'rench spelling for foreign correspondence (fig. 61).
-39-








The close and important fraternal relationship with our nearest Slav neighbors
is also documented in the designing of postal stationery, among which there is
one commemorating the 20th anniversary of the treaty signed between the USSR
and the CSR (fig. 62). The design on another entire commemorates the 20th
anniversary of the separation agreement, for which a special cancel was also
issued, being the only one so far applied since the year 1945 at Uzhorod
(fig. 63).

In this short survey, I am unable to describe all interesting items, since pub-
lication of them would take up too much space.

May I now extend fraternal greenting and thanks to all Transcarpathians, who
have helped me to obtain the wide range of material examined in this article.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: We think readers will agree that Mr. Blaha's survey has
given us all a fine coverage of the fascinating postal history of Carpatho-
Ukraine. We like to inform our members, and especially our Ukrainian colleagues,
that the Editorial Board is in the process of assembling from several sources
and important collections, a whole series of detailed articles which will cover
as fully as possible the pre-stamp era, listings of thepost offices under the
Hungarian, Czechoslovak and Soviet administrations, proof impressions of Hun-
garian cancellers for many post offices, further information on the interesting
and complex transition period of 1944-45 including official covers of the
National Council of Transcarpatho-Ukraine and of national committees formed
in the villages etc. etc. Among other projects, our Ukrainian Editor, Mr.
Yaroslav S. Terlecky, has done excellent work on proof overprints applied to
Hungarian fiscal stamps of various types. Please see future issues of the
Journal for much comprehensive data.


RUSSIA

WESTERN EUROPE

JAPAN & RYUKYU
*,..4-.* *

Send your want list to:

ABCO Stamps, Box 550, Times Square Station, New York, N.Y. 10036
ROSSICA No 53
......... ............................................. ........................................

RUSSIA
Armenia to Ukraine and Wenden.
Broke up 27 volumes including airs, covers, semi-postals,
special delivery, postage due, etc. Many duplicates of
singles, sets, broken sets, mint and used. Must sell.

Dr. Louis A. Sorokin
2600 So. Franklin Street
Philadelphia, Pa. 19148


-40-





THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE POSTAL SERVICE IN THE TRANSGARPATHIAN PHOVIMCE OF THE SOVIET UNION
y MISLAV BLAHA.

1. ?13 ASTRO-EN AD*^ 2* THE CZwC.aTSLOVAx I TNKFAT
IStakbinI | II

eLa gerg* itJhorod "Vo lo 1
Sp.) Maka1teve
^S I^ Be Jasina monwf"U
O %U1t _t


OSTERREICH-UNGARN CESKOSLOVENSKO 2
do roku 1918 od 8. 5. 1919 Korpotsk6 Rus
S----takMi od 8. 5. 1922 Podkorpatsk6 Rus
15. 3. 1939 {apnaTchKa YpalHa
csy Ubla Yo THE SOVIr I
a/ Scbrancej ^..^ A*INISTMTI
SzobrAnc Volic 3zaopo5 m ?O Fig. 3.
., .p ,M"nk-ce Aepa20o8
g- as. te s ag -.h6 ,,,, 7 9.
Hu>st H t
CCCP '
cccp '
od 27. 10. 1944 osvobozen6 uzemf
3 THE S MAGYARORSZAG Sov6tskou orm6dou___
S1*6. 3. 1939 Korpdtdlja OT 29. 6. 1945 3aKapnaTcbKa YKpaTHa
A TOATOA I 1 9 0-1 or 15. 11. 1945 3aKapnaTcKaS o6.acT.
Mat showing the various administrations in the Transcarpathian Provincl

S- 3926










Mg. 8. 9 .r.hoopeloo L. 12
.3529

7 L tl.- Fig 7 .










Fig. 18.


6.W-. .3 : .. ,
0M :( 3926


Fig. 1. 3529







PRvN LE
.. r .. Fig. 18.








Fi g 1 7 -e F i g 1 9 .





THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE POSTAL SERVICE IN THE TRANSCARPATHIAN PROVINCE OF THE -OV UNILUm.
NI BOSLAV BLAH&.




"I -I 10
lI S9- 1 13



EPF Figs. 20 & 91 Fig. 22. Fig. 23.
S.1C~z "; 2 1.91 i~4fi 12110 B 1.1*1








"+"-- Klenovapu.->




Fig. 24. Fg. 25. Fig. 26. Fig. 27. Fg. 28.

SKLENOVA\
KJ1EHOBA luszt-




Fig. 29.
Fig.I Y I. P r



I iJMi*1,'j iXyar L B



Fig. 30. Fig. 31. Fig. 33. Fig. 3.


"-In, S aSo M 11.11-. l-- '. 1 0 l.F l tim poa rtalA dee- H s
T"jaob poatln i rum.i as Jui 1 n luJ OrJ ll L.fi r" i rl b
qLKA f^B r B vy"dA p2i1. ea... .. o S r ,L aj-




bjajiny /,.m 1 rI'.rfan a, ch, yfit.uk nM e 40-
"*iadtah m aWr.k f l.t- i ,sitta' i sn a a.l roit-


Fig. 35. n. .. Fig. 3 8.
*" '7 6i Tt'l i pb-.a t 6ll o s iw- 2p. ,tega h s-avS aaA *
iod Ai ... i. asMsjieich b.. un pe.ta.i P ttO.
t "i a .t A 4...i botor.tt a 1ff4. 1 k p
)"MUA to *roig ttea B..t it i p.4 ,by4 .s taa r- ,_ i,== = -i

5atsim"in M j..s. t..i d- ru, roj new& ad -
I. ..;




Fig. 36. a -
-. e,, .F g" 39,



F- g- -, 37 a
1 .. .. .. (.<-..-- t -.-- ^





THE DEVELOPMIT OF THE POSTAL SEIEICE IN THE TRUISCARPATHIAN PROVINCE OF THE SOVInX UNION.
MIROSLV BLAHBA.
VAOAI POSTA LEVELEML.Aft







Fi

-pig -o-


















,,.""ig. 5. g. 5J. " 54.


Fig, 51. F1g. i< '>;. .r
5HR Poj
I*








Fg, 43 4.
IY-I





Figg. 48. Fig. 49.



$ Fgg. ,. .














_, Fig.. 52 .. Fig. 53. Fi g. 5








FiM. 61. Fig. 62. Fi. 63.








LEGAL STATUS OF ZEMSTVO STAMPS AND WHY THEY DISAPPEARED FROM THE CATALOGUES
C. P. BULAK

The Zemstvo Postal Services and their postage stamps which existed from the
sixties of the past centruy and ended with the advent of the October 1918
revolution, are well known.

Their origin, phases, operating systems, difficulties that existed with the
Imperial Government which controlled and directed the Zemstvo postal service
are covered extensively in various books, articles and catalogues. Since
their appearance they have been most carefully described and quoted in many
postage stamp catalogues, such as Moens, Stanley Gibbons, etc.

Apart from having been listed in the present-day catalogues, there were
speical catalogues of Zemstvo Postage stamps, S. Koppovsky's, "Les Timbres-
Poste ruraux de Russia". Bruxelles. 1875, being the oldes one known. The
Scott Stamp & Coin Company published in 1896 the complete Zemstvo postage
stamp catalogue of William Herrick, also the Collin & Calman Catalogue of
Russia with the complete listing of the Zemstvo stamps.

One of the oldest publications on the subject, the "1878 STamp Collector's
Handbook" by E. L. Pemberton, in its introduction states: "...these stamps..
have now taken a recognized position among postal emissions..." Further on,
he quotes the Circular of the Ministry of Interior Affairs printed in the
3rd Sept. 1870 number of "St. Petersburg Exchange News", adding that the above
publication "is the organ of the Russian Post Office; so their legality is
set at rest forever".

Win. Herrick in his article "The Origin and Status of Russian Rural Stamps",
American Journal of Philately, Vol. X, 1897, pp. 72-76, published by Scott
Stamp & Coin Co. Ltd., quotes fully the above-mentioned Circular of 3rd Sept
1870, as follows:

"Ministerial Decree of September 3d, 1870.

"Considering the limited means allowed the Post Office Department, which
are becoming insufficient to insure to all the inhabitants of the Empire the
delivery of their private correspondence, especially in localities which by
their geographical position are almost totally deprived of postal communi-
cation, or are at a great distance from the organized offices of the Im-
perial post, in order to facilitate to the inhabitants of these localities
the means of exchanging their correspondence in an easier and especially
cheaper way, in accordance with the laws of the Senate, dated August 27th of
this year, I authorize the establishing of a private local post office in
localities where the necessity is felt, on the following conditions:

1. The local post is authorized
a. To transmit from the post office the ordinary mail as well as news-
papers and circulars, money orders, registered letters and other mail matter
to all points more or less distant of the district.
b. To transmit the various articles of mail matter of the district to
the nearest post office.
c. Also to transmit the local mail between the various localities of the
districts deprived of postal service.
2. The local post office is responsible for the regularity of the mail
received by it from the Imperial post office, and in case a registered letter

-44-








be lost this local post office will agree, upon an order from the Postal De-
partment of the Imperial administration, to reimburse the sender a sum not to
exceed 10 rubles.
3. The transportation of the local mail is only authorized on the cross-
roads between the cities and villages.
4. The local post office is allowed to have its stamps, only on condition
that their design differs entirely from those of the stamps used in the Empire.
5. The post men of the local post office may wear on their bags the
arms of the province or the district, but without the post horn.
Notifying your Excellency of the measures taken, I have the honor of beg-
ging you to transmit to the different offices the ordinances of the organization
of the local post so as to insure to the inhabitants of the districts the
free exchange of their correspondence.
The Governor of the Ministry of the Interior,
(Signed) PRINCE LOBANOFF ROSTOVSKY.
The Director,
(Signed) BARON VELICO."

Herrick concluded: "This decree places the Russian rural stamps on an en-
tirely different plane, much higher than other so-called local stamps, the
establishment of rural post offices being not merely sanctioned but recom-
mended by the Government; the stamps are really semi-official, or if I may
express it thus: Government stamps issued by proxy."

N. I. Sokolov whose complete article, "Establishment of the Zemstvo Posts in
Russia", which was printed in the "Postal-Telegraph Journal" of 1897 (the
official organ of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs), is printed serially
in the number 73 of "Rossika," after describing in detail the struggle between
the ever-suspicious bureaucratic elements and Zemstvos, mentions in the end
that the Committee of the Ministers has finally decided that the Zemstvo Posts,
as the institutions complementary to the Empire post "must, when possible, be
encouraged...the Committee decided on the following measures to ensure the
further development of both:

ASininatior of competition between the Empire and Zemstvo Posts.
Conversion of the Zemstvo Posts into really useful auxiliary organs of
the Empire Post."

After hayiulg been fully recognized and quoted by the major catalogues for
many years, Zemstvo postage stamps ceased to be listed in them. What has
happened? What may have been the reason for the elimination of Zemstvo
postage stamps from the catalogues? This thorny question is troubling many
Zemstvc collectors today.

F. Chuchin in his work: "CATALOGUE OF THE RUSSIAN RURAL POSTAGE STAMPS, Cma-
missioner for Philately and Vouchers of U.S.S.R., Moscow, 1925", (official
government publication printed in 2000 copies) states: "The Zemstvo Post
was a branch of the State Post established by the new Zemstvo laws..." The
complete text of Chuchin's forward and introduction will be printed in the
forthcomixng numbers of Rossica.

K. Schmidt in his major work on the Zemstvo stamps in the h0-page introduction
to his famour 706 pages "Die Postwertzeichen Der Russischen Landschaftsaempter"
published in 1928, writes:

"The Zemstvo Posts were not private posts in the ordinary send of
the word, but lawfully established and protected auxiliary organi-
zations of the Imperial Post whose Government was compelled by

-45-









force to abandon their rights because they were not in position
to give everywhere to their subjects the advantages of the pos-
tal connections, and therefore left to them the sphere of activity
which, in space, was far more extensive than their own.

"When one, therefore, bans the stamps of these postal establish-
ments from the catalogues, which up to now has unfortunately been
the case, this cannot be justified either in the history of the
post or from a philatelic point of view."

The Royal Philatelic Society, London reported in the fourth meeting of the
session 1942-43, in "Royal Philatelic Society, London," pages 39 and 40:

"The afternoon's display was by Sir John Wilson and "The Intro-
duction to Russian Zemstvo Posts".

"Sir John Wilson, in his final words, mentioned that "what he has
stated was more or less a resume of existing literature on the
subject and referred the members to Koprovskis work of 1875 and to
Vols. 11 and 12 of the "Stamp Collector's Magazine" in which ap-
peared a splendid story of the development of the Zemstvo system.
The stamps were not "locals" at all, they were really Government
posts, and although removed from the catalogue were just as much
Government issues as half of the stamps listed in Stanley Gibbons
catalogue."

Col. Hans Lagerloff, F.R.P.S.L., in the forward to his technical paper "Rus-
sian Zemstvos" states:

"T1he Russian Zeastvo Stamps open an intensely fascinating study
for the serious philatelist. Unlike the United States Postmasters'
Provisionals, Scandinavian locals, Swiss hotel adhesives and kin-
dred quasi-official stamps, Zemstvos served a legitimate postal
duty so nothing could be more erroneous than depriving them of cat-
alogue listing."

C. C. Handford, one of the foremost present-day authorities on the Zemstvo
Post of Imperial Russia, writes in the British Journal of Russian Philately
(Sept. 1958, pp. 756-758) under the heading "Status of Zemstvo Stamps":

"The following points must be made perfectly clear:

(a) The Zemstvo Councils were composed largely of the intelli-
gentsia of the district, small landowners, doctors, lawyers,
teachers, etc. and could in no sense be considered as commercial
undertakings.

(b) The Zemstvo postal services were run for the benefit of the
community. In many cases these were rendered free of charge but even
when fees were levied such as by the sale of stamps for franking
mail, the amounts realized never defrayed the expenses involved, and
in most cases were used for the purpose of recompensing the services
of village clerks and never towards defraying any other expenses of
the Council. In view of these irrefutable facts, the omission of
Zemstvo stamps from the catalogues of our leading stamp dealers is
entirely unjustified, either from a Philatelic or Historical view-
point.
-46-








"Why standard catalogues such as Moens, and Stanley Gibbons, which
formerly listed them, now fail to do so, is inexplicable. Their
status as legitimate postal issues is beyond question, whereas some
of the catalogued stamps issued by the Russian Armies, and from a
purely commerical angle by the Russian Steam Navigation and Trading
Co., cannot in any way be considered their equals.

"It is altogether wrong and invidious to place Zemstvo stamps in the
same category as the local stamps of Scandinavia, Germany, or even
those of the U.S.A., which were invariably posts run as private com-
mercial gain even though in some cases they performed a public and
necessary service."

Enigmatic as it may appear, the explanation of the disappearance of Zoestvo
stamps from the catalogues, to my mind at least, is very simple. I will try
to state may personal ideas on the subject in a rather candid, straightforward
way.

Any philatelist, even the one dedicated to collecting or the study of postal
history in same very limited field, will agree with me in the following:
Among the ranks of the most prominent stamp dealers, auction houses, publishers
of catalogues and philatelic literature, are enthusiastic philatelists. But
first and foremost, they are businessmen. For them, as much as some of them
may admire postage stamps, the stamps are merchandise, be it the stamps of
U.S.A., Great Britain, Zemstvos, St. Pierre & Miquelon or Ghana. They are
subject to the strict comnerical laws of supply and demand. This same law
of supply and demand cames into play whenever any merchandise for some rea-
son becomes scarce. Then, no matter how much it had been advertised in the
past, the publicity stops and, in time, the merchandise is forgotten. A new
article is advertised; the consumer is re-educated. The article, no longer
in dealer stocks, is eliminated from the catalogues. New advertising is cen-
tered on other merchandise in better supply.

Zemstov stamps, which were relatively common in the past, at the beginning
of this century are becoming scarce. It was not possible for dealers to
maintain stocks. As "merchandise", Zemstvos lost their importance. Conse-
quently, this variety of "merchandise" having become so scarce, the question
arose: Why advertise them? In the case of Russian Zemstvo stamps, it was a
relatively simple procedure. There were not too many Zemstvo collectors.
Again, the "merchandise" was not publicized; collector interest was not
boosted artificially. They were grouped in a separate chapter in the cata-
logues. There were just too many pages of non-available material to allow
of a commercially sound justification for continuing catalogue listing.

For example, iW. Herrick's catalogue of Zemstvos, published by Scott Stamp
& Coin Co., 1897, separately from the World Postage Stamp Catalogue, had
128 pages of Zemstvo stamps, while the Imperial Russia (with abroads) has
8 pages. Part II, Stanley Gibbons, 1897, of h12 pages, under the heading,
"Russian Government Local Stamps," listed 65 pages of Zemstvos, or one-sixth
of the whole book, while there were only 8 pages of the rest of Imperial
Postage stamps. As a matter of interest, United States listings in the same
catalogue comprised 35 pages. 1883 Moens World Catalogue, (Postage Stamps,
Postal Stationery, Railroad, Telegraph, Fiscal, etc. Stamps), total 764 pages,
lists 28 pages of Zemstvo stamps, while the Imperial Postage stamps are all
on one page.

A few other related matters were in cataloguers' minds at that time: Why

-47-









print so many, non-imcome-prodncing pages? How to eliminate customer queries
which brought the stock answer: "We are sorry, we are 'temporarily' oat of
stock"? How to value the rare and short issues when there were absolutely no
bases (market action) to establish values" Etc., etc.

For a purely business point of view the view of commerical establishment -
it was simpler to just oust them out, the expectation being that collectors,
with the passage of time, would forget them.

Fifty years have passed since the October Revolution of 1917 and the abolish-
ment of the Zemstvo institutions, But this period did not kill the memory
of the Zemstvo postage stamps despite their elimination from the catalogues.
These stamps, being rare, increased considerably in value, and are today
known and sought by the most prominent collectors. The dealers do not have
them; the catalogues do not list them. But you see them in larger auctions
when someone's collection is broken up. They are advertised in important
sales. For example, Robson Lowe Ltd. had on the cover of its 25 May 1967
sale catalogue, together with the photos of other world rarities, a photo
of ZIENKOV Zemstvo 1878, 3 kop. black on buff stamp and another one of
CHEHBARY Zemstvo, an uncatalogued blue adhesive, without indication of value,
pen cancelled, a great rarity.

I wish to express my gratitude to various persons and organization whom I
have freely quoted in this article, always mentioning the source but without
obtaining their permission. It was done for the CAUSE.




STAMPS OF WESTERN UKRAINE
by J. S. Terlecky

Next year, 1968, will be the 5Oth anniversary of the declaration of indepen-
dence by Western Ukraine and of the issuance of postage stamps.

The First World War was coming to an end, the once mighty Austro-Hungarian
nEpire was slowly crumbling. Many different nations which once constituted
the Empire, one after another, were reaching for freedom and declaring them-
selves as independent and sovereign countries. Eastern Ukraine declared its
independence on January 22, 1918 in Kiev, and, on November 1, 1918 the Uk-
rainians took over Lviv, the capitol of Western Ukraine and declared them-
selves independent.

Immediately the Polish Government declared war and sent its armed forces to
capture the city of Lviv. On the night of November 21-22, 1918, the Ukrain-
ian Armed Forces, under heavy attacks from the Poles, were forced to leave
Lviv. The Government of Western Ukraine went first to Ternopil and then to
Stanyslaviv. The war continued until July 1919 when Western Ukraine was
totally occupied by the Polish Armies. The Western Ukrainian Government moved
to exile in Vienna and dissolved itself in 1923.

The stamps of Western Ukraine are very interesting. Their small number has
given them a high value. Despite the expense, there have always been pur-
chasers for the stamps of Western Ukraine. The Scott Catalog doubled their
values in the past two years. Unfortunately, not much was published about
-48-









them, and there are still many false, untrue and fantastic stories about this
fascinating field. I will try to clarify this by giving the true facts as
far as they are known to me. I'll be grateful to fellow stamp collectors if
they will add or correct me in order to make this segment of Ukrainian Phil-
ately more enjoyable.

The stamps of Western Ukraine were printed and/or overprinted in four cities
thus are divided in four groups:

1. Lviv Issue
2. Kolomiya Issue
3. Stanyslaviv Issues
4. Vienna Issues

Stamps issued under Romanian Occupation (Scott #Nl-N18 and NJ1-NJl3) are not
really stamps of Western Ukraine but rather Romanian stamps issued for use in
Western Ukraine and will not be discussed in this article.

I. LVIV ISSUE

The first Western Ukrainian stamps appeared in Lviv on November 1, 1918. A
metal stamp was prepared in form of an octagon with the heraldic lion in the
center and an inscription around it: "Zakhidno-Ukrayinska Narodna Republika"
meaning "Western Ukrainian Peoples Republic". It is important to note that
"Peoples Republic" signified rather nationalistic than communistic type of
government. It is completely opposite and has nothing in common with latter,
after Second World War, created "Peoples Republic" e. g. Bularian, Romanian,
Chinese, etc.

The overprint was made by order of the Chief of the Central Postal Administra-
tion in Lviv and the stamps were intended to be used in all parts of Western
Ukraine. The evacuation of Lviv on November 21, 1918, by Ukrainian troops
made it impossible to continue with overprinting and only part of the avail-
able stamps was overprinted. According to Navy Capt. S. Shramchenko postal
clerks from Postoffice #8 in Lviv, on Valova Street, overprinted these Aus-
trian stamps and in these quantities:

3 heller (Scott #145) bright violet 2,200
5 heller (Scott d#16) green (light and dark) 3,400
10 heller (Scott #148) agenda (light and dark) 6,700
20 heller (Scott #169) dark green 8,000

As a rule dark, black, oily ink was used to overprint these stamps. Some
stamps were overprinted in violet and green or grey color and are possibly
proofs. Some stamps received inverted overprints, possibly as an error due
to carelessness by postal clerks.

Most stamps exist in mint condition. Some were used postally in various
cities such as Stanyslaviv, Khodotiv, Zolochiv, etc., but I have never seen
any of these stamps used in Lviv, although according to some authors they
exist. For this reason they were dropped from the Scott Catalog two years
ago.

Although these stamps are of no special rarity, they were counterfeited as
were almost all overprinted stamps of Western Ukraine. All genuine overprints
have these marks:
-49-








1. Left side line twice interrupted.
2. Square dot after IKP. in top line.
3. Horizontal line in letter H (on left side) is distorted and looks
like it is topped with small triangle.

There are more but less significant marks of a genuine stamp. (Photo #1).

II. KOLOMIYA ISSUE

Chronologically, the second issue of Western Ukraine was the so-called Kolomya
issue. On the order of the Ukrainian Military Commander of Kolomiya District,
dated December 5, 1918, the following Austrian stamps were overprinted with
letters "Y. H. P." (abbreviation for Ukrainian National Republic) and new value
in Ukrainian currency: sotyks.

5/15 heller (dull red Scott #168) surchared 11,300
10/3 heller (bright red Scott #1l5) surcharged 10,100
10/6 heller (deep orange 0 Scott #147) surcharged 452
10/12 heller (light blue Scott #149) surcharged o40

PHOTO #2

The stamps were printed in quarter sheets (25 stamps). The typeset was hand-
made and few errors occur in both values:

Stamp in position 8: k in "Ykp" of different type.
Stamp in position 9: dot missing after "Ykp."
Stamp in position 14: damaged p in "Ykp."
Stamp in position 19: damaged Y in "Ykp." and missing dot after H.

One error must have been noticed in time and corrected because it occurs only
on the 5/15 stamps. It is a broken right wing of letter Y and it is notice-
able on the stamp in position 3. Three sheets of 5/15 and one sheet of 10/3
were found with inverted overprint. Six 15 heller stamps were overprinted
with the "10" value as a proof, and a few impressions of "5" and "10" were
made on white paper. They were sold to the prominent Ukrainian philatelist
I. Czerniawsky, author of the book "History of Stamps from Pokuttia" in Uk-
rainian, Polish and German.

In addition to the stamps mentioned before, in May 1919, the Central Post-
office in Stanyslaviv ordered that 500 more 5/15 stamps be surcharged for
unknown reasons. Although they were printed in the same printing shope and
letters of the same type were used, a new setting was prepared and used.
These stamps were sent to Stanyslaviv just ten days before the Romanian Army
occupied Kolomiya. Nobody knowns what happened to them and they were never
described in the literature.

The 30 sotyk Registration Stamps were ordered also on December 11, 1918 and
printed simultaneously with the overprinted stamps. They were printed on
rose colored paper in vertical strips of five stamps:-

30 sotyks light rose paper: 5,000 printed.

Each stamp has typical marks for every position; broken frame, broken letters,
etc.

Beginning January 1919, the charge for registered letters was increased from

-50-





30 to 50 sotyks, and the Postal Administration ordered the printing of 5,000
new Registration Stamps. They were printed on January 14, 1919. They were
soon sold out and a second order was placed with the printing shop for 5,000
more. They were printed on March 19, 1919, on a slightly different sha of
rose paper.

The same arks occur on the 50 sotyk Registration Stamps as on the 30 sotyk
but they occur on different positions.

PHOTO #3

The Stamps of Kolomiya Issue were used and sold in twelve Postoffices in the
Kolociya District from December 11, 1918 until they were sold out. Simultan-
eously, the Austrian Stamps were sold and used. Sometime only postmarks,
Military Censor's marks or date signify that they were used by authority of
the Western Ukrainian Government.

Only stamps whose positions can be determined by comparison with original
sheets are genuine. Soer very good forgeries exist and only very good ex-
perts can recognize them as such. So buyer beware!

In the next "Rossioa" Journal, I intend to continue writing about Western
Ukrainian stamps, in particular about the Stanyslaviv and Vienna issues.




























-51-F LI







-51-





21
2 3:
YKp. H. P. Yp. H. P. YKp. H. P. YKp. H. P. YKp. H P.


10 10 10, 10 10

YK1p. H. P. YKp. If. P. Yap. H. P. YKp [I. P. YKp. H. P.


10 10 10 10 10

SYKp. H. P. YKp. H. P. YKp. H. P. Yp. H. P. YKp. H. P.


10 10 10 10 10

YKp. H. P. YKp. H. P. YKp. H. P. Y H P. YKp. H. P.


I _,10 10 10 10 10
YKp. H. P.
Sl................... Yxp. H. P. YKp. H. P. Yxp. H. P. YKp. H. P. Yxp. H. P.
50 COT.

10 10 10 10 10

S S 0









ROSSICA AND B.S.R.P. WELCOMES
Cecil W. Roberts F.R.P.S.L.

On October 8, 1967 Cecil W. Roberts, of England, noted author and specialist
of Ukraine, was welcomed at a luncheon held in his honor at the Sheraton
Atlantic Hotel in New York. Later, he addressed a gathering in Dr. Salisbury's
suite, and showed an outstanding array of Kiev rarities.

Mr. Roberts is a past President of B.S.R.P. and for many years the Research
Secretary of the Society. He is a fellow of the Royal Philatelic Society,
London, member of the Association Internationale de' experts Philateliques
(A.I.E.P.) and of U.P.V., who recognizes him as "prufer" for England.

In his talk, after a brief historical summary there were comments on the
various overprints used in the Kiev Districts, explaining some of the dif-
ficulties and things to look out for.

A selection of the stamps followed which included the following interesting
or rare items:-

Kiev Type 1 The 3R and 7R of the 1889 issue.
4 pages of multiple handstamps in strips.
Stamps of the Romanov issue, on cover, used and unused.
Kerensky chain cutting issue, a pair of 35k on piece.

Kiev 2. A good selection of the single handstamps.
The scarce 2k "seagreen" used on cover.
French & Soviet reprints on SR and 10R.
On Romanov, types 2d, 2f and 2g used.
Type 2gg 35k & 50k, also SR used on 2 covers.

Kiev 3. 5R perf mint & on cover. 1OR perf used & unused.
Various errors and color varieties.

Kiev Type 3c. No fewer than 10 copies of this extremely rare trident.

Ministerial Over-
Print on Romanov. A very fine lot, some of which were almost certainly uni-
que. It included 2 used postcards and two rare examples
of Postal Stationery.

There were also two interesting covers. One had the 50k of Type 2 imperf -
but probably it is only the common 50k perf. trimmed. The other cover has
a pair of tridents of no known type and were in all probability done with a
pen possibly to comply with the requirement that all stamps must have a
trident overprint.

Two philatelic examples of Kiev tridents on Romanovs are shown here from his
collection.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The famed Ukraine handbooks of C. W. Roberts can be sup-
plied in complete sets of 5 for $10.00 including postage and packing.

Part 3 Kharkov, Yekaterinoslav & Poltava is now in short supply.
Part 4 Podolia & Postal Stationery, say $2 post paid.

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Part 5 Special issues, also say $2 post paid.
Part 1 (2nd edition) Kiev, $2.30 post paid.
Part 2 (2nd edition) Odessa also $2.30 post paid.

He can also supply spare copies of the illustrations for parts 1, 2, 4 & 5
at 30 cents per set if ordered with a book postage included.



S a e-b, n. n.








6Co\ } Kiev 2gg




















4I I


S Ministerial
type card






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-54-








UKRAINE KIEV
C. W. ROBERTS

Even before the Treaty of Brest Litovak the Ukraine had declared itself in-
dependent, and if you consider the Ukraine in its wider aspects, i.e. in-
cluding the surrounding regions, there were no fewer than 16 Governments of
various kinds in various parts of the Ukraine in the period up to 1920. The
truth is, it was pretty much a case of civil war much of the time, but it
had one very peculiar feature the various regimes continued to use the
stamps they found in the Post Offices. I have even heard that often the
same staff continued to run the postal service in spite of the change of re-
gime, but please do not quote me as stating this as being definitely the
case.

At the time of the separation from Russia, the bulk of the Romanov and War
Charity issues had already been sent back to Petrograd, and the stock of
postage stamps in the Ukraine was small, consisting mainly of the perforated
and imperforate issues of the Arms types (chalk lines) and these together
with Savings Bank and Fiscal stamps were authorized for Postal purposes
pending the issue of a definitive series which was ordered. There was con-
siderable delay over this issue the money stamps of the same designs
which were not authorized for postal purposes were actually issued first.
Perhpas I should add here that these money stamps were actually used phila-
telically, though they are far from common used thus.

In the meantime there was considerable influx of Russian stamps as the Bolsh-
evike smuggled them in with intent to defraud the Country's revenue, and so
the Ukraine Government decreed that all Russian stamps were to be overprinted
with the national device of the Trident and that stamps not so overprinted
would not be available for postage after 1st September 1918, a date later
extended to 1st October. Actually a certain number of stamps seem to have
got through without an overprint after that, and some of these were un-
doubtedly affixed in the Post Offices as they are found on Money Transfer
forms.

One result of the Treaty of Brest Litovak is that it opened up the country
to the Germans among whom were some interested in stamps, collectors and
dealers. Their activities fall into four headings. Some, for instance
Oscar Peters, interested themselves with studying the stamps noting what was
available, buying from the Post Offices what they fancied and sent off a
few philatelic letters. It is to this gentleman that we owe the foundation
of our knowledge of the early Kiev overprints and those of Gomel and a few
other nearby places. Then there were others who sent off a considerable
number of philatelic covers. The best known of these is perhaps Schierhorn
who operated from Jaciebo, Yekaterinoslav and nearby. In the early days these
covers fetched fantastic prices, but the German collectors were mainly very
against such philatelic material and so they valued them at just the worth
of the stamps, a course with which I have never agreed as they were quite
presentable covers and seem to have gone through the post.

Then we have those who manipulated special overprints for their own benefit,
for example Svenson who was certainly responsible for a number of sub-types
of Kiev I, as well as many of the solid overprints of Kiev type 3, to say
nothing of Kiev type 2 gg on the Romanov issue. Finally we have those who
deliberately forged the overprints and in at least one case managed to get
the forgeries genuinely postmarked. Here perhaps I should mention no names,

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but the genuine postmark of Elionka may be found on forged overprints.

Do not think such activities as I have described were confined to the Germans.
By no means. Mr. Trachtenberg, an Odessa dealer was responsible for many of
the kopeck values of Odessa being overprinted with types 4, 5 & 6 which were
intended for use on the Rouble values. Some of these stamps are of great
rarity even if they were never on sale at the Post Offices. Inverted over-
prints in some cases are so plentiful that they have the same value as nor-
mals. Trachtenberg covers are well known and are among the most repulsive
of Philatelic covers.

There there was a Mr. Dzenis of Riga, who seems to have got hold somehow of
some of the Kharkov handstamps with which he produced some quite remarkable
varieties, some of which he seems to have got passed through the post. We
know a great deal now about these various activities and I hope we are able
to view their results in a proper perspective. In a country so disturbed
it was not to be expected that such cases would not arise.

The stamps, in many cases quite rare, were soon fetching very high prices,
often considerably higher than they would fetch today. Naturally this at-
tracted the attention of the forger and as the basic stamps were plentiful
and cheap, forgery was comparatively simple. As about two-thirds of the
stamps on the market were false, when this began to be realized the effect
on prices was catastrophic and it is only in recent years that they are be-
ginning to recover. I will refer to this question again later on.

I have deviated somewhat from my subject, so let us now return to the point
where the Ukraine Government, the Rada, decided that Russian stamps must have
an overprint. The Trident was chosen, apparently because it was intended
for a three pronged pike, taken from the Arms of theGrand Duke Wolodymir
of Kiev (St. Vladimir). There have been other explanations but this seems
to be the correct one.

The original intention seems to have been to collect all the Russians
stamps in Ukraine Post Offices in Kiev and overprint them there. This was
soon found to be impracticable and so the stamps were overprinted in various
centres Kiev, Odessa, Kharkov, Yekaterinoslav, Poltava. In Podolia the
work was done at a number of places, and in some outlying districts local
postmasters did their own overprinting.

It would not have been a practical proposition for me to have given you a
display covering the whole of the issues of the Ukraine. Some 60 basic stamps
were overprinted and even though they were in use for only a short time
over 100 different tridents were used and even though hardly any of them
were in fact used on all values, clearly anything like a complete collection
means a very large number of stamps, and in point of fact there is no such
collection in existence.

Before dealing at some length with the Kiev overprints, for the sake of
those who are not versed in Ukraine Philately but who would like to know
what happened, may I just briefly run over the issues for the other dis-
tricts, all of which dealt with the problem of overprinting in a somewhat
different manner.

Odessa was the second district to issue the overprinted stamps, being only
a little later than Kiev, but evidently they had rather more time to think
about it because right from the start they produced overprints for the kopeck
values which dealt with whole sheets of 100 at a time. Type I was a small
-56-








doubled-lined typographed trident made up from a master cliche of 5 different
subjects. This was followed by type 2, another typegraphed trident rather
smaller and single-lined, the plate consisting of 4 cliches of 25 which are
virtually identical. The type 3 was rather larger and was lithographed in
sheets of 100. These three types were for use solely on the kopeck values.
For the rouble values single brass handstamps were prepared but these were
all to a greater or less extent also used on the kopeck values, many of them
doubtless done by favor, as I have already mentioned. Type 4, the smallest
of the single handstamps is quite plentiful on some kopeck values. Type 5
much larger, has 4 distinct sub- types and type 6, a large double-lined
trident has two sub-types. In these two latter types there are quite a
number of really rare stamps. These brass handstamps were defaced with file
cuts across them, but copies are known done after this with the missing parts
painted in these of course are forgeries. The overprints are in black.

Kharkov employed grooved multiple metal handstamps. There were lh different
handstamps of 5 different tridents for the kopeck values. There were two
larger types for the Rouble values and of each there were three vertical tri-
ple handstamps. The overprints were in black except for a few values over-
printed in violet at a late date.

Yekaterinoslav used rubber handstamps, these overprinted a strip of 5 at a
time of the kopeck values, whereas the rouble values were done with single
handstamps. It is not known how many of the multiple handstamps there were,
but the method of fixing them does not seem to have been satisfactory as
they were frequently reset, sometimes more than once on a single pane. The
normal color of the overprints was black, but there are a few exceptions.

Poltava. This tiny, double-lined trident comes in two main types, one being
the reverse of the other. It was made in rubber and the kopeck values were
overprinted one, 5 or 25 at a time although in the last case it is difficult
to believe that the overprints were in fact done 25 at a time as they are so
scattered. The Rouble values were always overprinted singly. The normal
color was violet or black, though a few values were done in green rare.

Podolia used about 50 different single handstamps many of which were made
of wood, which not surprisingly wore out rather quickly and had to be re-
placed. In a number of cases the overprint of a particular trident was
only applied to a few values. It was almost always in black.

Today I must confine myself to showing you the overprints which originated
in the Kiev Postal District, and even so it is by no means an exhaustive
coverage.

As might be expected, seeing that Kiev was the Capital of the Ukraine, its
tridents are more plentiful than those of any of the other districts. Nev-
ertheless, all the problems are by no means solved and there are quite a
few rarities, even if there are nowhere near as many as there are of Podolia.

The Kiev Postal District comprised the provinces of Chernigov, Volhynia and
parts of Minsk and Mogilev as well as Kiev, and the Kiev tridents were
normally used in these areas although as all types of trident were available
for use throughout the Ukraine, other types will be found used in the Kiev
Postal District, just as Kiev types are found used in all the other postal
districts. In addition various places in the area overprinted some stamps
locally, for example Chernigev.

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Type I was undoubtedly used to overprint a large number of stamps but nev-
ertheless this type is not all that common and large blocks panes and sheets
especially are seldom seen in England, though evidently there are more of
them in Germany. Doubtless it was found that overprinting with single hand-
stamps was too slow and that led to attempts of fasten several single hand-
stamps together. It is not known how this was done, whether by means of a
clamp of frame of some kind. One explanation offered is that they were
fixed together with wire, though this seems difficult to believe, but I sus-
pect it was soon found that this small trident was not suitable for multiple
combinations, hence the introduction of the larger type 2, which was normally
a 5 stamp, and later on the lithographed type 3 which overprinted a whole
sheet at a time.

It seems certain that the bulk of type I overprints were made with single
handstamps and that the multiple handstamps were in use for only a short time,
which partly explains their relative scarcity. According to Eigner, who was
at that time in the Ukraine, type I overprints were no longer available in
the Kiev Post Offices by the beginning of October, and Svenson suggests that
stamps with this type of overprint were mostly sent to outlying offices.
Possibly the handstamps themselves were sent to provincial offices which used
them to overprint the stocks they had in hand. It is a fact that the over-
prints attributed to Chernigev and Zhitomir have thicker lines, probably due
to being made with worn handstamps. On the other hand the green overprint
of Klintey has the clear lines of the early overprints.

It is apparent that there was a large number of different single handstamps
but it has not been possible so far to identify very many of them. The dif-
ferences are at times slight and it is necessary to have a considerable num-
ber of one handstamp before one can be sure the variations are not due to
wear or the "human factor". There are however a few single sub-types which
can readily be identified and which requires special mention.

First where is the type Ix with its damaged bottom right hand corner. This
belongs to a late period and at times it was undoubtedly used to make phila-
telic overprints, so that it is sometimes looked upon as a reprint. This
was normally applied in violet, the usual color for Kiev type I overprints,
but it is also found in black and red and on a number of values of the Romanov
issue, most of which, with the exception of the 10/7k and 20/14k, are ex-
tremely rare.

The so-called Arnold type with its missing base cap and incomplete body, due
to wear, also belongs to a late period. This type is usually in violet, but
it is also found in black.

Then we have three types which were brought from the Ukraine by Svenson only,
so possibly they were used at his instigation, though this I do not know for
certain. All are very worn handstamps with thickish lines which are often
lighter in the center than at the edges. They are all single handstamps.
AI is a rather wooly overprint in violet-black, A2 a rather clearer over-
print in black with a short central prong, and B, usually in black, has a
taller central prong.

Of type I I am showing you a number of sheets of the single handstamps, used
and unused, some examples of the various multiple handstamps and then examples
of the special types I have just been talking about including a number on
the Romanov issue of which there is a cover, also a pair of the Kerensky 35k
used on piece. There are also two Money Transfer Forms with Rouble values.

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To conclude my remarks about the first type of Kiev I should add that the
normal color of the overprint was violet, but it is also found in violet-
black, grey-black, black blue, red and green.

Kiev type 2. This type was brought into use when the small type I was found
unsatisfactory, pending the introduction of the lithographed type 3, the
plates for which took longer to prepare than expected due to faults in manu-
facture, and so type 2 was used far more than intended. Like type I it is a
rubber handstamp and there is no doubt that a considerable number of eight
slightly different tridents was prepared.

The 5 stamp handstamps. Sub-types a e were usually mounted in strips of
five, probably on a rubber base, before attaching to a holder. My reason for
thinking this is that examples are known from several handstamps where the
right hand part of the rubber base has come unstuck, and the tridents, in-
stead of being in a straight line show a considerable curve, usually upwards,
the amount of this curve varying, as one would expect. I have seen the same
result with commercial handstamps mounted as I have described.

The multiple handstamps were only used on the kopeck values. An examination
of a great mass of material showed the handstamps vary in the placement of
the individual tridents, overall width, missing struts and in two slight var-
iations in the first two tridents. To deal with these last variations first,
one has a short curved line to the left of the base cap and touching it in
sub-type a, whereas there is a thickening, almost a doubling, of part of
the base line adjoining and to the left of the base cap in sub-type b. The
probelm of the missing struts is an intriguing one. Some say they have pro-
bably just fallen out, others that they are perhaps there but owing to the
"human factor" or perhaps because the back on which the tridents were mounted
was not quite flat, they did not print. My own personal opinion is quite
different. While I agree that it is certainly possible that some cases
could easily occur in which the struts might fall out, yet I find it in-
credible that this could have happened to so many, and I have little doubt in
my mind that in some cases the struts were deliberately cut out, in fact in
some instances part of the struts remain. I cannot make any suggestion as to
why this should have been done.

The single handstamps. These same tridents were also used singly, but in
order to identify them for certain it is necessary to have at least a pair,
or possibly a stamp with part of the margin attached. However, with three
of the tridents when used singly there are minor differences at times and in
such cases there is no need to have a pair or more. These varieties are
known as "aa" a break in the central prong just above where it joins the
body, "bb" a sloping line between the left wing and the top of the body and
"ee" a short horizontal line inside the left wing.

The three remaining sub-types, "f", "g" and "gg" are only known as single
handstamps. It seems certain that the single handstamps were intended for
the Rouble values, but they were in fact all used also on the kopeck values.
The multiple handstamps could not be used on the Rouble values, though their
sub-types were so used as single handstamps.

The normal color of the overprints was violet, though some values with type
2 gg were officially done in black, as were the 50k and IR imperf. sub-type
"ee" in red-violet. Blue overprints are found on some values, also red but
though these latter are mostly rare they can only be regarded as philatelic.

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Soviet reprints of type 2g are known on some of the Rouble values, where the
fact that they are on the wrong printing of the stamps helps in some cases
to identify them, the differences between these reprints and the originals
being slight. There was also a Soviet reprint of type 2gg on the 1OR perf.
"Late prints" German "Noudruck" of this subtype can be readily disting-
uished on some values as they were not normally overprinted with this type.
Generally speaking Soviet reprints have thin clear lines and dull ink and
the Philatelic overprints (German gefalligkeitdruck) thick lines and pale
ink.

Then there is what Svenson called "Paris" reprints of subtype 2gg, an ex-
pression I dislike because the handstamp was made in Paris specially. They
are extremely like the originals, but they are only known on the 5R perf
on sheets on 50, not on the smaller sheets used for the originals. It is
stated that 100 copies of this "reprint" were made.

Of this type I am showing two sheets with strips of 5 and a couple of sheets
of used showing various postmarks interesting but of little value. Then
follows half a dozen sheets showing these same sub-types used singly with
three covers, one censored, one of which has the rare 2k seagreen, and one
which has almost certainly a perf. stamp trimmed. Then there is a sheet
of each of the sub-types, f, g, and gg together with a sheet showing vari-
ous reprints. To conclude my examples of this type there is a page with
some of the overprints on Romanov followed by two covers, one with the 35k
and 50k, and the other with the $R, both clearly philatelic but very rare
all the same.

Kiev type 3. This rather complicated trident consists of thickish lines
outlined on both sides with thin parallel lines. It is a copy of the arms of
the Ukraine.

It used to be thought that there were two types of this overprint, an out-
lined trident "a" and a solid one "B", but it is now known that the difference
is mainly due to inking and wear as the two types can be found on the same
sheet. The overprinting was done by lithography, the kopeck values in sheets
of 100 in four panes of 25, and the Rouble values from one stone of 50 tri-
dents, 7 x 8, so that some sheets had tridents in the margins.

All the rouble values were of the solid type, only the IR imperf. also ex-
isting with a lined trident. Some values which were not originally over-
printed were done later with solid tridents, it is believed at the instig-
ation of Svenson.

The overprint was normally done in black, but the 1k perf exists in a clear
red-brown, used only, a few values are also known in reddish brown and
others in grey.

Errors are of course much more important with a lithographed overprint than
they are with handstamps. Double overprints are rare, but inverted overprints
much more plentiful. Then there are two curious errors. On the 2k perf the
first stamp in each row is without overprint and the second stamp only has
half a trident. On the 4k imperf the first stamp in each row is also found
with only half a trident. These are rare. Clearly misplaced overprints ex-
ists but are not often seen.

Of this type I am showing both common and rare values, including the rare 5k

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perf. unused and also used on a philatelic envelope which is possibly unique,
as well as a number of the errors and color varieties.

Kiev type 30. This type was found by Brights in the collection of the Post-
master of Odessa. There were very few of them, and I was informed by their
manager that in no case were there more than about half a dozen of any one
stamp and all were used. For many years it was believed that these were the
only copies of this type in existence, until a used pair on part of a Money
Transfer Form were found here in the States and subsequently a block of 4 of
the 3k perf. unused. The page of this issue I am showing you is, I am sure,
by far the best in private hands today. This type is the only one of the
special types found in the Postmaster of Odessa's Collection which is ac-
cepted as authentic by the U.F.V.

It is a handstamp, somewhat similar to the normal Kiev Type 3. It may have
been a trial handstamp, copies of which were used up in the past. No covers
are known and postmarks, where legible, come from a number of places.

The Ministerial type of Kiev comes in two sub-types, the difference being that
"A" has a long line in the central prong and "B" a short line. It was applied
in red or black and no errors are known.

Official documents are known certifying that this was an official issue and
available for postage hence its name. All the same, I am certain that this
issue was not on sale at a post office although examples are known which have
clearly gone through the post. I am showing you two of these and a photo of
one of them appears in Svenson's handbook as evidence that this was a genuine
issue. The numbers overprinted are known and it is clear that some of the
stamps must be extremely rare. By no means all that were overprinted have
survived. I am showing you a good selection of this issue mint and used, in-
cluding some very rare stamps, also two Postal Stationery items with red over-
print which are believed to be the only copies in existence.

My last page shows a curious cover. No feasible suggestion has been found for
the trident on the pair of stamps, and it seems to me that the tridents were
made with a pen, possibly to comply with the requirement that all stamps used
after 1st October must have a trident overprint to be acceptable. Actually
two places did make their own tridents with a pen, and these are recognized
as genuine, but they do not resemble in the least the tridents on this cover.

To conclude, I would like to make a few remarks about forgeries, to which I
referred earlier. Between the Wars, the U.P.V. made a great effort to deal
with this, examining and marking a great number of stamps and destroying most
of the forgeries they found. A few examples were kept, but these were in-
delibly marked. They also made and sold a number of small collections all
carefully types and each stamp certified as genuine. To this day one rarely
looks further when you find the U.P.V. expertisation mark.

However, the U.P.V. marks were withdrawn and the individual experts were re-
quired to put their own name on the stamps they passed as genuine. Today
you can get a definite opinion on nearly every Ukraine stamp at a very mod-
erate fee, so there is really no need to buy forgeries. However, genuine
stamps are not usually offered for sale at a fraction of their worth, and I
that is a trap that many fall into. Forgeries are still being made but I
think largely to make up numbers for the packet trade, or some special rare
item. Not long ago a Dealer in Europe advertised a collection of 500 diff-
erent tridents, I thing at about $5. Every single trident was forged not

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most of them but all of them some of them forgeries I do not remember having
seen before.

There has been some revival in Ukraine collecting in recent years and prices
have certainly risen, but even now they must surely be considered as bargains.
Stamps of which only one or two copies are known fetch about $100, though I
believe there have been a few cases where as much as $150 was paid recently.
May I take another example. The Kiev Type 3, SR perf. It is known that 25
copies only were overprinted. The recently issued U?P?V? Catalogue prices
this stamp at 500Dm mint and 550Om used. This catalogue states that the net
price one must expect to pay is half the catalogue price, so the value of
this stamp is $60 to $70. Remember I did not say how many exist I do not
know but I should be very surprised to learn there were 25. I could give
many, many other examples, but the fact remains that in comparison with the
stamps of other countries those of the Ukraine are very much underpriced.
Those that feel prices have gone up too much in recent years should remember
this.





SOVIET POSTAL RATES
By Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii

Translated from "Filateliya SSSR" of Moscow, No. 4 of Oct. 1966
and following issues.

The story of issuance of Soviet stamps is inextricably linked with
the history of the country's mails. The techniques of postal com-
munications were developed and perfected, and stamps appeared for
new classes of mail, such as Airmail, Special Delivery and Air
Express. The successful efforts of polygraphic printing lead to
varied methods of producing stamps and to the creation of multi-
colored miniatures. It is especially interesting to investigate
how the rates for the despatch and delivery of correspondence in-
fluenced the subsequent issues of stamps. Unfortunately, Soviet
postal rates constitute a subject which has not been thoroughly
researched in our philatelic literature. Incidentally, the increases
in the face values of the issued stamps, their numbers printed and
length of postal usage are all closely linked with the rates in force.
The rates repeatedly dictated the revaluation of the current stamps
and gave rise to new definitive issues and various surcharges.
Finally, a knowledge of the rates helps the collector to determine
if a letter which interests him is correctly franked, or whether the
postage due was actually collected.

Soviet postal rates for the despatch and delivery of internal (that
is, not international) postal sending were changed about thirty times
in the period from 1918 to the present day (1966). As a rule, they
were brought into effect by special decrees of the Government, and
only in a few cases by circularized orders of the postal administra-
tion. The rates for international correspondence were announced
ordinarily by the same National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs


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(later by the Ministry of Communications of the USSR).

In this study, all Soviet internal postal rates are set out in
chronological order and, for brevity, only for the basic classes of
mail, as well as details on the rates for international correspond-
ence, ordinary and airmail are given. A consecutive numbering system
has been assigned to the listings of internal rates. Dates quoted
up to 1 Feb. 1918 are given in the Old Style (13 days behind the now
almost universal Gregorian Calendar) and the catalog numbers of Soviet
stamps are listed inthe catalog of the Main Philatelic Office(GFK,
Moscow), 1958 edition and following supplements (for the convenience
of Rossica readers, the equivalent numbers of several Western catalogs
have been included in this translation).

A. THE RSFSR PERIOD, 1918-1923:
No. 1: From 28 Feb. 1918 to 14 Sept. 1918.

Sources: (a "Postal & Telegraphic Journal", 1917, No. 31, pg. 304.
(b Ditto, 1918, No. 57, pg. 42.
(c Ditto, 1918, No. 40-42, pg. 550.
(d "Manual of Regulations and Orders of the National
Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs", 1920, No. 5. pg. 40
(e) Ditto, 1920, No. 6, pg. 2.

The internal postal rates introduced by the Provisional Government
on 15 Aug. 1917 continued in force for a short time after the October
Revolution, as follows:
(a) For the despatch and delivery of postcards, local and
intercity 5 kop.
(b) For the despatch and delivery of ordinary local letters
10 kop. for 30 grammes wt. (1 oz.) or part thereof.
(c) For the despatch and delivery of ordinary intercity
letters 15 kop. for each 15 grammes wt. (4 oz.) or
part thereof.
(d) Additional fee for the despatch of registered mail
(the so-called "registration fee" 20 kop. for each
sening.
(e) Deficiency fee double the unpaid amount owing for
correct franking.

From 10 to 18 Jan. 1918, the Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets
was held and proclaimed the young Soviet state as the Russian Soviet
Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR). On Jan. 26 a directive of the
National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs, or "Narkompochtel".
as it was called for short, advised of the coming into force on 28 Feb.
1918 on all the territory of the Russian Federation of the first scale
of Soviet postal rates, as follows:
(a) For the despatch and delivery of postcards, local
and intercity 20 kop.
(b) For the despatch and delivery of ordinary local
letters 30 kop. for the first six lots wt. (3 ozs.),
and 5 kop. for each succeeding lot (4 oz.).
(c) For the despatch and delivery of ordinary intercity
letters 35 kop. per lot. wt. (o oz.) or part thereof.
(d) Additional fee for registration 70 kop. for each
sending.
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In conformity with the new rates, the face values of the first two
Soviet stamps then being prepared for issue at that time were fixed
at 35 and 70 kop. in a "hand with sword" design. Moreover, the
35 kop. stamp was in quite a larger printing than the 70 kop., since
the former was designated for the most widely used class of mail -
the intercity letter service.

No. 2: From 15 Sept. 1918 to 31 Oct. 1919.

In the middle of 1918, the young Soviet Republic stood on the brink
of severe trials. The Civil War enveloped the whole country in
flames. In the autumn of 1918, the Soviet Government was able to
reduce sharply the rates for sending basic classes of internal mail.
The second Soviet schedule of rates came into being on 15 Sept. 1918,
as follows:
(a) For the despatch and delivery of postcards,
local and intercity 10 kop.
(b) For the despatch and delivery of ordinary
local letters 15 kop. per 15 grammes wt.
(0 oz.), or part thereof.
(c) For the despatch and delivery of ordinary
intercity letters 25 kop. per 15 grammes
wt. ( oz.) or part thereof.
(d) Additional fee for registration 25 kop.
for each sending.

There was only one important objective pursued in the lowering of
rates. The Civil War had barely started, adding to the difficulties
faced by the Soviet authorities, and various classes of businessmen
and entrepreneurs did not fail to take advantage of the situation.
On the territory of the Soviet Republic there sprang up here and
there like mushrooms dozens of small private postal services and
agencies for the despatch and delivery of mail. They resulted in
quite a loss to the state. As a consequence of the activities of
these private offices and agencies, the income of the Soviet postal
service decreased and the state monopoly for postal and telegraphic
services in the country was undermined. The lowering of Soviet
postal rates dealt a fatal blow to the activities of these private
agencies. A special regulation of the Board of the National
Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs backed this up by strengthen-
ing the legal restrictions against the private transport of mail.

Now for a curious detail, practically unknown to philatelists.
Special "postage stamps" were even prepared abroad for the private
agencies (for an illustration, Rossica readers should turn to
Journal No. 55, Illustration No. 6 facing page 38, forming part of
the series by Hon. Member Emile Marcovitch on a "Catalog of Russian
Vignettes"). The text on them read as follows: "Private stamp,
1918. In accordance with an agreement between the sender and re-
ceiver, the mailman delivering this letter is to be paid ten (10)
kopeks by the receiver". However, these "stamps" did not succeed
in reaching the orderer, and thus did not play a part in any
"agreements". In the autumn of 1918, an end was put to the private
offices and all administration of postal affairs in the republic was
concentrated in the hands of the state. The second series of Soviet
postal rates contributed to this in no small way.

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S No. 3: From 1 Jan. 1919 to 14 Aug. 1921.

One of the especially remarkable events in the history of our coun-
try's mails during those years was the introduction on 1 Jan. 1919
of the free delivery of ordinary letters. A special decree of the
Council of National Commissars of the RSFSR about this was published
on 24 Dec. 1918 in the "News of the V.Ts.I.K." (All-Russian Central
Executive Committee), stating the following:

"The Council of National Commissars, considering that more regular
and widespread exchange of correspondence between working people in
the cities and poor peasants would serve to strengthen the already
great bond of unity between them, deems it necessary to simplify and
facilitate the handling of postal correspondence. With these aims
in view, the Council of National Commissars orders that:
(1) There be established in Soviet Russia beginning
from 1 Jan. 1919 the free despatch of postcards
and ordinary letters, weighing no more than 15
grammes (+ oz.).
(2) Ordinary letters weighing more than 15 grammes,
and registered postal sending, are to be paid
for on the usual basis of the total weight of
the letter, as well as the fee for registration.
(3) The free despatch of postcards and letters is to
be extended also to mail arriving at the borders
of Soviet Russia from other countries.
Simultaneously with this, the National Commissariat of Posts and
Telegraphs is dire-eted to bring to the notice of working people of
all foreign states through the Commissariat of Foreign Affairs their
right to send to Russia ordinary cards and letters without prepayment
by stamps".

The decree was signed by the Chairman of the Council of National
Commissars, V.I. Lenin and by the National Commissar of Posts and
Telegraphs, V.N. Podbelskii. This constituted the third revision
of Soviet postal rates.

The free despatch of letters visibly lowered the consumption of post-
age stamps in the republic. Therefore, the question of issuing new
Soviet postage stamps was temporarily deferred until August 1921,
when the payment for postal services was again introduced. However,
to the collector of covers which went through the mails during the
period of free delivery, these are most interesting philatelic docu-
ments, although there are no stamps on them.

The free despatch of ordinary letters weighing up to 15 grammes
(+ oz.) has often been written up in the philatelic press. There re-
mains, however, a hitherto completely unknown fact that in 1920-1921,
a plan for the free despatch of all classes of mail was being en-
visaged, which would have resulted in the total abolition of all
postage stamps. The newspaper, "News of the V.Ts.I.K.", under the
heading "Reform of Postal Operations", stated the following in its
issue of 2 April 1921:

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"A special commission has been formed at the National Commissariat
of Posts and Telegraphs to study the overhaul and simplification of
postal work. The following measures were taken into consideration:
(1) The total abolition of payment for all classes
of correspondence, thus permitting the concen-
tration of attention and effort on the tech-
nical processing of the mails.
(2) Changes in the classes of postal sending, so
as to simplify their despatch, and the removal
of all unnecessary formalities, which have
complicated the utilization of the mails by the
broad masses of workers and peasants.
(3) The removal of differences in general trans-
mission between ordinary mail, which was in most
widespread use, and registered correspondence.
The abolition of the limitation on free despatch to letters weigh-
ing not more than 15 grammes (i oz.), as it was not needed in this
period of paper shortage and required the effectuation of exact
weighing, even in the simplest postal agencies." After manifold
deliberations, in which many postal districts of the country parti-
cipated, this plan was not accepted.

No. 4: From 1 Nov. 1919 to 9 Mar. 1920.

In connection with the steady decline in the rate for the paper ruble,
which had already begun during the First World War and had increased
especially under the Provisional Government, the National Commissariat
of Posts and Telegraphs was repeatedly obliged to revise the postal
rates.

The fourth scale of Soviet postal rates was introduced on 1 Nov.
1919 in Moscow and Petrograd, and on 5 Nov. in all other regions of
the republic, as follows:
(a) Free despatch and delivery for postcards and
ordinary letters up to 15 grammes (4 oz.), in
weight.
(b) For the despatch and delivery of ordinary letters
over 15 grammes in wt., as well as for registered
letters 1 ruble per 15 grammes wt. or part thereof.
c) Additional fee for registration 3 rubles.
d) For the despatch and delivery of registered
postcards 3 rubles.
An interesting feature of the rates was the abandonment of dividing
correspondence into local and intercity categories, which abolition
somewhat simplified the processing of letters and newspaper wrappers
in the mails. The new rates visibly increased the consumption of
stamps of the ruble values. Shortly thereafter, it became impossible
to obtain these stamps in many post offices in the country. The re-
ceipt of payment in cash for registered sending was therefore tem-
porarily permitted, particularly in the Ukraine, Vologda province
etc., and a corresponding notation was placed on the mail, reading
"For want of stamps, the rate of rub. kop. has been col-
lected in cash."


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No. 5: From 10 mar. 1920 to 14 Aug. 1921.

The fifth schedule of Soviet rates came into force on 10 Mar. 1920
in Moscow and Petrograd, and on 20 March in the remaining postal
districts, as follows:
(a) Free despatch and delivery for postcards and
ordinary letters up to 15 grammes in wt.
(b) For the despatch and delivery of ordinary
letters over 15 grammes in wt. ( oz.), as
well as for registered letters 5 rubles
per 15 grammes wt. or part thereof.
(c) Additional fee for registration 5 rubles.
(d) For the despatch and delivery of registered
postcards 10 rubles.
At the same time, the definitive stamps of pre-revolutionary Russia
(the Arms Type) in the values from 1 to 20 kopeks were revalued at
100 times face. That is, they now went on sale as ruble stamps,
without any kind of surcharge whatsoever. Some post offices, how-
ever, provided revalued stamps on their own initiative by adding
handwritten notations or handstamps.

During the period that the fifth scale of rates was in force, a new
issue of Soviet postage stamps of the RSFSR took place on 10 Aug.
1921, in the values of 1, 2, 5, 20 and 40 rubles (Sov. Cat. 1-5;
Scott 177-80,187; Gibbons 108-12; Yvert 139-43; Michel 151-55;
Zumstein 135-39). Please note how the increases in rates were re-
flected in the numbers issued of the stamps:

1 Ruble 399,400 copies
2 398,450 "
5 543,330 "
20 289,760 "
40 174,980 "

It was not by chance that the 5 ruble value was issued in the lar-
gest number of copies. Judging from the rates, such a value was
especially useful and necessary. However, the postal fate of this
interesting issue was affected by a rare stroke of misfortune. On
15 Aug. that is, after only five days, the postal rates were again
changed and it was decided to take the stamps off issue.

No. 6: From 15 August 1921 to 31 January 1922.

Sources: a "News of the V.Ts.I.K.", No. 171 for 5 Aug. 1921.
"b No. 31 for 9 Feb. 1922.
"c No. 90 for 25 April 1922.
"d "Catalog of Postage Stamps of the RSFSR", 1923,
p. 20, for the numbers printed of the stamps.
However, it appears that they still need to be
checked more thoroughly.

The free despatch of ordinary letters, introduced during the most
strenuous period of foreign intervention and the Civil War, had to
all intents and purposes played a positive role. But with the end


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of the Civil War, the National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs
reintroduced on 15 Aug. 1921 the idea of payment for all postal
sending and modified various privileges in the utilization of pos-
tal services, which had existed during the period of strife. On
that day, in accordance with a decree of the Council of National
Commissars of the RSFSR, the new sixth schedule of Soviet postal
rates was drawn up, as follows:
(a) Postcards 100 rubles.
b) Local letters 100 rubles per 4 lots wt.
(2 ozs.) or part thereof.
(c) Intercity letters 250 rubles per 15
grammes wt. (0 oz.) or part thereof.
(d) Additional fee for registration 1000 rubles.
These three charges, namely 100, 250 and 1000 rubles, formed the
basis for choosing the face values of subsequent issue of Soviet
stamps. However, the new postage stamps with the required values
were not ready by 15 August and the postal service found itself in
a difficult position. However, a solution was found to the problem.
The National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs quickly arranged
to put on sale savings bank and control stamps of pre-revolutionary
Russia at a flat rate of 250 rubles per copy, regardless of the
actual face value. The prepayment in cash of registered sending
was also permitted. Often, a postage due cachet was struck on the
cover and the rate for despatching the letter was filled in by hand.

The long-awaited stamps of the new Soviet issue, in the values of
100, 250 and 1000 rubles (Sov. Cat. 6, 8 and 11; Scott 181, 183, 186;
Gibbons 214, 216, 223; Yvert 144, 146, 149; Michel 156, 158, 161;
Zumstein 140, 142, 145) appeared at the end of August in the follow-
ing printings:
100 Rubles 44,391,900 Copies
250 78,929,150 "
1000 53,869,950 "

At the same time, the rates for international mail were established
as follows:
(a) Postcards 400 rubles.
b) Letters 1000 rubles per 20 grammes wt.
(2/3 oz.) or part thereof.
(c) Additional fee for registration 1000 rubles.
For these and other postal needs, a certain number of stamps of other
values, such as 200, 300 and 500 rubles, were required. In Oct. 1921,
new stamps were placed in use (see Sov. Cat. 7,9,10; Scott 182-84;
Gibbons 215 217-18; Yvert 145,147,148; Michel 157,159,160; Zumstein
141,143,1441, but as the demand for them was not so great, their print-
ings were noticeably smaller, as follows:

200 Rubles 4,000,000 Copies
300 3,000,000 "
500 1,071,000 "

Also linked with the postal rates is the curious story of the 200-
ruble stamp of the special set for the 4th anniversary of the Revolu-
tion (1917-1921; see Sov. Cat. 0 12 I Yvert 150a and footnotes in

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other Western catalogs). As it transpires from the catalog, this
stamp did not come into postal use at all. What actually happened
with it? What was the story behind it?

Originally, four values were printed in this special set, namely
100, 200, 250 and 1000 rubles. But it became obvious from the ex-
perience gained from the preceding issue that the 200-ruble stamp
would not receive widespread application. The printing of this
stamp was stopped forthwith but copies had already been prepared
and they were put into storage and allowed to lie in the warehouse
of Goznak (State Printing Office). For years philatelists never
suspected the existence of the brown 200-ruble stamp. Only 51 years
later at the beginning of 1927 did it come to light when the re-
mainders of unsold stamps of the RSFSR were being examined and it
was forwarded to the philatelic store for sale to collectors. This
is the reason why the stamp was first described only in the 1928
edition of the Soviet catalog. On 21 Nov. 1921, new rates were
introduced for international mail, as follows:
a Postcards 2000 rubles.
b Ordinary letters 5000 rubles.
cRegistration fee 5000 rubles.
As the increases in rates were in multiples of 1000 rubles, specific
stamps were not issued to cover them.

No. 7: From 1 Feb. 1922 to 14 April 1922.

By a directive of the Council of National Commissars of the RSFSR,
dated 31 Jan. 1922, the seventh schedule of Soviet postal rates was
introduced on the next day. In contrast to all preceding tariffs,
the new rates were specified on the basis of the gold ruble and the
National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs was obliged to advise
the rate of exchange every quarter for their equivalents in Soviet
banknotes (currency bills). Thus, the new postal rates consisted of
the following charges:
(a) Postcards 2 gold kopeks, or 3000 rubles
paper money.
(b) Local letters 3 gold kopeks, or roughly
5000 rubles paper money for each 50 grammes
wt. (1 2/3 ozs.) or part thereof.
(c) Intercity letters 5 gold kopeks, or 7500
rubles paper money for 15 grammes wt. T oz.)
or part thereof.
(d) Additional fee for registration 10 gold
kopeks, or 15,000 rubles paper money.

According to several sources in the press, another series of higher
rates was in effect in March 1922, as follows:
a Postcards 4000 rubles.
b Local letters-6000 rubles.
c Intercity letters 10.000 rubles.
d Registration fee 20,000 rubles.

The new rates gave rise in the first place to a stamp of 7500 rubles
value. It was issued with the hammer and sickle emblem in two
varieties at the same time: on ordinary white paper with diamond

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watermark, and on cream-colored chalk-surfaced paper (Sov. Cat. 37,
38; Scott 203, 205; Gibbons 257, 259; Yvert 165, 166a; Michel 178
x,z; Zumstein 161, 163) and in the form of a surcharge reading
"7500 RUB." on the 250-ruble stamp (Sov. Cat. 35, Scott 201;
Gibbons 250; Yvert 168; Michel 176; Zumstein 165). The unusual thing
is that this surcharge was only obtained after a second attempt.
Originally, it was arranged horizontally. However, it merged with
the inscriptions on the basic stamp and the surcharge was barely
visible. Then another approach was tried; the surcharge was arranged
diagonally on each stamp. It worked. The new surcharge went into
production and the horizontal variety, which had been prepared
earlier, was simply not placed on issue (see Sov. Cat. 0 35 II and
footnotes in Western catalogs).

Still yet another interesting postage stamp appeared in those days.
As has already been specified, there were separate designations in
the Soviet postal rates for the despatch of ordinary letters and
also the increases in the additional fee for their transmission by
registered mail. As we have seen above, stamps were issued in two
categories; for ordinary letters and the registration fee respec-
tively. Naturally, the lack of a single stamp for registered
letters resulted in a particular inconvenience. Consequently, after
the introduction of the seventh scale of rates, it was first of all
decided to issue a special "registration" stamp. This interesting
postage stamp appeared in March 1922 and had a face value of 22,500
rubles (Sov. Cat. 40; Scott 206; Gibbons 260; Yvert 167; Michel 180;
Zumstein 164). Ever since then, stamps have been issued regularly
for registered letters. The international rates were changed twice,
on 22 Feb. and .1 Apr. 1922, as follows:
Na) Postcards 6000 and 18,000 rubles, respectively.
b Ordinary letters 15.000 and 30.000 rubles,
respectively.
(c) Registration fee 15.000 and 30.000 rubles,
respectively.

No. 8: From 15 Apr. 1922 to 30 Sept. 1922.

By an order of the Council of National Commissars of the RSFSR,
dated 12 Apr. 1922, a new eight scale of rates was to be introduced
on 15 Apr. as follows:
a) Postcards 20,000 rubles.
b) Local letters 30.000 rubles for each 50 grammes
(1 2/3 ozs.) or part thereof.
(c) Intercity letters 50,000 rubles for each 15
grammes wt. (1 oz.) or part thereof.
(d) Additional fee for registration 100,000 rubles.
At the same time, a new revaluation of the definitive stamps of pre-
revolutionary Russia (Arms Type) was produced on the values from 1 to
14 kopeks, as well as all ruble values. In other words, the 1 kop.
stamp, which had already been revalued to 1 ruble after the fifth
schedule of Soviet postal rates in March 1920, was now being sold
for 10,000 rubles.


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During the period that the eight schedule of rates was in effect,
one of the most interesting sets of Soviet postage stamps came in-
to use. On 19 August 1922, the first "Day of Philately" was
launched at the Moscow G.P.O. In honor of this festival, a special
set of stamps was issued with the overprint "RSFSR / Philately /
to the children / 19 8 22", which was in postal use for just
this one day. The overprints were placed on the definitive stamps
of pre-revolutionary Russia in the values of 1 kop. (perf. and
imperf.), 2, 3, 5 and 10 kop. (see Sov. Cat. 49-54; Scott 824-29;
Gibbons 273-78; Yvert 180-84a; Michel 185-89; Zumstein 166-71).
But why were these values specifically chosen for this issue? Why
are the 3, 5, and 10 kop. values encountered relatively often, the
2 kop. stamp somewhat less often, while the 1 kop. stamps have now
become real rarities? The rates explain all this. We will now
compare tbe face values of the stamps with the numbers printed.

1 kop. (10,000 rubles) this value was not
covered by the rates; 950 copies printed.
2 kop. (20,000 rubles) postcard rate; 9,100
copies printed.
3 kop. (30,000 rubles) local letter rate; 24,775
copies printed.
5 kop. (50,000 rubles) intercity letter rate;
23,425 copies printed.
10 kop. (100,000 rubles) registration fee;
19,625 copies printed.

It is curious that the number printed of the stamp for the local
letter rate exceeded that for the intercity rate. Usually, it was
the other way around. But this was not done just by chance. It
was argued that as most of the guests to the festival would be
Muscovites, many of them would want to send letters with the special
stamps affixed to themselves at their Moscow addresses. ."The Day
of Philately" went off with enormous success. Of course, this was
also explained by the fact that the festival also had charitable aims
in view; the stamps went on sale with a surtax which went to the
fund for homeless waifs. The rates for international correspondence
were chan ed on 30 Apr. 1922, as follows:
a Postcards 120.000 rubles.
b Ordinary letters 200,000 rubles.
SRegistration fee 200.000 rubles.
This was the last time the rates for sending mail were designated
in such astronomical figures. From 1 May 1922, the country went
over to reckoning 1 ruble of the 1922 currency as equal to 10,000
rubles in paper money of all previous issues.

A new phase in the postal rates appeared on 4 June 1922, which hence-
forth was fated to become one of the fundamental sections of all
future tariffs. On this date, there was first introduced in the
history of the country's mails, the despatch of ordinary and regis-
tered airmail correspondence. Until then, aircraft had only con-
veyed official administrative mail, but now airmail correspondence
was being accepted from the public. The first Soviet airmail rates
for international correspondence were published in the "News of the
V.Ts.I.K." on 31 May 1922. In addition to the normal postal rate,


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an additional charge of 20 rubles per 20 grammes wt. (2/3 oz.) or
part thereof was levied for the despatch of airmail letters. Un-
til the issue of a special airmail stamp, these letters eree
franked with normal postal issues. On 1 Aug. 1922, new international
rates were established, as follows:
a Postcards 27 rubles.
b Ordinary letters 45 rubies.
c Additional fee for registration 45 rubles.
d Additional fee for airmail 45 rubles.
In conjunction with these rates, stamps of 27 and 45 rubles (Sov.
Cat. 59, 60; Scott 214, 215; Gibbons 282-83; Yvert 173-74; Michel
194-95; Zumstein 188-89) were included in the set being prepared
for the fifth anniversary of the Revolution and depicting a worker
hewing out the dates "1917-1922". In addition to this, an over-
print consisting of the outline of an aircraft was performed on the
45-ruble stamp (Sov. Cat. 61; Scott Cl; Gibbons 284; Yvert Air 1;
Michel 196; Zumstein 190). It was in this way that the first Soviet
postage stamp for the prepayment of airmail correspondence made its
appearance. (TO BE CONTINUED).

EDITORIAL COMMENT:

There is much more interesting information to come in this fascinat-
ing series by Mr. Karlinskii, which we will be serializing in future
issues of our Journal. We think members will agree that these in-
vestigations into rates have given a new meaning to our collections
of stamps and have also explained, among other things, why the first
Soviet stamps of 35 and 70 kop. in the "hand with sword" design are
so scarce in used condition, particularly on covers. The lowering
of rates, as given in the second schedule noted above, made them
obsolete.

No doubt many of us will now start delving into our accumulations
of cards and covers, busily totalling up the frankings and then
checking them against the published rates. Our members in the U.S.
are particularly fortunate in this regard, since the many thousands
of immigrants from Eastern Europe coming to this country since the
turn of the century have assured us of an excellent variety of card
and cover material, received as correspondence from relatives and
friends left behind.

We would very much like to hear from readers about any interesting
finds of material, especially examples of the free despatch of in-
ternal cards and letters during 1919-1921. Any card or cover from
the Civil War period is a nice item and some curious usages are al-
ready known to us. As examples, we will now describe two pieces
from the Kurt Adler collection: (1) a registered letter to a soldier
on active service, sent from Kosolapovo, Urzhum district, Vyatka
province, on 3 Nov. 1919. Please see Figs. 1 and 2 herewith and note
that due to the disruption caused by the Civil War, this small post
office was unable to obtain the proper year date slug and so, a
crudely carved figure "19" was wedged in the relevant slot. Notice
also the franking, which consists of one 5 kop. and three 15 kop.
stamps of the Arms Type, all imperforate and totalling 50 kop. in
postage. This corresponds to the second schedule of rates, which

-72-






ZI//ustrations for "Soviet / Rates by V A. Karlinskii.
c< ^ < ^<, o ^ ,^ ----- A -" '.j

-- V MEPEBOb no n TB, O %

1,-L ../ .. p. .. -..... .
/-, --.- M


""W 'E 'T = &F (noTarf C2" ro ,M1)' prbiane c'o, o __oUa mu el is. ov e r
c^e- flo po .t1 l ahpeock nojny wreR pr e v
I. ,OMY---i ..........






"t-X -. -- y E :
S --. .,


A8C 0 N"L O



R 9. 3.

Figs. I and 2: Front and back aof registered cover
c oted 3 Nov 19, the lack o the proper year
slug being made wt c crudely c re
carved substituTe we ged In The cancer er.

Fig.5:Mone -order card used during the temporary
1 1Svoviet administration of VtI a, c1id s owinh9
the a licaton of C cachet d enotin9 the
4 Z-lack oftamps b nd pa rent of the
m m ijSeSIOn in cash.
"Fig 2i Both I Tns roam Iha Kbcrf Adler collection.








was valid from 15 Sept. 1918 to 31 Oct. 1919 and we thus have it
overlapping for at least three days, so far as Kosolapovo was con-
cerned. (2) a rare usage of a money-order form, of great interest
also to Lithuanian and Polish collectors, to despatch the sum of
4500 rubles through the Vil'na R.R. Sta. P.O. during the temporary
Soviet administration of the city (see Fig. 3). Note the violet
cachet of the Vil'na (Vilnius, Wilno) R.R. Sta. office at top
right, showing the arms of the RSFSR in the center and crossed
thunderbolts at bottom. Also the continued application of the
postmark of this office in the old Russian spelling, struck at
bottom center and dated 10 Aug. 1920. However, one of the most
important features of this card is the application of a handset
three-line cachet, similar in inscription to the sample, quoted by
Mr. Karlinskii at the end of his listing of the fourth scale of
postal rates, to denote shortages of stamps. In this particular
case, it reads as follows: "Za neimeniem marok / oplacheno
nalichn. den' / gami 'devyanosto' rub." ("For want of stamps,
'ninety' rub. paid in cash"). Note the space for the insertion
by hand of the correct sum of money collected. It is signed by
the "zavkont", or director of the office, and one other official.
The commission of 90 rubles paid represented a 5% charge on the
sum of 4500 rubles being transmitted.

Finally, let us say that now is the time to start collecting and
classifying material reflecting the ever-changing postal rates.




THE FIRST RUSSIAN ST. PETERSBURG AVIATION MEETING 1910

By C. W. Roberts

This was organized by Mr. P. P. Boeckel, a Russian whose family
came from Alsace some generations earlier. He was a prominent
businessman in prewar St. Petersburg and at one time was President
of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce and the Bourse. His
firm was perhaps the largest importer of coal into Russia. He
sent the particulars of the Meeting to his London Agent and the
following extract from the covering letter explains why.

"I have been approached by a french Insurance broker, who in-
sured the income of the Cannes Meeting at a premium of 14% to
insure also our Meeting and I herewith give you all the details,
for which he asked, to enable you to propose the business to
Lloyds.

The Russian public takes a tremendous interest in flying and
there is no doubt that we shall be favoured every day by a tre-
mendous crowd, but as the expenses are very heavy and will
probably exceed Rs 100,000, we should like to cover the risk if
it can be done at a reasonable rate."

Mr. Boeckel escaped from Russia via Finland and eventually came
to England. He was killed in London during the second World War.



-74-










He stated categorically that no mail of any kind was carried on
the flights of this meeting. Lloyds did not insure the Meeting.
Mr. Boeckel was decorated by France with the Legion of Honour for
his services to Aviation.

The original letter and enclosure are somewhat faded and stained
in places, but nothing has been omitted from the particulars of
the Meeting except one word on the second page, which is indica-
ted. While it would appear that one or two paragraphs are missing
this is not so as they are not in the original, although from the
numbering it would appear that they were.

Comite d'Aviation
de St. Petersbourg
3 Quay Mitny St. Petersburg.

Details of the first Russian St. Petersburg Aviation Meeting.
1. Dates. 8-15 May new style: 25 April-2 May Russian style.
2. Names of the aviators engaged. Popoff on Wright, Christiaens
and Edmond on Farman, Wieneziers on Antoinette, de la Roche
on Voisin, Morane on Blariot.
3. Situation of Aerodrome. The meeting will take place on the
Kolomiaggi Racecourse, situated about 53 kilometres from the
centre of St. Petersburg.
4. There are no fines imposed on the aviators for not coming,
but just now all the aeroplanes are already on the way to
St. Petersburg and the Aviation Committee pays all the
transport expenses, fares of the aviators and their mecha-
nics and besides has given every aviator guarantees from
6,000 to 10,000 francs. The entrance fee is 1,000 francs,
which will be returned as soon as the aviator has once made
the turn of the course.
5. We have foreseen Rs 10,000 for advertisements and publica-
tions of all kinds, which will be made in all Russian
newspapers in Russian, French, Polish, Swedish and Finnish
languages. Besides very pretty advertisements are made on
all the public walls of the city, sandwichmen will be en-
gaged, etc.

6. The capital of the Committee I have formed consists of
Rs 69,000 and the names are:

A. Tattien Rs 12,000 S. Dussoff Rs 10,000 -
N. Grouchetzky Rs 10,000 C. Loffhagen Rs 10,000
B. Ignatieff Rs 5,000 P. Belajeff Rs 5,000 -
W. Brandt Rs 5,000 N. Proporoff Rs 5,000 -
P. Boeckel Rs 5,000 and P. Schramm Rs 2,000.

7. The meeting is authorized by the International Aeronautique
Federation in Paris and is under the patronage of the Im-
perial Russian Aero Club.
8. The control of the ticket sale is in the hands of responsi-
ble cashiers belonging to an authorized and responsible
cashier Society.

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9. The prices are as follows: Boxes for 6 Rs 40 per day and Rs
250 for 8 days. Boxes for 5, Rs 30 per day and Rs 200 for
8 days, Boxes for 4, Rs 20 per day and Rs 130 for 8 days.
Entrances to large paddock and tribunes, Rs 5 per day and
Rs 30 per 8 days, Entrances to small tribunes Rs 3 and Rs 20
per 8 days, cheap places 0 R 1 per day and 50 Kopecks per day.

10. Herewith statement from the Government metereological Observa-
tory for 10 years, indicating state of weather during the
time of the meeting.

11. As regards aviation meetings in St. Petersburg, we have had
only solitary flights last year by Legagneux and Guyot, which
were favoured by the public tremendously in spite of bad
weather, but no actual flying week, where several aviators
compete for money prizes, has ever been held in Russia.

The St. Petersburg aviation committee undertakes to spend for the
organization of the meeting at least the following:
1. Rs 4,000 for the lease of the aerodrome.
2. 10% on the sale of all tickets will go to the Race Course
Society and the Aero Club.
3. The control of the tickets will be made by at least 50
cashiers, which will cost about Rs 1,200.
4. The ambulance arrangement will cost Rs 250.
5. Police and other safeguarding of ground will cost about
Rs 4,000.
6. The office of the Committee, telegrams, postage etc. will
cost about Rs 2,000.
7. Advertisements Rs 10,000.
8. Supplementary stands, places, sheds for aviators etc. will
cost about Rs 10,000.
9. The transport of aeroplanes to St. Petersburg and back to
Paris will cost, including fares of aviators etc. about
Rs 20,000.
10. The prize money for the aviators, which is deposited in the
Credit Lyonnais in St. Petersburg is Fes 100,000...chertia
etc. Rs 1,600.
11. Commission to the newspaper L'Auto Fcs 3,000 and 1% of tickets
sold.
12. Unforeseen expenses at Rs 5,000.

Hereby the preliminary expenses amount to about Rs 95,000. We
should like to insure the meeting for Rs 135,000. The places at
the disposal of the public are 5 boxes 0 Rs 40, 35 boxes a Rs 30,
19 boxes 9 Rs 20, abt 10,000 entrances a Rs 5, 5,000 entrances
o Rs 3, 2,000 entrances 0 R 1 and 10,000 entrances a 50 Kopecks
each.




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NOTES FROM COLLECTORS

4 Dr. Maurice R. Friend, New York. New York
I am the Secretary of the Hellenic Philatelic Society of America
and I thought you might like to have details of an item in my
collection of the Russian Zone of Occupation on the island of Crete.
This is a cover which is either official, or a patriotic of the
period, as it has the Cretan flag imprinted at top left (Fig. 1).
This consists of a white cross on pale blue ground, like the flag
of Greece, but with a white star on red ground, in the upper left
quarter. All this in spite of the fact that Crete was still nomi-
nally under Turkish suzerainty.

The two-metallika stamp of the Russian Zone is cancelled "RETHYMNON"
in Greek and it is addressed locally to a Mister Pantelis Gaganis,
Rethymnon, all written in Russian. This is the first time that I
have come across such a usage, as all previous covers seen, have
had local addresses, inscribed in Greek. Perhaps your members can
come un with further examples of addresses in Russian, or even
better still, examples of mail that went to Russia from Crete during
this period (13 May to 29 July 1899).

Kurt Adler, New York, New York
(a) I think many members are now aware that the "FRANCO" markings
sometimes seen as cancellations on stamps of the Empire, were not
applied exclusively by Russian post offices in the Levant, but also
in Continental Russia. I like to take this opportunity to illus-
trate the "FRANCO" type for Kishinev, the capital of Bessarabia
* (Fig. 2). The entire, with 14 kop. postage is addressed to Lieben,
Prague district, which is now in Czechoslovakia. The "FRANCO"
marking is in black and measures 31x13 mm. It is struck at the
top left of the address side and also across two stamps of the
franking. On the back we see the despatching postmark of Kishinev,
dated 31 Oct. 1870 old style (12 Nov. 1870 new style), an Austrian
PRAC marking of 18 Nov. and the arrival cancel of Lieben of one day
later. Will fellow members please send in details of similar con-
tinental usages so that we may classify them?

(b) This is a letter sent from Urga in Mongolia on 4 Oct. 1924 to
the Secretary of the Russian Geographic Society in Leningrad and
franked with a 20 cent Mongolian stamp of the first issue. The
sender was a famous explorer of Central Asia, P.K. Kozlov (1863-
1935), as noted at the bottom right of the cover shown here in
Fig. 3. One of the 40 kop. stamps of the 1951 series commemorating
famous Russian scientists and learned men features his portrait
(Sov. Cat. 1681; Scotts 1571; Gibbons 1707; Yvert 1571; Michel 1590;
Zumstein 1578). Please note that this stamp comes in two sizes of
the design, namely 22 x33 mm. and 214x32 mm. as shown in Fig. 4;
these two sizes are also found on other stamps of this set, with
the exception of the four depicting Lebedin, Lobachevskii, Lodygin
and Timiryazev.

Incidentally, my earliest cover with the first issue of Mongolia
dates from Sept. 1924, but I understand that it first went on
Issue at least a month prior to that. Perhaps our Mongolian


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specialists can advise the earliest known date of usage for this
unusual set, printed in Moscow and designed in Urga by an Austrian
commercial artist, Lothar Sch6nauer, whom I knew personally.

(c) I have a complete set of the Ukrainian definitive "shagiv"
stamps of 1918, surcharged in black with the Soviet hammer and
sickle emblem and new value of 100 rubles (Fig. 5). This is possi-
bly a bogus issue, but perhaps our Ukrainian specialists can tell
us more about it.

(d) I recently acquired an interesting censored voer, sent from the
town of Trakai (Troki) in Lithuania to the U.S.A. by registered mail
on 19 Nov. 1945. It apparently went through the capital of Vilnius
(Wilno) en route as the back shows an impression in grey-black of
a two-circle cachet reading in Russian "MILITARY CENSORSHIP / USSR"
between the circles and "V-s / 9" in the center (Fig. 6). This
shows that there were at least nine of these markings applied at
Vilnius. It arrived in New York on 15 Feb. 1946, so the letter must
have been held up for quite some time. Perhaps our Lithuanian and
Polish friends know of further types and colors which were applied
at this historic city.

(e) Re: the kind remarks by Dr. Stackelberg concerning my cover of
the Swedish Corps in Estonia (Rossica No. 72, "Notes from Collectors"),
I wish to state that the two cachets at top right were definitely
handstamped individually on the cover, and not printed thereon.
Although the last Eichenthal catalog lists over 70 Estonian field-
post markings of this period, I would not be surprised if further
unrecorded cachets come to light. I hope that our Estonian specia-
lists will let us4now immediately any new types show up.

Wing/Cdr. Peter L. Padget. Weston-super-mare, England
Further to my notes in Rossica No. 69 on the I-Li Republic in North-
West Sinkiang, I would like to point out that in addition to-the
overprinted stamps I listed previously, there was also a definitive
set of 4 stamps, printed from wood blocks and issued in 1949.

These stamps are unusual in that there is no designation of the
issuing authority, but merely a design and figures of value. The
denominations are 50 (dollars) showing a soldier studying, 100 with
two soldiers on patrol, 200 featuring a military courier on bicycle
and 500 depicting coal miners. I am illustrating herewith the 200-
dollar value in blue, franking a registered cover addressed in
Chinese and Turki to a party in Urumchi, the capital of Sinkiang
(fig. 7).

The postal markings on the front will be of great interest to Rossica
members, as they are bilingual, in Turki and Russian. The post-
mark on the stamp is in pale violet and reads "DURBULJIN / POSTASI"
("Durbul in, its Post") at top in Arabic script, and "DURBUL'DZHIN /
POCHTA" ("Durbuljin Post Office") at bottom in Russian. The regis-
tration cachet is also bilingual and in the same color, with the
Russian abbreviations "3" and "N", standing for"registered" and
"number" respectively. The Arabic script at top reads "zakaz son",
or "registration number" in Turki. Please note that the Turki word

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"zakaz" is obviously derived from the Russian "zakaznoi" or
"zakaznoe". The postal official at Durbuljin obviously had some
knowledge of Russian, as he marked the date of despatch at the
right of the stamp in Russian style (13 March 1950). It was re-
ceived in Urumchi 24 days later on 6 March.

Durbuljin is the Turki name for the town known to the Chinese as
Hoshang or Omin, 40 miles southeast of Chuguchak. This newly dis-
covered postmark now brings up to two the number of bilingual
Turki-Russian markings, namely from Durbuljin and Savan, utilized
during the existence of the I-Li Republic. Others doubtless exist
and it is hoped that these notes will stimulate interest in their
discovery.

A. Speeckaert, Vilvorde. Belgium
I would like to describe for members an illustrated postcard with
triple franking, which I recently picked up. On the view side
there is a scene from the Russo-Japanese War, with an inscription
in Japanese and English reading "The cavalry crossing the Ai-Ho
in pursuit of the enemy, on May 1st, 1904".

On the same side, there is a Japanese stamp at top right, cancelled
at a Tokio branch office on the 26th day (rest of date illegible-
see Fig. 8). At bottom left, there is a one-kopek stamp of Russia,
cancelled with an unusual hand-carved chop reading "KITAI" ("CHINA")
in Russian-see Fig. 9. On the address side, there is a one-cent
stamp of the Chinese Empire, cancelled with the typical "tombstone"
postmark of a postal agency, apparently reading "Sun Tai Fu", in
this case (Fig. .0). The front also shows the arrival cancel of
Brussells-North Station in Belgium, dated 31 Aug. 1905.

I obtained this card from the grandson of the receiver, to whom it
had been sent by a friend working in the Construction Section of
the Chinese Railroads Co., whose cachet also appears on the front
of the card.

EDITORIAL COMMENT:

It appears that the Chinese postage was the only valid franking on
the card, while both the Japanese and Russian frankings were appar-
ently applied as a historic souvenir in Tokio, the Russian stamp
being also "cancelled" there with the "KITAI" chop, specially
carved for this purpose. We would welcome data from members about
similar efforts emanating from the Far East.

A. Cronin, New York. New York
a) I have a German illustrated postcard, sent from Breslau (Wrockeaw)
on 31 May 1903, to jddi in Russian Poland and also showing a tran-
sit RPO (TPO) marking inscribed in Russian and reading "POCHTOVYI
VAGON-2-KOLYUSHKI-LODZ 19.V.1903" ("Mail Train -2- Koliuszki-o'dz,
19 may 1903" Old Style).

The card bears in addition an unframed two-line cachet, measuring
36x9 mm. and reading in Russian "PROVERYAL PLOTSENNIK" ("PLOCIENNIK
HAS VERIFIED" See Fig. 11). Judging from the name, Mr. Plociennik


-79-










was a Polish official in the Russian Postal Service, who applied
this cachet to mail from abroad which was checked to see if it
had some objectionable feature. Perhaps our Polish readers can
advise of further cachets of this kind.

(b) The two Hungarian stamps show in Fig. 12 form part of 14
values in the definitive series of 1 to 70 fillers, issued in
Hungary in June 1939. The stamps I possess all show a two-line
overprint reading "Melitopol / 25 NOV. 1941". This is applied in
black at angles varying from 40 to 54 degrees on the following
values: 1,2,4,5,6,10,16,20,25,30,32,40,50 and 70 fillers. On
most values, the "i" of "Melitopol" has the shaft shaven at top
right (see the 70 f. stamp in Fig. 12).

Melitopol is a city in the Ukraine and this overprint was pre-
sumably applied to commemorate its capture by the German and
Hungarian forces on the indicated date. It is very unlikely,
however, that this is an official issue, since the arrangement of
the date is contrary to Hungarian usage. In quoting dates, the
Hungarians put the year first, then the month and day, in that
order, and just the reverse to that is shown on the stamps. More-
over, Hungarian servicemen had the privelege of free franking,
with stamps only required for a few special charges. It seems
that the overprint is bogus, and I would welcome more details on
its fabrication.

(c) Pre-war covers of the USSR, addressed abroad and going back
to the 1930's are known with various cachets in French on the backs,
stating that they. had been received in a damaged state, the flaps
poorly sealed etc.

This practice was continued in the post-war period and I have a
cover sent from Grili, Latvia on 2 Nov. 1949 (bilingual Russian-
Latvian cancel struck in lilac with serial letter "b"). Addressed
to Amberg in the U.S. Zone of Germany, it was backstamped at Riga
on 5 Nov. and at the same time, an unframed two-line cachet in
reddish-violet, measuring 54x14 mm. was added to the back (Fig.13).
It reads "Received at Riga in / damaged state". Do our Latvian
and other members know of other such markings, emanating from
Latvia and other parts of the USSR in the post-war period?

Marcel Lamoureux, Providence, R.I.
It was of much interest to me reading Dr. R.J. Ceresa's letter in
the'Wotes from Collectors" article which prompted me to re-read
Mr. Popov's notes in Journal No. 69 on his cover with mixed frank-
ing. I examined my collection of covers and came across two which
contain similar frankings. I am enclosing copies which I ran off
on the office duplicating machine.

The larger of the two covers was mailed from Trostanets on July
31st 1923 to London and contains four copies of 50 Rubles (Scott
number 231) and two copies of the 4 Rubles (Scott number 239).
The other cover was mailed from Boguslav to London and is franked
with four copies of the 100 Rubles (Scott number 237) two copies

-80-















I: ^ '^r\ .N
So ..







1 1









F ig 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6.



~^^ ..,^ ^ 'from Collectors.
I c



E1- -l
*LL~ZC Ja~cc A )~t"~".
I j






Note fom1 Coletos





NOTES FROM COLLECTORS.
i ii i i i *





TA
S. .




/' ^j r/ -^ ., ,- i.'







Fig. 7. g. 8.


Recu. a Riga en

P OIBIbPC Ib
njlOUEHHSMb 6tat deteriore.
-- i














I I,













F 1s-. i ..
S1-82- g.





FIGRx -, %4 .

-82-










of the 3 Rubles (Scott number 238) and one copy of the 10 Rubles
(Scott number 241). It is postmarked May 23 1923. It is back-
stamped North Kensington July 4, 1923 as it is a registered
cover.

T.D.K. Pearce, Stanley Gibbons Ltd.. London. England
I enclose an Aucion Catalogue for our sale of 9/10 February 1967,
together with a photograph of an item which I think will be of
interest to you. The relevant lot number is marked in the text.
(see Fig. 14).




BOOK REVIEWS

"NOMENCLATURE INTERNATIONAL DES BUREAUX DE POSTE"

("International Listing of Post Offices"), to be published by the
International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union during the
first quarter of 1968. The approximate price is 48 Swiss Francs
(about $11.50 in U.S. funds) for the bound work.

We are doing something out of the ordinary here, in giving mem-
bers an advance review of a wonderful work, which will soon appear
in its sixth edition. Known formerly as the "Dietionnaire des
bureaux de poste" ("Dictionary of Post Offices"), it has previously
appeared under its old name in 1895, 1909, 1926, 1937 and 1951 and
has listed in strict alphabetic order all offices of member coun-
tries and their dependencies, followed by the name of the country,
state or province in which the offices are situated. For coun-
tries such as the USSR, which do not use the Latin alphabet, the
place-names have been transliterated into the French system of
spelling. Although French is used as the international language
of the U.P.U., the last edition of the Dictionary included a sup-
plement in several other languages, showing how to use the work.

The new sixth edition will be in three volumes and list 420,000
post offices throughout the world. According to Soviet sources,
there are 72,000 post offices, agencies and sub-offices in their
country alone, so it stands to reason that the new compilation
will be of great utility to our members in checking contemporary
cancels, and to postal historians in general.

Interested readers are urged to write immediately to the U.P.U.,
signifying their desire to order copies of the new edition. The
address is as follows: Bureau International de l'Union Postale
Universelle, Section E, Case Postale, 3000 Berne 15, Switzerland.
Orderers will be advised later of the exact amount to be remitted.
For U.S. members, the quickest and cheapest method of paying would
be by sending the dollar equivalent of the final price in an
American Express money Order, obtainable at many banks through-
out the country.

-83-









Incidentally, Switzerland provides the U.P.U. with a special issue
of official postage stamps and it is suggested that readers ask
for the application of such stamps as postage on the volumes. It
is stressed that the Bureau may not comply with this request, but
if it does so, the recipients will obtain an interesting phila-
telic souvenir.
"FILATELIYA SSR"'

("PHILATELY USSR"), Nos. 4-7 for April-July 1967. A monthly maga-
zine published by the All-Union Society of Philatelists in an
edition of 50,000 copies. Price 30 kopeks. The highlights of
these four issues are as follows:
(a) "One hundred roads, one hundred destinies of the postage stamp"
a collective article of impressions by correspondents of the jour-
nal, en assignment with Train No. 29, mail Coach No. 45, operating
between Moscow and Kaliningrad. The interesting postal markings
utilized by this route are a feature of the article (No. 4/1967).
(b) "The first definitive issues of 1923-1927" (the well-known
"Small Heads" etc.), by A. Skrylev. A fine and detailed study of
these absorbing stamps (Nos. 4,5/1967).
(c) "Painting and the Graphic Arts on postage stamps of the USSR",
by V. Vol'f and V. Filippov. A very thorough treatment, includ-
ing details on the original works and artists. This will be a
great help to topicalists interested in this field (Nos. 4,5/1967).
d) "SIPEX-1966", by Professor K. Berngard. A very comprehensive
and perceptive survey of this international show held at Washington,
D.C. The author has a constructive outlook, but he laments the
less than enthusiastic appreciation of the philately of Eastern
Europe in the West. Never mind, Professor, just remember the old
Russian saying: "Budet i na nashe ulitse prezdnik" ("One day
there will be a holiday on our street too"). Our time will come
(No. 4/1967).
(e) "What numismatics and paper-money collecting are all about",
by E. Gribanov. A useful survey of the field, illustrating and
describing, among other things, a very rare parody of a 100-
karbovantsiv banknote originally issued by the Government of Hetman
Pavlo Skoropadskii, (No. 4/1967).
(f) "The first Soviet stamp for general airmail usage, and its
forgeries", by V. Pritula. An excellent article, complete with
clear drawings, which we hope to translate and reproduce soon for
our members (No. 5/1967).
(g) "Yet another forgery", by Ya. Vovin. A good description of
a forgery of the 70 kopek "Chaincutter" stamp, which was designed
by Richards Zarripg (Richard Sarrinsch) and placed on issue by
the RSFSR in 1918 (No. 6/1967).
(h) "Special Postal Cancellations of the USSR for 1967". A use-
ful listing of special postmarks applied during the first quarter
of this year (No. 6/1967).
(i) "A tentative classification of the activities of the Russian
Posts in Bulgaria during the 1877-78 War", by D.N. Minchev. This
is a painstaking and methodical survey, presented to Soviet readers
by our Bulgarian contributor. Summarizing the results of the
ground covered since he began writing for us in 1962, he gives
Soviet philatelists a very good idea what to look for. Since much
-84-









of the mail of the period must have gone to Russia, it is hoped
that this fine article will spur the discovery of further material
in the USSR (No. 6/1967).
(j) "How can the lithographed stamp be distinguished ?", by
Professor P. Peisikov. This is a very fine study of the litho-
graphed version for the 30-kopek pilot definitive, originally
printed in 1939 by the typographic process. The lithographed
stamp is a very rare variety and the writer helps us to recognize
it readily with the help of the excellent drawings he provides.
We will be translating this piece soon for our members (No. 7/1967).

As is now usual for this magazine, there are many other features,
including articles of a topical nature, a strong Junior section
including useful philatelic glossaries, corrections by readers to
statements made by authors, and a corner for small advertisements
by collectors. From the latter, we note that collecting material
from the 1918-1923 period is growing in popularity, due, no doubt,
to the excellent work done on the varied rates of the time by
V.A. Karlinskii.

"MARKA ZOVET V PUT' "

("The stamp calls out on the way"), by Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii.
A paperback of 88 pages, issued by the "Svyaz' Publishing House,
Moscow 1966, in an edition of 80,000 copies, price 14 kopeks.

This is a collection of articles by this talented writer, mostly
reprinted from the recent "Soviet Collector" manuals, or issues
of the "Philately USSR" magazine, but often with additional notes
and bibliographic references. The subjects treated include the
topic of Lenin on stamps, valuable data on the beginnings of the
airmail services, a study of the semi-postal issues, notes on the
inflationary period of 1922-1923, a fine survey of the postage due
issues, some interesting comments on Savings Bank stamps and pos-
tal issues used for the same purpose, information on the 1937
Pioneers set, an article on Pushkin's bow tie, questions and an-
swers on the reasons for surcharges and overprints, some interest-
ing thoughts on stamp designs, details of errors in stamp inscrip-
tions, unusual facts about various issues and finally, the source
for the design on the 5-kopek Metro stamp of 1935.

The point that Mr. Karlinskii consistently hammers home is the
necessity for continual enquiry and investigation of stamps and
postal history. Published at a very low price and in a large
edition, this paperback cannot fail to have an impact on the local
philatelic scene. The Editorial Board of Rossica is arranging to
have translations of some of the more important articles published
in future issues of our Journal.

"POCHTOVAYA SVYAZ' V UZBEKISTANE"

("POSTAL COMMUNICATIONS IN UZBEKISTAN"), by Yu. Kh. Mukhamedov.
A brochure of 72 pages, issued by the Unified "Kizil Uzbekiston",
Pravda Vostoka" and "Uzbekistoni Surkh" Publishing House at
Tashkent in 1961, price 13 kopeks.

-85-









The author has drawn deeply on the published decrees of the Coun-
cil of Ministers of the USSR and its Uzbek counterpart, the works
of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbak SSR, documents in the
Central Archives of the. Ministries of Internal Affairs and Com-
munications of Uzbekistaq, and the recollections of several
postal workers and pensioners with over 40 years service in the
postal affairs of the country.

The result is a fascinating little work, starting with the history
of the posts from the 6th Century B.C. onwards, and followed by
a wonderful section on the Tsarist posts in the area, including
some glorious postal statistics which also cover activities in
the Khanate of Bukhara and the Emirate of Khiva. In the post-
revolutionary period, the beginnings of the Soviet postal service
are covered, references made to the horse-post services of the
1920's, a section devoted to the difficult days during W.W. II and
two final sections given on post-war developments. This survey is
a mine of information on postal services in Central Asia, and we
shall be translating the important sections in future issues of
our Journal.

"TSENTRAL'NYI MUZEI SVYAZI IMENI A.S. POPOVA"

("The Central Museum of Communications named after A.S. Popov").
Issued under the editorship of B.I. Rasin by the "Khudozhnik
RSFSR" Publishing House, Leningrad 1962, in an edition of 15,000
copies, price 1 ruble 22 kopek.

This is a guide book to the Postal museum at Leningrad and printed
specially for sale there. The work is basically divided into
three sections, the first being devoted to general information on
the museum, the second to the development of communications in
Russia up to the Revolution and the final portion to communications
media during the Soviet era. It should be pointed out here to
U.S. readers that, in common with most foreign countries, the
Ministry of Communications of the USSR not only conducts postal
services, but also those pertaining to telegraphs, telephones,
radio and television networks etc.

In other words, postage stamps and the postal service as such form
only a section in this museum, which is devoted to many forms of
communication. Richly illustrated, the book shows among other
issues, two unused copies of Russia No. 1 in the museum's posses-
sion. The manual concludes with an extensive bibliography, and
judging from its thorough description of the contents of the
museum, it should be a highly interesting place to visit, par-
ticularly for anyone with an engineering or scientific background.

MATERIALY PO ISTORII SVYAZI V ROSSII XVIII-NACHALO XX VV."

("Materials on the history of communications in Russia from the
18th to the beginning of the 20th centuries"). Compiled by five
specialists in the fields of postal, telegraphic, telephone and
radio services with their international extensions, and published
by authority of the Council of Ministers of the USSR at Leningrad

-86-










in 1966. Contains 336 pages and priced at 74 kopeks.

In effect, this is a companion volume to the guidebook reviewed
above, as officials of the Postal Museum helped to compile it and
it has much the same range of contents, with duplication of some
of the illustrations, but it does not go beyond 1917. Its chief
value lies in the very comprehensive classification of documentary
sources, which accompany the excellent summaries of postal and
other means of communication.

Among other interesting facts, it notes that the records of the
General Administration of Posts and Telegraphs no longer exist in
their entirety, as sections of them were unfortunately damaged
during the disastrous Leningrad floods of 1924.. Members will re-
collect that these floods became the occasion for a special issue
of semi-postals at that time.

However, the big surprise is a reference in the chapter on inter-
national communications, which reads as follows: "Material in
the archives on the organization of postal services to China and
Korea between 1870 and 1918 sheds light on...the establishment of
a post office attached to the Russian diplomatic mission in Seoul,
for the acceptance of correspondence from Russians and foreigners
living in Seoul, upon the condition that regular services by sea
be established between Seoul and Vladivostok".

The summaries and references take up about half the book. the
balance being devoted to the reprinting of selected reports, cir-
culars and statistics, with a comprehensive bibliography for the
period under review.

In short, this is a guidebook to source material in the Central
State Historical Archives of the USSR and of the Leningrad State
Historical Archives. When Soviet postal historians get around
to tapping these sources, there is no doubt they will find a great
deal of highly interesting data that will be well worth publish-
ing.

"FILATELISTICHESKAYA GEOGRAFIYA"

(Philatelic Geography"), by Leonid Leonidovich Lepeshinskii. A
book of 480 pages, issued by the "Svyaz' Publishing House,
Moscow 1966, in an edition of 50,000 copies, price 1 ruble 95
kopek.

This reference book is beautifully printed on high quality chalk-
surfaced paper and is devoted to foreign stamp-issuing countries
of the world. That is, all countries except those within the
USSR. Intended for the budding collector, it is divided into
five sections, corresponding to the five continents of the globe.
A map, illustrated stamp and a scene from each country are given,
followed by important statistics about each land. Its philatelic
features of importance are then described and reference made to
the map for territorial changes and their philatelic repercussions.

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An outstanding asset of this work, from the point of view of the
average Soviet collector, consists of the careful translations
of the many foreign inscriptions on the stamps of the world.
This is backed up at the end of the work by a comprehensive glos-
sary of stamp-issuing administrations, all keyed to the maps re-
produced throughout the book and there is an up-to-date supple-
ment of flags of the world in natural colors. It would be hard
to imagine a more useful handbook for the beginner.

"KALENDAR FILATELISTA 1967"

("The Philatelist's Calendar for 1967"). A paperback in calendar
format, compiled by V.A. Fitse, A.F. Kolesnikov and V.A. Karlinskii,
and issued by the "Svyaz' Publishing House in an edition of
50,000 copies, price 60 kopeks.

Similar in layout and contents to the previous edition for 1966,
reviewed in No. 71 of our Journal, this style of booklet again
serves up a variety of interesting facts about the stamps and pos-
tal history of the USSR, from the 9th century to the present day.
All this is tied to specific dates on the calendar, an illustrated
page with an adjoining page of descriptive matter being devoted
to each week in the year. Judging from the number printed, this
type of publication appears to be quite popular in the USSR and it
certainly is a pleasant method for instilling philatelic facts.

"ERA COSmICK IN FILATELIE"

(The Outer SpaceE ra in Philately"), by losif Micu and Mihai Popovici.
A soft-cover book of 368 pages, issued by Editura Transporturilor
pi Telecomunicatiilor, Bucharest 1964, in an edition of 4149 copies,
price 36 Lei.

Although printed throughout in Roumanian, this wonderful work is
a must for space enthusiasts, as it is replete with illustrations
and thus easy to understand. Arranged in chronological order,
starting from the launching of the first Sputnik on 4 Oct. 1957, it
covers all subsequent flights of space craft, including telecommuni-
cations satellites, placed in space by the U.S.A. and the USSR up
to the launching of "Vostok-6" on 16 June 1963. The stamps, can-
cellations and vovers issued by all countries covering these events
are thoroughly listed and illustrated. At the end of the book,
there is an additional section on stamps, covers and cancellations
of a general spatial character, i.e. not connected with any
specific launching, and this is followed by a priced catalog of
all space stamps issued between 1957 and 1963.

The book is especially valuable in that it illustrates and describes
many items from Eastern European countries that are not well known
in the West, and in particular, many of the varied cachets spon-
sored by stamp clubs in the USSR. An enormous amount of labor ob-
viously went into the preparation of this methodical work. Readers
will be advised in the "Book Reviews" section when supplements ap-
pear. Enquiries for the book should be directed to: "Cartimex",
P.O. Box 134, Bucharest, Roumania or to the philatelic ocrrespon-
dents in that country.

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FOR A SPECIALIST'



We are breaking up a

large specialized collection of

EMPIRE SOVIET (up to 1945)




On hand a large selection'

Accumulation of 40 years.........

ERRORS, COVERS, UNLISTED VARIETIES, incl.

Offices China, Levant

Armies, Far East, Armenia,

Georgia, Azerbaydjan, Latvia, Lithuania, etc. etc.




: We will gladly make approvals

Sto a specialist. No obligations

Attractive Prices Convenient Terms.




We are paying TOP prices

for scarce or rare varieties, collections,

covers (incl. ZEMSTVO) etc.
*


We are particularly interested in

buying large lots or collections. Please

make us offers for cash payment.
a a

S. SEREBRAKEAN, INC.
SP.O. Box 448 MONROE, N.Y. 10950



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STAMPAZINE PHILATELIC CENTER


Stamps and Covers of the World

Also


a 1 1 philateli c supplies



1 0 9 W. 4 3 rd. S t r e e t N E W Y 0 R K, N. Y. 10036

WANTED

CO V E R S WITH R U S S IAN
"M U T E CANCELLATIONS"


beginning World War One from-
R 0 LAND and L I T H U A N I A

Dr. J. K U D E R E W I C Z 1 4 2 T A R R Y T O W N RO A D
Manchester, N. H.

WANTED

RUSSIAN PAPER MONEY, CIVIL WAR AND RAILWAYS
ALSO
RUSSIAN WIRE MONEY BEFORE IVAN III

WRITE FIRST

CAROLYN FRAKE
363 TENNESSEE LANE
PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA 94306


SAN T E D O t t o m a n T u r k i s h and Offices in Turkey
material; Balkan Wars, and Aegean Island material;
used only. Stamps, covers, locals, samples, etc.

Gordon Torrey, Ph.D. 5118 Duval Drive Washington, D.C. 20016


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N 0 P R I C E A L E X A N D E R BI SK

L I S T 280 Riverside Drive

New York, New York 10025

U R O P E A N C O U N T R I E S until 1961 only, no British,

but incl: German, Belgian, Dutch, Italian Colonies, French
Colonies (only the general issue) French Offices.


Want Lists Filled
Specialties for Advanced Collectors A


WANTED

USED POSTAL STATIONERY ENVELOPES AND LETTER SHEETS OF IMPERIAL RUSSIA

also

UNIFORMS, CAPS, BOOTS & ACCOUNTERMENTS OF IMPERIAL RUSSIAN & GERMAN

ARMIES and NAVIES


These items are wanted for my private collection, and anything
purchased will be cared for properly and honorably.


Dr. Heinz A. von Hungen


Box 17


Salida, Calif. 95368


Rossica #538








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