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 Cover
 Index
 Officers, honorary members, and...
 Life in Rossika Society: President's...
 Editorial
 First meeting of the B.S.R.P. and...
 Cleaning Russian stamps, reprint...
 The Russian post-offices in Manchuria...
 Imperial stamps overprinted with...
 Russian cancellations, reprint...
 A little known air-mail error of...
 The "Kitai" overprints of Russian...
 Ukrainian field post of 1920 by...
 Additional data about the Ukranian...
 Letters to the publisher of the...
 Notes on Russian philately by A....
 Notes on collecting Russian revenue...
 Air post of Ukraine, 1918-20 by...
 Notes on Zemstvo stamps by...
 Reports on the Belgian section...


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00011
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1955
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00011

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Index
        Page i
    Officers, honorary members, and representatives of the society
        Page A
    Life in Rossika Society: President's message by A. A. Chebotkevich
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    First meeting of the B.S.R.P. and Rossika society by V. Cerny
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Cleaning Russian stamps, reprint from "Postage Stamps" - March 28, 1908
        Page 9
    The Russian post-offices in Manchuria by Wm. S. E. Stephen
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Imperial stamps overprinted with the stars and new figures of value by J. H. Reynolds (courtesy of BSRP)
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Russian cancellations, reprint from P. J. of Australia
        Page 23
    A little known air-mail error of Russia (Sanabria #128a) by K. Adler
        Page 24
        Page 25
    The "Kitai" overprints of Russian offices in China, 1899-1916 by E. Wisswell, Jr.
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Ukrainian field post of 1920 by S. Gibrick
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Additional data about the Ukranian field post of 1920 by Capt. S. de Shramchenko
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Letters to the publisher of the English edition
        Page 40
    Notes on Russian philately by A. Rosselevich Russian officials in China
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Notes on collecting Russian revenue stamps by E. I. Marcovitch
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Air post of Ukraine, 1918-20 by Capt. S. de Shramchenko
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Notes on Zemstvo stamps by A. Prins
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Reports on the Belgian section of Rossika
        Page 61
        Page 62
Full Text


THE JOURNAL
of the
ROSSICA SOCIETY
of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY



















No. '4 195 "

Editor
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.

















INDEX

Pages

A -Officers, Honorary LMembers, Representatives of the Society
3 *Life in Rossika Society-President's Message, A. A. Chebotkevich
2 -Editorial
3-.9 -First Joint Meeting of B.S.R.P. and Rossika Society. V. Cerny
9 -Cloaning Russian Stamps. Reprint from "Postage Stamp",
10-17 -The Russian Post-Offices in Manchuria. Wm. S. E, Stephen
18-23 -Imperial Stamps Overprinted with Stars and New
Figures of Value. J. H. Reynolds.
23 -Russian Cancellationso Reprint from P. J. of Australia,
24-25 -A Little Knot.n Air-Lail Error of Russia (Sanabria K128a). KN Adler
26-33 -The "Kitai" Overprints of Russian Offices in China.
1899-1916. E, Wisswell, Jr,
34-37 Ukrainian Field Post of 1920. So Gibrick
37-38 -Additional Notes About the Ukrainian Field Post of 1920,
Capt, S. de Shramchenko,
40 -Letters to the Pablisher of the English Edition,
40-45 -Notes on Russian Philately. A. M. Rooselevitch
46-54 -Notes on Collecting Russian Revenue Stamps. E. I. Markovitch
*55-58 -Air Post of Mlrarine (1918.20) Capt, S. de Shramchenko
59-61 -Notes on Zemstvo Stamps. A. Prins
61 -Reports from Belgian Section of Rossika,


Editor Dr. G. B, Salicstry, 49th, and Locust Sts, Philadelphia 39, Pa.
Asst. Editor & PubliZHer R. Sklarevl.o 640 N. Charles St. Ave. Towson 4, Ld.
Art Editor Edu. Lo ieu.l1, Jr. 81 River St. Wellesley Hills 82, L'ass.
Assistant Editor Capt. S, de Shrancheano. 1514 N. 8the St. Philadelphia 22, Fa.





-I




S'










TJOMUMTL ? T-i3 RC78TA SCCT-TY C7 SSIAN FHITATELY

SABT,TE C?_ E TH RUfSI EDI1ICN A 1. N. Lavov 81 orZca3 St. C.rfiold, N. J.
EDITORIAL B03pOARD. 1USIAN EDITION A. A. Chabotkevich, A. U. Lavrov, E. I. Larca
EDITOR of PROPOSED FRZ'iCH EDITION B. Legky 16 Sq. Gutenberg, Brussels, Belgium

C kFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

FRESIDENIT A. A. Chebotkevich 40 E. Old Uill Rd. Ridge Farm, Lake Forest, Ill.
SLCRETARY Russian Speking Section A. L-vrov
SECiT.CRI English Spaaking Section Dr, G. B.Salisbury
HJCRARY FRESIDENT E. LI. Archangelsky Ulica D. Brancova 19, Bela Crcva,
Banat, Jugoslavia.

HCNCRAPY IE.BERS

A. A. Chebotkovich Vo A. RaChanov
N, I. Kcrdakoff A. U., 2czsalovitch
A, U. Lavrov Dr. G. B. Salisbury
B. Legky I. V. Savitzky
E. I. L- recritch H. U. Shenitz
R. Sklarevski

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SCCIETY
SW YCRK GROUP V. CERNY 841 W. 177th. St. Apt. 3J, New York 33, N.Y.
GREAT BRITAIN J. Barry 53A St. James Rd., Sutton, Surrey, England
EELGIJU B. Legy 16 Sq. Gutenbarg, Brussels, Belgium
SGEPJ.RAU Dr. B. Woropinsky 16 Anerbach-Eonsheim, Banhofstr. Relag,Germany
F RANCE N. Rudnev 59 Chenin de la Lands, Chanpigny S/li, France
iSRAEL A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel
FM. r.ICROCCO V. N. Butkov 49 Rue Lapercuse, Casablanca, French Lorocco
CANADA P. Doianeko 354- rong St. Tcrcnto, Ontario, Canada
VENEZUELA E Marcovitch Ed. Enka Apt. 7#10, Ave. Fermin Toro, Urb.
San Bernardino, Caracas, Venezuela
BRAZIL P. Beloff Rua Pedrozo 238, Caixa Post 2960, San Paulo, Brazil
ARGENTINA B, Riasnianski Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina
AUSTRALIA A. Cronin 142 Crown St., Sydney, N. S. W., Australia


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
L'mbership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries, Except Europe.
Application forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request.
Three issues of the jourral, membership lists, code, bulletins, and supple-
ments to the membership list will be sent cut fannualy.

We velcone advertisements from members, non-members & dealers. Full
page $30,00. Half Page $15.00. Quarter Page $7.50. Twelfth Page $2.50.
(5 lines). IMembers of Rossika pay only 50% of the cost. With a discount
the cost per line to members is only 25 cents. By olping yourself, you
also help us.


- -A 45







LIFE IN THE ROSSIKA 3CCIETY-YRESIDEiNTS I.SSA3
by A. A. Chebotkevich

Many important events occurred recently in the life of our society. One
* of these was the joint meeting of Rosslka & BSRP, U. S. Section, at the Hotel
Vanderbilto There is nothing to add to the excellent reportp published in
this issuo, except to thank 1r. Cerny for his work, and to express my epprec-
iation to Dr. G. B# Salisbury for his untiring efforts in making the meeting
M possible, and for defraying considerable photography costs, and to Mr. J. F.
Chudoba for his efforts as tth General Chairman of the meeting, and for his
generosity in paying the ccsts cf the meeting room at the hotel

Another great event was the appearance of #44 at the meeting, and its
warm reception by the members, the editors of various philatelic publications
and caseumsr libraries and insttutes We cannot mention all who have given
us favorable reviews, as the space does not allow that, but we should stress
the "Stamps", "Western Stamp Collector" & and "Aero Philatelist Annals", for
the kind words given to our Society and to our Journalo

We must also mention the flood of congratulatory letters from our readers,
as they are precious for their encouragement and inspiration. One, an old and
Honored Member, IMr. M. writes, iy impression of both editions is a good one.
The cover-, the tort, and the bjeoct matter are cxcollent, and compare favor-
ably with other jounala. It is worthy of Rossikap and it pacc=s the texam-
ination' as the first rate ca^gaim in the world wide philatelic literature".
Another Honored Member, L-,L R. Writes "The cover is very attractive, and the
general impression of material it contains is excellent. All who toiled to
produce the first issue are to be congratulated." A voice from the ranks of
the members, one Mr. K. writes, nThis is not a journal but a little encyclo-
Spedia o Whenever I am sad an I vant to remember cy birthplace, Russiao I
shall open the pages of the journal, read it, and again feel a bit better".
Letters of praise were accorpanned in many instances by articles for our
journal, both from old and nei members. Among these we received major wor of research, appearing for the first time in philatelic press, and which will
be published in the coming issess.

Cur groups here and c_czd are very active, The ITo Y. grcup, under the
direction cf I.o Cerny ceete thrico a month, while the olrgian g.cup of :ro
Legky rests ccnthly, with reading of important philatelic papero. CiCr L'oCczco
group, under IEr Putcov, cstes periodically, and expects to meet reg:aerly in
the near future. We wish to ccngratulate eessroa Nasloff, Shield and Gibrick
in establishing a Los Angeles grcup, and the news that we shall be represented
this spring at the annual exhibition in that city.

Our numbers are rapidly icyrcaring, and we havo now about 200 members
A large number, lately, has Jcired from England, and we appointed, Ir. John
Barry as our Representative there. The wonderful response from England is
duo to efforts of Dr. Salisbuy who he many friends there, in ERSP, and most
of theca members are noted e-athcrs of philatelic books, catalogues & articles.

In conclusion I wish to tthnk our publishers end editors, Loessrs. A. H.
LTrC7, E. I. I.D-.tci.h D. GC. B. Sal2chury, end Re S:larevcd1i, also 'r. K.
Adlor for his ectcitanco to Dr. Salirbury, and r,-. W is5owll, Jr. for his
contribTutica f collet, i.l._s.ttiot.


45 1
ma










ED!TGiaL

.Uo have had cur Cdout, and us have boon rocoived varmly. Fcr this u3
tharc you. The kind and enthusiastic roUic.3 in the philatalic prCs ins-
pire us to continue our efforts, and to give you the very bost that can be
produced with the resources at our disposal. Noted authors, and fledgeling
writers have roaponded nobly to cur call, and .-3 new have oncugh material to
form the foundation of many future issues. For all this we are moot grateful.

Material on hand, or in preparation will be of interoot to all. In #46
wua =hall fcatura U. E. C. Kcthroto major work on the Railway Larkings, cuch as
cancellations of postal cars, railroad stations, etc., & one by J. Reynolds,
both authors from England, on the Revolutionary Overprints. There will be equa
ly fine features by: K. Adler on Interesting Postmark, & the Brown Proof of
Levant, & possibly a discussion of come of his rarities shown at the Joint Meet
ing, Captain Schramch3aeola Far Eastern Airpost, E, I. Larcovitch:s "a IB over-
prints, also an article on Vignettes, Gibrick'o olish Consular Pcst in Odessa;
Dr. Saliobury;s Postag3 Stafp of Tiflis, & csaralized works by A. Rossolovich,
A* Frins of Holland bogun in this nuzhar & R. S-laeravkis started in #44. Oth3
articles to be printed are equally interesting and valuable, but lack of space
prohibits their discussion at present.

Icrence amount of editorial work, revisions, correction, translation from
& into Russian text, correspondence with authors, applicants into the society,
editors, as well as the routine secretarial work of the organization, forces me
to suggest the following, as a help from the members. Please do not send us
any material for erpertization. It shall be returned untouched. Send addenda
or questions on philately to Mr. Sklarevski, Associate Editor in charge of
these columns. Articles, if possible, should be typed, on one side of the
page. Illustrations are expensive. We promised them, & we have them, thanks
to the generosity of IMr. Uiserell. Ie shall have them in 7#46, but only the
most urgent, We must protect the treasury of the cocioty, As the editor of
the jo'rral I have appointed noted philatelist, Er. E. Uisewoll, Jr. as the
Art Editor in charge of illustrations, photographs, photostats, designs, &
printing techniques. He shall likewise assist me in editorial work. I have
also appointed Captain S. de Schramchenko, noted philatelist & expert on
Ukrainian stamps and postal history as assistant editor.

To avoid unnecessary repetition of names in the indez, we shall avoid
as of now, the listing of names of writers who are on the editorial board of
this journal. The editorial, the literary Review & the Collectors of the
Past, as well as translations of old Russian Journals will be handled by your
editor, The Philatelic Library, Questions & Answers, Addenda & brief philate-
lic notes will be by the Associate Editor, ELr. R. Sklarevskil The Auctioneer
will c9 handled by i.'r, K. Adler. All drawings shall be the work of Lr. E.
Wisewal., the Art Editor. If additons occurs, this page will inform you of
the authorship,

As we promised you a brief editorial, we stop, with a wish for an
enjoyment of your hobby and ours, ad bhankp for your wonderful cooperation.


2 45








First Joint Meeting
of the
Britich Society of Russian Philately
and the
Rossika Society of Russian Philately
by VT- Cernv
(Read of the N. Y. Section of Rossika)

Without a doubt, philately, while a purely solitary hobby of one's
quiet study or a recreation room, is definitely influenced to a varying
degree by modern influences, just as some of our other pursuits of the
present day and age. We- note how changes occur not only in the methods
of collecting, but in the popularity of the stamps themselves. Certain
countries during a knomn space of time become popular and in style, while
others lose their appal, and interest in them fades among the collectors,
although their philatelic value deserves a better treatment.

In such instance help cen be received from a serious and wall
planned propaganda via lectures, .publications, exhibitions and finally
by information showing the possibilities and qualities of the stamps
of the propagandized country, thus attracting to them attention of those
who are undecided in their choisa of a country, cr are insufficiently
informed.

Of course, one must add that the aroused interest can be maintained
for a long time by the presence of grat internal philatelic worth of the
object of propaganda, One must note likewise that such propaganda can
only be handled by a large organization, possessing great resources.
Philatelic popularity of a country comes under influences of many things
and among them play a grcat role the intensive philatelic life within
that country, and, as much as it may seem strange at a first glance, the
economic and political character of the land, A nation with a Multi-
million population, and numerous cadres of philatelists, with a settled
economic condition, favorable international policy and, we may add, a
sober policy of postal emissicns, does not need special propaganda and
her stamps, cf sane philatelic valuo-cs of cther Icndo, nct pcccssing
the above factcrc, have a bettor chance of bei-n pOpulAe1 As an example:
Great Britain and U. S. A.

In this aspect we tast acknowledge that Russian philately in respect
to the above mentioned factors is not fortunate. Intensive philatelic
activity within the country is not now possible, and the center of Russian
philatelic life is now abroad. Increased popularity of her stamps during
the last World ':ar could not be sustained because cf the do trct:con and
dissolution of many organizations of Russian philatelists in Europe, and
among them, "Rossika0 who had active workers, exhibitions and an excel-
lent journal Political prer-ures and unfortunate policy of postal
emissions of U.S.S,P. like-rice did not increase-the popularity, and if
we can notice during the last year considerably increased international
interest towards the Russian stamps, we must attribute it to the philate-
lic valie of tho ltjr3-tborelon 301ly tbLc-- of -the Er:pirO.


45 3











Naturally, those many to whom the fate of Russian philately was Irportant
could not acquioece to the situation and 'cbaan to eook waye of retuning
RZZc' an stamps not caly to t:oir pr-as-ar pa iticn tub to raisc them to the
height, ihore they because of their philatelic value, belong.

'T353 idoas fund th'ir cpraiioon cn ths t. of November 1954, in
the Hotel Vandeabilt, Uow York, in the joint meeting of the sombers of two
major philatelic organizations: British Society of Russian Philately
(BSRP) and the Rossika Society of Russian Philately. The presiding officer
and ain speakor was Dro Crogcry B. Salisbrzy, coordinating the functions c
the Rep3racanative of BSRP in U. S, cad as a Szc:-tary of the Anglo-AC3rica
section of Rossilka. He geilusly cff.?od the honor of heading the meeting
to A, N. Lavrov, Secretary of the Russian Ssction of Rossika, and one of its
reactivators, but it was gracefully refused.

Lt 1:30 pm. Dr. Salisbury opened the cssting, in the midst of lovely
c=rroundlns with the following addros3s

0On behalf of the British Society, its President, the Executive
Committee, which I represent in this country, the Secretary and
Co=ditor, LIr. John Barry, I welcome you to the annual meeting of
cur U, So group, to which you have been invited, in cur great ex-
parinsnt, the Joint Lieeting, of thece two great philatelic orga-
nizations. I likewise extend a warm greeting to the members of
the Russian Lferican Philatelic Society, cany of whom are here in
attendance .

"At this tine it is most fitting to read to you the greetings and
best wishes from the President of the Rossika Society, Mr. A. A.
Chebotkevich, also the messages from LFr. B. Legky, honored member
and editor of the French edition, cur ecss!ka representative in
Eealgi, our honored member Iro Rcszelevitch, and the just arrived
letter from our honored member, Representative in Venezuela and
Editor of the Russian Edition of the Rossika Journal, Mr. E.
Larcovitch. (Letters read by the Secretary).

"TEXT OF THE PRESIDENT'S IESSACE.

Dear Friends, members of the Rossika Society and the British Society of
Russian Philately.

To day, because of tireless efforts of my friend Dr. Salisbury,
you are gathered in N. Y. for a friendly get together and for discussion
of interesting points.

Because of great distance and my work I cannot- be with you, to my
sorrow, but I am with you in my mind, I wish you success in your under-
taking and pleasure in your philatelic work.

I call upon you for a friendly cooperation and support of our journal&
Among you are many writers and specialists of Russian Philately.

0 4 J









Dovote part of your tims to the philatelic knowledge and support our
publication. Next issue of the journal should come out early next year.

P Greetings to the guests and the members of our close friends, the
B.S.R.P.

President of "Rossika"

A. Chebotkevich

After all the letters were read Dr. Salisbury continued with his add-
ress to the gathering, speaking of the preliminary work carried out before
the joint scsting, acquainting the members with the ideas which led to the
formation of the plan for coordinated work between Rossika and ESRP, and
the success of which would further the expansion of both great societies
and the elevation of international prestige of Russian philately, In view
of the importance of the address, it is given below in full:

'This meeting is the culmination of many dreams, hopes, and efforts. Not
so long ago, upon joining the Rossika Society, an idea was born of a kefe-
ration cf thsco groups, which are nc-. assoabled here; and the bsorpl )-, of
the n:basrs cf the defunct PaanSlav Sciety, as well as of all the nu'arous
collectors in our field, scattered all over the face of the earth, to form
the largest and the mightiest specialist group in existence,

Many ideas were formed, a great deal of correspondence was done, but frust-
rating factors blocked the realization of the Cream. Out of impatience, and
S stalemate, a progressive plan was forced, satisfactory to all, and at the
same time aimed in the direction of a possible full union in the future.

1I To the wonderfully large group of Rossika, which Meossrs' Chebotkevich
and Lavrov have gathered in so short a time, we were to add as many
from B. S. R. P. as possible, as well as those who were unattached to
any grcup,
2. Resoea ccabc wcro to Join Be S. R. P. in as large a nuacbor as
possible, co that neither side would be accused of raiding nthe 2i?.'-
cf the othsr, thus causing bad feelings. Having a sErliar c..becship
list, ea-r airs, and standards we could then easily work to-gether either
for a union, a loose federation, or simply work together as dear friends,
on a local, national and international basis<
3. As the Rossika Society still had no definite plans for a journal, we were
to siart cro, o 1icklv, thus stopping a lot of detbtes about it, which led
nowXhre, and whlch kept these who could not read .ussian, o't of the
Rossika Society, and prevented its expansion. English, French editions
Awere to be p-hlished as woll as the Russian, to overcome the language
barrJ.ern A drive fcr ne' Twritero, as well as an effort to get back the
well knowi authors of the past had to be started. Ads from dealer,
and increased circulation had to be effected, for both the B. S. R.o P.
and Rossia Journals, as wll as proper publicity for both, in prirt,
radio, To Vo and by vcrd cf couthe
4. Joint rcottniC- Ct locmi rtco_1! -cll co a to v.Eork togothcr


* 45 5










I:cdloos to stat.3 all points have Loon vigorously tackled by the
leCdars of the Rossika Socioty, and have 'con ir3n:zsly aided by the kind-
no3S and undorotanding of ny friend John Earry of England. The latter
joizd LR{cika, and jc2Lsz d a-Zy3 Eglish ncOc5r as coca as the problem
of getting duos cut of Eiugand a3s mot. Lr. Ch31T'ovich Joined B. S. R. P.
so has Lr. Archangeliky, the founder of Rossika. ,oers will follow. The
Secrotary Lr. Lavrov pFaforCsd the gigantic tazk of roCritirg the cc!e and
the cmbe-ship lie;' thich was translated by sa, in the capacity of the
En.ian ST i s y of: Rcslka, The list was sent to our British friends,
anc t-a-r ail.lar lit is in our hands (Since reading this report, many
Engl..sh -Tmbers of B3 S. R. P. have joinda us)

L'heu .r. Chebotkevitch heard of the proposed nseting of B. S. R. P. in
New York, he suggested this joint meeting, and this was irmnediately adopted.
'r. Chudoba, the chairman of the Annual B. S. R. ?. Meeting, as usual did
a tLrenr.douz amount of preliminary work. LFr. Evlarewki mimsographed the
lottor: which you, and 145 others rcca-id, and Lir. La=-ov, c-ce again
healed troenndoualy y isa3ogra7hing the a-pli i' and .the infcrzatlon
est abcut Ross ia, .1l of this natori-al w-as alld, cstly 'y air pest
to c7vryone in the U.S. in the Roosika and the 3B S. R. Po groups as well
as to come abroad. As you know, the letter not only invited you here but
urged you to join both societies, if you only belonged to one. It likewise
Lnforcsd all of the cc=ing out of the bilinW al Jcurnal, thus attacking all
four points of the plan of action. We may add that this cost Rossika
nothing financially, as the labor cnd money was supplied freely by all those
mentioned.

The membership drive netted mny new ms-srs from BSRP, swelling their
total in Rossika to 473 a couple paying double dus to secure two journals.
Iany others promised to join, or are in the process of joining, such as
our English friends. A number of other new members also joined directly by
t.c'itig to E Lavrov7, F3 now ask the Rcscika cmzzbrs to reciprccate and
to juo4 the B. S. R. P. thus getting seven journals annually, and many
other benefits, to render their hobby a pleasant one.

We are not only interested in the working together once a year, nation-
ally, but all the time on a local level. 1r, Chebotkevich is now trying to
get lk into the fold many old Rossika members, Shanghai refugees in
Calic:--:a, I have just sent a full list of the Rossika and B. S. R. P.
S*.n .:.iifornia to Cesers. Gibrick and Shields, the latter a famous
Ec::.!Jo: actor, both B. S. R. P members and no-, nw members of Rossika.
The. are a.:od to meet to-gether and to establish a warm cooperation between
the mem.ers of our two groups there. The New York group, under .r, Cerny
is active, le are now trying to establish active groups in Boston, Chicago,
Clavoland and Detroit. We have enough members in all these cities, if both
uri;s get together to swap stamps, talk about their hobby and to enjoy
fellowship,

To promote both societies, vw cust have publicity. Get a copy of cur
journals for your dealer friends. Afk them to cell them for us. Ask for
an ad, and tell them to pass the journals out to those who come to buy
stamps in our field. If you exhibit your stamps, place under your name,


-6 I45








the na-os of our societies, do the same on your letterhead, co as to promote
us with every letter ycu r-ito If you writo an articlo for a journal,
place our names under yours. If you discuss philately on the radio or T. V.
give us a boost. We shall do the same, by sanding our journals to various
libraries, museums, institutes, and all publications with a letter to the
editors, requesting r avz., and sco3 mention Reacezor, improved circulal-
tica and inrocss in ads, will help our budgets, and will improve our res-
peciti- journals, and ultimately you shall benefit.

We nc cono to the very irpor ant point, that of the jourfnalo After a
treomndcus amount of wcSi cn the part of the editors cf both editions, uw
proudly present to you) the Journal of the Society, the Rossika Journal'
These twin sisters, close relatives of the Journal of the British Society,
cocm to you, after heartbreaking, and back broeking efforts cn the part of
all who havo cmde the editions pcszibloo. o realize the shortcc-ing- of
the stencils, the nimeography, occasional typing errors which seem to always
crop up, the lac* of illustrations, and possibly a few other foibles which
those who look for little things will always find. 1:e are likewise richer
by experience, and my Associate Editor, Ir. Sklarevski, who published the
English edition, will shortly speak of the future progress, and past prob-
lems. Mr. Chebotkevich, 1r. Lavrov and .:r. 1:rcovitch assure us of illust-
rations for #45, and for this- v:o ar grateful The cover, pcrduced by the
indefatigblo ,-o LaTr.v; is spIcn!id,7 and as far as Z am ccn:crncd should
not be improved at presaento Tuthfully, I did not expect the name of the
editor on the cover, but the prcccdont wa set by Li. Archangelsky, in the
old Rosslfk Journal and va3 follce.d.o We hope that with the improved budget,
we shall be able to print by typography. As a suggestion, all of you can
help, by not only increasing membership, by ads, but likewise by buying more
than one copy of the jcurnalo The ro e applies to the journal of B. So R. Pc
Scoietime ego, Lr. John E-rry suggated to the embers of the Do So Ro Po to
purchase additional copies, to separate their sheets and to file in respect-
ive subject fil4 for reference, cr to past into the albums near the Etalps
in question. Copies can also be given or sold to others near you who are
increased, or may beco=e interorted in our field because of your enthusiasm.,
Remabera the more collectors in cur field, the more valuable -,ill your co -
l :.0.1 bo Firally, ere I le-av thick point of the JourTcnal, y 1 .neo mole
Ettc t!'.t w neted writC1rc no-: blcod and cld Editc-s car.ct c',nc::-"3 to
-<- th-i?. ^,rcnals with their c-.n stuff, or with articles .which tiej haVe to
prlin because of lac: of ether material.

We hope that you will enjoy the now Journal. We also hops that yo.
will find this joint meeting worthwhile, and pleasant. On behalf of coth
societies, I salute you.

Dr. Gregory Be Salisbury
U. S. Committeeman of B. S. R. P.
English Secretary of Rcssika
Editor English Edition of RossL-a
Journal.

After the addrc!z, i*ich vas received with great attention, Ro A.
S-l'-roV- Dic, Acoclato Editor, and Publ.shoer of Rocsi:a Journal dccsribc'
the tecnnical difficulties encountcrod in the publica+.ic- uf the Journa],
which was passed arcund_ at tbh conroclui n -of hi cposch. 'r .larov


45 7










likewise discussed plans for the future issues

Upon suggestion of Dr. Salisbury, another annual meeting of both
sccieties was voted upon and an acccapanying exhibition of postage stamps
and postal history. A committee was appointed composed of K. Adler and
the honorary members V. A Rachmanov, H. L. Shenitz and N. Vo Savitzky.
Jos. F. Chudoba was reappointed General Chairman of the Joint 1955 Meeting_

After the business meeting, several valuable collections were shown.
Dr, G. B, Salisbury exhibited parts of his vell known collection of the
Romanov Tercentenary Issue of 1913, which included stars, cancellations,
covers and all associated material. Essays, proofs, shades, paper var.otlos
and Qrrors such us imperforates of each value of the set were shown, each
denomination occupying a large portion of an album. Covers with interes'Lng
postmarks and out of the way cancellations from every corner of the Empire
wVre shorn. Cancellations at different points on the Great Siberian Rail-
way were shown of the entire trip from Uoscov to Vladivostock, and the
philatelists present will agree with the writer that the trip, despite
cany stops was most interesting.

Afterwards, the tragic events of the last years of the empire, were
shown to us through the medium of stamps and covers. Mute postmarks of
the World War I, prisoner of war letters, war censor letters, items of the
Revolutionary Period and the Civil War, mixed frankings during the formation
of the Baltic Republics, Ukrainian overprints and those of other republics,
all on Romanov stamps. This collection extremely valuable and rare after
detailed study and great deal of research has been written up in great
detail in the Journal of the B. R. S. P., and briefly in the Rossika Journal

Dr. Snegireff of Boston exhibited very interesting collection of
covers with early postmarks of insured letters and money orders, as well
us many rare pre-stamp &stamplesej covers.

Mr. Kurt Adler of N. Y. exhibited and described his remarkable collect-
ion of Field Post covers, recently described in a detailed article in the
#16 issue of B. S. R. P.

Edw. Wisewell of Boston presented an artistically illustrated superb
collection of the varieties of the 1909-12 issue. It is hoped that he will
write it up for the future issue of our Journal.

Afterwards Mr. A. Gold of Rhode Island showed albums of Imperial
stamps, on beautifully illuminated and artistically decorated pages.
Needless to say, both artists received great applause.

Mr. Jos. Chudoba demonstrated his valuable collection of errors and
varieties of the Imperial and Post-Imperial stamps, all of which held
great interest for the viewers. Afterwards various members pulled out
their rare items and held a series of group discussions in a most friendly
atmosphere of the well appointed hotel meeting quarters.

Those who were responsible for the meeting exhibited immence energy
and enthusiasm as well as expenditure of their own money for the roems,


10 43








and for the photographs who were present to take group photos. Our
president will discuss this phase of the meeting elsewhere.

In conclusion we must say that the first experiment of "getting too
gether" of both groups met with full success, and we must salute the effort
and further it in the future. The idea of the federation is timely and we
can envisage great help for Russian Philately if it is fully carried out.
We must likewise point out that all the points of the plan presented in
the address are already fulfiled to a varying extent and will be furthered
by the officers of the organization.

I already received hews that due to the efforts of the President,
A. A. Chebotlevich and his co-workers, the organization of a section of the
society in California met with great success, and that an active group
already exists in Los Angeles. San Francisco is next on agenda. During
the past brief space of time our society has grown by leaps and bounds.

For this, we thank our leaders for their tireless and unselfish work
and we wish them full success in their undertaking. We also express our
desire and hope that all the members of our organization will take cog-
nizance of the plans formulated in the address of Dr. Salisbury, and shall
do their best to help us reach our philatelic destination, always remember-
ing that old but ever so wise truth "In union there is strength."


CIEAIEG RUSSIAN STAMPS
(from "Postace Stamp"-March 28, 1908)

A correspondent in St. Petersburg writes us as follows:-

SProbably you are aware that the cleaning of Russian stamps is carried
on in quite wholesale fashion, and the cleaned stamps are reused."

Particularly in Poland there are numerous workshops devoted entirely to
this interesting calling. The stamps.that lend themselves most easily to the
cleaning process are the 7 and 10 kop., ordinary blue Russians and as much as
Rbes. 2 per 1000 is paid for these stamps in used condition.

The Russian postal authorities have been making experiments to print a
stamp which cannot be cleaned without destroying the design, and have adopted
a stamp which, while retaining the Russian styje, reminds one of the Austrian
stamps in that there are shiny bars of varnish on them.

Although not yet issued, the writer has seen printed copies with which
experiments have been officially made by treating with petrolc=u, ether, and
benzine, In each case the varnish bars then appear as white lines.

It must be mentioned that used stamps are cleaned by being socked
in petroleum, and by the adoption of the varnish bare the possibility would
now seem to be obviated.

The comonost values, the 7 and 10 kop., are to be issued first, the
other values gradualy.-C.bbontc'.&tcp Weokly, 7.303


O 45 9










T.E RUSSIAN PCST-NoITJES IN JiiL
by Wta. S. E. Stephen

An article in the British Jcurnal of Russian Philately, No. 13 of Febrmn
ary 1954, on the ;Russian Post-Offices in China0 by that prolific writer and
scholar of Russian philately, Mr. S. D. Tchilinghirian, prompted further invese
tigation into what seems to have been a rather neglected field of the Russian
postal administration- Hereunder are now appended the rather amazing results
of what can be achieved by cooperation and good team work.

Due acknowledgement mast be paid to the inspiration and guiding spirit
of !r. S. D. Tchilinghirian, to whose energy and perssverence it has been
possible to attribute many of the findings and final collating of the study.
To Dr. Seirnhter whose contribution was as valuable, who unfailingly gave
many arduous hours of his time to research in an entirely new field. To Dr.
Snegireff who also rendered great assistance with references from his postal
guida, whilst our Australian member, Mr. A. Cronin worked indefatigably to-
wards completion and finally to 4r. W. E. C. Kethro who was able to substant-
late and confirm the ccpleted findings of the team. Credit must also be
given to Dr. A. H. ortman for original research in this field, which is
embodied in "Hong-Kong and the Treaty PortsP by Messrs H. E, Lobdell and
A, E. Eopkins. The fact that members resided in such widely scattered count-
ries as Australia, Germany, Great Britain, Sitzsaland and U. S. A. in no
way detracted from the enthusiasm to eventually solve the problem confronting
them

The rapid expansion of Russia and colonization of her eastern empire
during the 18tht and 19th. centuries, made imperative the construction of a
railway line across Siberia, to connect the Mother country with her eastern
possessions. A co=menoement was made with the laying of the single track
Trans-Siberian Railway in 1892.

In 1897 work was comenced on the construction of the Chinese Eastern
Railway (_K i, TAl _K I_ c) TOU -HA ; I4f-k.E HA I mPorA )
to cross Ianchuria from Manchuli in the North West to Pogranichnaya in the
Soubn East. Both towns were frontier terminals of the line, the total dist-
ances between both places being 1388 versts or approximately 922 miles. From
Pogranichnaya the line continued as the Ussuri Railway to Vladivostok.

Baedeker describing the stations along the C. E. R. mentions mAmong
prominent features of interest are the fortified station buildings, sometimes
adorned with apes, dragons and other Chinese ornaments and lofty loopholed
water towers."
A further branch of the C. E. R, line extended Southward from Kharbin
Junction to Kwangchentze, a distance of 222 versts or 149 miles, where it
connected up with the South Manchurian Railway to cnaplete the Journey of
436 miles to Dairen and Port Arthur. The C. E. R. differs from other
Manchurian railways in being of the broad gauge,

The construction of the South Manchurian Railway was begun by the
Russians in 1696. This line was ceded to the Japansse in 1905 and converted
from Russian broad gauge to standard guge in 1907.


10








Two Express trains ran weekly from St. Petersburg via Moscow in 9 days,
oe being operated by the International Sleaping Car Co., the other by the
State Railways. Carriages are changed at Irkutak. From Irkutsk to Vladivo-
stak an Express tain ren 4 times weekly covering the 3029 versts or 2008
miles in 3$- days.
In May 1933. the Soviet Government decided to withdraw from Manchuria &
sell the C. E. R. to Manchfal o.Japan. After protracted negotiations, nearly
2 years later the sale was completed for the sum of 140 million yen, only a
-fractio-of -its rea value, despite strong protests from the Chinese Govern-
ment of Chiang Kai6heakc who"considered the sale as clearly and completely
ultra vires and therefore mst be considered by the Chinese Government as
absolutely illegal and invalid.,

The abovie^'gi-en as a brief rjioi of the history t'trailway along
which Russia was dependent on supplying her Estern seaports b naval bases. It
mnst not be overlooked how thoroughly the Russian Postal Administration was
during Imperial years, and how closa3 connected were the Railways & the Post-
Offica. There can be no doubt that for reasons of influence and prestige
alone, if not just for ordinary routine, each station on the C. E. R. would
have been provided with a Post and/or telegraph office.

It has not yet been confirmed that all stations along this line were
provided with P. 0. facilities, though it is strongly felt that they did
have. Where postal facilities were provided a clear indication is given.

Information will be appreciated from members with evidence of further
postal markings in Manchuria, especially any of the South Manchurian Railway,
during the period 1898-1904. Also particulars of types of postmarks are
required in order that a register of cancellations may be compiled.

Next few pages of this article give a table, explanation of the columns
followestlst Column-gives the distance in versts from the starting terminus
of the Railway line.
2nd. Column-gives the name of the station & whether the station had
a buffet or restaurant attached to it.
3rd. Column-indicatos that the researchers definitely established
existence of the post office,
'... _Cth. Column-indicates type of p. o.
5th, Column-gives the Russian name equivalent of the station.
ABBREVIATIONS

The meaning of abbreviations used4ie as.foHlovsr .'

Y --------- Idicatas a railway station'with buffet or restaurant attached.
S-------Is abbreviation for Ragyezd, "meaning branching of the line".
The C. E. R. being a single track line, crossing points had to
be arranged at suitable distances, where trains were going in
opposite directions might pass. These Razyezds were actually
a doubling of the single line track. Possibly at larger stations
thee would havo been trebled to allow for goods traffic.
St. Prost--Means a ta an po offe limited to ordinary letters.


45 11





Prost i .a.-i.'oins a station ros-office hanrJline ordinary and rrugti
ered rrail,
Vs, r. i Fer.-eans a station pcst-office handling all types of postal
business, including coney orders.
,---------Post-Office
St. RR.------ Station of the Chineoe Eastern Railroad.
Sm RUSSIAN PCST.OFFICES IN tMACHURIA
Chinese Eastern Railway (1388 Verstsl
'TERTS STATION, (Y) P.O. CLASS OF P. 0. .SRATION(RUSSIAN)
Man-chuwli (Y) P. 0. /A bH '-C P I A
lan-chuwll P. O. St.(RR)-Prost. i Zak, i. L
Abagaitui P. 0. A A FA/iT J
28 v. Dalai-nor P. V r. i Vs. r. per. 1 A i,1 P
57 v. Tsagan P. O. St. rost LLA F A -b
86 v. KhoTkonto x OF-C0 C i .. ,
116 v. Vangun P.O. BA I-AHh f
14 v. Ugunor P.O. e0 rF- O b _b
376 v Khailar (T) XA vI APb
S 2R02 v. Khake .2..
223 v. Chaoioto P. o. St. Prost. 0CM 1 T __-
53 v. La P. 0. St. Prost.
233 v. I vangduekho (Y) P. O. Vs. r. i per. -
S312 AV U Cr P.O. 0
Khorgo Ras.. #4 X PrO
3 0 v. Irekto (Y) P. O, St. Prost.
49 v Ki gan X i A b-
Pe.-i-a P. o.
-72 v, i Elrikcdu () P. 0. V. r. i per, X
CO TaLu P.O. 0.
42) r. barim P- 04 St. Prost. A P vb



1245






S STATION, (Y) P. 0. CISS OF P. 0. STATION (RUSSIAN)
M Khailanm =A A I L
i e Vhalongtun (Y) P.. Vs. r. Per. 3ieAJLAHbTY b_
,, r GengiKhan P. 0. st. Pros. JIHrClcb-XAM
Sus5. I -yangtsyhan P. St. Prost. _AHb3bi UI Hb
S74a Trkh P.. O. St.Prest. T PMH tXA
603 Khmr=hara XY P X PA
FtrliUa, P. .Ji 9 3 PA- .
v. Taitshar (Y) P. 0. Va. r. 1 Per. _L I I K A P b
652 T. Tang-tunn.tung P. 0 StP rost. L__H b j T b H b
678 w. Siao-khetzy P. 0. St. Prost. ) XAO Q b
7s v. Ia-dang-tzy P. 0. St. Frost. JAIAA Hb 3bl
728 v. Sartu P. St. ProtCAP T
758 v. Anda (Y) P.. 0 A H bA A
788 v. Sn .. St. Prost. C Hlb__
818 T. Mangou P. 0, _MAb rLQL
847 v. Dui-taing-shang P. 0. MiL4 H bWI AH b
76 v. Kharbin (y) P. 0. XA P t/l H -
Kharbin Earbcu P. 0. -lPI/ C TAH
Kharbin Station Po. O" E3O KiAJIb
Drovianoy P.. O, PO HOV
S85 v. Stari! Harbin P. 0. C TAP lI- XAPB 1 H
Chengaus H E- -FA f 3 b
Chen LE H b
915 v. Ahikho (Y) P. O. Vs. r. i Per.. A LU/I )_ or" r
94 v. Ertandyantry P. O. Se Prot. 3PH j /L3 bl
950 *, Saoln P.. C J H b
Erh-ots y 3PAAXE L3b1

13







S, (Y) C 0 .S F 0. i- A'1:1 (0'. I
r 4-
970 v. Lcarchan P. 0 vo. r. i rar. MAO 1.U AN
EIuuaks Raz. #135 XsH X3C K 4
S v
Novii P. 0. Ras. #136 H 1 1 I
'LXO v. Utzimi P. tProst. J 3 1A MIA
Utzinmkho P. O0 St. Prost.Raaz. #137 413 L A M 1 X
1028 v. Inlanpo (Y) P. Oo St. Prost. JAL t M H b 1_ Q
Samokhvalovo P. 0. Ram. #314 6AMO X gAJ c'
1056 v. Veyshakhe P. 0. _I L111A L
Tablonia P.O. Ras. #U42 5 J1O 5
1085 v. Shtoukhentezi (Y) P. O. ll lTOX3TQ _) 3bj _
Lida-khetzy P. 0. J17AX3 _1 b !
CGoling-tzy P.O. Vs. r. i Per. AO0 ILb4L3bL I
Sara-khetzy P. 0. St. Proet. (Raz.) CPAXaLJ
1131 v. nndao-khetzy (i) P. 0. St. Prost. XA H b AOQXE U I
S96 v Sandavody P. 0. Ras. #149 .AH AAKX L
161 v. Shangshin P. A H b UJ M
Shiho LIIt 0 X 0_
118 v. Khallin P.O. _XA/I4 J11 iH b
1208 v. Mudang-tsiang P. O. St. Prost. M9AAHbUJAI b
Ekho P.. 0. r. Per. (Raz.) ___-__O
1230 v. odaushi P.. N0 OA AO i MLL
Nagorny P. 0. Raz. #157 H AF P H bl IA
12;4 v, Diamagou P. 0. A MA rO
PelUntFkri Raz. #160 nI \ E J7 Vt H LjX
1278 v. Lui-3iug (Y) P. 0. Vs. r. 1 M H b
uLdni Ras. #162 / iJ blVI C <(L
S 1309 v. matsla.o-kh'o P.. St. Prost. M AU_ O 3


]45







VCTS STATION, (Y) F c CLASS OF 0. STATION (RUSSImN)
Khul-nkhe Ram. #165 _X im1i XD-

1 1330 v Tapin-ling P. C. St. Prost. TA IId HtFL JIM H
135 v Silikho P. 0. St. Prost. CA J 1 1/1 b X 3
1366 v. Siaosuifen P.. C 0L IVI$'J l Hb
Eadakhetszi Raz. A AX 3 b"

388v. Pogranichnaia or P. 0. St. Prost.- IIOJIAI JL H/IA'
Sui-fen-bl (Y)
Pograsichraia or P. O. 2nd. P. 0. L 7
Sui-fen-ho

Contin_,ation of Railway iUnet to Ni'llsk Us uriieki-Ussuri Railway
Sosnovaya Pad.

1413 v. Platform (84 v.)
Talovoi
1441 v. Khorvatovo
Lipovit si
* 1471 v. Golenki
Vozdvizhenski
1503 v, Nikolsk-UssuriiEki

Section Kharbn to Kwancchen-tze
Kherbin (Y) X A P 1 HI
31 v. Utzia P. O. St. Prost. I L I .
43 v. Sh'ergchenru P. 0. Vs. r. i Per. LUwL>AH E I j
79 v, T7st ou P. A 1 3 1 I
6 v. Scnchakho P. C. Vs. r. i PerI. H 1 1]HA X 3
115 v. Taolaichao P. O. Vs. r. i.Per. TA 0, AI/i A V t A )
S123 v. S'unari Vtoraya or P. 0.
I.o I aosl (-7) .
1 52 v Yaoirn (Y) P. 0. Vs. r. i Per. 0 M b I


45 1






I

VaLMTS STATION, (Y) 0 P. 0. CLASS OF P. 0. =STATION (RUSSIAN)
169 v. Bkba P. J \A
197 v. Meidzat s P.O. _M E1 LtJA l
-222 v. Kvang-chen-te P. 0. Vs, r. i Per. KUAHb EH IHItq 1 El
222 v. Kvang-chen-te or P. 0, RR. P. 0.- T. KMT. OC T .f. 1.
Chanchun Prost. i. Zak.
*-Cbange for Pekin

SOUTH MANCHURIAN RAII4AY
(Section KwvangcheniA to Mukden)
NotetFirst column from here on is in miles instead of versts.
Kwang-cheng-tze P. 0. -A K AHb9 EH I1%3 b I
Fanteiatung 4AH b T H
38 m. Kung-chu-ling
Shib-ping-kai
Uamialka
Swaneg-aao-tze
Kalyian
145 m. Tieh-lin
Ilu
wuse aie
189 m. Mukden P.o. 0M S KA EH I-

(Section Mukden to Port Arthrw an. Dairn)
"*189 m. Mkden P. I M I u KA, E H b
199 m. Su-cheastung (Branch Line 34 miles to Fu-shun)
229 ma Liao-yang (Branch Line 10 miles to Yentai)
254 m, Tangkang-t a
267 m. Nai-cheng


16 46








S STATION, T) P. CLASS P. 0O. STATION (RUSSIAN)
-goteFlrst column from here on is in miles instead of versts.

287 a* Ta.shihm-chiao P. O. (Branch line 14 miles to Ying-kun, also
Sgknown as Newchang, which had Russian P.O.)
j 30* Kaiping
S325 Kasiung-yueu-cheng
i- Chang-kia-kow

STelisze

371 m. Wa-fang-tien
401 m. San-shih-li-pu (Commencement of Kuan-tung Territory, leased
in 1898 by China to Russia, which parted
with its rights in favor of Japan in 1905)
4'15 m. Chin-chou or
Kinchow
430 m. ChLoshiu-tsu

436 m. Dairen P. 0. (Terminus of South Manchurian Railway)
Port Arthur P. 0. (36 miles from Daire, via Cheu-shiu-tzu)


Additional Poet Offices Unconnected by Railway

Winguta P. 0, (Situated 13 miles to South of Modaoshi)

Chol (May be Cholkhoto 46-42 N 122 59 E, or
small Railway siding for supplying rail-
way engines with wood fuel)
Yakuni I (Location Uknown)


------ ALEXANDER BISK
280 Riverside Drive
NEW YCK 25. N.Y.
E EROEAN COUNTRIES

Want Lists for collectors and dealers
filled by return. Better grade approval
books by country also available. Many
rarities and oddities for specialists.

RUSSIA. IKRAINA. BENELUX. BALKANS. CENTRA:--
WESTERN*.nd- EASTERN EUROPE. SCANDINAVIA, etc.

.t. _Other Continents at hand, although weaker.



17










IMPERIAL S2iT PS OVEf'UINTED HITH STARS
AND NEW FIGUI S OF VALU
by J. H. REYNOLDS
(Courtesy of BSRP)




















1922-23




details below:-
lues- r. on perf. and imperf











20r. on 15k. perf, and imperf .
20r on 70k perf. and iperf.










30r. on 50k, perf. and imperf.
40r. on 15k. perf. and imperf .

200r. on 15k. perf. and imperf.
200r. over 40r. on 15k. perf. and imperf.
Issud in the following order:






1922 (December) 20r. on 70k.
40r. on 15k.

1923 (February) All other values.


18 45








Table showing types of surcharm
T.Typographed L-Lithographed

Values Perforated Imperforated
5r. on 20k. T L T *
"20r. on 15k. L L It will be noticed that
20r. on 70k. T T L certain values appear in
30r. on sok. L T L only one or the other
40r. on 15k. T T L type of printing, this is
100r. on 15ke L L a good guide.
200r. on 15k. T L T L
200r. over- L *
40r. on 15k.
Lithographed only Typoqraphed only
20r. on 15k. perf. and imperf. 5r. on 20k. imperf, only
10Cr. on 15k. perf. and imperf. 20r. on 70k. perf. only
200re over- 40r. on 15k. perf. only
40r. on 15k. perf. only

Numbers printed

5r. on 20k. unknown
20r. on 15k. 493,300
20r. on 70k. 9,499,700
30r. on 50k. 9,600,000
40r. on 15k 24,800,000
100r. on 15k. 25,375,000
200r. on 15k 40,322,700
200r. over-
40r. on 15k. unknown

The above numbers include both perforated and imperforated varieties of
each value. Of the 200r. over 40r. on 15k. value, I have been able to examine
one copy only and Mr. J. Barry has been able to examine another, and we both
agree that these copies are genuine. The numbers issued must be very small,
possibly only one sheet, or even a part of a sheet. The 20r. on 15k. imperfo-
rate value is another very rare item. I have seen only five genuine copies,
3 mint and 2 cancelled, of which the finest is in the collection of Mr. Huddy
of Liskeard, a beautiful copy on large piece; I see from my records that I
have been offered no fewer than eleven forged copies, of which I have retained
a very nice pair.

I feel that no more than 2 sheets of 20r. on 15k. have been issued.

Note on differences between the Typographed aLd Lithographed overprintst-

The typographed overprint shows a clear impression on the reverse side
of the stamp, except in lightly printed copies, but another infallible clue
ay be observed on the face of the overprint itself; there is a well-defined
line running around the inner and outer edges of the star. In lightly print-
ed copies sometimes only a mnllimatre or two may be seen, but after a little
practice and with the aid of those values which occur in one printing only the
tyro should have little difficulty in distinguishing one printing from another.

45
19











ot!&t-This series is very complicated and the following factors have to
be taken into consideration:-

1.'e banic staps-All the usual varieties of the warwtiae
printings are found.
2-qerpriottwo types-Lithographed and Typographed.
3-Overprints-errors of various kinds..
4-Forgeriess-eome values are known forged and there is also a
bogus value.

Tpographed-Perforated

5r. on 20k. Basic gam acarlet and blm
a-chalk-lines double
b-chalk-lines missing
Overrint
a-inverted
b-double
20r. on 70k. Basic stamp-orange and brown
a-background misplaced
b-background intaglio
c-chalk-lines on back
Overprint
a-inverted c-misplaced
b-double d-on back
30r. on 50k. Basic starlgreen and purple
a-backgfound misplaced
Overprint
a-double
S40r. on 15k. Basic stamp-blue and purple
Basic stamp-blue and red-purple
200r. on 15ke Basic Stamp-blue and purple
Overprint
a-inverted
Basic Stamp-Blue and reddish-purple
a-chalk-lines double #-centre inverted
b-chalk-lines on back e.centre misplaced
c-chalk-lines back & front f-ceitam itaglio
Overp-int
a-double
b-misplaced

Typographed-Imperforate

5r. on 20k. Basic StamR-ecarlet and blue
a-Fo e-see the end of this article
20r. on 70k. Basic Stamp-orange and brown
OverTrint
a-inverted c-pair, one without surcharge
b-double


20 5








Typographed-Imperforate

30r. on 5k. Basic Stamp-green and purple
Overprint
a-on back
40r on 15k. Basic Stamp-blue and red-purple
4-background triple d-oentre albino
b-background intaglio e-chalk-lines double
c-centre intaglio f-chalk lines missing
Overprint
a-inverted c-albino
b-double -
200r. on 15k. Basic Stamp-blue and red-purple


Lithographad-Perf orated

5r. on 20k. Basic Stamp-scarlet and blue
a-chalk-lines missing
Overprint
a-inverted
lOr. on 25k. Bogua Overprint
20r. on 15k. Basic Staip-blue and red-purple
Overmrint
a-inverted
b-overprint normal and inverted-see the end of
the article.
30r. on 5Ck. Basic Stamp-green and purple
a-background missing
b-chalk-lines double
Overprint
a-inverted
Eaic Stamp-green and copper red
a-frame intaglio
b-chalk-lines on the back
Overvrirt
a-inverted
b-pair, one without overprint
lOOr. on 15k. Basic Stamp-blue and red-purple
a-chalk-lines double c-background intaglio
b-background double
Overprint
a-inverted c-triple, one inverted
b-double
200r* on 15k. Basic Stap-blue and red-purple
a-chalk-lines on back c-chalk-lines back and front
b-chalk-lines double d-centre misplaced
Overint
a-double c-inverted
b-isplaced
Baeic Stamp-blue and chocolate
Overprtint
a-Egrg -eee the end of this article


45 21
21








14thographed-Perf orated

200r. over 4Or. on 15k Basic Stamp-blue and reodpuple

LithoRramhed-Imorf orate

S2r. on 15k. sic. Stamp-blue and red-purple
20r. on 70k. Basic Stap-orange and brown
Overprint
a-inverted
30r. on 5Qk. Basic Stampgreen and purple-brown
a-background misplaced
40r. on 15k. Baic Stamp-blue and red-purple
a-chalk-lines missing
b-centre misplaced
Overprint
a-inverted
b-misplaced
Basic Stamp.blue and red-brown
a-chalk-lines on the back
b-chalk-lines double
Overprint
a-inverted
100r. on 15k. Qaic Stagp-blue and red-purple
Overprint
a-inverted
200r. on 15k Basic Stamp-blue and red-purple
a-chalk-lines missing
Overprint
a-inverted c-pair, one without surcharge
b-double

Note:-I have used the word intaglio in the above lists to describe those
stamps where the coloured design has penetrated the paper and shows
as a clear impression on the back. It must Ngbe confused with
"Uoff-set" or u set-offC.

NOTES on the FaRGERIES

5r. on 20k. imperforate

Enlargement of the bottom of the "Pfs"

Genuine Forgery


6 A
20r. on 15k. perforated

Look at that part of the star which is about 7-8 o'clock

Genuine For





22 45








NOTES Bn the FORGRES .

2C- on 157. Paforfit-

Line to ri5ht, .... Line uprit t.


20r. on 15k._ Imperfora-
The overprint is germin except the figure of value (20). The
original figure of: alue was removed and false .one inserted.

SORlGERY
*" J -^o1

eCOr. on 15k. Perforated Inverted
Compare.with a normal copy. In the forgery the bulges at the top
of the "P's" are far too big and likewise the periods are too big.

There is one strange fact which has emerged from my investigation
into this issue. I have not as yet, seen or heard of an overprint
error appearing on other than a normal basic stamp. On the other hand
all abnormal basic stamps have a normal overprint.

"RUSSIAM CANCELLATIOS..
from P. J. of Australia.
S Vol.24-45 Page 163)

Various European papers report a new method of cancellation lately
put into use in Russia. The Russian stamps have always been a favorite
field for the stamp cleaner and the Russian Postal authorities have tri-
ed by all manner of means to circumvent the stamp cleaners.

The cha3ey paper first used in Russia, and the extremely sensitive
color in which Russian stasps have been printed, aro evidence of these
counterfeiters.

Of late the Russian post office has experimented with various
methods of making the postnark more effective. Special inks have
been used, designed to penetrate the paper more effectually. A
thread has been applied to the back of the stamps which was to be
torn cut in cancelling, thus tearing the stamp in two.

Heated postmarks have been used, so designed as to burn the
postark into the paper of the stamp. This naturally did not prove
to be popular,

Now a new scheme has been tried the stamps, in addition to be.
ing postmarked are cancelled by a series of short cuts completely pier-
c.in tn'o epo Thi cancellAtion is said to leav- the staIps coprativo:
uni ri:zCre tut collectors arE not apt to welcome the new postmark very
Se.".I-... y ..r :f, nevertheless. (Has any one aeon exa= pes of this type



45 23






ALITTIE K11O01.g AR-MAIL ERROIB OF RUSSIA
(Sanabria .L8a)
br KMl Alsr
The alrmil stap Scott #C 82 scherd in red *iucfba L 1
thia* exists as a variety in which the ast letter of i the
letter *f is iasinw .
This error was first discovered by as by chance. Successively, I had
an opportunity to go through the whole stock of sheets of two of **he lead
ing American wholesale dealers whom I, of coase, informed about the exist-
ence of this error beforehand. They in turn, deposited a few copies of this
error with Sanabria, so that this error is now listed in the Sanabriats Air-
mail Catalogue.
The missing *A! variety is a constant errar in a small nu ber of
sheets. It appeared in less than 25% of all the sheets that I was able
to examine, It appears only on one stamp in a sheet of 100 stamps, the
22nd. stamp (the second stamp from the left in the 3rd. horizontal row)
and can be found on both mint and cancelled stamps.
One can follow the development of this error gradually, by tracing
down the second vertical row of stamps, i.e. the 2nd., 12th., and the 22nd.
stamps, in the sheet consisting of 100 stamps.
Another minor variety is an unclear rfin Avadochtaand an almost
missing "r in rRlble' of C81 and which appears on a stamp with right sheet
margin. I was, however, not able to plate this minor variety.
Below are three reproductions of the *r variety, as they appear on
stamps ##2, 12 and 22. These drawings also show the variations in the
miakh L ak which is the 5th, letter of the word 4rubleu.
2nd. Stamp
A 1I A -( T a A tlear
4 'a-ALq F>
1 r --- 'A almost missing
12th. Stamp
APVA V 0 t I A almost missing
4 0' H H r.,
1 PN F -9 \ "-"- unclear


A FP 1/ A FILH T ^- "A" entirely mlising
1 "1 H H t r.
*1 P B "RIP clear

* 24








ODe wuld expect to find the same major error on C80 but, having
Sg through the aa number of sheets of C80 as of C81, I could not
find a single error of C80.
SThe 2nd. and 12th. stamp of 080 show the sate surcharge variety as the cor
as the corresponding stamps of C81 but the 22bd. stamp has a perfectly
well formed *A' in "AviapochtOa.
It can be unmised that the error appeared on the early printings
of C81, was then corrected and did not show on the sheets of C80 which,
evidently, were printed later than the sheets of C81.
These two stamps were emergency airmail stamps, issued in April 1944
during the War which ay explain some sloppiness in their overprinting.
In connection with this, the question arises why the surcharge reads
*Avigpochta" and not "Avi.opochta as in all other Russian airmail issues
before. The following airmil set C83 to C90 also reads 'Avigpochta" in
its inscription. Perhaps some Russian philologist would be able to ex-
plain this change*

T- IT ESIVE STOCK................

RUSSIA a SM ES Z OFFCS
Stamplea. coers, postal stationery, stamp rarities and regular issues,

S proof essays, varieties, cancellations, covers. Inquiries invited.

SSaaael Bay
350 Oakdale Avenue Chicago 1, Illinolts

Also, professional mounting and vliting-.p of collection.,

















25










THs SKITa" OVmERIMS CP RUSSIN FFICES I CHINA M991916
SHow to recognize the genuine overprint)
by E. .Wsewvell.Jr.

Most of overprints or surcharges that have been in existence for as
long as fifty years, have been extensively counterfeited, and the MKITAI'
overprint is no exception. Quite a naber of forgeries turn up on the
market, and it is hoped that the following information and illustrations
wll help in spotting the sbad* onas.

Any machine printed overprint or surcharge has a number of definitely
recognisable characteristics that can be used for identifying them. While
it is theoretically possible for a forger to make nearly exact copies, it
involves such care, skill, knowledge and expense that most forgers do not
turn out work that will fool the informed philatelist with the proper equip-
ment, which in this case is a strong magnifying glas and good light to use
it with.

There are three things that should be checked when studying surcharges
or overprints. First is the method used in printing, that is, whether it
was typographed or lithographed. (The methods most commonly used) Second
is the comparison of the color and other physical characteristics of the
printing ink used in the genuine. Third, and in this case, most important
of all, is the comparison of the size and shape of the letters used in the
genuine overprint with those en the items in question.

METHOD OF HUNTING

The VKITAIV overprint was typographed at the State Printing Works at
St, Petersburg. Typographed means that the printing was done from a piece
of metal on which the design to be printed is raised above the rest of the
metal. In this ease the overprint was first set in type and the actual
printing was done by a stereotype which is a moulded duplicate of the type
made by a electroplating process. Typographic prints are very easy to inden-
tify as they have a characteristic due to the manner of inking which appears
in some degree on all typographic prints.

When the ink rollers are passed over the raised design to ink it, the
design sinks slightly into the soft rollers, thereby depositing a certain
amount of ink on the sides of the raised portions as well as on the top
where it is intended to go. When the inked design is then applied to the
paper which is to receive the impression, it is done so with considerable
pressure to insure that all portions of the design contact the paper. Tis
results in two characteristics that are present in some degree in all typo-
graphic printing. The first and the most important is the fact that some of
the additional ink which was applied to the side of the raised design is now
transferred to the paper, Since. this ink from the side of the raised design
is lightly thicker than that deposited by the face of the design, the result-
ing print shows an outline of thicker, hence darker ink all around the edges
of the printed design, as in the drawings (Fig. 1, Plate A). While this is
not easily discernible to the asked eye, it is very evident when seen under
a strong (10 power) glass and can be seen en all genuine "KITAI' overprints.


26 45








The second characteristic, since it is not as constant, need only be
:ationed briefly. The pressure of printing especially in a one-word over-
pint emboses the paper on the-reverse of the stamp. On mint copies it is
* ftenn quite noticeable to the naked eye and in such eases one can be sure the
overprint was tpographed. Used copies that have been soaked off paper very
"Aldom show any discernible traces of the embossing, as the vetting of the
paper sees to eradicate it.
Since I hae seen forgeries that appeared to be lithographed, a short
description of that process and it's characteristic seem to be in order. A
lithographic print is made from a perfectly FAT surface which has been pre-
pared so that when the ink rollers are passed over it for inking, the only
part of the surface which will receive no opportunity for the ink to build up
a thicker Uayer at any place, resulting in the characteristic of the litho-
graphic print; it is an even tone all over the printed design, as in the ill-
ustration: (Fig. 2, Plate A). In any event if you find a "KITAI" overprint
that was lithographed, you can be sure that it is a forgery.
COLCR AND APPEARANCE CF II

There is so little standardization in the names used to denote differ-
ent colors and shades that it is futile to attempt to describe them in a
text. The best way to check for color is by comparison with a known genuine
overprint of the asme color. Care should be taken however that the stamps
being compared are of the same issues, as the blue ink used to overprint the
laid paper stamps is somewhat different from that used on the later wove
paper varieties.

Most printing inks contain a varnish or binder which has the effect of
leaving a gloss or shine to the dried ink. The inks used on the "KITAI"
overprint do have a slight shine to them, which is discernible when held at
the right angle to the light. Forgeries exist printed in dull mat inks with
no shine or gloss to them at all. You would do well to be suspicious of such
an overprint. ?

SIZE AND SHAPE OF THE LETTERING

This is the place where most of the forgers can be detected. It is
here that the forger finds it very nearly impossible to duplicate the origi-
nal exactly. A brief word of explanation of wby this is so will help a great
deal in learning to spot most of the forgeries.

The "KITAI" overprint is the word set up originally in a type face that
has very distinctive square-cut serifs. A piece of type, incidentally, is the
end result of a great deal of patient, precise planning and workmanship, and
for that reason alone is extremely hard to duplicate by any other means.
To cut a duplicate set of pieces of type in the same manner as the original,
not only would be time consuming, and expensive, but would also require the
Services of an expert craftsman. Since this is not practical for the forger
there re two other possibilities. One would be to obtain a font of the
original type used, and the difficulties of doing this in the case under die-
cuasion are only too apparent. There remains the method of making a careful
enlarged racing of the ovrprint and having a photoengraving made of it at


45 r









the exact size of the original. This is quite obviously the method that has
been used in the manufacture of the UKITAIV overprints that I have saen so
far.

The forger can very readily make a very accurate enlarged drawing of
any overprint with the services of a reasonably competent artist. The next
step however is where we can identify his work. He must now reduce the dr'aeo
ing photographically to the size of the original and have an engraving made
from the negative of the reduced drawing. In this process he loses some of
the exact likeness due to certain peculiarities of the process. Rather than
attempt to go too technical about it, ( it has to do with diffusion of light
rays ) let us just look at the end result. Look at the drawing of the over-
print on Plate B, Fig. 1. Miis was made from a careful tracing of a genuine
overprint that was projected to this size by an expensive enlarging camera
and can be considered to be a reasonably accurate representation of the ori-
ginal. Now, if you have a strong glass handy take a careful look at the
serifs in the next illustration, Fig. 2. This is a photographic reduction of
the same drawing shown on Fig. 1. Notice how the ends of the serifs have
begun to become rounded where they were relatively cut-square above. In Fig.
3 the drawing has been reduced to the approximate size of the UKITAI" over-
print, and a look at it with the strong magnifier will show that quite a ;pv
lcharasteristice of the top drawing have disappeared or changed noticeably
The serif ends have become rounded or even pointed and the white separation
line between the ball and the stem to which it is attached (on the *K") has
practically disappeared. A similar disappearance of enclosed white center
space can be noted on the accent mark over the final letter. All of these
changes are quite characteristic of most of the 9KITAIB forgeries. Some of
forgeries are very crude (See Plate C. Figs. 6 and 7).

SFig. 4 on plate B is an enlargement of Fig. 3 and is merely added to
bring out plainly the changes from Fig. 1 that have developed during the
reduction. Enlarging the drawing does not seem to change it as much as the
reduction.

From the above information it should now be clear and that the character-
istics of most forgeries will be; rounded serifsends, disappearance of the
smaller enclosed white spaces and a tendency of the serifs to join each other.
(See Plate C, Fig. 7 as marked by arrows.)

THE GENUINE OVERPRINT, CHARACTERISTICS

Generally speaking the fKITAI" overprint is clear and sharp, with the
previously mentioned square-cut serifs. The heavy strokes of the letters
are uniformly heavy and straight. The lighter strokes and the serifs are
of the same weight. The serifs are all evenly aligned and the letters are
evenly spaced apart. In the U"K" it should be noted that the ball on the end
of the upper right member and the tail bend on the lower right member extend
slightly above and below the line of the serifs. (In many of' the forgeries
they do not extend above and below the serifs.)

The size of the overprint is 16L mm, long and rm. high. This can bb
helpful if one likes to measure, as very few of the forgeries are within
1 am. of being correct. The only forgery I have of the correct length,


28 45








(Plate C, Pigs 4) has the letters a bit too high and is poorly drawn and
thus easily recognized. In most cases quicker identification can be had
by checking the letter shapes and characteristics.

STaking the overprint letter by letter, we note as follows: (See Plate A,
Fig, 4 for described details).

On the *tK the ball at the top I extends above the alignement of the
serifs. The bottdo of the tail stroke 2.2 extends below the alignment of
the serifs. At this point I should like to give a helpful hint in checking
letter shapes that is often used by professional letterers when making an
"exact copy of a particular letter style. Notice the enclosed white spaces
that are formed by the parts of the letter (See ## and #4). These are often
of a very distinctive shape and will uncover many a forgery. To make this
even more clearer, look at Fig. 3, Plate A which shows these spaces in black.
Notice the narrow space enclosed between the ball and the stem of #5 and
again at the bottom at #6. A careful check of all such enclosed spaces will
uncover many a forgery.

On the second letter we have enclosed spaces at #7 and #8 to check on.
Note how poorly the corresponding shapes on the forgeries on Plate C are
drawn. On this letter the serifs are very close at the center, but do not
touch, (#0 and #10). Occasionally a genuine overprint will be found with
the serifs touching slightly due to very heavy inking, but even then, if ex-
amined closely under a glass one can usually see the heavy ink outline through
the smudged ink marking the ends of the serifs apart from each other.

The *T" does not need much checking, but it should be noticed that it
is perfectly symmetrical, al balancing itself on both sides. In many of the
forgeries this is not so, as they are found with serifs of unequal lengths
Plate C, Figs. 3 and 4* and with short stuby serifs at the top. (Plate 0,
Figs. 5 and 6).
SOn the 4A" we find again closed-in area, (#11 and #12Y that provide
S valuable check points. Contrast with those on Plate C, Figs. 3 and 7.- Here
again the serifs nearly touch, #13. It fi also should be pointed out that
the left hand side of theC "A, the lighter of the slanted strokes is some-
what heavier in weight than the light strokes of the other letters.

The remarks on the second letter 1"I apply equally to the final letter.
It is on the accent mark over the letter that there are identifying character-
istics of even greater value. It should be noticed that the weight of the
line connecting the two oval shapes at either side is the same as the diagonal
stroke of the letter below. In many of the forgeries it is much lighter in
weight than the diagonal (#14). The enclosed area, #15 is also a good check
, point. In many forgeries there is little resemblance in shape to the original.

FORGERIES

My remarks on the forgeries must be necessarily limited to describing
those that I have had the opportunity to study. The first two forgeries
shown on Plate C, Figs, 2 and 3 are the closest to the genuine,- and Fig. 3
is fairly easy to spot by the closed-up ball on "K" and the fact that the
tail does not extend belov tVe line of the serifsr


45 29










Ths otharos Figs. 4 to 7 are for the cost prt each crude imitations
that they can be spotted by the naked eye. The forgery illustrated in Fin,
la by all odds the most dangerous, and from my experience, the most often
found. It has been mostly used, it seems, on t2s commoner, wove paper varied.
ties tiher one wculd not expect to find a fcrgery. However it has a number
of points that make it very easy to indantify. The serifs are rounded atd
unevn in weight and length. The serif on the left side of the OA' as marker
by the arrow, is noticeably short on all that I have seen severall dozen) ,
The cerif on the r&ght bottom of thetoet hand stroke of the final letter is
too thick cnd stubhy. The ball of the letter uP does not extend appreciably
above the alignment of the serif e nor does the tail extend below as it shoul-'
Finally the accent mark over the last letter, and the stroke of the '%" that
ends in the ball are Mich too light in weight. They should be of the sam
thicess as the serifs and diagonal strokes.

I recently czamined a lot from a amil c=ticn that pprpcrted to be
g=ine ovorprint on the 10 kop. blue on vertically laid paper. It turned
cut to be crudely drawn, sinilar-to Fig. 7, Plate C, and was quite obviously
lithographed in addition. If the above information will help any one to
avoid buying or bidding on such items, then the effort of writing it up
has been worth while.

Addition to the article
Since the preceding has been written, it has been called to my attent-
ion that an important.characteristic of the genuine overprint has escaped
my notice, and which appears ihlrly constant after a quick check of my
mateialo

The serif on the top of the straight stroke of "K" is noticeably longer
on the left side than it is one the rightside. In this respect my drawing
of the genuine overprint on Plate C, Fig. 1 is incorrect. On the drawing
the serif appears longer on the right side. The reverse is true, it is
longer on the left. It will be noticed that the forgeries illustrated on
Figs. 2, 3 and 4 show the characteristics of genuine.
To prevent confusion on part of the readers, when following the article,
we suggest, the reader, extend the serifs on the top of the straight stroke
of OK" to the left, on Plate A, Plate B, Fig. 1 and Plate C, Fig. 1, with
I3NDIA INK.
The postal stationery with this overprint makes a very handy basis
for checking, as it is usallf oand mint, and are not known counterfeited,
as far as we know. If any one has any knowledge pf counterfeited postal
stationery, we would be very glad to hear from them. -


30


0





0 to




PI G.1 PFIG. 2 PIG. 3







TYPOGRAPHIC LITHOGRAPHIC NOTE ENCLOSED
PRINT PRINT AREA SHAPES IN
BLACK

I PIG. 4



S12,
D al 3 J A-1f3

CHARACTERISTICS OP GENUINE OVERPRINT
PLATE A






FIG.1

KHTAH
Careful drauir y of overprint.
FIG.2
K HTTAH
FPariial redKctlio o0 i1. I
Nole Serifs
FIG.3
KHTAH
Final redmctioK of FigF I 6t
approimate size of nitzume ovierprid
NoU ekay6c desenbed ih4 &exl,
rih manhifer or check tlk
eni are mkt of P, 3 below.
FIG. 4

KHTAH
Fif 3 as evlarqed o sk5owdeails.
SHOWING CHANGES CAUSED BY
PHOTOGRAPHIC REDUCTION
PLATE B
Page 32





PIG 1 HTA
FGK H T AH

FORGERY IC H TAH
FIG.4
FORGE RY TA
FIG. 5
FORGK TA H
PI O C Y H TAI
FIG. 7 T
IC, HTA4
FORGBRYIVT&
PLATE C
Page 33







FRAME LINE
OF STAMP

Kyp'epcbKo-
noJibOBa
nouwTa.

10 rpHBeHb

THE SURCHARGE

rpHBeHb rpHBeHb
NORMAL VARIETY, SCRIPT"b"



NORMAL VARIETY, CAPPED"]"
FIG.2

rpMBeHb rpHBeHb
NORMAL VARIETY, "K"
FIG. 3


Page 34








MRAIhMAFIEL) .PCeT OFg 192Q

One of the myeteries of philately is vby so many speculative and phila-
telially manipulated and urnacesry labels are blindly accepted and duly
recorded in catalogues as postage stamp, while the stamp of necaassty, of-
ficially issued and postally usd, are denied recognition and listing in
major warld catalogus1
The officially issued and postally used Ukrainian Field Post of 1920
is a prime case of unfair discrimination by catalogue publishers, who have
not given catalogue listing to this issue at present, although Scott formerly
listed this issue as Mi2 = 11 -16.
In August of 1920, Ukraine was in chaotic condition after six years of
World War and Civil War* Occupation armies of Germany and Austria marched
across the land# folload later by the White Russian Armies of General Denzikia
S ne aal ron VranglS, Polish Army of PU1saddd, division of General
".' erlp Red Bolshaevk tArmy and alollUneus detachments of bandit which
simply pillaged and killed the inhabitants,
The history of the Ukrainian Field Post of 1920 begins when the National
krainian Ary and the gomrnPsnt of 1stlurap which vas at that time allied
with Poland, was forced to rsrat from Western Ukraine into Galicia, under
heway prPsre from the RO Ary, Thanks to the article written by our rem-
ber of Rosslka, noted apeialist of Ukrainian philtely, Capt. S. de Shram-
chesko, published in the London journal, "The Mest End Philatelist", in April
1924, we can give certain date abwut this field post.
By Official Decmee #22, of Angust 6, 1920, of the Ministry of Posts and
Telegraph of the Ucraiian Natiol Republic, postal communication was
arganizeds with the rain Post Oficep at the site of the government in Tarnov
and Rsheikhv, Western Galicia, and the mobile war post office of the Head-
quartere of the Commander of the Ukrainian National Army, General Omeliano-
vichaPavlearo. In the beginning only these two post offices were supplied
with the csas- cf l91l, of tho cries Ca Sage vith black overprint in
three lines reading k p'EPcbKO noloJbo aA nfl JTA
and the nt value. DBlc is a table giving the quantities of each value
issued,

10 driven on 10 Shagiv....2,000 20 given on 40 shagiv.....1,000
10 given on 20 Shagiv.....1,000 20 given on 50 abagiv.....l,000
10 grivon on 30 Shagiv.....e900 40 given on 10 shagiv.......200
10 given on 40 Chagiv... ...800 40 grivon on 20 shagivo....,.400
10 given on 50 Shagiv.......900 40 given on 30 ahagiv.....1,000
20 given on 10 Shagiv......800 40 given on 40 ehagiv.......200
20 grivon on 20 Shagiv,...2,600 40 given on 50 ehagiv.......100
"20 given on 30 Shagiv.....1,000 *40 given on 20 ahagivo......15
etCcn and grsn
Th% total -7!? is only 13,915 tspc of which 40 given on the large
Ssta- ef 20 grivon wvs only 15, oe of the rarities cf philately. Other
S---- -,i cd in quanitic c 100 to 200 e r"r aloo. The overprit was
Cade on pcas of 25 at.apS, c opt-tha. lcrp 5c- cp cf 20 grivon.


A 35










A small number of Ukrainian revenue stamps, at the same time, received
the same overprint, but they were not used for postal purposes, and received
another overprint, a diagonal in red, reading "ZPAZCK", sometimes with a
number. p'e pcbk

The postal rates at that time were:- no b C PO

10 grivni for official correspondence o L0 UI T A
20 grivni for ordinary letters
30 grivni for registered letters J rpierB b

Sn the beginning two types of canceller were used, having the following
inscriptions:-

1-Above '"KYT EPCIK(0-1lQ-1 0BA IOULITA", date in the center, at the left
of which was a trident, and below UEIETF. YCTu, i.e., Tsentralni
Ustanovi or Central Establishment or Quarters, or literally translated
"Central Government Establishment".

2-Same as above, except the inscription below reads,"CTAEKAa, meaning
Headquarters.

Later, from September to November 1920, regular town cancellers were
used, as the towns were freed from Reds. Incomplete list of cancellations
used is given below:-

Kamenetz-Podolsk Mogilev-Podolski
Proskurov Staro-K onstantinov
Volochisk-Dviretz, i.e. Volochisk-Vokzal (Station)

The Stavka of the Ukrainian Army gradually located itself in the
following towns:-

Kniplin Buczaz Gorodok
Stanislavov Czertkow in Galicia Ermolinzy in Podolia
Kolomea Eusiatin

Heavy pressure from the Red Army, in ceaseless battles forced the
Ukrainian Army finally to cross over from the Western Ukraina into Poland,
where on November 21, Petlura and the Army were interned. This date ended
the "Field Post of Ukraine, 1920".

Based on official data, given us by Captain de Shramchenko, thirty
years ago, it is clear that the stamps of the Ukrainian Field Post of 1920
should have been listed in postage stamps catalogues of the World, as offic-
ially issued and postally used.

In all my years of collecting Stamps of Ukraine, very seldom did I manage
to obtain even single specimens of even the commonest values, let alone pairs
or blocks, until by a freak of philatelic chance, several months ago, 1 managed
to obtain the remnants 6f a stock of this issue from a Viennese dealer.


36 45








The lot conita.ned s.ven different values in si.glas, pairs and blocks
of four- A close study .f this lot revealed three (3) constantly occurring
major varieties besidess several values known with inverted surcharges). I
am listing below the results of my study of each value in this lot.

CONSTANT MAJOR VARIETIES

(1)-Inverted surcharge
(2)-Small thin script 'b" in "griven" (See Fig. 1)
(3)-Capital UI" instead of numeral "l" in "10" (See Fig. 2)
(4)-Letter "K" instead of"O' in 1griven" (See Fig. 3)

VM VARIETIES
10 griven on 10 shagiv 1 2 3 4
10 griven on 20 shagiv 2 3
10 griven on 38 shagiv 2 4
10 griven on 50 shagiv 2 3
20 griven on 20 shagiv 1 2 4
20 griven on 50 shagiv 1

There also occur such constant varieties as:-

a-Broken or split letters of surcharge
b-Horizontally shifted surcharge
c-Vertically shifted surcharge
d-Misplaced surcharge


ADDITIONAL DATA ABOUT THE UKRAINIAN FIELD POST OF 1920
by Capt. S. de Shramchenko

As an addition to the article written by Seymour Gibrick, I may state that
being active in the field of philatelic literature since 1918, I have been
able to place numerous issues of Ukraine into the catalogues of the World.
Thus,I tried to do the same with the Field Post Issue of 1920, as the stamps
were officially issued and postally used. However I was not successful in
placing them in certain well known catalogues, as these, while agreeing with
me as to their official status, bluntly ordered from me a certain number of
these stamps for themselves, in return for placing them in the catalogue, at
a good pricing.

These stamps were originally for the *Field Post" use between Tarnov
and Rzhekhov in Poland, in Western Galicia, which at that time was in alliance
with Poland, where the Government of the Ukrainian National Republic and the
Headquarters (Stavka) of the Ukrainian Army was located, and which moved its
location depending on anti-bolshevik front to Kriplin, Stanislavov, etc. as
stated by Gibrick. When, after the defeat of bolsheviks before Warsaw, the
front was moved to the East, the bolsheviks fled in great panic. Active
part in this drive againisthe left flank, at Zamostie CKholmschina) took
the 6th. Strelkov Division under the command of General Besruchik. This
division had attached to it a field post, Pochtovoe Otdelenie No. 2 for the
Field Post. Ukrainian Army then crossed from Western Galicia, across
Zbruch, and in September-Wivember of 1920 freed from the bolshevicks large
sections of Podolia and Volhynia. At that time these stamps were placed in


45 37










normal postal use on this territory. At the eame time, Vienna printed set,
Scott Noan 156 to 169 (Types A8 to A21) were made ariJable for portal use,
but only 10, 20 and 40 g. were usod for postago, majority of the caLalocuLes
state "none of the above set was placed in use". All three of these stamps
were in postal use until November 21, 1920, at which time Ukrainian Ar-my
retreated into Poland and was interned there.

A slightly different type ofshand stamp was used to overprint the
Ukrainian Revenue stamps for the "Field Post" use (Type 2). The above stamps
are considered to be "2oofs". This hfid star (Type 2) was liKxewis s-aed
lator to ovarprint "shagiv sctanps. which later with the exception of the
abovo revenue proofs, were utilized for postal purposes, on par with the
original type. The author has a full set of these stamps overprinted with
Type 2.

The overprint errors, described by Gibrick, are interesting and rare,
but as it is known to me they did not occur regularly.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TIE UYRAINIAN FIELD POST

1-"Sammler Woche", Wien 1920. "Ukrainische Kurier-Feldpost".
2."Ill Briefmarken Journal", Leipzig 1925. "Ukrai-ische Feldpostmarken",
im J. 1920.
3-"Donaupost ", Bratislava 1925. "Die Ukrainischen Feldpostmarken ,aus
dem Jahie 1920".
4-"Ltech de la Timbrologie", Amiens 1925. WLes Timbres-poste de Campagne
Ukrainienne en 1920".
S 5-Sweitzer Ill. Briefmarken-Zeitung", Bern 1924. "Les Timbres de la
Poste de Campagne dtUkraine en 1920".
$-"La Rivista Filatelica DtItalia", Genoa 1923, N. 12. "I Francobolli
della Posta del Campr delltUcrana nel 1920".
and others.






GREETINGS TO ALL FELLOW-LEBERS OF THE ROSSIKA SOCIETY111

Your WANT-LISTS have a good chance of being filled from
my specialized stock of RUSSIA---Czarist and Soviet----
mint; used; errors; varieties, nev-issue service of---
USSR and other. oraign countries; late Soviet covers. I
will be interested to learn what interests you.

IESTER S. GLASS (A.S.D.A., APS, SPA)

1831 Glenifer Street, Phila. 41, Pa.



38 45








niyunt RUSSIA qnd POLAND 15M% rion
a>1^ Furchases on all ^ CSs
0 and U. Free Frice List on Request j.of $10.00 and up
Errors--aCovers--Varieties--New Issues--Cancellations
Want Lists Requested from #1 to Present,

.L. & F. Stamp Service
Box #1 Grand Ledge, Michigan.

It is with great pleasure that I take this opportunity, on the eve of
Rossicas rebirth, to submit this advertisement. Miay Rossikc bring new honors
and enlightment to Russian Philately.
Loo J. Zaikovsi

All Numbers are Listod by Scotts and unlisted varieties aro doscribod. This is
a partial listing.
Scott's Cat, No. Scott's Cat. No.
aor description) I SD (or description) MNT USED
a--- n *
2 $ ...- 2.50 326-327 (Unwmkd.) $20.C0 $*---
5 -10 $ -- $12.CO 327 (Unrmkd.) $ 4.50 $--.-
8a 1.20 .08 328 (Orango proof) 6.CO
12 -18 --- 4.00 328 (Rod proof) 6.CO -
12a --- 100CO 328 (Bluo proof) 6.C00
19a .25 .07 374 (Imporf.) 15.00
19 -25 ---- 1.80 434 (Double impros.) 6.00 ---
19 --.60 449ax 10.C
S 20 --- .80 451ax ---- 15.00
20d --- 1.40 470ax (Imporf.) --- 8.00
22b ---- .40 525ax (Impcrf. Pair) 20,00 ----
22d 2.CC 529ax (Imporf. Pair) 30,CO -----
24a .80 536 x (Imporf. Proof) 8.CO -
25a --- .80 580-82x (Inrporf. pairs 70.00C
26a 3.00 585x (rnporf at top) 3.50----
26-30 .80 610x (Impcrforato) 20.0C ----
31 -38 .75 615x (Ii:pcrf. pair) 1C.CO ----
57a (Background Omitted) ---- 35,00 617ax (Imperf. pair) 12.CO--
60a (Block of 4 Mint) 20.00 --- 619x (Impcrf.) 2.50
60a 4.50 1,00 730x (Imperf. at bottom 3.50
82b 2.00 ---- 713x (Imporf.) 10.CO ---
85c 3.00 759x (Imporf. at top) ---- 3.50
870 4.50 771x (Imporf. at bottom---- 3.50
103a (Imp.-ropairod) 7.50 --- 797x (IMrperf. botwoon) 20.CO
106 (Imp. proof) 9.CO --- 801x (Imporf. at top) --- 4.00
U7a 3.00 819x (Imporf. at top) --- 4.00
126a 2.00 907a (Imperf. botwcon) ---- 30.00
131d & o 4.50 921x (Bluo color missing flagsl7.00
131e 1.50 --- 932x (Imporf at right) 3.50
An many others (ProSoviet) 975x (Imporf. at right) 3.50 -,806
981x (Importf at top) 3.50 -
294X (Imp. Brown Proof) 8.00 --- 995x (Imporf. at top) 4.00
302 -303 Imporf. -- 3.50 1003x (Imporf. at right) 3.50 ----

45 39







Iear ?!r. Sklarevski:
I congratulate you, our newest "honored member",
and wish you the best. I sincerely hope that you will be a great friend
of the 'tROSSIKA" as A. N. Lavrov and Dr. G. B. Salisbury.

Respectfully Yours,

A. Chebotkevich

It is confirmed that R. A. Sklarevski receives4
the title of Honored M.ember, on this day, Iarch 1, 1955 for his great
help to the Rossika Society, and for publishing the Jcurnal in English
1- -guage. Congratulations and best wishes for his health and further
aid to our society.
Honorary President,

E. Archangelsky

Dear Rimma:
It gives me great pleasure to welcome you into
the inner and select group of "honored members". You have earned the
great honor by your work and your wonderful philatelic knowledge. I
salute you.
I am happy that the President and the Honorary
President concurred with my proposal and confirmed my nomination of you,
my hard working colleague, to the "Honorary Membership".

Your s,
Greg.


0 NOTES .ON RUSSIAN PHILATELY
by A. Rosselevich
RUSSIAN OFFICES IN CHINA

The surcharge tKITAI" on Russian stamps has been faked on whole sheets,
as well as on the single stamps. Most frequently these frauds are found on
uncancelled stamps of 1910-11 issues with lozenges of chalk. First, because
the Russian stamps of 1909 without surcharge were very cheap & it made sense,
therefore, to increase their value by changing them into stamps of Russian
Offices in China. Second, because these stamps were sold in huge quantities
by Finish government at auctions after Finland's independence was declared &
Finish stamps were introduced. A great number of sheets got into the hands
of foreign dealers & successively, found its way to various falsifiers.
Faked surcharges on cancelled stamps can be found on rare varieties of 1910-
11 issue, 1, 2, 3, 4, 25 & 50k. with surcharges in other color than the nor-
mal, the 5r. of the same issue, and the rare high catalogue stamps of the
1899-1908 issue are found counterfeited also.

It is rather easy to recognize these fakes even if one is not an expert,
as the majority of them have the same common features & evidently were made
in the same place. I am going to show the most evident characteristics of
the genuine surcharges later on in this article; but I must note here first
that the possibility exists that in some cases one of these features may not
be quite clear or that it does not colTespond jwholy with my description.
Eut if the other feature, correspond, then the surcharge may (see next page)


4C 45







Iear ?!r. Sklarevski:
I congratulate you, our newest "honored member",
and wish you the best. I sincerely hope that you will be a great friend
of the 'tROSSIKA" as A. N. Lavrov and Dr. G. B. Salisbury.

Respectfully Yours,

A. Chebotkevich

It is confirmed that R. A. Sklarevski receives4
the title of Honored M.ember, on this day, Iarch 1, 1955 for his great
help to the Rossika Society, and for publishing the Jcurnal in English
1- -guage. Congratulations and best wishes for his health and further
aid to our society.
Honorary President,

E. Archangelsky

Dear Rimma:
It gives me great pleasure to welcome you into
the inner and select group of "honored members". You have earned the
great honor by your work and your wonderful philatelic knowledge. I
salute you.
I am happy that the President and the Honorary
President concurred with my proposal and confirmed my nomination of you,
my hard working colleague, to the "Honorary Membership".

Your s,
Greg.


0 NOTES .ON RUSSIAN PHILATELY
by A. Rosselevich
RUSSIAN OFFICES IN CHINA

The surcharge tKITAI" on Russian stamps has been faked on whole sheets,
as well as on the single stamps. Most frequently these frauds are found on
uncancelled stamps of 1910-11 issues with lozenges of chalk. First, because
the Russian stamps of 1909 without surcharge were very cheap & it made sense,
therefore, to increase their value by changing them into stamps of Russian
Offices in China. Second, because these stamps were sold in huge quantities
by Finish government at auctions after Finland's independence was declared &
Finish stamps were introduced. A great number of sheets got into the hands
of foreign dealers & successively, found its way to various falsifiers.
Faked surcharges on cancelled stamps can be found on rare varieties of 1910-
11 issue, 1, 2, 3, 4, 25 & 50k. with surcharges in other color than the nor-
mal, the 5r. of the same issue, and the rare high catalogue stamps of the
1899-1908 issue are found counterfeited also.

It is rather easy to recognize these fakes even if one is not an expert,
as the majority of them have the same common features & evidently were made
in the same place. I am going to show the most evident characteristics of
the genuine surcharges later on in this article; but I must note here first
that the possibility exists that in some cases one of these features may not
be quite clear or that it does not colTespond jwholy with my description.
Eut if the other feature, correspond, then the surcharge may (see next page)


4C 45








be considered genuine without a doubt.
First of all, the genuine surcharge has strong characteristics in some
* of its letters, notably in the letter K" here this becomes very evident.
"As the illustration shows, the horizontal line on the top of this letter is
not symmetrical. It is longer on the cuter left side and-shorter on the
inner right side. The fakes, constantly, show this line to be symmetrical
and divided inwo two even parts by the vertical stem of the letter "K".

First, note the angle of incline of the surcharge. It is always the
same for all the values and all issues overprinted "KITAI". It fluctuates
between 571and 58 degrees. On the fraudulent stamps this angle is usually
53 degreesafor the kogek values'and fluctuates between 38 and 53 degrees fcr
the Ruble values. If one would draw a diagonal line on the stanp from upper
right to lower left, this diagonal would never be parallel to the angle of
incline of the genuine surcharge. On fakes with a 53 degree angle this im-
aginary line would be parallel to the surcharge. It is interesting to note
that this angle of incline is described wrongly in some catalogues. Yvert,
for instance, gives it as 62 degrees. The genuine surcharge consists of
clear, cleanly drawn letters with right angle corners. Besides that, every
letter was a more or less visible dark contour around its form (the thickening
of the color at the edges). Sometimes, this thickening can only be seen with
a magnifying glass and in good light. The fakes do not have this contour
impression at all, the color all around is of the same intensity. The letters
have rounded corners, and appear muddy and unsteady and one notes the absence
of firmness and clarity of the design.

These are the main features which suffice for examination of the stamps,
Although, as I said before, some of them may not be quite clear (for instance
the "K" may appear in quashede* red or blue surcharge) or some may slightly
differ from the features described above (such as the slightly changed angle
of incline in which some of the misplaced surcharges of the rarer values ap-
Dear). But even then, the presence of the other features will decide the
question since not one of the fakes has any of the characteristics of the
genuine surcharge,

I want to dd that the masurements of the letters and the distances
between them are the same for the genuine surcharges, as well as the faked
ones. The only difference iP that the letters of the fake surcharge appear
somewhat larger than on the genuine one (but under 1 rn.) Likewise, genuir.
and faked surcharges appear raised on uncancelled stamps and show only light
color on cancelled ones. For that reason, one should disregard this. It
does not hurt to check the postmarks on cancelled stamps, especially on rare
ones. The fakes will either have undecipherable or incomplete postmarks and
sometimes cancellations of Russian or Siberian town.

All of the above should prove that fake surcharges can be easily detect-
ed and are not dangerous. The only dangerous fake is the blue (instead of
red) surcharge on the 10 kop. (Scott #11) of the 1899-1904 issue on the vert-
ically laid paper. I have seen this fake three times, oncb in a very serious
collectors album. It is very difficult to study this stamp since the blue
letters of the surcharge are hardly visible on the blue stamp. I do not know
whether such a blue surcharge exists genuinely and I recommend to everybody
Swho comes upon tbia rsarity" to examine it very carefully.


S41







In this article I am describing only the "KTAI1" overprints, i.e. the
issues from 1899 to 1911. At a later time, I shall turn to the 19.7 issue
of "cents" and "dollars" surcharges. These surcharges need to be discussed
separately.

THE 3J. 5CK. STAMP OF 1918 (Scott #132)

One of the most interesting varieties of this stamp is the one printed
on ribbed paper. "This means a paper which during its manufacture was run
through two cylinders with an engraved design of a small network which gave
it a raised impression. The design of this ribbed paper network is very re-
gular and is visible on both sides of the stamp with single frame, narrow
margins, perforated 13- and having hardly visible lozenges of chalk.

It is necessary to have seen al least two copies of such a variety if
a special printing of this stamp on ribbed paper should be assumed. Other-
wise, the stamp could belacg to one single sheet which somehow got into paper.
supply, prepared for printing. Of course, this does not diminish the value
of this variety but increases it. I have found only one copy of this stamp
and this only by chance. It was sold for 240 Belgian Francs at an auction
in Brussels in 1948 and went to a big Belgian collector of Russian stamps.
Now, after the death of the owner, the collection was sold and all traces of
the stamp were lost.

1 KOK( STALP OF THE 1913 ROMANCFF JUBITE ISSUE (Scott #88)

Even more mysterious is a variety of this stamp which I found (single
copy) when I went through thousands of cancelled stamps of this set. It
was covered on face by colorless diagonal lines with flat finish leading
from upper right to lower left. These lines were parallel, absolutely clear
and regular, being approximately I am. thick and having I amn spacing between
them. The question arises whether these lines turned up on one sheet of
paper, prepared for the printing or whether these lines were printed on the
stamp after its issue. Did any of the readers find another copy on similar
paper or on other value of this set.

I am refraining from any speculation about this stamp; I can only vouch -
that it was carefully soaked by me in warm water. The lines did not vanish
nor did they become less visible. The fate of this stamp was the same as
that of the above described by me.

ERRCPS AND VARIETIES OF THE 1909-18 ISSUE OF RUSSIAN STAMFS

As one know well, there is endless number of varieties and errors of
this issue. They may be divided into two categories: 1-The legitimate one
(i.e. those stamps which went through the mails and turned up in used con-
dition and on covers), and 2-The uncancelled group (never having been placed
for sale in past offices, always encountered -In unused condition and often
in whole sheets). This second group includes some varieties which catch the
eye immediately, as for instance misplaced centers, double and triple centers
inverted centers, etc. The first category, on the contrary contains variei"
which are much less noticeable and need at times a magnifying glass 0 to be
detected at all, Among such va.rioete vbib -deser a place in a serious


0 42








collection are the specially interesting shifts of the green background on
the 5 ruble stamp (Scott #71) and of the yellow background of the 10 ruble
stamp (Scott #135). Small shifts from amm. to Imm. are common on both of
the stamps. Among 20 to 25 copies there will be at least one with a slight
Shift, assuming that these stamps came from different sheets. Big shifts
are much rarer. In some cases they are as much as lmm. or more.

There also exists a rarity of the first order: the inverted background
on the 5 ruble stamp. I was fortunate enough to find a copy of thief error
in cancelled condition. I do not know whether the same error is found on
the 10 ruble value. I strongly recoEmend that any one owning a quantity of
these stamps should examine them carefully. The background consists of
small lines and dots which appear-to the eye so minute, that these inverts
and shifts remain detected in many cases.

(to be continued)
-------------------------------


THE BRITISH SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY

Cordially invites you to join its ranks if you are interested in the
Postage Stamps or Postal History of Russia or associated States. Founded
in 1936, the society has over 150 members in many parts of the World. The
Official Organ of the Society---the profusely illustrated BRITISH JOURNAL
OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY-is published three times a year & offers the results
of research into many problems concerning Russian Philately. etbership
offers a great many advantages to the collector keen on the Russian group
of countries. Write to Honorary Secretary, J. Barry, Esq., 53a St. James
Road, Sutton, Surrey, England. Dues $3.0 a year plus $1.00 entrance fee
on joining.

From time to time, many handbooks are published either by or in ass-
ociation with, the society. THE TRIDENT ISSUES OF THE UKRAINE: PART III,
KHARKOV, POLTAVA, AND EKATERINOSLAV by C .W.ROBERTS, is still available,
(Price $1.50), also ARMENIA Part I (Price $1.25), Part II out shortly.
Back Issues of Journal-------------Nos. 8 to '16 for sale at $1.00 each.



















5








-?
E K
o/zuunaA. nogge.na _

ORIGINAL COUNTERFEIT

NO. 1 NO. 2 M. C.
....1... ..i
180 roOa.

S.amyp oNO.

-A JNO*3



NO. NO. 6 o .

NW019 CWIA

10 lSU. PcwIi n .. I
KAHmLanRPcKro 7 -MAPO
Y-TAI9EHO.

NO. 7 NO. 8 NO. O 9



No. 11 NO. 12 1A oI. An. 3
Kaueftp. co-










v;/I l| .. .. 1: t II l. I1 Al, 1 L.I.I.
,.,,l,, ,. c6 ~t, ro, l, ,. ',ol 1 .

N,, l, Ol, 1 oi KB A I.I. Al ta. crp 4




No. g18. 19











NOTFS Ci. Cu'LECTJIEG RUSSIA' RTEVENUE STid.FPS
Ly E, I, rircovitch

In this article I would like to deal with a comparatively neglected
but very interesting and enjoyable branch of Russian philately, the col-
lecting of Revonue or Fiscal stamps.

These stamps are not listed in the majority of the standard cataloguoso
There is only one.specialized catalogue for the revenue stamps of the world
and even this one is very antiquated. I have to admit that it is difficult
to collect these stamps. There are only a few collectors who are interested
in them, and it is not easy to study and understand them. Besides most of
the dealers do not carry them. But these difficulties, on the other hand,
make it especially entertaining to collect them; the unexpected find, new
discoveries, meetings and correspondence with the few collectors in this
field give special pleasure to the collector of this branch of philately.

The Forbin catalogue of revenue stamps of the world, was published in
Paris in 1915, and is the only reference work available. Although it is
now very much outdated it used to be quite complete in its time. No new
wide world catalogues have appeared since.

Collecting of revenue stamps is rather strongly developed in some
countries. There are revenue stamp chapters, described in great detail
in the special postage stamp catalogues of Scott for U. S. and Stanley
Gibbons for Great Britain and Colonies. In France Forbin published an
extremely detailed catalogue of revenue stamps of France, her colonies anm
protectorates. In Italy, one of the greatest experts and collectors of
revenue stamps, Leone de Magistris, published an excellent, extremely well
put-together catalogue of fiscal stamps of Italy, her colonies and border
territories, Fiume and San Miarino (published in 1947 in Genoa). A catalo-
gue of Finnish government stamps for period extending from 1864 to 1935
appeared at about the same time in Finland. Its author is one of the Fin-
landis greatest collectors of postage stamps, locals, steamship and revenue
stamps, Hellman. A few years ago, he started to publish a journal, oovering-
postage and revenue stamps of Finland and Baltic States. This journal
"Libetas Philateliae" was full of valuable material and very interesting to
read but unfortunately was discontinued after 6 numbers. In all of the
above and many other countries there are specialized revenue societies.
Germans, Scandinavians and many others have their own publications and
special revenue catalogues.

Revenue stamps were and are issued for fiscal needs exclusively. They
were never printed (as it sometimes happens with postage stamps) for specu-
lative purposes, since the number of revenue collectors is small and the
speculative printings would not make sense, For the same reason, there are
no fakes of revenue stamps in existence. Although revenue stamps do not
depict Wtopicse, like some of the postage stamps of recent times, these
revenue stamps are frequently designed with great care. Some are beautiful
and varied, others are primitively finished, especially some of the early
issues; but even these have charm of age like the old classic postage stamps*

Revenue stamps, Revenue paper or wrappers (banderoll) are nothing else
but the signs of the prepayment of the iderect taxes. They were levied on
the populatica by the government or local authorities and their payment was
shcwn by affixing revenue stamps on official papers and documents, showing
that the taxes levied were unalterable. Without stamps these document wculd
46 NCXT 5HEET(ILLUSTF.) 15 PA rE 4445







be void. In Russia, as in other countries, revenue stamps of certain
denominations had to be affixed on all bills, according to the sum mentioned
in the bill. The tariff was always prescribed in detail by law. Passports
and permits for residence had to be paid for when they were issued and were
S validated with special stamps levied by police or city departments. Special
stamps were also issued to different Ministries and offices for various
purpose.

The number of governmental and local issues in pre-revolutionary Russia
was a large one. Because of inability to search through Russian archives
we are unable to know every actual issue of local revenue stamps. The only
way to study these stamps, is offered by philatelic meetings and the sparce
literature available on this subject.

In this article I am trying to classify the various issues of Russian
revenue stamps known to me, and I an asking the readers of BRossika" to hlp
me fill the empty spaces by letting me know about their material. Later on,
I shall try to write a catalogue of Russian Revenue stamps and I am hoping
that my colleagues in this field will land me a helping hand.

Many Ministries and Offices issued revenue stamps for various purposes
and it is therefore not advisable, and sometimes outright impossible to
classify these stamps in chronological order. The emissions were either
of national or of local nature. It night be advisable to group thejissues
by Ministries and Offices. From now on, we will divide the revenues into
two groupss-

1-Government Issues
2-Local Issues

Each group has some further subdivisions:-

1-The government issues have their subdivisions in relation
to the purpose of the stamps.
2-The local emissions should be divided into issues of
different governments (gubernias), cities and zemstvos,
and which in their turn should be subdivided into groups
according to the purpose which the stamps had to fulfill.

However, in every subdivision, the stamps will be classified in
chronological order.

Stamps issued by the Ministry of Finance for various purposes, such
as, revenue for commercial bills, notarisation of documents, contracts,
etc., had the widest circulation. They were compulsory for the entire
Russian Empire. The Russian coat of arms, a two-headed eagle was pictured
on all of them. For this reason the stamps received the name "gerbovoye"
(gerb, in Russian meaning the coat of arms) and the same is true for the
stamped paper.

These stamps appeared in 1875. During 32 years, until 1907 they were
of the same design with only a few unimportant changes in some details.
Altogether 20 different stamps were issued during that time and if vertical
and horizontal hexagonal watermrk tarietieo are counted the total is 26.


* 45 47
mr







In 1907, a set of 9 stamps of a new design, from 5k. to 1 ruble, made its
appearance. This set, together with sonm stamps of former issues was in
use until 1921, They were still printed under the Soviets and, like the
postage stamps of pre-revolutionary Russia, were issued in imperforate
state.

During the Civil War these stamp, together with Postal Savings and
Control stamps were used as postage stamps. Covers with these stamps, genui.
nely gone through the cails are rare and highly valued by collectors. In
1920, the value of the Ruble fell considerably and the postal rates like
living expenses vent up from day to day. Post Offices had large reserves
of stamps of low denominations, but not enough of high values ( 1 to 10
rubles). For that reason the Soviet Government issued a decree revalueing
all postage stamps of 1 kop. to 70 kop. value,raising their value 100 times,
so that 1 kop. became 1 ruble, etc. After receiving this order some of the
provincial post offices started to overprint the stamps with the word "FB"
(abbreviation of word "RUBLE") in order to show the revaluation of the origi-
nal value of the stamp 100 times. These surcharges were put on the stamps
mostly with a hand made type, sometimes by manuscript and in rarer cases by
typography or a numerator.

There were many of these- local surcharges. The Soviet catalogue, edited
by Chuchin in 1927 enumerates 65 towns and villages which issued revalued
stamps during that period. Probably there were many more. My collection for
instance, shows 12 different surcharges which are not listed in Chuchin's
catalogue. These surcharges are known to all Russian philatelists. I mention
this to you in order to remind you that the revenue stamps of this period were
also surcharged either with word "PYB" or with a new value.

I know of 33 different types of surcharges on revenue stamps of the
Civil War era. These surcharges were entirely different as to looks and
as to the way of their manufacture. 11 of them were overprinted by typo-
graphy, 21 by handstamps and one (15 kop.) has the perforations R.S.F.S.R
150 P. instead of surcharge.

All of these stamps were surcharged by local authorities of the Soviet
administration. The districts occupied by White Armies also surcharged their
revenue stamps. I have two sets of revenue stamps (1907 issue) with such a
surcharge. One of them is overprinted on its lower part by a hand-made
violet rubber stamp "Vooruzh. Seely Yuga Rosii" (Armed Forces of South
Russia). The other set has the same overprint as above in red, plus a new
value in black, repeated 4 times on each stamp both of the overprints
applied by typography.

All of these stamps have not yet been described completely and need
further study0 It would be desirable if the collectors who own such stamps
would lot me know about their material and data for future cataloguing.

The Ministry of Finance issued special stamps even before the release of
the official revenue stamps of 1875,

Already in 1871 stamps for indicating the payment of licenses for the
sale of tobacco products made their appearance. This set consisted of 6
stamps, valued from 1-- to 20 rubles and printed very distinctly and beauti-
fully in two colors. They were valid until 1917, and were re-issued many


48 45






times with small variations in design and in entirely different shades for
different printings.

In 1890, the Ministry of Finances issued the so-called control-excise
stamps which were used by mercbanta on the liceaas to sell alcoholic be*-
verages. Finally, in 1892, a new set made its appearance which was very si-
milar to the preceding one, and was for the fruit and grape and distillery
industry. Both of the sets included values from 1 kop. to 25 rubles, were
printed in two colors with the same care as the tobacco license stamps.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs issued a great number of local passport
stamps which were affixed to passports and permits for residence, whenever
citizens applied for them. They were the oldest Russian fiscal stamps.

The first set of these stamp, from 1 to 40 kop.,, was issued in 1860
by the city of St. Petersburg and the Suburban Police. In 1861, the Moscow
Police followed suit by issuing a set, very similar to the one of the St.
Petersburg. These stamps are crude looking and are finished in a rough way.
They are square in shape, the two concentric circles inserted into the square
bear the inscription "St. Petersburg _(or Mocaw)' City Police. The value
and the words "kop. s (Ropeks silver)" are placed in the center, Some
stamps of thisset are very rare, only a few copies existing, such as blue,
1 kop. silver 'of the St. P. B. Suburban Police. Following the 1860 and
1861 issues of these stamps 4 more, much better prepared sets came out in
St. Petersburg and Suburbs. In Moscow, there was one more set in 1881.
Some of these Moscow stamps were overprinted in 1915 and 1916, with a new
value. Altogether, these stamps were in circulation for 35 years until the
revolution.

Although a set of 5 denominations (from 15 kop. to 1 ruble) was issued
for the whole Empire, many provincial towns had their own local passport
stamps. It is a pity that by far only a few towns issuing passport stamps
are known to collectors. These stamps were issued to raise revenue for
various departments and various purposes, for instance for the benefit of
the City Police, City Administration, Administration of Spae (medical bath-
ing places), hospitals, and county fair administrations, I know of the
following towns which had their own passport stamps

Alushta (City Administration)
Arkhangelsk
Warsaw (City Administration, 1886)
Nijni-Novgorod (N.N. Fair Administration, 1892-1914)
Piatigorsk (City Administration, 1895-1910)
Sevastopol (City Government, 1889, 1907)
Trapesund (Passport stamp of Trapezund Police, issued
probably during Russian Occupation in 1915 or 1916)
Kharkov (City Police, 1879)

Besides the usual revenue raised during registration in some spas,
there was a seasonal tax which was paid by purchasing special stamps.
Such stamps are known in the following placest-

For the Spas of the Kurl(nd Gubernia 1879)
For the Spas of the Etland Gubernia (187999)
Administration of Caumaian Lineral Waters (tax on tub baths)
Anapa (City Adminstration, .easoal tax)

45 49









Druakeniki (Sanitary Commission 1891-1904)
Kisio-cdsk City Sanitary Commission)
Ria (Police in bathing localities, 1883-1901)
Staraya Russz (City Seasonal Tax, 188-1902)

In some towns, revenue for the benefit of the sick and the hospitals
was raised by the Lunicipal Administrations. The following stamps are
known:-

St. P. B. City Administration (1886*1889)
Kronstadt City Administration (1881-1894)
Rostov on Don City Administration (1898)
Nakhichevan City Administration (1898)

A tax had to be paid by special stamps for a temporary change of address
in St. Petersburg. This was done for the benefit of the Address Incuiry
Office. These stamps appeared in numerous sets of many denominations, and
existed from 1889 until the revolution. They were also issued in Arkhangelsk
and Chernovetz in 1915-1916.

In 1895, the Ministry for Internal Affairs issued a set of passport
stamps for the general governmental use (from 15 kop. to 1 ruble) which had
the Imperial coat of arms depicted on them. These stamps slowly replaced
the local emissions and were valid for all of Russia with the exception of
St. Petersburg and Moscow where local stamps continued to be used. City
Administrations often issued stamps for various taxes in order to cover their
budget. For example: Clerical tax on building permits and others

In St. Petersburg these stamps were issued bys-

Construction Department of the City Administration (1867 until 1875)
City Administration-for dog and horse tags, and automobile licenses.
In Odessa City Administration for "per pud tax" (1870) (Pud is a measure
of weight equivalent to 4Olbs.)
In Vilna for clerical (office) tax (1911)
In Orel for the benefit of the town.
In Novocherkask for clerical tax.
In Voronezh and Kazan-stamps of the fooddlpvisioning Committee (1915-16).

The Administration of the Government Savines Banks issued stamps for
various purposes. Pany of these stamps are well known to Russian philatel-
ists since they took the place of postage stamps during the Civil War and
were affixed to letters without any surcharges (as discussed before). In
localities occupied by the White Armies some of these stamps were overprinted
with a new value and were also used as postage stamps, for instance in Kuba,
and by the post of the WIrangel Evacuation Camps of the White Army, etc.

The original purpose of the savings stamps was to increase saving. The
Savings Banks issued special books to their depositors containing empty spaces
for stamps. The-depositors bought stamps for 1, 5 and 10 kop. and pasted
them into the spaces in the books. After the book was filled up it was
taken by the Savings Bank and the depositor was credited with the amount*


50 45







For higher depositethere were tarps of latrgr denominations, from 25 Ikop,
to 100 rubles. These stamps were pasted into empty spaces in special books,
depending on the amount of their value. They were obliterated by postal
cancellations and the date was added by band. Savings Banks had their windows
in every post office. In 1900 or 1901 the Savings Stamps changed their names
to control stamps, and a new set of the same design but with the inscription
changed was issued. Besides the Savings Stamps, the Administration of Savings
Banks issued stamps for the insurance of capital gains. These stamps (from
1 kop. to 10 rub.) were sold at the Savings Bank windows and served as a
proof for insurance premiums.

later on, when the Soviet Administration formed special organizations
for control and exploitation of collectors (Soviet Philatelic Association,
abbreviated-S. F. A. ), these- stamps, like some pre-revolutionary postage
stamps were surcharged "S. S. S. R. Delegate of Philately and Bank Notes.
Foreign Exchanre 1 k. (I k. to 10 k.) in gold".


Collectors who wanted to exchange stamps with other countries had to
send their letters with enclosed or affixed stamps to the delegate of
S. F. A. Stamps of various denominations were affixed to the back of
these letters in accordance with the appraised value of the enclosed phila-
telic material. In other words, these stamps served as a special levy on
collectors' purses whenever they esnt stamps abroad or received them from
there. All letters which contained stamps for exchange likewise had to be
addressed to a Delegate of S. F. A. to be appraised and turned over to the
addressee.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in 1913 issued a set of consular
stamps from 10 kop. to 100 rub. which served as payment of fees for pass-
ports and certificates, given out by the Russian Consulates abroad. After
S the February Revolution, the Russian Consul in Brazil overprinted the
Imperial coat of arms with an irregularly formed circle in black. There
are two of these stamps in my possession, dated 18 May and 28 July 1917.
Eight stamps of this set were surcharged in Berlin in 1922 with
"Vozdushnaya Pochta RSFSR 12 (to 120) germ, mar." (Air mail RSFSR, 12
Gerran marks), They served to pay for the official air correspondence on
Berlin-Koenigeberg-LIoscow line. These stamps were cancelled either by ink
or by indelible pencil. This set is well known to Russian philatelists,
especially to air mail collectors. They are rare and in very high esteem
by all air mail specialists.

The management for the various institutions of Empress Maria raised
funds for its work by placing a special fee (tax) on theaters and shows.
The selling price of these stamps was related to the cost of tickets. The
first set of these stamps came out in 1892. They consisted of two halves,
one half of which, with the ticket price remained on book of tickets from
which the ticket coupons were detached, the other half stayed on the
ticket itself and showed the coat of arms of Empress Maria Feodorovna.
This set consisted of 6 stamps from 2 kop. to 50 kop. later on when the
necessity for new values arose the 2 kop. stamp was overprinted with a new
value. I have surcharges of 1, 30, 40 and 60 kop., 1 rub. and 3 rub.

In 1909, a new set of stamps of double form and a new design was
issued by the same management. This set consisted of 11 values, 1, 5, 10,
O 20, 30, 35, 40, 50 and 80 kop., and 1 and 3 rub. This set remained in


45 51






in circulation until the February Revolution of 1917. DurinC the time of
the Temporary Government como theater stamps existed in provincial cities.
I know of the following stamps:-

1-0desa City Selfgovernment with the inscription *Fee from shows
and performances for the benefit of the city of OdessaU*
2-Stamp3 of the Kharbin Public Adninistration-charity foe.

These stamps also had the double form, one half for ticket books, the
other for ticket coupons and were similar to the stamps of Empress Maria
Feodorovna.

Besides the above mentioned stamps, I have a set of double stamps with
the inscription S.G.U. 15 k., 25k., 40 k., and 1 rub. I could not establish
by which city they were issued. Likewise, I do not know the origin of 2 kop.
theatrical stamps of 1892 with surcharge of a new value and the word a orbog
(revenue) on both halves of the stamp. I have 85 rub. on 2 kop.e and ]
rub, on 2 kop."

In 1903-05, the Russian Red Cross Society issued a set of stamps from
5 to 50 kop. in different colors, and with red cross in the center of the
stamp. These stamps were affixed to acts and documents of this society.

A special tax on playing cards was in existence, and the fees received
were for the benefit of the Imperial House of Education. The cards were
usually tied together by a thin string or wrapping. In 1892, a special
stamp of 30 kop. was issued, and was affixed to every deck of cards to be
sold.

In some Zemstvos a tax was levied on medical prescriptions and special
stamps had to be affixed. The following Zemsto Administrations issued stamps:

SDanilovky K otelnikovsky Irbit

Among the aemstvo revenue stamps it is necessary to mention the
following:.

Pskov-stamps for the benefit of Pskov Zemstvo Hospital.
SimLizk-stamps showing payment of tax for travel on horses.
Sinferopol-stamps to show payment of court-of-law fees.

Stamps were also issued for payment of church taxes. I know of the
following ones:-

1-Stamps for payment of office fees of the Voronezh ecclesiastical
consistory.
2-Church fees of the Minsk True Believerse Community (Eparkhia).
3-Stamps for Turkestan Eparkhia.

Single stamps were issued by Moscow Trade Administration (Office fee),
and by Customs Administration (custom fee).

The majority of all government and local revenue stamps were issued
by the departments of the Ministry of Justice. The local issues were the
earliest ones (we will describe them later), But as early as 1887, the


52 45








Ministry of Justice issued a large umber of stamps showing payment of
various fees and valid for all of Russia.

These stamps were designed for the following needs:-

1887-A set of stamps from 10 kop. to 80 kop. for the District
Courts (Office Fee stamps).
1887-For the District Courts (Court fees and duties payment for
legal papers).
1887-For Peace Courts (Established peace court fee and duty payment).
1891-For District Courts (Special fee for the benefit of the
distribution of law courts).
1891-For District Courts (Law court fees).
1902-For the Serfdom Department (Office fee)
1911-12-For the Dispatch of Law-Court information (For the
benefit of the mailman).

The local stamps were issued by various law court branches:-

1-Court Chambers 4-Convention of Peace Courts.
2-District Courts 5-Cocaerce Courts
3-Peace Courts 6-Orphan Court
7-Traveling courts for peasant affairs (Court sittings).

All these organizations issued fiscal stamps in many places of Russia
and at different times. I am listing towns and localities where each of
the above 6ourt Administration had its own fiscal stamps.

1-Court Chambers 2-District Courts

Moscow-1886 Penza (1880)
Pstrokov (1880-84)
2 District Courts Plotsk (1880-84)
Poltava (1880-84)
Armvir Ezhev (1880)
Baku (1886) St. Petersburg (1887)
Warsaw (1880-83) Saratov (1877-84)
Veliki Luki (1883) Sirferopol (1880-84)
Vitebsk (1881) Smolensk (1878-82)
Vologda (1880) Starodub (1880)
Voronezh (1880) Yaroslavl (1876)
Grodno (1882-85)
Zhitomir (1881) 3-Peace Courts
Kazan (1882-84)
Kaahin (1880) Atkarak
Kiev (1881-86) Vologda (1883)
Kishinev (1883) Dnitrov (1890)
Kovno (1880-84) Evpatoria
Lomza (1881-84) Liutzin (1880)
Lublin (1880) Makarev (1879)
Uogilev (1880-84) Mosalsk (1879)
Nizhny-Novgorcd (188085) Loscow (1881-83)


45 53







3-Feace Courts 4-Sessiin of Poace Courts

Nizhny.Novgorod (1887) Sto Petersburg (1883)
Ostrov (1880) Serdovok (1880)
Peromyol (1887) Solichalin (1878-79)
Romanov Borisoglebsk (1887)
St, Petersburg (1880-90) 5-Commercial Courts
Saratov
Simbirsk Warsaw (1880)
Khvalynsk (1882) Einck (1880)
Chern (1888)
t Yaroslavl (1874) 6-Orphan Courts
Simferopol County Zemstvo (1879-83)
Loscow
4-Sessions of Peace Courts
7-Courts of Peasant Affairs
Akhtyrka
Vyazza (1878) Livny
Liutzin (1880)

As one can see from this list the majority of Court stamps were issued
before 1884, i. e. before the "printing of all government issues. From then
on, these later issues started to replace the local ones. By the way, many
of the local issues used the same design for their stamps. Evidently, the
Court Administrations ordered these stamps from Expeditzia Zasotovlenia
Gosudarstvennvkh Bumag (State Printing Works), just as some Zemstvo Admini-
strations had their postage stamps printed by the same Printing Works.

The majority of local Peace Court issues were typographed in the
following manner: each stamp consisted of two parts. On the left side
which remained in the stamp book and which later was stored in the archives
of the Peace courts, the word "receipt" (kvitansia) was printed. On the
right side, the word "stamp" (markal was printed. The right side was cut
off by scissors and pasted on the Courtts documents. The wording on the
rec3i.pt and the stamp was alike and went approximately thus:

Receipt (or stamp) No......case (date and year).............
For the tax taken..........Court duty payment Rub...Kop....
For the number of pages (10 kop. for each page).............
Peace Court......section ......district

The empty spaces were filled in by hand with ink and the fee was col-
lected in relation to the amount of the claim. As I described above, almost
all of the local issues of the Peace Courts were in circulation from 1876 to
1888, and in some cases even until 1890. Besides these types of stamps
(receipt and stamp) with hand-written wording there were others, also typo-
graphed. These were more primitive, without receipt, but with the amount
printed in, as the Akhtyrka conference of Peace Courts, the St. P. B. con-
ference of Peace Courts, and others. There were innumerable Court stamps
only a few of which are known to collectors.

I assume that many Russian collectors have various fiscal & Court stamps
in their collections. Therefore I am asking them to notify the secretary 0o
IRosika" about them or send them to me recording and photographing, for
a future assembling oa a Revenue Catalogue.


54 45







AIR POST OF UKRAINE
(7918oi19oT
by Capt. S. de Shramchecko

First air mail eoamications in Ukraine in 1918 were made by foreigners,
using German and Austrian airplanes. German planes made regular airpost
flights between Kiev and Brest Litovsk, along the lines

14lKev-Berdichev-Polonne-Lutzk- ovel-Breet Litovsk

and less regularlyt-

2-K iev-Lazorki-Poltava-Kharkov-Lozovaya
3-Lozovaya-Ekaterinoslav
4-Lozovaya-Nikitovka-Taganrog-Rostov on Don
5-Ekaterinoslav-Melitopol.-Djankoi-Sevastopol
6-Djankoi-Fe odosia
7?Berdichev tinnit za-Popelukhi-4ardarovka-Ode ssa
8-Ode ssa-Nikolaev-Kher son
9-Odessa-Bucharest (Roumania)
10-Brest LitovskoBelostock, and further west, via Kovno

Nearly all the correspondence which was carried on these lines was
military, Ger-n or Ukrainian, and without postage stamps. A red post-
mark was placed on the letters which read-

Befoerdert durch Luftpost
auf der Streke KiewvBrest-Litok '

or correspording words for other lines, plus ordinary German fieldd
Mot" cancellation,

Austrian war planes from March 30, 1918 (also the Ist. day of issue
of the stamps) maintained regular postal communications by air along the
line, Kiev-Lvov-KrakvcwVienna They also accepted private correspondence,
for payment of which was created a black overprint "FLUGPOST", which was
placed on Austrian stapps of 1916. The following stamps were issued:-

1.50 k. on Zk. lilac (Scott Cl)-98,400
2.50 k. on 3k. ochre (Scott C2)-96,400
2.50 k. on 4k. gray (Scott C3)-89,500

In the beginning a circular postmark was created for Kiev, which read:-

FLUGPOST-30 111 .18-K IEW

and which was shown at one time in Champion Catalogue on page 8. However,
because of a strong protest by the Ukrainian Ministry of Posts and Telegraph
this canceller was never put in uce. Thus on the correspondence from Kiev
we either find the cancellation of the Etavnoe Post No. 258 or the Ukrainian
(at that time Russian) postmarks. There are in existence interesting comb-
inations of stamps, along with Ukrainian, on covers, used in Sept.-Oct.,
1918. The following cancellation was used for military correspondence. See
the next page, for the cancellations-


45 55








K. u. K. Fligerkuriorlinie
Flugotation Kiev
but more frequently the round cancellation reading, K u. K. EttaPnaPotan
1 ,..25 vith date. This post office vas located in KiGfv ed a largo portion
of its mail was cant cut by airport. 3Eoideo thio, on the back of the letters
the following postmark in German and Ukrainian was useds-
FLUC POST Ki E
no tTP A f OLLJTA %t14
Lvov had a similar postmark, except "9asbervas substituted for "Kieve,

During the rule of Hetman Paul Skoropadsky's government, and after the
formation of the Ukrainian Air Fleet, an agreement was made with German Occ-
upation Comrand' to transfer all air communications over the Ukrainian ter-
ritory, to the Ukrainian Air Fleet, but due to political and war situation
the project could not be put in action, and the Austrian and German postal
cosmunicationa by air ceased likewise in November 1918.

In 1919, in accordance with a contract between German firm CJunkers"
and the Ukrainian government, which at that time was located in Ka.enetz
Podolsk, large 4-engine Junkers planes operated regular airpost service
from June to November 1919 between Breslau and Kamenetz Podolsk. These
planes transported from Germany, Ukrainian government bank notes Fi- 3 i. 1
(grivni) which were ordered by the government of Hetman Skoropadsky and were
printed in the German Typography in Berlin in large quantity. These planes
likewise carried official mail, private correspondence, and passengers
(generally government officials), going both ways.

Postal correspondence was franked with German and Ukrainian stamps and
in addition carried a small Ukrainian-German cancellation:-

16'QiBTi P0HA n 1i TA KAMb9HE4b-nof .-6PE CJ7Ab
L UFTPOST t4l1JAN EZ POD.- B R SL AU
This line had several unfortunate accidents: one plane was knocked
down by Polish planes, and in falling burned, the others which flew via
Carpathians had to land, because of atmospheric conditions, on Roumanian
territory with serious troubles.

In August 1919 on initiative of Ukrainian Ministry of Posts & Telegraph,
a commission was formed at Kamenetz Podolsk, composed of representatives of
various Ukrainian Ministries. The author of this article was a member of
this commission, representing the Ministry of Navy. This commission unani-
mously decided to expand air communication between Ukraine and Europe, fly-
ing over the enemy territory of Poland & neutral Roumania, & to open besides
the existing line of Kamenetz Podolsk-Breslau. a new -line Kamenetz Podolsk-
Vienna, which was to be manned by Ukrainian aviators, and also to have in
mind the following linest-

l-Kamenetz Podolsk-Bucharest
2-Kamenetz Podolsk-Winnitza-K ie


56 45







However, because of military developments, these projects were not
carried through. tt the same time the comz.solon approved a project for
Ukrainian air post stamps, which was to overprint Ukrainian stamps "Shagiv@
with airplane and word ugriven". Proofs of the overprint were prepared in
violet, red and green on one sheet of 100 each of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50
shagiv values, and a total of 500 stamps was made by hand. On the back of
each stamp was placed official overprint "1p1PO H .3PA30 or "Proof
Specimen" and after which the original handstamp for the overprint was dest-
royed by the commission.

In May 1920 the Ukrainian Government was in Winnitza and plans for the
following Ukrainian Air Lines were developed:-

Winnitza-Kiev Winnit za-Zj emerinka-Uman-Odessa
Winnitza-Kamenetz PodoldE Kiev-Warsaw

Line Kiev-Warsaw existed already in May and June 1920 and was manned
by Polish flyers, while originally it was supposed to have been manned half
by Ukrainians and half by others. On the other lines, outside of WinnitzR-
Odessa, which merely remained in planning stage, there were trial flights.
Upon the initiative of the author of this article, one such trial flight
was made on May 20, 1920 on the line Winnitza-Kiev, and which was utilized
for transport of official correspondence.

For this correspondence, a s=all number of proof-scecinen stamps of
August 1919 were used, and were cancelled by a specially prepared three
line cancellation which reads-

$G AP 0 POPf A M 0 M
Zo.^. co2:
.q R H L.F K v1 B
Part of the correspondence was without stamps, having only the above
cancellation. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs franked their correspondence
with blue stickers, which carried the above cancellation plus tridents of
the ministry in gold. Incidentally these stickers were the work of "
in Vienna (1913) according to orders from the Ministry which used then on
all of its correspondence, generally on the-back of the envelopes. Thus
there eist among philatelists covers of this flight, which are very rare,
also stamped stickers of the Ministry of the Foregn Affairs.

In the middle of June 1920 Ukrainian Army together with her allies which
at that time were the Polish Armies, under pressure of the bolshevick forces
had to leave Kiev, later Winnitsa, etc. New advances of Ukrainian Army at
the end of August 1920, freed from bolshevicks large sections of Podolia &
Volynia, with transfer of the government of Ukraine to Kamonetz Podolsk.
The authorities did not have time for organization of air-lines, as on Nov-
ember 21, 1920, the Ukrainian Army had to retreat again before the overwhelm-
S ing forces of the bolshevicks. They crossed the border into Poland and were
interned

After capture of Ukraine by bolshevicks, Soviet stamps were used on
Ukrainian A.r-lines, Ukrainian collectors, in a limited way are interested
in the stickers or label ijsusd for the booefit of the Red Air Fleet in


45 57







1923 in Kharkov, with the picture of a plane and inscription,

yH. P KpI to M 30aso& 0' JXx
(Ukraine-Crimea-Air). The values and quantities issued are as follows:-

3 rubles (500,000)
5 rubles (1,200,000)
10 rubles ( 240,000)

These labels are known on covers, cancelled at the same time as the stamps.





Stamp CollectingNov. 12. 1954

Stnmps of Doubtfull Status

We CjLte-

"rSirRegarding stamps of doubtful status I notice on page 1163 of
Gibbons Part II that there are illustrations of four stamps which have
been listed in every catalogue since 1918 or 1919. They are the picto-
rial issue of Ukraine. Gibbons now state in the latest edition of their
catalogue that these are thought to have been prepared for use, but not
issued.o

This change of view after some thirty-six years of catalogue status,
implying the official nature of the issue# is most interesting. Although
not very frequently seen on the market they vare sold at one time in
millions.

I wonder vhat the B.P.A.-P.T.S. Standing joint Committee on the status
of doubtful issue will take when dealing with this matter.

Pembury, Kent Harry No Burgess
Editorial Comments-

Soviet catalogue of Ukraine (1927) gives the date of issue as December-
1920 and states that they were ordered by Petlura in Vienna, but because c2
his expulsion from Ukraine they were never put to use.

Maximchuk, gives the same data, except his statement mentions that
3 valucs, namely 10, 20 end 40gr. e-re used for a short time in Podolia
(VczlTc isk and Kamenetst-Podolsk). Approximately 100,000,000 were issued.
Designer of 2, 3, 30, 50, 80 and 200gr. was M. Ivasuk.

These stamps are found with various overprints, which are listed in
Maximchuk', catalogue. They are also found imperforate, center inverted,
without center, various types of perforations, etc. In U.S.A. we would call
this waste paper. Perhaps Capt. de Schranchenko will dig out his extensive
notes, and write up this interesting and colorful issue.


58 45








NOTES 0: ZESTVO STAMPS
by A. Prins

The various Zem3tvo catalogues that have been issued at the end of the
Proceeding century, namely-
Lubkert (1872-73) Roussin (1886) Gibbons (1899)
Moons (1893) Herrick (1896)

Although these catalogues are interesting, they are of little use to
serious Zemstvo stamp collectors.

Chuchints catalogue of 1925 (Russian and English editions), LIEchangiste
Universal published from March, 1926 until July, 1927 in French and Carl
Schmidt's "Landschafs LMarchenP in Berlin in 1934, give better information.

F. R. Chuchin, the Soviet Commisar for Philately, having enormous
sources of information at his disposal, has shown colossal improvement in
his Zemstvo catalogue, to the previously published works on the same subject.
Personally I think Chuchin's catalogue is better than the L'Echangiste. This
listing which was taken from Roussin's catalogue of 1886 was compiled by
Const. L. Sergent, at the reqet of Col. Grigorief and other members of the
Society for Russian Philately and Dr. Marcel Ramas of the Netherland Phila-
telists. Const. Sergent, as the introduction to LTExchangiste states, was
assisted in his laborius work by Rethig, Gilbert, malnoy Medvedeff, Potvin,
and Snegeroff. In his introduction he also states, "collectors will be
pleased to find the troubleco-m Rurale well classified, but if they don't like
it, they are at liberty to take Chuchints catalogue, which apart from its
pretty high price will ees them many an annoying experience, as the type is
Snot very clear and the translation is often inaccurate.

Schmidtts Collection was built up by Architect C. Schmidt in 45 years
of painsaking work and presented in 1934 to "Oeichs Postmuseum* in Berlin.
It was housed in 18 well written volumes. The Schmidt's Catalogue, based
on the above collection I think up till now is the best in existence.

After wondering whether the Scmidtts collection have outlived the bc=b-
ing of Berlin in Wcrls War 11, I have made inq-uries. I have on hand a
letter dated October 21, 1954 from the man in charge of the "Bundesminister
fur Post and Fernmeldesvessens in Bonn, informing me, that the collection is
safe, and well preserved.

In an interesting article on Zemstvos, Col Hans Lagerloef mentions 7
stamps which he couldn't find listed anywhere. I am happy to say that I
have 3 of thear in my collection. The other 4 I do not know. I have in cy
collection a couple of stamps, which I can't find anywhere, so we may con-
clude that even the best of the catalogues need revisions.

Now I will discuss pricing used in various catalogues. For example
Schmidt prices various issues of Rzhev (up to 1881) in terms of RRRR, R#P, or
R. Chuchin without exception prices the same stamps (starting with 1869
issue) at comparatively low figure. LVEchangiote egreco with Chuchin. After
doing se-s invoctigating I fund from 3 different courcoo that all Rehev stamps
priced in terms of R'o were issued J-wcall quantities. The question is who is
5 correct,


45 59









Of the Kherson 1871, Schmidt #2, priced iP, of which 23 copies aro known,
I had in my possosion as many as 4 copiso at one time. It seems to be a
wonder, for I started to collect Zeoust'tcs only in 1939. There must be at
least a few huLdrod other Zo.a.so collectors who startcd ocriier than I. I
would not know Low to obtain a copy of 10 chillin "I. R.1 Official cf Great
Britain, of which 150 copies exist, but be this as it may I had 4 copies of
the above mentioned Kherson stamp, mistake excluded. Chuchin pvlic-s this
stamp at 20 rubles, L'Echangiste gives no price, which means that it is rare.

Scarce 1869 issue of Luga, of which only 2 copies exist, according to
Schmidt, is quoted both by Schmidt and Chuchin at "RRRR". L'EchangIbte does
not list it at all. Chuchin gives the length of vertical axis of the oval
stamp as 29 mm., which is different from the same typo and color stacp of
the next 1870-76 issue, which should measure 28- rm. Schmidt on the other
hand does not give sizes, but gives 5 different shades, which include the
1869 issue. The 1869 issue is listed as blues, and since only 2 copies are
known to exist we may skip it; the other colors are dark blue, milky blue,
prussian blue, and ultracarins, of which the prussian blue is by far the
ccarce-t (5 copies), I have 5 distiant Chi"s3 of that utamp, all of the Came
=sazurcment, and therefcra I conclude that they are of the 1870-76 Issue, but
unfortunately I can not decide which is the scarce one. These are only a few
problems which arise when collecting Zc-stvo.

Schmidt also breaks down each sheet, giving a number of types found in it
but unfortunately does not describe the type differences. Therefore the st:-
dent of to day has to find out for hizealf, and due to scarcity of material
finds it impossible to locate various types. Reconstruction of a complete
sheet, locating the position of various types may be successfully undertaken
When blocks, pairs, tete-beche pairs, pieces or strips from top, bottom or
side margins are available.

The most important part of Schnidtls catalogue is his study of the var-
ious printings of different Ze-stvos. While Chachin and LrEchangiste give
various shades of each type of value, Schmidt gives the quantity and date of
printings, and also the values which belong to each printing. These facts
are of enormous help in classifying of the rurals.

The reconstruction of plates is greatly helped by information given in
Schmidt's catalogue concerning the composition of transfers and/or the plate
and also the distances between stamps for the various printings, as well as
the shades and perforations.

Notwithstanding that I have all different types of many stamps, but
unfortunately not being able to locate their position on a complete reconst-
ructed sheet I will start on a journey through my 5,000 variety collection,
including types, which was enriched by important items from well known
V collections of de Vapnar, Zworykin, Kedvedeff and many others.


ALATYR, SIMBIRSK GOVERMESNT, issued in 1867 two stamps-i kop. (one
hopes 3 known) cnd 2 kop. (25 known) All catalogues quote them as rare.
In 1940 a single copy of 1 kop., a block of 5 and 4 singles of 2 kop. were
sold at Iarmerts Auction in London from the Agathon Fabergets collection.


60 45










Another copy of 2 kop. was in collection of Mahlahoff, who was a high
official in the government under Czar Nicholas II, and who later lived
until his death in 1940, in Paris. His collection was sold in 1948 by Harmer.
Another copy of 2 kop. was in collection of B. Zworykin. In 1951 Harmer
offered by private treaty a block of 6 of 2 kop. and a single of 1 kop.

r Alatyr and Syzran are the only two stamp issuing districts of Simbirsk
Government. We have omitted at this time the description of 3 stamps listed
below (Ed.). Now I have in my collection 3 stamps typographed in 3 colors.
q-.
Size 23x40 mm. Perforated

3 kop. dark blue, dark brown and bluish green.
5 kop. dark blue, dark brown and rose lilac.
50 kop. dark blue, dark brown and rose.

On it, apart from value and the coat of arms of ALATYR, is the follow-
ing inscription "Simbirsk Yez-Zemstvo". Can any of the readers furnish some
information on the above stamps.

AIExNDRIA

Issued September 1869, 10 kop. blue.
I have this stamp in two distinct shades of blue. The darker one has
one small and one large period after "lO". It is signed by Medvedeff on
the back.

MUR

SLEchangiste and Chuchin do not mention this district, while on the
other hand Schmidt lists 4 values issued in the middle of 1919. These
stamps were issued as emergency money in December, 1919 to a total amount
of 18 million rubles. The values issued were 50 kop., 1, 3, and 5 rubles.
They are not comparatively scarce, although I have never seen them. A copy
of each value ray be found in Schmidtls collection.


REPORTS FROM BELGIAIJ SECTION OF ROSSIKA

November 12, 1954

Mr. B. Legky delivered a paper before the Belgian Section of Rosslka,
on "Number one of the Russian Post in Turkey, genuine stamps and counter-
feits,' The Belgian Section voted to continue the program of monthly lec-
tures in the future.

February 11, 1955

r Mr. Rosselevitch continued the lectures before the Belgian Section by
delivering a paper on "Genuine and Counterfeit overprinto of Russian OfficPe
in China". The reprint of this lecture nay be found elsewhere in this issue
of the journal,


45 61







Due to discontinuation of accumulting issues after 1912 the following Russian
items are for sale at prices noted. All are Fine to Superb condition, unless
otherwise stated.

denotes unused, with full Original Gums when so issued.
a denotes uced

Scott's # Description Not Price

o 89 2 kop. Uced on piece (K. D. Feldpost #146 cancellation).....$ .75
o 93a 10 kop. Imperf. Used (with certificate)..................... 20.00
o 101-03 1, 2, & 3 Rubles-used on pieces (Warsaw cancellation)........ 1.00
So 107. 20 kop. Used on piece (Riga cancellation)................... .75
102 2 Rouble, Imperforate. Horizontal mint air. RAFE......... 60.00
103 3 Rouble, Imperforate. Horizontal mint pair. RARE........ 60.00
106 15 kop. Imperforate. Large margins (signed) ................. 6.00
107a 20 kop. Imperforate. Large margins (sigmed)................. 5.00
S114 1 kop. (2 horizontal pairs-severed block of 4)............. 6.00
"* 115 2 kop. Block of 4............................... ........... 7.00
114-15 1 kop, and 2 kop..... .................................. 3.25
117a 10 kop. on 7 kop. Inverted surcharge (signed)............... 2.00
o 124 10 kop. Imperforate sheet margin copy with 3 lines in upper
inner circle........RARE................................. 5.00
135 10 Rouble. Imperforate. Horizontal mint pair............... 3.99
*'135 10 Rouble. Imperforate. Horizontal sheet margin pair....... 3.25
1-5 10 Rouble. Imperforate. Block (3 stamps & a marker)........ 6.00
3 149a 35 kop. Imperforate. Bottom sheet margin copy............... 4.00
"* 49a 35 kop. Imperforate. Horizontal mint pair.................. 8.00
150a 70 kop. Imperforate. Top sheet margin copy................ 16.00
o 150a 70 kop. Imperforate. Used. (Large margins, signed)......... 18.00
o 150a 70 kop. Imperforate. Used on piece (1918 Petrograd cancel).. 20.00
170-76 5 kop. to 5 Rubles. Complete set (signed)................... 10.00
o 170-76 5 kop. to 5 Rubles. Complete used. Various cancellations... 12.00
183d 250 rubles. Tete-Beche pair.................................. 1.00
183d 250 rubles. Tete-Beche strip of 10 stamps. 5 reg. & 5 inv... 6.00
181b Dark Olive Yellow, printed on creased Pelure paper............ 2.50
184aa 300 Roubles, Sheet margin Pelure paper (signed).............. 3.50
o 184a 300 Rubles, Pelure paper, used................................ 4.00
185 500 Rubles, Unlisted var. Double print mdnogram initials..... 2.00
186c 1000 Rubles, Offset on Pelure paper, same shade on both sides. 1.00
191b Variety. Double surcharge in Black only (signed)............. 10.00
192a Inverted surcharge (signed)................................... 3.50
194 Variety. No period after last P. in P.C.F.C.P. Reg. paper... 1.00
o 194 Variety. No period after last P. in P.C.F.C.P. Pelure paper.. 1.50
195 Variety. 7mm. spacing between top and bottom lines of ovpt... 1.50
202a Inverted surcharge (signed)................................... 1.50
201c Inverted surcharge. Pelure paper (signed).................... 2.00
201d Double surcharge. (signed)....................................... 5.00
4 201f Inverted surcharge. Chalky paper (signed).................... 3.00
201G Inverted surcharge in Blue Black. Chalky paper (signed)...... 6.00
215 Variety. Pelure paper. (Gibbon s 85/Shillings).............. 3.00
215 Variety. Pelure paper. Vertical pair, Gum crease............. 5.00

ALL REGULAR ISSUES 1912 to 1950, IN MINT AND USED CONDITION ON HAND
Discounts: 60% to 80% off Scottls prices

Joseph F. Chudoba 86 Eldridge Street New York 2, N.Y.

62 45