Front Cover
 Officers of the society
 Representatives of the society
 Life of the society
 Russian postal service - How it...
 Russian posts in 1878 by Boris...
 Russian postal operations in 1891...
 Numismatic literature of imperial...
 About the establishment of the...
 The trans-Siberian postal route...
 The technology of producing postage...
 The girls at Goznak by A....
 "Praga - 68" by Kurt Adler
 The Ukranians at the international...
 Soviet postal rates by Vladlen...
 Notes on the C.M.T. stamps issued...
 A little-known branch of erinnophilia...
 A comparison of Scott's catalogue...
 The 2nd international polar year...
 A lithographed 10 kop. small head...
 Special announcement to all...
 Sofia - 1969
 Overprint varieties of scott's...
 Auction notes by the editorial...
 Book reviews
 Notes from collectors


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00017
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1968
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00017

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Life of the society
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 4b
    Russian postal service - How it was run a century ago by Boris Shishkin
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Russian posts in 1878 by Boris Shishkin
        Page 7
    Russian postal operations in 1891 by Boris Shishkin
        Page 8
    Numismatic literature of imperial Russia
        Page 9
        Page 10
    About the establishment of the Zemstvo posts in Russia by N. I. Sokolov, from official sources
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    The trans-Siberian postal route by Henry Tristant
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The technology of producing postage stamps by Mesdames L. P. Grigorieva and N. V. Novokshchenova
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    The girls at Goznak by A. Cronin
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    "Praga - 68" by Kurt Adler
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    The Ukranians at the international postage stamp exhibition "Praga - 68" by John Bulat
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Soviet postal rates by Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Notes on the C.M.T. stamps issued during the Roumanian occupation of Pokutia by Ivan Chernyavskyj
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    A little-known branch of erinnophilia - Russian paper seals by E. Marcovitch
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    A comparison of Scott's catalogue prices of Russian classic issues - 1857 to 1906 by Joseph F. Chudoba
        Page 91
        Page 92
    The 2nd international polar year air-express issue of 1932 by Kurt Adler
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    A lithographed 10 kop. small head on watermarked paper by A. Prins
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Special announcement to all members
        Page 99
    Sofia - 1969
        Page 99
    Overprint varieties of scott's B47: Leningrad flood issue 20K and 50K by Joseph F. Chudoba
        Page 100
    Auction notes by the editorial board
        Page 101
    Book reviews
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Notes from collectors
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
Full Text


of the





No. 75 1968


Andrew Cronin
Box 806, Church Street Station
New York, N.Y. 10008


Martin L. Harow


K. Adler, O.A. Faberg6, Emile Marcovitch,
C.P. Bulak, J. Terlecky (Ukrainian Editor)

w INDEX 4*-

2 Offices of the Society, Representatives of the Society
3 Life of the Society
5 Russian Postal Service How it was Run a Century Ago by Boris Shishkin
7 Russian Posts in 1878 by Boris Shishkin
8 Russian Postal Operations in 1891.- by Boris Shishkis
9 Numismatic Literature of Imperial Russia
11 "About the Establishment of the Zemstvo Posts in Russia by NI. Sokolov from Official Sources
14 The Trans-Siberian Postal Route by Henri Tristant
23 The Technology Of Producing Postage Stamps -
by Mesdames L. P. Grigorieva and N. V. Novokshcbenova
39 The Girls at Goznak by A. Cronin
51 "Praga 68'"- by Kurt Adler
54 The Ukranians at The International Postage Stamp Exhibition "Praga 68" by John Bulat
56 Soviet Postal Rates by Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii
71 Notes on the C.M.T. Stamps Issued During the Roumanian Occupation of Pokutia -
by Ivan Chernyavskyj
82 A Little-Known Branch of Erinnophilia Russian Paper Seals -
by E. Marcovitch
91 A Comparison of Scott's Catalogue Prices of Russian Classic Issues 1857 to 1906
by Joseph F. Cbudoba
93 The 2nd International Polar Year Air-Express Issue of 1932 by Kurt Adler
97 A Lithographed 10 Kop. Small Head on Watermarked Paper by A. Prias
99 Special Announcement to All Members
99 Sofia 1969
100 Overprint Varieties of Scott's B47: Leningrad Flood Issue 20K and 50K
by Joseph F. Chudoba
101 Auction Notes by the Editorial Board
102 Book Reviews
107 Notes From Collectors

"A 1k


PRESIDENT: Kurt Adler, c/o Metropolitan Opera Inc., Lincoln Centre Plaza, N. Y., N. Y., 10023
VICE-PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey Ph.D., 5118 Duval Dr. Washington, D.C. 20016
SECRETARY: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn N.Y. 11225.
TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 11226
CHAIRMAN OF AUDITING COMMITTEE: Andrew Cronin, Box 806, New York, N.Y. 10008
CHAIRMAN OF MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE: Mr. Martin Harow, 17 Second St., Brentwood, L.I. 11717
LIBRARIAN: J. Lee Shneidman, Ph. D., 161 W. 86th. St., Apt. 5-B, New York, N.Y. 10024
BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Emile Marcovitch, 65-61 Saunders St. Apt. 4-Q, Rego Park, N.Y. 11374
Boris Shishkin, 2032 Tunlaw Rd., N.W., Washington, D. C. 20007
Fred W. Speers, 118 N. Caroline Way, Escondido, Calif. 92025


G.B. Salisbury Chapter: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
San Francisco: K. Jansson, 624-16 Ave., San Francsico, Calif. 94118.
Washington, D.C.: Boris Shishkin, 2032 Tunlaw Rd., N.W., Washington,D.C. 20007
Western USA: Lester S. Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 90035.
Belgium: I. Braunstein, 6, rue Mignot Delstanche, Uxelles, Belgium.

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors disclaim any responsi-

At the present time the Membership Dues are $5.00, due January 1, for all members. Application forms,
which must be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements
to the membership lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:
ROSSICA Society of Russian Philately, c/o
Mr. Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave.,
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226
We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates are as follows:
Full Page Ad is $80.00 Half Page is $40.00 Quarter Page is $20.00
Members of the ROSSICA Society pay one half or 50% of the above rates for ADS except for covers which
is full price for all.

We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in Russian and in English at
2.00 each: Russian Editions No. 44 to 69; English Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.



PRESIDENT: Kurt Adler, c/o Metropolitan Opera Inc., Lincoln Centre Plaza, N. Y., N. Y., 10023
VICE-PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey Ph.D., 5118 Duval Dr. Washington, D.C. 20016
SECRETARY: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn N.Y. 11225.
TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 11226
CHAIRMAN OF AUDITING COMMITTEE: Andrew Cronin, Box 806, New York, N.Y. 10008
CHAIRMAN OF MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE: Mr. Martin Harow, 17 Second St., Brentwood, L.I. 11717
LIBRARIAN: J. Lee Shneidman, Ph. D., 161 W. 86th. St., Apt. 5-B, New York, N.Y. 10024
BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Emile Marcovitch, 65-61 Saunders St. Apt. 4-Q, Rego Park, N.Y. 11374
Boris Shishkin, 2032 Tunlaw Rd., N.W., Washington, D. C. 20007
Fred W. Speers, 118 N. Caroline Way, Escondido, Calif. 92025


G.B. Salisbury Chapter: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
San Francisco: K. Jansson, 624-16 Ave., San Francsico, Calif. 94118.
Washington, D.C.: Boris Shishkin, 2032 Tunlaw Rd., N.W., Washington,D.C. 20007
Western USA: Lester S. Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 90035.
Belgium: I. Braunstein, 6, rue Mignot Delstanche, Uxelles, Belgium.

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors disclaim any responsi-

At the present time the Membership Dues are $5.00, due January 1, for all members. Application forms,
which must be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements
to the membership lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:
ROSSICA Society of Russian Philately, c/o
Mr. Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave.,
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226
We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates are as follows:
Full Page Ad is $80.00 Half Page is $40.00 Quarter Page is $20.00
Members of the ROSSICA Society pay one half or 50% of the above rates for ADS except for covers which
is full price for all.

We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in Russian and in English at
2.00 each: Russian Editions No. 44 to 69; English Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.



Report of Referendum Balloting

All members in good standing as of August 15th 1968 received copies of #74 of the "Rossica" Journal.
Along with copies of the Journal every member received a copy of the proposed revised Constitution. In
addition of the foregoing they also received a ballot for the purpose of accepting or rejecting the proposed
revised Constitution. The deadline for the return of the ballots was October 15th 1968. As of that date 61
ballots were returned to the undersigned; the tallying of which was as follows:

In favor of adopting the revised Constitution. 60 votes
Opposed to the adoption of the revised Constitution. 1 vote

In view of the foregoing, the proposed Constitution has been adopted.

Joseph F. Chudoba


"ROSSICA" Society of Russian Philately.

Penn-Garden Hotel Saturday, Nov.23, 1968

Officers present: Alexander Kotlar, Kurt Adler, Rimma Sklarevski, Dr. Gordon Torrey, Emile Marcovitch,
Norman Epstein, Joseph Chudoba.

Officers absent: Andrew Cronin (excused), Martin Harow (excused), Boris Shishkin (excused), Dr. J. Lee
Shneidman (excused), Fred Speers (excused).

Members present: Mrs. Lydia Callahan, Melvin Bloch, William Finkelstein

Visitor present: Mrs. Emile Marcovitch

Meeting called to order at 7:50 P.M. by Chairman, Vice-President Kotlar.

Report on Referendum Balloting on Revised Constitution:

Mr. Chudoba reported that all members in good standing as of August 15th 1968 receiv-
ed copies of #74 of the "Rossica" Journal. Along with copies of the Journal, every member received a copy
of the proposed revised Constitution. In addition to the foregoing they also received a ballot for the purpose
of voting on the acceptance or rejection of the revised Constitution. A total of 187 ballots were sent out;
which indicates the amount of members in good standing at that time. The deadline for the return of the bal-
lots was October 15th 1968. As of that date 61 ballots were returned and the tallying resulted as follows:

In favor of adopting the revised Constitution .................. 60 votes
Opposed to the adoption of the revised Constitution ............. 1 vote

In view of the foregoing results, the proposed Constitution has been adopted. M/S/C Epstein; Sklarevski:
To accept the report. Carried unanimously.

Report on Balloting for National Officers:

Mr. Epstein in making a report on the results in the balloting for Mr. Marcovitch


(Chairman of Balloting Committee); reported that upon the completion of the balloting on the revised Con-
stitution; and with the results known; ballots were sent to the 187 members in good standing after October
15th, with the deadline set as of November 15th 1968. As of that date 93 ballots were returned; the results
of which were as follows:

For President: .............. Mr. Kurt Adler 92 votes None Opposed
For Vice-President: . . Dr. Gordon Torrey 92 votes "
For Secretary:. .............. Mr. Joseph Chudoba 92 votes "
For Treasurer: .............. Mr. Norman Epstein 91 votes "
For Chairman: auditing ......... Mr. Andrew Cronin 91 votes One write-in vote for Mr. V. Popov
For Chairman: Membership ....... Mr. Martin Harow 91 votes None Opposed
For Librarian: .............. Dr. J. Lee Shneidman 92 votes
For Board of Directors: ....... Mr. Emile Marcovitch 92 votes
Mr. Boris Shishkin 92 votes
Mr. Fred Speers 89 votes

M/S/C Chudoba; Sklarevski: To accept the report, and the Officers stand elected. Carried Unanimously.

At this point, former Vice-President Kotlar turned the chati over to President-elect Kurt Adler who proceeded
with the meeting.

All persons present at this point stood in a minutes silence in tribute to Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury, who had
passed away since our last meeting.

President Adler gave a summary of past activities since the death of Doctor Salisbury and resignation of
Mr. Lavrov; the difficulties we had encountered and a program of prospective activities for the future. (A
continuation and discussion on these matters continued later on in meeting).

Report on Finances and Membership:

Mr. Epstein reported that after collaborating with Mr. Cronin and Mr. Chudoba in the above matters; since
the resignation of Mr. Lavrov, the following was found to be a verified report on accounts. This report
covers the period up to and including October 31st 1968:

Finances: Funds received from Mr. Lavrov ................ $ 738.87
Dues collected ............ ............. 1071.00
Journals sold ....... .......... ........ 130.00
Paid advertisements ....................... 81.00
Donations received ........................ 25.00
Total S 2045.87
Less Bank service ch. 9.26
Bank Balance as of 10/31/1968 $ 2036.61

It should be noted that there have been no withdrawals from the "Rossica" bank account; since there have
been no legally elected officers authorized to withdraw funds until the regular elections had taken place in
accordance with the provisions of the ratified Constitution. There are outstanding debts which individual
members had covered, which must be reinbursed from the Bank funds.

Membership: From list received from Mr. Lavrov .............. 265 members
Dropped out, Resigned, Deleted, etc. ............. _. 85
Total after revising-list .............. 180 "
New enrollments to 10/31/1968................. 17
Total in Good standing 10/31/1968 ..... 197 "


* It should be noted that from the lists received from Mr. Lavrov, the Auditing members found that there
have been numerous cases of members carried on the rolls who have not paid dues to the Society for a num-
ber of years; and also former members who had resigned, which were not deleted from Mr. Lavrov's list.

M/S/C Torrey; Sklarevski: To accept the report on Finances, with a vote of thanks. Carried unanimously.

M/S/C Chudoba; Sklarevski: To accept the report of Membership. Carried unanimously.

General Report:

President Adler reported that the action taken by temporary officials during period since the death of Dr.
Salisbury and resignation of Mr. Lavrov be endorsed as official actions of the Society. A vote of thanks
was also proposed for member Charlotte Downs of "Stamps" Magazine for her aid in giving the Society
publicity; particularly during the difficult period we have just passed. Announcement was made that the
present Washington Chapter is to be re-named the Baltimore-Washington Chapter. A vote of thanks was
also proposed for the Washington Chapter for the donation of $15. and a further donation of $20.- from
Mr. S. Serebrakian toward financing our participation in the A.S.D.A. show. A report was also given regard-
ing our British members.

M/S/C Sklarevski; Epstein: To accept the General report and recommendations.

A suggestion was made that a Special meeting of Officers be called for the purpose of taking action on ad-
vertisements for the Journal.

Discussion also took place regarding the Society's participation in the 1969 "Interpex" and "Nojex" shows.

M/S/C Epstein; Torrey: To adjourn. Carried unanimously. (Meeting adjourned 10 P.M.)

Respectfully submitted.


On 15 Dec. 1968, President Kurt Adler appeared on "Philatelic Dialogue", the regular Sunday morning
program on philately at 10:30 a.m. on WNCN FM in New York City.

The host was Henry Fleischman, who lead the discussion on Kurt's collecting interests for the next 30
minutes. Mr. Fleischman posed some very intelligent questions on the possible existence of Russia No.
1 mint, the Consular Airmails, Mongolia, the Russian posts in Sinkiang etc. and our President acquitted
himself nobly.

This was very good publicity for the Society and we have since received enquiries about membership from
interested listeners. Good work, Kurt!


o 0
0 We are breaking up a 0
0 0
0-. large specialized collection of 0
O EMPIRE SOVIET (up to 1945) O
O 000000 O
0 On hand a large selection 0
0 0
O Accumulation of 40 years ...
O 0
0 Offices China, Levant 0
O Armies, Far East. Armenia, 0
0 0
0 Georgia, Azerbaydjan, Latvia, Lithuania, etc. etc. 0
0 0
0 0
O We will gladly make approvals O
O to a specialist. No obligations 0
0 0
0 Attractive Prices Convenient Terms. 0
0 0
0 0
0 We are paying TOP prices 0
0 for scarce or rare varieties, collections. 0
0 0
0 covers (incl. ZEMSTVO) etc. 0
0 0
0 0
0 We are particularly interested in 0
0 buying large lots or collections. Please 0
0 make us offers for cash payment. 0
0 0
O 0
0 P.O. Box 448 MONROE, N.Y. 10950 0


by Boris Shishkin

A joint effort by the officers of the Washington Chapter of Rossica Ed Wolski, Gordon Torrey and the
writer has brought to light a couple of interesting volumes important to the understanding of the organization
of the postal service in Russia about a century ago.

One of the two volumes Wolski spotted on the shelves of the Library of Congress and which Professor Torrey
extricated for our examination and study, is titled Postal Routes in the Russian Empire", (Pochtovyi
Dorozhnik Rossiiskoi Imperii ) published by the Russian Post Office Department in St. Petersburg in 1875.

Originally issued in 1871, and brought up to date in this 1875 edition to take account of the rapidly growing
network of railroads, this postal guide contains two parts, supplemented by an elaborate map showing postal
routes, all numbered for reference to the text, and distances in versts between points on these routes.

Part I gives the postal routing on railroads and postal roads in Russia Proper, as well as in Poland and

Part II details the schedule of travel fees (progonnaya plata) paid to those traveling on official business
of the government as couriers or to private couriers carrying mail. Such travel is classified by types of
vehicles (kibitka, kolyaska, brichki, kareta, sani) and by the number of horses in their harness, and by
types of roads used. Highway taxes are set forth and the rules governing travel orders (podorozhnaya) are
stated. Tax variations applicable to travel on wheels and in sleighs are given. Taxes levied for ferries,
bridges and lake and river boats are also specified.

The bulk of Part II is devoted to a detailed listing of the shortest and the most convenient routing with
distances between points. This includes a complete listing of locations of all post offices. Useful for
checking cancellations.


Of even greater interest is the other volume discovered by Wolski in the Library of Congress. This
is the Compendium of Laws and Regulations governing the Postal Administration in Russia, published
in 1857. (Svod Uchrezhdenii i Ustavov Pochtovych).

Part I deals with the organizational structure of the Postal Administration. The first chapter describes
the central postal administration for all of Russia. It sets forth the chain of command administering
the postal services throughout the Empire and specifies the duties of each official in it.

Organization of postal regions is detailed in the second chapter, stating the duties of the Regional
Director and his aides, including the postmasters in each gubernia (province) and prescribing the
relations between these postal officials and the officials of other government agencies in the regions.

Local postal administration is outlined in Chapter 3, encompassing the range of postoffices from those
in the capital cities of St. Petersburg and Moscow, to those in the gubernias, in the regions (oblasts),
the counties, as well as the cities and towns. Also described are the functions of military postoffices
along the borders and the organization of the handling of the mail sent abroad and received from abroad.


In Chapter 4, which lays down the rules governing the positions in the postal service, their classification,
procedure for recruitment, annual leave etc., there are some real tidbits. For example, it states that
in the Caucasus and the Transcaucasian region, railroad station masters could be assigned duties as
local postmasters, but only acting postmasters, without any additional privileges or emoluments accruing
to them from their postal service. And it details the recruitment procedure for letter carriers, where
the preference is given to the children of postal employees. Eligible for appointments in the lower ranks
of the postal service are also -- children of the clergy, foreigners who had declared their intent to become
Russian subjects and have taken the oath of allegiance, natives of Finland and "colonists".

Part II sets forth the rules governing the transport of postal matters and of passengers.

Lines of administrative authority are clearly defined. An interesting touch is the rule that the Zemstvo
and city police are strictly forbidden to interfere with, or participate in, the administration of post
offices, except that they must promptly respond to requests for help made by the postal authorities
in the event of robbery, riots, insubordination and other emergencies.

A provision makes it possible to subcontract a local post office for operation over a period of twelve
years. Landowners are given eligibility preference for such operation in rural areas.

Provision is made for the establishment of hotels or inns adjacent to postal stations along highways.
The cost of construction and operation of such postal inns is defrayed from state funds available for
highway maintenance.

Rules are also laid down for the operation of local "volunteer postal service" (volnaya pochta) in small
communities, if the whole village or town votes for its establishment. Such a "voluntary post" is oper-
ated by a locally formed cooperative society.

The transport of passengers and mails handled by each local volunteer post may extend only to the next
volunteer post or regular postal station on the road.

In addition to postal fees and passenger fareb, the local volunteer post may collect from a private passen-
ger a charge of 12 kopecks for the vehicle used on each trip, plus 12 kopecks for the greasing of the wheels
on passenger vehicles, or 6 kopecks on drays. On top of that the rules prescribe that the driver must be
given a tip of 6 kopecks "for vodka".

Many franking privileges maintained throughout the postal service are spelled out. Exempt from the payment
of postage, among others, are all government-run charitable and religious institutions, schools, textbooks
distributed by the Ministry of Education to school principals, church supplies and prayer books as well as
mail, with the privilege extended beyond the Russian Church to Lutherans and Roman Catholics.

Franking privileges are granted to the Academy of Sciences, the Main Observatory and the Imperial Public
Library, as well as the whole range of state-operated institutions and enterprises, including state-owned

Of particular interest are the rules governing the rural posts -- the forerunners of the Zemstvo postal
system. Such rural posts are organized only where there is a substantial need for them, that is, at more
populous points and centers of industrial and commercial activity. Each rural station is allocated an
annual outlay of 6 rubles in silver to cover the cost of paper, sealing wax, twine, scales, and other sup-
plies, such outlay to be derived from the local postal receipts.

Ehch regulation throughout the volume is supported by a citation of the statute providing for it.


Of exceptional value to the student is a chronological listing, at the end of the book, of all statutes on
which these postal regulations are based. Year, month, date and number of each law is cited, together
with the pertinent article of the corresponding regulation.

This chronology of postal laws begins with the law of August 13, 1719, which established postal stations
for handling the mail throughout the Empire, and ends with the law of December 20, 1857, regarding the
contract postal stations in Siberia and other outlying areas, issued on the eve of the publication of this

The detailed listing in this volume of postal statutes promulgated over the span of history covered by it,
with its specific references to the corresponding administrative regulations, provides us with an invaluable
source for study of the development of Russian postal administration.

It is clear that the volume was not available to Sergei V. Prigara, the Honored Membered of Rossica, when
he wrote the chapter on the history of Russian post in his notable "Detailed Handbook" for collectors,
published in New York in 1941. We now have the data to fill the gaps in Prigara's account of Russian
postal history.

Our ability to bring to light the material contained in these volumes and to make its high spots available
to the readers of this Journal is the result of teamwork on the part of Wolski, Torrey and the writer team-
work made possible by the Greater Washington Chapter of the Rossica Society.



by Boris Shishkin

What was the Russian postal service like ninety years ago?

The redoubtable team of biblio-hounds of the Washington Chapter of the Rossica Society Ed Wolski, Gordon
Torrey and the present writer has ferreted out of the stacks of the Library of Congress a treasure trove of
detailed factual information responsive to this question.

It is in the form of a 307-page folio, with a double-headed eagle and a pair of linked post horns emblazoned
on its title page, captioned Postal Statistics for 1878, published by the Department of Posts in St. Petersburg
in 1879.

In 1878, we learn, the Postal Department of Russia sold a total of 67,324,914 postage stamps, for the total
face value of 4,763,308.53 rubles. In addition, it sold 11,326,292 stamped envelopes entiree) and
2,735,965 postal cards.

The data reported here reveals that in 1848, when the first stamped envelopes were sold by the post office
the sales, by denominations, were as follows -

10% k. 128,530
20% k. 8,348
30% k. 1,736
Totalling 138,614

-7 -

A footnote is provided to explain that from 1848, the date of the introduction of the stamped envelopes into
use, until 1872, the charge for each envelope included, in addition to the postal fee per unit of weight (11ot),
one kopeck to cover cost of manufacture of each stamped envelope. From 1872 on, this additional charge
was reduced to /2 kopeck per stamped envelope.

As for stamps themselves, the quantity sold is given for each denomination for each year from 1857 through

The only stamp issued in 1857 was the 10 kopeck imperf, better known as Russia No. 1. According to this
book, 10,510 copies of this stamp were sold by the post office.

In 1858 three denominations were put in use. Of the 10 k. denomination, 2.889,353 were sold in that year;
of the 20 k., 12,697; and of 30 k., 1,805, with 1858 sales of all denominations totalling 2,903,855.

For 1878, detailed figures are given on postal operations in each locality. For example, in Odessa in that
year there were 29 mail boxes. They were emptied 10 times a day. There were two mail deliveries a day.
Each day 1,818 letters were posted and 1,820 were delivered. During the entire year, 1,871,619 periodicals
on subscription were dispatched out of the city of Odessa and 448,436 such periodicals were received in
Odessa from other cities within the Empire. (In other words, this count includes domestic mail only.)

Postal routes in 1878 extended over 21,500 versts of railroads and more than 110,000 versts of roads and
highways where horses, of course, provided the traction. The remaining 20,000 odd versts of postal routes
represented transport by boat over seas, lakes and on rivers.

Postal personnel operating the system numbered around 15,000, including clerks, station masters and
postmen. In addition, attached to postal stations along the routes, there were 2,571 scribes, 2,235
supervisors and 17,751 coachmen.

To what extent postal transport in those days was dominated by the horse, is reflected in the fact
that, in 1878, allocated to the postal service were 4,472,828 horses for the transport of posts and
dispatches alone, while nearly 8 million horses were assigned to the transport of passengers over
post roads.

The total volume of intercity domestic mail handled in 1878 was over 65 million paid letters, 25 million
franked, or post-free letters, 4 million registered letters and 1.7 million postcards.

Going abroad were nearly 5 million pieces of first-class mail, plus nearly 300,000 registered letters.


by Boris Shishkin

Another volume discovered on the shelves of the Library of Congress in the nation's capital by Rossica's
Washington Chapter team of Gordon Torrey, Ed Wolski and the writer, is the thin (31 pages plus tables
and supplements) volume published in St. Petersburg in 1893 by Main Administration of Post and Telegraph
of Russian, under the title: "Postal and Telegraphic Statistics for 1891 ".


The figures provided in this report for 1891 show tremendous growth in the volume of postal communications
in the 13 years since the 1878 report we have examined.

In 1891, more than 418 million pieces of mail were handled. In just one year from 1890 to 1891, this
represented an increase of over 34 million pieces of mail handled by the postal service.

The postal system in 1891 employed 16.6 million clerks and 12.2 million postmen and other lower grade

Postal routes in 1891 extend over 186,577 versts, compared with 152,320 versts in 1878.

Use of railway mail cars is only one of the many innovations reflected in the 1891 report.

The big thing, of course, is the telegraph. The network of telegraph wires now extends over 286,185 versts.

And there is emphasis on scientific uses of the telegraph relay of climatic and atmospheric conditions
for weather forecasting etc.

Then, too, there is the telephone with 17,108 versts of telephone wire.

The postal savings system is already in full swing, with 1,705 depositories in operation.

Back in 1882 the system of post office boxes was instituted. By 1891 it was growing in use and popularity.

It was on 4 July (22 June old style) 1891 that the Universal Postal Union concluded its Congress in Vienna.
Rules agreed by the UPU were accepted by Russia and made part of its postal regulations.

Also, there was the unification of the postal service of the Grand Duchy of Finland with that of the rest
of the Empire. It was 1 May, 1891 (19 April. old style) that new postage stamps were introduced in
Finland in this connection, with little circles in the design of the Russian-type issues, to indicate that
revenue from their sale will go into the Treasury of Finland. At the same time the sale and use in Finland
of the postage stamps of Russia, without such special markings, was forbidden for internal use in Finland.
Beginning 1 January, 1892 (20 December, 1891 old style), however, use of Russian stamps on mail addressed
to other parts of the Empire is made obligatory.

For use abroad, franking with either Finnish or Russian stamps, is made possible, but is to be used
strictly in accordance with international postal conventions then in effect.



by V. Areliev

The history of Russian numismatics lists Peter I, Elisabeth and Catherine II among its more zealous and
distinguished benefactors. It was under the rule of Peter I (Peter the Great) that the now famous Hermitage
collection was first organized. During the reign of Elisabeth and Catherine II, many pages of Russian
history were engraved on medals. In 1745 the first Russian numismatic catalogue was published. It was
in Latin and listed the coins in the Imperial Museum. Other works of descriptive nature followed in 1776,
1778, 1779, and 1800. A. L. Schl5zer, a historian of significant reknown, published his history of Russian
money and mining in 1791 in G6ttingen. The first illustrated work came out in 1819. Extensive research
by Col. A. Chertkov, Baron de Chadoir, and Dr. L. von Pansner resulted in almost simultaneous publication


in the 1830s of their now classical works. In the decades to follow, F. Th. Schubert and J. J. Reichel
published catalogues of their collections. Collectors of lesser fame followed suit. A relative calm pre-
vailed during the Sixties and Seventies until, in 1882, Count I. I. Tolstoi published his magnificent mono-
graph on the coins of pre-Mongolian Russia. The first volume of the work on pre-Petrine numismatics by
the same author came out two years later. It dealt in great detail with the coins of Great Novgorod. His
"Coins of Pskov," published in 1886, was the second and, unfortunately, the last volume of the ten plan-
ned originally. The year 1888 brought the most luxurious edition ever published in Russia to date. It was
prepared by three very distinguished numismatists: C.C. Giel, M. Demmeni, and A.A. Ilyin and published
by the Grand Duke Georgii Mikhailovich. The first volume dealt with the coins of Alexander II. Subsequent
volumes on coins of Nicholas I, Alexander I, and Paul I, etc., appeared at irregular intervals. Each volume
contained, in chronological order, various documents pertaining to the period, description of coins and illus-
trations of virtually every coin described. Of Peter the Great coins, only volume II appeared in June of
1914; volumes I and III were never published. This work, especially the documents of the 18th century
coinage, is of paramount importance today due to the fact that the archives of the St. Petersburg Mint for
this particular period were lost in a fire in 1917.

A hitherto unsurpassed numismatic activity took place from the 1890's to the February Revolution in 1917.
In 1893 the "Works of the Moscow Numismatic Society" began to appear at relatively regular intervals and
continued later (1910-1914) under a new name. The year 1896 has brought an important revision of A.
Chertkov's old work on Russian coins of the feudal period. In this year, A. Oreshnikov, then the curator
of the second largest museum in Russia (Alexander III Russian Imperial Historical Museum), published his
"Description of Russian Coins till 1547" (in the year 1547 the Grand Duke Ivan Vasilyevich became the
first Czar and the period between 1547 and 1722 is known as Czarist -- an entirely new political epoch
in Russian history). Two volumes of the "Transactions of the Numismatic Section of the Russian Imper-
ial Archeological Society" appeared between 1906 and 1913. Historical journals, popular magazines and
periodicals carried articles on numismatics. Numerous dealerships, large and small, were offering the
public their catalogues and price lists. A periodical called "Staraya Moneta" (Old Coin) began to be pub-
lished by coin dealer Kopylov and the Russian Numismatic Society" sprang up in St. Petersburg in 1911.
A Kazan dealer, Shumilov, offered a list of names and addresses of over 4000 coin collectors throughout
Russia. Book dealers such as Klochkbv, Solovyov, Troussov, Semyonov in St. Petersburg, Kymmel in
Riga, Gotier in Moscow, Hiersemann in Leipzig and Rollin et Feurdent in Paris and many others offered
numistatic literature. In the same period Count I. Tolstoi was issuing piecemeal his famous Byzantine
Coins," while Gromachevskii, a resident of a small provincial town, Zhitomir, compiled (1904) the only
bibliography of Russian numismatic literature.

But the authors best remembered among collectors are C. C. Giel, Count I. Tolstoi, and A Ilyin for their
combined authorship of what later proved to be the best reference of Russian coins for the period 1725
to 1904.* Undoubtedly, the experience gained in preparing the material for the Grand Duke Georgii
Mikhailovich. Work on Russian Coins and a thorough familiarity with virtually every major collection in
the country have played here a significant role.

By 1918 all the original authors, save A. Ilyin, were dead. But, as if following a solemn oath, Ilyin him-
self published under very adverse and trying political and economic conditions the most detailed cata-
logue to date of Peter the Great copper coins. His later works published under the Bolshevik regime
dealt exclusively with pre-Petrine numismatics. In World War II, during the Leningrad siege, Ilyin moved
to live in the Hermitage and died there within its walls in the summer of 1942. With his death was gone
the last major figure of the once rich and exciting pre-revolution era of Russian numismatics

* An enthusiastic collector and keen reseacher, M. Garshin, updated in 1916 the Giel and Ilyin 1801-1904
catalogue bringing it almost to the end of the reign of Nicholas II His catalogue was published in 450
copies, but to this day it is yet to be found in libraries in the West.


"Abot the establishment of the Zemstvo Posts in Russia"

(Compiled by N. I. Sokolov from official sources).

Together with the circular letter of the late Postal Department as of November 2, 1871 #15745, the Chief
of the Postal Division issued the following rules:
a) On receiving from the Zemstvo Board the application relative to the establishment of the
Zemstvo Post, for which there was issued a permission by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, you are obliged
to order the corresponding postal institutions to deliver without hesitation to the zemstvo post the ordin-
ary mail, periodical publications and notices of the receipt of insured correspondence and of registered
letters that are delivered on the notices.
b) Delivering the correspondence, the postal employee must note in the zemstvo post book the
time of the delivery of the correspondence, how much of each correspondence was delivered, how many
letters were not adequately franked and how much postage due was collected. Also, the total number
subject to the 2 kop. charge and, according to this, how much was charged. The correctness of the entries
in the zemstvo look is certified by the signature of the person in charge of the postal institution from
which the correspondence is delivered who then applies the stamp of the postal institution.
Note: The 2 kop. charge is applied only to correspondence that has tobe charged for asperr Art. 97
of the Provisional Rules and Note (1) to it) and in localities where such charge is established.
c) The transfer of correspondence to zemstvo posts, in order that it may be sent to parts of the
county where there are no Empire postal institutions, must not form an obstacle to the obtaining of the
cards on the part of the inhabitants if they so desire for the purpose of coming into possession of their
correspondence through a trusted intermediary. Nor does the establishment of the transfer of the corres-
pondence from the Empire postal institutions to the zemstvo posts change the rules about the cards (Art. 80
of Prov. Rules), or the explanatory text concerning same in the Index, page 38.
d) In localities where zemstvo posts may become established on the present basis, the postal
institutions should not deliver the notices about receipt of correspondence to the police and district manage-
ments in the future for the delivery to destination. These notices are to be handed over to the zemstvo
posts to deliver to addressees.
e) The ordinary official letters (i.e., the ones without the annotation "with documents") and the
notices of the insured correspondence and registered letters that are to be delivered to the zemstvo post
for future delivery are to be entered into a special book, or notebook if the correspondence is insignifi-
cant, indicating the time, number, sort of correspondence and to whom it is addressed. The persons who
are authorized by the zemstvos to receive such official letters or notices are to sign in this book (or
notebook) that they have received the above.

When the new rules had been issued by the Ministry of Interior Affairs and it was found possible to en-
trust the zemstvos the delivery of the registered letters to their destination, it was also ascertained
that the responsibility of the zemstvos to the sender of such letters would be the same as the respon-
sibility of the postal department.

As far as the 2 kop. charge established by Art. 3 of these Rules for the correspondence that is trans-
ferred from the Empire postal institutions to the zemstvo posts is concerned, this charge was abolished
in the following year (1872). The Provincial Governors were then advised by special communications
of the Postal Deparmnent of this circumstance.

Thus, the establishment of the Zemstvo posts in Russia from its beginning was made by the adminis-
trative dispositions and not by the passage of a law. For this reason the Samara Province Zemstvo
Assembly in its Journal of 7 July 1871, #1176, resolved: to request settlement of the following ques-
tions by passage of a law:

1) To which institutions should the zemstvo post belong -- to private or to public zemstvo?


2) Do zemstvo institutions have the right to move for their needs over the zemstvo roads, including
the ones used by the Empire post, and to send the zemstvo postillions over these roads?
3) In light of Art. 217 of the Code of Zemstvo Obligations, is the establishment of the zemstvo post
to be considered as a right or an obligation of the zemstvos?
4) Are the zemstvos to be responsible, in each case, when the zemstvo post is transporting parcels,
packages and money sums to the towns and villages which are on the postal roads, or are the zemstvo insti-
tutions responsible only when they establish the zemstvo posts on the same conditions and with the same
aims as the Empire post?
5) Is transportation of certain parcels and bulky items by the zemstvo post from town to town for-
bidden? Does this ban apply to all such items or only to the ones that do not belong to the zemstvo insti-
tutions, district managements and government institutions.
6) When a particular zemstvo by a special fund has guaranteed payment of liabilities assumed by the
zemstvo post, can it arrogate to itself the right for the said post to receive from the Empire post all kinds of
correspondence addressed for the delivery within the county?
7) Can the zemstvo posts establish direct postal communications to assist the Empire post where
such Empire posts do not exist, and

II. In case the Minister will decide that the Samara Province zemstvo post may not operate as it is doing
now, then it will have to stop its functions so as to avoid the possible arguments with the Empire post, and
persecutions. Then the Samara Province zemstvo will have to stop furnishing the money to maintain the
stations. It will order the Province Board to immediately close such stations. At the same time, reporting
to the County Boards the results of the applications, report it also to the next Samara Province Zemstvo

The resolution of the Samara Province Zemstvo Assembly was reported by the Samara Governor to the Min-
istry of Interior Affairs and then submitted it to the Committee of the Ministers.

The Ministry, in its presentation to the Committee of Ministers, said the following: In its resolution No.
1176 of 7 July 1871 not only demands the resolutions of the stated questions but also points the way how
these resolutions may be carried out, to wit: in the legislative way. This brings to the fore the question
whether the zemstvos presenting their requests to higher authority may demand to have their requests re-
solved by the passage of a law.

Considering all existing legal dispositions about the compiling, explaining and adding new laws, it is
seen that (Art. 48 & 52 of the Basic Empire Laws) the preliminary considerations of the laws are made
either by the direct order of His Majesty, or the origin of any new law starts in the normal course of
affairs when a study is made of the laws in the Government Senate, or in the Holy Synod, or in the Minis-
tries. Then, the necessity of clarifying or augmenting or of creating a new law will become evident in
the event of the existing law being deficient or unclear then the government and each entity have, the
right and the duty of presenting their opinions to their immediate authorities. If the existing doubts can-
not be resolved by the present law, then such doubts must be communicated either to the Government
Senate or to the corresponding Ministry.

The order of the presentation of the doubts and misunderstandings must be coordinated with the existing
laws on the subject (Arts. 371 and 744, Vol. II, Part I, Code of the Laws, ref. to the Establishment of
the Province Governments (1857), i.e., that such presentation must go through the Province Governor,
and the Governor, prior to the forwarding of the presentation to the higher authority must be assured that
it is not possible to resolve the presented matter using the existing laws.

Therefore, considering that neither in the dispositions for the establishment of the zemstvo institutions
nor in the further laws for these institutions are there any exceptions and that basing on Arts. 21 and
22, Vol. II, Part I, gen. Prov. Inst. (1868), and Regl. of Zemst. Inst., (addn. to Art. 12 of the same
Volume and part, 1868), the zemstvo institutions being in charge of the uses and needs of the province


and are listed as the constitutions of the province, the Ministry of Interior Affairs arrives at the conclusion
that 1) the zemstvo institutions when referring to the legislative matters must follow the order established
for the province institutions and 2) if the zemstvo has been granted the right to solicit from the local author-
ities on subjects pertaining to the local needs and uses, this right to solicit does not give the right to indi-
cate how the matter will be resolved. In the present case, the Samara Province Zemstvo Assembly having
made its application in the form of demanding the resolution of the submitted questions in the legislative
way has departed from the norm of presenting matters that was indicated to the zemstvo, has infringed ex-
isting order for the publishing, changing and adding to the existing laws, as well as for the resolution of
existing doubts. Therefore, based on Article 7 of the Rules of establishment of the zemstvo institutions,
the decision of the assembly must be considered as invalid.

Returning to the subject of the questions presented by the Samara Province Zemstvo Assembly, the Ministry
of the Interior Affairs finds that the questions 1, 2, 6, and 7 are quite clearly and positively resolved by
the history of the emergence of the zemstvos and by the circulars of the Ministry of Interior Affairs to the
Province Governors.

Referring to the questions 5 and 6 -- listing of the articles which the zemstvo posts cannot transport as
well as the inquiry into when the zemstvo is responsible for their transportation, it is pertinent to note
that Art 1 of the Rules of the zemstvo posts (Circular of the Minister of Interior Affairs No. 15649 of Oct.
31, 1871) lists in detail articles which are allowed to be moved by the zemstvo posts. It is necessary to
add that zemstvos may have to enumerate as per Art. 1114 of the Penal Code the instances in which the
zemstvo posts transport the correspondence by the roads where the Empire post is moving. The type and
class of the correspondence is irrelevant; the zemstvo may be held responsible for the transportation of
whatever kind of correspondence by whomever it was sent and wherever unto it may be directed.

Referring to the question 3, it is probable that the Samara Province Zemstvo Assembly misunderstood the
term "zemstvo post," causing this question. This expression zemstvo post" was used by the Code of
the zemstvo duties, as well as by the circulars of the Ministry of Interior Affairs. .... The zemstvo
post is an entirely private affair, its establishment depends on the zemstvo and if the Samara Province
Zemstvo Assembly should desire to close its zemstvo post, it has a perfect right to do so. But the main-
tenance of the horse-drawn carriages attached to the police offices is an obligation stipulated by the
Rules of Zemstvo Obligations and the zemstvo may be freed from this duty only by a special law.

Therefore: 1) the Zemstvo post, as is to be seen from Art. 217, Vol. IV of the Code of the Laws, rubric
of zemstvo obligations and addenda of 1869, is established to carry the correspondence between the
police headquarters and their district stations. Supplying the zemstvo post with the means of transpor-
tation is obligatory since the introduction of the Rules of Zemstvo Obligations (Art. 3 and Add. Para. II,
3b). Also, Art. 5 and 29 of Provisional Rules for Zemstvo Institutions refer to the zemstvo obligations
(add. to Vol. IV, Code of the Laws, Rules of the zemstvo obligations, 1868 appendix), thus the carrying
out of these obligations is imprescriptible (Art. 9, add to Art. 108 of same Rules); 2) The existing legal
dispositions do not impose any other obligations on zemstvos and do not give them any rights whatsoever
for the postal service, although in Par. IX of Art. 2 of the Rules, in the list of the various subject mat-
ters there is mention of participation in the postal obligations; still, such participation may materialize
only if the government deems it necessary to declare, based on Par. XIV of the same Article, the size and
order of the said participation by a special rule, decree, or decision. Likewise, in Par. VII of that same
article there is foreseen the participation of zemstvos in the care of prisons, but this has not been made
effective yet, 3) at present, apart from the obligatory service, as per Art. 217 of the Rules, the Partici-
pation of the zemstvo institutions in transportation of the correspondence by the special zemstvo, i.e.,
rural posts is exclusively conditional to the granting of permission by the Ministry of Interior Affairs
and to the temporary rules issued by the Ministry on the subject and must be limited by the precise ap-
plication of Art. 1114 of the Penal Code, and 4) therefore, any misunderstandings on the part of the
zemstvo institutions that may arise when applying the rules issued by the Ministry of Interior, are to
cleared up by the Ministry. These misunderstandings are to be referred to the Governors by the zemstvos,
the Governor presenting them to the Ministry, but, in no case can they be pretexts for applying for leg-
islative changes.


After considering everything presented above, the Ministry of the Interior replied negatively to the request
of the Samara Province Zemstvo Assembly.

Having studied the application and having heard the opinion of the Minister of Interior, General-Adjutant
Timashov, that the question of the development of the posts is a matterof special care to the Ministry of
the Interior, the Committee resolved to permit the Adjutant General Timashov to deny the application of
the Samara Province Zemstvo Assembly due to discrepancy in its form. The Samara Zemstvo Assembly
also was informed that the Minister of the Interior has under careful scrutiny all questions dealing with
the establishment and future development of the Zemstvo Posts.

When one comes to the subject of the zemstvo post as a whole, it is agreed that the Imperial Post must re-
main entirely an arm of the government. However, in expanding its sphere of action, unsurmountable obsta-
cles are encountered such as a restricted budget, vast space, a thinly scattered population, and substan-
dard roads. The Committee of Ministers therefore has decided that the zemstvo post as an institution com-
plementary to the Empire Post must, when possible, be encouraged.

At all events, therefore, in the opinion of the Ministerial Committee the Zemstvo Post must aid the econo-
mic and cultural development of the country by furnishing communication between points of the political en-
tity and joining all points near, intermediate and remote to the Imperial network as well as increasing the
amount of correspondence. For this reason, the financial burden of the horse-drawn carts must be lightened.

In view of these considerations and the fact that the two posts were closely tied together, the Committee
decided on the following measures to ensure the further development of both:

Elimination of competition between the Empire and Zemstvo Posts.

Conversion of the Zemstvo Posts institutions into really useful auxiliary organs of the Empire Post.

Keeping in mind the great importance of this reorganization and the effects this separate administration
might have on the enlargement or curtailment of Zemstvo Posts, the Ministerial Committee decided:

To permit a detailed study on the part of the Minister of the Interior of the rules which apply to the Empire
Post, Zemstvo Post, horse-drawn carriages and related subjects. These considerations and conclusions,
after being coordinated with the Minister of the Treasury and other interested agencies, should be submit-
ted through the established channels for a detailed analysis.



by Henri Tristant

(concluded from Rossica No. 74)


The following pieces confirm that during the 1914-1917 period, the postal traffic was continued for the
mail exchanged between the Far East and the Allied Powers, as well as with neutral countries. However,
it is obvious that all postal links were broken with Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and their allies,
such as Turkey.


H.T. : Letter sent from Irkutsk to France. Opened at front and resealed with a gummed slip without in-
scription, being accompanied with a circular cachet of the Russian censorship at Irkutsk and struck in vio-
let, together with a one-line censorship marking, also applied in violet and reading "Opened by the military
Censorship" (Fig. 24): -
Departure : Irkutsk, 5 Nov. 1914.
Arrival : Fontenay-sous-Bois, 5 Dec. 1914.
Time taken : 30 days.

There was a noticeable delay in transmission, due perhaps to the censorship.
H.T. : An illustrated postcard, sent through the Chinese P.O. at Tientsin on 1 Jan, 1915, franked with 8
cents in Chinese stamps and addressed to La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland). This card bears a red cachet
reading -VIA SIBERIA-" and measuring 42 x 5 mm (Fig. 25).
J.-P.V. : A postcard sent from Shanghai to Amsterdam and showing various transit markings, enabling us
to follow the journey taken:-
Departure : Shanghai, Chinese P.O., 18 Dec. 1915.
Transits : Pukow Pu-Tientsin Tpo (RPO), 20 Dec. 1915.
Tientsin-Peking TPO, 21 Dec. 1915.
Harbin, 23 Dec. 1915.
Mukden, 25 Dec. 1915.
Petrograd, 6 Jan. 1916.
Arrival : Amsterdam (date unknown).

A Russian censorship marking was applied at Petrograd (Leningrad), while at Amsterdam a mailman's cachet
showing a small oval frame containing the designation "C379" was applied, indicating that the card had been
delivered at the third delivery by mailman No. 379. All the transit markings show that the card was forward-
ed loose as far as Mukden, a Chinese city in Manchuria, situated on the Trans-Manchurian and possessing
an international sorting office. According to the Japanese work "Nihon Yubin Kitte Meihan", the Mukden-
Changchun TPO (RPO) bagged mail in 1911 destined for Berlin, Paris, London and several other European
sorting offices, from which points it also received mail bags (this information also supplied by Mr. J-P.

The passage of this card by way of Petrograd leads us to assume that it was forwarded by surface mail from
this port. Mr. J-P. Visser, the owner of this card, believes that it must have been transmitted via Haparanta,
Stockholm or Ostersund, Oslo and Rotterdam, this route being the normal one from Petrograd to the Nether-
lands after 1915.
G. N. : A card from Peking, franked with a Chinese Republic 4-cent.stamp Junk type:-
Departure : Peking, Chinese P.O., 28 Feb. 1916.
Transit : peking-Mukden TPO (RPO), 28 Feb. 1916.
Arrival : St. Leu-la-Forgt (S- &O, France), 24 March 1916.
Time taken : 25 days.
F.M. : The readers of Les Feuilles Marcophiles" have learned from No. 156 of the existence in the col-
lection of our colleague the President, M. Georges Chapier, of a cover sent from Yokohama on 1 May 1916
to Paris and showing a "Via Siberia" marking. It would be interesting to know the characteristics of this
cachet, as well as the possible existence of an arrival marking, so as to determine the time taken.
J-P. V. : Another card from China, franked with two 5-cent stamps. It was mailed at Monoshini and, af-
ter passing through Wuning, it received the following markings:-
Transit : Hankow, Chinese P.O., 14 Feb. 1917.
Peking-Mukden TPO (RPO), 16 Feb. 1917.

Unfortunately, the cover does not bear any arrival marking of England whence it was addressed, but neither
does it show any return postmark. Hence, it is very probable that it actually did arrive at its destination.
This would prove that, in February 1917, the Trans-Siberian postal service was still in operation.


Nevertheless, some of the mail did not arrive at its destination, since, as is usual in wartime, portions of
it would have been intercepted, seized or sent back to the senders. The following three letters are all
from the same origin, a commercial firm in Hankow, the first two belonging to our colleague, M. Pierre
Langlois, President of the Franco-British Philatelic Society, and the third to the Editor of "Les Feuilles
Marcophiles", M. Georges Petit. All three were addressed to Turkey, registered and supplied at the same
time with a cachet reading "VIA SIBERIA" and measuring 49 x 6 mm. (Fig. 26), together with a marking
inscribed "REGISTERED". Both cachets are in identical lettering and struck in the same violet ink, be-
ing of private origin.

In the first two cases, the franking consists of a 20 c. Hongkong stamp placed on the backs and each cov-
er has on the front a registration cachet of Hankow. The three envelopes are very interesting for collectors
of wartime mail and censored items. The first cover, addressed to Beyrouth, was opened by the British cen-
censorship and sealed with a strip of pink paper inscribed "OPENED BY CENSOR". Moreover, it is sup-
plied with two English markings, both in two lines and reading UNDELIVERABLE / L.P.S." and "RE-
TURNED / NOT TRANSMISSABLE" respectively. The former is in a rectangular frame with the upper cor-
ners trimmed and both are struck in violet. The envelope bears the following postal markings:-
Departure : Hankow, British P.O., 28 Sept. 1914.
Return : Hankow, British P.O., 8 Feb. 1915.
Total time taken (Hankow to Hankow) : 134 days.

It is probable that this letter was forwarded to Great Britain by the Trans-Siberian route, held up in London
by the censorship and finally sent back to its original point of departure by the same route.

The second cover, addressed to Constantinople, was also opened by the British censorship, as demonstrated
by the sealing strip. This differs from the preceding one by being in blue and inscribed "OPENED BY CEN-
SOR/RETURN TO SENDER". It also bears the same "UNDELIVERABLE/L.P.S.' marking, accompanied
this time by a large framed rectangular cachet of return, measuring 63 x 23 mm. and inscribed as follows:-
"Undelivered for reason stated.
To be returned to sender
at the address shown on cover.
Returned from
Returned Letter Section, London."

The two cachets are struck in violet and the second shows without doubt that the letter passed through
London. The postal markings are as follows:,
Departure: : Hankow, British P.O., 19 Dec. 1914.
Transit : REGISTERED, LONDON E.C., 23 and 26 Jan. 1915.
Arrival : Hankow, British P.O., 26 Feb. 1915.
Total time taken (Hankow to Hankow) ; 70 days.
G.P. : The third letter, addressed to Smyrna, has an unusual history which can be deduced from the mark-
ings it bears. Franked on the back with a 20-cent stamp of the Chinese Republic, it is provided on the front
with two cachets struck in violet and both in identical capitals 6 mm. high., reading "VIA SIBERIA" (Fig.-
19) and "REGISTERED". A registration marking inscribed "HANKOW CHINA" was also added, this time
in red. Leaving Hankow on 18 Sept. 1914, it got to Irkutsk where it was opened by the Russian censorship,
as evidenced by a violet cachet already described under Fig. 17 and applied at that city on the front of the

The letter was doubtless held up by the Russian censorship for the duration of hostilities and the revolu-
tionary period which followed, as is apparent from a two-line marking in a rectangular frame, struck in
black, both on the front and back (Fig.27). It was not until 4 May 1920 that the envelope received the
Turkish datestamp of STAMBOUL/DEPART and of the British P.O. at Constantinople dated 20 May 1920.
It then reached the Egyptian P.O. at Port-Said, whose transit marking is dated 28 May 1920. It was sub-
sequently forwarded by mail ship to Hongkong, where it arrived on 2 July 1920 (postmark of the British P.
O.). It is to be hoped that after these six years of travels, the sender still lived at Hankow and picked up
his letter there. The envelope does not bear any Dead Letter Office marking.



The few examples seen, emanating from this period, originate mainly from countries bordering on Siberia.

(a) Manchuria

This northern province of China, situated to the south of the Amur River, separating it from Siberia and
which had come under Japanese influence, proclaimed its independence on 1 May 1932 and assumed the ti-
tle of the Empire of Manchukuo". The capitol was Hsinking (formerly Changchun) and the main cities
were Mukden and Kharbin, situated on the Trans-Manchurian R.R.

Two letters sent from Harbin (Kharbin) will be mentioned:-
H.T. : A registered letter sent on 17 Jan. 1931, franked with Chinese stamps overprinted in Chinese
characters (6 x 10 c. and 9 x 1 c.) and addressed to Berlin, whose arrival marking is dated 29 Jan. 1931.
The time taken was 12 days. The envelope bears a violet marking, reading EXPRESS ". There is al-
so a single-line cachet, apparently struck in the same ink and inscribed "VIA SIBERIA", underlined
by two bars (Fig. 28) and measuring 44 mm. long.
G.B. : Another registered letter, this time franked with Manchurian stamps and also addressed to Berlin:-
Departure : Harbin, 26 April 1933.
Arrival : Berlin, 9 May 1933.
Time taken : 13 days.

It bears impressions in violet of two cachets, one reading REGISTERED" and the other VIA SIBERIA"
underlined by two bars, differing from the preceding by the very close spacing of the bars (Fig. 29), while
the length is now 49 mm. and the height of the letters 5mm.

(b) Japan

H.T. : An example of mail from Japan is supplied by an illustrated postcard in which the designation
"CARTE POSTALE" and its equivalent in Japanese have been crossed out and replaced by markings
reading "PRINTED MATTER" in English and the same in Japanese, both struck in red. Another single-
line cachet measuring 22 x 2 % mm. and reading "VIA SIBERIA" underlined by two bars 25 % mm. long
(fig. 30) was placed in the stamp space on the address side of the card in the same ink. All these mark-
ings were therefore apparently applied by the sender, and exchanger in Kobe of cards stamped view side
and whose name and address are shown in a violet cachet. The 2-sen stamp with which the card is frank-
ed is cancelled 29 August 1932 and there is no arrival marking of Courtrai in Belgium, the destination of
the sending.

(c) China

Two examples of mail from China, both originating from China, can be cited:-
H.S. : Letter sent by the French Commercial Attache in China and addressed to Paris. The cover bears
a small cachet struck in violet, measuring 30 x 4 mm. and reading "Vif Siberie" in slanting letters (Fig. 31).
The franking of 25 c. is in the form of five 5-cent Chinese stamps Junk type:-
Departure : Shanghai, 9 Oct. 1931.
Arrival : Paris, 24 Oct. 1931.
Time taken : 15 days.
H.T. : Letter addressed to Nantes, France and franked with 25 cents in Chinese stamps Sun Yat-sen
type (5 c. and 2 x 10 c.), with a manuscript notation reading "Via Siberia": -
Departure : Shanghai, 5 Jun. 1936.
Arrival : Nantes G.P.O., 26 Jun. 1936.
Time taken : 21 days.


It can be seen that the delays in forwarding, compared to those of the period prior to 1914, are far from
showing any improvement.

(d) The French Occupationary Corps in China

It is noteworthy to mention two covers, originating from Tientsin and sent as army postfree mail, add-
ressed in 1936 to our colleague, Colonel Deloste, who was then in Tunisia. Both of them were struck,
upon departure, with a circular cachet of the Army Postal Officer of the Occupationary Corps in China,
with an anchor in the centre of the marking. One bears a handwritten notation reading "Via Siberie"
and the other, a gummed label measuring 70 x 15 mm., perf. 11 and printed on white paper in the form of
a rectangle with rounded corners, showing the words "VIA SIBERIE" in white on a red ground.

The absence of arrival markings does not allow us to state categorically that these covers have actual-
ly been forwarded by the Siberian route, which is, however, still very likely, but the mention of this for-
warding route, especially by means of a special label, proves that in 1936, the international agreements
regulating postal transmission by the Siberian route remained in force and that postfree mail was also ac-
cepted, no doubt in sealed mail bags.

(e) French Naval Forces in the Far East

The French Occupationary Corps in China was accompanied and aided by a significant number of naval
units, such as cruisers, warships, etc. going up the china Sea from Indochina and the Philippines as far
as Japan, as well as gunboats patrolling the great Chinese rivers, especially the Yangtse-Kiang, as far
as Chungking, on the approaches to Yunnan and Tonkin. This situation lasted until the summer of 1940,
when the Franco-German armistice no longer permitted our country to maintain its positions in the Far
East, face to face with a Japan greedy with conquests.

The mail of French sailors was generally forwarded by sea via Suez and apparently only rarely by the
Trans-Siberian route. After 1930, it could also be forwarded by air to France from Indochina, to which
latter country it was first forwarded.

It should be obvious to recall that each of the large naval units (cruisers, warships etc) had a postal
agency on board, supplied with a hexagonal marking formed of a frame of dashes enclosing the name of
the ship at top and accompanied at bottom with a small naval anchor. Thanks to the friendly help of our
very learned colleague Michel Parlangue, an uncommon example of this Trans-Siberian mail can be pre-
sented to the readers of "Les Feuilles Marcophiles", as follows:-
M.P. : A postfree letter bearing the following two official cachets (a) a large double-circle marking
with the inscription "FORCES NAVALES / EXTREME-ORIENT" between the circles and "FRAN-
CHISE MILITAIRE" in the central portion in thick capitals (Fig. 32) and, (b) a double-circle cachet
reading "CORPS D'OCCUPATION DE CHINE /LE VAGUEMESTRE" with an anchor of the Colonial
Infantry in the centre. In addition, there is a notation reading "Via Siberie" and written by the sen-
Departure : Cruiser "La Motte-Piquet" (hexagonal postal agency cancel Fig. 33), 12 July 1938.
Transit : Paris Gare P.L.M., 28 July 1938.
Arrival : Clamecy (Nievre, France), 29 July 1938.
Time taken : 17 days.

This letter was probably sent from Shanghai, where the naval units were often stationed and the time
taken to Paris, namely. 16 days, was excellent.

During this period, mail could also have been forwarded by air, on condition that the additional fee for
airmail was paid, this being three francs for an ordinary letter not exceeding the minimum weight. The
mail then went by way of Canton and Hanoi, where it overtook the Tonkin mail and reached France by the
regular French air routes at the end of a week.


It is interesting to cite here three of these letters, also belonging to the Parlangue collection and all ori-
ginating from the same cruiser, "La Motte- Piquet", having been forwarded in 1938 by airmail:-
Departure from Arrival Time
the cruiser in France taken

12 March 1938 Lorient, 21 March 1938 9 days
23 May 1938 Lorient, 3 June 1938 11 days
16 Oct. 1938 Paris, 29 Oct. 1938 13 days

It could be said that during this period the time saved compared to transmission by the Siberian route, stiH
remained quite small.

(f) Japanese P.O. abroad at Dairen, Manchukuo

A.C. : A registered commercial letter with 36 sen postage in Japanese stamps (2 + 20 +14 sen), sent to
East Sudetenland (annexed from Czechoslovakia) and including the words "Via Siberia!!" in the typewrit-
ten address:-
Departure :Dairen, I.N.P.O., 30 Jun. 1939
Arrival :Marienthal, 12 July 1939.
Time taken 12 days.

A.C. :: A registered letter, again with 36 sen Japanese postage (10 +20+6 sen), sent to the Protectorate
of Bohemia and Moravia under German occupation and bearing a handwritten notation reading VIA SIBERIA".
The stamps are cancelled with the Japanese type postmark for Dairen, with the date given in the Manchukuo
era (10th. year, 3rd. month, 17th. day) and the violet marking of Dairen, I.N.P.O. dated 17.3.41 appears
elsewhere on the cover. There are no transit or arrival markings, but the letter was opened by the German
Nazi censor, so it must have reached its destination in Olomouc soon afterwards by the Siberian route.

It could therefore be assumed from this item that the Trans-Siberian route was used for forwarding mail
between the Far East and Occupied Europe right up to the German attack on the USSR in June 1941.

These items are the last by date to make mention of the Trans-Siberian route. In these years close to W.W.
II which was going to overturn the political structures of the states in the Far east, airmail had already come
into everyday use, although burdened with quite heavy fees. Following upon the Trans-Siberian route, which
had demonstrated a considerable advance over the sea route for the transmission of mail for Eastern Asia,
the airmail took a giant step in this area, since it is no longer a matter of days, but hours that the trans-
polar sending by air are calculated nowadays and we can expect that intercontinental postal rockets will
reduce this time still further.

Covers of the intercontinental Trans-Siberian mail deserve finding a place in collections, side by side
with those of the maritime mail and first flights. They constitute postal history items that already seem
somewhat out of date but which are, nevertheless, souvenirs of an epoch still known to many present-day
postal historians, some of whom will regret not having tried hard enough earlier to pick them up.


The foregoing study still shows many gaps that it would be in vain to try to conceal and which indeed have
been noted on many occasions, such as incorrect dates, insufficient research into the original departures
from various countries or offices etc.

It has, however, been possible to present objective replies to most of the questions raised in No. 158 of
" Les Feuilles Marcophiles" and draw on an important number of official French or foreign documents,
referring to the Trans-Siberian route and showing its relations with the U.P.U. Thanks to the new items


advised, for the most part, by our colleagues and friends of L'Union Marcophile", this study has present-
ed specific dates and times taken in transmission, supplied evidence about the advantages gained by each
of the countries participating in the service, as compared with the routes utilized previously or concurrent-
ly for forwarding mail.

Some new information has been presented on the functions of the international postal service during the war
years. The periods of interruption of traffic have been, if not specified with precision, at least narrowed
down between dates, which only the knowledge of new pieces would enable us to correct further.

A certain number of specific markings, many of which were hitherto unknown, have been described and re-
produced. It can be said that those which appear on the military mail originating from Tientsin had an of-
ficial, if not a postal, character, since it is difficult to pinpoint whether they belonged to the military
postmaster of the Occupationary Corps, or the Postal Administration, the two organizations being close-
ly entwined. It can be said, however, that the Voie Siberie" cachets and those of the Army Mails,
which accompany them, are always struck in the same ink. Other cachets are obviously of private origin,
such as those originating on correspondence of commercial, banking or insurance company origins.

Most of these markings are of an undetermined nature, as they have often only been seen in single exam-
ples and only a knowledge of further material would enable us to narrow down their identification. It
would be advisable to compare them with cachets mentioning other forwarding routes, such as by sea,
via Suez etc. or with manuscript notations like "English Line", or even the name of the mail ship on
which the correspondence would have been transported.

It will be noted that these markings are often inscribed in French, which is the language of the U.P.U.,
or in English, the most widely used commercial language, but there are other cachets which exist in
foreign languages such as Russian, Japanese etc. However, the collector should not place all his faith
in these indicia, as an example cited above has shown that a card from Shanghai bearing the handwrit-
ten notation "Par paquebot des M. Mmes Polynesien" (By mail ship of the Messageries Maritimes Line,
s.s. Polynesien") had, nevertheless, been forwarded by the Siberian route.

By the same token, mail bearing the notation "Voie Siberie" would have gone by mail ship, if the time
taken as indicated by the postmarks of departure and arrival corresponded to that for transmission by
way of Suez. Some uncertainty still remains about markings of the period of the Russo-Japanese War
(1904-05), when the Trans-Siberian mail would have been subjected to delays on the Manchurian
stretch, which was in the theatre of military operations.

The presence of a maritime marking, applied upon departure, does not rule out transmission by the Sib-
erian route, if the mail had had the opportunity to go on to Shanghai or Nagasaki and then be directed
to Siberia, as has been seen from one example quoted above.

The collector should therefore attach the greatest importance to the dates of departure and arrival of
the postmarks, rather than to the cachets themselves, as only the former will confirm whether the Trans-
Siberian route has been utilized or not. Moreover, he would especially appreciate items bearing a tran-
sit marking which specifies without ambiguity the route taken, as shown by several examples presented
in the course of this study.

The postal historian who devotes himself to the study of the various countries of departure and arrival
in each of the two directions of traffic, i.e. Europe to Asia and vice versa, and to the different per-
iods of postal traffic with their varied frankings, will discover quite a large field of research, of
which he has found only a few aspects covered here. He will also find it bristling with difficulties,
which will have to be surmounted before he will be able to put together a representation of all the
postal activities which have taken advantage of transmission via Siberia.


Many of our colleagues certainly possess items which they have not described. Perhaps they have preferred
to await the publication of this work, so as to have the personal pleasure of advising the existence of a new
piece in "Les Feuilles Marcophiles", which may not be any rarer then those items already known. If the
piece has not been previously recorded, they will, however, have added their contribution to the common
goal, achieved with the help of all those who have replied to my appeal and accorded me their benevolent
and kindly-disposed collaboration. All those whose names have been quoted in the course of this study
should be warmly thanked. Their help has been valued by me and I consider it as the greatest reward for
the several weeks that I have devoted to a task for which I was not at all prepared and so little qualified.

It is a pleasant duty for me to express my special thanks to our eminent colleague Raymond Salles, who has
been good enough to cut short several hours of his work on the maritime mails so as to put at my disposi-
tion his vast knowledge and unequalled source material and to permit me to consult his collection, which is
a mine of valuable items.

I attempted, a few years ago, to draw attention to the importance of the international aspect of the ques-
tion, as some collectors abroad have also been interested in this intercontinental mail sent by a land route.
My New York correspondent, Mr. A. Cronin, with whom I have had friendly relations for many years, has ask-
ed permission, in the name of an American group, to translate into English and Russian the data for which
I have reserved the first preference to Les Feuilles Marcophiles". In return, the results of the researches
of this group on other aspects of the problem will be sent to me and I will be authorized to let the readers
of Les Feuilles Marcophiles" have the benefit of them.

In concluding, I would not want to forget bringing to mind the person who, if I may say so, launched me in-
to this arduous task. This was the mysterious anonymous person who, in the Questionner Section" of
No. 19/155 of "Les Feuilles Marcophiles" asked with feigned innocence some embarrassing questions
about two cachets reading "VIA SIBERIA" (in Russian characters) and "VIA DALNY". Indeed, nothing
can make it sound that their appearance could have been the result of a miraculous coincidence. He can
boast of having succeeded in getting me to take up the bait he had laid.

Certain clues have helped me to learn that it was an important official of the great enterprise that pub-
lishes "Les Feuilles Marcophiles". I have not been able to find out the identity of this secret person,
who, as I have been told, has hidden himself under the initials of G.P. Perhaps a reader more astute
than me will be able to unmask him and thank him in the name of those to whom this study will be of in-


(a) Bulletin Mensuel des Postes : Oct. 1903; Feb. 1904; May 1907; Aug. 1907; Dec. 1908; March 1913;
May 1913.
(b) Bulletin Economique de l'Indochine : Years 1907 to 1914.
(c) L'Eveil Economique de 1'Indochine : 1927.
(d) Bulletin du Comitd de 1'Asie Frangaise : Years 1907 to 1911.
(e) L'Indochine : work in octavo, published on the occasion of the International Exhibition of Roubaix
in 1911.
(f) La Sib6rie : by Louis Hambis. Published by Presses Universitaires de France in 1957 in the "Que
sais-je ?" series.
(g) The Postal History Society (Bulletin of) : 1962, No. 117.
(h) Bulletin de la Socidet Internationale d'Histoire Postale; 1962-63, Nos. 3/4 & 5/6.
(i) Les Feuilles Marcophiles : 1963-64,Nos. 155, 156, 158, 160 & 161.


EDITORIAL COMMENT: Monsieur Tristant's concluding remarks are essential to the correct classifica-
tion of Trans-Siberian mail, and the importance of transit times and arrival markings cannot be overlooked.
As an example, we can now cite a registered letter from Kobe, Japan with 20 sen postage, sent on 3 July
1912 and addressed to Bijeljina in Bosnia, with the handwritten notation "Via Siberie" crossed out by
blue pencil. However, on turning the cover over, we find it actually reached its destination 17 days later,
so it must have gone by the Siberian route after all.
We think members will agree the foregoing study has been a model of painstaking philatelic research in
a barely-known and fascinating field. We hope that Monsieur Tristant will keep up the good work and that
we will have the opportunity of publishing other investigations from his erudite pen in the future.

by Henri TRISTANT.

Benpuro BoeoHHot MeXypoP -VUA X5WIA- VIA S IB ER IA

FIG. 24. FIG. 25. FIG. 26.

FIG. 27. FIG. 28. FIG. 29.


Via SISERIA V a Sibdre v^ 38

FIG. 30. FIG. 31. FIG. 32. FIG. 33.



by Mesdames L. P. Grigorieva and N. V. Novokshchenova

(translated from the manual "Centenary of the first Russian postage stamp", issued in Moscow in 1958 by
the "Svyaz' Publishing House, and translated by C.P. Bulak).

The first Russian postage stamps were reproductions of simple line drawings, printed for the most part in
one or two colors by typography. The present-day issues are characterized by highly artistic designs, the
variety of the subject matter, bright coloring and the many-sided methods utilized in their production.

Postage stamps may be divided into two groups, namely, the regular or definitive stamps and the special or
commemorative issues. The regular stamps have standard designs, values, sizes and colors. We can in-
clude in this group the "Workman", "Working Woman", "Miner", "State Farm Woman", "Pilot", "Scien-
tist", "USSR Coat of Arms", Spasskii Tower" and the "Soldier on Guard" designs. The size of the reg-
ular issues is 18.5 x 26mm.

The stamps of commemorative issues differ in their designs, values, sizes, colors and methods of printing.
They can be of varied shapes, such as rectangular, square or triangular. These stamps are most frequently
in sizes measuring 18.5 x 26 mm., 26 x 37 mm., and 30 x 42 mm.

Postage stamps are reproduced from the original designs. The original drawings for the stamps are made on
white paper in Indian ink, or as wash drawings or in water-colors, in dimensions three to five times larger
than final size of the stamp. Specially prepared and retouched photographs are also used as original de-
signs. The original may be line drawings, or in half tones, or a combination of the two and in one or more

In line drawings, the images are made with lines of the same intensity, i.e. with Indian ink on white paper.
In the half-tone originals, the image is created with graduations from one tone to another, by changing the
intensity of the drawing as, for example, in newspaper photographs. In combinations of the two processes,
the line-drawn sections are utilized for the frames and inscriptions of the stamps and the half-tone portions
for the vignette or picture.

Impressions corresponding to the original designs are obtained by the transfer of ink by pressure from the
printing forme or plate to the paper. During the printing process, the raised elements of the forme are rolled
over with ink and pass the impression onto the paper. The non-printing or sunken elements do not, of course,
transfer the ink from the forme to the paper.

Depending upon the arrangement of the raised and sunken elements, there are three basic types of printing
processes, namely relief, deep and flat.

In the formes for the relief process, the printing elements 1" are placed higher than the blank spaces "2"
(see fig. 1), and the former are all in the same horizontal plane. Hence, the ink on them is applied with the
same thickness. Upon impression, all sections of the design are of the same intensity.

In order to reproduce the half-tones of the original drawing (from dark to light tones), the design is divided
into dots of different sizes, the so-called "raster" or screen dots. Upon impression, the dark sections of
the original are reproduced by screen dots of large diameter and the lighter ones by dots of smaller size
(fig. 2). The distances between the screen dots are so small on impression that the printed design is as-

23 -

sumed by the human eye to be a continuous one, but varying in intensity.

Typography belongs to the relief system of printing and is used for the impression of line designs, while
the autotype or half-tone process prints the screened images.

In the forme for the deep process, the printing elements 1" are deeper than the blank spaces "2" (see fig.
3). The ink is applied over the entire surface of the forme and wiped off the blank elements with special
instruments. In this method, the reproduction of the half-tone image is effected by the different thickness-
es of the layer of ink, which is transferred to the paper by the printing elements of varying depths. The
darker parts of the design correspond to the deeper printing elements which deliver more ink on impression,
while the shallower ones correspond to the lighter tones.

The photogravure and metallographic (recess) methods belong to the deep printing process.

In the flat process, the printing elements 1" and the blank spaces "2" are all located in the same plane
(fig. 4). This method of printing is based upon the selective moistening of the printing elements with ink
and of the blank elements with water.

In making the formes for flat printing, oily substances are placed on the printing elements. The blank
elements are treated in such a way that they obtain the ability of being moistened by water and of re-
pelling ink. During the printing process, the roller places the ink on the printing elements only. The
thickness of the layer of ink placed on the paper is the same in all sections and also the half-tone effect
is, achieved, as in the relief method, by subdividing the design into dots of different sizes.

The offset and phototype methods of printing belong to the flat system.

At the present time (1957), postage stamps are being produced by all of the abovementioned printing

Photographing the designs of the stamps:

The technical procedure of producing postage stamps consists of the following basic operations; (1)
photographing the design, (2) preparation of the printing plates, (3) printing the impressions and (4) the
finishing-off process.

Special photographic reproducing cameras are used to photograph the original designs, using artificial
lighting with arc, mercury or luminscent features. The resulting image of the drawing is negative on the
film. In preparing the formes, it is frequently necessary to transfer the image to another sensitive plate
which is now positive and this is achieved either by projection or by contact printing. The projection
method is the usual photographic process, using a negative and passing light through it so as to be able
to change the size of the image.

Photographing the half-tone original both for the relief and the flat printing systems is done using the
"raster" or screen. The screen consists of a glass plate, ruled with opaque lines, crossing at right
angles to each other and thus forming transparent squares (fig. 5). It is customary to have a grid of from
60 to 80 lines per centimeter (152 to 203 lines per inch). The screen is placed between the original draw-
ing and a sensitized layer. The light reflected from the drawing passes through the transparent squares
of the screen and acts on the sensitized layer, thus forming opaque dots of different sizes. The larger
lots on the negative correspond to the lighter portions of the drawing, the half-tones have smaller dots,
while the smallest dots correspond to the darker sections of the original design.

The production of multicolored stamps is based on the principle of mixing the three basic colors, namely
yellow, red and blue. Thus, when photographing the colored drawing, the process is subdivided into three
colors. This is achieved by the use of filters (colored gelatine films or glass). The light filter does not

24 -

pass all the colors reflected from the original drawing, but only the ones corresponding to its own color
or colors. Thus, if the blue-violet filter is applied during photography, it will pass the blue and red rays
to the sensitized layer and block the yellow layer. Hence, the parts of the negative that correspond to the
yellow color will be transparent and when transferred onto the printing plate, will give the image for the
yellow ink. When the green filter is used, it will pass the blue and yellow rays, blocking the red ones.
On reproducing the image from such a negative, the plate for printing red will result. To eliminate a blue
color, an orange filter is used. Negatives may be prepared for other colors such as rose, light blue etc.
by changing the exposure times, when required by the color of the original drawing.

Three different color negatives can thus be obtained by photography to give half-toned or line effects as
required. Plates are prepared from each one for printing in the corresponding color. Thus, the applica-
tion of colors to the sheet of paper will give a colored impression similar to that of the original drawing.

When printing from plates set up for three or more inks, a blending of colors is produced on the paper.
Hence, for example, the application of yellow and red will result in an orange color, blue and yellow and
yellow will give green and all three together will produce black. The combined impression of screen dots
printed in the three basic colors results in different colors and shades.

In connection with the above, if, on photographing single or multicolored half-tones of the original drawing,
it is still not possible to give the exact shades required, the negatives and diapositives (slides) are re-
touched to increase or decrease the optic densities of the photographed image. The retouching is done by
mechanical or chemical methods. Mechanical retouching is achieved by hand-painting the negative with
Indian ink, an aniline dye or pencil to give the additional densities required. The same method is used to
retouch contact prints. Chemical retouching is performed by strengthening or weakening the intensity of
the image by the application of chemicals over relatively large sections.

The small format of the postage stamp permits the printing on the same sheet of paper of many subjects
of the same design. Group negatives or slides of the stamps are used for making such plates, which are
obtained by means of a multiple-copying machine or a photo-multiplying apparatus. Using the photo-multi-
plying equipment, the cassette may move either horizontally or vertically. With each consecutive movement
of the cassette along a distance equal to the width of the stamp, one horizontal row of stamps is thus photo-
graphed. The material is then adjusted vertically to obtain another horizontal row of stamps, etc.

In the multiple-copying machine method, the group negatives or slides of the stamps are obtained by consecu-
tive copying of the single subjects, using the contact process.

The number of images in the group negatives and slides is determined by the format of the stamp, its coloring,
the composition of the design and the method of printing.

If a stamp is printed by the photogravure process, a negative is first obtained (with colors separated if photo-
graphed from a colored original drawing), retouched and then by using the multiple-photography process, 40 to
100 images of the stamp are taken, reducing them to the required size, i.e. a group slide or multipositive is ob-
tained. When printing stamps in one color, it is customary to place two multipositives together, so as to pre-
pare a plate having from 80 to 200 images.

Using the phototype process, a group negative of from 50 to 100 images is prepared by the photo-multiplying

The multiplication of images for relief and offset printing is made from a single slide. Using the screen
process, the half-tone negatives are made first in the same way as the slides and then the screened images
are reduced to the size of the stamp.

For the relief method, the single slide is copied five times by the multiple-copying equipment and the re-

25 -

suiting negative strip of five images is used for the preparation of the printing plates.

For offset printing, a multipositive of from 30 to 100 images is obtained by consecutive exposure in the
multiple-copying machine.


Copying the images: Using photo-mechanical methods, the images of the stamps are transferred to the sur-
face of the printing plates by means of pneumatic copying frames. The copying process is effected from a
group negative or multipositive of the images to a metal or glass plate covered with a light-sensitive layer.
The negative or slide is pressed firmly against the plate and a light turned on. The sections that are affect-
ed by the action of the light lose their ability to be dissolved or to swell in water. The portions that are not
affected retain that ability. In this way, the image is subdivided into printing and blank elements. Subse- '
quent treatment of the printing forme is performed in various ways, depending on the method of printing.

Relief printing: Using the relief printing method, the forme is prepared from a copper plate one to two mm.
thick. The plate is degreased and treated in a centifugal machine with a light-sensitive solution consisting
of polyvynil alcohol, sensitized with chromium salts. Anegative strip of five images is copied onto the sur-
face of the copper plate and developed in water. The affected portions of the layer corresponding to the
printing elements are not dissolved in water. They are dyed with coloring solution and treated further with a
solution of tannic acid to increase attachment to the plate.

The washed and dried plates are heated at a temperature of from 1000to 2000Centigrade (2120to 3920F), as a
consequence of which the portions affected by the tannic acid become an acid-resistant layer with an enamel-like
consistency. To obtain the blank printing elements which are not protected by the tannic treated layer, the rel-
evant portions of the plate are etched with a solution of ferric chloride. The etching of the screened images is
done with several applications of retouching ink, starting from the darkest to the lightest tones. In this way,
the exact transfer of the tones of the design is achieved.

The quality of the cliche's obtained is checked on a trial printing press. Several strips called stereos are taken
from a mould of five cliche's. To achieve this, a copper matrix (plate with the depressed image of the printing
elements) is first prepared from the cliches by the electrotyping process. Five to eight electros of five sub-
jects each are then obtained from the matrix and backed up to the required thickness with melted type-metal to
produce the stereos. These stereos are worked over mechanically, touched up and finally chrome-plated to
increase their durability.

Multicolored stamps are printed a color at a time in sheets of 25 to 40 units from the chrome-treated stereos
on platen presses (fig.6). The stereos are placed in a metal frame on the bed of the printing press. During
operation, the inks are placed on the printing elements (4), using the ink rollers (1). The paper (2) is placed
on the bed or pressing surface (3). This surface is then applied against the printing forme and the ink is trans-
ferred from the printing elements to the paper. After impression, the paper is moved to the receiving table (5).
The colors are applied in a specified sequence, the yellow ink being printed first, followed by red and finally
blue. Figure 7 shows the order in which the colors are placed on the paper. The printing of stamps by this
method is done mostly on chalk-surfaced paper, without gum on the reverse side.

The capacity of the platen machine is 6,000 impressions per seven-hour shift.

Offset printing method: The offset plates are made of aluminum sheets 0.6 to 0.8 mm. thick. They are slight-
ly roughened to increase their capacity to hold the solutions and oil preparations. The degreased sheet is
covered with a light-sensitive layer in the centrifugal machine, sensitized gum arabic being utilized in the
composition of the layer.

The design of the stamps is copied on the light-sensitive film from a multipositive (method of positive copying).

26 -

The multipositive, consisting of from 30 to 100 images, is copied two to four times on the same plate, result-
ing in a total of from 120 to 400 images. Once transferred from the slide, the images are developed in a spec-
ial solution. The sections that remained unaffected by the tannic acid during the copying process and which
correspond to the printing elements are dissolved and eliminated from the plate. The tannic-treated sections
(blank elements) are not dissolved by the developer and remain on the plate.

Once the design is developed, the surface of the printing elements from which the layer has been eliminated
is treated with a solution of ferric chloride. Varnish and oil preparations are placed on the surface of the
plate. The tannic-treated layer is eliminated from the blank portions by rubbing the plate with a brush dipped
in warm water. The images of the stamps treated with varnish and the oily substances rer ain on the surface
of the forme. The blank elements of the printing forme are treated with an etching solution and covered with
a solution of dextrine to make permanent their ability to be moistened with water.

The stamps are printed on single or two-color offset machines and it could be said that the two-color machine
corresponds to two single-color printing operations.

The two-color offset machine (fig. 8) has two printing formes (1). two rubber cylinders (4), two color (2) and
two damping (3) rollers, as well as one printing cylinder (5). During operation, the dampening elements of
each section moisten the surfaces of the corresponding forme (8). The oiled printing elements are not damp-
ened with water. Next, the color rollers (2) cover the formes with ink. The color is retained only by the
oiled sections of the formes, while the blank elements which hold the water with their roughened surfaces
reject the ink and remain untouched.

The impression of the designs in ink is transferred from the two formes to the rubber cylinders. The sheet
of paper (6), which is presented automatically, is held by the clamps of the printing cylinder (5) and, with
the rotation of this cylinder, it touches the rubber rollers. As a result, two different colors are transferred
from the rubber surfaces to the sheet of paper with each rotation under the pressure of the printing cylinder.
The printed sheet is transferred to the receiving table automatically by means of a conveyer (7). To print
stamps in four colors, the sheet is passed through the machine twice.

Paper of photo-lithographic quality is used to print multicolored stamps by the offset method. Single-color
stamps are printed on offset paper which already has gum on the reverse side. The offset machines are
fast-running and their capacity is 10,000 to 25.000 impressions per seven-hour shift. The offset method is
rapid and inexpensive, permitting large printings to be prepared in a short space of time.

The photogravure method of printing: A steel cylinder is used for the preparation of the forme in photo-
gravure printing. The surface of the cylinder is coated electrolytically with a layer of copper (copper

Pigmented paper, consisting of a paper underlay with a layer of colored gelatine deposited on it, is
used as the light-sensitive film during the preparation of the formes. Before copying, the pigmented paper
is moistened with a solution of potassium dichromate and dried on glass. The multipositive of the images
(2) is copied onto the light-sensitive layer of paper (1) -see fig. 9a. Under the action of light, the gelatine
layer is treated with tannic acid to varying depths, in accordance with the tones of the images. The
largest amount of light is passed through the transparent sections of the slide corresponding to the light-
est sections of the images and the layer of gelatine is penetrated by the tannic acid to a considerable
depth. The portions of the slide that transfer the half-tones of the images pass less light and the layer
is affected to a lesser depth by the tannic acid. The darkest sections of the slide pass the least amount
of light, with a resultant insignificant action of the tannic acid on the gelatine layer.

The screen is also copied onto the pigmented paper (fig. 9b). This screen consists of a glass plate on
which the opaque elements are marked as squares, separated by the transparent crossing lines (fig. 10).
The screen breaks down the picture into printing elements of identical size in the form of tiny squares


or rhombi.

After copying, the pigmented paper is transferred, with the gelatine layer undermost, to the polished and
degreased surface of the copper sleeve (4) see fig. 9c. The transfer of the gelatine layer to the cylinder
is made on a transfer stand by means of a rotating roller. A jet of water is applied between the surface of
the cylinder and the pigmented paper, softening the gelatine layer, and the entire preparation is affixed to
the cylinder under pressure from the rotating roller. Next, the cylinder with the gelatine copy is immersed
in a hot bath and rotated there, whereupon the pigmented paper is easily separated and the gelatine layer
remains on the surface of the cylinder (fig. 9c). The portions of the gelatine layer unaffected by the tannic
acid are dissolved by hot water and by light rubbing with cotton batting (cotton wool). The contour of the
tannic gelatine layer, which shows all graduations of tone of the images, remains on the cylinder after de-
veloping (fig. 9d). The developed gelatine layer is dried and etched, after all blank elements of the forme
had been previously covered with asphalt lacquer.

During the etching process, the surface of the rotating cylinder is irrigated with solutions of ferric chloride
in different concentrations. The etching reaches varying depths of the copper cylinder, depending on the
thickness of the tannic gelatine layer and the concentrations of the solutions, corresponding to the tones of
the picture. (fig. 9e).

The stronger solutions of ferric chloride penetrate the thin layers of gelatine to etch the dark sections of
the picture; the weaker solutions penetrate the thicker layers of gelatine and etch the graduations of tones
in sequence. The etching process continues until the lightest shades of the design are obtained. In etch-
ing the formes, the ferric chloride solutions do not penetrate the thickest sections of the gelatine layers that
correspond to the lines of the screen and hence, the copper sleeve is not dissolved in such areas. Thus,
blank elements (5) are created, between which are the printing elements (6), consisting of cells of varying
depth (fig. 9f).

The criss-cross lines, which are blank, serve as supports for the "rakel" or doctor blade, which is a thin
steel knife whose purpose is to eliminate the ink from the blank elements during the printing process.

Upon termination of the etching process, the remnants of the gelatine layer and lacquer are eliminated and
followed by printing from the forme. The diagrams in Fig. lla,b,c show the process of applying ink (1)
to the forme, its removal from blank elements by the doctor blade (2) and the transfer of the ink from the
deeper printing elements to the paper (3).

Once the issue has been printed, the copper sleeve is taken off the forme and the cylinder used again for
copper deposition. The half-tone stamps are printed by the photogravure method in one or two colors on
a two-color press in sheets of 80 to 200 stamps. The rolls of paper used to print the stamps have gum on
the reverse side.

Figure 12 shows the process of printing by the photogravure method on a two-color press. Two forme
cylinders (1) are partially immersed in the inks, which are in the tanks (2) With the rotation of the cy-
linders, the printing and blank elements of the formes are covered with ink, while the doctor blades (3)
which touch the surface of the formes, scrape the ink off the blank sections. The ink used for photogravure
printing must be thih and quick-drying and it is therefore made with volatile solvents such as benzine,
benzol and toluol.

The paper coming from the roll (4) moves through the series of rollers between the impression and print-
ing cylinders (5) of the first section. Under pressure of the printing cylinder on the impression cylinder,
the ink from the deep printing elements of the forme is transferred onto the paper. After that, the paper
with the design printed in the first ink passes over the heated cylinder (6) and is treated with a stream of
air (7) to speed up the drying of the ink.


The paper then goes through the second section where the second ink is applied. The continuous roll of
paper, with the panes of stamps printed in two colors, passes again over the heated cylinder (6) of the
second section and dried in the stream of air (7). As the roll of paper leaves the machine, it is cut with
a special separator (8) into sheets of the right size, which are finally placed on the receiving table (9).

The automatic regulation of the different colors during two-color printing is controlled by electronic equip-
ment. The productive capacity of the machine is 12,000 sheets per seven-hour shift.

Metallographic or recess printing: The forces for the metallographic method of printing are prepared by
engraving the design on metal plates without using any of the photo-mechanical processes. The work is
done by hand by highly qualified engravers.

For the preparation of the engraving from the half-tone original, an outline of the original drawing is made
on a transparent film in the form of a sketch of all its contours and the limits of the tone transitions. The
outline is transferred to a zinc plate and the resulting image is etched. The deepened image of the out-
line is transferred from the zinc to a copper plate, reducing the image to the natural size of the stamp by
means of a pantograph (a contrivance for the reproduction of a drawing to a specified scale).

The engraver sets up the engraving by hand on the copper plate, following the original drawing and utiliz-
ing hatching (lines of shading) to present a half-tone effect. In the darker parts of the image, the hatchings
are cut wider and deeper. Thin and interrupted hatchings correspond to the lighter sections of the original
design and are cut to a shallower extent. The portions with even tones are transferred to the surface of
the metal using a special engine-turning machine and then followed by etching.

The prepared engraving serves as the original die from which copies are made by electrolysis. The elec-
tros obtained by this multiple process consist of from 50 to 150 cliches which are worked over and chrome-

Stamps prepared by the metallographic or recess process in one or two colors are printed on a metallographic
rotary press (fig. 13). The stamps are printed on dampened paper of photo-lithographic quality, without gum
on the reverse side. Two printing formes,(1) are set on the backing cylinder (2). Rotation of the forme
cylinder roller (3) covers the surface of the printing formes with ink. Next, the formes approach the first
(4) and second (5) wiping attachments where most of the ink is taken off. The wiping attachments are
make of cloth which, during the operation of the machine, are gradually rolled from one roller to another,
passing around the pressing cylinders (6). The cloths also perform vibrating movements in a cross direction.
The third wiping attachment (7) finally cleans the blank elements of the forme and the ink remains only
in the recessed printing elements.

The sheets of paper (8) are passed to the clamps (9) of the chain belt (10) which moves around the print-
ing cylinder (11) and holds the sheet of paper during printing. During the rotation of the printing cylinder
and its contact with the forme, the ink is transferred under strong pressure from the recesses or deep
elements to the dampened paper.

The backing cylinder has an electric heater so as to warm the formes for the more efficient transfer of
the ink from the recessed printing elements. Leaving the printing section, the sheet is freed from the
clamps, falls on the bands of the conveyer belt (12) and the direction of movement of the sheet is turn-
ed 909. The impressed sheet is moved from the conveyer belt to the receiving table with printed side
up. To avoid ink smears, the impressions are covered with paper and dried in drying cupboards.

The metallographic rotary machine produces 6,000 impressions per seven-hour shifts.

The phototype (granular photogravure) method: The phototype process gives the most exact reproduc-
tion of complicated half-tone and line images, as compared to other processes. However, due to the


slow production rate and instability of the printing formes, it is not much used in printing. This process is
used in stamp production for the reproduction of very complicated original drawings.

Dispite the fact that the printing elements of the photolithographic formes are somewhat recessed compared
with the blank elements, this method is classified as flat printing, since the process of obtaining impres-
sions from the phototype formes is based on the selective moistening of the printing elements with ink and
of the blank ones with water.

The phototype printing forme consists of a thick plate of glass, covered with a layer of sensitized gelatine.
The selective moistening of the gelatine on the phototype printing forme with ink or water is achieved by
the ability of the chromium-treated gelatine to darken under the action of light and to lose its ability to
swell. The darker sections of gelatine practically do no swell in water and thus accept a great amount of
ink, while the paler portions swell a little, receiving less ink and the unaffected sections receive water well,
swell greatly and reject the ink.

The phototype formes are made without utilizing a screen. The role of the screen dots is taken over here
by the smallest particles of the gelatine layer, called phototype grains and being irregular in shape. They
are larger in the darker sections and smaller in the lighter ones (fig.14). Hence, the amount of ink received
by the forme depends not only on the degree of swelling and contour of the gelatine layer, but also on the
size of the phototype grains.

To prepare the phototype formes, the frosted surface of the glass plate is covered with an underlay con-
sisting of molten glass, gelatine and chrome alum. The underlay ensures that the gelatine layer is strong-
ly attached to the surface of the glass. The glass with its underlay is heated and sponged with a warm
solution of dichromate salts, following which, it is dried in a drying cupboard at a temperature of 600 to
650 Centigrade (1400to 1490 F). During the drying process, the gelatine layer becomes wrinkled and
phototype grains are formed.

The design of the stamps is then copied from the group negative onto the light-sensitive layer on the
glass. The darkening of the chromium-treated layer is done under the action of light, i.e. the layer is
affected most in the darker sections, less' in the half-tones and least in the lighter portions. The glass
is immersed in water for developing. The gelatine layer swells and the dichromate salts, which were
not affected by the light are washed out. During the swelling process, elevated sections are formed
on the gelatine layer and the wrinkles due to the formation of the phototype grains are eliminated. The
portions of the gelatine layer which are darkest (corresponding to the dark sections of the design) hard-
ly swell at all and have the largest grains. With the decrease in darkening, the swelling of the gelatine
layer is increased. As a result, the size of the grains and the amount of ink received also increase.

The sections of the gelatine layer that have not been affected by the light, i.e. have no image, have
swollen most during developing, resulting in completely smooth portions in the gelatine layer and such
sections do not take any ink.

The prepared forme is set aside for 24 hours before printing. Prior to the installation of the forme on
the printing machine, the gelatine layer is dampened with a mixture of water and glycerine to give it
printing ability (a dry gelatine layer merges completely with the ink).

The swollen gelatine layer of the forme holds moisture and, during the printing process, each sheet is
therefore not dampened before impression, in contrast to the offset process. However, the gradual eva-
poration of the moisture from the surface of the layer and the absorption of some of it by the paper re-
quire the periodical dampening of the forme after 300 to 400 impressions.

Printing by the phototype method is made on a single-color machine (fig.15). Fifty to one hundred cop-
ies of stamps are arranged on the sheet of paper. Paper of phototype quality is used for the printing

30 -

of multicolored stamps, the paper being without gum on the reverse.

The inking assembly of the machine consists of the rolling (1) and unrolling (2) cylinders and of two revolv-
ing discs (3). The revolving discs and the bed (4), together with the printing forme (5) have movement in
backward and forward directions. The ink from the unrolling cylinders is transferred onto the discs. The
rolling cylinders, rotating on the discs, receive the ink and pass it on to the printing forme.

The sheet of paper (6) is placed on the board (7) and is held with the clamps (8) of the printing cylinder (9).
With the rotation of the printing cylinder and the movement of the bed, the sheet of paper makes contact
with the forme and with the pressure of the printing cylinder on the forme, the ink from the printing forme is
transferred to the paper.

The production rate of the machine is 1000 to 2000 impressions per seven-hour shift.


After printing, the postage stamps pass through the finishing process. The reverse side is gummed and the
sheets of stamps are perforated, trimmed and packed.

A solution of dextrine, with gelatine and other substances added, is used for the gum. The gelatine increas-
es the stability of the gum when it is moistened to affix the stamp. The layer of gum is applied in a warm-
ed state to the printed sheets in a special gumming machine, the diagram for which is presented in Fig. 16.
The sheets of stamps, placed one above the other on a table (1) are conveyed to the clamps (3) of a cylinder
(4) which grasp one or two sheets depending on the size. With the rotation of the cylinder, the sheet of
stamps touches the roller (5), which gums it. Then it is removed slowly via the closed belt (6), where the
layer of gum is dried with streams of warm air (7). The sheets are conveyed from this dryer to the receiving
table (8). The production rate of the machine is 4,000 to 7,000 sheets per seven-hour shift.

The sheets of stamps are perforated on semi-automatic machines, with the aid of perforators (fig. 17). These
consist of a plate (1) with pins set in it (2), another plate with openings (3) which direct the pins, and a
matrix with holes (4). Lowering the plate, the pins enter the holes of the matrix and perforate the paper (5),
located between the pins and the matrix-

The pins used to perforate the stamps have a diameter of 0.9 mm. The distance between the centers of
two adjoining openings is 1.7 mm. The pins in the plate and the openings in the matrix, as well as in the
directing plate, may be set in one line, i.e. line perforation (fig. 18a), or in n shape, i.e. comb. per-
foration (fig. 18b).

The line perforators are used on stands. The punching of the holes is carried out by lowering the plate
with the pins by means of a pedal. Each line of perforations is made first in one direction along the rows
and then completed by turning the sheet 90 degrees. To speed up the process, several sheets are perfo-
rated at one time. Stamps of any size, such as in square, rectangular and triangular shapes, can be per-
forated by this process.

The stamps of regular and commemorative issues, measuring 18.5 x 26mm, 26 x 37mm and 30 x 42mm are per-
forated on semi-automatic machines. The semi-automatic machine (fig. 19) consists of the following main
parts: a table (1), a perforation installation with changeable perforators (2), a mechanism for moving sheets
and a receiving board (3). The semi-automatic equipment mainly uses perforators with the "fl" -shaped
distribution of pins and holes (comb perforation). The sheets of stamps are stapled on the table of the
semi-automatic perforator, so that the designs on the several sheets will coincide when they are perforated.

During the operation of the semi-automatic perforator, the plate with the pins is raised and lowered. When
the pins are in the raised position, the clamps move the sheets, which are located between the pins and the


matrix, up to a distance equal to the height of the stamps. With each lowering of the plate with the pins,
the stamps in the first row are perforated on three sides. Then, after moving the sheets one step up, the
plate with the pins is lowered again and the next row of stamps is perforated. With this operation, the bot-
tom side of the stamps in the preceding row is also perforated. Each row of stamps is perforated consecu-
tively in this way. After perforation is completed, the sheets of stamps are placed on the receiving board.
The production rate of the semi-automatic perforator is 8,000 sheets per seven-hour shift. The perforated
sheets are trimmed on a single-knife guillotine, 500 sheets at a time.

The last phase of the process consists in reviewing the quality of the stamps and packing them. The qual;
ity of the printing, perforations, gum and trimming are all checked. The sheets of stamps are packed, 1000
sheets in each package and wrapped in paper. The package is tied with string, the ends of which are sealed.


With a knowledge of the peculiarities of each type of printing process, it is possible to determine, by exam-
ining a stamp, the method used to print it.

An embossing effect is characteristic of stamps printed by the '"relief" method (typography), the embossing
being caused during printing by the pressure of the raised elements of the forme. The relief effect may be
insignificant enough so that the embossing cannot be seen on the reverse side of the stamp. The printing
of multicolored stamps by the relief process is done mainly on chalky paper. However, paper without a
chalk surface is sometimes used, so this indication is not a difinite one.

The main ways by which the type of printing process may be determined are by examining the composition
of the printing elements of the design on the finished stamp and the uniformity of the ink distribution on the
printing elements. To inspect the stamps, a 10 or 15-power magnifying glass should be used.

The half-tone stamps produced by the relief and offset methods are characterized by small, evenly distributed
printing elements, in the shape of screen dots of different sizes but of the same intensity, due to the same
thickness of the ink applied. Stamps printed by the relief method may be further distinguished from offset
stamps by the degree of uniformity of the ink distribution on the printing elements of the design. The lack
of uniformity in the distribution of the ink layer is noticeable in stamps printed by the relief method and is
the result of the impression of the ink on the paper during the process. In this method, there is less ink in
the middle of the printing element i.e. in the centre of the dot or line, while there is more on the edges and
a sharper contour is thereby created. The relief process has been used to print the stamps of the 1958
"Swan Lake Ballet" set, the Pavilions of the Union Republics of the 1955 Agricultural Exhibition issue,
the 1952 Metro set etc.

There is no spreading out of the ink in offset printing. The ink is evenly applied in the impression, as the
printing elements are all on the same plane as the blank spaces and, moreover, the pressure applied in the
offset method is very small. The offset process was used to print the multicolored stamps of the 1958 set
for the centenary of the Russian postage stamp, the stamps for the Civilian Air Fleet set of 1958, as well
as for stamps for regular issues in the '"Spasskii Tower", 'Scientist" and other designs, printed in one

Postage stamps printed by the photogravure method are characterized by the small, systematically distri-
buted printing elements in the form of rounded squares of the same size but with different intensities of
tone. The darker squares correspond to the darkest sections of the design and the lighter ones to the light-
est portions. The design is made up of square elements that are intersected by the white lines of the
screen, which is sharply seen in the lighter sections of the design and nearly filled with ink in its darker

Stamps produced by the method of photogravure printing are distinguished by the rich variety of half-tones
and have deep saturation in the dark places of the design. This process was used to print the airmail
stamps of the 1955 set in one color, the 1957 stamp for the noted Russian artist, M. N. Yermolova, in two

32 -

colors, the 1958 set for the 40th. anniversity of the Communist Party of the Ukraine in two colors, etc.

Fine grains of different sizes, making up the printing elements, are characteristic of stamps produced by
the phototype method. The stamps printed by this process have a wide range of half-tones and of sharpness
of the fine details of the design. Many multicolored stamps have been printed, utilizing this method, such
as the numerous stamps devoted to V. I. Lenin, such as "Messengers with V. I. Lenin" (1952), "Lenin in
Smolnyi" (1954), "V.I. Lenin with children" (1952) and the sets commemorating noted painters, artists and
composers, such as the great Russian painter I. E. Repin, with a reproduction of his painting The
Zaporogian Cossacks write a letter to the Sultan of Turkey", issued in 1956, a scene from the opera Ivan
Susanin" by the great Russian Composer M. I. Glinka (1957) etc.

Metallographic or recess-printed stamps have engravings which show that the darkest parts of the design are
made with wider lines and they have a raised effect, due to the larger amount of ink on them. The thick layer
of ink imparts a lustre to the fuller portions of the design. The lightest sections are represented by very
thin, interrupted lines that have a very thin layer of ink. The indentations corresponding to the lines of the
design are noticeable on the reverse side of the stamp.

"The dampening of the sheets of paper, prior to printing by the metallographic process and the drying of the
sheets after impression may cause their shrinkage, as a consequence of which metallographic stamps are
encountered that do not always adher to exactly the same dimensions.

As examples of stamps produced by this last method, the 1958 series devoted to the portrait of K. Marx in
one color, the 1956 set celebrating the 225th. anniversary of the birth of the great Russian general A. V.
Suvorov, in two colors etc. may serve as examples.


EDITORIAL COMMENT: At the time the above article was written (1958), Mme Grigorieva was a Senior
Scientific Consultant at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Goznak (the State Printing Office)
and Mmme. Novokshchgnova a Technological Engineer at the Polygraphic Production Section of the Head
Office at Goznak. The data presented by these highly qualified ladies should be of great interest to those
members desirous of understanding the processes utilized in printing Soviet postage stamps. The trend
towards the offset process as the cheapest and quickest method of production, already apparent in 1958, is
even nore pronounced today. It is obvious that in a highly industrialized country the size of the USSR,
with a population of around 235 million, the consumption of postage stamps must be enormous.

As an excellent example of various process applied within the same set of stamps, members may turn to
the 1927 series commemorating the tenth anniversary of the Revolution, The 3, 8, and 18 kop. values
were printed by the relief process (typography), the 5 and 28 kop. by photogravure (deep printing) the 14
kop. by lithography and the 7 kop. by recess engraving metallographicc method).

The Russians have always had an innate sense of color, as well as a traditional aptitude for the printing
arts. As examples, we may cite the "Lubki" or engraved illustrations, which go back to Peter the Great's
time and were often executed by folk artists, their colored lithographic counterparts of the early 19th.
Century, the beautiful examples of local illustrative art as characterized by many Zemstvo stamps, the
technical excellence of the issues of Imperial Russia, etc.

For a fuller account of some applications in the relief method (typography), particularly in the utilization
of half-tone combinations, please turn to the article "'The Girls at Goznak", elsewhere in this Journal.
The detailed captions to Fig. 7 herewith will be fully explained in this second article.

Members will see, on comparing Figs. 5 and 10, that the screen for the relief and offset printing process-

33 -

es has opaque lines and transparent squares, while the screen for the photogravure method is the other way
around. With regard to the phototype or granular photogravure, there is one set printed by this method, name-
ly the Sanatoria issue of 1939 (Sov. Cat. 748-55; Scott 749-56; Gibbons 876-83: Yvert 741-48; Michel 718-
25; Zumstein 701-08) where the ink on the finished stamps has a raised effect, particularly on the 30-kop.
value, and thus has a lustre resembling the recess process (Fig. 20). Examination with a magnifying glass,
as recommended by the authors, will show that this set belongs to the phototype method after all, as the
grains then become clearly apparent. A highly appropriate reason for using this process to reproduce a
complicated design is demonstrated by the set for the Second International Polar Year (Sov. Cat. 435-36;
Scott C34-35; Gibbons 588-89; Yvert Airs 31-32; Michel 410-11; Zumstein 404-05A) which features a de-
tailed map of the North Polar region.

We intend to go into further detail for the printing processes covered by the above study, so that members
will be able to recognize and classify unusual varieties in their collections. Please see future issues of
the Journal for much interesting data.

34 -

by L. P. Grigorieva & N. V. Novokshchinova


Formal Fig. 1: Diagram for setting up the
forme, and the transfer of the half-
SI Ommucx tone image in relief printing.
09 18 *lImpression
BwAcoaR nevamb Re/ief Printing 1 printing elements.
Pitc. 1. Cxea nOCTpOCH p u lepC.a o.1y )ro 2 blank elements.
PHC. I. Cxeua noctpoemia ()3p\ni 11 "epClna'i iiO.lyTOli.oro
H3o6paweKeHl B BIJCOKOl IIl'laTlH:
I neaTaloulie 3aeueMCHT 2 npo6eL'.almhu 3.lI C WHT\

Oi @0 O 0 0 0 0

O 0 O Fig. 2: Enlarged representation of
OO000 the transfer of the image in the
SOO 0 0 q L t relief and offset methods of printing.
@ @e. @0 60 0

PHc. 2. Cxeua nepenaai nio.yToHBoro H130opaWimellni B BeCOKOM
n olceTHOM cIoco6ax neqaTHi B yBe.1lllCIIIIlo BuIte


"[Wo E N E' ***M*@0 *! I
*IEm lunD Jn :" m ps;0,,lOO 1 p o o o #,,,pos ,n,
rmAy6oias neevam Deep Printing nlocias ne'ewabz F/ot Prin ting

Pnc. 3. Cxeua nocrpoemna dopmua i nepeiaini no.-yToinoo-ro Puc. 4. Cxeua nocTpoeHHa (GopMl it nepeaai noIlayToHoBoro
n3o6paneHmna B ray6oKon neaTln: H3o6pa)eeHHR B .naocKon ncqaTu:
I neqaaouunl e 3AUCHTu, 2 npo6&.lbHue .IeeuHu 1 neTarTaoum e JeneurHu, 2 npoue6.lbile b 3.1CeHTbl

Fig. 3: Diagram for the preparation of the Fig.4: Diagram for the preparation of the
forme, and the transfer of the half-tone forme, and the transfer of the half-tone
image in deep printing. image in flat printing.
1 printing elements; 2 blank elements. 1 printing elements; 2 blank elements.

I .

S Diagram of the
Psic. 5. CxeMa pacTpa n.wi BwIcoKconl platen press.
H oeCCTHofl neqaTM yBe.1tIeinHioM

Fig. 5: Enlarged representation of the screen
for the relief and offset printing processes.
Pic. 6. Cxeua TwrejoA umatumn

IIociAOlBaTuo HOb Ha&0H umm Ipacor npi neIqaTHm MapoK ,BHA KpeMJI" CiOCo6OM BbICOrKOn ,IeaTH

OrrTct x)KeroI ORTTrNK pacHo CoauemeHHfl OrTCK
cpacau xpacKM zeATo, qpacsof Orrcx KpacHoR
x cHHeRt Kpacom paan aSM pOMKH
1. Solid impression 2. Half-tone impression 5. Composite impression 6. Impression in red
in yellow ink in carmine ink in yellow, carmine, (Frame Plate).
(Background Plate). (Vignette Plate No. 1). and blue.


Forornl coBMealmeall
CoBeUeHHhtnfl orTTH OrrpCK cnefl 4-KpacoqHnR oTrrMXc aplK
-_ oITOA H KpaCH0o9 KpaCOK EBacK -
3. Composite impression 4. Half-tont impression in 7. Completed composite
in yellow and carmine. blue impression of the stamp
(Vignette Plate No. 2). in four colors.

Fig. 7


C^,a l \ \ \
0 a) 2 KOnHpOBaHHe AHHnO3HTHBa
< Ya narueraym 6yuary (a) Copying the slide onto
+ the pigmented paper.

SKO HPOBa HH pacp a a (b) Copying the screen onto
I lr eHHTHyo 6yuary the pigmented paper.

) nepesoA eAuTiaHooro cAoa (c) Transfer of gelatine layer
I nrMeHTHoA 6ymurarH Ha
S opMu.Hn UHAHHap of pigmented paper onto forme
---arexhui re ---pa.ri of h iu sheet hecugh penAbe.IAnb 3aAy6jaeHHbtl (d) Raised tannic gelatine
I eimwmwr aSuure 'he printing machine 4 NeaaT HHORuA CAoR nocae
Pc. 8. Cxeua anyxKpaco.Hoa oceTHOR Maunulu npoiMBCHH layer after developing.
IpaIeIe ufC UHAnpa .epe3 (e) Etching the cylinder
Fig. 8: Diagram of an offset machine, printing 5 eaT.a through the tannic gelatine
in two colors. layer.

e) 4 4opMa nocAe Tpa3MAneII (f) The forme after etching. '
Fig. 9: Diagram of steps
PHC. 9. CxeMa nponcccoB HaroToum op rMy6ooln 'aTfor preparing the former
for preparing the formes
in deep printing.

.1 la a II .Ie k-IIII.l C.l41% c .L kpackt
i cren ) VVIA ri J Xoy C,-

icf- 41,11-i 11
rinl uv a I of iA jr(.kl 6anA

P) twun./- ,6) .I.2r: o-I --
Pitt. 10. (Cx\ukt pacrlim
A-1) l P 1. p'aIC k P 12. C a .iitii c ii yxKpacrilmiio NuuI m a i ya i r.i'ii allc
Fig. 10: Diagral o thei
screen for deep printingFig. 11 DiagrIIa of the deep process of printing. Fig. 12: Diagram of a machine, printing in two
photogravuree). colors by the deep process.

Page 4 of Illustrations

the impression of a stamp, printed
6 by the phototype process.
2. '- 2* I_ i' 1 1 I1---'111 I 1.11.


PHc. 15. Cxeua O2OIspaCOlHOR MO8THHOHOI YTnllTorlm oR MeaHH PMc. 17. CxeMa nepoopaiuonHoro annapara
PHC. 15. Cxema OAHoKpaCOqH~of maLUHHU AARH ()OTorriHof neqaTH

Fig. 15: Diagram of the phtotype Fig. 17: Diagram of the
machine, printing in one color, perforating equipment.

7 00 0 0 0 00 oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

006 .B O OOO 00000000000000000000000000
the impression of a stamp, pointed

# 0 0
: I 0Ls 4

POc. 16. CxeMa ryumpowabnO-j.KHPoaAbHOR ua8mHHU Puc. 18. CxeMa pacnoioceHHs uWnueK H orTsepcTHR B nepopauoHHuMI
annaparax aByX rMnoB
Fig. 16: Diagram of the gumming or lacquer a-nepibopsoPoniuA annapaTr AHeuaHoro Tuna. 6-nepnopanHOHHn annapar
machine. c a -o6pa3HIHM pacnojimoNCeHM mnHeIKn
Fig. 18: Diagram of the arrangement of the
pins and holes in two types of perforating
.__ -. (a) Perforating machine of the line type.

(b) Perforating machine with the f" -
shaped arrangement of the pins

Pi. 19. CxeMa iicp3opaHionuo Mapiumni -noAiyaBTea Fig. 20.
Fig. 19: Diagram of the semi-automatic
perforating machine.


by A. Cronin

Zhenski um luchshe vsyakikh dum" ("A woman's mind is better than any idea" Russian proverb).

First of all, an explanation of the title. Goznak is the Russian telescopic abbreviation for the State Print-
ing Office at Moscow. Its full title is "Upravlenie Proizvodstvom gosudarstvennykh znakov" or Adminis-
tration for Producing State Securities". The girls referred to are the female technicians who operate the
autotype (half-tone or process engraving) and typographic presses and whose surnames (last names) have
been seen on the margins of sheets of stamps printed between 1939 and 1958.

The USSR is not the only country that has used this procedure for recording the names of the press oper-
ators on sheet margins. Portugal did the same when printing the familiar "Ceres" type regulars. In the
Soviet case, however, the situation was much more involved as, in most cases, printing in several colors
was required. Therein lies a fascinating story.

The existence of such markings was first brought to the writer's attention about 20 years ago, when full
sheets cancelled-to-order of the 1940 Chaikovskii set were noticed in a dealer's stock. They all had a
female surname imprinted in the top left margin of sheets of each value, in the color of that particular
stamp. Unfortunately, the possible significance of these markings was not realized until later, by which
time the dealer had already broken up the sheets and torn off the margins.

Judging the material so far seen, the names originally appeared on the margins of monocolored stamps,
the earliest noted being the 30 kop. regular stamp of 1939 in the "pilot" design. By 1940, when the
long Agricultural Exhibition set appeared, printing was in four colors. The sequence of color applica-
tion for such types of stamps is given in Fig. 7 of the valuable article The technology of producing
postage stamps" by L.P. Grigorieva and N. V. Novokshchinova, highly trained officials working at Goz-
nak, and reproduced elsewhere in this Journal.

In the four-color process, a background plate, printing in solid yellow color, was first utilized (abbre-
viated as BP" hereafter, in Appendix No. 2). Then, two different "vignette" or picture plates ("VP")
in half-tone were applied in other colors, normally in blue and red and with screens placed at angles at dif-
ferent angles to each other. Dependent upon the disposition of the yellow background, shades of green
(resulting from the overlay of blue upon yellow) and orange (from the overlay of red or carmine upon yellow)
could then be skillfully produced in the required portions of the image to give a good multicolored repre-
sentation of the design. The yellow underlay also served to give a "warm" overall effect to the vignette
or central portion of the design. Finally, a frame plate (" FP") together with designation of face value,
made by the typographic or line-block process, was added to complete the stamp.

By the end of 1952, the experience gained in this complex art was such that the "Metro" or Subway set
issued in December of that year could be printed in a total of seven colors. This required the utilization
of one background plate, two vignette plates and four frame plates, one of the latter for each on the four
different 40-kop. Values. The stamps were in sheets of 20 units, with one vertical row of five for each
design and arranged in two different settings! The technical problems associated with the production of
this issue must have been tremendous.

This still required only four different colors per design. However, in that same month, the one-ruble value
of the Polenov set was printed in a total of five colors, i.e. utilizing one background plate, two vignette
plates and two frame plates. The technique was further improved in 1955 for the set commemorating the
All-Union Agricultural Exhibition and featuring the pavilions of the Union Republics. Each of these 40-
kop. stamps and their one-ruble successors of 1956 were printed in six colors, using one background
plate, three vignette plates and two frame plates.

39 -

All these developments were reflected in the assignments of the female technicians performing the print-
ing work, as demonstrated by the markings on the sheet margins. Originally, in the 1939-1940 period, only
the surnames were quoted (Fig. 1) and a total of eight of them are known so far, as follows: -


By 1950, and possibly earlier, the designations were changed slightly, to add a specific number after each
name (Figs. 2 & 3). This number was permanently assigned to each technician and remained unchanged,
regardless of the color or stamp being printed. So far, nineteen of these operators have been tentatively
identified, as follows:


It will be noted that there are two different Smirnovas (Nos. 2540 & 12434), while Khabolainen is differen-
tiated from Khabolainina L. both by spelling and numbers (2543 & 11582). These two names are obviously
of Finnish origin (Haapalainen). Care should be taken not to confuse Nosova (without number) with Kosova
(No. 4631). During this second period, the technicians ocassionally omitted the numbers after their sur-
names (Fig. 3). Moreover, in several cases, an operator was responsible for printing two of the colors for a
particular stamp (see Fig. 3 and Appendix No. 2). Among other interesting points is the fact that Khabolainen,
Obukhova and Shchelkina were operating the color presses for at least 19 years.

Probably the most important thing to emerge from this survey is that study of these imprinted names helps to
determine the various printings for each stamp, as can be seen from Appendix No. 2 below. This is a far
better guide to the classification of several printings, than going by differences in shades alone.

Due to trimming of the sheets prior to issue, some of the designations on the margins are either missing or
only partially present (Figs. 2 & 3). It then takes some imagination to decipher the mutilated names and
numbers, but reference to the lists given above should help.

This article has only scratched the surface of the ramifications of printing stamps by the autotype (half-
tone) process. Normally, each of the vignette plates has its "raster" or screen set at a different angle
to the others so as to achieve specific shading effects. Chalk-surfaced paper was used to enhance the
overall appearance of the finished stamps. In the case of the multicolored issues, the sheets were usu-
ally arranged in several ways to produce combinations of different designs and values. The listing and
study of all these different settings is a project in itself. All this and other interesting data relating to
stamps printed by the autotype or process-engraving method will be covered in our Journal at later dates.

The more the multicolored stamps printed by this method are studied, the more one is struck by the care
and efficiency with which they were produced. Issues, which might normally be dismissed as gaudy
pieces of paper, are found to have their colors in perfect register. It should be noted that women ar.(
especially suited for this complicated work, as they have a very highly developed sense of color and
an aptitude for dexterity in handling the sheets and presses during the printing processes.

Two appendices now follow, the first detailing all the issues between 1939 and 1958, upon whose margins
these designations could theoretically occur. No stamps have been produced by this method since 1958,
probably because it was becoming too slow in completing the quantities of stamps required. The second
appendix lists all the markings so far discovered. It will be seen that only rarely are all the technicians

40 -

given here for each stamp, on account of the trimming mentioned above.

In concluding, the writer wishes to thank Kurt Adler for the opportunity to record additional items from his
collection. Further data from other members to complete the story from sheets with wider margin will be
greatly appreciated.


Listing of stamps and issues liable to bear the surnames of the printing technicians: (m) multicolored;
(u) unicolored.

1939: Typographed regular stamps; 5 k. miner; 15 kop. soldier; 30 kop. pilot (u) Saltykov Shchedrin set. (u).

1940: Set in honor of P. I. Chaikovskii (u)
Set in honor of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition in Moscow (m).

1941: Views of the Kremlin regulars: 1 rub. & 2 rub. (u).
The people's Militia stamp. 30 kop. blue (u).

1943: 60 kop. typographed regular stamp with arms of USSR (u)
1945: Stamp in honor of the Guards Regiment; 60 kop. bright red (u).
1945: Stamp in honor of the Guards Regiment; 60 kop. bright red (u)

1947: 800th. anniversary of Moscow: 1 rup.. 2 rub., 3 rub., 5 rub., (m); also 3 rub., s. sheet (m) 60 kop. reg-
ular stamp with view of Spasskii Tower (u).

1948: Shishkin set: 50 kop. and 60 kop. values only (m).

1949: Reafforestation set: 40 kop. map design only (m).

1950: Anniversary of Lenin's death (m).
Moscow Museaums (m).
Regular stamps: 25 kop. blue (pilot) and 40 kop. red (State Arms and flag of USSR).
Levitan set: 40 kop. value only (m).
Aivazovskii set (m).

1951: Vasnetsov set (m).

1952: Polenov set (m).
Metro set (m).

1954: 300th. anniversary union of Ukraine with Russia: 40 kop. Shevchenko Opera Theatre; 1 rub. State
Flags of Ukrainian SSR and RSFSR: 1 rub. Shevchenko Memorial (m).

All-Union Agricultural Exhibition set: 1 rub. value only (m).

All-Union Agricultural Exhibition set (second issue). All values (m).

1955: Agricultural Pavilions of the Union Republics set (m).

1956: Agricultural Exhibition set with Regional Pavilions (m).

1957: Sixth Youth and Student Festival with views of Moscow (m).

41 -

1958: All-Union Industrial Exhibition; 60 kop. value (m).
Chaikovskii set; both 40 kop. values only, perf. and imperf (m).


Listing of known operator surnames and numbers, as well as the probable sequence of color application for
each stamp. The different printings for each stamp are listed separately. The background plates are abbre-
viated as BP", the vignette plates as "VP" and the frame plates as "FP".

1939: Regular issue.

30 kop. pilot in blue RUMYANTSEVA.

1940: All-Union Agricultural Exhibition issue.

10 kop. Volga Region:

BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 : pale blue SHCHELKINA
VP 2 :carmine OBUKHOVA
FP : green-?

30 kop. Azerbaijan + Armenia + Tadzhikistan + Kirghizstan (combination sheet):

(a) BP : yellow KHABOLAINEN
VP 1 : pale blue NEMKOVA
VP 2 : carmine OBUKHOVA
FP : green NOSOVA.

(b) BP : yellow GAGINA
VP 1 : pale blue ?
VP 2 : carmine OBUKHOVA
FP : green NOSOVA

(c) BP : yellow GAGINA
VP 1 : pale blue ?
VP 2 : carmine OBUKHOVA
FP : green BYKOVA

30 kop. Ukrainian SSR.

VP 1 : dark blue NEMKOVA
VP 2 : carmine ?
FP : green ?

60 kop. Kazakhstan + Karelo + Finnish SSR 4- Mechanization + Main Pavilion (Combination sheet):

BP : yellow NEMKOVA
VP 1 : dark blue NEMKOVA
VP 2 : carmine MASENKOVA
FP : green NOSOVA

1950: Anniversary of Lenin's death: 5

42 -

40 kop. value

BP :yellow ?
VP 1 : orange-brown NEKLYUDOVA 9325
VP 2 : dark brown KHARITONOVA 9722
FP :lilac-grey- ?

50 kop. value:

(a) BP : yellow SHCHELKINA 3043
VP 1 : carmine KHARITONOVA 9722
VP 2 :blue SMIRNOVA 2540
FP : brown ?

(b) BP : yellow VINOGRADOVA 2578
VP 1 : carmine OBUKHOVA 9902
VP 2 : blue TITOVA 265
FP : brown SHCHELKINA 3043

1 rub. value:

(a) BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 : blue-?
VP 2 : red ?
FP : dark brown VINOGRADOVA 2578

(b) BP :yellow VINOGRADOVA 2578
VP1 : blue-?
VP2 : red-?
FP : dark brown ?

1950: Moscow Museums set:

40 kop. Historical Museum

BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 : red- ?
VP 2 : blue OBUKHOVA 9902
FP : grey-brown- ?

40 kop. Pushkin Museum

(a) BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 : blue KHABALAININ (no number; note spelling)
VP 2 : carmine SHCHELKINA 3043
FP : lilac- ?

(b) BP : yellow -?
VP 1 : blue OBUKHOVA 9902
VP 2 : carmine TITOVA 265
FP :lilac- ?

40 kop. Museum of the Revolution

(a) BP : yellow -?
43 -

VP 2 red ?
FP red-brown VINOGRADOVA 2578

(b) BP yellow KHABOLAININA (no number given).
VP 1 light blue KHARITONOVA 9722
VP 2 :red ?
FP :red-brown- ?

40 kop. Tretyakov Gallery

BP yellow- ?
VP 1 blue ; SHCHELKINA 3043
VP 2 red ?
FP olive-green -?

40 kop. Zoological Museum

(a) BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 : slate-brown VINOGRADOVA (number missing)
VP 2 : blue KHABOLAININA (number missing)
FP : red ?

(b) BP :yellow- ?
VP 1 : slate-brown LOSYUKOVA 8942
VP 2 : blue OBUKHOVA 9902
FP : red SMIRNOVA (number missing)

1950: 40 kop. Levitan commem.

(a) BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 : pale blue OBUKHOVA 9902
VP 2 :carmine KHARITONOVA 9722
FP :dark blue ?

(b) BP :yellow- ?
VP 1 : pale blue ?
VP 2 : carmine ?
FP : dark blue KHARITONOVA 9722

1950: Aivazovskii set

50 kop. value

BP : yellow- ?
VP 1: pale blue- ?
VP 2 : red MEDVEDEVA 2513
FP : brown- ?

1 rub. value

(a) BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 : blue SHCHELKINA 3043
VP 2 : red NEKLYUDOVA 9325
FP : dark brown ?

44 -

(b) BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 : blue SMIRNOVA 2540
VP 2 :red ?
FP : dark brown ?

1951: Vasnetsov set

1 rub. value

BP :yellow -?
VP 1 blue-?
VP 2 : red NEKLYUDOVA 9325
FP : green -?

1952: Polenov set

1 rub. value

BP : yellow KOSOVA 4631
VP 1 : pale blue ?
VP 2 : carmine MEDVEDEVA 2513
FP 1 : grey -?
FP 2 : blue SHCHELKINA 3043

1952: Metro (Subway) set

40 kop. Byelorussian+Botanical Garden +Novoslobodskaya+Komsomolskaya setting:

BP yellow- ?
VP 1 pale.blue- ?
VP 2 red KOSOVA 4631
FP 1 violet- ?
FP 2 bright blue ?
FP 3 slate- ?
FP 4 green

1954: Union of Ukraine with Russia set

40 kop. T. G. Shevchenko theatre in Kiev:

(a) BP yellow -?
VP 1 orange-brown KHABOLAININA L. 11582
VP 2 paleblue- ?
FP red-brown -?

(b) BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 orange-brown SMOLINA 1714
VP2 : pale blue ?
FP : red-brown- ?

1955: All-Union Agricultural Exhibition

40 kop. KirghizstantUzbekistan+Moldavia setting:


(a) BP : yellow SHCHELKINA 3043
VP 1 :pale blue ?
VP 2 :blue KHABOLAININA L. 11582
VP 3 :red KHARITONOVA 9722
FP 1 :yellow-brown CHEREPANOVA 231
FP 2 green ?

(b) BP :yellow- ?
VP 1 :pale blue ?
VP 2 :blue KHABOLAININA L. 11582
VP 3 : red ?
FP 1: yellow-brown ?
FP 2 :green NEKLYUDOVA 9325

(c) BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 :pale blue ?
VP 2 blue ?
VP 3 : red SMIRNOVA 12434
FP 1 yellow-brown ?
FP 2 :green ?

40 kop. Tadzhikstan:

(a) BP :yellow- ?
VP 1 : pale blue
VP 2 : blue CHEREPANOVA 231
VP 3 : red OBUKHOVA 9902
FP 1: yellow-brown- ?
FP 2 : green ?

(b) BP yellow SHCHELKINA 3043
VP 1 :pale blue SMOLINA 1714
FP 1 yellow-brown ?
FP 2 green ?

(c) BP :yellow ?
VP 1 pale blue NEKLYUDOVA 9325
VP 2 blue KHABOLAININA L. 11582
FP 1 yellow-brown ?
FP 2 green ?

1956: All-Union Agricultural Exhibition

1 rub. Bashkir ASSR. Pavilion:

BP : yellow- ?
VP 1 : pale blue KHARITONOVA 9722
VP 2 : blue ?
VP 3 : red NEKLYUDOVA 9325
FP 1 : dark yellow OBUKHOVA 9902
FP 2 : brown ?

46 -

1 rub. Central Black-Earth Provinces Pavilion.

BP :pale blue (!)- SMIRNOVA 2540
VP 1 red ?
VP 2 : blue ?
VP 3 : carmine OBUKHOVA 9902
FP 1 : pale olive-green DMITRIEVA 446
FP 2 : dark green SHCHELKINA 3043

1 rub. Far East Pavilion:

BP : yellow KHABOLAINEN (number missing)
VP 1 : pale blue- ?
VP 2 : blue ?
VP 3 : carmine CHEREPANOVA (number missing)
FP 1 : greenish-yellow-?
FP 2 : brown ?

1 rub. Leningrad +Moscow setting

(a) BP :yellow DMITRIEVA 446
VP 1 :pale blue OBUKHOVA 9902
VP 2 blue ?
VP 3 :red SHCHELKINA 3043
FP 1 : yellow VINOGRADOVA 2578
FP 2 brown -?

(b) BP :yellow- ?
VP 1 : pale blue KHARITONOVA (number missing)
VP 2 : blue ?
VP 3 :red KHARITONOVA 9722
FP 1 : yellow -'VINOGRADOVA 2578
FP 2 brown ?

1 rub. North-Eastern Provinces Pavilion:

BP : yellow DMITRIEVA 446
VP 1 : pale blue OBUKHOVA 9902
VP 2 : red ?
VP 3 : blue ?
FP 1: olive-yellow- ?
FP 2 : dark green ?

1 rub. Tartar+Central Provinces +Young Naturalists+Northern Causasus4Siberia+Volga setting

(a) BP : yellow NEKLYUDOVA 9325
VP 1 : pale blue OBUKHOVA 9902
VP 2 : blue ?
VP 3 : carmine DMITRIEVA 446
FP 1: olive-yellow- ?
FP 2 : green KONSTANTINOVA 5734

(b) BP : yellow NEKLYUDOVA 9325
VP 1 : pale blue ?

47 -

VP 2 : blue OBUKHOVA 9902
VP 3 :carmine MEDVEDEVA 2513
FP 1: olive-yellow- ?
FP 2 : green KONSTANTINOVA 5734

(c) BP :yellow- ?
VP 1 : pale blue CHEREPANOVA 231
VP 2 : blue ?
VP 3 :carmine SMOLINA 1714
FP 1 olive-yellow- ?
FP 2 green ?

(d) BP :yellow- ?
VP 1 :pale blue ?
VP 2 : blue ?
VP 3 :carmine FELTSOVA 5724
FP 1 : olive-yellow ?
FP 2 : green ?

(e) BP :yellow VINOGRADOVA 2578
VP 1 pale blue ?
VP 2 blue ?
VP 3 : carmine DMITRIEVA 446
FP 1 olive-yellow- ?
FP 2 green ?

1 rub. Urals Pavilion:

BP :yellow NEKLYUDOVA 9325
VP 1 : pale blue KHARITONOVA 9722
VP 2 blue ?
VP 3 :carmine SHCHELKINA 3043
FP 1 olive-yellow- ?
FP 2 :yellow-green ?

1957: Sixth Youth and Student Festival, with views of Moscow.

40 kop. View of Kremlin:

VP : black OBUKHOVA 9902
FP : claret-brown- ?

40 kop. Stadium:

VP : black- ?
FP : claret NEKLYUDOVA 9325

1 rub. Bolshoi Threatre:

VP : black VINOGRADOVA 2578
FP : blue ?

1 rub. Moscow State University:

48 -

VP : black SMIRNOVA 2540
FP : red TITOVA 265

1958: All-Union Industrial Exhibition

60 kop. value:

(a) VP1 : black- ?
VP 2 : red KHABOLAINEN 2543
FP : grey-blue ?

(b) VP 1 : black-?
VP 2 : red KHARITONOVA 9722
FP : grey-blue -?

1958: P. I. Chaikovskii set

40 kop. value with portrait of composer (perforated):

(a) BP : yellow SHCHELKINA 3043
VP 1 pale blue ?
VP 2 :blue OBUKHOVA 9902
VP 3 : carmine ?
FP : green GALKOVA 853

(b) BP : yellow OBUKHOVA 9902
VP 1 : pale blue ?
VP 2 : blue SMIRNOVA 2540
VP 3 : carmine KHABOLAINEN 2543

40 kop. value with portrait of composer (imperforate):

BP : yellow SMOLINA 1714
VP 1 : pale blue ?
VP 2 : blue MEDVEDEVA 2513
VP 3 : carmine ?
FP : green- ?

49 -


A. Cronin

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S. ...................

I. ....

*P VA 9,40 2
Fig. 1

50 -
I ,*.C

-- "+~i'I '^ ^- IM ,A r I 3 ,t;tjj ,,
jS ,' i "! ^

Fig. 3 5

50 -

"PRAGA 68"

A report by Kurt Adler

Of the two 1968 international philatelic exhibitions under the patronage of the FIP in Prague and Mexico
City, the first is undoubtedly the most important one for our particular hobby -- Russian philatelty. Mexico
did not have as much Russian material as did Prague, a natural deduction due to geographic reasoning.
The organization of and participation in "Praga 68" was, if possible, superior to that of "Praga 62"
and richer in specialized Russian material than any of the former international exhibitions, such as SIPEX,
WIPA, PHILATEC and others. Not counting the topical collections, there were on display 39 Russian, 6
Ukrainian and 22 Polish exhibits. In addition, there were many Rumanian, Bulgarian, Latvian, Lithuanian,
Estonian and, of course, Czechoslovakian collections that partly overlapped into our sphere of interest.

Since there was among the Jury a larger percentage of experts on Russian philately, one could expect a
more thorough and fairer judging of Russian exhibits. Such experts, for instance, were Eng. Anton Antonov
of Bulgaria, our member Eng. Ilya Braunstein of Belgium, Prof. Antoni taszkiewicz of Poland as well as
Prof. Konstantin A.Berngard and Anatolii I. Kachinskii of the USSR. "Rossica" may be very proud of the
fact that its 13 members showing at "Praga 68" collected 15 medals and diplomas for themselves. To
start the list of our award-winners, I must begin with our American representative at the show, Samuel Ray
of Chicago, who untiringly organized the contingent of 42 American exhibitors and personally took with
him a goodly number of their collections. Mr. Ray, whose philatelic interests are manifold, won a vermeil
medal for his unique collection of Sardinian letter sheets, which, in its thoroughness of research study and
completeness, had not been known to the international jury. Our member M.A. Bojanowicz of Great Britain
showed part of his famous collection of Poland, a portion of which was known to us from the time when he
demonstrated it at a lecture during ASDA in New York. Mr. Bojanowicz showed in the Class of Honor.
His frames were called Postal History of Warsaw", starting with pre-adhesive markings and followed by
the cancellations of the Kingdom of Poland. Russian stamps and stationery used in Warsaw before the in-
troduction of Polish stationery and stamps were shown, as well as many cancellations of Polish railroad
stations. In the Honor Class, the collection of Rene Berlingin of Liechtenstein should also be mentioned.
This collection consisted of Russian. Zemstvo frames. Mr. Berlingin, whose name is new to our American
Zemstvo collectors, is working on a new study about Zemstvos to replace the Schmidt catalog. Our member
Eng. Ilya Braunstein of Belgium who, as judge, could only show in the non-competitive class, presented
four frames of airmail postal history of the beseiged fortress ofPrzemyslduring 1914 and 1915, actually
belonging to Austrian and Polish postal history. Mr. Braunstein is known to Russian philatelists through
his exhaustive study and plating of all types of the Consular airmail stamps.

In the competition class, there were two large gold medals given to Russian general collections, a very
honorable percentage among the 26 large gold medals given altogether. The first one went to S.M. Blekhman
for his magnificent collection of all fields of Russian philately, starting with early pre-philatelic covers,
among them an 18th. century one from Saratov, followed by all aspects of Imperial Russia and Soviets.
Mr. Blekhman is especially strong in varieties, essays and proofs of Soviet stamps, the latter given to
him by the designers and artists themselves, some of the former being unknown here. In viewing his and
the collections of some other Soviet exhibitors, it was gratifying to observe that they now show much
more interest in Imperial Russia and Russian Offices Abroad than before. This was no doubt stimulated
by our "Rossica" journals and the handbooks of Stephen and Tchilinghirian, all of which are known and
read in serious Soviet philatelic circles. Dr Petr Lavrov of Prague, to whom the other large gold medal
went, had previously shown at SIPEX in Washington. His frames covered the whole realm of Russian
philately from Imperial times to Arctic and Antarctic covers and the exploration of Outer Space. Many
varieties as well as some documentary evidence completed the collection.

In addition to Sam Ray's medal, four more vermeil medals were won by "Rossica" members. Dr. Rudolf
Seichter of West Germany got one for his highly specialized frames of the six Ukrainian postal districts,
especially detailed in the Kiev section. Kurt Adler was bestowed a vermail medal in the Postal History


section for a showing of Russian post offices abroad. This exhibit was repeatedly and closely viewed by
all Russian specialists, including our Soviet colleagues. The collection is known to "Rossica" members
through showings at SIPEX and INTERPEX, where it won the Grand Award, and at many club meetings at
New York City. Our member Harry von Hoffman of West Germany showed Latvia, as well as Estonia. Each
collection, comprising pre-philatelic covers, Russian dot cancellations and mutes was given a vermeil medal,
thus showing the interest of the jury in Russian philately in the Baltic states.

Silver medals were acquired by four "Rossica" members. Three of our British members lead the parade,
with John Lloyd showing stamps covers and money orders of the revolutionary and inflationary period of
1917 to 1923. The "Arms" types, savings and control stamps and provisionals were shown in a splendid
array. Alexander Droar displayed a wide selection of Imperial period stamps, among them a bicolored essay
by Gottlieb Haase of Prague for Russia Number One. St. Petersburg and Moscow town posts were represented,
as well as Offices Abroad. Dr. R. J. Ceresa showed inflation material on covers and money orders from
1917 to 1923 of the RSFSR, Azerbaidjan, Armenia, Georgia, Ukraine, South Russia and Siberia, specially
arranged to show the changes in postal rates; an undertaking which has now been documented by V. A.
Karlinskii in Filateliya SSSR". Of our American exhibitors, Fred Speers of Escondido, Calif. got his
award for his airmail showing of Russia, including stamps, early covers, cachets and especially the elusive
Air Fleet propaganda labels of the 20s and 30s. A second medal, this time a silver-bronze, was won by
Mr. Speers for his essays and proofs of the Romanov stamps in every stage of preparation. The material
was so richly represented that it filled 15 frames.

John Lloyd was rewarded doubly when he also got a bronze, this time for his Russian airmail collection
on and off cover, including varieties and proofs. Mr. Lloyd also showed a topical collection of Soviet
space achievements and won for it a certificate of participation. Too bad that our former member Jerry
Chaivoe did not show. He would have walked away with the top honors.

Another friend of our society, although alas as yet not a member, Dr. Wm. Reiner-Deutsch of New York,
won a silver medal for his well-known collection of Czechoslovak fieldpost in Slovakia 1918-1920. The
material was very thoroughly arranged.

Our member C. W. Roberts of Great Britain showed his extraordinary Ukrainian collection, which would
have deserved a much higher award than the silver-bronze he received. "Rossica" member Dr. H. Pollack
of Chicago showed similar material, strong in Odessa tridents. He received the same award. Ukraine
was not treated fairly by the judges. Of other American non-members who showed in our group of special-
ties, I must not forget Dr. F. Rosenberg of Denver, Colo., who exhibited a highly interesting specialized
collection of Postal Saving and Control stamps on mail, taking pride in presenting only commercial mail,
thus avoiding philatelic covers. This collection was awarded a silver-bronze medal.

And last, but by no means least, let us record another triumph for "Rossica". Our Journal got a silver
diploma, which is a posthumous honor to our beloved late president, Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury. Our sis-
ter journal in Great Britain, the BJRP, also won an award, a silver-bronze medal, and our member Dr.
Seichter collected a silver for the 1966 edition of his Ukraine special catalog.

It is to be regretted that the magnificent collection of our Parisian member, Michel Liphschutz, could
not be shown due to the complications that the French election campaign created at the time of "Praga-
68". But Mr. Liphschutz himself was present, commenting on many a collection and eagerly discussing
all problems of Russian Philately.

The two Soviet Russians to win vermeil medals were Herman Gevirts for his Zemstvos and S. A. Parkho-
movich for his excellent specialized frames of the 1920-22 revaluation period; a field of Russian philately
which has become very popular recently, with many local surcharges on covers and money orders. Also
to be mentioned is L. Dengel of Rumania who showed a few beautiful strikes of early Russian offices in
Rumania, among them a Jassy first type on an official document.

52 -

There were six Russians winning silver medals Oleg V. Forafontov presented a highly varied and beautifully
arranged collection of USSR 1923-1940; proofs, varieties of perforation, paper and color were among them.
* The biggest surprise was the magnificent first-time exhibit of one of the foremost Russian postal historians,
Dr. N. V. Luchnik. His was a truly research collection of all kinds of postmarks, such as railroads, ship
markings, numeral postmarks and especially many hitherto postmarks of Russian post offices in the Khanates
of Khiva and Bukhara, topped by two unique examples of the Dargan-Ata P.O. in Khiva. It was a pleasure
discussing postal history with Dr. Luchnik, during which he offered quite a few explanations for hitherto
unresolved questions.

In V. N. Ustinovskii's frames, one could see, among other beauties, the very rare stamps of the Bukhara
and Khorezm National Republics, some of them even used. Among the other frames were the beautiful mute
cancellations of World War I by Ya. Vovin, most of them on cover and quite a few of them unknown here.
Laimonis Lipnieks showed postal history of Livlandia, the old name for a Latvian province. His collection
started with postal history material from Riga, dated 1769 (!) and ended in 1857, the year of introduction of
the first Russian postal adhesive. And not to be forgotten another silver medal collection, that of G.
Hellstrim of Sweden, whose showing was the lone Mongolian exhibit. He showed, among other frames, his
famous research collection of overprinted fiscal, with all high values on cover. It is to be regretted that
our own Dr. E. Tolman did not exhibit. It would have been interesting to see his Mongolia in competition
with Hellstr6m's. Most likely Dr. Tolman would have walked away with a higher award.

Space limitations forbid a detailed description of all silver-bronze and bronze medal exhibits. Some of
them have already been mentioned before. Henry J. Stromberg of Chicago showed his well-known Estonia
collection, with many provisional obliterations of 1918-1920 on the first Estonian stamps. His silver-
bronze was well deserved. There was a collection of another Latvian province, Kurlandia, by Egils
Vincovskis on display which also got a silver-bronze. Mr. V. G. Panin of Baku, USSR, showed one of
the best collections of Azerbaidjan, Georgia and Armenia, strongest in the first-named country. The ma-
jority of the stamps were on commercial covers. It was a pity that these and similar frames did not get a
Higher award. It was not fair to group these collections of Caucasian states among the "overseas" frames.
The Countries of Asia, Africa, America and Australia were badly underestimated by the judges in favor of
European material.

Western and Eastern colleagues established a close working relationship which will result in the exchange
of philatelic research, information, mutual answering of queries and possibly exchange of photostats in
special fields, such as mutes, pre-philatelic markings, steamship and railroad cancellations etc. etc. I
was especially pleased to meet Ernst Krenkel, the head of the All-Union Society of Philatelists, Hero of
the Soviet Union and famous former radio-telegraphist on O. Yu. Schmidt's floating ice camp in the Arctic
in the late 1930's, and also P. F. Mazur, president of the Moscow City Society of Collectors. I was happy
to arrange a special gathering in a garden restaurant on our last evening in Prague which, of course, de-
veloped into most interesting philatelic debates. Present were Michel Liphschutz, Eng. Ilya Braunstein,
Prof. A. F. Laszkiewicz, P. F. Mazur, Prof. K. A. Berngard, Dr. N. V. Luchnik. S. M. Blekhman, O. V.
Forafontov, N. I. Vladinets, V. V. Pritula and myself. We drank toasts to the further development of
Russian philately and to a fruitful and pleasant philatelic relationship between ourselves and all other
collectors in the field of Russian philately. It is to be desired that other meetings will follow soon, hope-
fully in 1969 at the Sofia International Philatelic Exhibition.

53 -
53 -


by John Bulat

This year, from 22 June to 7 July 1968, there was an International Philatelic exhibition in the hall at Julius
Fucik Park in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

The opening, with a large participation of people, generally delegates of international philatelic societies,
clubs and famous philatelists from all parts of the world, officially started at nine o'clock in the morning.
Present as the opening was the President of Czechoslovakia, Ludvik Svoboda. Admission to the exhibition
on the first day was not allowed to the general public until two o'clock in the afternoon.

In attractive surroundings, many different collections were shown in beautifully arranged frames for exhibi-
tion. Many frames were empty, but this was because of the absence of collections from France, due to the
general strike there at the time.

Four Ukrainian collections of the 1918-1920 period and two of Transcarpatho-Ukrainian postage stamps of
1944-1945 were also shown at the exhibition. Besides these, there was a generous assortment of excellent
and rare stamp varieties, covers and Ukrainian post cards, presented in the Russian collections, which were
exhibited by collectors from the USSR.

Awards for their Ukrainian collections were presented to the following: Dr. Rudolf Seichter, a vermeil medal
for his collection and a silver diploma for his special catalog on Ukrainian stamps, and silver-bronze medals
to C.W. Roberts of England, Helding Falk of Sweden and Dr. Herbert Pollack of the USA. For their exhibits
of Transcarpatho-Ukraine, Miroslav Blaha of Moravia received a silver-bronze medal and Vasil Ivanci, a Uk-
rainian from Slovakia, a bronze medal.

It should be pointed out that among the Ukrainian exhibits, there were excellently arranged collections
by Mr. Falk and also by Mr. Ivanci. The latter Transcarpatho-Ukrainian exhibit was especially attractively
arranged and described, being in addition a complete collection, with all shades and varieties shown. This
collection was exhibited for the first time this year.

In general, the awards for the Ukrainian collections were not what the exhibits merited. The judges should
have given higher grades. Unofficially, I already knew the results of the awards by 27 June, before the
exhibition was over.

The well-known philatelists and collectors of Ukrainian stamps present at the show were Mr. Erich Oskar
Peters and his wife from East Germany, Dr. Rudolf Seichter and his wife from West Germany, Dr. Volodymyr
Stone-Baltarovych of Prague, Czechoslovakia and Mr. John Bulat from the USA. All of the above are author-
ized experts on stamps of the Ukraine. Also present were Dr. Michael Skweir and his wife from the USA,
Mr. Walter Duscha of East Germany, Dr. Milos Brom of Czechoslovakia, Mr. S. M. Blekhman of the USSR and
Mr. O. Hoffman from West Germany.

The "Ukraine-Philatelisten-Verband" (a German philatelic organization concerned with Ukrainian stamps)
also met here, with many collectors of Ukrainian stamps present. Dr. Rudolf Seichter addressed this meet-

The next showing of Ukrainian stamps is being planned for the International Exhibition to be held again in
London, England.

54 -



-lockwise from left to right: O.V. Forafontov, P. F. Mazur, Ukrainian enthusiasts at the Fucik Park Restaurant at "Praga-68".
Eng. I. Braunstein. V. V. Pritula, Eng. S. M. Blekhman, From left to right: J. Bulat (USA), Mr. Ressel, Dr. R. Seichter (GFR),
K. Adler, N. I. Vladinets, Prof. A. F. Laszkiewicz, Prof. O. Hoffmann (GFR), Dr. V. Stone-Baltarovych (CSR) and W. Duscha
K. A. Berngard and Dr. N. V. Luchnik at a garden restaurant (GDR). Get a load of the size of those beer glasses!
in Prague during "Praga-68". Picture by courtesy of Michel
Liphschutz, who took the photograph.

John Bulat (USA), Dr. R. Seichter (GFR) and E.O. Peters Miroslav Blaha and John Bulat C. W. Roberts of England, at left, and Mrs. Roberts,
(GDR) discuss Ukrainian philately at "Praga 68". get together in Czechoslovakia at rig-t, visit John Bulat (centre) in the U.S. in
during June 1968. October 1967.


by Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii

(translated from "Filateliya SSSR" of Moscow, No.4 for October 1966 and following issues. Concluded
from Rossica No. 74).

No. 3: From 1 Feb. 1926 to 14 July 1928

By a decision of the Council of National Commissars of the USSR dated 19 Jan. 1926, the charges for send-
ing internal intercity and internal registered mail were changed as follows (see 'Bulletin of the NKPIT, 1926,
No. 4): -

a) Ordinary intercity letter 8 kop.
b) Additional fee for registration 10 kop.

The rates for postcards and local letters remained as before, namely:

a) Postcards 3'kop.
b) Local letters in Moscow and Leningrad 5 kop.
c) Local letters in other cities 4 kop.

The rise in the rate from 7 to 8 kop. for the commonest class of mail, i.e. the intercity letter, significantly
increased the demand.for the regular stamps of this last value and they became unobtainable. This is the
reason why the sudden issue of 8 kop. stamps on the gold standard was undertaken during February and
they were printed with three different cliches to expedite their availability. In this way, therefore, new and
interesting varieties of the 8 kop. stamp appeared, namely Type I, printed by typography with a reengraved
die (Sov. Cat. 232 I; Scott. 311; Gibbons 437; Yvert 294; Michel 278; Zumstein 260); Type II by lithography
(Sov. Cat. 270; Gibbons 469; unlisted in other catalogs) and Type III, which is the rarest of all, i.e. the
lithographed stamp with reduced representation of the worker (Sov. Cat. 291; Gibbons 470; unlisted in other

Both lithographed stamps went into circulationat the same time in the first days of February 1926 and con-
stitute in themselves one distinct issue. Unfortunately, the 1958 Soviet catalog made a setious error in
describing the stamps; not only were both stamps separated into two independent issues, but the date of
circulation for Type III was inaccurately given as March 1926! Interestingly enough, this stamp is encoun-
tered, as a rule, with a February postmark and we find that March cancels are met with much more rarely.

However, the problem of supplying the postal service with stamps was, of course, still not solved by the
issue of 8 kop. regular stamps. A new set, bearing the surcharge "POSTAGE/STAMP/KOP. 8 KOP.",
was therefore prepared during the middle of 1927. These stamps were issued in large quantities. The
Soviet postage due stamps of 1925, which had shortly before been abolished and which were lying in
the Postal Department without any application at all, were utilized for surcharging. So now, the former
postage due stamps took on a new life, so to speak. The 7-kop. gold standard stamp, which had almost
gone out of use with the raising of the tariffs, was also provided at the same time with a surcharge read-
ing "8/ Kop." (Sov. Cat. 322-24; Scott 349-50; Gibbons 495-97; Yvert 365-66; Michel 324abc; Zumstein
302 B.C.). In December 1927, the same surcharge appeared on a third group of 7 kop. stamps, made up
from the commemorative sets of the previous years. Truth to tell, this last issue did not demonstrate a
clearly defined postal need; only one stamp, portraying A.S. Popov (Sov. Cat. 334; Scott 353; Gibbons
498; Yvert 408; Michel 335; Zumstein 344) was widely sold at the postal counters and the others, for
the most part, went on sale directly at the stamp stores. They are, therefore, only encountered cancell-
ed-to-order, as a rule.


In addition to 8-kop. stamps, the postal service also required stamps for intercity registered letters. A
violet stamp in the value of 18 kop. (Sov. Cat. 238; Scott 316; Gibbons 448; Yvert 299; Michel 283; Zumstein
265) appeared in May 1926 to take its place in the gold standard set and it was the first Soviet stamp with
such a value. At the end of 1927, a new or second regular issue of stamps of the USSR came out to re-
place the gold standard set. Printed on high-quality surfaced paper, it stood out distinctly from the pre-
vious issue. It was, therefore, not by chance that the designation of it as "the improved issue" gained
ground (Sov. Cat. 340-54; Scott 382-400; Gibbons 514-28; Yvert 392-405; Michel 339-53; Zumstein 329-43).
In addition to the former face values, new regular stamps in the values of 4, 5, 8, 10 and 18 kop. appeared,
corresponding to the existing postal rates. In all about fifty different stamps in the values of 8 and 18 kop.
were issued by the Soviet Postal Service between 1926 and 1028 and they owed their origin to the third ser-
ies of postal rates of the USSR.

On 11 Feb. 1926, Soviet airmail tariffs were established for internal correspondence and they were in force
until May 1930. Up to that time, the despatch of airmail letters within the country i.e. on the Moscow-
Smolensk route, was only carried out on the basis of the international rates. In accordance with the new
tariffs, the supplementary airmail fee for internal mail began to be specified, as follows:-

a) Postcards 10 kop.
b) Letters 15 kop.

As special airmail stamps had not been issued, any postage stamps at all were permitted to be utilized
for the prepayment of airmail correspondence. However, an interesting set was issued, which correspond-
ed exactly with the new rates. On 1 Sept. 1927, two beautiful stamps went into circulation and they com-
memorated the First Airmail Conference, held at the Hague in Holland. For the first time, a Soviet air-
craft, the "ANT-3", was depicted on these stamps, against a background of a map, of the world. In fact,
it was the same plane in which the pilot M. M. Gromov completed a triumphant flight in 1926 along the
route from Moscow to Berlin, Paris, Rome, Vienna, Warsaw and back to Moscow. Soviet Aviation entered
* into the world arena and that was reflected, amongst other things, in the annual growth and extension of
the Soviet airmail routes.

On 1 May 1926, the day the international Moscow-Berlin airline was opened, the rates for airmail corres-
pondence came into force for the summer season of that year. The supplementary fees for airmail were
fixed as follows: -

a) For Germany (and other countries, with delivery to Berlin by plane and thenceforth by train or
steamer) 30 kop.

b) To England, FranCe and Holland -40 kop.

On 21 December 1926, the rates for urgent mail were again lowered and the additional "special delivery"
fee was now made equal to 50 kop. This was done to popularize this class of mail among the public. In
the case of despatch of a special delivery letter by air, the specified airmail fee was also charged.

On 1 May 1927, the airmail rates on international mail for the imminent summer season were lowered
noticeably, as follows:

a) Postcards to Germany and thence to other countries 10 kop.
b) Letters to the above countries 16 kop.
c) Postcards and letters to England and France 15 kop. and 26 kop. respectively.

The airmail conference at the Hague, which was convoked in the autumn of 1927 on the initiative of
the Soviet Union, broadly extended the number of European countries with which our country establish-
ed an exchange of airmail correspondence. For this reason, the international rates established on

57 -

1 May 1928 differed markedly from all the preceding ones. The additional fee for air despatch from Moscow
was now charged on the basis of the county and type of mail concerned, as follows (see Bulletin of NKPiT",
1928, No. 8): -

Postcards Letters
a) To Danzig, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 10 kop. 20 kop.

b) To Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, England,
France, Germany, Holland, Hungary, Norway, Poland,
Sweden, Switzerland and also other countries via Germany 20 kop. 30 kop.

c) To Bulgaria, Finland, Italy, Romania, Spain and Yugoslavia 30 kop. 40 kop.

d) To Turkey 40 kop. 50 kop.

A similar and quite complicated system for charging air fees was also maintained for the 1929, 1930 and 1931
summer seasons, each of which began by tradition on 1st. May each year.

No. 4: From 15 July 1928 to 31 May 1931

By a decree of the Council of National Commissars of the USSR dated 19 June 1928, the fee for the despatch
of intercity mail was again changed. 'Drawing attention to the low scale of postal rates and to the necessity
of increasing the postal income'', as it was stated in the decree, the Council established new rates from
15 July 1928, as follows (see 'Bulletin of the NKPiT,"1928, No. 15): -

a) Intercity postcards 5 kop.
b) Intercity letters 10 kop.

The former rate of 3 kop. for sending postcards was now maintained only for local cards. This classification
of cards and letters into local and intercity mail lasted until 1948, when correspondence began to be prepaid
at a fixed rate, independent of the points of mailing and destination. In July 1928, a slight change in the rates
for special delivery letters was also brought about. Just as before, a supplementary fee of 50 kop. was
charged for such despatches, but it was now also permitted to send them by air to speed up delivery, without
a special charge.

The July rates resulted in new postage stamps being required. A few months later, a set in aid of homeless
children (Sov. Cat. 362-63; Scott B54; B56; Gibbons 536-37; Yvert 419-20; Michel 361-62; Zumstein 355-56)
came into circulation for the payment of ordinary and registered intercity letters. On 24 August 1929. the
third regular issue of stamps of the USSR went on issue (Sov. Cat. 370-86; Scott 413-26; Gibbons 541-58;
Yvert 423-43; Michel 365-77; Zumstein 359-70). And once again, the first stamps to appear were those which
were needed most of all by the Postal Service, namely 3,4,5,10, 20 and 50 kopek values. A similar close
connection between the rates and the face values of the issued stamps was maintained throughout the entire
half century of the history of our postage stamps. There have been many occasions on investigating the rate struc-
ture when the date of issue of a particular stamp has helped to pinpoint the fee, in connection with which it
was issued.

The development and expansion of the civilian airmail routes resulted, among other things, in some complex-
ity of the airmail rates. Hence, on the Moscow-Novosibirsk route, the fee for the despatch of airmail letters
began to be charged from 2 August 1928 on the basis of where the addressee lived, i.e. in the European or
Asiatic part of the country. A letter sent within the confines of either sector was paid for, as previously, by
a supplementary fee of 15 kop., while for mail from the European to the Asiatic part (or reverse) the addition-
al fee amounted to 25 kop. The borderline city between the two sectors was Sverdlovsk. On 1 May 1930,
The internal airmail rates were altered somewhat and the supplementary fees were as follows: -

58 -

a) Postcards 10 kop.
b) Ordinary letters 20 kop.

For the transmission of airmail correspondence from the European to the Asiatic sectors (or vice versa),
these fees were now doubled. Such a procedure greatly complicated the workings of the airmail service and
it was abolished in 1932.

Of course, the existing tariffs were always taken into account in preparing new stamps. However, there are
several interesting cases known in the history of the Soviet posts, where stamps issued for the prepayment
of airmail had face values which did not coincide with the rates. These were issues intended fo special
flights. The first such event, which left its imprint on philately, was a flight on 10 Sept. 1930 by the Ger-
man airship "Graf Zeppelin" from Moscow to Germany. Letters for despatch by the airship were accepted
only at the Moscow G.P.O. for a few hours before take-off. Special rates were fixed for the prepayment of
this mail and two special stamps issued, perf. and imperf. They show the airship in flight in the back-
ground of a poster entitled "The Five-Year Plan in Four Years! "(Sov. Cat. 394-97; Scott C12-13; Gibbons
574-75; Yvert Airs 20-21; Michel 390-91; Zumstein 384-85). The additional fees consisted of the following: -

a) Postcards 40 kop. (blue stamp).
b) Letters 80 kop. (red stamp).

It was not allowed to affix both stamps to the same sending. Postcards and letters carried on this flight
have become philatelic rarities nowadays.

On 1 July 1930, new rates came into force for international correspondence, as follows: -

a) Postcards 10 kop.
b) Ordinary letters 15 kop.
i c) Registration fee 20 kop.

A 15-kop. stamp for the third regular set was issued in olive and featured a worker, Red Army man and peas-
ant in bas relief (Sov. Cat. 378; Scott 421; Gibbons 551; Yvert 430; Michel 372A; Zumstein 386). It went
into circulation in September 1930. However, the emission of stamps in the value of 35 kop. for registered
international letters was especially noticeable. Among such examples are the well-known Lenin stamp of
1932 in the set honoring the 15th. anniversary of the Revolution (Sov. Cat. 447; Scott 478; Gibbons 598;
Yvert 467; Michel 420; Zumstein 414); the 1933 stamp with the portrait of A. M. Gorkii (Sov. Cat. 438;
Scott 471; Gibbons 591; Yvert 461; Michel 413; Zumstein 408); the 1933 stamp depicting the monument to
the 26 Baku commissars (Sov. Cat. 484; Scott 522; Gibbons 641; Yvert 507; Michel 460; Zumstein 455); the
red stamp of the 1935 "Anti-War" set showing thr fraternization of soldiers at the front (Sov. Cat. 527;
Scott 550; Gibbons 677; Yvert 540; Michel 498; Zumstein 493) etc. etc. The outstanding feature of many
of the 35-kop. stamps is their present-day rarity. Related to this is the fact that the printings of stamps
for international mail were fixed at much lower figures than those of stamps for domestic mail.

No. 5: From 1 June 1931 to 24 Feb. 1933

By a decree of the Council of National Commissars of the USSR dated 27 May 1931, new postal rates
were instituted on 1 June, as follows: -

a) Local postcards 3 kop.
b) Intercity postcards 10 kop.
c) Local letters 5 kop.
d) Intercity letters 15 kop.
e) Registration fee 15 kop.


A new feature of the rates was the abolition of the difference in fees for local letters in Moscow, Leningrad
and other cities.

The values of 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 kop. now became basic requirements for stamps. An especially good
example is the set commemorating the 15th. anniversary of the Revolution (Sov. Cat. 441-47; Scott 472-78;
Gibbons 593-98; Yvert 462-67; Michel 414-20; Zunstein 409-14), in which there are stamps of all these val-
ues. Most of the stamps in the Ethnographic set of 1933 (Sov. Cat. 455-73; Scott 489-510; Gibbons 608-28;
Yvert 476;96; Michel 429-49; Zumstein 423 43 also feature the 15 kop. value.

In the middle of 1931, the airship "Graf Zeppelin" flew once again to the USSR. And once more, special
supplementary airmail rates were specified for international correspondence despatched by this airship, as

a) Postcards 1 ruble.
b) Letters 2 rubles.

A set of stamps, perf. and imperf., was issued especially for this flight and showed the meeting of the Sov-
iet icebreaker "Malygin" and the airship "Graf Zeppelin" in the Arctic (Sov. Cat. 424-31; Scott c26-33;
Gibbons 584-87 A, B; Yvert Airs 27-30 A,B; Michel 402-05A,B; Zumstein 395-98 A,B). Stamps of 30 kop.
and 1 ruble were affixed to the postcards to cover the international registered airmail rate for this flight, and
the 35 kop. and 2ruble values placed on the letters for the same service. It is precisely in this way thatthese phil-
atelic souvenirs are found nowadays in collections.

On 1st. May 1932, this unwieldy system of additional airmail fees for international mail was simplified to
some extent and the new tariffs consisted only of the following two classifications:-

a) For Afghanistan, Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia etc; 20 kop. for postcards, 40 kop.
for letters.
b) For Austria, China, Czechoslovakia, France, Holland, Ireland, Japan etc: 30 kop. for postcards;
50 kop. for letters.

These rates were also maintained for the 1933 to 1935 summer seasons.

The internal airmail rates underwent drastic changes in 1932. On 15 May 1932, new classes of mail call-
ed "express" and "air express" were introduced to replace the "urgent" and special airmail categories.
The following express rates were established:-

a) Postcards 50 kop.
b) Letters -80 kop.

A special set of express stamps (Sov. Cat. 432-34; Scot El-3; Gibbons El-3; Yvert Expres 1-3; Michel
407-09; Zumstein 401-03) were issued at the same time, showing a postal motorcyclist (5 kop.), postal van
(10 kop.) and locomotive (80 kop.).

In 1934, a large-sized set of stamps appeared commemorating the 10th. anniversary of the Soviet Airmail
Service 1923-1933 (Sov. Cat. 486-95; Scott C40-49; Gibbons 650-54 A, B; Yvert Airs 41-45; Michel 462-66
x, y,; Zumstein 462-66 A, B). The designation of the set is given incorrectly in the 1958 Soviet Catalog.
The last two values of the series, namely 50 and 80 kop., were intended for express mail. On 25 August
1932, two stamps appeared in the interesting set devoted to the "Second International Polar Year" (Sov.
Cat. 435-36; Scott C34-35; Gibbons 588-89; Yvert Airs 31-32; Michel 410-11; Zumstein 404-05A) and
they were issued for the special flight from Franz-Josef Land to the mainland. The 50-kop. stamp was
intended for postcards and the 1 rub. stamp for letters, these being the special rates for this flight.
Both stamps were inscribed "Air Express".

The "Express" and Air Express" classes of mail existed in our country until Feb. 1938.

60 -

No. 6: From 25 Feb. 1933 to 15 Feb. 1938

By a decree of the Council of National Commissars of the USSR dated 10 Feb. 1933, new rates were to be
introduced on 25 Feb. 1933 for the transmission of internal mail, as follows: -

a) Local postcards 5 kop.
b) Intercity postcards 15 kop.
c) Ordinary local letters 10 kop.
d) Ordinary intercity letters 20 kop.
e) Additional fee for registration 20 kop.

Judging by the tariffs, it is not difficult to perceive the face values preferred above all for the stamps is-
sued in those years. And, indeed, looking at the Soviet issues of 1933 to 1938, when beautiful commemor-
ative sets appeared one after the other, the abundance of postage stamps of the 20-kop. value will involun-
tarily be noted. Single stamps such as the "Order of the Red Banner" issue of 1933 (Sov. Cat. 480; Scott
518; Gibbons 637; Yvert 503; Michel 456; Zumstein 451), the" ShotaRustaveli" issue of 1938 (Sov. Cat.
618; Scott 610; Gibbons 753; Yvert 608; Michel 580; Zumstein 573) and the entire set of 1938 featuring the
state arms of the Union Republics (Sov. Cat. 637-47; Scott 647-57; Gibbons 775-84; Yvert 635-45; Michel
602-12; Zumstein 597-607). The 20-kop. value is to be found in practically every set of those years and
in every case it was the stamp issued in the greatest printing. Let us look, for instance, at the 1934 set
which featured the granite mausoleum of V. I. Lenin (Sov. Cat. 495-500; Scott 524-28; Gibbons 643-47;
Yvert 514-18; Michel 467-71; Zumstein 457-61): -

5 kop. 200,000 copies 20 kop. 500,000 copies
10 kop. 100,000 copies 35 kop. 50,000 copies
15 kop. 500,000 copies

or the 1935 set honoring F. Engels (Sov. Cat. 552-55; Scott 555-58; Gibbons 702-05; Yvert 565-68; Michel
523-26; Zumstein 518-21): -

5 kop. 200,000 copies 15 kop. 60,000 copies
10 kop. 75,000 copies 20 kop. 200,000 copies

The 20-kop. value can obviously be picked from all the others. The 15 and 35-kop. values, which served
for the franking of international mail (cf. the rates of 1 July 1930), were naturally issued in smaller quan-
tities and are therefore encountered more rarely today than the others. But for what reason was the issue
of the 5-kop, values so great?

The fact was that the printings of several values of the commemorative sets was not only dependent on
the rates. The interest in Soviet postage stamps had risen to such an extent in those days that stamps
of the lower values, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kop., which were quickly sold out at the post offices, were of
necessity issued in large printings. As an example, let us look at the popular All-Union Spartakiad"
sports set of 1935 (Sov. Cat. 542-51; Scott 559-68; Gibbons 692-701; Yvert 555-64; Michel 513-22;
Zumstein 508-17: -

1 kop. 200,000 copies 10 kop. 75,000 copies
2 kop. 200,000 copies 15 kop. 60,000 copies
3 kop. 200,000 copies 20 kop. 100,000 copies
4 kop. --200,000 copies 35 kop. 60,000 copies
5 kop. 200,000 copies 40 kop. 100.000 copies

For all intents and purposes, such popularization of Soviet stamps played a positive role and the beau-
tifully prepared commemorative sets of 1933-1935 also occupy an honored place nowadays in many phil-
atelic collections.
61 -

The story of rates and printings would not be complete if we did not mention the strange fate of the 25-kop.
value. This is indeed an unusual value! A Soviet stamp with such a face value appeared for the first time
in 1935 in the set commemorating the rescue of the Chelyuskin expedition (Sov. Cat. 528-37; Scott C58-67;
Gibbons 678-87; Yvert Airs 49-58; Michel 499-508; Zumstein 494-503). It was proposed to have a set of ten
stamps. But while 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 kop. stamps were basically required in accordance with the rates, it
came about that several "Supplementary" values were added, among them being a 25-kop. stamp, which had
no connection whatsoever with the tariffs. Of course, it appeared in the smallest printing of all, namely
50,000 copies, while neither in the following year nor immediately thereafter did such a value go into circula-
tion again. The second Soviet stamp with a value of 25 kop. did not appear until 13 years later at the end of
1948, when, in accordance with the new rates, it became the tariff for the transmission of postcards. From
that time on, the 25-kop. value was usual for the Soviet postal service.

The despatch of internal "express" mail and of international airmail was carried out from 1933 to 1935 in
accordance with the rates introduced in May 1932 (cf. fifth scale of tariffs of the USSR) and only one excep-
tion was made during that period. On 3 August 1935, the flight of the Soviet pilot Sigismund Levanevskii
from Moscow to the USA over the North Pole was noted. The Chelyuskin stamp with the portrait of the flier
was reissued with a surcharge reading "Moscow-San Francisco Flight over the North Pole 1935" and with
a new value of one ruble, specifically for franking mail transmitted on board the aircraft. That was the rate
for this special flight. However, because of technical difficulties, the flight did not take place and all the
correspondence which had been accepted, was despatched to the addressees by surface mail. An oblong
cachet reading "Resumption of the Moscow-San Francisco flight postponed to the summer of 1936. The
correspondence is being despatched in the normal way" was applied to these postal sending. Unfortun-
ately, the next attempt to complete the contemplated flight in 1937 ended tragically. Somewhere over the
North Pole, Levanevskii's plane went down without a trace. And so the single stamp with the surcharge
remained the sole philatelic memorial to the hero (Sov. Cat. 556; Scott c68; Gibbons 706; Yvert Air 59;
Michel 527; Zumstein 522, 522 I).

On 1 May 1936, all the rates for international mail were increased as follows: -

a) Postcards -30 kop.
b) Ordinary letters 50 kop.
c) Registration fee 80 kop.
d) Supplementary fee for transmission by air 1 ruble (independent of the country of destination).

The first long set of stamps issued immediately thereafter in February 1937, having as its subject the
centenary of the death of A. S. Pushkin (Sov. Cat. 577-82; Scott 590-95; Gibbons 728-33; Yvert 590-95;
Michel 549-54; Zumstein 544-49 x,y) reflected all these changes. The first three values of the set, i.e.
the 10, 20 and 40 kop. stamps with the portrait of the poet, were designated for prepaying internal cor-
respondence and the last three values (50 and 80 kop and 1 rub. with the monument to the poet) for inter-
national mail.

The international rates were in effect for a relatively long time 14 years. But stamps for international
mail were brought out to a lesser extent than previously. With the beginning of W.W. II, correspondence
with foreign countries was partly cut off. "International" stamps came out more and more rarely. Thus,
the last 80-kop. stamp appeared in 1940 (V. V. Mayakovskii commemorative: Sov. Cat. 778; Scott 779;
Gibbons 905; Yvert 781; Michel 748; Zumstein 740) and no further stamps were issued in this value. In
1948, stamps in the value of 40 kop. appeared and were utilized for this need. As for 50-kop. designs,
only four in all were issued in the period from 1941 to 1945. But with the termination of the war, 50-kop.
stamps came out more and more often as the exchange of international mail was reactivated, particularly
with Socialist countries.

62 -

No. 7: From 16 Feb. 1938 to 5 Feb. 1939

By decree No. 112 of the Council of National Commissars of the USSR dated Z Feb. 1938, new charges and
rates were introduced to improve communications. However, these changes in tariffs did not relate to the
fees for transmitting the basic classes of mail. They remained the same as those established back on 25
Feb. 1933. But if the amounts of the rates did not change, one of the designations was, however, altered.
Henceforth, the term "express mail" was abolished and the designation "'airmail" (aviapochta) was rein-
troduced. It was permitted to frank airmail correspondence in the traditional way with any kind of postage
stamps at all, regardless of whether they bore the inscription "airmail" or not.

No. 8: From 6 Feb. 1939 to 15 Sept. 1948

In accordance with decree No. 152 of the Council of National Commissars of the USSR dated 1 Feb., 1939
and under the heading "Concerning the changes in postal rates", the following tariffs were established
on 6 Feb. (see "Bulletin of the National Commissariat of Communications", 1939, No. 4):-

a) Local postcards 10 kop.
b) Intercity postcards 20 kop.
c) Ordinary local letters 15 kop.
d) Ordinary intercity letters 30 kop.
e) Registration fee 30 kop.

In the period from March to August 1939, two new sets appeared simultaneously with face values of 15,
30 and 60 kop. (Fifth regular set: Sov. Cat. 700-02; Scott 713, 618, 738;Gibbons 558j, 559, 560d; Yvert
708, 612A, 737; Michel 678, 681, 684; Zumstein 664, 666, 720; Sixth regular set: Sov. Cat. 740-42; Scott
734-36; Gibbons 558d, 558k, 559b; Yvert 734-36; Michel 675, 679, 682; Zumstein 717-19). Immediately af-
ter the regular stamps, artistically designed sets with the new values came into circulation. Among the
first sets to come out were the "Non-stop flight from Moscow to the Far East" issue in the values of 15,
30 and 60 kop. (Sov. Cat. 700-12 ; Scott 718-20; Gibbons 845-47; Yvert 705-07; Michel 690-92; Zumstein
674-76), the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin" series in 15, 30, 45 and 60 kop. (Sov. Cat. 744-47; Scott 745-48;
Gibbons 871-74; Yvert 730-33; Michel 714-17; Zumstein 697-700), the "A.P. Chekhov" set in values of
10, 15, 20 and 30 kop. (Sov. Cat. 762-65; Scott 763-66; Gibbons 890-93; Yvert 749-51; Michel 729-31;
Zumstein 724-27) and others.

In 1940. the rates for internal airmail were also altered, as follows:-

a) Postcards 60 kop.
b) Letters 1 ruble.

There is an interesting point about these rates, namely the absence of the "registered" category-in the
airmail tariffs. It was considered that all airmail letters would be forwarded with full registration rights.
Several airmail sets, consisting only of one-ruble values such as the 1944 issue in memory of the fallen
stratosphere heroes (Sov. Cat. 918-20; Scott C77-79; Gibbons 1037-39; Yvert Airs 67-69; Michel 892-94;
Zumstein 902-04), the Combat Aircraft set of 1945 (Sov. Cat. 1024-32; Scott 993-1001; Gibbons 1129-37;
Yvert Airs 81-89; Michel 972-80; Zumstein 968-76) and others, owe their appearance to these rates.

No. 9: From 16 Sept. 1948 to 31 Dec. 1950

New postal rates were introduced on 16 Sept. 1948. They were notable in that the division of mail into
local and intercity categories was abolished, as this simplified the working of postal sending. More-
over, the additional fee for registration was not longer specified, except for airmail. The new tariffs
were shown in the normal way: -

63 -

a) Postcards 25 kop.
b) Ordinary letters 40 kop.
c) Registered card or letter 1 ruble.

and a new heading was added as follows:-

d) Illustrated postcards 40 kop.,

this last rate be for stamped postcards which the Ministry of Communications of the USSR began to issue
from that time. So far as airmail sending were concerned, a supplementary fee of one ruble was established
for registration, to be added to those tariffs that were in force up to that date.

The new rates naturally brought about new values and caused the withdrawal of the former ones. Postage
stamps in the 30 kop. denomination actually began to appear after December 1948 and the basic values be-
came 25 and 40 kop. on 1 Jan. 1949. It was only very rarely that 60-kop. stamps were issued after 1948.

On 10 June 1950, the rates for the transmission of international mail were lowered and they were basically
made equal to the domestic tariffs, as follows:

a) Postcards 25 kop.
b) Registered postcards 95 kop.
c) Ordinary letters 40 kop.
d) Registered letters 1 rub. 10 kop.
e) Additional fee for airmail 1 ruble.

Inasmuch as the domestic and international rates coincided, it was no longer necessary to issue special stamps
for the latter.

On 1 Sept. 1957, the tariffs for the transmission of international correspondence were again changed, as follows: -

a) Postcards 40 kop.
b) Ordinary letters 60 kop.
c) Registration fee 1 ruble.
d) Additional fee for airmail, remaining as before at 1 ruble.

In order to have the public utilize a particular class of mail more often, the cost of transmission was sometimes
lowered. For example, the rate for domestic airmail was lowered in 1960, with both postcards and letters cost-
ing 60 kop. each. An airmail stamp with this denomination soon appeared, featuring the "MI-4" helicopter (Sov.
Cat. 2442; Scott C98; Gibbons 2421; Yvert Air 112; Michel 2324; Zumstein 2297).

No. 10: From 19 Jan 1961 to date

On 1 Jan. 1961, a change in the scale of prices was carried in our country, with one new ruble made equal to
ten previous ones. Coinciding with this, new tariffs were published for all postal services, in accordance with
decree No. 470 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR dated 4 May 1960 and the issue was begun of postage
stamps in the new monetary units.

Rates for the transmission of domestic mail:

a) Postcards 3 kop.
b) Registered postcards 10 kop.
c) Ordinary letters 4 kop.
d) Registered letters 10 kop.

64 -

Domestic airmail rates:

a) Postcards 4 kop.
b) Registered postcards 10 kop.
c) Ordinary letters 6 kop.
d) Registered letters 12 kop.

Rates for the transmission of international mail (for postal articles weighing up to 20 grammes or 2/3 oz.):

a) Postcards 4 kop.
b) Registered postcards 10 kop.
c) Ordinary letters 6 kop.
d) Registered letters 18 kop.

Rates for international airmail:

a) Postcards 14 kop.
b) Registered postcards 26 kop.
c) Ordinary letters 16 kop.
d) Registered letters 28 kop.

To give substance to the new rates, the tenth regular issue of postage stamps of the USSR with the values
of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12 and 16 kop. were issued between January and July 1961.

Stamps also subsequently appeared in the higher values of 20, 30, 50 kop. and one ruble.

Above all, the stamps in the values of 4, 6 and 10 kop. were of course issued in significant numbers and
the lowest denominations of 1, 2, and 3 kop. have had large printings. Here, for example, are the printings
for the "Centenary of the Moscow Zoo" perforated set of 1964 (Sov. Cat. 3089-95; Scott 2899-2904; Gibbons
2996 3002; Yvert 2821-27; Michel 2914-20 A; Zumstein 2876-82B): -

1 & 2 kop. 5 million copies each.
4, 6, & 10 kop. 4 million copies each.
12 & 16 kop. 3 million copies each.

At the end of 1966, the new 11th. regular issue appeared at the postal counters, consisting of 12 stamps in
horizontal format. Naturally, the face values of the new artistic miniatures have been designated to corres-
pond with the Soviet postal rates of 1961, which are still in force up to the present time.


The history of the emission of Soviet postage stamps is intermingled with the story of the postal rates. It
is not surprising, therefore, that the discussion about the tariffs for the period from 1918 to 1967 was trans-
formed in actuality into a talk about the many stamps of our country which have gone into circulation during
that length of time. It can be asserted with confidence that without a study of the rates of this or that per-
iod, an investigator would not know how to go about things, if he is seriously involved with the story of Sov-
iet stamps. Unfortunately, as has already been pointed out above, the question of postal rates has not until
now been taken up at all in our philatelic literature.

However, not even the present investigation has solved the task in full. The blank spots in the rates re-
quire further investigatory work. In connection with the little-studied tariffs, particularly in the first years
of Soviet rule, it still has not been possible to reconstruct completely the full picture of the postal usage
of many stamps of our country, It would be timely to refer especially to one of these serious "blank spots",
namely the RSFSR rates for international mail in the period from 1917 to 1921. An interesting investigation

65 -

by the French collectors M. Liphschutz and Ch. Godard was published in the beginning of 1966 in Bulletin
No. 9 of the France -USSR Philatelic Circle, being devoted to the Russian and Soviet rates from 1914 to 1924.
However, even in this study, the international tariffs are not dealt with at all. The authors simply equated
them with the domestic rates. But in point of fact the tariffs for international mail in those years were de-
signated quite separately and did not coincide with the internal ones. A summary is given below of these
tariffs, reflecting the hypothetical views of the author and requiring further confirmation.

The rates for international mail, introduced in September 1916, are known with certainty to be the following:-

a) Postcards 4 kop.
b) Ordinary letters 10 kop.
c) Registration fee 10 kop.

The next change in tariffs was carried out on 1 Sept. 1917, as follows:-

a) Postcards 8 kop.
b) Ordinary letters 20 kop.
c) Registration fee 20 kop. (?)

The rates were further changed on 10 March 1918:-

a) Postcards 12 kop.
b) Ordinary letters 30 kop.
c) Registration fee 30 kop. (?)

The international tariffs were evidently altered at the end of 1919. However, neither the date nor their
extent are known. The next change came about on 7 June 1920, when the rates of 1 Sept. 1917 were increas-
ed 50 times, as follows:-

a) Postcards 4 rub.
b) Ordinary letters 10 rub.
c) Registration fee 10 rub.

In all probability, the rates were also revised at the beginning of 1921(?), when their extent was made equal
to 100 times those introduced on 1 Sept. 1917:-

a) Postcards &rub.
b) Ordinary letters 20 rub.
c) Registration fee 20 rub. (?)

This hypothesis is confirmed by the values of the RSFSR set issued in August 1921. The 20-rub. stamp of
the RSFSR (Hammer and Sickle design) and the 40-rub. value (Liberation of the Proletariat) were obviously
intended for ordinary and registered international letters. Covers which have gone through the mails with
stamps affixed, notices in the press of that period and the archival material of the Ministry of Communica-
tions of the USSR, of which latter almost one half has already been studied, would all be of especial value
to investigators.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: This wonderful study, now terminated above, has evoked great interest and details
of interesting and puzzling items which have come to light can now be given.

From the Kurt Adler collection, we first show an unusual cover from Penza, 26 April 1923to Anyk*9iai,,
Lithuania, 4 May 1923. The rate is made.up of 480 rubles 1922 currency (i.e. 4 rub. 80 kop. 1923 currency)
and the 4 r.+ 4 r. silver surcharge stamp of the "Philately to the Workers" set issued on 1 May, 1923 (1).

66 -

In other words, were supplies of this surcharge made available at Penza five days before its presumed unique
sale at Moscow G.O.P.? All the stamps are tied by the same postmark inscribed "GORODSK. POCHT. TEL.
KONTOR. a PENZA, 26. 4. 23." and the Moscow machine transit marking dated 28. IV.23. ties most of the
stamps, including the silver surcharge (see Fig. 1). It then went through Kaunas, Lithuania, 3 May 1923, to
its final destination. The total amount paid was 8 rub. 80 kop., while reference to the international rate at
this period (see RSFSR Tariffs, Section No. 13, on p. 39 of Rossica No. 74) will show that only 6 rub. 50 kop.
would have been required. There is absolutely no doubt that the silver surcharge was placed on the cover at
the same time as the other stamps, as the pair of 200 rub. surcharges partly overlap the silver stamp. The cov-
er went to a private person and looks absolutely non-philatelic in character. Comments would be appreciated.

From the same collection, we next have an international registered airmail cover from the 1926 summer season.
Addressed to Riga in Latvia, it was mailed at Leningrad on 19 July 1926, reached Moscow two days later and
received the airmail transit marking of Kinigsberg in East Prussia, where it was off-loaded. There is no Latvian
arrival marking. The correct rate of 58 kop. was made up with a pair of the 14-kop. Popov stamp to cover the
foreign letter and registration fees and a pair of 15-kop. airmail stamps with surcharge inverted for the 30-kop.
additional fee for air transmission to Germany (Fig. 2).

A registered airmail cover to Berlin from the 1927 summer season is now featured in Fig. 3. The correct rate
would have been 14 kop. for a letter abroad, 14 kop. for registration and an additional 16-kop. airmail fee to
Germany, totalling 44 kop. The sender overpaid his letter by one kopek so as to be able to frank the cover
with both values of the beautiful Airmail Conference set of 1927.

Mr. Karlinskii is right when he stresses the scarity of the 35-kop. commems of the early 30s. From the Kurt
Adler collection, we see this value from the set honoring the 15th. anniversary of the Revolution, sent to
Vienna, Austria on 3 Nov. 1932 and paying the rate for an international registered letter (Fig. 4). This parti-
cular stamp is rare in any state: mint, used or on cover.

We will now consider a registered letter to Czechoslovakia, sent from Moscow on 7 Dec. 1932 and received
in Prague three days later. This would have been too fast for surface transmission and so the letter must
have gone by air. This is confirmed by checking the rate paid, i.e. 85 kop.., which was made up from 15 kop.
for the international letter tariff, 20 kop, for registration and an additional 50-kop. fee for air transmission to
Czechoslovakia, all in accordance with the rates in force at the time (Fig. 5). The late date of despatch
shows this to be another 'out-of-season" airmail cover, as regular flights would have been suspended by
the end of November.

Mr. Karlinskii states that the lowest values of Soviet commemoratives were issued during the early 30s in
relatively large quantities to popularize them among collectors. However, at least some of these low values
also fitted postal needs. Please see Fig. 6 for the usage of the 3 kop. Volodarskii commem at the interna-
tional printed matter rate on 1 Dec. 1934. Similar usages have been seen of the 3 kop. Karl Marx comment of
1933, prepaying the same rate from Moscow to the U.S. on 2 Nov. 1933 and 26 Oct. 1934.

An unusual application is the usage of the 10 kop. Express stamp of 1932 to pay the normal international
postcard rate from Leningrad to the U.S. on 25 July 1935 (Fig. 7). The same rate was also made up with
a striking combination of the 9-kop. value of the 1933 Ethnographic set and the 1-kop. stamp of the
Chelyuskin airmails, also sent from Leningrad on the same day (Fig. 8).

An example of the rate for international postcards in force between 1 May 1936 and 10 June 1950 is shown
on a censored item from Tartu, Estonia, 12 May 1941 to Leipzig, Germany, showing a carry-over of the
Estonian machine canceller and the application of a 30-kop. value of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition
issue (Fig. 9).

A completely non-philatelic use of an Architectural Congress commem issued 16 years before is demonstrat-
ed on a letter from Leningrad, 18 Jun. 1954 to a regional destination, paying the 40-kop. domestic rate in

67 -

effect at the time (Fig. 10). Who says that Soviet commems are never available for postal purposes?

The 25-kop. domestic postcard rate in force between 16 Sept. 1948 and 1 Jan 1961 is shown on an official
Leningrad postcard, sent from a local subscription office of the telephone service on 4 Sept. 1956 (Fig. 11).

It appears there are preferential rates for mail to Socialist countries, probably corresponding to the Soviet
domestic tariffs. An example given here is the 4-kop. internal letter rate on a cover sent from Uzhgorod in
the Carpatho-Ukraine, 5 Mar. 1964, to Miskolc in Hungary (Fig. 12). Further information is requiredfrom
readers in order to confirm this point.

The foregoing items show just a few of the interesting usages that can be assembled to form an absorbing
study. Mr. Karlinskii has covered the Soviet period in a masterly fashion and there are many areas left to
be investigated. To start the ball rolling, the following examples are quoted:-

a) A letter from the German occupation of Dorpat (Tartu, Estonia) during W. W. 1. This provisional ser-
vice lasted from 4 March to 14 March 1918, the rates being 20 pfg, for postcards and 40 pfg. for letters,
presumably covering also the further application of 7 1/2 and 15-pfg. "Ob. Ost." stamps respectively
in transit through Riga, Latvia. The cover in Fig. 13 has the "RIGA C" cancel dated 12.3.18. 11-12 V.
and the encircled 'R" at left is a German censor marking applied at that letter city.

b) Fig. 14 shows a registered cover with the 6-mark rate of the Pplish administration in Central Lithuania.
The letter is postmarked "WILNO, a, 23.11.20", the cancel being obviously modified from an existing Rus-
sian "VIL'NA, a" type found in the post office. The Polish surcharges on Lithuanian stamps found in
Vilnius (Wilno), the capital of Lithuania, are rare on cover.

c) A strip of four "5 Cent." surcharges of the 1920 Kharbin issue paid the international registration rate
of 20 cents Chinese currency on a letter from Kharbin, 22 Dec. 1920, to New York City, passing throligh
Yokohama, Japan, a mere five days later. As the envelope was made of rather flimsy paper, it was bat-
tered in transit and officially resealed by the U.S. Postal Service at bottom centre (Fig. 15).

In concluding, the Editorial Board emphasizes that it would be happy to publish further notes on postal
rates received from readers in any area of our spheres of collecting.


68 -

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by Ivan Chernyavskyj

When and how did the issues come about?

On Saturday, 24 May 1919, the Ukrainian forces left Kolomyya. On Monday afternoon, 26 May 1919, the
Roumanian occupation units took over Kolomyya and the entire Pokuttya area (Pokutia, or the Kolomyya
district of the Western Ukraine). In the first days of the Roumanian occupation, all normal private commun-
ications were practically at a standstill. From sunset to sunrise, that is, both during the evening and the
night, no one was allowed to leave their homes or to have lights on in houses. Offices could only function
if their duties pertained to the requirements of the occupation authorities, who were known as "The Command
of the Occupation Army in Pokutia", under the direction of the Roumanian Colonel G. Liciu.

At the same time, all private mail was stopped and the postal service functioned only for official agencies,
such as the Roumanian "Ofic. Tel. Postal Militar Divizia VIII" (Military Postal and Telegraphic Office of
the 8th. Division please see Fig. 1). This remained the case until 12 June 1919.

On that day, the Roumanian Major Turbatu arrived in Kolomyya, as the representative of the Post Office Di-
rection authorities, in order to resume and regulate postal communications in Pokutia. Ascertaining about
me at the post office in Kolomyya to the effect that I was a philatelist frcqn pre-war days and hearing from
one of the postal officials that I had taken part in the emission of Ukrainian stamps during the Ukrainian
administration, he invited me to the post office there. When I arrived, we became acquainted and after that,
he informed me that he intended to begin normal postal services and asked that I express my views as to the
kind of postage stamps to be utilized during the occupation.

When I stated my opinion that it would be best to bring in Roumanian postage stamps, as there would be more
of them than either Ukrainian or Austrian, which were probably not available in suitable quantities, he told
me that the Command was not agreeable to introducing Roumanian stamps as the occupation was to be a tem-
porary affair only. He went on to say that a large quantity of Austrian postage stamps had been collected
from all post offices in Pokutia, as well as at Chernivtsy (Chernovtsy, Cernau;i or Czernowitz, the capital
of Northern Bukovina, which now forms part of the Ukrainian SSR). They would have to be overprinted in a
suitable way, since if they were not treated in this manner, the former Austrian stamps could be brought in
from abroad, to the detriment of the governmental postal income. The overprinting was to be done in such a
way that it would not be a direct designation of Roumanian sovereignty.

After much discussion, we decided that the Austrian stamps be overprinted with a handstamg inscribed
"C.M.T.", which initials stood for "Comandamentul Militar Teritorial" or "The Territorial Military Com-
mand" and that the designation of the new value was to be in Austrian currency, namely 40 h., 60 h. and
1 k. 20 h. With this aim in view, three suitable metal dies were engraved in rectangular form.

Major Turbatu further announced that he was immediately leaving for Chernivtsy (Cernauti) where he would
supervise everything, namely the engraving of the dies and the surcharging by hand of the entire stock of
Austrian stamps which were available at Chernivtsy, and, after two or three days, bring them up to Kolo-
myya for use.

Meanwhile, normal postal services were opened for public use and a negligible amount of Roumanian stamps
was made available for franking mail. Upon my request as a philatelist, two such Roumanian stamps were
affixed by favor on a cover and cancelled with a Roumanian postmark dated 12 Jun. 1919 (see Fig. 1), as
a mememto of the day the postal service was opened.

I would like to mention here that because of the very strict censorship of letters, the private volume of mail
during the entire period of the Roumanian occupation was not great; the public sent letters almost exclusive-
ly to official agencies.


On 14 June 1919, Major Turbatu came back in the afternoon to Kolomyya, bringing with him the entire stock
of surcharged Austrian stamps. He again invited me to the post office and showed me all the stamps in the
cash office there. We both examined this entire stock, sheet by sheet, so as to ensure that the stamps agreed
with the tabulation that Major Turbatu had brought with him.

Upon my request, Major Turbatu allowed me to list the totals of the stamps he had brought up, both for phil-
atelic purposes and to confirm the numbers issued, which I then did. A copy of this statement is given here-
under: -

"Tabulation of the quantities of the Austrian postage stamps and postcards surcharged C.M.T. and new val-
ue, which were delivered to the post offices in Pokutia by the Command of the Occupation Army in Pokutia
during the occupation: -

POST 40h. 60h. 60h. 60h. 60h. 1k20h. 1k20h. 1k20h. 40h. 1k20h. 1k20h. 1k20h. 1k20h. 40 h.
OFFICE on on on on on on on on on on on25h. on on on
5 h. 15h. 20h. 25h. 30h. 50h. 60h. 1 k. 5 h. 1910 1916 30h. 50/42h 10h.

DELATYN 500 2000 300 300 300 -- 150 100 20 -- -- -- 100

HORODENKA 500 2000 300 300 300 -- 150 100 -- 120 -- 100
KOLOMYYA 8 2500 8000 2000 1400 1400 40 220 400 58 -- 17 15 600
LANCZYN 500 2000 300 300 300 -- 150 100 20 -- -- 100
SNIATYN 500 2000 300 300 300 -- 150 100 20 -- -- 100
Totals 8 4500 16000 3200 2600 2600 40 820 800 118 120 17 15 1000 "

This table confirms the following facts: -

(a) The quantities surcharged of every value and on what Austrian stamps they were applied.

(b) Furthermore, Major Turbatu immediately sent a portion of these stamps to the post offices at Delatyn
(Delyatin), Horodenka, -anczyn (Lanchyn) and Sniatyn (Snyatyn) and the tabulation states what types of
stamps were sent there.

(c) Apart from the postage stamps, postcards were also surcharged and issued, namely the old Austrian in-
ternal and external types of 10 h. value (please see Fig. 2 for a photo of the external type from the J. S.
Terlecky Collection. The internal type is similar, but lacks the bilingual German and French inscription to
the left of the stamp die).

At the same time, he ordered that all other post offices in the area could, in case of need, apply to the post
office at Kolomyya for the stamps required by them. Major Turbatu then told me that the entire stock of Aus-
trian stamps had been surcharged and allocated in the above manner and that there were no more stamps for
distribution. Moreover, if this stock did not prove adequate during the period of occupation, then ordinary
Roumanian postage stamps could be utilized as a last resort.

The quantities of the Roumanian occupation stamps and their types.

It is evident from the table quoted above that only 13 types of Austrian postage stamps were surcharged,

72 -

(a) Ordinary postage stamps: 40 h. on 5 h.; 60 h. on 15, 20, 25 and 30 h.; 1 k. 20 h. on 50 & 60h. and 1 k.

(b) Postage due stamps: 40 h. on 5 h.; 1 k. 20 h. on 25 h. 1910 issue, on 25 h. 1916 issue, 30 & 50/42 h.

(c) 40 h. on 10 h. internal and external postcards

There were no other surcharges on any other Austrian postage stamps during the entire Period of occupation
and all other surcharges are speculative and originate from some time after the occupation, as I will show
below. By way of explanation, I might add that Major Turbatu gave me all the above information vary glad-
ly, not only because I was a philatelist but also in my capacity as a former president of the court, I was ap-
pointed by the Roumanian occupation authorities as Director for Judical Affairs during the occupation.

Of the other post offices in the occupied region, those at Pecienizyn (Pechenizhyn) and Zablot6w (Zabolotiv)
asked for and received 360 copies each of these stamps and the office at Obertyn obtained 240 copies. No
further post office asked for these stamps.

From the letters which arrived in Kolomyya, I was able to ascertain that these stamps were being used at
the post offices of Horodenka, Kokomyja, Obertyn, Peczenizyn, niatyn and Zablot6w (Horodenka, Kolomyya,
Obertyn, Pechenizhyn, Snyatyn and Zabolotiv) and I have such covers in my collection. On the other hand,
I do not have letters from Delatyn (Delyatyn) and Lanczyn (Lanchyn) and I have never encountered such let-

At the same time that these stamps were brought up to Kolomyya on 14 June 1919, Major Turbatu took along
with him an official announcement of the Army of Occupation in Pokutia, written only in German and entitled
"Instruktionen betreffend die Wiederaufnahme des amtlichen und private Post-und Telegraphenverkehrs im
besetzten Gebiet", relating to the usage of the "C.M.T." stamps. This proclamation was posted on the no-
tice board at the post office, at the Town Hall and the City Court of Kolomyya. There was no further dis-
semination of this notice elsewhere in the town. For the text of this announcement, please see the Appen-
dix below.

The technical execution of the "C.M.T." stamps

So far as the technical production of these surcharges is concerned, it was performed using three handstamps,
i.e. one each of 40 h., 40.h., and 1 k. 20 h. values and the military authorities at Chernivtsy (Cerngu;i) fur-
nished them.

Upon careful examination of all sheets by me in the presence of Major Turbatu, it happened that eight sheets
were found of the 60 h. on 20 h. surcharges where the first position had an inverted surcharge, resulting from
a mistake made by the soldier, while there were several dozens of stamps on the 20 h. sheets with double

With the permission of Major Turbatu, I then purchased on the spot a block of four with the inverted surcharge
on the first stamp and a similar block of four with the double surcharge. The remaining errors went into gen-
eral use at the post office. All other sheets were surcharged correctly.

The Roumanian occupation of Pokutia lasted until 20 August 1919. On that day, upon a directive from Major
Turbatu, all the above-mentioned post offices in the occupation zone returned their unsold stamps to the post
office at Kolomyya, where they were collected together with the stamps remaining unsold at Kolomyya.

The number of unsold "C.M.T." stamps

At the invitation of Major Turbatu, I was at the post office in Kolomyya and bought a few items from these
remainders for philatelic purposes. Major Turbatu recounted the balance in my presence and took them back

73 -

to Chernivtsy (Cernauii), in accordance with the tabulation hereunder, which I drew up for myself in his pre-
sence and with his permission. The following quantities remained from the entire issue: -

12 copies of the 60 h. surcharge on 15 h. postage stamps.
5190 copies of the 60 h. surcharge on 20 h. postage stamps.
130 copies of the 1 k. 20 h. surcharge on 50 h. postage stamps
41 copies of the 40 h. surcharge on 5 h. postage dues.
30 copies of the 1 k. 20 h. surcharge on 25 h. 1910 issue postage dues.
2 copies of the 1 k. 20 h. surcharge on 50/42 h. 1917 issue postage dues.

There were no other remainders.

The evacuation of the Roumanian occupation forces began on 21 August 1919 and at the same time, the Polish
forces took over all of Pokutia. This then is the full story of the "C.M.T." stamps of the Roumanian occupa-
tion at Kolomyya in Pokutia.

Where did the other types of "'C.M.T." stamps come from?

In addition to the 13 authentic types of surcharged C.M.T." stamps noted above, we find that a whole range
of other Austrian stamps is listed with "C.M.T." surcharges in every catalog and in general quoted at fabu-
lous prices.

How did this come about? For a long time, this was a real puzzle to me, especially in view of the fact that
I had completely authentic documentation for the actual surcharges and had checked every phase of issue
of these stamps with my own eyes. It was not until January 1920 that I had an opportunity to find out about
this. On the 20th. of that month, an acquaintance of mine, Dr. W. R., visited me in Kolomyya. He was both
a collector and a stamp dealer. Upon my enquiring about the above problem, he gave me the following infor-
mation: -

(a) A few days before 20 August 1919, a professor from Chernivtsy (Cernauti), whose name, however, Dr. W.
R. either could not or would not divulge, arrived in Kolomyya bringing with him 100 complete sets of unused
Austrian stamps, being the regular issue from 3 h. to 1 k., as well as a number of sets of postage due stamps
from 5 h. to 1 k. In the absence of Major Turbatu, he arranged to have them stamped in Kolomyya with the
postal seal of that office and subsequently, after the occupation had ended, had the "C.M.T." handstamps
applied to them in Chernivtsy by some method unknown to Dr. W. R. He then took these stamps to Vienna
and sold them to stamp dealers as authentic copies. Among other buyers, the well-known Viennese firm of
'' F" purchased such a set.

(b) Upon the termination of the occupation, i.e. at the beginning of September 1919, a consortium of specu-
lators was formed at Chernivtsy. They bought up a large number of various unused Austrian stamps, had
them surcharged with the authentic "C.M.T." dies and took them to Vienna for sale, together with all three
handstamps. In order to prove the authenticity of these stamps beyond doubt and at the same time to make
further surcharges impossible, they arranged to have all three dies officially destroyed and this was actu-
ally carried out in the presence of a notary Mr. V., Dr. R. W. and two representatives from one of the most
reputable Viennese stamp firms. The notary confirmed the specific act of destruction of the dies.

It is true that such surcharges were performed with the authentic handstamps, but not under the orders of
the relevant authorities and they were done at times when further production of the "C.M.T." occupation
stamps was inadmissable. Hence, all surcharges, with the exception of the 13 officially issued kinds
noted above, should be regarded as speculative. I think that no one will be able to show that these fur-
ther surcharges were actually found on covers which have been sent authentically and properly through
the mails.

74 -

It was therefore in this way that the above puzzle was finally cleared up.


"The Command of the Army of Occupation in Pokutia.

Instructions concerning the resumption of official and private postal and telegraphic services in the occu-
pied territory.

Art. 1: The official correspondence of recognized authorities, such as regional administrative organizations
local government offices, hospitals etc. will be resumed both in postal and telegraphic services, in accord-
ance with the procedures and rules established by the laws and statutes of the Austrian State. With this aim
in view, the telegrams, as well as the envelopes must bear a correspondence number and a legible impres-
sion of the relevant official seal.

Art. 2: Reply coupons with a monetary value are not allowable.

Art. 3: The following classes of civilian correspondence are permitted:-

a) Ordinary telegrams
b) Telegrams with telegraphic or postal acknowledgement of receipt.
c) Collated telegrams.
d) Telegrams sent by telephone.
e) Telegrams delivered by messengers.
f) Ordinary letters.
g) Postcards.
h) Registered letters
i ) Newspapers.
j) Samples.
k) Printed Matter.
1) Prescriptions.
m) Visiting cards.

Art. 4: Any other type of correspondence, not included in the article above, will not be forwarded and will be

Art. 5: Each letter, postcard and telegram must include the name and address of the sender. Correspondence
without such notations will otherwise be destroyed.

Art. 6: Correspondence is permitted in all languages of the country. Correspondence in cypher, or containing
coded wording and symbols is completely prohibited. It is also forbidden to write in invisible ink. Corres-
pondence written in these ways will be confiscated.

Art. 7: Austrian postage stamps surcharged "C.M.T." and the relevant face value, or Roumanian stamps,
will be utilized.

All classes of mail franked with other postage stamps will be treated as unpaid and the postage due collect-
ed at the destination.

Art. 8: The currency utilized by the Postal Service will be Austrian kronen and Roumanian lei banknotes,
which for the time being will be calculated on the basis of two kronen for one leu.

Art. 9: The rates for telegrams and letters are as follows: -

75 -

a) Orinary Telegrams: 40 h. per word of up to 15 letters, with a minimum charge of 4 k., regard-
less of whether the telegram contains 10 words or less. There will also be a surtax of 40 h.
charged for a delivery receipt, which is obligatory and a further 40 h. for an auxiliary stamp,
which is also compulsory. Triple rates will be paid for urgent telegrams.

b) Telegrams with telegraphic acknowledgement of receipt will be subject to an extra charge of
4 k., and with an acknowledgement of receipt by the post office to a surtax of 1 k. 80 h.

c) For collated telegrams, the rate will be 50% higher than the normal word rate.

d) For telephoned telegrams, a surtax of 4 k. will be charged for the telephone fee.

e) The multiple copy rate for telegrams is 4 k. per 100 words or part thereof, but only for the same
destination. If the telegram goes to various destinations, it will be handled as an ordinary

f) Tor telegrams going to a point where there is neither a post office or a telephone, the sender
is obligated to deposit a suitable sum of money, in addition to the telegram and telephone fees,
from which the messenger's salary will be paid and the balance of the deposit refunded to the

g) Ordinary sealed letters and postcards, addressed locally or to anywhere in Roumania, will be
charged 60 h. per 20 grammes (2/3 oz.) or part thereof. A 20-h. auxiliary stamp must be add-
ed to the sending.

h) Registered letters will be charged 1 k. registration fee, in addition to the 60-h. letter rate and
20 h. for the auxiliary stamp, which must be paid on mailing, either in cash or in postage stamps.

j) Registered postcards will be charged 1 k. for the registration fee, in addition to the 40-h. card
rate and 20 h. for the supplementary auxiliary stamp.

k) Newspapers will be charged 4 h. for every 50 grammes (1-2/3 ozs.). The auxiliary stamp will
not be required.

1) Samples will be charged 40 h. per 100 grammes (3 1/3 ozs.) or part thereof, up to a maximum
weight of 350 grammes (11-2/3 ozs.) Corn samples are an exception and will be allowed up
to a maximum weight of 550 grammes (18 1/3 ozs.), being still charged at the rate for
350 grammes. The auxiliary stamp will not be required.

m) Printed matter is allowed up to a weight of 2 Kg. (4-1/2 lbs.) and will be charged 20 h. per
100 grammes (3-1/3 ozs.). It is permitted to be sent in the form of packages with dimensions
of 30, 20, and 10 cm., and 75 & 10 cm. in rolled form.

n) Commercial papers are allowed up to a weight of 2 Kg., with the same dimensions as for print-
ed matter and will be charged 60 h. per 100 grammes (3-1/3 ozs.).

o) Visiting cards bearing messages of greeting limited to five words will be charged 20 h. The
auxiliary stamp will not be required.

p) Telegraphic visiting cards will be charged 2 k. and can only contain the address and signa-

Art. 10: Money orders, parcels, checks, valuable papers, savings deposits and newspaper subscriptions


will not be allowed to go through the post offices or general delivery service for the time being.

Art. 11: Unfranked, or insufficiently franked, correspondence will be charged for on arrival at double the
rate. Franking is compulsory in Pokutia. Unfranked, or insufficiently franked, correspondence will not be
forwarded in Pokutia.

Art. 12: Telegraphic and postal correspondence will be permitted for the entire territory of Galicia occupied
by the Army, as well as for all of Roumania, namely Bessarabia, Bukovina, Dobrudja, Moldavia, Muntenia and

Art. 13: Only ordinary mail (letters and postcards) will be permitted for destinations abroad at the following
rates: -

a) Sealed letters at 1 k. per 20 grammes (2/3 oz.) or part thereof. The auxiliary stamp will not be

b) Postcards 80 h. and no auxiliary stamp will be required.

c) For the international service, correspondence is permitted to the following countries: America,
Belgium, England, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland.

Art. 14: The income from the sale of the auxiliary stamps will be utilized for the hospitals in Pokutia.

The Commandant of the Military Territory of Pokutia,
Colonel G. Liciu,"

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Chernyavskyj was a lawyer in Kolomyya and the above study was written by
him in three separate versions: German, Polish and Ukrainian, in 1928. Entitled "The Story of the Pos-
tage Stamps of Kolomyya (1) Ukrainian, (2) C.M.T. Roumanian Occupation", the three editions were
published by Evhen Velichkovslyj and printed by Wilhelm Brauner, both of Kolomyya. The translation a-
bove is from the Ukrainian version, the book being kindly loaned by Mr. J. S. Terlecky, our Ukrainian edi-

This is the only extensive treatment so far published of this obscure phase of Ukrainian philately and
his legal training has enabled Mr. Chernyavskyj to set down the facts as he knew them in an orderly man-
ner. In this way, they can easily be checked. His treatment of the postal history of the occupation is
especially useful, as it is backed up with authoritative documentation.

Let us go back over his information and see what conclusions may be drawn. From Fig. 1, we can see
what kinds of Roumanian stamps were available on 12 June 1919, namely the 5-bani (10-heller) regular
with circular overprint showing the monogram of King Ferdinand and the initials "P.T.T." (Posts, Tele-
graphs and Telephones): The other 5-bani stamp, inscribed "TIMBRU DE AJUTOR" (auxiliary stamp),
was printed in green and was obligatory as a tax on postal sending. It is to such "auxiliary" stamps
that the decree in the Appendix refers to, the tax required for the most part being 20 heller or 10 bani,
which could have been paid by pairs of the 5-bani, or a single of the 10-bani value printed in black (see
Fig. 3). In other words, most classes of mail covered by the official notice required combination frank-
ing of the Roumanian auxiliary stamps and the "C.M.T." surcharges. We have yet to see such frankings
on cards and covers and they are obviously rare, as can also be inferred from Mr. Chernyavskyj's work.

It will be noted from the decree that the rates were adequately covered by the values of the surcharged
stamps (40 h., 60 h. and 1 k. 20 h.) in one way or another, with the exception of the 20 h. tariff for vis-
iting cards. In the event these would have been sent, the rate may possibly have been paid with a 10-
bani Roumanian regular stamp with the overprinted monogram, similar to the 5-bani stamp shown in Fig. 1.

77 -

As the surcharges on the Austrian postage dues only cover the 40 h. and 1 k. 20 h. values, rather than dou-
ble the deficiencies in the postal rates, it would seem that they were only utilized as postage stamps. Does
any reader have any definitive information about this?

The names of the eight known post offices have primarily been given in their Polish versions, as they are in-
scribed in this way on the old Austrian cancellers, which were still being used during the Roumanian occupa-
tion. Some unused copies have been seen of the 40 h. surcharge on Austrian 10-h. postcards, all of them of
the external type (see Fig. 2). It would therefore seem that the internal type is scarcer, which stands to rea-
son as it would have been in more frequent use during the Austrian administration and consequently a smaller
quantity of them would have been left over for surcharging.

The reference by Mr. Chernyjavskyj of the application of the Kolomyya postal seal to sets of unused Austrian
postage stamps at the instigation of the professor from Chernivtsy (CernAuti) is a little vague, as it is not
clear whether they were actually postmarked, or had the seal placed on the margins of the sheets to "authen-
ticate" them. That there was such a professor involved in illegal reprintings of this issue seems to be true,
as can be borne out by the chance discovery of a used Roumanian postcard, the message on which being shown
in Fig. 5. Addressed to a Mr. Marcel Bir6 in Debreczen, Hungary and written by a Professor D. Gronich of
Pitzelligasse 2 in Cernguti on 9 Oct. 1921, it reads as follows:-

'' Coming back to our earlier exchange relationship, I am taking the liberty to ask you if you are interested in
C.M.T. rarities (Michel 1922, Nos. 11, 23, 28, Porto 4, 6). I have not given these stamps in exchange until now
as they were either not correctly priced to correspond with the numbers printed, or had been unpriced.

In exchange I am thinking about the Debreczen 1st and 2nd. issues in complete sets if possible and in conven-
ient quantities.

Awaiting your reply with pleasure at your earliest convenience, I remain,

Yours faithfully,
Prof. D. Gronich."

This is possibly the same professor that Dr. W. R. had referred to.

With regard to the color of the original surcharges, Mr. Chernyavskyj stated in the Polish version of his
work that it was in dark blue-black ink. The postcard shown in Fig. 2 has it in greyish blue-black ink and
it is in the same color on the used 60 h./20 h. stamp given in Fig. 4. The postmark on this latter item is
from somewhere in GALIZIEN (Galicia) and the date is 17 July 1919, which is in the correct period. The
40 h. surcharge in Fig. 6 is in glossy black ink on a lo-h. Austrian stamp, which, according to the study,
was never issued. It must therefore belong to the illegal reprints done by either the professor or the con-
sortium at Cernauti.

Several of the major catalogs list the "C.M.T." stamps, including the additional values that Mr.
Chernyavskyj says are speculative. As to the color of the surcharges, Michel says it varies fromblack-vio-
let to violet. It also lists the following as proofs: -

Blue surcharge: Postage stamps 40 h. on 5 h.
60 h. on 5, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 h.
1 k. 20 h. on 1 k.
Postage dues 40 h. on 20 h. and 50/42 h.
Red surcharge: Postage stamps /40 h. on 3 and 5 h.
60 h. on 3, 5, 25, 30 & 60 h.
1 k. 20 h. on 30 h.

78 -

Until a couple of years ago, it also stated that the stamps were used at 10 post offices in Southern Galicia
and Bukovina. The wording has now been changed to several post offices in the same areas. Since Mr.
Chernyavskyj accounts for 8 post offices, all in Pokutia, which forms part of Southern Galicia, there is no
reason why the stamps would have been utilized in Bukovina, all of which latter area had by now been incor-
porated into the Kingdom of Roumania. The possibility cannot be excluded that the professor or the consor-
tium in Chernivtsy (Cerniugi) had their illegal reprints cancelled with the Austrian cancellers still being ap-
plied in Northern Bukovina. Please see Fig. 7 for an example of an Austrian CZERNOWITZ postmarker
still being utilized in Cernauti on 25 Feb. 1920. If such a marking appears on a used "C.M.Ti' surcharge,
then the stamp must be an illegal reprint.

The Zumstein catalog states that the stamps were used in Pokutia, Southern Galicia and Bukovina. As the
Roumanian army only occupied Pokutia, postmarks from other parts of Southern Galicia would appear to be
suspect. Its listing of the proof surcharges is as follows:-

Blue surcharge: Postage stamps 40 h. on 3 h.
60 h. on 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 & 60 h.
1 k. 20 h. on 5 h.
Postage dues 1 k. 20 h. on 25 h. and 50 h.
Red surcharge: Postage stamps 40 h. on 3 & 5 h.
( 60 h. on 3 & 30 h.

It is interesting to note from Article No. 13 of the official notice that international mail was permitted only
to countries which were allies of Roumania during W. W. I, as well as to two neutral countries, namely Spain
and Switzerland. Any such examples, if they exist, must be of considerable rarity.

The final conclusions reached in this survey may be summarized as follows: -

(a) Roumanian stamps were the only ones available up to 14 June 1919 and their usage was rare.

(b) The "C.M.T." surcharges were used at eight post offices in Pokutia only, from 14 June to 20
August 1919. For a map of the area involved, please see Fig. 8 herewith.

(c) Postmarks from other parts of Southern Galicia or Northern Bukovina must have been fraudulent-
ly applied on the illegal reprints.

(d) The color used for the original surcharges could have varied from dark blue-black to gyi
blue-black. The black-violet to violet shades mentioned by Michel may have resulted when
used stamps were soaked off cards or covers.

(e) The stamps should only be collected in used condition with legible postmarks of Pokutia ap-
plied within the proper period, until it has been determined beyond doubt what colors were used
by the professor and the consortium for their illegal surcharges.

(f) All stamps with glossy black surcharges are bogus.

(g) It is possible that the proof surcharges in blue and red are authentic, as they could have been
tried out by the Roumanian military authorities in Cernaui, prior to the issue of the original
surcharges, and thus would have been unknown to r. Chernyavskyj. Further evidence is re-
quired to support this, as several of the values with proof surcharges (3 h. 40 h. and 60 h. pos-
tage stamps of Austria) do not exist among the surcharged stamps as issued.

(h) Only the 13 values listed by Mr. Chernyavskyj were issued, and all other stamps noted in sever-
al catalogs should be regarded as bogus.

79 -

(i) The possibility exists of forged surcharges on Austrian stamps, i.e. surcharges applied
on Austrian stamps after the original dies had been destroyed, although none have been seen
so far. They may even exist on Austrian stamps selected for the correct period of use, but
otherwise showing indistinct portions of the rest of the cancels.

Any further findings arrived at by readers on this difficult issue will be gladly published by the Editorial



80 -

by Ivan Chernyavskyj
"'., . "X.P. A so iArmarlr,. F. S. .
I lgrwm(e i*primwter cu c career t latine ci're A rM mncuirul cel ,.i ; j ji
iad dup Se6cl or|ingi,. indici nomirul do oridesal doil indici numirl

Fig,. 2.

r k

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.A. -..y. .,.All

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^Vlc murudn c areos*.~.. l
r GUs-^n

A Little-Known Branch of Erinnophilia


by E. Marcovitch

Paper seals (called "oblatki"), with which envelopes were sealed, were used instead of the old wax seals.
They came upon the scene about 1870 at the same time as the appearance of envelopes and were used most-
ly by official institutions and civic organizations. These seals were preferred to the wax seals. First, their
application was simpler: it was not necessary to melt the wax which at times dripped on the envelope, soil-
ed it and, at times, the impression of the stamp could hardly be seen. Second, the paper seals carried not
only the design of the stamp but also the inscription which gave the name of the office and its location (town
or village). These advantages brought about the appearance and widespread use of these paper seals.

Such seals may be found in nearly every collection of old stamps, particularly of Russian stamps, collectors
usually having them mounted on a separate page, not knowing where else to place them.

No one considered them to be postage stamps although at times they served as official stamps exempting the
letters from postal franking. For this reason, some collectors included them in their collections, but hardly
anyone had a special interest in them. I have never met a philatelist who collected paper seals seriously, al-
though I have been informed that such collectors existed in pre-revolution times.

As I have just mentioned, the paper seals were mainly used by the government and civic institutions, but one
could see them also on the envelopes of private firms such as banks, insurance companies, and sometimes on
commercial and industrial envelopes.

These paper seals are frequently seen in collections of fiscal stamps, vignettes and other non-postage stamps.
Several years ago I purchased a collection of Russian fiscal in which I found many pages containing several
hundred copies of paper seals pasted upon them. Most of them were the seals of different ministries, city halls,
universities, high schools, museums, Russian embassies and consulates, and other state institutions.

The seals were of various form, design and color; some were primitive but there were some which were very fine
and artistically designed. I have found this material to be very interesting and have saved it in a special stock-
book, having decided to give it special study, time permitting. I continued to look for them wherever possible
and since that time my collection of seals has increased greatly. During recent years, I have acquired several
collections of Russian.non-postage stamps in which I have found a considerable number of paper seals. Final-
ly, I decided to put this material in order, sort it, study it and create a collection. Difficulties presented them-
selves from the beginning, such as the time of issuance, since only in exceptional cases did the year of issue
appear in the design. Sometimes it is possible to determine the year of issue approximately by the use of cer-
tain of their characteristics; for example, the design of the eagle or the state coat of arms, or the type of let-
tering in the inscriptions, etc.

The period of use of these paper seals was from 1870 to 1917. During the revolutionary period their use dimin-
ished greatly.

I classified the seals in the following manner: First, I separated them into two main basic groups: seals of
official institutions and the ones of private enterprises.

The first group was subdivided by different ministries and other government institutions, and the second by the
various businesses; for example, private banks, insurance companies, civic organizations and other private in-

82 -

After that, I started looking through the philatelic literature for articles on this subject. Fortunately, I
found a small booklet in French, "Les Cachets de Fermeture" (Paper Seals), published in 1934 by a pro-
minent collector, a certain Victor Demange. In this booklet, the author mentions the article by the German
collector von Sperheimer in the erinnophilic magazine "Das Blaue Blatt" (1914), in which he lists the Ger-
man towns that used paper seals. The article also mentions the seals of some other countries, particularly
the concular seals of Austria-Hungary, Italy, Persia, France and Japan, as well as other types of seals of
Belgium, Egypt, Spain, Panama and the United States. The author does not even mention the Russian seals
despite the fact that, according to my information, there are over 4,000 varieties known of the government
institutions alone! Nevertheless, no one has ever written and published even a short article about this im-
mensely interesting material. Therefore, I wish to impart to collectors of Russian stamps some of the in-
formation gleaned from the material I studied.

I must say that certain varieties of paper seals have been valued highly by collectors for many years. First
among them are the seals of the Posts and Telegraphs Department, which eliminated the franking of parcels
and letters. Such seals on postally used covers are collected by philatelists who specialize in Russian
postal history. Second, collectors of Zemstvo stamps frequently include in their collections the seals of
the Zemstvo offices (which, at times, resemble Zemstvo postage stamps). One of the most prominent ex-
perts on Zemstvos, K. K. Schmidt, lists a considerable number of such seals. Still, this list is not com-
plete and mentions only the seals of the Zemstvos that issued their own postage stamps and does not men-
tion the seals of those Zemstvos that had no stamps of their own. One might add that they are rather rare.

Seals of the Red Cross and of similar organizations are very much in demand by members of this widespread
fraternity of collectors.

Finally, the erinnophiles who collect commemorative vignettes list the paper seals of the expositions, con-
gresses and assemblies with the vignettes. Such seals always carry the date and place of the exposition
or congress, and-they may rightfully be considered as forerunners of commemorative vignettes. These seals
were common in the 70's and 80's of the past century but at present they are exceedingly rare, especially
on postally used covers.

To give some ides of the variety-of this material, I will list separate parts of my collection and will give a
few illustrations.

My collection starts with the seals of the Posts and Telegraphs Department. Most of the seals are circular
in shape, or square with concentric circles. The seals are of different size with circles of varying diameter.
In nearly every case, the design includes the coat of arms (double-headed eagle), below which are shown,
in the center, post horns. The posthorns only until 1889, or with telegraph arrows after that date. These
seals are usually black on white paper, but other colors--blue, red, brown. violet, etc.--are encountered,
also. Here are examples of the inscriptions from which one may note the place of issue and the purpose for
which they were used:

Seals of St. Petersburg Post Office for parcels
for letters
for announcements
Moscow for notices
Railway Mail Service
S Odessa Border Post Office for letters
S" Finland Postal Department
S" Chief of St. Petersburgh Post-Telegraph Division, etc.

The postal seals are followed by a series of round seals with the inscription "Telegraph". There are no
posthorns or arrows on these seals. Telegrams were sealed with these but only until the Postal and Tele-
graph Departments merged in 1899. I know of one postal union seal, oval with eagle, posthorns and tele-
graph arrows.


The next part of my collection is dedicated to the seals of the Ministry of Justice. One can judge them
best by their inscriptions:

Court Investigator of the City of St. Petersburg
Grodno District Court
Prosecutor of the Kovno District Court
Justice of the Peace of the Khotin Court
Seal for packages of the Moscow Orphanage Court

These are followed by the seals of the Ministry of the Interior, the most characteristic inscriptions on
which are:

Governor General of St. Petersburg
Office of the Warsaw General Governor
Regent of Moscow seal for parcels
Seal of the Imperial Senate of Finland
Police Department of the Ministry of Interior Affairs
City of Rostov Police Department
Warsaw City Gendarmerie for parcels
St. Petersburg City Hall
Office of the Chief of Lifland Province
Obolon District Management of Khorol County

Next, the seals of various government institutions, such as:

S.P.B. (St. Petersburg) City Auction Chamber, for parcels
S.P.B. Trades Office
Statistical Committee of Voronezh Province
St. Petersburg Mint, for parcels
Government Printing Office
Management of the Imperial Chida and Glass Factories

And here are the inscriptions on the seals of the Ministry of Finance:

Seal of the State Bank (Main Office)
Seals of State Bank branches (I have examples from 34 towns)
Seal of the Treasury
Seals of various government Treasury fiscal institutions
Head office of the State Savings Banks
Seals of Government Equalization Offices (these would be the tobacco and liquor taxes)
Customs Collections Department

Seals of the War Ministry:

Main Artillery Department
Gun and Powder Factories
Quartermaster Department
Staffs of the Military Districts
Army Schools and Academies
Military Courts of Justice
Conscription Chief.

Seals of Navy Ministry


Seals of Ministry of Ways of Communications
Seals of Ministry of Court
Seals of Ministry of Commerce and Industry
Seals of Ministry of Agriculture and of State Lands
Seals of Ministry of Education
Academy of Science; Academy of Arts; Universities; High Schools; Museums; Botanical Garden; Head
Office of Imperial Theaters, etc.
Seals of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs:

Russian Embassies and Consulates abroad
Foreign Consulates and Embassies in Russia

Seals of Red Cross Organizations

The seals of government institutions are followed by the seals of private institutions: Insurance companies,
banks, notaries, official interpreters; and finally, the seals of private industrial and commercial institutions
such as the Russian-Baltic Railroad Car Factory, Provodnik Company, etc.

In conclusion, I have over 550 different paper seals in my collection. I realize that this is just a small part
of those extant, but with this collection I have started the study of this unknown category. It is premature
to start a catalogue of Russian paper seals. With this article, I would like to call the attention of collectors
of Russian stamps to this intriguing category and to try to awakwn their interest so that they might be stim-
ulated into collecting and studying the paper seals of Russia which are so closely related to Russian phil-
ately and erinnophilia.



"RUSSIAN PAPER SEALS" by E. Marcovitch Page of Illustrations


\ a1= e. 1-s,9 Di

1_ 2. 3 4. 5. 6.


C1porcuaro Cyia.

S8. 9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

17. 18._ 19.


_2. 25. 24. 2.
al.---. -----

"RUSSIAN PAPER SEALS" by E. Marcovitch
Page 2 of Illustrations

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31. '. ". 34. 1

36. -7. 58. 39. 30.
4\ -'K..-

46.4 43 8. 439. 40.
46. APTH7,48. 49. s-

"RUSSIAN PAPER SEALS" by E. Marcovitch Page 3 of Illustrations
-n4~ Pae \ ofIlstain

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806. 5__7.5 .5. _ 60.

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62.6o 641. ros.

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66.7 56. 74. 750.
13 '9~1ccj
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71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

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"RUSSIAN PAPER SEALS" by E. Marcovitch Page 4 o mustrations

* r-,

+ A

76. 77. 78. 79.


1. Seal of St. Petersburg Post Office. For packages.
2. St. Petersburg Post Office. For letters.
3. Moscow Post Office. For notices.
4. St. Petersburg Post Office. Newspaper Dispatch Office.
5. For letters. Transportation of mails by Rlys. 7th Section.
6. Transportation of mails by railroads. IVth Section.
7. Finland Postal Department.
8. Chief St. Petersburg Postal-Telegraph Dividion. For letters.
9. Telegraphs.


10. Kalisz District Court (Poland).
11. Seal for packages. Moscow Orphan Court.
12. Moscow Commercial Court. For packages.


13. Office of Warsaw Governor-General (Poland).
14. Seal of the Office of Odessa City Manager (Ukraine).
15. Moscow Chief of Police.
16. St. Petersburg Office of Detective Police. Seal for packages.
17. Moscow City Management. Seal for packages.
18. Office of the Chief of Livlandia Province, (Latvia). For packages.
19. S.P.B. City Management. For Alafuzov Hospital.
20. Reval City Administration (Tallinn, Estonia).
21. Riga City Administration (Latvia).
22. Korolevsk District Management of Vitebsk County of Vitebsk Province. Seal for packages.
23. S.P.B. Russian Board of Trade.
24. Division of Rural Economy and Rural Statistics. For packages.


S 25. Imperial Society of Caucasian Rural Management.

89 -

26. Office of Representatives of Tver Landowners. Package.
27. St. Petersburg Mint. For packages.
28. Government Printing Office of State Papers.


29. Seal of the State Bank. For packages.
30. Warsaw Branch of the State Bank (Poland).
31. Ryazan Branch of the State Bank. Seal for packages.
32. Main Treasury.
33. Tresury of Voronezh Province. For packages.
34. Treasury of Mozyr County. Seal for packages.
35. Special Office of Credit Affairs. For parcels.
36. Excise Office of St. Petersburg Division. For packages.
37. S.P.B. Port Customs.
38. St. Petersburg Land Routes' Customs.
39. Commerce Bank of Tiflis. (TKB)
40. Persian Loan-Discount Bank. Resht. For parcels (Persia).


41. Package of the Main Artillery Department of War Ministry.
42. St. Petersburg Artillery Factory. Package.
43. Office of Calvary County. Seal for packages.
44. Officers' Rifle School. Seal for packages.
45. 90th Onega Infantry Regiment. For packages.
46. Vilna Infantry Cadet School. Package (Lithuania).
47. Provisional Army Court. Seal for packages.
48. Office of Chief of Conscription of Kurmyshlov County.


49. Office of Main Navy Staff. Package.


50. His Imperial Majesty's Office.
51. Office of Ciief Marshal.


52. Office on Minister of Commerce and Industry. Ministry of C. & I.


53. Ministry of Agriculture and State Lands. Committee of Mining Science.


54. Office of Collections of Baltic Railroad. Seal for packages.
55. Management of Kazan-Libava-Romny Railway. For envelopes.
56. Moscow-Kazan Railroad Company. Head Office.
57. Gendarme-Police Dept. of Warsaw. Granitsa Division. For parcels (Poland).
58. Main Office of Orel-Yeletz Railroad.
59. South Western Railroad Company.
60. Seal of the Management of Southern Railroads

90 -


61. Finnish Ministry of Education (In Finnish Language)
62. Ministry of Public Education. Department. For packages.
63. Imperial University of Kazan.
64. Imperial University of Tomsk. Head Office. For packages.
65. Imperial Academy of Science. Physics Cabinet.
66. Alexander Gymnasium in Riga, Latvia. Seal for Packages.
(Note: the Word Gymnasium is Russian for the
8 years middle and high school).
67. "N.V.Gogol" 's Art and Industrial School in Mirgorod. Poltava Zemstvo Office. (Ukraine).
68. Tashkent Arts School. For packages.
69.. Imperial Botanical Garden of St. Petersburg. For packages.
70. Moscow Public and Rumyantzev's Museum
71. Emperor Alexander III Museum of Fine Arts.


72. Russian Imperial Embassy in Vienna.
73. Imperial Embassy of Russia in Paris.
74. Russian Vice-Consulate in Laurvig.
75. Imperial German Consulate in Odessa.
76. K.u.K. Austrian-Hungarian Consulate in Odessa.


77. The Head Office of Russian Red Cross Society.
78. Imperial Russian Life saving (Life Guard) Society. Moscow District Office.
79. Seal of Kurland Landowners. Credit Society. (Latvia)



ISSUES: 1857 to 1906

by Joseph F. Chudoba

In reviewing the general price trends of Russian stamps within the past 15 years; I have noted that there
had been a steady increase of valuation of all Russian stamps, and in particular the emissions of the per-
iod between 1857 and 1906. In nearly all of the cases the valuations have more than doubled, and in some
cases more than quadrupled. The popularity of these issues is reflected in the general price trends. The
following is a review of the major Scott numbers. It' should also be noted that the varieties have also in-
creased comparably, although they are not listed here. The following is a comparison of Scott's prices for
both mint and used in the 1954, 1966 and 1969 catalogues.

91 -


Scott's # 1954 1966 1969 1954 1966 1969
1 $ 150.00 $ 800.00 $ 500.00* $ 35.00 $ 75.00 $ 125.00
2 40.00 120.00 300.00 3.50 7.00 12.00
3 125.00 400.00 600.00 40.00 100.00 165.00
4 125.00 400.00 700.00 50.00 150.00 220.00
5 10 47.00 110.00 157.50 21.90 49.75 58.50
11 2.75 4.25 5.00 10.00 18.00 20.00
12 18 54.00 122.50 180.00 6.00 17.50 20.25
19 25 17.75 47.75 53.50 2.57 7.25 7.80
26 30 9.95 23.75 24.00 1.14 2.55 2.60
31 38 4.05 10.05 13.00 1.18 2.69 2.82
38A 400.00 900.00 1000.00
.39 50.00 125.00 135.00 45.00 90.00 90.00
40 50.00 125.00 135.00 45.00 90.00 90.00
41 45 2.27 6.90 6.90 .43 .57 .61
46 52 1.85 3.99 4.95 .33 .45 .52
53 54 4.00 7.50 10.50 2.00 3.50 4.25
55 67 6.99 11.57 12.77 .47 1.07 1.24
68 70 4.25 7.25 10.00 .77 1.95 2.30
71 72 11.00 11.50 18.00 1.50 1.90 2.25

It should be noted that the 1969 price for mint copies of Scott's # 1, which shows decrease from the 1966
price, is dubious. Recent auctions featuring genuine unused copies (without pen-cancellations removed)
have actually sold for more than $800.00, Scott makes mention of this in the 1969 catalogue.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: A study of current catalog prices shows that demand is also very strong for Soviet
issues. When we consider what they were selling for just a few years ago, it is very gratifying to note the
Anti-War set (Scott 546-50) at $41.00, the Sparticist Games (559-68) at $180.00, the People's Militia stamp
(859) at $15.00, the Bellinghausen set (1508-09) at $30.00, the MOscow Buildings (1518-25) at $48.00, the
Famous Scientists (1568-83) at $17.00, the Repin set (1866-67) at $10.50, the Glezos stamp (2270) at $5.00,
the 1931 North Pole airs (c26-33) at $100.00, the Balloon set (C37-39) at $120.00, the Stratosphere Disaster
set (c50-52) at $115.00, the Chelyuskin airs (c58-67) at $105.00, the Moscow-San Francisco Flight (c68) at
$85.00 etc. etc.

All in all, Russia, USSR and States are a financially sound group of countries, free from manipulation by in-
ternational speculators, and their stamps rise steadily on the philatelic markets. Many of the Soviet stamps
now catalogued at healthy prices in Scott, could have been originally bought at moderate new issue rates.
It is our considered opinion that many prices for used stamps are still too low, particularly for Soviet Commems
in the classic period of 1930 to 1935, as they were all issued in small quantities. Members should complete
their sets in this area before they become impossible to obtain. And, by the way, does anyone have an un-
used copy of Scott 287, the 15-kop. Typographed regular stamp in yellow, perf. 14 /2 x 15? This is catalo-
gued at $200.00 and is a great.rarity.

In view of the ever-growing interest in our spheres of collecting, the Editorual Board would be happy to as-
sist catalog editors to revise their listings and correct any misconceptions in information or pricing in an im-
partial manner. Adjustments and expansion are badly needed in fields such as the Carpatho-Ukraine, the Bal-
tic States, Mongolia, Touva. the Ukraine and Western Ukraine etc. etc. This should result in greatly improved
presentations of these areas, with subsequent increased sales of catalogs to collectors.

92 -


by Kurt Adler

The year 1932 was an important landmark in the history of Arctic exploration. This year was officially de-
signated as 2nd International Polar Year. This was probably the reason for the expedition of the Soviet ice-
breaker "Sibiryakov" which was destined to make the North-East passage from Murmansk to Vladivostok
through the Arctic seas in one season. It was not the first effort to sail from one northern corner of Russia
to the other. In 1914, the icebreakers "Taimyr" and "Vaigach" went the opposite direction, from Vladivos-
tok to Archangel, and in 1918 Roald Amundsen in the "Maud" sailed from West to East. Both expeditions,
however, could not be finished in one season and had to spend the winter iced in under dangerous conditions.
Therefore, the "Sibiryakov" in 1932, under Captain Voronin of later Chelyuskin fame and the Polar explorer
Otto Yulevich Schmidt, both names very will known to Russian philatelists and depicted on postage stamps.
was actually the first ship to get through the treacherous ice in one season (see Fig. 1). The "Sibiryakov"
was an old whaler, built in England in 1909 and only primitively constructed to accomplish the feat it was
asked to do. All kinds of misfortunes befell the "Sibiryakov" but all were successfully coped with. Once,
every propeller blade was gone and had to be remade by hand. This could only be done by raising the
"Sibiryakov's" stern which in its turn meant shifting hundreds of tons of coal from stern to bow. Later, the
whole propeller was lost but the inventive crew used sails to get through the Bering Sea just in time before
the ice closed in on the ship. Under these circumstances it is remarkable that the whole voyage took only
two months. Of course, only a few years later, the North-East passage had become a regular run for freigh-
ters led by icebreakers. In order to finish the story of the "Sibiryakov' s" career, it must be recorded that
the icebreaker met with a heroic death when it was sunk in the Baltic Sea during a daring but uneven fight
with a German Fleet of superior numerical strength during the Second World War.

If Arctic shipping had its pioneers such as the "Sibiryakov", Arctic aviation did not stay behind. It was
realized at an early stage that aviation was the best way for researching the vast polar regions and for pre-
paring eventual expeditions to the North Pole itself. The program for study of the Soviet Arctic goes back
to 1920 and floating naval scientific stations were already planned at that time. The Papanin expedition of
1937, philatelically known through a commembrative series, was made possible by diligent research of ice
conditions in the Polar regions, a research made possible by the pioneers of Arctic flying. The first success-
ful Arctic flyer was a naval pilot, Ivan Nagurskii, who already in 1914 made flights over Novaya Zemlya and
other Arctic islands, mainly in search of the missing Sedov expedition. But the most important flyer, who
paved the way for all succeeding polar expeditions was a naval pilot, Boris Grigoryevich Chukhnovskii
(Fig. 2). He was born in 1898 and had a good education, his father having been a forestry scientist.
Chukhnovskii knew Nagurskii and learned from his experiences. In 1924, Chukhnovskii flew over Novaya
Zemlya and reconnoitered ice conditions in the Barents and Kara seas. In 1928. Chukhnovskii took part
in the rescue expedition for the Italian polar explorer Umberto Nobile who got stranded in his airship

It is only logical that the Soviet postal authorities, in their plans to commemorate the 2nd International
Polar Year 1932-33 with a set of postage stamps, would combine the heroes of the day, the icebreaker
' 'Sibiryakov", just about to finish its successful voyage and the most famous arctic flyer, Chukhnovskii,
to be depicted on the stamps. It is to be assumed, that Chukhnovskii more than once met the "Sibiryakov"
although he certainly could not have done so at the occasion which is illustrated by the stamps (Sov. Cat.
435-36; Scott C34-35: Gibbons 588-89: Yvert ails 31-32; Michel 410-11; Zumstein 410-11A). Chukhnovskii
established the first regular airmail service from Franz Josef Land, the northernmost island group, only
some 600 miles south of the North Pole to the Kola peninsula on the mainland. This airmail service was
made necessary by the establishment of a Soviet settlement on Franz Josef Land. Two Austrian explorers,
Weyprecht and Payer in the ship "Tegetthoff". had discovered the island group in 1872 and gave it the
name of the Austrian Emperor, and to the northernmost island that of the Austrian Crown Prince.Rudolph.
In 1929. these islands were formally annexed by Russia and whether stations were established and manned

93 -

by Russians. The scientific personnel needed quick postal communications with the terra firma. The
whole Polar basin was again and again surveyed and in 1931, the same year when it met the icebreaker
"Malygin" and exchanged mails with it, the German airship "Graf Zeppelin" charted the regions, incorpor-
ating into the charts some recently made new discoveries. This recent new chart, made by Prof. N. N. Zubov
of the Arctic Institute, forms the central part of the 2nd International Polar Year set. A hydroplane, most
probably Chukhnovskii's, hovering over the "Sibiryakov" is depicted on the left side of the stamp. Such a
meeting, of course, could not have taken place around Franz Joseph Land at that time, since the icebreaker
was on its North-East passage cruise which went through Novaya Zemlya's Matochkin Straits, much further
to the South (Fig. 1) But the designer of the set, I.I. Dubasov made the meeting, amongst ice floes and in
front of a monumental iceberg a symbolic event.

The set, in two denominations, 50 kop. and 1 Rub., was at first meant to be an airmail set and photographs
of the essays had already been sent out to different foreign postal authorities and publications. (see Fig.3)
However, in May 1932 the Russian postal authorities initiated a new category of postal service, franked by
special stamps;express and air-express service. For this reason, the "Air Mail" designation on the set
was hurriedly changed to "Air Express" (Avio-Express) and appears thus on the issued stamps. Other
small changes or improvements from the.essay may be found in the smoke from the "Sibiryakov's" smoke-
stacks in the actual stamp--there is no smoke on the essay. Also, the form of the ship's bow is different.

The postage was 50 kop. for postcards (see Fig. 4) and 1 Rub. for letters (see Fig. 5), a seemingly expen-
sive amount but not really so if ohe takes into consideration the vast expanses covered by the air-express
service. Addressees in Arkhangel, for instance could receive this mail the second day after posting it on
Franz Josef Land. The special flight took place on 26th August 1932 and got an Archangel transit cancel. -
lation on 28th August 1932. It is to be assumed that many cards and letters went to addressees abroad.
According to the "Sovietskii Kollektsioner" of 1932 (No. 9) the stamps were issued on 26th July 1932 but
were first used on the above mentioned date (26th Aug.). Other sources give the 6th of August as date of
issuance. However, the earlier date seems more plausible since it must have taken a long time to prepare
the special cards and covers for the first flight. It is said that the set was issued in 10,000 copies, cer-
tainly a small printing for today's standards. Both values, the 50 kop. red and the 1 Rub. green, were per-
forated 12 1/4 and 10 3/4. There exist minor color shade differences. The 50 kop. perf. 10 3/4 (see Fig.
6.) is one of the rarest Soviet airmail varieties. The 1 Rub. in 10 3/4 perforation is common mint but
scarce used. Just the opposite is true for the 12 1/4 perforation. It is more commonly found used. A
12 1/2 : 10 3/4 compound perforation variety for the 50 kop. stamps has been noted by the Soviet catalogues
of 1955 and 1958. This variety, which has never been seen here, evidently came into existence when the
stamp by chance got only one 1;ne perf. and was run through the other perforation machine to complete

The above-mentioned "Soviet Collector" (No. 9) says: "Postal correspondence was delivered from the
icebreaker "Sibiryakov" with the help of airplanes. On the correspondence was affixed a triangular
red cachet with the design of an airplane and the inscriptions on the three sides:
'Second Internation Polar Year 1932-33. First polar airflight 1932' The stamps were cancelled by a
postal canceller on which an airplane and the words SSSR are depicted on top while the lower half of
the circle bears the inscription Franz Josef Land" (see Figs. 4 & 5).

The first part of the above quotation leaves a question unanswered which even intensive research here
could not solve. We have seen that the "Sibiryakov" was on its North-East passage which never took
it to Franz Josef Land. If correspondence from the icebreaker was taken by airplane it could not have
been on the first flight date of 26th August 1932. It is possible that the initial information of the "Sov-
iet Collector" was wrong. We throw open the whole question of where the first flight emanated from and
hope that our Soviet colleagues with more access to authoritative data will be able to furnish us with
authentic explanations.

There remains to be recorded that the red cachet was designed by the artist S.N. Novskii. The interest

94 -


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oe th~ae Aci by V. J, a 34 fa ou36 9ica. Itar at CD5
iss ued.. b t e a s s Cowa/, sp et *ans pola r

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Fig. 1: Map of the Soviet Arctic regions, showing the routes of various

in 1955. P CD
j c Vj
Ej;j oi Gioyeih hknosi

^ftkrr 2sI s3
2 me snn& polmire 1312,14
2nd polar year 1932,3.

ig. 3: Publicity photo of the one-ruble "Air Mail" essay, 8 '
distributed to various foreign philatelic publications. '1

k.essrs. Franc r Lt
Fig. 4: Usage of the 50-kop. value, paying the correct Sutton Cld
rate on a privately prepared postcard, which noted the Enland 1
2nd International Polar Year in three languages. -

Fi ) 5: Usage of the one-ruble stamp, paying
1,. the correct letter rate on a cover with a pri-
B AWHA -' vately applied cachet, reading "By First Fflght
ou A -: from Franz Josef Land", in German.
R0TA 0
Par avion ir
O&SW ., ALT. "932-33
) -L.IX.Sil3 2

Fig. 6: The 50-kop. value with the rare 10 % "
""- ] perforation.

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