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 Front Cover
 Index
 Officers of the society
 Honorary members
 Representatives of the society
 Obituary
 Life of the society
 An open letter to the members of...
 The trans-Siberian postal route...
 Fields of Russian philately by...
 Ostarbeiter Mail: An introduction...
 Paper on the subject of Russian...
 About the establishment of the...
 Rumanian troops on the Macedonian...
 A Zemstvo, but not a Zemstvo stamp...
 Soviet postal rates by Vladlen...
 Peddlers with stock books translated...
 Fraudulent Soviet varieties by...
 Bisects of fiscal stamps in St....
 The Moscow-Volga canal anniversary...
 Some Soviet varieties by the editorial...
 The Russion post in Rumania by...
 At the sign of the three triangles...
 The story of a set (translated...
 Notes from collectors
 Book reviews


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00018
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1968
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00018

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
    Index
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Honorary members
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Obituary
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Life of the society
        Page 4a
    An open letter to the members of "Rossica" society
        Page 4b
        Page 4c
        Page 4d
    The trans-Siberian postal route by Henri Tristant
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Fields of Russian philately by Kurt Adler
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Ostarbeiter Mail: An introduction by Benjamin R. Beede
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Paper on the subject of Russian erinophilia read at the general meeting of "Rossika" and "B.S. of R.P.", New York City, 19 November 1967 by E. Marcovich (translated by C. P. Bulak)
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 25a
        Page 25b
        Page 25c
    About the establishment of the Zemstvo posts in Russia compiled by N. I. Sokolov
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Rumanian troops on the Macedonian front during World War I by Dr. Gordon H. Torrey
        Page 32
        Page 33
    A Zemstvo, but not a Zemstvo stamp by Boris Shishkin
        Page 34
    Soviet postal rates by Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Peddlers with stock books translated from Filateliya SSSR, no. 3, 1967 by A. Kosarev and F. Bogdanchikov (translated by C. P. Bulak)
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Fraudulent Soviet varieties by the eitorial board
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Bisects of fiscal stamps in St. Petersburg by O. A. Faberge
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    The Moscow-Volga canal anniversary issue of 1947 by Kurt Adler
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Some Soviet varieties by the editorial board
        Page 60
    The Russion post in Rumania by D.N. Minochev
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    At the sign of the three triangles by the Editorial Board
        Page 68
    The story of a set (translated from "Filateliya SSSR" no. 4 for October 1966, p. 42)
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Notes from collectors
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Book reviews
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text

THE JOURNAL
of the

ROSSICA SOCIETY
of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY





















Silver Medals at Belgrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937" and
the International Exhibition, Koenigsberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronze Medals at the International Exhibition "Praga 1935" and
Vienna International Exhibition "WIPA 1933"
Recent International Awards
Silver Medals at Berlin, "Bephila 1957", Parana. "Eficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires, "Temex 1958"
Hamburg "Interposta 1959" Palermo "Sicilia 1959" "Barcelona 1960" -
Johannesburg "Unipex 1960" Warsaw "Polska 1960" Prague "Praga 1962"
and Luxembourg "Melusina '63"
Silver Medals Paris "Philatec '64" Vienna "WIPA '65" Washington "Sipex '66"




No. 74 1968








EDITOR IN CHEIF

Hon. Memb. Andrew Cronin
Box 806, Church Street Station
New York, N. Y. 10008

PUBLISHER

Hon. Memb. Martin L. Harow

ASSISTANT EDITOR

Hon. Memb. R. A. Sklarevski

EDITORIAL BOARD

Hon. Members K. Adler, 0. A. Faberge, Emile Marcovitch
Members, C. P. Bulak, J. Terlecky (Ukrainian Editor)
INDEX

Pages

2 Offices of the Society, Hon. Members and Representatives of the Society
3 Obituary
4a Life of the Society
4b An Open Letter to the Members of "Rossica" Society
5 The Trans-Siberian Postal Route by Henri Tristant
15 Fields of Russian Philately by Kurt Adler
19 Ostarbeiter Mail: An Introduction by Benjamin R. Beede
22 Paper on the subject of Russian erinophilia read at the Gneral Meeting
of "ROSSIKA" and "B.S. of R. P.", New York City, 19 November 1967
by E. Marcovich (translated by C. P. Bulak)
26 About the Establishment of the Zemstvo Posts in Russia compiled by
N. I. Sokolov
32 Rumanian Troops on the Macedonian Front During World War I by
Dr. Gordon H. Torrey
34 A Zemstvo, But Not a Zemstvo Stamp by Boris Shishkin
35 Soviet Postal Rates by Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii
50 Peddlers with Stock Books translated from FILATELIYA SSSR, No. 3, 1967
by A. Kosarev and F. Bogdanchikov (translated by C. P. Bulak)
52 Fraudulent Soviet Varieties by The Editorial Board
54 Bisects of Fiscal Stamps in St. Petersburg by 0. A. Faberge
57 The Moscow-Volga Canal Anniversary Issue of 1947 by Kurt Adler
60 Some Soviet Varieties by The Editorial Board
60 The Russian Posts in Rumania by D. N. Minchev
68 At the Sign of the Three Triangles by The Editorial Board
69 The Story of a Set (translated from "Filateliya SSSR" No. 4 for October
1966, p. 42)
71 Notes from Collectors
76 Book Reviews







OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President Pro-Ter A. Kotlar
Secretary R. A. Sklarevski
Chairman of Numismatic & Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arefiev

HONORARY MEMBERS

K. Adler J. F. Chudoba A. Cronin A. Kotlar
M. L. Harow M. Liphschutz N. I. Kardakov R. Sklarevski
K. Jansson E. I. Marcovitch 0. A. Faberge'


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G.B. Salisbury Chapter J.F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
San Francisco K. Jannson 624--16 Ave., San Francisco, Calif.
Washington B. Shishkin 3523 Edmunds St. N.W., Wash., D.C. 20007
Western USA L.S. Glass 1533 So. La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles,
Calif.
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Ave., Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Bel.
Canada G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking St. Downsview, Ontario, Can.
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Germany E.P. Fomin Munich 54, Rudinstr 9, West Germany
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv

Directors of the Society: Kurt Adler, Konstantin Jansson

Auditing Committees Kurt Adler, Andrew Cronin, Boris Shishkin

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors
disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $5.00, due January 1, for all
members. Application forms, which must be filled out, are available upon
request. Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership
lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable tos
ROSSICA Society of Russian Philately, c/o A. Cronin, Box 806, Church Street
Station, New York, N. Y. 10008.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates
are as follows: Full Page Ad is $60.00. Half Page is $30.00. Quarter Page
is $15.00. Five lines is $2.50. Members of the ROSSICA Society pay one half
or 50% of the above rates for ADS except for covers which is full price for all.
Therefore, the net cost of advertisements to members is only 250 per line.

We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in
Russian and in English at $2.00 each: Russian Editions No. 44 to 69; English
Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.



-2 -







OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President Pro-Ter A. Kotlar
Secretary R. A. Sklarevski
Chairman of Numismatic & Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arefiev

HONORARY MEMBERS

K. Adler J. F. Chudoba A. Cronin A. Kotlar
M. L. Harow M. Liphschutz N. I. Kardakov R. Sklarevski
K. Jansson E. I. Marcovitch 0. A. Faberge'


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G.B. Salisbury Chapter J.F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
San Francisco K. Jannson 624--16 Ave., San Francisco, Calif.
Washington B. Shishkin 3523 Edmunds St. N.W., Wash., D.C. 20007
Western USA L.S. Glass 1533 So. La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles,
Calif.
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Ave., Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Bel.
Canada G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking St. Downsview, Ontario, Can.
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Germany E.P. Fomin Munich 54, Rudinstr 9, West Germany
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv

Directors of the Society: Kurt Adler, Konstantin Jansson

Auditing Committees Kurt Adler, Andrew Cronin, Boris Shishkin

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors
disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $5.00, due January 1, for all
members. Application forms, which must be filled out, are available upon
request. Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership
lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable tos
ROSSICA Society of Russian Philately, c/o A. Cronin, Box 806, Church Street
Station, New York, N. Y. 10008.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates
are as follows: Full Page Ad is $60.00. Half Page is $30.00. Quarter Page
is $15.00. Five lines is $2.50. Members of the ROSSICA Society pay one half
or 50% of the above rates for ADS except for covers which is full price for all.
Therefore, the net cost of advertisements to members is only 250 per line.

We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in
Russian and in English at $2.00 each: Russian Editions No. 44 to 69; English
Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.



-2 -







OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President Pro-Ter A. Kotlar
Secretary R. A. Sklarevski
Chairman of Numismatic & Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arefiev

HONORARY MEMBERS

K. Adler J. F. Chudoba A. Cronin A. Kotlar
M. L. Harow M. Liphschutz N. I. Kardakov R. Sklarevski
K. Jansson E. I. Marcovitch 0. A. Faberge'


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

G.B. Salisbury Chapter J.F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
San Francisco K. Jannson 624--16 Ave., San Francisco, Calif.
Washington B. Shishkin 3523 Edmunds St. N.W., Wash., D.C. 20007
Western USA L.S. Glass 1533 So. La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles,
Calif.
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Ave., Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Bel.
Canada G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking St. Downsview, Ontario, Can.
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Germany E.P. Fomin Munich 54, Rudinstr 9, West Germany
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv

Directors of the Society: Kurt Adler, Konstantin Jansson

Auditing Committees Kurt Adler, Andrew Cronin, Boris Shishkin

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors
disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $5.00, due January 1, for all
members. Application forms, which must be filled out, are available upon
request. Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership
lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable tos
ROSSICA Society of Russian Philately, c/o A. Cronin, Box 806, Church Street
Station, New York, N. Y. 10008.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates
are as follows: Full Page Ad is $60.00. Half Page is $30.00. Quarter Page
is $15.00. Five lines is $2.50. Members of the ROSSICA Society pay one half
or 50% of the above rates for ADS except for covers which is full price for all.
Therefore, the net cost of advertisements to members is only 250 per line.

We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in
Russian and in English at $2.00 each: Russian Editions No. 44 to 69; English
Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.



-2 -








OBITUARY

This sad heading takes the place of the normal editorial for this issue. The
Reason is purely and simply because our revered President and Editor-in-Chief
is no longer with us.

"Dr. Salisbury died on Wednesday at the wheel of his car". So said our Ukrainian
Editor, Mr. Yaroslav S. Terlecky, of Philadelphia, in a phone call to us here
in New York City on Friday morning, 26 January 1968. He himself had only found
out about it late the previous evening, reading of it in a local paper on his
way home. To say that we were all profoundly shocked by his tragic passing at
the early age of 57 is to put it mildly. Suffering from a serious heart condition
from childhood, he always knew that death was near, but fought his disability
bravely and cheerfully. He was a remarkable man.

Grigorii Vasilyevich Bondarenko-Salisbury was born at Yekaterinodar (Krasnodar)
in 1910. He arrived with his parents in the U. S. in 1923 and graduated from
Temple University Dental School at Philadelphia in 1934. He practiced for 34
years at the Chatham Court address familiar to all of us. A man of many
interests, he had been prominent in literary activities, fencing, photography,
painting, sculpture and philately, just to name a few pursuits, and also did
extensive research in his professional work. A more genial, cultured and sincere
man would have been hard to meet in this day and age.

Prominent in the revival of our Society in the U. S. after W.W. II, he built it
up almost singlehandedly to the international stature we occupy today. Yet it
was typical of him that he gave most of the credit to others. His last letter
to Kurt Adler, dated ten days before his death, sums up his unselfish nature and
we quote from it herewith

"Dear Kurt,

Thanks for your kind letter and for the equally
generous letter of your correspondent, who praised the
Rossica Journal as having 'few equals in the philatelic
field and....how can an organization the size of yours
afford to publish such a big journal?...Surely your dues
will not pay for such a well-published book'.

You may convey my message to your fine corres-
pondent. The answer is not dues, or size of membership,
but DEDICATION. We have dedicated authors who loyally
furnish the material and some such as you, Kurt, or
Andy Cronin, or Michel Liphschutz, dig into own pockets
to defray the illustration costs. We have an Editorial
Board that pitches in and translates, e.g. C. Bulak when
I am pressed for time, an associate editor such as
Andy Cronin who devotes much time to culling worthwhile
articles from the USSR philatelic press, from Romanian,
Bulgarian, Czech, and Greek sources and digs into own
pocket besides.





-3-








IN

MEMORIAL DR. G. B. SALISBURY

1910 1968















DR. SALISBURY, SECOND FROM LEFT, AT RIGHT. DR. SALISBURY AT
AT THE "CHESAPEX 196 LUNCHEON PHILADELPHIA IN 1960














DR. SALISBURY PRESIDING AT THE A PARTIAL VIM OC HIS STAMP DEN,
LAST NATIONAL M G NG, W 17 WHERE HE SPENT HAPPY HOURS
-4-








We have people such as Joe Chudoba who works patiently
at the grass roots level in N.Y., Charlotte Downs who loyally
gives us publicity and money as editor of 'STAMPS', yours truly
who'd never spent less than $500.00 per annum out of own
pocket for annual meetings, meeting place, buffet suppers,
postage, exhibition expenses garnering medals for Rossica.
Until Marty Harow came along, I paid all the postage, enveloping
and mailing of over 300 journals per issue, twice yearly for
1954-1966 years, plus packages of back issues etc. etc.

Our Marty Harow now has his wife to do the fine
typing of pages for photo reproduction, gets the printers to
give us cheap rates, does yeoman service as publisher, prints
membership lists, member cards, constitutions free------all
this is Dedication and if we depended on $1,000 from 200 paying
members and had to pay for all that the dedicated members do
for FREE, we would not have a Rossica Journal such as we have
today. This is my message to your correspondent.

Sincerely,

Greg"

Grisha did many other favors for our Society. Free dental care, payment of dues,
advice and encouragement to members were only a few of the good deeds he per-
formed. He did not look to see what he could get out of the Society, but only
what he could do to help it along. He was, in fact, our "batyushka" and there
will never be another one.

We have been especially gratified at the expressions of condolence we received
at his passing from the Polonus Philatelic Society, Mrs. Charlotte Downs of
N.Y.C., Mr. Wi. Schipper of Brantford, Canada and many, many others too numerous
to mention. Our sincere thanks to each and every one of you. In his honor, the
New York Chapter has officially been renamed the "Gregory B. Salisbury" Chapter
of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately.

To his wife, Arden, the two sons, Roger and Brian, of whom he was so proud, his
mother Mrs. Sima Salisbury, his daughter-in-law and grandchild, we extend our
sincerest sympathy in this their irreparable loss.

Adieu, Grigorii Vasilyevich, may the memory of you be everlasting!


LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

Michel Liphschutz, our honored member in Neuilly sur Seine, France has been the
deserving recipient of several important philatelic honors recently. On 23
November 1967, the Council of the Royal Philatelic Society, London, England
elected him a Fellow of the Society. Election to fellowship is of international
significance as the RPS is one of the leading organizations in the world and its
expertizing facilities are probably unmatched. Early this year, the Philatelic
Congress of Great Britain elected him as a signatory to the Roll of Distinguished
Philatelists for 1968, the ceremony to be held on June 7th, at Buxton,
Derbyshire, England. This is a rare honor, bestowed on prominent philatelists


4a -









after many years of research. In addition, he is also a member of the French
"Academie de Philatelie". He has been for many years one of the foremost
students of the philately of Russia and States in all their phases and his
successes at international exhibitions have done much to raise the prestige of
our field in the philatelic world, Long life to you, Mikhail Vladimirovich!

Results are now in, listing the fifteen American recipients of awards at "IFA
Wien 1968", the international airmail stamp show, held at the Hofburg in
Vienna, Austria, from 29 May to 4 June this year. Among the names, we note
that of Fred W. Speers, our member in Escondido, California, who obtained a
vermeil medal for his exhibit of the Development of Russian Airmail. Members
will remember Fred's chatty and very informative article "Notes on Soviet Air
Mail Stamps 1922-1944", published in No. 71 of our Journal and we are happy
to see his efforts so well rewarded at this international show. Keep up the
good work, Fred:


AN OPEN LETTER TO THE MEMBERS OF "ROSSICA" SOCIETY

At the last annual meeting of the Society, held during the A.S.D.A. Show in
November 1967 Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury stated that after his present term of
office as President, he would not be a candidate for re-election, because of
his health, having suffered serious heart ailments during the past few years.
He suggested at that time, that the members seriously begin looking for a
successor to that office. During the same meeting, Secretary A. N. Lavrov
stated that he would like to be relieved of the duties of his office, as soon
as possible because of advanced age and would like to turn the records and
finances over to a successor. At the meeting, Mr. Vsevolod Popov volunteered
his services to the duties and functions of the office of Secretary until the
next general elections, and was accepted.

In January 1968, Dr. Salisbury died of a heart attack which resulted in the
loss of the main officer and leader of our Society. Immediately after the
death of Dr. Salisbury, a meeting was held in New York at which it was decided
that the functions of the office of President would be continued by Vice-
President Alexander Kotlar, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution
and that he should be aided by Honorary Member Andrew Cronin. The meeting also
voted to change the name of the New York Chapter to the "Dr. Gregory B.
Salisbury Chapter" in honor of and as a tribute to our late President. It was
also decided to move the archives of the Society from Philadelphia to New York,
since most of the activities eminated from the New York area, where the
majority of the officers and leading members reside. A delegation of officers
and members from the New York area, including Andrew Cronin, Martin Harow,
Emil Marcovitch, his wife Joseph Chudoba and Norman Epstein went to Philadelphia
in February. They were met in Philadelphia by Vice-President Alexander Kotlar
And Member J. Terlecky who is a member of the Editorial Board of the "Rossica"
Journal. This delegation went to pay respects and send condolences from the
Society to Mrs. Arden Salisbury, Dr. Salisbury's wife and their two sons,
Roger and Brian. After this meeting, most of the Society's archives which had
been retained by Dr. Salisbury, was transferred to New York.

Toward the middle of February 1968 arrangements had been made by Auditing
Committee Members Kurt Adler and Andrew Cronin to meet with Secretary
A. N. Lavrov and Member Vsevolod Popov with the view of auditing the Society's


4b -








books, and effectuate a proper transfer of the functions of the office of
Secretary from Mr. A. N. Lavrov to Mr. Vsevolod Popov. This meeting was held
at the home of Mr. Lavrov on February 25. After that meeting, Auditing Com-
mittee members Kurt Adler and Andrew Cronin took some of the vouchers, ledger
and records with them for further audit since they had found out at that time
there had not been any entries in the ledger for a period of more than two
years. There had been some receipt vouchers for this period retained, and
these were entered into the ledger by Auditing Committee member Kurt Adler,
who had spent several days in making the entries. Needless to say, the
membership and financial records were in a mess. Since all the funds of the
Society were in a bank in the name of Mr. Lavrov, it was hard to distinguish
the amount due the Society from Mr. Lavrov's personal checking account. When
efforts were made by acting President Kotlar, Auditing Committee members Adler
and Cronin, and Honorary Member Joseph Chudoba to help straighten out the
records they were met by procrastination on the part of Mr. Lavrov. At first
Mr. Lavrov requested that all recores obtained from him by Auditing Committee
members Adler and Cronin on February 25 be returned to him, so that he can make
the proper entries, and that no later than three weeks after receiving same, he
would turn over all property, records, documents and monies due to the Society
to the officers and members designated to receive same. At that time he con-
tended that he needed time to straighten out the records himself. He had given
a signed statement to this effect to acting President Kotlar on March 10, 1968.
The request of Mr. Lavrov was complied with, and all records were returned to
him within the week. In the meantime, Publisher of the "Rossica" Journal,
Martin Harow had requested some funds from Mr. Lavrov (as he had in the past)
so that he could prepare #74 of the Journal. This was refused, and Publisher
Harow had to appeal to acting President Kotlar for the necessary funds.
Acting President Kotlar had to contact Mr. Lavrov and remind him that this was
authorized expenditure for the benefit of the membership of the Society, and then
a check was finally sent.

After more than three months had elapsed, the Auditing Committee members were
still trying to get a proper transfer of the Society's property, records and
funds. There had always been one excuse or another on the part of Mr. Lavrov
for more time, resulting in further delay. When it came to the accounting of
the funds, he stated that he was entitled to 10% of all income as compensation
for his duties as Secretary, and that this had been designated in the old
Russian Constitution of "Rossica" Society. Although there may be credence to
this arrangement, no one present could verify or dispute this status. Even
though a new Consitution adopted in 1964 made no mention of compensation to the
Secretary-Treasurer the Auditing Committee members permitted him to deduct
sums for the years 1964 to 1967 because they could see no other way to obtain
the funds from Mr. Lavrov who claimed that the amount turned over was all the
money he had belonging to the Society.

In the interim, Mr. Lavrov had been receiving correspondence and dues from
members of the Society. He stated that he did not want this to continue; there-
fore, in the early part of May 1968, an announcement was placed in "STAMPS"
Magazine, and Linn's Weekly Stamp News; that henceforth all membership applica-
tions and dues should be made out to "Rossica" Society and not to any in-
dividual officer or member and that these should be transmitted to either
acting President Kotlar or Auditing Committee member Cronin. These announcements
appeared in the June 1st issue of "STAMPS" and the June 3rd issue of "LINN'S".



4c -








This had to be done since the membership files, while under the jurisdiction of
Mr. Lavrov had become disorganized, and the lists were in the process of being
straightened out and brought to date. Many persons names were on the rolls as
being in good standing, even though they did not pay dues over a period of
years, in violation of the provisions of the Constitution. At the same time,
all the Society's correspondence and funds which were still in Mr. Lavrov's
possession were requested to be transferred by him, to either acting President
Kotlar or Auditor Cronin. This matter was later brought up at a meeting held
by the "Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury Chapter" in New York on May 26th, which was
attended by acting President Kotlar, Auditor Cronin and other officers and
members of the Society. At the same time, a communication dated May 23rd from
Mr. Lavrov addressed to Auditor Cronin was shown, wherein Mr. Lavrov stated
that not only did Mr. Lavrov want to resign from the office of Secretary, but
that he wanted to withdraw his membership in the Society altogether.

Although numerous meetings were held by the Society in New York, particularly
during the period immediately after Dr. Salisbury's death, which were seriously
necessary Mr. Lavrov had not attended any meetings of the Society since the
one held during the A.S.D.A. show in November 1967 when he requested to be
relieved of the duties of Secretary.

In view of the foregoing facts, and for the sake of the preservation and progress
of the Society certain remedial action had to be taken, as follows:

1) The membership records are being revised; and those members who are arrears
in dues, (in accordance with ARTICLE I: Section 2(b) of the Constitution),
shall be dropped from the rolls. A special initiation fee is being pro-
posed for those who wish to re-join the Society.

2) All funds payable to the Society, shall be made out to "ROSSICA" SOCIETY,
and not to any individual officer or member. No further funds payable to
"ROSSICA" SOCIETY shall be sent to Mr. Lavrov, who had resigned his position
as Secretary, and had withdrawn his membership in the Society.

3) Regular Annual Financial reports are to be published in the "Rossica"
Journal.

4) The deletion of the status of "Honorary Members".

5) Innovation of a Junior section of "Rossica" Society.

6) With legal advice, a new Constitution has been drafted, and will be sub-
mitted for membership approval; with the #74 issue of the "Rossica"
Journal.

With the foregoing matters in view, and with the intent of keeping the member-
ship informed it will be our endeavor to build "Rossica" into a progressive,
democratically controlled and financially stable Society, of all persons
sincerely interested in Russian and related philately, and Russian numismatology.


Hon. Memb. Kurt Adler
Hon. Memb. Joseph Chudoba
Hon. Memb. Andrew Cronin
Hon. Memb. Martin L. Harow
4d -







THE TRANS-SIBERIAN POSTAL ROUTE

By Henri Tristant

(Continued from Rossica No. 71)
NOTEs Before proceeding with Chapter 3, it should be recorded here that several
other collectors have sent in details of their holdings. The original list of
contributors, given at the end of the installment published in No. 70, is there-
for amended as follows
K.A.s Kurt Adler, New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
G.B.s Gaston Berteloot, La Madeleine-lez-Lille, France
A.C.s Andrew Cronin, New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
C.D.: Colonel C. Deloste, Bordeaux, France
J.D.s J. Dumont, Vincennes, France
J.G.s Dr. J. Grasset, Nice, France
P.L.3 Pierre Langlois, Paris, France
A.M.: A. Mabille, Montauban, France
G.N.s Georges Naudet, Fontenay-sous-Bois, France
M.P.: Michel Parlangue, Paris, France
G.P.: Georges Petit, Bois-Colombes, France
L.P.s Dr. L. Philippe, Paris, France
G.B.S.s Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A.
R.S.s Raymond Salles, Paris, France
H.S.s Mme H. Sauvageot, Levallois-Perret, France
H.T.: Henri Tristant, Paris, France (items from my personal
collection)
J-P.V.: J.-P. Visser, Drachten, Holland
A.H.W.s Dr. A. H. Wortman, London, England

A supplementary item sent through the French P.O. at Pekings

We now record a registered letter with 20 cents postage in French China stamps,
bearing the handwritten notation "Via Siberia" and showing an unusual destinations

K.A. Departure : Peking (Fr. P.O.), 16 Sept. 1909
Arrival s Bucharest, Roumania, 3 Oct. 1909
Time taken : 17 days

Chapter 3

The mail originating from French offices in China and Indochina in the Far East
constituted only a fraction of the inter-continental correspondence forwarded by
the Trans-Siberian route, which served all of China, including the foreign post
offices of various countries established in the concessions, as well as Japan,
Korea and Manchuria, and perhaps even the distant Philippines. Added to these
mails were the letters posted aboard mail ships of various German, English and
other lines which called at Chinese and Japanese ports. This latter class of
correspondence, although bearing seapost markings applied at the time of mail-
ing, went by way of the Trans-Siberian route through Shanghai or Nagasaki.

The study of all these items, originating from various points, would require a
documentation difficult to assemble in France, and it is actually not within
the scope of this restricted study. In particular, a large volume of mail must
have gone between England and its post offices in the Far East. It is to be
hoped that one of our many colleagues beyond the Channel, who has specialized


5 -








in this field, will supply the necessary information.

I PERIOD PRIOR TO 19141
The items, which will be described hereunder, will give an idea of the immense
volume of this mail.

(A) Mail from China
The Chinese Imperial Postss In the period prior to 1914, the collecting of
illustrated postcards enjoyed great popularity and one can still find today in
the albums of this period various examples of such cards, sent mainly from im-
portant cities such as Peking, Tientsin and Shanghai. The franking, in stamps
of the dragon type, usually amounted to 4 cents.

In cases where such cards were addressed to France, they were cancelled by the
Chinese P.O. in the city of mailing and generally forwarded, either on the
same day or the morning after by the French offices in North China is well worth
bearing in mind.
The Peking Offices The following five cards were sent through the Chinese
P.O. in Peking. The first one shows a completely Chinese despatch marking
without date in Western style, while the following four form part of a corres-
pondence addressed to Antwerp in Belgium, followed by a handwritten notation
reading "Voie de Siberie" (By way of Siberia")s

H.T.s

PEKING PEKING
Ch. P.O. Fr. P.O. TIME
Despatch Transit ARRIVAL MARKINGS TAKEN

--- 16 Sep. 09 St. Laurent, France, 3 Oct. 1909 17 days
26 Mar. 12 26 Mar. 12 Antwerp, Belgium 14 Apr. 1912 15 "
18 Apr. 12 19 Apr. 12 2 May 1912 13 "
20 Sep. 12 20 Sep. 12 4 Oct. 1912 14 "
16 Dec. 12 17 Dec. 12 2 Jan. 1913 16 "

The Newchwang Offices A beautiful combination cover to Brighton, England,
franked with 20 cents Chinese postage and 20 kop, in Russian China stamps, with
handwritten notations reading "Via Siberia" in English and Russian, and a
single-line Russian cachet in blue reading the same (with dimensions 44 X 5 mm.)
and a handstamped destination reading "ANGLIYA" (please see Fig. No. 13a).

K.A. Departure s Newchwang, Ch. P.O., 14 Apr. 1903 on the Chinese
postage.
Transit a Inkou, Russ. P.O., 3 Apr. 1903 (Old Style) on
the Russian China stamps.
No Arrival Markings.

The Tientsin Offices Another fine combination, this time on a postcard with 3
cents Chinese postage and 4 kop. Russian China postage. Addressed in French to
Switzerland, it has a manuscript notation reading "Via Siberia", together with
the same single-line "cherez sibir'" cachet noted above for Newchwang, together
with an erroneous handstamped destination reading "FRANTSIYA" (France).

A.H.W.s Departure s Tientsin, Ch. P.O., 7 Aug. 1903 on the Chinese
stamps.
Transit a Newchwang, Ch. P.O., 8 Aug. 1903.


6 -








s No. 13i Polev.Pocht.Kon., 27 July 1903 (Old
Style) on Russian China stamps.
Arrival : Morges, Switzerland, 2 Sept. 1903.
Time Taken 2 26 days

A further rare combination again a postcard, with manuscript notations reading
"Via Siberia" in English and Russian, sent to Sheffield, England and again show-
ing the usage of the handstamped "ANGLIYA" destination (please see Fig. No. 13b).
Franked with 5 cents Chinese postage and 4 kop. Russian China postage

A.H.W.s Departure 2 Bilingual Peking-Shanhaikwan R.P.O. No. 4 on
the Chinese stamps.
Transit Tientsin Ch. P.O., 16 Sept. 1903.
Transit s No. 13i Polev. Pocht.Kon., 7 Sept. 1903 (Old
Style) on Russian China postage. Russian Mail
Coach No. 262 (number inverted), 9 Sept. 1903
(Old Style).
No Arrival Markings.

H.T.s Five cards, all addressed to Antwerp, as noted before from Peking and
forming part of the same correspondence, showing despatch markings either com-
pletely in Chinese or with dates in Western style. The endorsement "Voie de
Siberie" is again handwritten after the address

TIENTSIN TIENTSIN
Ch. P.O. Fr. P.O. TIME
Despatch Transit ARRIVAL MARKINGS TAKEN

22 Jun. 12 --- Antwerp, 10 Jul. 1912 18 days
7 Nov. 12 20 Nov. 1912 13 "
5 Dec. 12 6 Dec. 12 18 Dec. 1912 12 "
1 May 14 --- 15 May 1914 14 "
--- 16 Jun. 14 28 Jun. 1914 12

The earliest of these cards, which left Tientsin on 22 June 1912 does not bear
the transit marking of the French P.O. there, but instead that of the Chinese
office at Harbin, on the Manchurian branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway, where
it was doubtless included in the despatch from this office.

Finally, a curious piece which deserves a special mention. This is in the form
of a card sent from Bohemia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, to a soldier in the
French Occupation Corps at Tientsin, which, on account of the departure of the
addressee, was forwarded to his new address in France. The card, bearing the
bilingual notation "Via Siberia Uber Siberien" took the following routes

H.T.s Departure: From Dolny Berkovice, Bohemia on 8 Apr. 1911.
Outward time taken: 18 days.
Return transit marking: Tien-Tsin (Fr. P.O.), 26 Apr. 1911.
Arrival marking: Le Frulet, France, 12 May 1911.
Inward time taken 16 days.

Thus, this card made the complete journey from Moscow to Dairen and back by the
Trans-Siberian route and the total time taken in transit from Bohemia until final
delivery in France was 34 days. This was still shorter than the normal trans-
mission time taken by the sea route between Tientsin and France.


7 -









The Hankow Offices This office apparently had an arrangement with the Russian
P.O. at Shanghai for the transmission of mail going abroad, the entire postage
being in Russian China stamps, but paid for at the Chinese P.O. in Hankow.
At least, this appears to be the case until a Russian post office was estab-
lished at Hankow itself.

A.C., A registered letter to London, England with 30 kop. Russian China
postage and a handwritten notation in two lines reading "per Siberian Railway /
via Dalny"s
Departure: Hankow (Chin. P.O.) Reg. No. 6073, dated 15 Jul. 1903
Transit (a) Shanghai (Chin. P.O.), 18 Jul. 1903.
(b) Shanghai (Russ. P.O.), Reg. No. 579, dated 20 Jul. 1903
(New Style).
(c) Moscow, IV Ekspeditsiya, 30 Jul. 1903 (New Style).
Arrivals London, 15 Aug. 1903.
Time Takens 31 days.

The unusually long time taken to reach London may have been due to transmission
by sea, after the letter had arrived in European Russia,

The Mukden Offices This important railroad junction still belong to China when
the following card was despatched, bearing the handwritten notation "via Siberie"s

G.N.s Departures Mukden, 16 Dec. 1909.
Arrivals Hyeres, France, 31 Dec. 1909.
Time Taken: 15 days.

These examples of the mail despatched from Mukden, Newchwang, Peking and Tientsin,
i.e. forwarded entirely by overland railroad, demonstrate the regularity of
transmission across Siberia, which had become the normal route utilized by the
intercontinental mails. A letter front of the same period in the G.B. collec-
tion with the heading of the Industrial Bank of China at Peking and addressed to
Berlin, testifies to this, since the notations "Via Siberie" ("Via Siberia")
and "Recommandee" ("Registered") are both featured printed on the envelope.

The Shanghai Offices
G.N.s The following card despatched from China, is addressed to Irkutsk in
Siberia and has a handwritten notation reading "Via Charbin":

Departure: Shanghai (Ch. P.O.) 19 Jun. 1909.
Transit: (Fr. P.O.) 19 Jun. 1909.
Arrivals Irkutsk, Siberia, 14 Jun. 1909.
Time Takens 8 days.

The arrival date would appear to precede the date of despatch, but the former is
given according to the old Russian calendar, which was then 13 days behind the
Gregorian calendar.

H.T., The following.five cards date from the 1909-1911 period, the first three
forming part of a correspondence sent through the Chinese office at Wuhu, and
all five passed through the Chinese and French post offices at Shanghai. The
entire batch of five cards bears the same style of rectangular cachet, with di-
mensions 51 x 6 mm., struck in violet and reading "VIA SIBERIA" (Fig. 14)s


8 -








TIME
DEPARTURE TRANSIT TRANSIT ARRIVAL IN FRANCE TAKEN

Wuhu Shanghai Ch. P.O. Shanghai Fr. P.O.
21 Sep. 09 23 Sep. 09 25 Sep. 09 Troyes ?
19 Nov. 09 22 Nov. 09 24 Nov. 09 ?
23 May 10 25 May 10 28 May 10 ?
11 Jun. 10 15 Jun. 10 Orleans ?
--- 21 Mar. 11 --- Paris, 8 Apr. 11 18 days

In spite of the absence of arrival markings on four of these cards, the range of
their dates is noteworthy. The cachet "Via SIBERIA" in intact on the first three
cards; on the fourth, the final "A" of "SIBERIA" is separated and has dropped
down from the rest of the inscription, while on the last card, this final "A"
has completely disappeared and only "SIBERI" remains.

The markings featured on these cards, which originated from three different
senders and were sent to three completely different addresses, have a common origin.
It appears that this cachet has not been noted on mail posted at the French P.O.
in Shanghai and it may be assumed that it was applied at the Chinese P.O. in
Shanghai and was thus an official postal endorsement. It is true that one could
also assume that they all originated from the same sender, but a comparison of the
cards does not bring out any indication capable of supporting this supposition.

Other Foreign Offices in Shanghais In addition to the Chinese and French, other
powers, such as Germany, Great Britain, Japan and Russia had post offices at
Shanghai.

G.N.: An unusual collection of cards, all registered, were mailed on the same
day, 7 Nov. 1903 and addressed to the same person, the director of the newspaper
"Le Temps" at Paris. All of them bear the same cachet in violet, measuring
50 x 5 mm., inscribed "PAR TRANSSIBERIEN" and underlined (Fig. 15), together with
another marking with dimensions 44 x 3 mm., and reading "RECOMMANDE" ("Registered"),
both being evidently applied by the sender. The frank.ngs were the followings
No. Is French. P.O.s lOc. and 25c.
No. 2s German P.O.s 2x5pf. and 2xlOpf. (China ovpts on the Reichspost
"Germania" type).
No. 3s British P.O.s 4x and 10c (Hongkong stamps).
No. 4s Japanese P.O.s 4 sen and 10 sen (stamps of the Japanese
offices in China).
No. 5: Russian P.O.s 2x2k and Ix1Ok (stamps of the Russian offices
in China).
Of these five cards, only the one sent through the Japanese P.O. testifies to its
transmission by the Trans-Siberian route with the following markings
Departures Shanghai, 7 Nov. 1903.
Transit Nagasaki, 9 Nov. 1903.
Arrivals Paris, 4 Dec. 1903.
Time taken 27 days.

The card forwarded by the English P.O. shows the following markings:
Departures Shanghai, 7 Nov. 1903.
Transit GPO Hongkong Registered, 11 Nov. 1903.
Arrivals Paris, 11 Dec. 1903.
Time taken 34 days.



9 -







The length of transmission of one month between Hongkong and Paris shows clearly
that the card went by the sea route via Suez, contrary to the direction given
by the "Via Siberia" cachet, which, moreover, was not crossed out.

The following two cards, mailed at the British P.O. in Shanghai and franked with
lOc. Hongkong postage, are both addressed to France and bear the handwritten
notation "Via Siberie":


H.T.t Shanghai Br. P.O. Time
Departure Arrival in France Taken

31 Jul. 1907 Charenton-le-P, 24 Aug. 1907 25 days
25 Oct. 1911 Paris R.P., 10 Nov. 1911 16

An unusual and erroneous private cachet measuring 51 x 3 mm., and inscribed
"CHEREZ SIBERYA" (Fig. 15a) and applied in violet by a French merchant, A. Chazalon,
is demonstrated by a cover with 10 kop. Russian China postage, sent through the
Russian office in Shanghai:

K.A.s Departures Shanghai, 3 Mar. 1903 (New Style),
Arrivals Bordeaux, France, 1903 (day and month
illegible).

A.C. The Trans-Siberian route was even utilized as a very roundabout way of
going to New Zealand, as demonstrated by the following registered cover, with
20 kop. Russian China postage and a cachet reading "VIA. SIBERIA" (Fig. 15b),
struck in violet and measuring 41 x 7 mm.s
Departure: Shanghai, 25 May 1903 (New Style).
Transit: (a) Port Arthur, 16 May 1903 (Old Style).
(b) Moscow, IV Ekspeditsiya, 3 Jun. 1903 s
(New Style).
(c) Invercargill, New Zealand, 27 Jul. 1903.
Arrival: Wellington, New Zealand, 29 Jul. 1903.
Time Taken
to Moscows 9 days (very good connections).

From the German P.O. at Shanghai, a card franked with the Germania type issue,
surcharged "4 cents/China", was addressed to the Hague, Holland, without any
mention of the route of transmission:

H.T.: Departure: Shanghai / Deutsche Post, 27 Dec. 1907.
Arrival: 's Gravenshage, 12 Jan. 1908.
Time taken: 16 days
The time taken was very good for this period

In the reverse direction, that is, from Europe to Asia, very few examples of which
are known, the following two cards from the same correspondence and sent from
Alsace to Shanghai are worthy of mention:

H.T.s Illustrated postcard, without mention of the route of transmission and
ranked with a German 10 pf. stamps

Departures RPO Bottweiler-Lauterbach, 20 Aug. 1906.
Arrival: Shanghai / Deutsche Post, 20 Sept. 1906.
Time taken: 31 days.


10 -







H.T. Illustrated postcard with handwritten notation "Via Siberien" and franked
wth two German 5 pf. stamps:

Departures Jungholz, 16 Aug. 1907.
Arrivals Shanghai / Deutsche Post, 12 Sept. 1907.
Time taken 27 days.

It is hardly likely that the first of these two cards could have arrived in
Shanghai in only 31 days via Naples and Suez by a German mail ship. If it can
be assumed that the transmission was by way of the Trans-Siberian route, the dates
are noteworthy since they would show that during August-September 1906 mail ser-
vice was resumed along this route. The second card is an indisputable example of
mail forwarded from Europe to the Far East by the Trans-Siberian route, probably
forming part of a mail despatch assembled at Berlin.

The Russian P.O. at Chefoos

A.C.I A cover with 10 kop. Russian China postage, addressed to London, England
iT--with handwritten notation reading "VIA PORT ARTHUR & MOSCOW"$

Departures Chifu (Russ. P.O.) 28 Aug. 1903 (New Style).
Transit (a) Chefoo (Chin. P.O.) 28 Aug. 1903.
(b) Moscow, IV Ekspeditsiya ...Sept. 1903.
Arrivals Lewisham, England 28 Sept. 1903.
Time taken: 31 days
Here again it appears that the letter went by sea to London on leaving European
Russia.

The Russian P.O. at Tientsins

G.B.S.s A very interesting cover with 10 kop. Russian China postage and with the
cachet of the Commander of Provosts, French Expeditionary Corps in China struck
on the back, and showing on the front a Russian handcarved two-line chop measur-
ing 342 x 17 mm. and reading "Cherez Rossiyu / FrAntsiya" ("Via Russia/France"
see Fig. 15c and note erroneous capital "A" in word "FrAntsiya"). Both cachets
are struck in blue.

Departures Tientsin, 5 Mar. 1903 (Old Style).
Arrivals Toulouse, France, 12 Apr. 1903.
Time taken: 25 days.

K.A.s A fine postcard, this time with 4 kop. Russian China postage and with un-
usual two-line cachet, struck in violet and reading in Russian "Germaniya /
cheree sibir'" (see Fig. 15d). Note the wrong spelling of "cheree", instead of
"cherez"; the entire cachet means "Germany / via Siberia" and it measures
73 x 171 mm.:

Departures Tientsin, 5 July 1903 (Old Style).
Arrivals Leipzig, 10 Aug. 1903.
Time taken: 23 days.

The British P.O. on Hongkongs

G.N.s A card franked with 4 cents Hongkong postage, and addressed to Nancy, show-
ing a small cachet in violet measuring 32 x 3 mm. and reading "Via SIBERIA"
(Fig. 16)s


11 -







Departures Victoria, Hongkong, 17 Oct. 1910.
Transit: Shanghai, Br. P.O., 21 Oct. 1910.
No arrival marking.


This country, which had broken away from China, had become a Japanese protectorate
as a result of the Russo-Japanese War, as we have seen previously.

G.N.s A card sent from Seoul and franked with a 6 cheun Korean stamp, showing a
handwritten notation in French, reading "Via Port Arthur-Moscou":

Departures Seoul / Cor6e, 1 Dec. 1903.
Arrivals Sars-Poteries, France, 28 Dec. 1903.
Time taken, 28 days.

A.C.s A Japanese 4 sen card to Belgium, sent from Korea with a manuscript note
Tn French reading "Via Siberie"s

Departure SEOUL / KOREA, 6 Sept. 1908.
Arrivals Brussells, 26 Sept. 1908.
Time taken 20 days.

(C) Mail from Japan:

Japan was one of the countries for which the saving of time gained by utilizing
the Trans-Siberian route was the most considerable, as compared to the time taken
by the sea route. The length of transmission was 40 days by way of the European
steamship lines which skirted the shores of Southern Asia. When going by the
American route, which involved crossing the Pacific to Vancouver, Victoria or
Seattle, then by rail across North America, followed by the passage across the
North Atlantic, the mail finally arrived at its destination in Europe about one
month later.

The Japanese mail was therefore forwarded by the steamship lines linking the
Dalny, Port-Arthur and Vladivostok terminals of the Trans-Siberian Railway with
the ports of Nagasaki and Tsuruga. As has been seen previously, Nagasaki had
already been linked by 1903 by a weekly service involving two days of sailing,
and to Vladivostok in 4 or 5 days by monthly services, while in 1907 fast ser-
vices linked Vladivostok with Nagasaki in 2f days sailing twice a week, and with
Tsuruga in 39 hours once a week. Maritime services between Dairen (Dalny) and
Nagasaki, which were performed by Japanese mail ships, assured the link between
Japan and the Trans-Manchurian Railway, with the correspondence being first con-
veyed to Mukden.

As was the case with China, a certain number of illustrated post cards dating
from the 1907-1914 period and sent from Japan, may be found franked mainly with
4 sen postage and sometimes bearing cachets which appear to be of private origin
and applied to indicate the route of transmission. The transit times quoted on
the following examples demonstrate the advantage offered by the Trans-Siberian
routes
(1) Cards bearing a handwritten notation reading "Voie Siberie" or "Via
Siberia":



12 -







H.T.: Place and Date Place and Date Time
of Departure of Arrival Taken

Tokio, 4 Aug. 1907 Paris, 31 Aug. 1907 27 days
Tokio, 29 Aug. 1907 Venice, 2 Oct. 1907 34 "
Yokohama, 29 Jul. 1908 Paris, 17 Aug. 1908 19 "
Yokohama, 14 Nov. 1912 Antwerp, 5 Dec. 1912 21 "
Osaka, 8 Jan. 1912 Paris, 24 Jan. 1912 16 "
Osaka, 18 Mar. 1912 Paris, 3 Apr. 1912 16 "
(2) Mail showing a cachet indicating the route of transmissions

G.B. An illustrated postcard commemorating the visit of the American squadron
to Japan in October 1908 and addressed to Paris. This is interesting because
of the presence of a cachet measuring 54 x 44 mm., with shaded capitals, struck
in red and reading "VIA SIBERIA" (Fig. 17). Unfortunately, the cancel of the
sending office is illegible and there is no arrival.

H.T. A card from Yokohama with 4 sen postage, addressed to Paris and bearing
a cachet in violet reading "Via Siberia" and measuring 46 x 7 mm. (Fig. 18),
together with a handwritten notation "Via Mandchourie" ("Via Manchuria" in
French) added by the senders

Departure: Yokohama, 18 Aug. 1908.
Arrivals Paris, 5 Sept. 1908.
Time taken 18 days.

G.N. A card from Osaka with 2 sen franking, bearing a cachet in red, measuring
45 x 7 mm. and reading "Via SIBERIA" (Fig. 19) together with two other markings
in the same shade of ink. One of them reads "Printed Matter", and the other gives
the name and address of the sender.

H.T. A card from Kobe bearing a cachet in violet made up of two lines of un-
even type measuring 64 x 16 mm. and reading as follows "Voie de SIBERIE /
Via Tsuruga" (Fig. 20)s

Departure? Kobe, 2 March 1910.
Arrival: Paris R.P., 19 March 1910.
Time taken: 17 days.

A.C.s A card from Tokio, dated 10 Apr. 1910 and addressed to Bournemouth, England,
be5-ring an unusual bilingual English-Japanese market in violet, measuring 70 x 19
mm. and reading "VIA SIBERIA" (Fig. 20a). No arrival marking.

H.T. A card from Kobe, sent on 26 July 1910 to Paris and without arrival mark-
ing. It bears a cachet measuring 43 x 2 mm., struck in violet and mispelt
"VIA TRASSIBERIEN" (Fig. 21).

K.A.s A cover showing an unusual destination in Eastern Europe, this time
Transylvania, which was then in Hungary, but now forms part of Roumania. Franked
with 10 sen postage, it sho s a rubber stamp in violet, measuring 38 x 4 mm.
and reading "VIA SIBERIA" ('ig. 21a). It was obviously applied by the sender, as
he used the same color and style of type to designate his address on the flap of
the cover.


*- 13-





"The Trans.Siberian Postal Route "'y Henri Tristont.



f. -d .t
*epeub df1Tpb Si*eria

.f..ig. 16.-, Via SIBERIA.

VIASIBERIA..

Vi- Siberia

-,-"-- Via SIBERIA.

Ffg, 13at rom the kurt Adler Collection. E 1




V49, SVIA SIBERIA
g al9e i.1. F. 2



F 13 :rom he r.A.H.Woran Collecon IA SIBERIA. F.
Fist. 20o.




Via SIB ERIA PiAR 1AB.ERI


,'PE3. CHBEP-JPcciio 4.. F

/50 .B IEa. i







Departure: Kobe, 18 Jan. 1914.
Arrivals Arad, Hungary, 3 Feb. 1914.
Time taken 16 days.

Dr. Jacques Grasset, our contributor in Nice, France, has forwarded details of
cachets in Japanese characters set in rubber handstamps, as well as handwritten
notations meaning "Via Siberia". One of the cachets is reproduced herewith, no
doubt incorrectly (Fig. 22). The vertical line at left means "Via" and that at
right "Siberia". Similar markings also exist for the other routes of trans-
mission, namely,
Via San Francisco Via Tacoma
Seattle Vancouver
and a final type should be recorded here, reading "Destined for France" (Fig. 23).
TO BE CONCLUDED.

EDITORIAL COMMENT:

Monsieur Tristant makes the important distinction here that some of these cachets
are of private origin, thus giving us a further insight into the ramifications of
this interesting field. The examples of mail having gone by the Trans-Siberian
route as recorded by him amply document his research since the post offices at
the European destinations conscientiously backstamped practically all the corres-
pondence on arrival. However, so far as English destinations are concerned,
this has been the exception rather than the rule and it is therefore difficult
or even impossible to note the transit times of such correspondence going to
England, except in the case of registered mail.


*******************


Fields of Russian Philately

By Kurt Adler

Hardly any country offers as much philatelic variety to the collector as Russia.
Not only the Russian specialist collector but also specialist collectors of many
other countries will find in Russia much that is of interest to their own
special field. The topical collector also will derive much pleasure from the
study of Russian philately since almost every topical field is covered to a
great extent by Russian stamps.

The list of Russia's Used Abroad contains over 300 headings, more than the
British Empire has to offer. The hunting of some of these offices presents a
veritable challenge to the collector of postage stamps and cancellations. Many
new finds, "firsts" are evolving every year, many more are still awaiting the
sharp-eyed collector. To give only one outstanding example: It has not yet
been definitely established whether or not there existed a Russian civilian mail
service in Alaska prior to the 1867 sale to the U.S.A. of our 49th state. The
philatelist who would unearth a cover with an Alaskan Russian postmark would en-
ter the Hall of Fame of American philately. He also would find himself to be
the possessor of a very valuable item.

The collector of Field Post, Railroad post offices, Sea and River mail, service
of local stamps, fiscal, labels, entire, etc. will find rich hunting grounds
on Russian soil and in Russian waters. The air mail collector will discover that


15 -








there are many special flight covers, some of them extremely valuable, and the
newly opened realm of the Cosmos is likewise represented abundantly by Russian
Philately. All that is required for all this is a working knowledge of the
Cyrillic alphabet; more and more Americans are studying Russian script and find
it easy to read. Without wasting any more words I shall endeavor to list the
major fields of Russian philately, hoping that many a reader will find pleasure
in starting to collect this highly enjoyable material.

STAMPS AND COVERS

1. Pre-stamp covers (7-1858) with postal markings.
2. Stampless covers (1858-approx. 1870).
3. Imperial Russia (1858 1917) Standard issues, Airmail Postage
4. Soviet Russia (1917 1923) dues, Commemoratives Charity issues,
5. Soviet Union (from 1923) Express stamps, Miniature sheets.
6. Varieties and Errors (Inverted, double, multiple, mis-
placed centers, frames, backgrounds,
surcharges. Imperforates, part-
perforates, offsets, intaglios,
se-tenants, printers waste, etc.)
7. Inflationary period (1919 23) Russian stamps re-valued with or
without surcharge of new value,
manuscript surcharge, fiscal stamps,
used as postage.
8. Civil War period (1918 23) Local surcharges on Russian stamps,
issued by different military govern-
ments:
(a) South: Don, Kuban, Crimea, the
Denikin and Wrangel issues
(b) North: General Miller issue,
Yudenich issue
(c) North Westi General Vandamme
issue
(d) West: Avaloff-Bermondt issue on
Latvian and Russian stamps,
Bulak-Balakhovich issue (White
Russian front)
(e) Siberia: Kolchak issues
(f) Far East: Chita issue of Gen.
Semenoff, Blagoveshchensk issue,
Nikolayevsk on Amur issue, Far
Eastern Republic (DBP), Chita
Government, Priamur issue,
Vladivostok Revolution Committee
issue, Vladivostok Airmail issue,
Czechoslovak Army issues.
(g) Central Asias Bukhara National
Republic
(h) Western Ukraine
9. Ukraine (a) Hetman issue
(b) Petliura issue
(c) Trident surcharges
(d) Charity (Hunger) stamps



16 -







10. Armenia (a) Monogram surcharges
(b) Original stamps
(c) Inflation surcharges of new
value
11. Azerbeidjan (a) Original designs (so-called
Mussawat issue
(b) Inflation surcharges
(c) Charity stamps (Hunger)
(d) Baku post office surcharges
12. Batum (a) Tree issue
(b) Tree issue with inflationary
surcharge
(c) British Occupation surcharges
13. Georgia (a) Original designs
(b) Inflationary surcharges on
Russian stamps
(c) Semi-Postals
14. Transcaucasia (a) Original designs
(b) Inflationary surcharges on them
(c) New gold standard designs
15. Mountain Republic Star surcharges on Russian stamps
16. Aunus Surcharges on Finnish stamps
17. Karelia Original designs
18. Ingermanland Original designs
19. Estonia (a) Reval provisories (surcharges on
Russian stamps)
(b) Rakwere surcharges on Russian
stamps and wrappers
(c) Dorpat provisionals (German sur-
charge on Russian stamps)
20. Latvia (a) Local issue of Eleja
(b) Local issue of Smilten
21. Lithuania (a) Local issue of Raseiniai
(b) South Lituanian (Grodno) sur-
charge issue on Russian stamps
22. Russian Offices abroad (a) Levant (Turkey, Syria, Lebanon,
Greece, Palestine, Egypt)
(b) Rumania
(c) Bulgaria
(d) Persia
(e) Khanate of Bukhara
(f) Khanate of Khiva
(g) Sinkiang
(h) Uryankhai (Tuva)
(i) Mongolia
(j) Manchuria
(k) Lyaotung Leasehold (Port Arthur)
(1) China
(m) Korea
(n) Japan (Southern Sakhalin)
(o) Crete
(p) Alaska
23. World War II issues (a) German Occupation of Ostland,
Ukraine, Kurland, Pskov, local
town provisories



17 -








(b) Lithuanian Occupation of
Panevezys, Raseiniai, Rokiskis,
Telsiai, Ukmerge, Zarasai,
Alsedziai, Vilnius
(c) Latvia Occupation 1941
(d) Estonia German Occupation of
Pernau, Dorpat, local issues of
Elwa, Moisakula, Otepaeae
(e) Finland Occupation of East
Karelia
(f) Karpatho-Ukraine
24. Telegraph stamps
25. Revenue stamps (Fiscals)
26. Labels (Erinophilia)
27. Fraudulent stamps
28. Phantasy issues
29. Entires (Imperial and Soviet) (Letter sheets, covers, letter cards,
letter sheets with advertisements,
postcards, postcards with advertise-
ments, postcards with inquiries of
addresses (newspaper wrappers)
30. Entires of Civil War period
31. Entires of Russian Offices Abroad
32. Entires of Russian Republics
33. Entires of Russian re-valuation
period 1961 (various surcharges
of new cost)
34. Wenden
35. Zemstvo issues (over 160 dif-
ferent localities)

POSTAL HISTORY

1. Cancellations One line, two and more lines, rec-
tangular, circular, oval rhomboid,
octagonal
2. Special cancellations Anniversary, Exhibitions, special
events
3. Cancellations of different parts
of Russia, such as Caucasus, Crimea, Far East, Kamchatka,
Sakhalin, Far North, Ukraine, Central
Asia, etc.
4. Railroad Cancellations R.R. station P.O.'s, Railroad mail
Car P.O,'s
5. Steamship Cancellations Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Northern
Seas, Okhotsk Sea, River steamship
lines etc.
6. Arctic Cancellations So far 11 drifting stations
7. Antartic Cancellations From 1956 on; so far 9 stations
8. Field Post Cancellations Turkish War 1828/29, Turkish War on
Rumanian and Bulgarian soil 1878/79
Boxer Revolt 1900/01, Japanese War
1904/05, World War I 1914/17, Finnish
Campaign 1940, World War II 1941/45,
Field Post on Military Maneuvers


18 -







9. Mute (Masked) Cancellations of
World War I
10. Napoleonic Wars Different French FPO markings in
Poland and Russia
11. Crimean War 1853-56 English, French, Austrian,
Sardinian Campaign Mail
12. Allied Intervention 1918-20 American, English, French, Polish,
Estonian, Finnish, Latvian, Italian,
Lithuanian, Japanese, etc, can-
cellations
13. Censorship Markings
14. Military Cachets and Labels
15. Insured Mail and Seals
16. Disinfected Mail
17. Red Cross and Hospital markings
18. Topical stamps and cancellations Cosmos, Industry, Farming, Political
Events, Military Forces, Famous
People, Women, Youth, Health Resorts,
Towns, Architecture, Monuments,
Sculptures, Arctic and Antarctic,
Medals, Sport, Fauna and Flora, Trans-
port etc.
19. Mixed Frankings Russo-Finnish, Swedish, Baltic States,
Polish, Greek, Turkish, German,
French, Austrian, Chinese, Japanese,
British, Indian, Ceylon, Hongkong
20. Russia Used in Poland
21. Russia Used in Baltic States


******************


Ostarbeiter Mails An Introduction

By Benjamin R. Beede

Those Russian specialists who spread their nets wide enough to take in World War
II occupation material are, of course, aware of the postal stationery produced
by the Germans for use in the Ukraine and the Ostland (an area covering the
Baltic States and White Russia). Yet, there is another postal card which is
much scarcer and which is highly eligible for inclusion in a collection of
Russian material. On page 44 of his Neuer Ganzsachen-Katalog, Part IV,1
Walter Beckhaus lists a reply postal card used by the "Ostarbeiter" with a tri-
lingual imprint in German, Russian, and Ukrainian. The purpose of this article
is to tell Rossica readers a little about the Ostarbeiter and their postal ser-
vice, including the use of the Ostarbeiter postal stationery.

When Nazi German attacked the USSR on June 22, 1941, little or no thought had
been given by the German leaders to the use of Russian labor in Germany. Accord-
ing to Nazi expectations, the Soviet Union would be conquered quickly, Britain



IBerlin, Berliner Ganzsachen-Sammler-Verein, 1959.


19 -







would be invaded or would make an armistice, and the war would be over. As the
conflict continued, manpower shortages both in the armed forces and on the home
front made it obvious that the Russian population would have to be utilized in
some fashion other than labor within the Eastern Occupied Territories (that is,
those areas of the USSR occupied by Germany). Hitler preferred to use the
Russians as workers rather than as soldiers, although, even so, many Russians
had to be put into the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS before 1945.2

Large-scale recruitment of Russian workers began early in 1942 and the pace in-
tensified during the spring.3 Recruitment changed into what Reitlinger calls the
"slave trade," By the sujmer one million Russian workers were in Germany and
two million a year later. To denote their status the Russians and Ukrainians
were forced to wear an "Ost" badge. The Ostarbeiter (Or Eastern Workers) were
in fact regarded as little better than slaves for Germany. The "Ost" badge had
considerable significance, for the only other people forced to wear any form of
identification were persons of Jewish extraction in all German-controlled areas.

Postal regulations were not overly generous to the Ostarbeiter, but in this
respect we are forced to admit that perhaps the limitations the Germans imposed
on their mail were partly the result of insufficient personnel to censor letters,
rather than simply an effort to mistreat the Russians any further. At any rate,
a special regulation for Ostarbeiter mail was in effect from November 25, 1942.
Each worker could send two reply postcards each month at internal German rates,
that is, paying 6 Pfennigs postage on each card. Small packages of up to 250
grams were permitted, but only for the purpose of returning packing materials.
Ordinary postcards were used for this service, but even in 1942 issuance of
special cards was predicted.

Cards were given to workers by camp commandants, employers, and factory managers.
When cards were written out they were returned to the camp commandant, etc., who
would have them mailed at a postoffice, for they could not be deposited through
a mailbox. The postoffices were to cancel each card very carefully. Cards to
the Ukraine and army-controlled areas directly east of the Ukraine were sent
to the Auslandsbriefstelle Berlin (Foreign Letter Office Berlin) for censorship,
while letters to the Ostland were forwarded to the Auslandsbriefstelle
Koenigsberg. When cards addressed to a particular town amounted to ten or more
a special mail bag could be provided. Bags for Berlin were marked "Ukraine"
and bags for Koenigsberg were designated "Koenigsberg (Pr.) 5, Auslandsbriefstelle."
Individual cards were sent by rail with other foreign mail.5



2Alexander Dallin, German Rule in Russia, 1941-1945s A Study of Occupation
Policies (London, MacMillan Company, 1957), p. 428, Dallin devotes Chapter XX
to the Ostarbeiter. Also see Gerald Reitlinger, The House Built on Sands The
Conflicts of German Policy in Russia 1939-1945 (N.Y. The Viking Press, 1960T7,
Ch. 8.

3Dallin, op. cit., pp. 428-9.

'Ibid., p. 431.

5Reichspost, Amtsblatt der Reichspostministerium, 20 November 1942, 568/1942,
568/1942, pp. _03-4.



20 -








This system did not prove altogether workable so a new regulation appeared
early in 1943. Cards could now be sold directly to Ostarbeiter by the German
postoffices, when the purchaser showed his Arbeitskarte (Labor Card) or showed
identification from his camp commandant or employer. The four page of the
Labor Card had a space to show the number of cards mailed each month by an in-
dividual for an entire year. Workers could pick up cards for an entire camp
or factory, provided that they had a request signed by the director or
commandant. Such requests contained a statement that the signer was responsible
for the proper division of cards and supervision of their use. The regulation
also pointed out that mail to towns in Germany, occupied Poland, Bohemia-
Moravia, Bialystok, and Galicia did not have to be sent to a censorship office.

Special postcards came into use early in 1943, which were to be used exclusively
after March 15, 1943. Delivery of cards to postoffices was to be completed by
March 1, 1943, and only the new type (the kind of card listed by Beckhuas) were
to be issued to Ostarbeiter. The regulation cautioned the postoffices that the
demand for reply cards of the ordinary type would go down with the introduction
of the Ostarbeiter card and that therefore new orders to higher postal authori-
ties should take this changed condition into account. Cards which had attach-
ments, such as photographs, all had to be sent to censorship offices which
would determine their admissibility.'

As a great concession special Easter cards were given to the Ostarbeiter, two
to each worker. These cards had a colored Easter picture. They were given out
by the Labor Front the Reichsnaehrenstand (National Food Estate), an agricultural
organization. Such cards could be used until the end of May, 1943, against
payment of normal postage. Senders at the time of mailing had to show their
Labor Cards. Large camps received their cards directly from the Labor Front.8

Subsequently, the period of validity for the Easter cards was extended until June
15, 1943.7 Even in the summer of 1943, violations of postal regulations con-
tinued. Many ordinary reply cards slipped through postoffices and reached the
censorship offices. All inadmissible cards were to be returned with explana-
tions to the senders. Postoffices were cautioned to ensure that an adequate
supply of cards was on hand at all times.

Although cards were censored, evidently, the censors were fairly liberal, for
many cards contained complaints by workers about the treatment they received
from the Germans.10 Some authorities were disturbed by this, for they feared



Reichspost, Amtsblatt der Reichspostministerium, 19/1943, 15 January 1943,
p. 40.

"7Ibid., 96/1943, 23 February 1943, p. 121.

Ibid., 226/1943, 20 April 1943, p. 243.

9Reichspost, Amtsblatt der Reichspostministerium, 297/1943, 25 Mai 1943,
p. 359.
*1Dallin, op. cit., 435, 440.


21 -







that such statements encouraged the flow of Russians from towns where they were
exposed to labor conscription to the woods where they joined partisan bands.
In July, 194, the Propaganda Ministry protested concerning the laxity of
censorship.-

Such is a brief description of the Ostarbeiter mail system in 1942 and 1943.
The author has other documents which refer to this matter and will endeavor to
prepare another article with additional information in the near future.





Paper on the subject of Russian erinophilia read at the
General Meeting of "ROSSIKA" and "B.S. of R.P.", New
York City, 19 November 1967.

By E. Marcovich

Translated By C. P. Bulak

After ten years of silence I have decided to remind Russian collectors of
erinophilia, which to me is one of the most interesting (and difficult) branches
of collecting. Prior to talking about it, I wish to remind my colleagues what
erinophilia is, since over the years older collectors have forgotten about it
while the new ones, possibly, have never heard about it, although some of its
ramifications have become very widespread. But, first, I wish to point out just
what this so-called erinophilia is. It is a branch of collecting parallel to
philately. While philately is dedicated to the collecting of postage stamps,
erinophilia deals with the collecting of non-postage stamps, which are very
abundant. This category includes commemorative (such as exhibition, jubilee,
congress, etc.), charity, aviation, propaganda, commercial, and political stamps.
It is difficult to list all the branches of erinophilia. Here we may add to the
realm of erinophilia the stamps that have been prepared for postal use but were
never put into circulation, and the so-called fantasy (bogus) stamps prepared
to cheat philatelists. Strange as it may seem, there are quite a few collectors
of bogus stamps. These bogus stamps appeared more frequently during wars and
revolutions when philatelists had no way to prove whether the stamps were
genuine issues or bogus. Such stamps frequently appeared in the catalogues
after the First and Second World Wars, but after the subject was clarified,
they were gradually excluded from the catalogues, Nevertheless, some contro-
versial issues, as well as some bogus stamps, are still listed in catalogues
up to the present time.

During the First World War and especially during and after the last World War,
in some of the prisoner-of-war camps in Germany, there were organized by these
same war prisoners their own inter-camp posts. For example, such posts were
organized in 1915-1916 in the Ruhleben Camp for English war prisoners, and
during the last war in Polish camps at Grossborn, Woldenberg and Murnau. But
the largest number of such posts was organized after the Second World War in
the camps of the so-called displaced persons (D.P.'s). I have covered these
issues previously in Nos 48-54 of ROSSIKA. These stamps are not listed in the
general postage stamp catalogues; therefore, they are a proper subject for
erinophilia.



11 Dallin, op. cit., 435, 440.

22 -







All of the above-mentioned stamps "vignettes" would be the better term to use
inasmuch as it is the appellation used by the erinophile are the objects of
specialized collections. The largest erinophile associations areas "Erinophilie
International" in Germany and "L'Arc en Ciel" Society (Rainbow in the Sky
Society) in France. These organizations unite many hundreds of collectors
of these and other countries. Each society has its own printed periodical
publication. For example, collectors of bogus stamps have also'their own
magazine and technical papers. Such technical papers, beginning in 1936, were
compiled by Georges Chapier in Lyon, France. One Bourdi is publishing there
at the present time a monthly magazine LEPHILATELISTE-ERINOPHIL, which is
dedicated exclusively to the fantasy (bogus) stamps of all countries. The
magazine has several hundred subscribers in France and other countries, which
is evidence that this branch of collecting has a considerable following. A
similar society exists in England which is named inderella" and which issues
a magazine of the same name.

Another branch of erinophilia is the collecting of aviation vignettes. It is
well known that nearly all airmail stamps collectors also collect the labels
which are listed in the specialized airmail catalogues (Sanabria, Silombra,
etc.), and at times they are priced quite high.

After the Second World War, there appeared a considerable number of collectors
of Red Cross vignettes, TB stamps, etc. Special catalogues of these labels
exist in the United States (Morbough, Green, etc.). There are some very
prominent collector-specialists in these specialties.

I must note some other specialties of erinophilia as, for example, the vignettes
of philatelic events (exhibitions), congresses, jubilees of the issuance of
first postage stamps -- 75, 100, 125 years. There are also specialists in sport
vignettes, Olympic games, Scouts, Esperanto, etc., etc.

My collection comprises all of the listed sidelines but of only one group of
countries, to wit: all countries and territories that have come into the Russian
Empire and the U.S.S.R.

I believe that such a collection may be of interest to many members of ROSSIKA
and B.S.R.P. Therefore, I wish to give a brief description of the issues of
the countries and territories which are represented in it. The countries and
territories areas 1) Russia, 2) U.S.S.R., 3) Ukrania, 4) White Russia,
5) Poland, 6) Finland, 7) Latvia, 8) Lithuania, 9) Estonia, 10) The
territories that were occupied by enemy armies, 11) The territories of the
enemy which were occupied by Russian armies, 12) War prisoners' camps,
13) D.P. camps, 14) Issues depicting Russian subjects but issued abroad, and
15) Bogus issues.

Since each historic period has its own specific character, I have classified
my collection by different periods. Each period is subdivided into separate
territories which were parts of the Russian Empire, and, within each territory,
I have classified the vignettes either chronologically or alphabetically.

The first part of my collection covers the period from 1870 to Aug. 1, 1914.
Most of the issues of that period belong to commemorative (mainly exhibition)
themes. Prior to the First World War, different countries and large towns fre-
quently organized international and regional fairs, shows and congresses. The
organizers frequently issued vignettes for publicity pruposes. The earliest
ones were either round or oval seals and were used to seal envelopes. The
earliest ones known to us areas 1) 1870 Riga seal (All-Russian Textile Exhibition),


23 -







the only one known to exist 2) Congress International des Orientalistes at
St. Petersburg, 1876; 3) Landswirtschaftliche Austellung zu Riga, 1879;
4) Same exhibition but with "1880," the only one extant being in the Rampacher's
collection.

The number of charity issues of that period is considerably smaller, they having
appeared much later. The earliest one known to me (although I have never seen
it) is the issue to help the victims of hunger due to bad crops in 1891. I was
advised of this issue by one of my U.S.S.R. correspondents. However, I have no
information on the place of issue, size of issue, or general description of
these vignettes.

Next, one should count the round vignette issued to raise funds for Sedov's
North Pole Exhibition in the latter years of the past century. I have a photo-
graph of this extremely rare vignette; it is blue and of one ruble denomination.

Besides these issues, some of the most interesting ones are the charity issues
of the 1905 Russo-Japanese War. They have only recently been found. One of
them was issued in Tomsk and consists of three values. The other one, of one
value, was issued in Viatka. Both issues were for the sick and wounded
soldiers in the Far East.

Most of the charity vignettes prior to 1914 were issued for poor children, am-
bulance services, etc.

There were very few vignettes of that period issued for commercial publicity.
One of the rarer and earlier ones was a vignette for the Russian exterior loan
of 1889, with the French inscriptions "Emprunt Russe a 44%" (4 % Russian Loan).

The commercial publicity vignettes prior to 1914 were of a highly artistic
finish. It is difficult to find them as in those days nobody saved them. Thus,
they are rare nowadays. During the last few years I have been able to locate
several exceptionally beautiful sets of such vignettes as, for example, the set
of Einem, Inc., of 12 stamps in each set. I was able to find several of such
issues

I. Views of Moscow in multichrome.
II. Composers in monochrome
III. Writers in monochrome

Only recently I was able to learn of the existence of a beautiful tourist set
of 18 stamps with views of Riga. I have a photograph of the complete set.

In December of 1966 I was fortunate to locate a multicolored set of the Libau-
Halifax-New York Steamship Company with the text in Russian, and a similar set
with the text in English: "New York-Rotterdam-Libau". I consider these sets
to be very rare.

As I have already mentioned, the vignettes issued in Finland and Poland as well
as foreign issues on Russian subjects, I have classified separately and have
placed them after the issues that have appeared in the territory of Russia.

I wish to say a few words regarding the Finnish issues. Some of them do not
resemble the Russian issues, being of a different character. For example, in
1900, when the Russian Uovernment decided to russify Finland and forbad the use
of the original Finnish postage stamps, some Finnish social organizations, as
a protest, issued mourning vignettes which the Finns placed on letters along-


24 -







side the new Russian-type postage stamps. It seems that the feeling of protest
against russification was very general, and the number of vignettes issued was
not sufficient to satisfy needs of the Finnish populace. Consequently, it was
necessary to have six issues of the mourning vignettes. These differ slightly,
mainly in size and shape of the crown on the coat of arms. A noted Finnish
collector, a certain Colonel Ahonius, has been studying these issues in detail
and has issued a monograph in the Finnish language on the subject.

During the period from 1908 to 1912, Finland issued its first charity vignettes
for the struggle against tuberculosis which, subsequently, were issued periodi-
cally until 1914. Russia did not have similar issues in those years. It
should also be noted that a few series for the Society of Protection of Animals
were issued during the period 1904-1907.

Poland issued different varieties of vignettes, commemorative (exhibitions and
jubilees) and charity. There were numerous jubilee issues, much more numerous
than in Russia. The rarest ones are commemorative of 100 years since the birth
of the great Polish poet, Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855), and the 40-year jubilee
of the writer Elsa Orzesskowa (1866-1906).

Now I must tell about a very pretty multicolored set which I did not know about
for many years since the vignettes did not have any inscriptions. They merely
pictured churches and ancient buildings. The only inscriptions on these vig-
nettes were "1914" (the year) and the value in kopeks. All I knew about this
emission was that it was a Polish issue since I found it in a collection of
Polish vignettes which I had bought ten years ago. Here in New York, a noted
collector of Lithuania had visited me and looked over my collection. That
series intrigued him but he could not tell me anything about it. Then, a few
days after his visit, I received a letter from him in which he had some interest-
ing news. He had met the son of a Polish painter, Ruszczyc, who showed my
Lithuanian collector friend a monograph of his father's work. To his astonish-
ment he saw on one of the pages of that book a reproduction of all the vignettes
of the series that he had seen in my collection! There were also two values--
50 and 100 kopeks--that I do not have. The text carried information about the
purpose of this issue which was to collect funds for the medical aid society
of the town of Vilna. There were no inscriptions for the reason that the
sponsors could not decide on the language in which they should be inscribed,
i.e., Russian, Polish or Lithuanian. So they decided not to make any inscrip-
tions and limited themselves to figures of value, the letter "K" (which is the
same in all languages), and the year "1914". Of course I found the son of the
painter and he loaned the monograph to me. With it, I was able to make photo-
graphs from the reproductions of this complete series as well as copy the
corresponding text.

Comprising the last chapter of this pre-1914 period are the foreign vignettes
on Russian subjects.

Among the interesting issues, I may point to the rare Bulgarian charity vig-
nettes issued by the "Tsar-Liberator 1878-1903 Committee" bearing the portrait
of Emperor Alexander II.

The majority of the vignettes on Russian subjects were issued in France toward
the end of the past and the beginning of this century. To commemorate the visit
to the port of Toulon by a Russian Naval Squadron under the command of Admiral
Avellan in 1893, France issued a set with portraits of the Imperial family
(Alexander III). It was a set of 20 stamps with rather crudely-drawn portraits---


25 -










NOTES ON THE ILLUSTRATIONS FOR THE PAPER ON "RUSSIAN ERINOPHILIA"

By E. Marcovitch


Fig. 1s 1870 Riga. The All-Russian Manufacturing Exhibition. A
seal, printed in black on white paper. According to my information, this is the
earliest vignette ever issued in the Russian Empire. The only known copy is in
the Rampacher Collection in Budapest, Hungary.

Fig. 2: 1876 Third session of the International Congress of
Orientalists at St. Petersburg. A seal, printed in red on goldbeater's skin.

Fig. 3: 1879 Riga. Central Agricultural Exhibition at Riga. A
seal, printed in red on white paper.

Fig. 41 1889 Russia. Russian 4% Loan. A publicity label for the
Russian External Loan, perforated in upright rectangular format.

Fig. 5: 1905 Tomsk. A charity label of the Russo-Japanese War.
A perforated, multicolored design in upright rectangular format.

Fig. 6s 1912 St. Petersburg. A label in aid of Sedov's Expedition
to the North Pole. This is a photograph of the only known copy, received from
the USSR. This circular seal is struck in blue, with a face value of 1 ruble.

Figs. 7 & 8: Publicity labels for the Libava (Liepaja, Libau) to
New York steamship line. Fig. 7 has the inscription in Russian and Fig. 8 in
English. No face value given. Perforated multicolored designs in horizontal
rectangular format.

Figs. 9 & 10: Two advertising vignettes from a set of twelve "Views
of Moscow", issued by the Einem Co. in Moscow.

Figs. 11 & 12: 1907-12 Finland. Charity labels in aid of the
struggle against tuberculosis.

Fig. 13: 1900 Vignette issued in Finland as a form of protest
against Russification. The face value of 1 penni is printed on the back. This
perforated type in square format features a small crown.

Fig. 14 1900 As above, but a second issue with large crown.

Fig. 15s An advertising label from a set of twelve "Composers",
issued by the Einem Co. A perforated design in upright rectangular format,
printed in dark green and featuring Chaikovskii in this case.

Fig. 16: An advertising label from a set of "Russian Writers",
issued by the Einem Co. A perforated design in upright rectangular format,
printed in dark brown and featuring Goncharov in this case.

Fig. 17: 1898 Poland. A commemorative label celebrating the
centenary of the birth o- the poet Adam Micldewicz.


25a -









Fig. 18t 1906 Poland. A commemorative label, celebrating the
S 40th birthday of the wriT r Eliza Orsesskowa.

Figs. 19 & 201 1914 Vil'no (Vilnius, Wilno). In aid of the First
Aid Society and showing two designs out of a set of 6 labels, printed in multi-
color in upright rectangular format. Perforated.

Fi 21 1903 Bulgaria. A commemorative charity label from a
set of four in aid of th-"Liberating Tsar Committee", on the occasion of the
25th anniversary of the liberation of the country.

Figs. 22, 23 & 24 1896 Vignettes in honor of the visit to France
of the Emperor Nicholas II and Empress Aleksandra Fedorovna.

Figs. 25, 26 & 271 1901 Vignettes in honor of Nicholas II and
Aleksandra Fedorovna, on the occasion of their visit in 1901.

Fig. 281 1878 International Exhibition in Paris. A design showing
the Russian Pavilion andwith an inscription in Italian, reading "Esposizione
Universale di Parigi. Russia".

Fig. 29s 1900 International Exhibition in Paris. A vignette
showing the "Russian Asia" pavilion (Siberia).











., F ig^ 3.





tM, | 1100111 I




ion. eI F .. 010 4O


FL g .
2b -


25b -
\!A _







EM Cep: EM Cepi:
MOCKBlU. Bn, MociB
HEM I., R M .



Fig. Fig. 13., Fig

Fig. 0F 12,

Fig. 9._
0, I ,,




F g 17 .


.i0 F .

Flo N N PA9 il (RUSSIA)





F ... A r ,,'.
F ..22. F -Z-3. . 5 7







a very rare sett Outside of the set discovered by me, I have not seen it in any
other collection.

To commemorate the visits to France of Emperor Nikolas II in 1896 and 1901,
several series of portrait and view vignettes were issued which are rarely seen
today.

Finally, I must mention the vignettes commemorating the Paris World Fairs. In
my collection there is the only vignette in existence of the 1878 Paris World
Fair showing the Russian Building with the inscription in Italians "Espozizione
Universal di Parigi (Russia)".

For the 1900 Fair, many vignettes had been issued, but there were very few basic
drawings. The main ones 1) the Russian Building, and 2) the Russian Asia
Building. Some of these issues are rather rare.

This is about all I can say about the first part of my collection of vignettes
of Russia prior to 1914. A description of the other parts will appear either
in my next report or in articles to follow.

In conclusion, I wish to add that one must work very hard and be very persistent
in order to form a good collection of vignettes. Most of them are acquired via
correspondence and exchange. Rarely is one able to buy them from the dealers
since they are not interested in vignettes. At times, one may find them in the
collections of philatelists who would gladly exchange them for postage stamps.
The rare vignettes are encountered but once in a lifetime and if a collector
does not acquire them in the first place, there is very little chance of them
ever turning up agalr..

There are very few collectors of Russian vignettes left at the present time and
they are scattered throughout the world. Most of them are in the U.S.S.R. but
according to my information there may be only a few dozen such collectors active
in this specialty. Many of them do not make their hobby public; they probably
do not want to be accused of collecting worthless paper. Still, the majority
of the collectors of vignettes belong to the tops of the intelligentsia. Among
the ones known to me are university professors, noted engineers, and doctors.
All of them are not only collectors but are researchers and authors of catalogues
and monographs of erinofilia. It is true that all of their works and studies
are handwritten, but they are nevertheless copied by other large collectors
and serve as handbooks when such collectors get together. All of which demon-
strates that the few collector-erinophilists who belong to the elite of the
intelligentsia consider the collecting of non-postage stamps or vignettes as a
most interesting pasttime.


************ ****


"About the Establishment of the Zemstvo Posts in Russia."

(Compiled by N.I. Sokolov from Official Sources).

(CONTINUED FROM ROSSICA NO. 73)
The rules for the establishment of the zemstvo posts as issued by the Ministry
of the Interior Affairs soon aroused considerable misunderstandings in the
Rostov-on-Don county zemstvo. Complying with the decision of the Rostov-on-Don
County Zemstvo Assembly of October 5, 1870 the local Zemstvo County Board has


26 -







presented a note to the Government Senate complaining that the Ministry of
Interior Affairs is curtailing the rights of zemstvo boards to organize and
maintain the semstvo posts.

The complaint stated that's The zemstvo post was established in the Rostov-on-
Don County by the County Zemstvo Board with the consent of the County Zemstvo
Assembly already in 1869 based on the Articles 200 and 217 IV, Statute of the
Code of Regulations of Zemstvo Duties and according to the rules of the Zemstvo
Post (add. to Art. 217 of the Code of Zemstvo Duties).

This regulation, among other things, states that the function of the Zemstvo
Post consists in the transportation of parcels from the former zemstvo courts
(now the police office and the zemstvo boards) to their subordinates and re-
turn. According to paragraphs 4 and 6, the Zemstvos were authorized to estab-
lish definite stations in the county for the zemstvo post routes, A Zemstvo
could at its own discretion either tax the inhabitants or itself bear the costs.
Par. 7 stated according to what order the different administrative districts
were to be connected. Nothing was stated however about not using the postal
routes. To require this presented an impossibility to the Zemstvo since these
administrative points are mostly located along the postal route roads.
Correlating these laws, which are still in force, with the decree of the Govern-
ment Senate of August 27, 1870 and the circular of the Ministry of Interior of
September 3, it is evident that the aforesaid decree refers to the individual
case of the zemstvo post of the Voronezh Province and cannot have any relation
to the organization of the zemstvo posts as per Articles 200 and 217 of the
Penal Code of Zemstvo obligations. Likewise, Art. 1114 of the Penal Code and
the opinion of the Committee of Ministers approved by His Majesty cannot be
applied here. From the other point of view, the Minister of the Interior, as
may be seen from the circular of the Ekaterinoslav Governor of this September
has found it pertinent to build on the decree of the Government Senate to give
the permission to the Zemstvo Boards to organize the zemstvo posts. He has
counselled following the new rules of the zemstvo post. These rules con-
siderably change and add to the government of the zemstvo posts that has been
approved by His Majesty, 3 July 1837.

By these rules, which are in addition to the existing laws, the zemstvo posts
may carry private correspondence to places that have no postal communications
while Par. 3 states that the zemstvo posts may use only the rural roads for
their movement.

Such limitations, clearly, do not agree with the Statute of Zemstvo Posts and
are not applicable in actuality as was explained above. Most of the district
administrative points, which are connected by zemstvos and which was the be-
ginning of the intercommunication of the zemstvo posts, are located on the
postal route roads. On these same roads are numerous District Managements to
which the zemstvo post carries the rules of the Zemstvo Board and the members
of the County Police. Finally, the zemstvo messengers have to carry from the
district administrations and from the Zemstvo Boards the urgent packages to
all. points of the county without limitation as to rural roads. (This was
clarified in the Decree of the Government Senate that was published in the
Circular of the Ministry of the Interior Affairs No, 92 of 7 April 1870.

The Fifth Rostov-on-Don County Zemstvo Meeting found Article 3, as compiled by
the Minister of the Interior Affairs, to be very inconvenient for the zemstvo
institutions. This same meeting considered this difficulty should be resolved
by a special law. Accordingly, in the report of the Board, by the ruling of


27 -






October 5, 1870, instructed the County Zemstvo Board to present this present
matter in the proper manner to the Government Senate for its consideration.
Also, to request an addition to Article 1114 of the Penal Code, in the sense
that the force of this article should not apply to the zemstvo posts or-
ganized by the Zemstvo Boards according to Articles 200 and 217 of the
Zemstvo obligations' Code, especially since said zemstvo posts are obliged to
carry the packages of the Zemstvo Boards and of the County Police Offices
and their subordinates between places which have no postal communication in
the same way as they carry private post for remuneration. Article 1114 of
the Penal Code, like many other articles of the Code of Laws, which originally
did not consider the zemstvo institutions, cannot be applied to them and are
subject to change, addition and repeal based on the implimentation and rules
concerning zemstvo institutions as approved by His Majesty.

The following considerations are to be added here
1) The establishment of the zemstvo post is one of the obligations of
zemstvos. The compliance with these obligations was entrusted to them, as
per Art. 22 and 36 of the Provisional Regulations of zemstvo institutions.
According to Article 23 and 24 of the same rules and according to the Decrees
of the Government Senate of 19 September 1866 and of 16 May 1867, the zemstvo
institutions have been given the authority to enlarge the field of these obliga-
tions as there is need for it. Extension of the code of handling private
correspondence to new places, as well as the manner in which this is done de-
volves on the zemstvo institutions. They must also comply with former laws not
cancelled by the following ones.
2) According to the regulations, the main aim of the zemstvo post con-
sists of permanent and fast communications between the old Zemstvo Courts and
their subordinates. These Courts were superseded by the Police Offices and the
County Zemstvo Boards. The latter took over matters of zemstvo taxes, natural
obligations, supply of provisions, maintenance of roads, health, and other
obligations previously handled by the courts. Therefore, the zemstvo post must
serve mainly as the permanent fast communications of the County Police Institutions
with their subordinate persons and offices.
3) In Articles 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the said regulations was determined
the order of rotation of the messengers of the zemstvo posts which had to depart
from the county seat to all localities of the county without any exceptions to
deliver and to receive the packets in all district administrative offices. With
the introduction of the zemstvo institutions, as well as of the district and
village managements, this same order is to be followed based on the same re-
gulation and on Par. 24 of the Provisional Rules of the zemstvo institutions.
The same regulations apply to the fast communications via the zemstvo posts re-
quired between the County Police and the District Policemen. The same urgent
and fast communications are also required between the County Zemstvo Boards and
their subordinates so as to be able to comply with the obligations ordered by
the government or with zemstvo matters.
4) Due to the above considerations, all orders and measures toward the
establishment of the zemstvo post, as well as the expansion of this obligation
according to the needs of transportation of correspondence between the County
Zemstvo Boards and their subordinates, and also between private persons that
are deprived of the conveniences of the government postal service should not
limit the movement of the zemstvo posts of the rural roads only which is con-
trary to Par. 7, addn. to Art. 217 of Zemstvo Obligations Code according to
which the zemstvo posts must move from the county seat to the police stations,
most of them already connected by the postal route roads. Otherwise it would
be impossible for the semstvos to comply with the aims and transportation as
established by the law. To safeguard the interests of the postal department,
the rule established by the Rostov-on-Don County zemstvo according to which


28 -






the zemstvo post must not transport private correspondence within the county be-
tween the points that use the government postal service is quite sufficient.

When this matter was studied by the Senate, the sub-Minister of Interior Affairs
presented the following explanations

The complaint presented by the Rostov-on-Don County Zemstvo
Board to the Government Senate was the result of a mis-
understanding on the part of the Zemstvo Bqard in the in-
terpretation of the expression "zemstvo post" used by the
Code of the Zemstvo Obligations (Vol. IV of the Code of
Laws, 1857, as well as the circular of instructions of the
Minister of Interior Affairs.

Prior to the liquidation of the "Zemstvo Courts" there were horse-drawn carriages
maintained by each court and paid for by provincial taxes. These carriages
were intended to service for the the transportation of the members of the court
from the county seat to the points in the county on official business, for the
messengers with semstvo correspondence and for the zemstvo police communications.
This zemstvo post service consisted precisely in transportation of the official
correspondence and was classified as police business.

With the introduction of the zemstvo institutions, the obligation to maintain
for the County Police (the County Courts having been abolished) the aforesaid
horse carriages became the duty of the Zemstvo Boards. The aim and use did not
change; the name "zemstvo post" remained the same, only the management changed.

This term "zemskaya pochta" (zemstvo post) was the cause of the misunderstanding
by the Rostov-on-Don Zemstvo Board, the same term having been used by the Code
of Obligations as well as by the circulars of the Minister of Interior Affairs.
The Board, as may be seen from its complaint to the Senate, not having paid
attention to the rights of the zemstvo post as stated in the Code of Obligations,
but on the contrary, paid too much attention to the rather limited rights given
to Zemstvos according to the circulars which also use the exact same "zemstvo
post" term. According to the Code of Obligations, the zemstvo post is an obli-
gatory institution and its functions are obligatory. Its aim is transportation
of the members of the County Police Office and of the official correspondence
of these offices to their subordinates and back, therefore the movement of this
zemstvo post, being official, is not limited to certain roads. The zemstvo
post according to the circulars of the Minister of Interior Affairs is not a
service obligatory for the zemstvos. The Ministry of Interior Affairs, when
suggesting that the zemstvos establish such postal services had in mind satisfy-
ing needs of the population of the Empire for exchange of written communications.
This shortage was mainly felt in the districts which are either located more or
less distant from the post offices or have no post offices. The postal depart-
ment due to its limited funds has no possibility of establishing postal communi-
cations and post offices everywhere and therefore the function of the zemstvo
posts as proposed by the Ministry consists ins 1) Transferring to their
destination (to the zemstvo posts CPB) the ordinary mail, newspapers, maga-
zines and notices of the receipt in the post office of money, insured and
parcel correspondence which are consigned to more or less distant places within
the county: 2) to move the correspondence of all kind from distant places to
the nearest post offices; and 3) to transport correspondence of all kinds be-
tween the points in the county that have no postal service. It is evident that
such posts have entirely private character and establishment of them depends
on the zemstvos. The Ministry has issued certain rules for such posts so they
would not cause damage to the government post which is the government monopoly


29 -







and, therefore, Art. 114 of the Penal Code (1866 issue) must be applied to
these zemstvo posts since the zemstvo institutions, neither by their structure
nor by their basic origin, are government authorities and therefore have no
legal right to any prerogatives over private persons and institutions. There-
fore, the movement of these zemstvo posts is limited to the roads where no
government mails are moved.

This is where the basic difference between the two zemstvo posts arises one is
official and obligatory, being one of the zemstvo obligations; the other is en-
tirely private and a voluntary institution.

The Government Senate found that's "the Circular of the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs as of September 3, 1870 did not touch the zemstvo postal obligation which,
as the one established by the law (Code of zem. obl. Vol. IV, Code of Laws, 1857),
cannot be in any way changed by the order of the Ministry. That in the above-
mentioned circular of September 3, 1870 the zemstvos were invited to establish
the private, legally voluntary post 'to satisfy the needs of the inhabitants of
the Empire in their written communications in the localities that by their
geographic position either have no postal communication at all or are more or less
distant from postal communications.' Such posts, having entirely private
character and meant exclusively for the delivery of private correspondence must
not, naturally, cause damage to the postal service which is a government monopoly,
and that the ruling made in the Ministry's circular to Art. 1114 of the Penal
Code is an entirely correct one, since in this case the zemstvo institutions,
according to law, have no right to any prerogatives over the private persons or
institutions," and, therefore, has decided

"To the complainants of the Rostov-on-Don County Zemstvo
Board, be it known that the rules as stated in Par. 3 of
the instructions offered by the Ministry of Domestic
Affairs 3 September 1870 about the organization of the
private zemstvo posts are valid; accordingly, the movement
of such posts may be carried on only on the rural roads.
As far as the correspondence of the Zemstvo Boards between
themselves, as well as with private persons or institutions
that are located on the postal routes, such correspondence
must use only the postal establishments. This in no way
changes the rules about the zemstvo postal obligations as
described in the Code of Zemstvo Obligations and entirely
corresponds to the legal dispostions indicated by the
Ministry." (An order to the Minister of Interior Affairs
#37874 of September 22, 1871).
Similar misunderstandings appeared in the Samara Province. In January of 1871
the Governor of Samara Province submitted to the Ministry of Interior Affairs
a proposition to allow the Samara Province zemstvo posts to follow the same
roads on which the Empire posts are moving, basing this request on the fact
that the zemstvo posts were established in the Samara Province for communica-
tions between the Zemstvo Boards and the District Managements and other in-
stitutions which were far from postal communications. Later, the reason for
the development of these posts was the desire of the zemstvo institutions to
diminish the obligatory expenses for the horse-drawn carriages which, expressed
in terms of money, reached, in the Samara Province, the sum of 200,000 rubles.
A more detailed study of this obligation revealed to the zemstvo institutions
that the considerable expenditures in the upkeep of horses were not caused so
much by the zemstvo obligation to serve the police and the court investigators
as by the continuous demand of special messengers with transportation orders.


30 -








With this system of communication, the only way to diminish the number of horses
used was to establish a time table according to which the zemstvo post would
move once or twice a week. Such post would also move private correspondence for
a very modest remuneration. As such a project would mean merging the zemstvo
post meant for the convenience of private persons and entrusted to the zemstvo
as the institution that is in charge of matters of local needs and uses with
the horse-drawn carriage duty that was obligatory for the zemstvo, the Ministry
of Interior Affairs explained to the Samara Governor that the aim of the estab-
lishment of the zemstvo posts consisted exclusively in furnishing the inhabi-
tants of the Empire who lived far from postal establishments the possibility
of exchanging their correspondence in the easiest and cheapest way. Therefore,
the similar service for thesettlements located on the postal routes is to be
carried exclusively by the government postal service and the introduction of the
zemstvo post here would without doubt cause harm to the government postal ser-
vice. Considering the above, while recommending that the Governor be guided
exactly by the recommendations.of the circulars concerning the establishment
of the zemstvo post, the Ministry, however, found it permissible that the
zemstvo posts could cross the postal route roads wherever there would be a
direct necessity. Finally, in October of 1871, with a view to the further
development of the zemstvo posts and in order to furnish the inhabitants of
the places distant from the post offices more facilities for receiving and
sending of correspondence, the Ministry of Interior Affairs found it possible
to entrust to the zemstvo posts some other kinds of correspondence which were
introduced by the Provisional Rules of the postal division. Therefore, the
circular of the Ministry of the Interior #15649 of October 31, 1871 established
the following new rules for the zemstvo posts which are coordinated with the
Provisional Rules of the Postal Departments
1) The zemstvo post is established fors a) the delivery at the places
of destination from the Empire postal institutions to the localities within
the county, where there are no such postal institutions, of the ordinary mail
(i.e., open, closed, registered and ordinary mail letters, wrappers, and
parcels without declared value), newspapers and magazines and the notices of
the receipt of insured mail, b) for the receipt from the inhabitants of the
localities of the county, where there are no postal institutions, of all kinds
of correspondence and delivery of the same to the nearest Empire postal in-
stitutions, and c) for the sending to its destination of all kinds of
correspondence between the inhabitants of the parts of the county that have
no Empire postal service.
2) The responsibility for the correct delivery of the correspondence
delivered from the Empire postal institutions to the zemstvo posts rests en-
tirely on the zemstvo institutions which in case of the-loss in the zemstvo
post of a registered letter that was delivered to this post from the Empire
post office are obliged to reimburse the addressee to the amount of 10 rubles
as established by Art. 13 of the Provisional rules of the postal division.
3) The zemstvo posts are freed from the necessity of securing the
yearly cards for receiving the correspondence from the Empire postal in-
stitutions, but they are obliged to pay the charge established by Art. 97 of
the Provisional Rules of the postal division of two kopecks for each letter,
notice, or parcel received from the Empire postal institutions. Said charge
is to be collected from the addressee on the delivery of the correspondence
and notices.
4) The persons or institutions who do not wish to receive their corres-
pondence through the zemstvo post may obtain the cards established by Art. 80
of the Provisional Rules of the postal division so as to receive their corres-
pondence through their agents.


31 -








5) The movement of the zemstvo posts may be established only on the
roads which are not postal ones. By "postal roads" are understood the ones
on which the Empire mails are moved. But, moving from one point to another,
the zemstvo posts may, whenever there be a need, cross the postal roads and
also to move on them but only to cross from one rural (not postal) road to
another.
NOTEs The correspondence of the Zemstvo Boards whether between themselves
or with private persons or institutions located on the postal roads, as well
as correspondence of private persons or institutions with all government and
private persons and institutions must be done in no other way than through
the Empire postal institutions and any infringement -f this rule would be
contrary to Art. 1114 of the Penal Code (1866 issue) and approved by His
Majesty in the May 1, 1870 resolution of the Committee of the Ministers.
6) The zemstvo post- are allowed to have their own postage stamps but
only on condition that these stamps, in their design, will have nothing in
common with the stamps of the Empire post.
7) The zemstvo postal messenge s may have on the postal bags used by
them the design of the provincial or c unty coat of arms, but without the
postal horns.
8) The zemstvo institutions that wish to establish zemstvo posts on
the conditions described above, must declare this desire to the postal authority
of their province in order to receive the corresponding orders and so that
they may supply the individuals, who are to be entrusted with receiving from
the Empire postal institutions the correspondence that is going to the county,
with the registry book. This book which is laced and tied with ribbons with
the wax seals of the Zemstvo Board affixed is for the purpose of enabling the
postal employee to enter the number of each kind of correspondence that is
delivered from the Empire post, the total receipts for letters at the rate of
two kopeks for each letter, and the postage due on letters that were not ade-
quately franked.

Trusted persons who receive registered letters, parcels without declared value
(private and official), notices of insured correspondence awaiting call by
addressee and registered mail delivered against a receipt must sign in the
corresponding books of the Empire postal institutions. (TO BE CONTINUED).

********************


Russian Troops on the Macedonian Front During World War I

By Dr. Gordon H. Torrey

In reading "The Gardeners of Salonika" by Alan Palmer I ran across several
references to a Russian brigade on the Macedonian front. This unit, 5000
strong, arrived in July 1916. As the author states, "There was, as yet, no
sign of the malais of defeatism which was to sap the Tsar's Army before many
months were past. Physically those men seemed giants and a magnificent sight
as they marched eight abreast through the city (Salonika), gleaming bayonets
on long rifles, a moving forest of steel."1



1The Gardeners of Salonika, Alan Palmer p. 73,


32 -








Later, the troppos were mentioned again (now two brigades) "The two Russian
brigades were in a far worse state than the Serbs. In May 1917 they had been
active on the Salonika Front for eight months, with little respite. They
had pitted themselves against the Kemali defenses in the grimmest days of the
battle for Monastir, and for five months they had stood on the alert in the
Crna loop, never more then two hundred yards from the enemy positions. They
had fought well, but they were weary and dispirited. The vain seizure of the
village of Orle, on May 9th, by the Second Brigade was the last token gesture
of the contingent which had been decimated by sickness and by battle casualties.
Their Commander, General Dietrichs, who before coming to Macedonia had dis-
tinguished himself as one of Brusilov's staff officers in Galicia, was a de-
termined and energetic officer, but on May 18th even he had to as General
Sarrail to allow his brigade a rest period of six weeks in which to recover
from the fatigue of the winter and the constant alarms of the last few weeks.
And the Fourth Brigade, who were serving with the Serbs, showed even more dis-
turbing signs of unrest, the men suspecting that they were intended as easily
expendable cannon fodder and resenting the arrogance of both the Serbian
officers and their own commanders. When, a few weeks later, the Russian lan-
guage newspaper in Salonika published a plaintive appeal for troops to re-
sume the habit of saluting officers, it was apparently the Fourth Brigade
who were the worst offenders.

Neither the Second Brigade nor the Fourth Brigade were, as yet, so mutinous
as the First and Third Brigades, who had left Russia at the same time as the
Salonika contingent but had disembarked at Marseilles for service on the
Western Front; for in France the Russians were exposed to insidious propaganda
from Trotsky's group of exiles in Paris and were better informed about the
situation in Petrograd than their comrades in Macedonia. But there is no
doubt that the Second and Fourth Brigades were left confused and uncertain by
the political changes in Russia which culminated in the Tsar's abdication on
March 19th and the establishment of a Provisional Government. As Dietrichs S
himself wrote on May 18th -- curiously enough, the day upon which the moderate
socialist, Kerensky, became Minister of War -- "The latest events in Russia,
added to the slowness and uncertainty of postal communication and the various
rumors and occasional gossip reaching the trenches from the rear and spread
around by good-for-nothings, can only strain the men's nerves till further,
worrying them and paralysing their will." Unfortunately, for this sorrowful
little army, brooding over its hardships and the agony of the homeland, pre-
cisely six weeks after Dietrichs' request had been granted, a Russian detachment
which was being re-embarked at the Piraeus to return to Salonika broke into
open mutiny and French troops had to be sent in order to quell the disturbance.

Sarrail had not, however, given up hope of using the Russians and even thought
that it might be possible to obtain reinforcements from Archangel if Kerensky's
Government succeeded in re-vitalizing the Eastern Front. In July, 1917, there
were still 18,000 Russian troops in Macedonia and it was decided to re-
organize them as an independent division with Dietrichs enjoying a similar
status to the Italian commander, General Mombelli. In the last week of July
the Russian Division returned to the Front-between Lake Ochrid and Lake Prespa,
and the Provisional Government even promised to send a full divisional train
of artillery to Macedonia in the autumn.

It was no use. Dietrichs was summoned back to Petrograd in August. His
successor, General Taranowski, did not reach Salonika until the first week in
November, arriving at the very moment when the Bolsheviks overthrew Kerensky's
Government had prepared to take Russia out of the war. Marxist agitators had


33 -








penetrated the artillery brigade and pioneer battalion which landed at Salonika
early in October. These reinforcements stimulated the revolutionary unrest.
Soviets sprang up in every Russian regiment, and the division became a breed-
ing ground of disaffection. Throughout the winter of 1917-18 it remained an
embarrassing liability to its allies. In January it was removed from the
fighting front and disarmed, some of the men joining the French Foreign Legion
and many more continuing under Allied orders as a labor force. There was still
one more melancholy episode before the tragedy was played out. On March 12,
1918 over three thousand Russians ran amok at an internment camp near Vertikop,
and order had to be restored by a French cavalry unit with drawn sabres.
Ironically, it was eighteen months to the day since the first Russian batta-
lions had fought along side the French on that very sector of the front. Has
anyone ever seen any postal material from this little-known facet of Russian
military history?

There is a more comprehensive account of the Russian troops in Armnes Frangaises,
Vol. VIII, part 2, pp. 502-3. Vallari, Macedonian Campaign, pp. 185-8.
Sarrail Mon Commandement, pp. 261-3 and especially in an article by Dragomir
Mitrovic, "Revolucija u Rusiji i Ruske Trupe na Solunskom Frontu" in the
Yugoslav periodical Itariski Glasnik for 1957 (parts 3-4, pages 17-24). Another
source is Richard Watt in Dare Call It Treason (London 1964), chapters 12 and 16.

The Gardeners of Salonika, Alan Palmer, Andre Deutsch, London, 1965.

*****************


A ZEMSTVO, BUT NOT A ZEMSTVO STAMP

By Boris Shishkin

A Zemstvo stamp collector acquires a new selection of these precious bits of
pater to fill the gaps in his collection.

Among the new acquisitions, he finds a couple of imperforate stamps, one printed
in blue, one in red.

Inside a double oval couchantt) there is a clear inscription: "FATEZHSKAGO
UYEZDA ZENSKAYA POCHTA".

In the center, within the inner oval, there is a flight of three birds on the
left, a shotgun near the center and a rustic gate on the right.

Fatezh? The collector turns to those dependable guides to Zemstvo stamp collect-
ing --- the Chuchin and Schmidt catalogues. But no Fatezh listed in either of
these.

A discovery? A find? He feverishly checks his map of Zemstvos. Sure enough,
there is Fatezhsky Uyesd in the Kursk Province.

Surely, figures the excited collector, he must have acquired Zemstvo stamps so
rare that even the great Zemstvo cataloguers missed them

Wrong.


34-










A 74F22HA








_.












These are not stamps. These are cut squares. They are from entire issued by
the Zemstvo postoffice of Fatezh in 1871, 1873, 1876-81, 1882-86, 1890-93, and
1900.

You will find them listed in Dr. Ascher's catalogue of entire, Vol. II, p. 994.
The entire as well as the cut squares in my collection are of the 1873 issue.

The fact of the matter is that while Fatezh Zemstvo issued these entire, it
never issued any stamps.




SOVIET POSTAL RATES

By Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii

(Translated from "Filateliya SSR" of Moscow, No. 4 for October 1966 and following
issues. Continued from Rossical No, 73)

A. THE RSFSR PERIOD 1918-1923
No. 9s From 1 to 31 October 1922

The month of October 1922 was a turbulent one for the Soviet Postal Service. Not
one solitary Soviet postage stamp was on sale in the republic during this strange
period. Only the definitive stamps of prerevolutionary Russia (the Arms types)
were used for franking letters, as was also the case in the first few months after
the Revolution. How did it come about that the Postal Service was left without
its own stamps?

35 -








The reason was the transition to rubles of the 1922 currency for the settlement
of accounts, which was brought into effect at that time in all sectors of ad-
ministrative and economic life. The paper money of previous issues was accepted
for payment on the basis of 10,000 rubles for one new ruble in 1922 currency.
By the autumn, the transition to the new paper money was basically completed,
and on 8 September the following directive of the Government ensued: "In order
to establish uniformity in the circulation of money, the Council of National
Commissars decress that 1) It be forbidden...to place in circulation any kind
of issues of paper money which have been in use prior to the autumn series of
1922; 2) The acceptance of previous issues of paper money be permitted until
1 October 1922...." (see "News of the V.Ts. I. K.", No. 206 for 4 Sept. 1922).

For this reason, the National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs took out of
circulation on 1 October all current Soviet postage stamps issued up to that
time, since their face values (5000; 7500; 10,000; 22,500 r. etc.) were ex-
pressed in the already obsolete price scales.

At the same time, the ninth schedule of Soviet postal rates was introduced on
1 October 1922 and expressed in the new paper money (see the decree of the
Council of National Commissars of the RSFSR, published in the "New of the
V. Ts. I. K.", No. 211 for 20 Sept. 1922), as follows
a) Postcards 5 rubles.
b) Ordinary local letters 5 rubles (note that from here onwards, the
postal rate is specified for the first 20 grammes wt., i.e. 2/3 oz. only).
c) Ordinary intercity letters 10 rubles.
d) Additional fee for registration 15 rubles.

The National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs prepared a new stamp to fit
these new rates. But what was it? Inasmuch as the preparations for its issue
began long before 1st. Oct., the stamp bore the surcharge "100,000 RUB.", that
is, its value was enumerated in the old paper money which had already become
invalid. And so a strange stiuation arose. On the one hand, a stamp was
available for intercity letters. On the other, the issue of a stamp with such
a face value infringed, to some degree, upon the uniformity of money circula-
tion. A month went by before the problem was solved. So the Postal Service
not only did not receive new postage stamps in Oct. 1922, but the surcharged
stamp (Sov. Cat. 55; Scott 210; Gibbons 251, 253, 255; Yvert 169; Michel 190;
Zumstein 180) did not appear at postal windows until November. In the corres-
ponding circular relating to this even (Circular No. 11/1344 of 1 Nov. 1922,
as given in the "bulletin of the National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs",
issue No. 31. In the 1958 Soviet Catalog, the date of issue is erroneously
specified as October), the following is stated: "For information and guidance,
and also for the quick enlightenment of local offices, it is announced that
from the 1st of this present month of November, a new postage stamp in the
value of 100,000 rubles, or 10 rubles in 1922 paper money, was placed on issue
by the National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs...."

On 25 Oct. 1922, new rates were also introduced for the transmission of inter-
national correspondence, namely:
a) Postcards 45 rubles.
b) Ordinary letters 75 rubles.
c) Additional fee for registration 75 rubles.
d) Additional fee for airmail 75 rubles.

No. 10s From 1 to 30 Nov. 1922
By a decree of the Council of National Commissars of the RSFSR dated 25 Oct.
1922, the tenth series of postal rates was to be introduced on 1 Nov. 1922 (see

36 -







"News of the V, Ts. I. K.", No. 244 of 28 Oct. 1922). The previous rates were
doubled, as follows:
a) Postcards 10 rubles.
b) Ordinary local letters 10 rubles.
c) Ordinary intercity letters 20 rubles.
d) Additional fee for registration 30 rubles.

On 3 November, a set of stamps without designation of value was placed on issue
"to aid the population suffering from crop failure" (Sov. Cat. 62-65; Scott
B34-37; Gibbons 285-88; Yvert 185-88; Michel 192-200; Zumstein 181-84). The
sequence of sets is given incorrectly in the 1958 Soviet catalog. This "Famine"
set was the first to be issued and then later on 8 November, the set honoring
the fifth anniversary of the October Revolution made its appearance (Sov. Cat.
56-61; Scott 211-15; Gibbons 279-83; Yvert 170-74; Michel 191-95; Zumstein
185-89).

The "Famine stamps were sold at 25 rubles each, of which 5 rubles were deducted
for the Auxiliary Fund of the Central Commission for the Effects of Famine
(Ts. K. Posledgola), and 20 rubles comprised the postal rate (fee for an inter-
city letter). Moreover, preparation was begun on the long definitive set sur-
charged with new values, together with a five-pointed star enclosing a hammer
and sickle and the initials RSFSR (Sov. Cat. 66-79; Scott 216-229; Gibbons 289-302;
Yvert 189-200; Michel 201-07; Zumstein 191-203). The surcharges were made on
prerevolutionary definitive stamps (Arms types) which had been withdrawn earlier.
The "star" stamps went on issue in accordance with the requirements for new
values. Thus, in conformity with the tenth scale of rates, perforated and im-
perforate stamps surcharged 20 r. on 70 kop. and 30 r. on 50 kop. appeared at
post offices in December 1922. Their printings were practically identical;
9,499,700 and 9,600,000 copies respectively. In the 1958 Soviet Catalog, the
sequence of dates of issue for the stamps in this set is given incorrectly.
International rates also went into force on 1 November, as follows:
a) Postcards 90 rubles.
b) Ordinary letters 150 rubles,
c) Additional fee for registration 150 rubles.

The rate for airmail was not specified, since the USSR-Germany airline was sus-
pended soon after for the winter season.

The story of an interesting set of stamps for the Ukraine is linked with both
the internal and international rates fixed in November. Upon the initiative of
the Central Commission for the Alleviation of the Effects of Famine, it was
decided by the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee that its own set of
semi-postal stamps be issued. The face values of the stamps included the pos-
tal and charity fees and they were designated on the basis of one karbovanets
being equal to one ruble of 1922 paper money, as follows:
a) 10 + 10 karbovantsiv (10 rubles per local letter)
b) 20 + 20 karbovantsiv (20 rubles per intercity letter).
c) 90 + 30 karbovantsiv (90 rubles per international postcard).
d)150 + 50 karbovantsiv (150 rubles per international letter).

However, issuing the set proved to be no ordinary matter. By the time an agree-
ment was reached with the State Printing Office in Berlin, Germany, to have the
issue printed there and then to transport the stamps to the Ukraine, it was
already February 1923. Still more time went by in coordinating with the
National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs on the conditions for placing the


37 -







set on issue, since the rates and the postage stamps ef the RSFSR were in effect
in the Ukraine. As a result, the set did not go into circulation until the be-
ginning of June 1923, when the face values of the stamps had beeoe obsolete to
the point of uselessness. But, in spite of that fact, this interesting set en-
joyed great popularity at that time and it occupies to this day an honored place
in the collections of philatelists (see Ukraine Scott B 1-81 Gibbons 444-47;
Yvert 148-51; Zunstein 77-811 Michel Russland 220-23).

No. 11 From 1 to 31 Deeember 1922.
By a decree of the Council of National Commssars of the RSFSR dated 24 Nov. 1922,
the eleventh schedule of postal rates was brought into effect on 1 Dec. 1922
(see "News of the V. Ts. I. K.", No. 274 for 3 Dec. 1922), namelys
a) Postcards 20 rubles.
b) Ordinary local letters 20 rubles.
c) Ordinary intercity letters 40 rubles.
d) Additional fee for registration 40 rubles.

In accordance with these rates, a.new stamp with the "star" surcharge (40 r. on
15 kop.) went on issue on 5 Deceaber. The printing consisted of 24,800,000 copies
(perf. and imperf.).

The rates for international mail were also changed on 1 December, as follows
a) Postcards 150 rubles.
b) Ordinary letters 250 rubles.
c) Additional fee for registration 250 rubles.

No. 12s From 1 Jan. to 9 March 1923.
With the beginning of the new year, a transition to a second scale of currency was
carried out in the republic; 100 rubles of the previous 1922 money were now made
equal to one ruble of the new 1923 series. It is interesting to investigate how
this transition was designated on the face values of the kopek stamps pf pre-
revolutionary definitive issues, which, as is known, remained on issue until
1 April 1923. The first revaluation of stamps from 1 to 20 kopeks was carried out
on 10 March 1920 in connection with the introduction of the fifth series of
Soviet postal rates. At that time, the 1 kop. stamp then cost 1 ruble in the
currency of those years. The second revaluation of stamps from 1 to 14 kopeks was
carried out on 15 April 1922 (eighth schedule of rates). The 1 kop. stamp then
cost 10,000 rubles in the previous paper money, or 1 ruble in 1922 paper money.
And finally, now in the 1923 currency the 1 kop. stamp cost exactly 1 kopek! In
other words, the kopek definitive stamps (Arms type) began to circulate anew in
1923 at their original face values.

On 1 Jan. 1923, the twelfth series of postal rates came into force (see the de-
cree of the Council of National Commissars of the RSFSR dated 30 Dec. 1922, as
given in the "News of the V. Ts. I. K.", No. 5 for 10 Jan. 1923). The previous
rates were increased by 150%, as follows:
a) Postcards 50 kopeks.
b) Ordinary local letters 50 kopeks.
c) Ordinary intercity letters 1 ruble.
d) Additional fee for registration 1 ruble.

The four imperforate stamps of the first definitive issue for the RSFSR, featuring
a worker and Red Aruy man (Sov. Cat. 80-83; Scott 230-33; Gibbons 303-06; Yvert
201-04; Michel 208-11DI Zumstein 204-07) were circulated as early as December 1922
for the franking of mail in accordance with these rates. The largest printings
for this issue were for the stamps which appeared in the values of 50 and 100


38 -








rubles (i.e. 50 kop. and 1 ruble in the new paper money). In addition, two
further "star" surcharges in the values of 100 and 200 rubles (i.e. 1 and 2
rubles in the new currency) appeared in March 1923. The printings for these
latter stamps exceeded those of all the previous surcharges, being 25,375,000
and 40,322,700 copies respectively (perf. and imperf.).

New rates for the transmission of international mail came into force on 11 Jan.
1923, namely:
a) Postcards 2 r. 10 k.*
b) Ordinary letters 3 r. 50 k.
c) Additional fee for registration 3 r. 50 k.

*This shows where the 10-ruble (10-kop.) definitive stamps of the RSFSR came in
handy (see Sov. Cat. 80; Scott 230, 234; Gibbons 303, 307, 312; Yvert 201, 205;
Michel 208; Zumstein 204, C,D,E).

No. 13: From March to 30 April 1923
By a decree of the Council of National Commissars dated 6 March 1923 (see "News
of the V, Ts. I. K.", No. 54 for 10 March 1923), the January tariffs were in-
creased by 50%. This was the thirteenth change in Soviet postal rates, namely:
a) Postcards 75 kopeks.
b) Ordinary local letters 75 kopeks.
c) Ordinary intercity letters 1 r. 50 k.
d) Additional fee for registration 1 r. 50 k.

In the middle of March (it was not possible to establish the date exactly), the
international rates were changed as follows:
a) Postcards 3 rubles.
b) Ordinary letters 5 rubles.
c) Additional fee for registration 5 rubles.

At the beginning of April (presumably on the 6th), the international rates were
altered again:
a) Postcards 3 r. 90 k.
b) Ordinary letters 6 r. 50 k.
c) Additional fee for registration 6 r. 50 k.

No. 14t From 1 to 19 May 1923.
By a decree of the Council of National Commissars (see "Bulletin of the National
Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs", 1923, No. 15, p. 2), the fourteenth series
of postal rates went into effect on 1 May, as follows:
a) Postcards 1 ruble.
b) Ordinary local letters 1 ruble.
c) Ordinary intercity letters 2 rubles.
d) Additional fee for registration 2 rubles.

On that same.day, one of the most popular sets of Soviet stamps appeared at the
Moscow G.P.O., overprinted in bronze, gold and silver colors with the inscription
"1 May 1923, Philately to the workers" (Sov. Cat, 88-92; Scott B38-42; Gibbons
315-19; Yvert 213-15; Michel 212-14; Zumstein 208-10A). For the first time in
the world, the great international holiday of the workers was noted by the issue
of postage stamps. There were two values given on each stamp, as follows
1 r. + 1 r.; 2 r. + 2 r.; and 4 r. + 4 r. The first value consisted of the
postal rate and the second was deducted for the funds of the Central Commission
for the Effects of Famine. These commemorative stamps were in circulation for only


39 -







one day and they are therefore regarded nowadays as highly interesting philatelic
material when on covers which have gone through the mails.

In connection with the reopening of the airline between the USSR and Germany on
the same day, the additional fee for the transmission of international airmail
letters was fixed at 5 rubles, and the rates for the remaining classes of inter-
national mail came into effect on 8 May, namely
a) Postcards 6 rubles.
b) Ordinary letters 10 rubles.
c) Additional fee for registration 10 rubles.

For the franking of internal and international mail, postage stamps were required
with face values higher than 1 and 2 rubles, the latter values being already on
hand at the Postal Service. The necessity for a new definitive set was felt and
thus the second definitive issue of stamps of the RSFSR came out in five per-
forated values, namely 3, 4, 5, 10 and 20 rubles (Sov. Cat. 102-06; Scott 238-
41A; Gibbons 320-24; Yvert 218-22; Michel 215-19; Zumstein 211-15). The first
four stamps went into circulation on 2 May and the last on 15 August (the dates
of issue are indicated inaccurately in the 1958 Soviet catalog). It is true
taht two further stamps in the values of 1 r. and 2 r. were prepared for issue
(Sov. Cat. 100-01 and notes in Western catalogs) and copies were even printed,
but it was decided not to circulate them as the rates could have risen at any
time and there were already on issue sufficient quantities of stamps in those
values, The entire set imperforate (Sov. Cat. 93-99; Scott footnote; Gibbons
320a-324a; Yvert 218-22 NDU; Michel 215-19C; Zumstein 211-15B) never reached the
postal windows, as it was prepared somewhat later when the stamps of the RSFSR
were withdrawn. All these unissued stamps were subsequently handed over to the
literature. Unfortunately, the 1958 Soviet Catalog has allowed a serious mis-
take to slip in; the regular numbering of 93 to 101 is assigned to these imperf.
stamps, they are listed as mint and used and at the same time designated as
never having been placed in circulation. They could never have been used and
therefore they cannot be regarded as regular issues.

After the introduction of the fourteenth scale of rates, preparations were also
specifically begun in May 1923 for the issue of the large-sized stamps in honor
of the "First Agricultural and Handicraft Exhibition of the USSR". The values
of the stamps were designated in accordance with the May rates as 1, 2, 5 and 7
rubles (the last two for international airmail letters). As is known, the set
is the first issued in the name of the USSR and with it therefore, the section
on stamps of the Soviet Union is opened (see Sov. Cat. 107-14A; Scott 242-49;
Gibbons 325-34; Yvert 223-30; Michel 224-27; Zumstein 216-19A,B). However, the
postal distribution of the set was complicated by the fact that at the time of
its issue (August 1923) uniform rates and postage stamps had not yet been es-
tablished for the entire USSR. In the Transcaucasian Federation and the Far
Eastern Republic, their own rates and stamps were in use as before. Hence, the
Exhibition set only had postal validity within those same territorial borders
as for the previous stamps of the RSFSR.

No. 15, From 20 May to 9 June 1923.
By a Government decree dated 14 May 1923 (see "News of the "V.Ts. I. K.", No. 108
for 17 May 1923), the fifteenth schedule of postal rates was brought in on 20 May.
The tariffs in force from 1 May were increased by 50% as follows
a) Postcards 1 r. 50 k.
b) Ordinary local letters 1 r. 50 k.
c) Ordinary intercity letters 3 rubles.
d) Additional fee for registration 3 rubles.


40-







New additional fees for the transmission of international airmail were alse es-
tablished on 25 May, namely
a) Postcards 5 rubles.
b) Letters to Latvia 6 rubles.
c) Letters to Germany and other European countries 10 rubles.

In accordance with these airmail rates, preparation was begun on a set of stamps
with values of 1, 3, 5 and 10 rubles in 1923 paper money. But things went
wrong with the stamps; by the time they were printed a good six months elapsed
and then stamps were already being issued in the hard "gold" currency, while the
airline itself was suspended for the winter season. So the stamps remained
unissued (see Sov. Cat. 0158-61; Scott C2-5; Gibbons unlisted; Yvert Airs 10-13;
Michel XV-XVIII; Zumstein unlisted) and they were subsequently surcharge with
new "gold" values.

No. 16: From 10 June to 4 July 1923
By a decree of the Council of National Commissars dated 6 June 1923 (see "News of
the V. Ts. I. K.", No. 126 for 9 June 1923), the sixteenth series of postal rates
came into effect on 10 June. The rates of 1 May were increased by 100%, as
follows
a) Postcards 2 rubles.
b) Ordinary local letters 2 rubles.
c) Ordinary intercity letters 4 rubles.
d) Additional fee for registration 4 rubles.

An air route linking Moscow with Kharkov, Rostov-on-Don, Novorossiisk, Batum
(Batumi) and Tiflis (Tbilisi) was opened on 31 May, being the intermediate stage
of the Sweden to Persia (Iran) airline. A notation reading "Letpochta" (Airmail)
was placed on the covers. The first Soviet internal airmail rate was announced
on 10 June, namely ass
Additional airmail fee for 50 grammes wt. (1 2/3 ozs.) 10 rubles.
The additional fee for airmail letters addressed to Latvia was also fixed at
10 rubles as from 14 June.

No. 17: From 5 July to 19 August 1923
By a decree of the Council of National Commissars dated 29 June 1923 (see "News
of the V. Ts, I. K.", No. 146 of 3 July 1923), the seventeenth schedule of rates
went into effect as from 5 July, the previous tariffs being increased by 50% as
follows:
a) Postcards 3 rubles.
b) Ordinary local letters 3 rubles.
c) Ordinary intercity letters 6 rubles.
d) Additional fee for registration 6 rubles.

No. 18s From 20 to 31 August 1923
The fall in the rate for paper money took an especially severe turn in the middle
of 1923. Postal rates had to be revised more and more often, and sometimes they
were changed within a space of 10 to 20 days. The stabilization of the ruble and
the establishment of a solid currency were subjects of special national impor-
tance. On 11 Oct. 1922, the Soviet Government promulgated a decree about the
issue of money on the gold standard, in the form of the "chervonets" ('a unit of
10 gold rubles'). The simultaneous usage in the country of two currencies, namely
the "Hard" chervonets and the falling paper money, also left its imprint on the
postal rates. By a decree of the Council of National Commissars dated 14 Aug. 1923
(see "News of the V. Ts. I. K.", No. 187 for 22 Aug. 1923), the new tariffs were


41 -








established on 20 Aug. 1923 in the hard gold currency (gold kopeks), namely
a) Postcards 4 gold kopeks.
b) Ordinary local letters in Moscow & Petrograd (Leningrad) -
5 gold kopeks.
c) Ordinary local letters in other cities 4 gold kopeks.
d) Ordinary intercity letters 6 gold kopeks.
e) Additional fee for registration 6 gold kbpeks.

However, since all postage stamps of the RSFSR in circulation at that time had
values expressed in the previous currency units, the coefficient for converting
gold kopeks into paper rubles was announced from that time onwards, whenever the
postal rates were changed. For the eighteenth series of rates, the coefficient
of conversion was fixed at 130 on 20 Aug. 1923, as follows:
a) Postcards 5 paper rubles (rounded off).
b) Ordinary local letters in Moscow and Petrograd 6 r. 50 k. in
paper money.
c) Ordinary local letters in other cities 5 paper rubles.
d) Ordinary intercity letters 8 paper rubles.
e) Additional fee for registration 8 paper rubles.

The new international rates were fixed in the following amounts
a) Postcards 9 paper rubles.
b) Ordinary letters 15 paper rubles.
c) Additional fee for registration 15 paper rubles.

No. 19s From 1 to 14 Sept. 1923

On 1 Sept. 1923, the coefficient of conversion was made equal to 200, to give the
nineteenth schedule of postal rates, namely
a) Postcards 8 paper rubles.
b) Ordinary local letters in Moscow and Petrograd 10 paper rubles.
c) Ordinary local letters in other cities 8 paper rubles.
d) Ordinary intercity letters 12 paper rubles.
e) Additional fee for registration 12 paper rubles.

The international rates came into effect on 4 September, as follows
a) Postcards 12 paper rubles.
b) Ordinary letters 20 paper rubles.
c) Additional fee for registration 20 paper rubles.

No. 20t From 15 to 30 Sept. 1923
On 15 September, the coefficient was established at 330 to give the twentieth
series of postal rates, as follows
a) Postcards 13 paper rubles (rounded off).
b) Ordinary local letters in Moscow and Petrograd 16 r. 50 k. in
paper rubles.
c) Ordinary local letters in other cities 13 paper rubles.
d) Ordinary intercity letters 20 paper rubles.
e) Additional fee for registration 20 paper rubles.

On 17 September, the international rates were also altered, namely
a) Postcards 18 paper rubles.
b) Ordinary letters 30 paper rubles.
c) Additional fee for registration 30 paper rubles.

42 -








B. THE USSR PERIOD, 1923-1967
The postal rates for internal mail of the USSR for the period from 1923 to date
were changed ten times. But before proceeding to describe these tariffs, it
would be interesting to draw attention to several of their features.

By tradition, as was also the case with the postal rates of the RSFSR, a special
supplementary fee for registration was designated for the calculation of the
charge for registered mail and this was added to the basic charge for the weight
of the sending. In the history of the Soviet Postal Service, this procedure was
followed for more than thirty years and it was not until 1948 that a specific
rate was established for registered sending.

From 1923 to 1938, special classes of mail were instituted, which were paid for
at higher rates. The first of these consisted of "especially important" letters
and packets, containing confidential and other important papers. The covers of
such letters were made of thick paper, or from paper glued on cloth. A second
type of mail was in the form of "express" postal sending. Express correspondence
(special delivery mail) was accepted out of turn, sent by the first train and
delivered quickly to the addressee at the destination. A notation reading "speshno"
("urgent") was placed on the covers. Such mail was paid for on the basis of re-
gistered correspondence, with the addition of a supplementary fee for special
delivery. If there were any airlines in operation anywhere along the way, urgent
mail was conveyed by aircraft without any further charge whatsoever. It is in-
teresting to note that if any delay along the route of an urgent letter was due
to the fault of the Postal Service, the extra fee "for special delivery" was re-
funded to the sender. The third category of mail was conveyed "by special
messenger", for delivery to addresses distant more than 25 km. (16 miles) from
the nearest post office. The fee for a "special messenger" letter was charged
on the basis of 15 kop. per km. (5/8 mile), postage stamps to this amount being
affixed to the selfsame sending.

An additional fee was designated in the rates for the payment of sending by air,
but specific inclusive tariffs were fixed in 1932 for internal airmail and in
1939 for international airmail. Special charges were sometimes established for
special flights, i. e. in 1930 and 1931 for the transmission of mails aboard the
airship "Graf Zeppelin", in 1935 for the Moscow-San Francisco flight across the
North Pole, etc. From 1923 to 1935, international airmail rates were normally
designated for the summer seasons, but from 1936 they applied to year-round
regular operation. The deficiency of postage on internal sending was charged
at the rate for underpaid registered mail, and for international mail at double
the deficiency in the rate.

All internal postal rates of the USSR are set out hereunder consecutively in
chronological order. As a rule, the rates are specified only for the basic
classes of mail (i.e. postcards, letters, registration and airmail fees), and
only for the first 20 grammes of weight (2/3 oz.). The numbers of the stamps
are given in accordance with the catalogs of the GFK (Main Philatelic Office).

No. 1s From 1 Oct. 1923 to 31 Aug. 1924
In accordance with a decree of the Council of National Commissars of the USSR
dated 25 Sept. 1923, the rates, introduced on 20 August and expressed in hard
units, now had to be calculated in gold kopeks of the chervonets, as follows
a) Postcards 4 gold kopeks (the rate for transmission was lowered
to 3 kop. as from 15 Dec. 1923).
b) Ordinary local letters in Moscow and Petrograd (Leningrad) 0
5 gold kopeks.

43 -








c) Ordinary local letters in other cities 4 gold kopeks.
d) Ordinary intercity letters 6 gold kopeks.
e) Registration fee 6 gold kopeks.

The minimum rate for express (special delivery) mail was established in the amount
of 90 gold kopeks. The recalculation of the tariffs into 1923 paper money, which
remained in circulation together with stamps of the RSFSR until 1 Dec. 1923, was
carried out on the basis of the gold ruble. In other words, the postal rates, in
terms of the previous paper currency, changed daily during October and November
1923.

On 11 Oct. 1923, new Soviet postage stamps in the gold currency appeared in cir-
culation and this issue is known to philatelists as the "first definitive set of
stamps of the USSR" ("on the gold standard"), with values from 1 kopek to 1 ruble
(Sov. Cat. 115-124; Scott 250-59; Gibbons 335-44; Yvert 231-36, 240-41, 244-45;
Michel 228-37; Zumstein 220-26; 229-30, 233-34). From 1 Dec. 1923, these stamps
were obligatory for use in the entire territory of the USSR.

The international rates were also changed on 1 October. Originally, they were
expressed in 1923 paper money, namely:
a) Postcards 27 rubles.
b) Ordinary letters 45 rubles.
c) Fee for registration 45 rubles.

However, on 16 October, after the appearance of "gold standard" stamps, the rates
were also fixed in hard currency, as follows:
a) Postcards 12 gold kopeks.
b) Ordinary letters 20 gold kopeks.
c) Registration fee 20 gold kopeks.
d) Airmail fee 10 gold kopeks.

The face values of the first definitive set of the USSR were specified to corres-
pond exactly with the October rates. In a special circular dated 6 Feb. 1924
and entitled "Regarding the economic utilization of postage stamps", it was
stated that:
a) "stamps in the value of 1 kopek should be exclusively for the
prepayment of the minimum rate based on weight for local
wrappers containing printer matter;
b) stamps with a value of 2 kopeks for the prepayment of inter-
city wrappers;
c) stamps with a value of 3 kopeks for the prepayment of internal
local and intercity postcards;
d) stamps with a value of 4 kopeks for the prepayment of ordinary
local letters;
e) stamps with a value of 5 kopeks for the prepayment of local
letters in Moscow and Leningrad;
f) stamps with a value of 6 kopeks for the prepayment of ordinary
and registered intercity letters (in the latter case with two
6-kopek stamps) and for international postcards (two stamps);
g) stamps with a value of 10 kopeks for the prepayment of local
registered letters;
h) stamps with a value of 20 kopeks for the prepayment of ordi-
nary and registered international letters (in the latter case
with two 20-kopek stamps);


44 -








i) stamps in the values of 50 kopeks and 1 ruble for the pre-
payment of weighty sending and, moreover, stamps of 50 kop.
denomination in combination with two 20-kopek stamps for the
prepayment of the minimum rate based on weight for express
(special delivery) letters...."

This document has an important significance for us, especially since it shows
once again that there is a serious mistake in the 1958 Soviet Catalog, namely
in including a lithographed stamp, imperforate and in the value of 30 kopeks in
this same gold standard set (Sov. Cat. 123; unlisted in Western catalogs),
which was never put into circulation in the first place. It was not without
reason that it was not listed in the earlier Soviet catalogs of 1928 and 1933.

The values of the set of mourning stamps, dedicated to the memory of V. I. Lenin
(Sov. Cat. 126-291 Scott 265-72; Gibbons 358-731 Yvert 266-73; Michel 338-41A;
Zumstein 242-45) and issued in January 1924, were also designated in conformity
with the October "gold" rates.

On 1 May 1924, the by now regular international airline established between
Moscow and Germany resumed operations. The additional airmail fee for each
sending was fixed at 20 gold kopeks.

On 5 May 1924 (erroneously given in the 1958 Soviet Catalog as June) special air-
mail stamps appeared, surcharged with values of 5, 10, 15 and 20 gold kopeks
(Sov. Cat. 158-61; Scott C6-9; Gibbons 374-77; Yvert Airs 14-17; Michel 267-70;
Zumstein 242-45) on the unissued set of 1923. The surcharged stamps were ori-
ginally used exclusively for the prepayment of the additional fee for trans-
mission by air, but from 6 Sept. 1926, they were allowed to be applied to all
classes of mail.

No. 2, From 1 Sept. 1924 to 31 Jan. 1926
By a decree of the Council of National Commissars of the USSR dated 21 Aug. 1924
(see "Bulletin of the National Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs", No. 33),
a couple of the previous rates were changed. The following tariffs were es-
tablished on 1 Sept. 1924:
a) Ordinary intercity letters 7 kopeks.
b) Registration fee 7 kopeks.

The new rate was naturally reflected in the values which appeared soon thereafter.
Thus, in November 1924 (erroneously given as September in the 1958 Soviet
Catalog), an issue of semi-postals appeared on sale at several larger cities in
the country "in aid of the people of Leningrad, suffering from the flood". The
set had the following values 3 + 10 kop.; 7 + 20 kop.; 12 + 40 kop.;
14 + 30 kop.; and 20 + 50 kop. (see Sov. Cat. 192-96; Scott B43-47; Gibbons 421-
25; Yvert 282-86; Michel 262-66; Zumstein 248-52). The first value consisted
of the postal rate (3, 7 and 14 kop. for internal mail and 12 and 14 kop. for
international mail) and the second part of the selling price was deducted for the
flood fund. The 12 + 40 kop. stamp was issued in the smallest quantity, since
it represented the rate for the least-used class of mail, namely the international
postcard.

In September 1924, the minimum rate for express (special delivery) sending was
lowered and was now made equal to 70 kopeks.


45 -







Airmail postal Pates were fixed on 1 May 1925. However, correspondence by air
was bow delivered not only to Germany, as before, but also to France and
England. Letters, wrappers and packets were also accepted addressed to all
parts of the world. Such mail was delivered by air to Berlin and forwarded from
there onwards by train and steamer. In conformity with these airmail rates,
two further categories of the supplementary fee for airmail were now included,
namely
a) To Germany (and thence to other countries) 30 kopeks.
b) To France and England 40 kopeks.

On 1 Oct. 1925, the following rates were fixed for international mail
a) Postcards 7 kopeks.
b) Ordinary letters 14 kopeks.
c) Registration fee 14 kopeks.

On that same day, a set of two stamps with values of 7 and 14 kop. appeared, com-
memorating the 30 anniversary of the invention of radio by A.S. Popov (Sov. Cat.
256-57, Scott 328-29; Gibbons 458-59; Yvert 338-39; Michel 300-01; Zumstein 282-
82). In the 1958 Soviet Catalog an incorrect occasion is given for the issue of
the set, namely the "20th anniversary of his death" (II). Inasmuch as the stamps
were designated for mail going abroad, the inscriptions were done for the first
time in the world in Esperanto, the international auxiliary language.

In 1926 and 1927, two further sets appeared devoted to Esperanto, and their values
were also 7 and 14 kopeks.

The international rates introduced on 1 Oct. 1925 lasted for a period of five
years. Stamps in the values of 7, 14 and 28 kopeks came out on several occasions
between 1926 and 1930, since they were intended for international correspondence.
It should be particularly noted that they were real visiting cards of our country.
It was not by chance therefore that both the 7-kopek stamps of the second and
third definitive issues (Sov. Cat. 344, 375; Soctt 388-418; Gibbons 518, 547;
Yvert 396, 428; Michel 343, 370; Zumstein 333, 364) were printed in bright red
color and that both 14-kopek stamps (Sov. Cat. 347, 377; Soctt 392, 4201 Gibbons
521, 5581, Yvert 398A, 436; Michel 346, 378; Zumstein 336, 370) appeared with the
portrait of V. I. Lenin. On the stamps of the 1927 set denoting the "10th anni-
versary of the October Revolution", the Smolnyi Institute, which was the head-
quarters of the revolution, was depicted on the 7-kop. stamp, a bright red map
of the USSR on the 14-kop. value, while portraits of a Russian worker with
Indian and Chinese laborers from Asian countries were shown on the 28-kop. stamp
(see Sov. Cat. 329, 331, 333; Scott 377, 379, 381; Gibbons 509, 511, 513;
Yvert 387, 389, 391; Michel 330, 332, 334; Zumstein 324, 326, 328). In the 1958
Soviet Catalog, the composition of the design on the last stamp was unfortunately
described incorrectly. It was also not by accident that on the 28 kop. stamp of
the 1929 set, a graph was given depicting a projection of the amount of pig iron
to be smelted in accordance with the first Five-Year Plan (see Sov. Cat. 369;
Scott 430; Gibbons 566; Yvert 447; Michel 382; Zumstein 374). TO BE CONCLUDED.

EDITORIAL COMMENTs
An examination of the above installment from Mr. Karlinskii's fine study raises
several points which we would like to consider here. First off, it is curious
to note, in the inflationary period covered above, the wide disparity between
internal and international rates. Thus, in October and November 1922, the rates
for international postcards were nine times those'for internal cards, and the
fees for international letters 7 ties those for intercity letters. Somewhat
similar disparities persisted until 5 July 1923, when a more equitable balance


46 -






S-I HM.
Fig. (above)





1 -u .. ... ,







Front and back of a registered nout-
QW S of-season" airmail cover, sent from
Moscow on 12 Dec. 1922 via Etigsber
^m yue lal rate of 425 rubles prepaid
nin 1922 money.
"r *I ..; "* JFig. 2 (at left):
Sj Registerad bacover from ha rekov 29th.




(ot lno" ef -
".4 T "Igsee cov
,/f^ f to Berlino, og i



THE ARTICI

s PATE B. V. A.I

., . ..4 4 .F i g / 2 .
,r ,,,.`1,:-*wL ", :. ,7 ft rn an .a.IC L f egsed ot





ILUSTILTIONS FOR THE AITICLE SOVIET POSTAL tRTES", BY V. A. KAIZMItSKI .

r m- -- ---f^..
4 ; ..-r-
41-



-~ t sent from Petrograd,
S24 Aug. 1923, to
-.-.,i : JBridgeport, Conn.,USA,
S. ... ., showing combined usagG
Sof USSR Agric. Ezhibn.
S- 2j set with SR stamps
\ *' C i **to make up correct
A* rate of 30 rubles.
10

- i.', r t'. p "C











;> x:.Fi 4 :

._, ,",,,.,,/,.,/. ', .... ,*._. ".,.-7 An unusual reg.
SBridgeport, Conn.
A parAtln u withal reg. m
A-z '-4j---y -U, -j~r' iralcvrs









and showing payment
S"--" at he 70-kop. rate,

\Flood semi-postal.
This covered air
transmission to

::z ,further carriage by
S" : "' ( air mart hae ooc_

S. ,.received in Bridgepor
--^ -B ,16 days later.


L. Jk







was restored. The probable reason was that for the transmission of mail abroad
at that time, the Soviet Postal Service may have been faced with an abnormal ex-
penditure of hard currency for international carriage fees, in accordance with
UPU regulations, while the paper money in circulation was also depreciating
steadily. We invite our readers with access to authoritative sources to comment
further on this point.

A second feature is the discovery of "out-of-season" airmail covers. From
Mr. Karlinskii's information, we know that the USSR-Germany airline was suspended
sometime during November 1922 for the duration of the winter. In any case,
Hon. Member Kurt Adler has brought to our attention a registered airmail cover
in his collection with typical "Mit Luftpost" cachet in violet of the period,
sent from Moscow 1st. Despatch Office (G.P.O.) on 12 Dec. 1922, handled in transit
at 8 a.m. on 19 Dec. at Kdnigsberg in East Prussia and received at Frankfurt-on-
Main two days later (see Fig. 1). A puzzling thing about the philatelic franking
of this cover is the unusual rate prepaid, amounting to 425 rubles, as against
an expected total of 575 rubles, made up of 500 r. for the registered letter in
accordance with the international rates introduced on 1 November, with an addi-
tional fee of 75 r. as laid down on 25 Oct. in the rate for airmail transmission.
Another registered airmail cover, this time with non-philatelic franking, has
been seen with the same "Mit Luftpost" cachet applied and sent from the Moscow
G.P.O. on 25 Dec. 1922 to Berlin, 2 Jan. 1923. The postage was paid with seven
copies of the 50-ruble Red Army man stamp in brown, representing a total charge
of 350 rubles 1922 money, which was 225 rubles less than the expected rate!
These disparities and inconsistencies would have been understandable if ori-
ginating from some remote rural office, but certainly not from Moscow G.P.O.
where the latest rates would have been known and enforced. Whatever the reason,
we now know that unscheduled "out-of-season" airmail flights took place during
December 1922, and we would like to have details from readers of other dates
and frankings for airmail covers during the suspended winter season.

The attention of Ukrainian enthusiasts is now drawn to the existence of com-
bination covers, showing the usage of Ukrainian Famine Relief and RSFSR stamps.
In Fig. 2, we illustrate a typical example from the Kurt Adler collection, with
the franking in Ukrainian stamps to the amount of 300 karbovantsiv (equal to
3 rubles 1923 currency) and the balance of 17 rubles in RSFSR issues to make up
the correct rate of 20 rubles for a registered letter from Kharkov, 29 Jun. 1923,
to Berlin-Charlottenburg, 6 Jul. 1923. Incidentally, this Famine Relief issue
is extremely interesting and we invite readers to send in all details of
further combination covers, data on the designers of the set, information on
varieties, plate markings in the sheet margins, "ZRAZOK" ("SPECIMEN") over-
prints, quantities printed etc., to our Ukrainian Editor, Mr. Yaroslav S. Terlecky,
Box 17028, Philadelphia, Pa. 19105. Such help will enable us to present a com-
prehensive article on this issue in a forthcoming number of the Journal.

Two more covers from the Kurt Adler collection are now shown. The former de-
monstrates the usage of the USSR Agricultural Exhibition set with RSFSR stamps
to make up the current rate of 30 rubles for a registered letter going abroad
during August 1923 (see Fig. 3). The latter cover, also registered, is an
early example of unusual airmail transmission to the U.S. Showing total pos-
tage to the value of 70 gold kopeks, including partial franking with two stamps
of the Leningrad Flood Relief set, it was obviously prepaid in accordance with
the airmail rates established on 1 May 1925. Among other things, these in-
cluded an additional fee of 30 kop. for airmail transmission to Germany, with
further despatch by train and/or steamer. In our case, the cover was mailed
at Leningrad on 1 Sept. 1925, left the city the next day and was received at


49 -







Bridgeport, Conn. on 17 Sept. It apparently went by air also beyond Germany,
with surface transmission limited to the Atlantic portion of the journey only.

There are obvious rare usages inherent in the data supplied by Mr. Karlinskii.
In particular, we refer to the international rates of 25 Oct. 1922, which were
only in effect fer five days Does anyone have examples of such frankings?

Perhaps our Latvian colleagues have examples of airmail covers sent to their
country and showing the application of the special additional fees for air
transmission noted above.

No doubt, our readers will also have details of other interesting items, includ-
ing irreconcilable and puzzling rates. The Editorial Board will welcome and
publish data sent in, since every detail, no matter how small, will help to fill
out the picture.


**** ***************


PEDDLERS WITH STOCK BOOKS
(Translated from FILATELIYA SSSR, No. 3 (1967), being an account of the raid on
the philatelic stores of the City of Moscow by the editors of FILATELIYA SSSR
Magazine who accompanied members of the Department of Public Safety.)

By A. Kosarev and F. Bogdanchikov
(Translated by Constantine P. Bulak)

We could start by making a suggestion: It would be most advisable that those
candidates for the vacant positions of manager of philatelic shops be selected
carefully. Such selection does not have to be as strict as nor any less lenient
than for a deep sea diver. The suggested requirements: 6' to 6'6" in height,
extra wide shoulders; strong muscles and a well-developed chest are a must.

We were forced to arrive at this conclusion immediately after visiting the
philatelic shop on Dzerzhinskii Street and having a chat with its manager,
Prokhor Prokhorovich Saveliev. We did not reach the store immediately. Actually,
a collector who understands stamps does not enter that place directly. His atten-
tion is first attracted by the approaches to this commercial establishment.
The approaches consist of sidewalks about 50 meters long leading to the nearest
porte-coch'ere (covered dorrway). This territory is an unregistered commercial
enterprise. We might say that business is conducted on a "communal basis".
The amateur salesmen (who are, frankly speaking, speculators) are hurriedly
selling their wares. With stock books waving in the air, they submerge
pedestrians in a cascade of exotic-sounding geographic names. And the ballyhoo
has its effect. Kids' eyes light up with a feverish glow and their hands in-
voluntarily grope for the dimes saved from their lunch and ice-cream allowances.
The children are good customers. One can sell to them at two or three times
their worth stamps purchased only half an hour before. Right in front of our
eyes, a stalwart fellow, behind raised collar, was thus mesmerizing two kids.
We do not know the result of the deal but we can guarantee that the speculator
did not lose! We saw him a little later at another store. Grinning, he was
leaving a delicatessen with a pint-size swelling in his pocket.



50 -








It must be admitted, albeit sadly, that such a happening is not a rare one.
Standing near a store, one may see a dozen such occurrences in a short space
of time. But why bother to stand! One cannot even get into a store without
first encountering these characters. As a rule, they are tall, well fed
and have no other occupation but such trade.

Enough about the approaches. Let us at last walk into the store. Lo and
behold! -- the same familiar faces with raised collars! But here they behave
more modestly. The geographic names are whispered; stock books are displayed
under their coats while their eyes furtively watch the manager's door. All
this is not for naught. An old antagonism exists between Prokhor Prokhorovich
Saveliev and the coveters of easy gain. They do not seem to be able to find a
common language. After all, the relationship is customarily limited to his
throwing them outt And for a man who is no longer young nor up to par physically,
this occupation, quite frankly, is not an easy one.

When we entered, he was reclining in his chair -- done in. He was tired not
from his work, to which he has given more than 20 years of his life, but from
his affrays with the peddlers who are usually more active on Saturdays. Most of
his working hours are spent at this running battle. It is a shame because he is
a very experienced man. How much benefit he could bring to collectors in those
many hours he is thus wasting.

On the philatelic scene, the stores on Dzerzhinskii Street are no exception.
While it is true that the approaches to Store No. 2 of "SOYUZPECHAT" are
different, from the point of view of the speculators they are very unsatisfactory.
There are no covered gateways in the area to allow easy hawking. Necessity
forces the peddlers to be more impudent and insolent in this area. Here the
store manager is not a man but a woman, Vera Mikhailovna Tur. The muscular
approach sometimes forced upon Prokhor Prokhorovich Saveliev is no occupation
for a woman. And her helper, Samuil L'vovich Ser, is of little help in this
respect. "I am just as tiny as the rest of my family," says Samuil L'vovich
about his physical prowess.

So, it is easily understood that the only way he can handle the speculators is
by using his vocal chords. The results of this are not always impressive.
The store on the Kotelnich Embankment is divided into sectors. This subdivision
may readily be seen if one looks from above from the glassed-in gallery. The
state sector operates by vending from a counter. The private sector is by the
window at the corner.

I think that it is time for us to name a few of the representatives of these
private enterprises. Boris Borisovich Dementiev is a very correct man in his
factory. He is always spoken of very respectfully, being the shop foreman. But
his subordinates are not aware of this side of his life: The shop foreman is a
stamp vendors The police caught him once at this "beloved" business. He was
arrested. The Bauman District Peoples' Judge fined him 10 rubles for petty
speculation.

The Chief Engineer of an important Moscow company, Georgii Nikolaevich Kalin,
belongs to the same crow. For having been caught selling stamps in the main
post office, he was fined 40 rubles.

This private commerce at times is accompanied by tragedy. Three men --
Bushuev, Yershin and Yegorov -- under the pretext of buying stamps from citizen
Ulanovskii, lured him into the yard by Store No. 63. There they took from him
an album of stamps and also 35 rubles.


51 -








Valerii Vasilevich Demin is a very well known police character at the 46th
Precinct. He has been held many times for petty hooliganism. Lately, a new
occupation of his was discovered. He was arrested for speculation in stamps,
being drunk at the same time

We could continue this roster of biographies of Moscow's stamp peddlers.
Instead we will talk of something else. Each deal is a transaction entered
into by two parties vendor and buyer. Let's talk of the buyers. They are
also important and colorful figures. Without them there would be no specu-
lators! We have spoken of the school kids, but if the circle of buyers was
limited to them, then the police, with the aid of the Communist Youth
organizations, could easily cope with this evil. However, the most susceptible
victims of these private speculators are not solely the kids. Rather, they are
a much more varied group of people.

Our police officers are rarely embarrassed and never while working Neverthe-
less, Captain Nikolai Arsenievich Lyubimov was embarrassed and while on duty
On that day, he was ordered to watch Store No. 2 of "SOYUZPECHAT" on Kotelnich
Embankment. He felt badly having to direct people of high rank and position
while explaining to them that to sell stamps in this surreptitious manner is
just as serious as eating sunflower seeds and throwing the shells into the city
streets! Strange as it may seem, his listeners displayed a sullen misunderstand-
ing of this simple truth, resulting in their being dragged to the police station!

Summing up the results of this raid, one might say that so many were arrested,
so many fined. But let's not be satisfied with such statistics. It is not
that so many speculators were arrested that is significant. What is important
is that this raid has shown once again that despite the fact that philately
nowadays is legitimate business, the struggle concerning the speculators is not
only the concern of the police department but of the philatelic community as well.

*****************


FRAUDULENT SOVIET VARIETIES

A Warning from the Editorial Board

In No. 66, 1964 of our Journal under the title of "Imperforate?", Hon. Member
Oleg Faberge of Helsinki produced on pp. 12-15 conclusive proof of the manu-
facture of bogus varieties in Imperial stamps. The procedure consisted of
taking partly perforated stamps and turning them into imperforates by cutting
off the existing perforations.

The same approach has also been applied to Soviet stamps, many of which are line-
perforated and found relatively frequently with "fantail" margins (i.e. the side
of the stamp facing the sheet margin has been missed by the perforating machine).
The trimming of such stamps makes them indistinguishable from imperforate copies
coming from the margins of the sheets.

We illustrate herewith typical examples of such "varieties", which have been
picked up in the New York City area. They have been made from the following
stamps,
a) 4 kop. value of the "26 Commissars" set of 1933, originally with
fantail margin at top.


52 -








b) 5 kop. ditto.
c) 20 kop. value of the 1935 Tolstoi set, originally with fantail
margin at right.
d) 2 kop, value of the 1936 Pioneers set, originally with fantail
margin at top.
e) 5 kop. ditto.
f) 60 kop. stamp of the 1940 Sports set, originally with fantail
margin at right.
g) 60 kop. value of the 1943 Gorkii set, originally with fantail
margin at bottom.
h) 60 kop. stamp of the 1947 Metro set, originally with fantail
margin at top.
i) 40 kop. Radishchev commem, of 1952, originally with fantail
margin at right.

Please note that none of these stamps has ever been reported or found in im-
perforate state. Philatelists in the USSR have always regarded marginal im-
perforate varieties with great suspicion because of the possibility of trimming.
In fact, they are even wary of imperforate pairs, since such items could have
conceivably been made from pairs of the same stamps, originally imperforate
between. Mr. Faberge has effectively demonstrated how this has been done with
Imperial issues.

Many genuine Soviet imperforates are very scarce and there is always the risk
that partly perforated stamps of the same issues have been "improved" to produce
the rare varieties. For our part, we thoroughly deplore such practices as
examples of philatelic vandalism, destroying what were interesting errors in the
first place.

//vs Zi rratons or ar-cl/e Fravduci Qnr Soviet
"V ari tie s












(Wc) (M) 5.C) (dJ C Ti )







53 -


53 -







BISECTS OF FISCAL STAMPS IN ST. PETERSBURG

By 0. A. Faberge'

Translated at El Paso by C. P. Bulak 18 April 1968


It is probable that not all collectors of the fiscal stamps of the Russian
Empire are aware that at the end of the past century in St. Petersburg these
stamps were cut in half--even in thirds--and used. Such bisects are very
interesting objects for specialists since it may be possible to establish de-
finitely that such stamps were actually used. This may be verified not only
by cancelled stamps on piece, but also by complete preserved documents bearing
such bisected stamps. The author knows of bisects of the following stamps:

1) St. Petersburg City Police
2) St. Petersburg City Council
3) St. Petersburg City Executive Hall
4) St. Petersburg City Suburban Police
5) St. Petersburg City Suburbs

The author has not seen the corresponding used stamps of the Moscow City Police.
Most of the above-mentioned stamps were used in all precincts of all wards of
the City of St. Petersburg; some in the suburbs. They were used not only on
passports, but also affixed to all kinds of certificates and other legal papers.
Many were used; thus, they are not rare. Due to this, each precinct needed a
large stock of such stamps which was replenished according to need.

It would not have been unusual, and probably happened at times, that a certain
denomination was suddenly exhausted; perhaps, for instance, as the result of a
large influx of visitors to the capital. We still do not know how and by what
means the new reserves of stamps were delivered to the different precincts of
the city. However, it is quite probable that such orders and deliveries were
quite regular. Knowing well the precise orders and instructions that existed
in the bureaucratic process then, such an assumption may be quite justified.

In any event, the fact remains that the halves of the stamps were used.
Customarily, the denominations were of 15, 25 or 30 kop., and we know of other
cases when bisects of the stamps were used to make up another total.

The author knows of some of the plain bisects or compound combinations, as
follows:
Plains 5 k. = of 10 k.
10 k. = of 20 k.
10 k. = of 20 k.
15 k. = of 30 k.
20 k. = of 40 k.

Compound 3 k. = 2 k. + k of 2 k.
15 k. = 7 x 2 k. + 2 of 2 k.
15 k. = 10 k. + k of 10 k.
15 k. = 5 k. + I of 20 k.
15 k. = 3 k. + 2 k. + 1 of 20 k.
15 k. = 3 k. + 2 x 1 k. + 2 of 20 k.
15 k. = 2 x 2 k. + 1 k. + of 20 k.
15 k. = 5 x 1 k. + of 20 k.
15 k. = of 10 k. + of 20 k.

5-











See Article "Bisects of Fiscal Stamps in St. Petersburg"

By 0. A. Faberge











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Compound:
(Cont'd.) 20 k. = 15 k. + 2 of 10 k.
20 k. = 5 k. + of 30 k.
25 k. = 2 x10 k. + X of 10 k.
25 k. = 20 k. + 2'of 10 k.
25 k. = 15 k. + of 20 k.
25 k. = 10 k. + of 30 k.
25 k. = 2 1 5 k. + 2 of 30 k.
25 k. = 3 x 3 k. + 1 k. + of 30 k.
25 k. = 5 k. + i of 40 k.
25 k. = 3 k. + 2 k. + I of 40 k.
25 k. = 3 k. + 2 x 1 k. + of 40 k.
25 k. = 2 x 2 k. + 1 k. + I of 40 k.
25 k. = 5 x 1 k. + I of 40 k.
30 k. = 25 k. + 1 of 10 k.
30 k. = 20 k. + of 20 k.
30 k. = 15 k. + 3 k. + 2 k. + 2 of 20 k.
30 k. = 15 k. + 3 k. + 2 x 1 k. + I of 20 k.
30 k. = 15 k. + 5 x 1 k. + 1 of 20 k.
30 k. = 3 x 5 k. + of 30 k.
30 k. = 5 x 3 k. + of 30 k.
30 k. = 10 k. + I of 40 k.
30 k. = 2 x 5 k. + f of 40 k.
30 k. = 3 x 3 k. + 1 k. + i of 40 k.
30 k. = 5 x 3 k. + 2 x 2 k. + i of 2 k. + of 20 k.
40 k. = 25 k. + 10 k. + F of 10 k.
40 k. = 30 k. + of 20 k.
40 k. = 25 k. + of 30 k.
40 k. = 15 k. + 2 x 5 k. + 2 of 30 k.

Judging by the material extant with which the author is acquainted, the stamps
usually were cut very carefully, either vertically or horizontally, or dia-
gonally in either direction. I have found bisects of each of the 8 possibilities.
Notwithstanding this, most of the diagonal bisects (four possible) are not as
rare as the horizontal ones. And the vertical bisects are the rarest.

The 30 kop. SUBURB OF ST. PETERSBURG is also found cut in an irregular way --
in the form of the Latin letter "L". The corresponding part is also extant.
One also encounters bisects cut half-diagonally; however, these are rare ex-
ceptions to the usual system of cutting.

When the two halves of different denominations are pasted carefully side by side
appearing as a whole, single stamp, such a combination, especially when the de-
nominations are of different color, is exceptionally beautiful.

It is strange but the author has never seen bisects of the stamps perforated
13t, nor of the perf. 11-. It is possible that, concerning the issuance of the
stamps with these perforations, there could have been a new official circular
forbidding the use of the bisects and ordering the clerks to replenish their
stocks in due time.

All the above are personal suppositions of the author who has no access to
the archives -- but in what other way may we explain this limited period when
these very interesting bisects were used?



56 -








Who can say, maybe someone consulting the archives may be able to dig out the
answers to these questions, but in all probability it will not be done on
our side of the border.

Meanwhile, it is possible to state only that the use of the bisects of the
fiscal stamps presents an exceptionally interesting branch for all those
collectors who seriously collect and study the fiscal issues of the Russian
Empire.





THE MOSCOW-VOLGA CANAL ANNIVERSARY ISSUE OF 1947

By Kurt Adler

An enquiry by Dr. Robert F. Minkus of Wilmington, Delaware about a hitherto un-
recorded variety of the above set resulted in some research of the whole
commemorative set. And the result proved that not only was Dr. Minkus right in
discovering a brand new variety of a Soveit stamp but that the whole set, like
many others of the same period, was issued at two different times, the second
probably following the first by only a short interval. Before we discuss the
differences between the two printings, it might not be amiss to say a few words
about the importance of the Moscow-Volga Canal itself.

Completed in 1937, the canal, which is now officially called the "Canal named
after Moscow", is a most important link in the USSR's net of connecting waterways.
It connects the capital with practically every sea and ocean in the whole world.
By the Volga-Baltic waterway, Moscow is linked with Leningrad and the outlet via
the Baltic Sea to the West; through the White Sea-Baltic Canal, Murmansk and all
of the Arctic to the north and east lie open. In the south, the Caspian Sea with
the Baku oilfields is the natural transport route for fuel. The Volga-Don Canal,
featured on a commemorative set of 1953 (Sov. Cat. 1760-1765; Scott 1666-71l
Gibbons 1801-06; Yvert 1652-571 Michel 1669-741 Zumstein 1661-66) opens up Rostov
and the Black Sea, connects through the Dardaneeles with the Mediterranean and
the Atlantic Ocean and forms the last link in a global net of waterways. All
industrial and agricultural products can thus be shipped to and from Moscow. The
Moscow-Volga Canal also serves as a favorite vacation route for many thousands of
Muscovites and foreign tourists who can thus enjoy some of the most appealing
sights on the Volga river all the way down to Astrakhan. Moscow thus becomes an
important port of the Soviet Union.

Just a few data about the Moscow-Volga Canal. It is one and a half times as long
as the Panama Canal and carriet 400,000 passengers during the first three months
after completion. Its width of 85 metres (about 100 yards) allows all kinds of
passenger vessels to pass along it at full speed. There are eleven locks al-
together on the canal. The main port, just north of Moscow's city limits, is
Khimki, with a beautiful port building close to a main highway and set in a
beautifully landscaped park. The date of issue of the set, September 1947,
celebrates not only the tenth anniversary of the Canal's completion, but also
coincides with the 800th. anniversary of the founding of Moscow. It may be sur-
mised that the first printing had to be ready by that date and that therefore a
second printing had to be done a short time afterwards, improving some stamps

57 -









by defining more sharply the details of the first printing. The set was
designed by the veteran Russian artist V. V. Zav'yalov and is printed by photo-
gravure on unwatermarked paper, line-perforated 12+. The catalog numbers are
Sov. Cat. 1192-97; Scott 1147-1152; Gibbons 1270-751 Yvert 1144-49; Michel 1131-36;
Zumstein 1122-27. Let us now look at each value in turns

30 kop. (Karamyshev Dam):
a. First Printings sepia on light grey-brown tinted paper. Bush in
foreground full. Tip of flag clearly visible. Yellowish gum. Please see Fig.
1 a.
b. Second Printings sepia on white paper. Bush in foreground
tattered. Tip of flag unclear. Details defined more sharply. White gum. Please
see Fig. 1 b.

This is the variety discovered by Dr. Minkus. We do not know why the second
printing shows a tattered bush. Perhaps this was redrawn for reasons of realism.
Our philatelic colleagues in Moscow can undoubtedly shed light on this question
and we would be glad to hear from them.

30 kop. (Towers of the Yakhrom Locks)s
a. First Printing: brown-violet on light brown-violet tinted paper.
Two fine white poles in background clearly visible. Yellowish gam.
b. Second Printings brown on white paper. Details, such as grass
around figure "30" defined more clearly. The two fine poles in background on
right are now invisible. White gum.

45 kop. (Hakhrom Pumping Station):
a. First Printing: orange red-brown with yellowish gum.
b. Second Printing: red-brown with white gum.

The color and gum are the only ways of distinguishing between the first and second
printings. The Soviet catalog lists a variety on thick paper. I have a variety
with a second horizontal perforation through the middle.

50 kop. (Khimki Station):
There seems to have been only one printing plate as no varieties are discernible.
The color is vivid blue or ultramarine. It appears that the gum is the only way
to separate the printings.

60 kop. (Map of the Canal):
a. First Printing: rose. Contours of water reservoirs badly defined.
Yellowish gum. Please see Fig. 2 a.
b. Second Printing: vivid rose. Contours of water reservoirs clearly
defined. White gum. Please see Fig. 2 b.

I also have a variety with second horizontal perforation through lower half of
stamp.

1 rub. (Lock No. 8):
The color and the gum are the only ways of distinguishing between the first and
second printings. First printing dark violet, second printing violet.

Members are requested to write to us about other possible varieties of this colorful
and interesting set.

58 -






"The Iv oscovi-Volg Canal AnniversQr
issue of 1947" by kurt Adler. Ja --> -T (3 y











Fi. Fig. Ib. Fig.2a. Fiq.2b.














""/ ',o ,.v

















" 0.. .................................................................
E dI- tor59 I










WANT ED Ottoman T urki sh and Offices in Turkey material;
Balkan Wars, and Aegean Island material; used only. Stamps, :
covers, locals, samples, etc.

Gordon Torrey, Ph.D. 5118 Dural Drive Washington, D. C. 20016
9 -........








SOME SOVIET VARIETIES

By The Editorial Board

The aim of this article is to describe unusual varieties for the record and thus
help members to make their collections more interesting. The items now being
referred to are as follows:

a. The 5-ruble value of 1922, from the set commorating the fifth
anniversary of the Revolution, showing a pronounced shift of the ochre background
(see Fig. 1).

b. The 40 kop. come. issued on 25 March 1958 in honor of V.F. Rudnev,
captain of the legendary cruiser "Varyag", shows a constant plate variety on the
second last stamp of the first row. A color flaw on the third last letter of his
name has resulted in changing the Russian spelling from RUDNEV TO REDCHEV (see
Fig. 2). This was apparently noticed later on in the printing and the flaw
retouched to correct the spelling. The traces of such correction are quite evident,
as can be seen in Fig. 3. Both varieties are from the Kurt Adler collection.

c. A spelling error is also known on the 60-kop. value of the set
issued on 12 August 1958 for the tenth congress of the International Astronomic
Union, which was held in Moscow. Please see Fig. 4 herewith for a position block
of eight, in which stamp No. 62 on the sheet has the initials "UAU" at top right,
instead of "UAJ". This was apparently never corrected.

The "Js" in the initials at the tops of the normal stamps are really "Is", thus
following European practice. The initials "JAU" at top left are those for the
English version (International Astronomic Union) and are "UAJ" at top right for
the French equivalent (Union Astronomique Internationale).

Many other fine varieties exist in the fields of Imperial and Soviet philately
and we invite cooperation from our readers so that they may be described for the
benefit of all.

*******************


THE RUSSIAN POSTS IN RUMANIA

By D. N. Minchev

(Continued from Rossica No. 72, p. 38).
THE SECOND PERIOD (1828 to the Crimean War).
The Russian postal service did not interrupt its activities during the period of
the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29 in the two Rumanian principalities. However,
it only served the needs of the army. Among the postal history items perserved
from this time, there is material of this kind with the marking of the Russian
post office at Focqani. The letters known so far from this war all came from
officers.

The signature of the Treat of Adrianople in 1829 laid the foundation for a new
stage in the activities of the Russian Posts in the above-mentioned Danubian


60-








SOME SOVIET VARIETIES

By The Editorial Board

The aim of this article is to describe unusual varieties for the record and thus
help members to make their collections more interesting. The items now being
referred to are as follows:

a. The 5-ruble value of 1922, from the set commorating the fifth
anniversary of the Revolution, showing a pronounced shift of the ochre background
(see Fig. 1).

b. The 40 kop. come. issued on 25 March 1958 in honor of V.F. Rudnev,
captain of the legendary cruiser "Varyag", shows a constant plate variety on the
second last stamp of the first row. A color flaw on the third last letter of his
name has resulted in changing the Russian spelling from RUDNEV TO REDCHEV (see
Fig. 2). This was apparently noticed later on in the printing and the flaw
retouched to correct the spelling. The traces of such correction are quite evident,
as can be seen in Fig. 3. Both varieties are from the Kurt Adler collection.

c. A spelling error is also known on the 60-kop. value of the set
issued on 12 August 1958 for the tenth congress of the International Astronomic
Union, which was held in Moscow. Please see Fig. 4 herewith for a position block
of eight, in which stamp No. 62 on the sheet has the initials "UAU" at top right,
instead of "UAJ". This was apparently never corrected.

The "Js" in the initials at the tops of the normal stamps are really "Is", thus
following European practice. The initials "JAU" at top left are those for the
English version (International Astronomic Union) and are "UAJ" at top right for
the French equivalent (Union Astronomique Internationale).

Many other fine varieties exist in the fields of Imperial and Soviet philately
and we invite cooperation from our readers so that they may be described for the
benefit of all.

*******************


THE RUSSIAN POSTS IN RUMANIA

By D. N. Minchev

(Continued from Rossica No. 72, p. 38).
THE SECOND PERIOD (1828 to the Crimean War).
The Russian postal service did not interrupt its activities during the period of
the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29 in the two Rumanian principalities. However,
it only served the needs of the army. Among the postal history items perserved
from this time, there is material of this kind with the marking of the Russian
post office at Focqani. The letters known so far from this war all came from
officers.

The signature of the Treat of Adrianople in 1829 laid the foundation for a new
stage in the activities of the Russian Posts in the above-mentioned Danubian


60-







principalities. These states remained under Russian administration for five years,
in accordance with the treaty, so as to ensure the fulfillment of its stipulations
by the Sublime Porte (the Imperial Turkish Government). General Pavel Kiselev was
appointed Governor of Moldavia and Wallachia. He improved the administrative
procedures then existing in the principalities and introduced new measures in
running the two countries. General Kiselev took especial care in reconstituting
the national postal services of Moldavia and Wallachia. At the same time, the
work of the Russian Posts, which was revived and reorganized after a short lull
because of the war, took a new step forward.

By an edict dated 23 December 1843, the establishment of a Russian post office
was confirmed at Galatz, an important communications centre by land and by water
along the Danube and the Black Sea.

In 1848, the post offices also began to accept valuable sending for transmission.
During this same period of time, the Russian Post also organized a link with the
distant city of Craiova in Wallachia Minor, where its couriers were sent with
letters. However, material proof of such a service has not been found so far.
We note this fact for the information of readers. The Russian couriers paid
the local Wallachian post office for their journey at the rate of 12 bani per
horse per hour.

New postal rates came into force on 17 December 1831; letters from Jassy to
Bucharest or reverse were charged at the rate of 30 paras per lot (- oz.).
During 1843, the staff employed by the Russian Postal Service consisted of the
following personnel at Giurgiu (Gyurgevo) two persons, i.e. the postmaster and
one postillion; at Bucharest, ten people; and at Galatz and Jassy, nine persons
each.

In 1848, a new route began to be utilized, in addition to the regular way from
Rustchuk (Ruse) via Giurgiu (Gyurgevo), Bucharest and Jassy to Skulyany. Taking
advantage of the more-or-less peaceful situation, the couriers were also going
through the Dobrudja. This route from Constantinople went via Shumen to Varna
and from there onwards by way of Khadzhioglu Pazardzhik (also called Dobrich and
now known as the city of Tolbukhin), Mangalia, Constanta, Babadag to cross the
Danube at Macin and arriving at Galats. They then went by way of BArlad, Jassy
and Skulyany on to St. Petersburg.

The Russian post office at Bucharest was to be found in a building where the
Russian church is situated nowadays. Shortly before that, the office was housed
in a dwelling on Vesta St., which is now known as Ion Ghica Street.

We also have testimony to the lively activity of the Russian postal service in
Moldavia and Wallachia as witnessed by the various kinds of markings set up in
type form. Several styles of two-line markings with the name of the office and
the date, showing day, month and year, were already in use at Bucharest, Galats
and Jassy. For these three cities, we also have other two-line types which bore
in addition the words "received" or despatchedd", either abbreviated or in full.
It appears that the date figures were moveable and set by hand. There is
another marking known for Jassy, which is encountered more rarely. This is a
two-circle type, in the upper portion of which the name of the city is to be
found, with ornaments at the bottom and in the centre the date given in two
lines (month and day). This was in use from 1850 onwards. Since Jassy had
such a marking, we could assume that the other two offices in towns the size of


61 -







Bucharest, the Wallachian capital, and Galats, were supplied with similar post-
marks, but these have not been found so far. The Russian post office at Jassy
was also supplied with a special marking designated for the sealing of valuable
sending by wax. The same style of marking, but slightly changed, was a
single-circle type with a diameter of 28 =m., showing the official arms of the
double-headed eagle with outspread wings in the centre, and surrounded by an
inscription reading "bukharestskoi zagranichnoi poch. knnt." ("of the Bucharest
post office abroad") was in use at Bucharest and possible also at Galatz. These
types of markings are found struck in black with the possible application of
soot, on receipts for registered letters or sending which had been handed in.
A two-line marking in French is also known for Bucharest, inscribed "RU", with
date but without year. Later on, at the end of this period, the Russian post
office at Galatz also utilized an interesting "mute" marking, made up of a
lozenge of dots.

During this same period of time and probably even before, a special quarantine
service existed at the Russian post office in Bucharest. Its purpose was to
disinfect correspondence coming from other countries where serious epidemic
diseases were raging, such as the plague, cholera etc. Such letters are found
with markings, e.g., from Bucharest, of the seal designated for wax impressions.
A similar impression in red wax is known on a letter dating from the spring
of 1838.

Regular postal communications between Russia and Turkey continued to be on a
once-monthly basis during this period. In 1852, they again went on a twice-
monthly basis. The Russian courier left Bucharest every week for Jassy and
proceeded to St. Petersburg.

THE THIRD PERIOD (1857-1868)
After the temporary interruption of the work of the Russian Posts in the two
principalities because of the Crimean War (1853-56), it was revived again during
1857. The change of frontiers between Russia and Moldavia necessitated the
opening of new post offices, in addition to the existing ones. Together with
Skulyany, Karpinieni now also became a Russian border post office. The Russian
post offices in Southern Bessarabia, which was now under Rumanian rule, con-
tinued their activities at Bolgrad, Kagul (Cahul), Izmail (Ismail), Kiliya
(Chilia), Leovo, Reni and Tatar Bunar. It appears that the post office at
Leovo, near the Pruth river, was in close official touch with Karpinieni,
because of its proximity to the latter. During 1859, a postal official was
requested from Galatz to heop out at Izmail, since quite a large volume of mail
was arriving there. These offices only had "abroad" status for the period
from 1857 to 1878.

In 1868, the activities of the consular postal service at Galatz were terminated
in accordance with an agreement which had been reached. However, another post
office was opened in the city and attached to the branch of ROPiT, the Russian
Company for Navigation and Trade.

In 1860, new types of markings were introduced at the Russian post offices of
Bucharest, Galatz and Jassy, which had already been redesignated as "Postal
Despatch Offices Abroad". These postmarks were single-circle types, with the
name of the town in the upper portion, a small ornament at bottom and in the
centre the date given in full as day, month and year in three lines. The post
office at Bolgrad also used a marking of this type. The post offices at Izmail,
Kagul, Kiliya, Leovo and Reni used two-line or single-circle postmarks, the
latter being of the type introduced in 1860. Two types of markings are known


62 -








for the post office at Tatar Bunar: (a) a rectangular arrangement of dots with
the number "226" in the centre and, (b) a single-circle marking of the 1860 type.

The ink utilized for postmarks during the entire period of activity of the
Russian posts in the two Danubian principalities was normally black. However,
markings have also been encountered in red and blue. During this time, the
postal rates were paid for in advance by the senders in cash and no stamps
applied, although they were already in circulation elsewhere. Russian postage
stamps were not used in the principalities, except during the 1877-79 period.

Beginning with April 1858, the rates for letters were as follows: (a) 12- kopeks
from Constantinople to Jassy and, (b) 11 kopeks from Constantinople to Bucharest
or Galatz. During this period, the regular postal communications were normally
carried out twice monthly. From 1864 to the end of 1867, the Russian consular
post offices suspended their activities and also terminated their close
collaboration with the Rumanian national postal service until a convention was
signed between Russia and Rumania on 25 November 1867,

THE FOURTH PERIOD (1877-79)
With the declaration at Kishinev on 12/24 April 1877 of the Russo-Turkish War, a
new page was begun in the annals of the Russian posts on Rumanian soil.

As early as 4 Nov. 1876, a new code of regulations was sanctioned under edict
No. 326 for the work of the field post. With the declaration of war, the central
administration of this army postal service was already situated at the GHQ in
Kishinev and was at its disposal. Work began immediately. The volume was so
great that it was barely handled by the staff on hand.

The Russian GHQ was moved from Kishinev to the Rumanian city of Ploefti, as the
army passed through into Rumania. The central administration of the field post
was also established in this same city.

As a consequence of negotiated agreements, a special convention was concluded on
4/16 April 1877 between Rumania and Russia, regulating the movements and presence
of the Russian armies on Rumanian territory. With a second special agreement
signed at the same time, conditions were settled for the practical application of
article No. 3 of the first convention. In article No. 1 of this second document,
the Rumanian Government granted to the Russians the right of working together
with the postal and telegraphic services then existing on Rumanian soil. In
article No. 17, special mention was made of these services, in connection with
their cooperation with the Russians. In yet another article, there was a re-
ference to the establishment in Rumania of some Russian staging centres in
connection with army movements. The field post services of the Russians operated
at these centres.

A month later, a convention under No. 6197 was signed in Bucharest on 2/14 May
1877. Russian field post offices were established on Rumanian soil on the basis
of this convention. Please see Rossica No. 64, pp. 13-14 for the text of this
agreement and the rest of my article therein regarding the activities of C, Pilat,
the Director-in-Chief of the Rumanian Posts, Schb'nberg, the secretary to the
Russian Administration of Posts and Telegraphs, and V. Misir, the prefect of
Braila in Rumania.

On the morning of 15/27 June 1877, the Russians forced the Danube, passing from
Zimnicea to the Bulgarian bank near Svishtov (Sistov). They gradually established
field post offices in each liberated locality. The Russian post offices at


63 -








Zimnicea and Svishtov began to function fully on 17 November 1877. The trans-
mission of mail to Russia was effected by the Russian offices in Rumania, with
the broad assistance of the Rumanian national postal service.

With the passage of the Russian armies to Bulgaria, the need arose for the
establishment of new postal routes. In connection with this and in accordance
with Order No. 206 of 16 December 1877, given by Lt. General Nepokoichitskii,
Chief of the Army General Staff, four postal routes were established, of which
the fourth was the route from Svishtov in Bulgaria and via Zimnicea and the
village of Bragadiru across Rumania towards the Rumano-Russian frontier. On
15 February 1878, the field post offices at Zimnicea and Svishtov were trans-
ferred to Giurgiu (Gyurgevo) and Ruse (Rustchuk) respectively. With this change,
the Svishtov-Zimnicea-Bragadiru service terminated its work from that date.
From then onwards, the most important Russian post communications between Bulgaria
and Rumania were via the cities of Ruse and Giurgiu.

The purpose of the Russian field post service, both in liberated Bulgarian
territory and in Rumania was naturally set up originally to serve the needs of
the army only. However, it also began to cater to the public of both Danubian
countries after only a short time. Letters were accepted for transmission from
Bulgaria to Rumania and from there onwards to destinations abroad, as well as in
the opposite direction.

Moreover, by an army order under No. 106 and dated 14 May 1877 issued by the GHQ
at Ploe;ti, instructions were given for the correct addressing of letters
destined for soldiers at the front. Mail had to be sent via the "border post
office at Ungeni", which direction had to be notified explicitly on the letters.

The Russian field post service had two types of offices main or central
offices called "Polevaya Pochtovaya Kontora" ("field post office") and branch
offices of the former, which were designated as "Polevoe pochtovoe otdelenie"
("field post section"). Each main office had its own specific number designated
between brackets at the bottom part of the postmarks, i.e. as (1), (3) etc.
In its turn, the section office also had a number allocated to it, which was
placed on both sides of the office number to which it was attached, i.e. 1(1)1,
3(5)3, etc.

Military mail was free of charge. Normally, a marking inscribed "BEZPL." (an
abbreviation for "free letter") and enclosed in a rectangular frame with shaven
corners was applied. This marking, struck in red ink, is encountered on
correspondence sent from Rumania.

The Russian field post service utilized the following types of postmarkss
a. A double-circle marking inscribed "POLEVAYA POCHT. KONTORA"
within the circles, with date in three lines in the centre (day, month and year,
in that order) and at bottom, again within the circles, the designated number of
the relevant office, given within brackets as (1), (2), (3) etc. Postmarks of
Main Post Office No. 1 are the only ones that have been found so far, but the
others should theoretically exist.

b. As above, but with inscription "POLEVOE POCHT. OTDELENIE", same
date arrangement, with relevant section office number given at bottom on both
sides of the number of the office to which it was attached, i.e.l(1)l, 3(2)3,


-64 -








4(2)4 etc. Once again, we stress that so far, section offices have only been
found attached to Main Post Office No. 1, but section offices dependent on
other main offices should theoretically exist.

c. Postmark as for "b", but with inscription abbreviated to "POLEV.
POCHT. OTDELENIE".

Special cachets with sunken inscriptions were utilized for the sealing of
valuable sending and were intended for impressions upon wax. All offices and
sections were supplied with such seal markings.

Letters sent by private persons to Russia, Bulgaria or other European countries
were franked with Russian stamps. Where these were not available, the fee was
paid in advance by the sender in cash. Some of the letters addressed to other
countries were also franked with Roumanian stamps, in spite of the fact that
they were mailed at Russian field post offices, and they were cancelled with
the postmarkers on hand there. Some such covers are held in several large
collections. The ink used was normally black and only the "BEZPL." marking is
found in red.

It is difficult to specify exactly which post offices and sections operated in
Rumania. So far, section numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11 & 14 of Main Office No, 1
are known to have existed there. There are cases known, such as that of section
No. 11 of Main Office No. 1, which existed in Rumania until about the end of
1877, while we encounter it in Bulgaria during 1878, somewhere in the T'rnovo-
Gabrovo area.

During the entire duration of the war, there were very close connections be-
tween the Russian and Rumanian postal services, both on Roumanian territory, as
well as in Bulgaria, where Rumanian field post offices were also established.

With the withdrawal of the Russian army from Bulgaria in accordance with the
Treaty of Berlin, around the middle of 1879, the Russian field post service
terminated its approximately two-year old period of activities on Rumanian
territory.

THE FIFTH PERIOD (1879-1910)
On the basis of the Treaty of Berlin, the northern part of the Dobrudja passed
under Rumanian administration and the southern part of Bessarabia was returned
to Russia.

In the Dobrudja, the ROPiT continued to maintain a post office at its agency in
Tulcea. It existed until about 1883. Letters franked with Russian Levant
stamps and bearing the ROPiT postmark for Tulcea are of great philatelic interest.

The possibility should not be excluded that the ROPiT had set up postal agencies
at Sulina and Constanta and that they had been opened even before 1877-78.
However, philatelic material confirming their existence has not yet been found.
The ROPiT post offices in these three ports of the Dobrudja terminated their
activities as a result of the closing of its shipping agencies by the same
company.

There was another Russian navigation company, called the "Black Sea-Danube
Steamship Co.", which gradually took the place of ROPiT during this time. It


65 -








maintained services along the Danube all the way up to Belgrade and along the
Black Sea to Odessa. Mail in the form of letters and postcards, which was
posted aboard its ships where letter boxes were installed, was cancelled with
markings carrying the name of the relevant vessel. Mail arriving at Galats
aboard ship, or handed over to the agency of the company at Galatz, was can-
celled with a special four-line date stamp. The above-named markings are
found on letters and postcards showing dates between 1890 and 1910. They are
sought after by specialists.

In conclusion, it should be stressed that correspondence, in the form of
letters, cards etc. and bearing postmarks of the Russian post offices in Moldavia
and Wallachia, are of deservedly great interest from the postal history view-
point.

BIBLIOGRAPHY (Only the most important references are listed)s
a. BIRNBACH, H & Bs "Moldavia-Wallachia-the foreign and internal posts up to
1875". Published in 1930 in German.
b. COHEN, Es "The Imperial Russian Posts...", in "Le Philateliste Belge",
March 1957. (in French).
c. MINESCU, Cs "History of the Rumanian Posts", Bucharest 1916 (in Rumanian).
d. MUREA, Ps "The Historian of Rumanian Postage Stamps", Timifoara 1938 (in
Rumanian).
e. PETROV, Kiros "History of the Posts", Sofia 1924 (in Bulgarian).
f. PRIGARA, S.VI "The Russian Post in the Empire, in Turkey, in China and the
Posts in the Polush Kingdom", New York, 1941 (in Russian).
g. RACOVICEANU, Gi "Rumanian Postal Markings up to the Year 1881", Bucharest,
1963 (in Rumanian).
h. SOKOLOV, N.Is "About the Postal Relations of Russia with Turkey", in the
"Postal-Telegraphic Journal", Unofficial Section, Vol. 13, pp. 167-81,
Feb. 1900 St. Petersburg (in Russian).
i. SPINEANU, Cornel et aliii "Studies of Philately", Bucharest, 1965 (in
Rumanian).
J. TCHILINGHIRIAN, S.D. & STEPHEN, W.S.Es "Stamps of the Russian Empire used
Abroad", Vols. 1 & 6, Bristol & Aberlour, 1957, 1960 (in English).
k. TRUBACHEEV, VI "The Field Post during the last Turkish War, in the "Postal-
Telegraphic Journal", Unofficial Section, Vol. 11, pp. 1521-33, Dec. 1898, St.
Petersburg (in Russian).
1. "Sixty Years of the Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones", Sofia, 1939
(in Bulgarian).
m. Articles and notes published in the Bulgarian monthly "Philatelen Pregled".
n. Articles and notes published in "The Rossica Journal", "The British Journal
of Russian Philately", and "Filatelia" of Bucharest, from 1962 to 1967.

EDITORIAL COMMENTs It is obvious from Mr. Minchev's fine study that much remains
to be discovered in this highly absorbing field and we again urge specialists to
keep a sharp lookout for any noteworthy material.

At this stage, we would also like to point out that an interesting study can be
made of the Rumanian Posts in Southern Bessarabia during the period from 1857 to
1879. As examples, we will now describe the following material
a. A Rumanian 5- bani postcard to Galatz, with a blue cancel of
Bolgradu (Bolgrad), dated 20 July 1877. Please see Fig. 1 herewith. Bolgrad is
situated in the Ukrainian SSR.


66-







b. A Rumanian lO-bani stamp with a postmark from Cahul (Kagul) dated
27 March 1877, Please see Fig. 2 herewith. This town is in the Moldavian SSR.
c. Another type of Rumanian 5-bani postcard, addressed to Jassy and
sent from Leova (Leovo) on 19 Feb. 1878. This is shown in Fig. 3 herewith.
Leovo is also in the Moldavian SSR.

Similar usages from this period should also exist from Chilia (Kiliya), Ismail










^^ --- C^^iL~ ^
(Ismail) and Reni, which are all in the Ukraine. Such a study will open up new
pages in the fascinating postal history of Bessarabia.








i






(01rcaolv (Bol_
OBSERVA It P-NTRU IN1TREBUINTALEA CARTILOR DE POST.
oZclnd c/^eofr as^ _






1. C ,ile a potx ** -a particul .i.r I t- bi ....- 3. A...... .... .. -... -. ..,, a r i M s
rie telegrafo postal pe v aloarea lor omial. Rt po R compen.n 5-ba I
------- 1 usolrat io s













2. p.v. UriThe RIss .n
OBSIERVAl PEN'TU IJNThEBUIN TAPEA CAKTILOR DE POST. -
I. Cirtlte d Po st lt so n Ild6 p arrtscul ori r lA I.iuro- a. i or 3. Ais r s nsiri t o t icr _e e i it c ii la u i i __ __ __ ___mu-__ 6_ _
Sari e telegrafo posttle p. vatoare a lor nomilnl it. 1 cat poisibil comp lctk.
2. Ps fP .ia C&rsl n' esto permils a a sor dcr Al nundr.I 4 Ns p e sre nlinicus .du cltomlrTu ,J. I
udt r _ea, c ar d o*ssul sit e roetat plntru corrlpot l e ro c omtnda eta r ui Io- I
dorre nL r plfttndu-a draptul do inregistrar# .










3.-
-^ rAnot6er fp s fa
A*,ll onDc n 5-bcln
,postcard -rowm LeoVc
'(Leovo) +o Jassy.

3 A- Iitlustrations
__________________ _Mor tie ar-ticle
p The Russi cn
fa--p ostrs in Rumano
low___________________________ b4 D.N. nINC EV.
okSE1LVA0iL PENTR U lINTABUIY4AREA CAH-LOA Du1 P OSTA
i. CA l d .tiso indd p'rticularilor ]a biuro- 3.AAdr. r ,, ft i ,mraIso eraotj qji imua-
0 tccgrpIto posto pa valoarea lor nominlbi i t posoibl compboctL.
2. F. fain Clril nl eote pormis a Be son do cit 4. Nu so pi;le'sce' nioucf aduc4 torulul.
nuo mT idro-a. ear dossal Got revervat pentru 6 Cirtalr to d 'osSg so p estnda ea lnorite i ra saso-
"cn *"ils pltiondu-so drptulsdi do inregisirar.









AT THE SIGN OF THE THREE TRIANGLES

By The Editorial Board

This is a problem that has been puzzling postal historians for some time and it
was originally raised by our member, Dr. A. H. Wortman, of London, England.
It concerns the application on Soviet covers in the 1920-24 period of town
postmarks which usually include the word "EKSPEDITSIYA" or abbreviations thereof,
to denote the despatch function. These markings were not used to cancel stamps
and normally show later dates than those of the postmarks on the frankings.
They are generally circular, but sometimes oval in shape.

As an example, please see Fig. 1 hereiwth for a registered card sent to Germany
on 30 August 1921 by V. V. Tarasov of Solombala, a well-known collector and
publisher of the early Soviet period in the Archangel area. The "three
triangles" marking of the Archangel despatch office is dated one day later.
Note the overprinting by Tarasov of the now invalid Kerenskii 5-kop. postcard
with the initials of the R.S.F.S.R. and registration indications in French and
Russian. He supplied the back of the card with a printed request in English for
the exchange of postage stamps.

The opinion generally held so far in the West has been that these markings
represent censorship indications applied to mail going abroad at that time.
Commenting on this view in the "Soviet Collector" manual No. 5 published in
Moscow earlier this year, Dr. N. V. Luchnik points out that they also occurred
on internal mail (also confirmed by Dr. Wortman), not just on correspondence
addressed abroad and he illustrates types from two offices, namely Novocherkassk
and Tula (see Figs. 2 and 3). He concludes from several internal usages which
show no appreciable delays on the "three triangles" markings that they cannot
be related to censorship and expresses confidence that the real answer will soon
be found by Soviet philatelists. Both Dr. Wortman and he have suggested that
these postmarks refer to a dAsnatch office function.





\. %5 20 'z! I- ^f^ _l' 'OMM RNDEE.
S; ,
/ ',' dijro' .1 Fig32
"arr Carl HILDBBRANDM,
hre-" --" Tlzarttstr. 5.V I o, A S d


.o .-
GUMBIASM i.0tpr., 0- f 6 12 1 1

A Germany : i


.^S^^ I '-'. f

"% :. : Ill.ustratlons for t re article "At the sign
____g ~J o The Three Trionles" by the Editorial Board.


68 -










On this side of the water, we can take the investigation one step further by
citing a registered cover in the Norman Epstein collection. Franked with a
vertical pair of the 10-ruble Denikin issue, it was sent under No. 814 at Rostov-
on-Don on 7 May 1920 to a Mr. N. Artemov at a local address! The "three triangles"
marking of Rostov-on-Don is dated one day later (see Fig. 4). A couple of points
are apparent from this latest find, namely
a. The local usage makes it almost certain that;this type of
marking represents a transit service of some kind,
b. The canceller was definitely adapted from an earlier Tsarist
type, as the word "ROSTOV" is still shown in the old pre-1918 spelling.

It is obvious that a decree was issued by the Soviet postal authorities in 1920,
covering the manufacture of these postmarks and the reasons for their applica-
tions. We would appreciate hearing of the results of any research undertaken
by our readers in this regard.


***+i**************



THE STORY OF A SET

(translated from "FILATELIYA SSSR", No. 4 for October 1966, p. 42)

The Postage stamps of the Latvian SSR, which were issued in 1940, interest
several readers of the journal.

At that time, only one set of 13 values appeared in Soviet Latvia. The
announcement about this issue was published in the "Proceedings" of the Supreme
Soviet of the Latvian SSR on 19 October 1940. All the stamps of this set are
in the same size (24A x 29- mm.) with one and the same design, featuring the
state arms of the Latvian SSR. They differ only in color and face value. Latvian
currency in santimu and latu was then in circulation. This was the reason for
designating the values on the stamps in Latvian money.

The inscription "LATVIJAS PSR" (Latvian SSR) was printed in the upper part of the
stamps, above the arms. The value is specified at bottom. A national ornamenta-
tion appears on all four sides of the design. The stamps were printed in Riga
by the lithographic process on paper with a watermark of wavy lines. The design
was prepared by the artist Arturs Apinis. The stamps went into circulation at
various dates between 21 October and 4 December 1940. The basic data on the
stamps are as follows:
1 santims violet (November) Perf. 10 Printings 280,000 copies
2 santimi yellow (November) Perf. 10 Printings 156,600 copies
3 santimi orange red (December) Perf. 10; 10x10l Printings
2,040,000 copies
5 santimi grey brown (November) Perf. 10; 10ot 10 lll lx110j
Printings 1,513,000 copies
7 santimi blue green (November) Perf. 10 Printings 161,700 copies
10 santimu grey green (November) Perf. 10; 10 i lloxlO0 1l0xlOO
10xll Printings 2,500,000 copies


69 -







20 santimu cherry red (October) Perf. 10xLOj 10JxlO1 10x11
Printing, 3,522,300 copies
30 santimu asure (December) Perf. 10 Printings 3,522,300 copies
35 santimi ultramarine (December) Perf. 10 Printing: 287,000
copies
40 santimu dark brown (October) Perf. 10 Printings 319,000
copies
50 santimu grey (December) Perf. 10 Printings 100,000 copies

1 lats brown (December) Perf. 10 Printings 100,000 copies
5 lati bright green (December) Perf. 10 Printings 21,400
copies

EDITORIAL COMMENTs The stamps referred to here are Scott 2N45-57; Gibbons 278-90;
Yvert 256-68; Michel 292-304; Zumstein RB 1-13. The numbers printed as given
above demonstrate why the 5 lati stamp is so hard to find; it is a rare stamp.
It can be seen that the perforation varieties occur on the values with the larger
printings, but we would advise our members to check all values of this set in
their possession and inform us if further perforation combinations exist.

We would also like to point out that stamps of this set are very desirable on
covers and cards, particularly in combination with stamps of the USS. Please see
the illustration herewith for an example of the latter usage from the Kurt Adler
collection. The 10 and 20 santimu Latvian stamps are shown used,in conjunction
with a 15-kop. Soviet regular issue to make up the 45-santimi rate on a cover
sent from Riga on 1 Feb. 1941 to Liepija, where it was received a day later.
Will members please send in details and illustrations of any material they have
in this interesting transition phase?



VRT
Apcides un i=!l-ans tests C
Ais apavu un gumijas izstc.dajumu baze it -
R;ii;a, Grec~niek-u icM!: 12.
T-:,unis: 20741, 3it97.




Liepajas valsts tirdzniecibas
uz emuman



L i e p j a

Sarkanflotes prosp.Nr 6.






70 -
*_ __-_; ___- 70 -
70 -








NOTES FROM COLLECTORS

KURT ADLER, New York, N.Y.
a. I would like to draw the attention of readers to a pre-stamp
letter from Bessarabia that has been acquired recently, as I believe that it
demonstrates some interesting features. Written in Greek on 18 June 1823 by
loannis Georgantopoulos, a merchant at Ismail, it is addressed in Italian to
Trieste, which was then one of the main ports of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The route taken to reach Trieste was unusual in that the letter was apparently
carried to the nearest Austrian post office by a private forwarding agent,
whose single-line cachet appears handstamped on the back (please see Fig. 1).
This cachet reads "pr. Georg Pappajohann" and includes the Germanised version
of his name. The inscription translates as "per Georgios Papaioannis",
obviously another Greek. Mr. apaioannis either went with, or arranged for the
letter to travel up from Ismail and across the then Austrian border to the
post office at Brody in Galicia. Note the marking of this office on the front
of the letter at top left. It then went overland through the Austrian postal
system to Trieste, where it was received on 2 August. The total time taken
from Ismail to Trieste was 45 days. This is the earliest letter I have seen
emanating from Bessarabia. It is interesting to speculate if there was a
Russian post office in Ismail at that time, since the country had already
passed under Russian rule eleven years before on 16 May 1812, in accordance
with the Treaty of Bucharest.

The role of the forwarding agents in handling mail in various countries has been
extensively discussed by a prominent specialist, Mr. Kenneth Rowe, of Toronto,
Canada in his book "The Forwarding Agents", published by Robson Lowe of London.
The existence of the Pappajohann service was, however, unknown to him until the
present letter was brought to his attention earlier this year. Perhaps our
Balkan specialists can come forward with more information about postal communica-
tions and forwarding services in Bessarabia during this early period.

b. This second item is a postcard of the Ukrainian National Republic,
revalidated for use in the early Soviet period. It is printed in dark brown on
greyish card, with a Ukrainian inscription reading "Universal Postal Union /
Postal Card" in two lines at top and the Ukrainian trident with the initials
"U, D" enclosed in a diamond at left. The initials stant for "Ukrayinska
Derzhava", or "Ukrainian State". This motif is overstamped in violet with a
circular cachet in Russian, reading "Blank of the Administration of the Black
Sea Region of Communications". The initials "GRF" at the bottom of this cachet
probably refer to the Finance Department of this Administration. The card, with
franking of 12 kop. in Soviet postage stamps, was sent from Odessa to Hamburg,
Germany on 11 April 1924 (Please see Fig, 2).

ANDREW CRONIN, New York, N.Y.
a. Fig. 3 shows a letter sent from Valk (Valga in Estonia) on 29
March 1891 to Derpt (Tartu), where it was backstamped on the same day. The un-
usual franking consists of a bisected 14-kop. stamp to make up the correct 7-kop.
rate and the letter went through the mails without comment.

The story of Russian bisects has never been fully documented, possibly because
some were philatelically inspired. This was certainly the case with the famous
Caucasian bisect of August 1884, when the current 14-kop. stamp was bisected,



71 -

















.Z : A vevalidated postcard,

orf i ially-9f Me Vkrainic
Pc- 7--; ---- --^ ---,











... ... ..tte ., us ed in The etrlny
An earl ler from limail, Bessab' hoin cachet ove period.
__f'rw rd ing agent ('vt Adler' Col/ecftin). (Crf Adler Collection),

^K BCEMIPHRiA 1O'W 0 'ZOC( '' C
UNION POSTAL UN ELL 0I
". .. 1, CI.
V,,,
C r







. ,I .....
.: A isetZ A ee va-li op. spotp or a
-H --- o-- ----o---J pou- _- _ O a.pe-e. s- C6t r userv exclusivement n e








cover from Vclk (Valtg o err
F(it An e )rl,) let erfro 29 mar. 1, Bes9.s Apoi showing ca rd r omv Luli pshown td.
_- _or r AElhebiion coeoleef applied ar Col election.
.* ... /^ r% UNION POSTALE UN ELLF. SIE.










:A bisacted 1A-KoP. stef IZ o
__ _____ -r 7Z i/4 ( a-7r r Ha 3TO1 CTOPff)1[! hUHI TV1TCfl TO.!IA" O aapec%. Cotle rtserve exclusivement k I'adresse. **

(Talin), senr 0 29 MA7r. /g91. .i4: A pptcard fro Lu 7'"blin, showrn9g tue ,
Ex h ikiifon c chet applied at left.








each half surcharged "7" in red and used at Kutais and Tiflis at the instigation
of an influential local collector. However, there were genuine usages, as
instanced by the Berdichev bisect of the first 20-kop. of 1858 on a cover to
Warsaw in the Sir John Wilson collection, and the officially authorized bi-
secting of the 2-kop. stamp of the 1902 Arms issue on vertically laid paper to
meet a shortage of 1-kop. stamps at Reval (Tallinn in Estonia) from 3 to 5 April
1909 as noted in the 1924 Soviet catalog. The cover illustrated herewith may
also be a case of authorized bisection, but confirmation of this is requested.

The writer remembers having seen various bisects of the kopek Arms issues on
pieces with Kiev and Warsaw postmarks, which usages appear to be philatelic,
as also do the Romanov bisects described by our late and revered President,
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury. Any comments and further information on bisects from
readers would be greatly appreciated, so that the full picture of their usages
will emerge.

b. Please see Fig. 4 for a card sent from Lublin in the Polish
Kingdom on 17 June 1901 and featuring at left a boxed cachet in violet reading
"LUBLIN / EXHIBITION / 1901" in Russian in three lines. This commemorative
cachet measures 25 x 20 mm. and the sorting number "31" near the 3-kop. franking
is also struck in violet. The card is addressed to Lddz and was handled en-
route by the Koliuszki-Eodz RPO, Gang No. 2 on 18 June, which marking is shown
touching the exhibition cachet.

The illustration on the back of the card has nothing to do with the exhibition,
but perhaps our Polish colleagues can give us further information on this event.

NORMAN EPSTEIN, New York, N.Y.
A collection I recently purchased had a corner copy of the 6-kop. Lenin mourning
stamp of 1924, fourth printing, with inscription in thicker type and perforated
(Fig. 5). A sufficient amount of the left margin is attached to show two
printed notations which read as follows:

"3 rd. transfer", in red
"2 nd. transfer", in black

These inscriptions undoubtedly refer to the lithographic process, by which this
fascinating issue was printed. We know that the printing plates were built up
by blocks of ten transfers, arranged in two rows of five. It would be interesting
to hear of the existence and location of other marginal inscriptions. Does
anyone know what the "1 st, transfer" would have been?

WZADYSZAW KC$AKOWSKI, Great Neck, N.Y.
Several years ago, I purchased in Poland a series of six identical surcharges
inscribed in Russian and applied in black on pairs of the 5, 10, 25, 30 and 50 gr.
values of the 1938 engraved definitive of Poland and on singles of the 25 gr.
commemorating the 25th. anniversary of the Polish Legions.

The surcharge reads "POSTAGE U.S.S.R." at top, with the hammer and sickle emblem
:at centre flanked by a wreath. This central motif splits the values, which are
given as "50 KOP. + + 50 KOP.". The word at the bottom reads "TO THE STARVING".
To add to the mystery, the back of each stamp bears a handstamped signature in
Russian at bottom right in black, reading "G. Tikhonov", with a number placed at
top left by typewriter! Please see Fig. 6 for a pair of the 25 gr. definitive


73 -






Notes from Collectors.





V. VL -
N I _
S.Le 5I 21 21
9 S___ig. F .7_.

en g ina
rtgi .ia Trilin ual fiscjI 0j
markings. the Russian zone
Sk(N orma Fis .6: Russian fantasy urcharge on Crete (William
-E- : Epstein). on Polish sfamps (w. Kotakowslki). R. Liberman, LL.M).





V_ F= 8.

View side of


publishers of
the "Soviet
Ph i latestt.


r. _. .


OTKpbITOe nHCbMO.
Carte-Postale. Postkarte. Fr _

"Address side
( f the Some
ccrd.
( T. R.M i tche II, Jr).



-- - - -- -







so treated, with the number "5121" typed on the backs.

I am at a complete loss to explain how such elaborate fantasies came into being,
but perhaps your readers will know more about this issue.

WILLIAM R. LIBERMAN, LL.M, New York, N.Y.
In addition to my duties as Librarian of the Hellenic Philatelic Society of America,
I am also deeply interested in the issues of Crete, including the fiscal.
According to the Forbin "Catalogue des timbres-fiscaux" of 1915, there were 16
varieties issued in 1898 in the Russian sector on Crete, all but five of them
having the same control cachet as for the handstamped postage stamps. These
revenue stamps are apparently all rare and I can only show the 20-paras value of
the second issue (please see Fig. 7).

It has several features that are well worth describing. The basic frame design,
measuring 32x41l mm., is handstamped in grey, inscribed "CRETE" at top and then
"DOCUMENTARY TAX HAVING BEEN COLLECTED" in two lines, all in Greek. The value
is lithographed in black, with the Roman numerals "XX" at top left and right
and written out in French at bottom as "Vingt 20 paras". This is then topped off
with the familiar circular control cachet in blue, showing the crowned double-
headed eagle in the centre and surrounded by an inscription "Expeditionary
Detachment on the Island of Crete" in Russian. My trilingual copy is imperforate
and was used by some commercial house in the Russian sector.

J. R. MITCHELL, JR., Chattanooga, Tenn.
Around about 1924, judging from the Russian philatelic literature of the period,
the publishers of the "Soviet Philatelist" in Moscow issued at least one type of
illustrated postcard with a large-scale reproduction of a Soviet postage stamp.
The example I have is printed in dark olive-green, with a typographed repro-
duction on the back of the 40-ruble engraved stamp of August 1921, measuring
116x70 mm. (Fig. 8). The address side shows at top left the trademark of the
publishers of the "Soviet Philatelist", inscribed in Russian and German (Fig. 9).
It would be interesting to hear if other designs exist in this series.

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT
We have just received word from Bulgaria that "SOFIA 1969", the international
exhibition to be staged in that country under the patronage of the FIP, will be
held from 31 May to 8 June 1969 in the halls of the University of Sofia, An
organizing committee of eleven persons has already been set up, headed by
Mr. Ivan Khristov, President of the Union of Bulgarian Philatelists, and including
prominent collectors and representatives of the Ministry of Communications.

It was because of the initiative and hard work displayed by the Bulgarian
philatelists that the first exhibition of the Balkan countries "BALKANPHILA
1965" was organized at Varna and it was a great success. Many regional,
national and bi-country shows have been held there, the latest being a "Bulgarian-
Canadian Philatelic Exhibition", staged at Sofia from 21 to 23 June 1968, with
the participation of collectors from Quebec City.

The experience the Bulgarians have gained in the past will undoubtedly help them
to make next year's international show a superlative event. We strongly urge
our members to start preparing their exhibits of Eastern European material now.
This will be the show where such exhibits will really be appreciated and it will
help to bring the philately of Eastern Europe to the fore. Further details, advice
and arrangements will be given in the next issue of our Journal. Let our slogan
for 1969 be "See you in Sofia:".


75 -








BOOK REVIEWS

"FILATELIYA SSSR" ("PHILATELY USSR")
Nos. 8/1967 to 4/1968. A well-printed monthly magazine published by the All-
Union Society of Philatelists in an edition of 50,000 copies each. Price 30
kopeks. The highlights of these issues are as follows
a. "The aircraft delivers the mail", by S. M. Blekhman. A very
informative survey by this leading specialist of the early years of the Soviet
air services, with data on early flights, the Consular Airmails, the Vladivostok
Airmails of 1923, etc. (Nos. 8, 9, 12/1967).
b. "Across the North Pole to immortality", by V. Yavorovskii. An
interesting study of the Moscow-San Francisco Flight stamp of 1935 (C68), with
details of its famous pilot Sigismund Aleksandrovich Levanevskii (No. 8/1967).
c. "The secrets of old catalogs", by V. A. Karlinskii. A well-
documented survey by this assiduous researcher of the data given in earlier
Soviet catalogs on the issues from 1922 to 1940 and the work now being undertaken
to determine the exact dates of issue (Nos. 10, 11/1967).
d. "Rare Local Issues" by S. Parkhomovich. A short account of the
local revaluation provisionals made by handstamp or manuscript as a result of the
raising of postal rates on 15 Aug. 1921 (No. 12/1967).
e. "Soviet postage stamps 1917-1941", by V. A. Karlinskii. A series
of reference articles, based on many documents and designed to help collectors
understand better the issues of this period. Apart from fundamental data, the
author includes notes on varieties,describes special points and assigns
"problems" on unsolved questions for the reader to follow up. Some thought-
provoking statements are made on the "Philately for the Children" and "Philately
for the Workers" issues and we will be taking up these matters in a future issue
of the Rossica Journal (Nos. 1 to 4/1968 and continuing).
f. "The set with surcharges" by V. A. Karlinskii, who gives an
exhaustive treatment of the "POSTAGE / STAMP / KOP. 8 KOP." surcharges of 1927
on the obsolete postage dues, with a table of comparative scarcity. His
tabulation notes several rare varieties which have not been listed before
(No. 1/1968).
g. "Moscow 28.4.39; Miscou Lighthouse, N. B. Apr. 28,39" by V. Milanov.
An absorbing description of a pioneer flight from Moscow to North America by the
shortest route over the Atlantic Ocean and illustrating a rare registered cover
carried on this flight by Major-General Kokkinaki and Major Gordienko (No. 2/1968).
h. "Repeated issues of stamps of the USSR", by V. Aleksandrov. This
is a series of informative articles on reissues of Soviet commemoratives, such
as the 1951 Aviation Development set, the 800th. anniversary of Moscow series of
1947, the 150th. anniversary of the Bol'shoie Theater in 1951 and the fifth
anniversary of the death of M. I. Kalinin (1951) sets. In other words, a
similar treatment to that given by our members Kurt Adler and Dr. Minkus herewith
on the Moscow-Volga Canal set (Nos. 2-4/1968 and continuing).
i. "Once more about the first regular set of the USSR", by
V. Karlinskii. The article consists of corrections and new findings relating to
the same subject treated by A. Skrylev in Nos. 4 & 5 of 1967. (No. 3/1968).
j. "The mailmen convey the letters", by N. Safonov. A fine survey
of urban mail services in the 19th. century, with several interesting illustra-
tions, all taken from official.sources by the author, who is in charge of the
postal history section of the A. S. Popov Museum of Communications in Leningrad
(No. 3/1968).


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In addition, all issues carry a range of regular features devoted to forthcoming
exhibitions, numismatics, topical philately, vignettes and fiscal, book
plates and trademarks, match-box lables and medals, illustrated postcards,
special sections for the young fry and catalog supplements for Soviet new issues
and those of the socialist countries.

"FILATELIYA POD ZNAKOM PYATI KOLETS" (Philately under the sign of the five rings)
by E. Sashenkov and M. Levin. A paperback issued by the "Svyas'" Publishing
House, Moscow, 1966 in an edition of 50,000 copies. Contains 152 pages and
priced at 55 kopeks.

Long out of print because of its popular theme, this is a topical approach to the
philately of the Olympic Games. After an introductory chapter, the authors focus
attention on the ancient Greek origins of the Games as well the birth of Olympic
philately as instanced by the issue of the first set of stamps with this theme
in 1896 by Greece and the slow acceptance of this idea by other countries.

The book is copiously illustrated with excellent pictures, some being in the
actual colors. Much specialized material is featured, some of it rare and the
scope of the work is such that some Polish P.O.W. camp issues from Gross-Born
and Woldenberg with Olympic themes are noted. Historical data are given of all
the Games held from 1896 to 1964 and the study ends with a good bibliography.

"SOVETSKAYA KOSMONAVTKIA V FILATELLI" ("Soviet Space Research in Philately")
a handbook-catalog by E. P. Sashenkov. Published by the Main Philatelic Office,
Moscow 1967, in an edition of 50,000 copies. Contains 140 pages and priced at
1 r. 30 k.

A beautifully produced book in hard covers and on finely-coated paper, it gives
a well-illustrated listing of stamps and souvenir sheets arranged under the
headings of the first three Sputniks, lunar satellites and geophysical rockets, 0
cosmic spaceships, interplanetary stations and "Cosmos" satellites, Man in
space and finally peaceful cooperation in Outer Space.

The numbering system is that of the Soviet Main Philatelic Office publications
and of the Lipsia catalog. The profuse illustrations make the work easy to
follow. The only criticism this reviewer has is about the inclusion of some
local carriage labels and sheets from Sanda Island (England), whose pretensions
to a postal service are somewhat less than justified.

"MIR KOLLEKTSIONERA" ("The world of the collector")
a composite work of members of the Alma-Ata chapter of the All-Union Society of
Philatelists. Issued by the "Kazakhstan" Publishing House, Alma-Ata 1967, in
an edition of 51,500 copies. Contains 227 pages and priced at 50 k.

Another example of a collectors' publication from a publishing house outside the
RSFSR and a very creditable performance from a chapter with 300 members. It is
divided into five sectors, entitled "Eccentrics or eager for knowledge?" by
0. G. Rachkov; "Philately and philatelists" by I. E. Grinberg; "Something about
Russian coins" by S. M. Ginsburg "The stories behind paper money" by
I. Ya. Koltashev and "Mute witnesses of the past" by N. N. Grinkevich.

A host of useful facts and anecdotes are given on orders and medals of many
countries; Soviet and foreign philately; illustrated postcards; bookplates; a
wonderful survey on coins including a listing of Russian, Polish and Finnish


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Masters of the Mint from 1751 to 1913; and finally a section on Russian, Khivan,
Khoresmic, Transcaucasian, Civil War, Soviet and Ukrainian paper money, to-
gether with some amusing parodies. All in all, this handbook makes absorbing
reading.

"SPUTNIK"
A monthly magazine in "Reader's Digest" format, published in English by the Daily
Mirrow Newspaper Ltd. of London, England, by agreement with the Novosti Press
Agency.

The November 1967 issue of this periodical is notable for an article entitled
"History of the USSR in Stamps" and featuring ten color plates of realistic
illustrations, including a fine two-page blow-up of the 80 k. Zeppelin stamp of
1930 in red. In the section of reproductions of paintings, we note two that
have been featured on stamps, namely "Ploughland" by A. G. Venetsianov on the
1 r. commem. of 1955 and "Major a-wooing" by P. A. Fedotov on the 16 kop. commem.
of 1966. Another article on a noted Russian sculptor, Ivan Shadr (1887-1941)
shows pictures of works he created in Moscow in 1921 and entitled "Sower",
"Soldier", "Worker" and "Peasant". These served as familiar topics for Soviet
coins and stamps which followed shortly thereafter.

"SOVETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER 5" (Soviet Collector No. 5)
A paper-backed "sbornik" or collection of articles, issued by the "Svyaz'"
Publishing House, Moscow 1967, in an edition of 18,300 copies. Contains 120 pages
and priced at 80 k.

The latest in this series of serious handbooks on philately, this collection
presents an interesting and varied program. After some introductory material,
the book gets off to a good start with an excellent article by S. Saltykov
entitled "The postage stamps of Soviet Armenia". Based on extensive research
in the archives of the Armenian SSR, the author gives valuable background in-
formation, which also covers the activities of Melik-Pashaev. The article is
to be concluded in the next "sbornik" and we will be serializing this study in
our own Journal.

The well-known student, V. A. Karlinskii, then concludes his two-part study of
"Postage stamps of the USSR 1917-1921" with an array of interesting facts which
he provides with the help of leading philatelists including our honored member,
Michel Liphschutz of France. A valuable survey of Soviet stamped envelopes
from 1927 to date by V. Orlov then follows. An unusual theme selected by
A. Vigelev is his description of the field post service at Azov in 1695-96,
instituted when Peter the Great and his general, Patrick Gordon, were cam-
paigning against the Turks.

The results of research are then given by I. Sachkov, V. Tulyakov and
D. Karachun on "Local postage stamps of 1918-19", including the Luga stamps,
already described in detail in Rossica No. 71. Following upon this, three early
Imperial essays are described. The handbook then turns to numismatics, where
a thorough study is then presented by D. Moshnyagin and N. Dashevskii of
"Varieties of coins of the Soviet mintings". Other data then follow on recent
insignia and "Badges and jetons of 1917-1922" are studied by V. Illyinskii.
Mr. A. Shaten then lists "Soviet Memorial Medals of 1966" and this section con-
cludes with "New facts about ancient Russian coins" by K. Golenko.


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The paper money collectors then take over, with an excellent article by
D. Senkevich on "State Money Issues of the RSFSR 1919-1923". The research
group of the Kuibyshev chapter of the All-Union Society of Philatelis then
present the results of their investigations of the rare money vouchers issued
at Samara during the first period of Soviet rule (October 1917 to June 1918).
The next section caters to the collectors of illustrated postcards, with an
article by E. Fainshtein on "Russian revolutionary postcards 1905-1907" and
by I. Bugaevich on "The postcard in the arsenal of the teacher", in which this
Ukrainian assistant professor examines the utilization of illustrated cards
arranged under various topics as educational aids.

The next department looks at philately and paper money abroad, leading off
with an exhaustive article entitled "The Post and Postage Stamps of the Paris
Commune" by the veteran philatelist Ye. Stefanovskii of Kharkov. Mr. E. Gribanov
writes up the "Labor vouchers of Robert Owen", which were issued in London in
1832, and Dr. N. V. Luchnik then reviews Nos. 36 and 37 of the "British Journal
of Russian Philately", adding valuable comment on the "three triangles" mystery,
about which please see details elsewhere in our journal herewith. Mr. Yu. Yershov
then draws attention to the portrait of a famous Russian doctor Vladimir Aaronovich
Khavkin (Dr. W. M. Haffkine), shown on an Indian commemorative stamp issued on
13 March 1964.

The section on book reviews supplies us with a listing by S. Babintsev Ph.D. of
"Journals on the history of the Russian Posts and Philately", continuing the
bibliography started in No. 4 of these handbooks. A catalog of the numismatic
collection housed at the Dnepropetrovsk Historical Museum and issued in 1965
is criticized for its inadequacies by V. Zakharov, while a study by D. Fedorov
on "Coins of the Baltic Countries from the 13th. to 18th. Centuries", issued
by the "Balgus" Publishing House at Tallinn in 1966 is favorably received.

The collectors of badges are served by a book by M. Azarkh, published at
Sverdlovsk in 1966 and entitled "Tourist badges tell stories". The handbook
ends with answers to questions posed in the previous issue of the handbook and
sundry corrections. Once again we have been given good value for our 80 kopeks.

"RAZVITIE SVYAZI V SSSR" ("The Development of Communications in the USSR")
edited by N. D. Psurtsev. Issued by the "Svyaz"' Publishing House, Moscow, 1967,
in an edition of 13,000 copies. Contains 480 pages and priced at 2 r. 66 k.

This book is beautifully printed on high grade stock and it has many historic
illustrations and diagrams. Written by a battery of twelve contributors, it
covers communications in pre-revolutionary Russia, the Revolution and Civil War
period (1917-1921), the interwar period (1921-1940), communications during
W.W. II (1941-1945) and postwar progress (1945-1967). Covering every phase of
communications, from the postal service, telegraphs and telephones to radio,
phototelegraphy, video-telephony, television and outer space transmission, it
is of especial appeal to scientists and engineers, and those interested in the
history of communications.

"FORERUNNER CANCELLATIONS OF ETHNOGRAPHIC LITHUANIAN TERRITORIES 1800-1918"
by Walter E. Norton. A 27-page monograph, forming the main part of a special
40-page brochure issued by the Lithuanian Philatelic Society on the occasion
of "LITHPEX XIII", held at Chicago on 16-18 February 1968. Priced at $2.50 and
obtainable from the author at 2647 Eddington Street, Philadelphia, Pa, 19137.


79 -









Tastefully produced on finely surfaced paper, this work is a highly interesting
treatment of Polish and Russian markings applied for their period under re-
view in the territories of Lithuania Major, which also takes in the Bialystok
and Suwalki districts of Poland and the Grodno district of Belorussia. Our
Polish and Russian specialists will note some omissions, such as the rare and
mysterious "VIL'NO PAR." marking, but they will also find a wealth of data in
this informative study, including some scarce pre-stamp and RPO types.

For a work of this kind, it is essential that all interested parties collaborate,
so as to produce a thorough study of the field, eliminate spelling errors and
supply correct illustrations etc. We in the Rossica Society are always ready
to share data with our Baltic, Polish Eastern European and Ukrainian colleagues,
for the benefit of all concerned. This present monograph is strongly
recommended.

"PODBOJ KOSMOSU W FILATELISTYCE" ("The Conquest of Outer Space in Philately")
by Cesary Rudziiski. A paperback issued by the "RUCH" Publishing House,
Warsaw 1963, in an edition of 30,260 copies. Contains 156 pages and obtainable
from W. Kofakowski Co., Box 394, Great Neck, N.Y. 11022, to which please apply
for price details.

Adding to the growing literature on the topic of Outer Space, the book contains
prefaces in Russian and English and is easy to follow. It is divided into
three sections, Namely (a) Preparations for the conquest of Outer Space (b) Stages
in the conquest of Outer Space and (c) The conquest of Outer Space in Literature
and Art, space symbols etc.

Richly illustrated, this book is a valuable aid to the space enthusiast and it
shows many of the cachets and cancels sponsored by local stamp clubs in the USSR.
At the back of the work, the first of two tables gives lists keyed to the
Zumstein and Yvert catalogs of stamps on these topics issued by countries around
the world, while the second mentions all cities which have utilized special
markings, together with the dates of application. All in all, a professional
job of work.

"ILUSTROWANY KATALOG ZNACZKOW POLSKICH 1968"(Illustrated Catalog of Polish Stamps 1968)
Issued by the "RUCH" Publishing House, Warsaw 1968, in an edition of 30,260 copies.
Obtainable from the W. Kojakowski Co., Box 394, Great Neck, N.Y. 11022, to which
please apply for price details.

Containing over 500 pages, this is a comprehensive catalog in handy pocket format,
including much data of great interest to our readers. It is very easy to follow
as a glossary in five languages is given of philatelic terms. Apart from the
listings of Polish issues, details are also presented of private postcard imprints
for the German Post in Russian Polan first flights from Lw6w (L'viv) to Palestine,
flights of the Lw6w (L'viv) Baloon, Lwow-Warsaw Pigeon Post, the Field Post of
the Polish Corps in Byelorussia during March 1918, Polish Field Post in the USSR
(August 1942), the rare Grodno Provisionals of April 1919 which include a sur-
charge on the 1 kop. Kiev III trident, the Kowel surcharges of August 1919 on
Ukrainian stamps which are so cherished by our member Cecil Roberts and the ex-
tremely scarce Central Lithuanian surcharges on Russian and German postcards, etc.
Acquiring a copy of this catalog is indeed money well spent.


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"400 LAT POCZTY POLSKIEJ" ("400 years of the Polish Posts")
A commemorative handbook issued by the Polish Ministry of Communications through
their "Communications Publishing House", Warsaw 1958 in an edition of 30,240
copies. Price not stated.

Although the work appeared ten years ago, this is our first opportunity of
examining it for an adequate review. Beautifully printed by the photogravure
process, this wonderful study contains 400 pages and four special plates, which
latter feature many proofs of actual stamps, taken from the original dies. The
book covers the history of the Polish Posts from their inception up to W.W. I,
the Inter-war period of independent Poland, the dreadful trials under Nazi
occupation and the story of resistance, from the brave struggle put up by the
Polish postal officials at Gdansk (Danzig) at the beginning of W.W, II, through
to victory in 1945, postwar developments in postal services and amenities for
postal workers and a section on postage stamps and Philately in Poland brings up
the rear.

Of especial interest to us in our fields are the chapters devoted to the Russian
postal service in the Polish Kingdom, the story of Poland No, 1, the views
taken of the Y6di post office and its staff in 1912 and Polish Fieldposts in the
USSR during W.W. II. The numerous illustrations add greatly to the charm of the
book and it is a worthy addition to anyone's philatelic library.

"LINN'S WEEKLY STAMP NEWS"
The issues of this popular weekly newspaper of philately, dated 12 & 19 February
1968 were devoted to a range of articles on Lithuania, its stamps and postal
history, sponsored by the Lithuanian Philatelic Society.

Among the topics covered were the Lithuanian National Games of 1938, special
cancels for a Basketball Tourney and the St. Casimir Fair held at Vilnius (Wilno)
in 1940, the Vilnius overprints of 1941, the first Berlin issue, Zeppelin covers
flown from Lithuania, details about "LITHPEX XIII", the local overprints of 1941,
the Darius and Girenas Trans-Atlantic Flight of 1933, the first philatelic ex-
hibition held in Lithuania, the Lithuanian Scout Movement, a fine note by our
member Dr. Kuderewicz on the activities of the Napoleonic Army in Lithuania and
data on the German stamps overprinted "Postgebiet Ob, Ost" and used in Lithuania,

Most of the articles and information are presented by the indefatigable
Mr. W. E. Norton and we congratulate him on the fine work he has done in these
special issues of "Linn's",

"STAMP COLLECTING"
The 2 November 1967 issue of this prominent English weekly has an excellent
article by Cyril Kidd, entitled "The Belgian 'Foreign' Sorting Marks used in
Travelling Post Offices from 1840 to 1880". This subject is of great interest,
since for about 40 years around the middle of the last century, the postal ad-
ministration backstamped incoming mail with special markings, designating the
country of origin and the Belgian office handling the transmission. Especially
noteworthy for us is his recording on correspondence from Russia of a double-
circle backstamp reading "RUSSIE" at top, with "EST 2" at bottom and three-line
date in centre, handled in 1874 by the "east No. 2" (RPO (TPO), operating between
Verviers and Brussels. We appeal to our specialists to do further work on such
transmissions, not only for mail to Belgium, but also to other countries. We know
that such investigations in the arrangements worked out with France, Austria, and
Prussia would yield highly interesting findings, Mr. Kidd deserves a hearty
commendation for his pioneer research.


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COMPLETE RUSSIAN MINT COLLECTIONS Contain every stamp and souvenir sheet
* issued during the year. Every stamp in very fine mint condition. 1967
$29.50, 1966 $33.50, 1965 $47.50, 1964 $75.00, 1963 $45.00, 1962 -
S$39.50, 1961 $45.00, 1960 $65.00. Cancelled stamps also available at
special prices, A B C Stamp Co., Dept. 3476, Box 6000, San Francisco, Calif. 94101.:
> .......................................... ............. .............. ......
I have for trade Russian Mint and Used; Scott 1341a, No. 1508/9, No. 2288,
No. C50/52 and better issues. I need No. 1341, 1342 and 2926a green souvenir
"sheet mint and used and Western Europe countries mint.
STANLEY KODIN
P.O. Box 38153, Hollywood, California 90038
USSR (Russia). Scott 1341A Mint N.H. Scott unpriced, Minkus #1002 Cat. $85.00
:for $35.00 ONLY! Russian Offices in Levant (Turkey). Scott #27a. Ovpt. inverted,
used. Scott unpriced, for $3.00.
VSEVOLOD POPOV
Box 149, Nyack, N.Y. 10960

RUSSIA and POLAND
UP TO DATE PRICE LIST AVAILABLE. ALL ISSUES FROM #1 TO PRESENT ARE IN STOCK.
U. N. AND VATICAN ARE ALSO STOCKED.
SPECIAL DISCOUNTS TO REGULAR NEW ISSUE SUBSCRIBERS.
WANT LISTS FILLED.
L & F. STAMP SERVICE
0 BOX NO. 1
GRAND LEDGE, MICH. 48837

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