Officers of the society
 Honorary members
 Representatives of the society
 President's message by A....
 Photo - recent meeting of Rossica...
 Collectors of St. Petersburg by...
 Plate flaw Scott #616 by J....
 Railway postmarks of Imperial Russia...
 Photo - illustration of railway...
 A few notes on revenue stamps by...
 More about Ukrainian courier field...
 Photo- illustrations for "reve...
 Literary review
 System of planes on air post of...
 Addenda to charity or semi-postal...
 Constructive philately by...
 Review of revenue stamps of the...
 Revolutionary overprints on the...
 Photo - revolutionary overprin...
 Vlassov post by R. Polchaninof...
 Photo - notes on Russian philately,...
 An unusual Russian postmark by...
 Russian American postal history...
 Notes on Russian philately by A....
 Tiflis, Nov. 1857 - the first Russian...
 Re-issue of Scott's no. 616 by...
 Chats on Zemstvos by A. Prins
 Crimea transferred to Ukranian...
 Kilos of Russia by A. Shields
 Review of "Trident Issues of Ukraine",...
 Review of "The postage stamps of...
 Review of Scott's 1956 catalogue...


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00010
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1955
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00010

Table of Contents
        Page A
    Officers of the society
        Page B
    Honorary members
        Page B
    Representatives of the society
        Page B
    President's message by A. A. Chebotkevich
        Page 1
    Photo - recent meeting of Rossica and B.S.R.P. and dinner in New York
        Page 1a
        Page 2
    Collectors of St. Petersburg by V. A. Rachmanoff
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Plate flaw Scott #616 by J. Chudoba
        Page 5
    Railway postmarks of Imperial Russia by W. E. C. Kethro and John Barry
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Photo - illustration of railway postmarks and first Tsarskoye Selo train
        Page 13a
    A few notes on revenue stamps by J. Posell
        Page 14
        Page 15
    More about Ukrainian courier field post of 1920 by Capt. S. de Shramchenko
        Page 16
    Photo- illustrations for "revenues"
        Page 16a
    Literary review
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    System of planes on air post of USSR and Touva by E. M. Archangelsky
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Addenda to charity or semi-postal issues of Imperial and Soviet Russia by R. Sklarevski
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Constructive philately by E. Marcovitch
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Review of revenue stamps of the Allied military government in Europe by Capt. S. de Shramchenko
        Page 37
    Revolutionary overprints on the Romanov Tercentenary issues by J. H. Reynolds
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Photo - revolutionary overprints
        Page 46a
    Vlassov post by R. Polchaninoff
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Photo - notes on Russian philately, re-issue of Scott's no. 616, Tiflis-Vlassov-interesting postmark, revenue stamps of the Allied military government in Europe
        Page 48a
    An unusual Russian postmark by K. Adler
        Page 49
    Russian American postal history of the forgotten era, addenda by various members
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Notes on Russian philately by A. M. Rosselevitch
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Tiflis, Nov. 1857 - the first Russian postage stamp by Dr. G. B. Salisbury
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Re-issue of Scott's no. 616 by E. M. Archangelsky
        Page 64
    Chats on Zemstvos by A. Prins
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Crimea transferred to Ukranian Republic - newspaper dispatch
        Page 67
    Kilos of Russia by A. Shields
        Page 67
    Review of "Trident Issues of Ukraine", part IV by C.W. Roberts
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Review of "The postage stamps of Armenia", part II: The unframed HP monograms by R. Sklarevski
        Page 75
    Review of Scott's 1956 catalogue by R. Sklarevski
        Page 76
Full Text

of the



No. l 1955

Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.

English and the R.upian LanFuaae Editions
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury 49th. and Lceust Sts., Philadelphia 39, Pa.

Publisher & Asgt. Editor English Ed. ?ablisher & Asst. Editor, Russian Ed.
R.A. SkllarevsKi 640 N Charles St. A. N. Lavrov 81 Monroe St., Garfield,
Avenue, Towson 4, ilaryland. New Jersey.



B Officers, Honorary Members, Representatives, etc,
1 President's Nessage A. A. Chebotkevich
la Photo Recent meeting of Rossica and B.S.R.P. and Dinner in New York.
2 Editorial
3-5 Collectors of St. Petersburg V. A. Rachmanoff
5 Plate Flaw Scott #616 J. Chudoba
6-13 Railway Postmarks of Imperial Russia W.E.C. Kethro & John Barry
13a Photo Illustration of Railway Postmarks & First Tsarskoye Selo Train
14-16 A Few Notes on Revenue Stamps J. Posell
16a Photo Illustrations for "Revenues".
16 More About Ukrainian Courier Field Post of 1920 Capt. S. de ShramchenkO
17-21 Literary Review
21-22 System of Planes on Air Post of USS and Touva E. M. Arkhanguelsky
23-30 Addenda to Charity or Semi-Postal Issues of Imperial & Soviet Russia -
R. Sklarevski
31-37 Constructive Philately E. larcovitch
37 Review Of Revenue Stamps of the Allied Military Government in Europe -
Capt. S. de Shramchenko.
38-46 Revolutionary Overprints on the Romanov Tercentenary Issues J.H. Reynolds
Ma Photo Revolutionary Overprints.
47-48 Vlassov Post R. Polchaninoff
48a FPic'o Fhilately-Fe-Issue of Scott's No. 616-Tiflis-Vlassov-
Interesting Postmark-Revenue Stamps of the Allied Eilitary Government in
Eur r.pe
49 An Unusual Russian Postmark K. Adler
49 Russian Levant Proof K. Adler
50 Russian American Postal History of the Forgotten Era-Addenda-Various
50-51 Addenda to Revenues S. Gibrick
52-56 Notes on Russian Philately A. I. Rosselevitch
57-64 Tiflis, Nov. 1857 The First Rusiian Postage Stamp Dr. G. B. Salisbury
64 Re-Issue of Scott's '616 E. M. Arkhanguelsky
65-67 Chats on Zemstvos A. Prins
67 Crimea Transferred to Ukrainian Republic -Newpaper Dispatch.
67 Kilos of Russia A. Shields
68-69 Review of OTrident Issues of Ukraine"- Part IV Capt. S. de Shramchenko
70-74 Auctioneer
75 Review of "The Postage Stamps of Armenia Part II The Unframed HP
Monograms R. Sklarevski
5 76 Review of Scott's 1956 Catalogue R. Sklarevski

46, 47 A


RESIDENT A.A.Chebotkevich 40 E. Old Mill Rd. Ridge Farm, Lake Forest, Ill.
SECRETARY Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
SECRETARY English Speaking Section Dr. G. B. Salisbury
HONORARY PRESIDENT E. M. Arkhanguelsky Ulica D. Brancova 19, Bela Crkva,
Banat, Jugoslavia.


A. A. Chebotkevich V. A. Rachmanoff
N. I. Kcrdakoff A. M. Rosselevitch
A. N. La-vrov Dr. G. B. Salisbury
B. Legky N. V. Savitzky
E. I. Marcovitch H. M. Shenitz
R. A. Sklarevski


NEW YCWK GOUP V. Cerny 841 W. 177th. St. Apt. 3J, New York 33, N.Y.
WESTERN U.S. A. I. Masloff 671 S. Norton Ave., Los Angeles 5, California.
GEAT BRITAIN J. Barry 77A St. James Rd., Sutton, Surrey, England.
BELGIUM_ B. Legky 16 Sq. Gutenberg, Brussels, Belgium.
M__ g_ Dr. B. Woropinaky 16 Auerbach-Bonsheim, Banhofstr. Relag, German
ISRAEL A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel.
FR. MOROCCO V. N. Butkov 49 Rue Laperouse, Casablanca, French Morocco.
CANADA P. Domianenko 3541 Ypng St. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
SVENEZUELA E I. 1.iarcovitch C A Foto Industrial Ibarros a Felota
No. 11, Caracas, Venezuela.
BRAZIL P. Beloff Rua Pedrozo 238, Caixa Post 2960, San Paulo, Brazil.
ARGEgTINA B. Riasnianski Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries. Application
forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request. Journal, member-
ship lists, code, bulletins, and supplements to the membership will be sent
out annual.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. Full
page $30.00. Half Page $15.00. Quarter Page $7.50. Twelfth Page 1$2.50,
(5 lines). Members of Rossica pay only 50% of the cost. With a discount
the cost per line to members is only 25 cents. By helping helping yourself,
you also help us.

Change of Addrcess -ECif. "Camuri* Apto, No. 25 Calle Real de Sabana
Grande, Caracas, Venezuela.



RESIDENT A.A.Chebotkevich 40 E. Old Mill Rd. Ridge Farm, Lake Forest, Ill.
SECRETARY Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
SECRETARY English Speaking Section Dr. G. B. Salisbury
HONORARY PRESIDENT E. M. Arkhanguelsky Ulica D. Brancova 19, Bela Crkva,
Banat, Jugoslavia.


A. A. Chebotkevich V. A. Rachmanoff
N. I. Kcrdakoff A. M. Rosselevitch
A. N. La-vrov Dr. G. B. Salisbury
B. Legky N. V. Savitzky
E. I. Marcovitch H. M. Shenitz
R. A. Sklarevski


NEW YCWK GOUP V. Cerny 841 W. 177th. St. Apt. 3J, New York 33, N.Y.
WESTERN U.S. A. I. Masloff 671 S. Norton Ave., Los Angeles 5, California.
GEAT BRITAIN J. Barry 77A St. James Rd., Sutton, Surrey, England.
BELGIUM_ B. Legky 16 Sq. Gutenberg, Brussels, Belgium.
M__ g_ Dr. B. Woropinaky 16 Auerbach-Bonsheim, Banhofstr. Relag, German
ISRAEL A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel.
FR. MOROCCO V. N. Butkov 49 Rue Laperouse, Casablanca, French Morocco.
CANADA P. Domianenko 3541 Ypng St. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
SVENEZUELA E I. 1.iarcovitch C A Foto Industrial Ibarros a Felota
No. 11, Caracas, Venezuela.
BRAZIL P. Beloff Rua Pedrozo 238, Caixa Post 2960, San Paulo, Brazil.
ARGEgTINA B. Riasnianski Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries. Application
forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request. Journal, member-
ship lists, code, bulletins, and supplements to the membership will be sent
out annual.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. Full
page $30.00. Half Page $15.00. Quarter Page $7.50. Twelfth Page 1$2.50,
(5 lines). Members of Rossica pay only 50% of the cost. With a discount
the cost per line to members is only 25 cents. By helping helping yourself,
you also help us.

Change of Addrcess -ECif. "Camuri* Apto, No. 25 Calle Real de Sabana
Grande, Caracas, Venezuela.



RESIDENT A.A.Chebotkevich 40 E. Old Mill Rd. Ridge Farm, Lake Forest, Ill.
SECRETARY Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
SECRETARY English Speaking Section Dr. G. B. Salisbury
HONORARY PRESIDENT E. M. Arkhanguelsky Ulica D. Brancova 19, Bela Crkva,
Banat, Jugoslavia.


A. A. Chebotkevich V. A. Rachmanoff
N. I. Kcrdakoff A. M. Rosselevitch
A. N. La-vrov Dr. G. B. Salisbury
B. Legky N. V. Savitzky
E. I. Marcovitch H. M. Shenitz
R. A. Sklarevski


NEW YCWK GOUP V. Cerny 841 W. 177th. St. Apt. 3J, New York 33, N.Y.
WESTERN U.S. A. I. Masloff 671 S. Norton Ave., Los Angeles 5, California.
GEAT BRITAIN J. Barry 77A St. James Rd., Sutton, Surrey, England.
BELGIUM_ B. Legky 16 Sq. Gutenberg, Brussels, Belgium.
M__ g_ Dr. B. Woropinaky 16 Auerbach-Bonsheim, Banhofstr. Relag, German
ISRAEL A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel.
FR. MOROCCO V. N. Butkov 49 Rue Laperouse, Casablanca, French Morocco.
CANADA P. Domianenko 3541 Ypng St. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
SVENEZUELA E I. 1.iarcovitch C A Foto Industrial Ibarros a Felota
No. 11, Caracas, Venezuela.
BRAZIL P. Beloff Rua Pedrozo 238, Caixa Post 2960, San Paulo, Brazil.
ARGEgTINA B. Riasnianski Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries. Application
forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request. Journal, member-
ship lists, code, bulletins, and supplements to the membership will be sent
out annual.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. Full
page $30.00. Half Page $15.00. Quarter Page $7.50. Twelfth Page 1$2.50,
(5 lines). Members of Rossica pay only 50% of the cost. With a discount
the cost per line to members is only 25 cents. By helping helping yourself,
you also help us.

Change of Addrcess -ECif. "Camuri* Apto, No. 25 Calle Real de Sabana
Grande, Caracas, Venezuela.


The period between the last and the present issues of the Journal has
been most successful in the life of the Society. During this time we ac-
quired many new friends, writers and members. Our financial condition has
become most satisfactory, thanks to the economies and the activities of our
tireless A.N.Lavrov, Secretary-Treasurer and Editor.

A. I. Masloff, former Representative of Old Rossica in Asia and Australia,
and past resident of Shanghai, organized an active group in Los Angeles, and
gave us a number of new members in Western U.S. and Latin America.

E. I. Markovitch, was able to interest many philatelists in Venezuela,
in our Society, adding new members. New members from Brazil, Argentina, and
other parts of the world boosted our membership to 240.

During vI recent vacation I visited Philadelphia and New York, spending
all of my days with Dr. G.B.Salisbury. After examening his editorial efforts
I have come to the conclusion that all th4editorial work should be placed into
his hands and that beginning with this number of the journal be should be
Editor in Chief of both editions, and that he shall be fully responsible for
the journal, and shall be completely independent in the selection of his
editorial staff, the policies of the journal and the selection of the articles
published in it. The publishers will remain as before, R.A.Sklarevski of the
English Edition and A.N.Lavrov of the Russian language Edition.

While in Philadelphia I was invited by a group of members of R.A.P.S.
along with Dr. Salisbury and A.N.Lavrov, to a dinner and a meeting in New
York. In attendance were Hon. members V.A.Rachmanov and H.l.Shenitz, Rep.
of N.Y. Group, V.P.Cerny, K.S.Adler and G.F.Iliashenko. This event shall
forever remain as one of the brightest moments in my life. After a fine
dinner at the Russian Tea Toom, we went to House of Free Russia for a meeting,
where the N.Y. Rossica Group meets under the guidance of V.P.Cerny.

At the meeting I read my speech, outlining the future policy of the
Society, as well as the substance of the Constitution which I am writing.

At this time the entry of Russian American Philatelic Society into Rossica
was discussed, as well as the 25 year old Constitution, which was written
under different conditions, and has become outmoded. the new one already
approved by the governing group, and amended, shall be sent to Mr. Marcovitch,
then to Mr. Cerny, who will read it to the New York group, for their reaction,
before the document is submitted to the members all over the world.

The Constitution provides for thelection of all the officers, determi-
nation of the dues, autonomy of the various groups, duties and responsibilities
of the members, etc.

In conclusion I would like to extend my gratitude to our eldest honorary
member, V.A.Rachmanoff for his efforts in our behalf and for the fine article
in this issue about the good old days, and the famous collectors of St. Peters-

46, 47 1


/< r AL IDER
W"UR 0-1 ^ifte>
y~~~~~ -4 ^ /^~


We present this double number with mixture of pride and relief. The
table of contents speaks for itself, and the caliber of the authors, as well
as of their articles, is extremely high. The work entailed in editing and
in translating the material, however, took up every available moment of the
summer and autumn. Thus we breathe a joyful sigh in completing this task.

Future issues of the Journal will contain many new studies, continuation
of the serials, etc. We enumerate some of these below:-

Far Eastern Air Post-Capt. S. de Shramchenko. Polish Consural Post-
S. Gibrick. Inverted Backgrounds-R. Sklarevski & compendium of articles
written by others. Abroads-W. Stephen & A. Cronin. Russian America and
Transpolar Flight-W. Stephen. Catalogue of Russian Revenues-Sklarevski,
Marcovitch & Posell. Catalogue of ZemstvosqEditorial Staff. Catalogue
of Post Cards-R. Sklarevski. PYB Overprints-E. Marcovitch.

Continuation of articles by Messrs. Sklarevski, Marcovitch, Prins,
Rosselevitch, Kethro & Barry, and others. Rarities from collection of
P. Davidson-S. Ray.

We intend to publish serially "Dictionary of Philatelic Terms" by
our Hon. President, E. M. Arkhanguelsky. This dictionary will give
all of the philatelic terms in several languages. The author living in
poor health and in terrible circumstances should be thanked by our
members for this effort in our behalf, and wherever possible, helped
financially, or by parcels, to enable him to carry on.

The articles in the future issues will be rated and published in the
following order of importance: articles that will be outdated later on, new
authors, short articles, short continuations, long continuations, articles
by old authors in the previous issue. This is a fair policy, and if we
follow it, we shall stay out of trouble.

We also like to state again that because of tremendous amount of work
involved in producing this journal the manuscripts sent in should be typed
and where possible sent in duplicate. This is a time consuming job and any
help to the editorial staff, however small, to save this valuable time will
help to improve the journal.

In conclusion we wish to thank all of the kind reviewers, and editors
of the other journals who have given us valuable publicity and words of
encouragement. We are likewise deeply grateful to those of you who have
supported us nobly by sending us many wonderful articles and addenda.

Finally, I would like to voice my thanks to the excellent editorial
staff, for the tireless efforts in producing this journal, and to the
President, A. A. Chebotkevich, for his faith in me, in appoining me as
the Editor in Chief of both editions.

2 46, 47


Being a member of the German Internationaler Philatelisten Verein,
Dresden, and living in St. Petersburg in 1907, I learned that there exist-
ed a branch of this society to which belonged the greatest of collectors
in St. Petersburg. As the authorities did not allow the establishment of
Russian Philatelic Organizations, for some unknown reason, the collectors
organized this section of German society and met twice a month or oftener
in the large, red meeting room of the Leiner Restaurant, on Nevsky Prospect,
on the corner of Moika. The gathering was held unanounced, under the guise
of visiting the restaurant for dinner.

The eldest member of this section was Mr. F. Breitfuss, owner of one
of the greatest collections in the world, which was housed in 75 albums.
His collection contained a great number of the proofs of the early Russian
issues. From the conversations with the other members I learned that those
proofs were procured from the archives of the main Government Post Office,
by the personal decree of Emperor Alexander III, to whom Breitfuss appealed
with a plea for the proofs of the Russian Stamps, for his collection.
Emperor Alexander III saw nothing wrong with this request and his order was
carried out.

When I asked Mr. Breitfuss to accept me as a member of his philatelic
group he not only agreed but invited me to his home and gradually showed
* me all of his 75 albums, and explained all of their contents. I was very
greatful to him for his philatelic lectures, which gave me, a young collect-
or, a chance to improve my methods of collecting, to acquire a greater love
for my hobby and to become a specialist in several fields.

Having become a member of the society I became acquainted with the
other giants of Russian philately such as A. K. Faberge, owner of a great
collection of Russia and Poland Number Ones, Levant and Zemstvo stamps,
Mr. Mertens, possesor of a large collection of Finland, in which first two
stamps occupied an entire album, also a collection of Levant, two volumes
of which showed plating of complete sheets of f2 and #3. I can also mention
the following collectors of St. Petersburg, Mr. K. K. Schmidt, owner of a
huge and extremely specialized collection of Zemstvo stamps which he later
donated to the German Postal Museum, Mr. Kirkhner, specialist of Russian
stamps and other countries, owner of one of the first two stamps of Island
of Mauritius, Mr. Lentz, owner of a large collection of Russia and Zeustvos,
Mr. Vizel a collector of Europe, on a great scale, and Count Keller. Nearly
fifty years have elapsed since our meetings and I cannot remember the names
of other collectors alas, of this warm and friendly circle in which often
and with champagne we spent our wonderful meetings, discussed philatelic
problems and examined each other collections.

As most of the members collected Zemstvos, special trips were organized
to various Zemstvo post offloes inaquet of early stamps and documents con-
cerning these stamps.

46, 47 3

During one such expedition in the 80's, in Archangelsk, one member, I
believe Kirkhner found at a post office, under a packet of new stamps,
whole sheets of 10, 20 and 30k. of 1858, watermarked Colorless Numerals,
Scott's ##2 to 4. These sheets were divided among the members. Out of
this source came the blocks of four, which were in the collections of
Faberge and others.

I can recall one incident which made me an ardent collector of Zemstvo
stamps, although up to that time I did not collect them. Being in contact
with a stamp dealer in Revel, Mr. Karing, I was informed by him of a collect-
ion up for sale consisting of Zemstvo stamps. These belonged to a provincial
school teacher, and were for sale at 1,000 rubles, a considerable price at
that time. At that time the first pages of the great work of K. K. Schmidt
and A. K. Faberge on the Zemstvo stamps, had made their appearance, my
interest was aroused and I decided to buy the collection in spite of the
fact that I had not seen it. In this I relied on the honesty of Karing, wl -
assured me that I would not regret the purchase. After a little while I
received via the railroad a large wooden chest. Upon opening it I was stun-
ned to find hundreds of thick album cardboard pages of pre-Noah's Arc and
Flood manufacture, with copper ornaments on the corners, one fitting into
the other, on which were hinged a part of the stamp collection, others were
in boxes cosisting of packs of entire sheets of stamps, and at least two
hundred cigarette boxes full of stamps.

It took me at least two months to sort this treasure trove, and the
value of this collection was far greater than the price that I had paid.
I did not regret buying it as, the collection itself plus the duplicates
which I had sold or exchanged for other stamps produced a very complete
group of Zemstvo stamps which was housed in six albums.

To my deep regret I had to leave my dear and treasured friends in this
organization. As in their midst were mostly elderly collectors, or much
older than I, I was the youngest of them all. I found out later that one
or another departed from this earth, as I thumbed through the philatelic
journals. Breitfuss was the first to go, and his well known collection,
with the exception of Russia and I believe, some South American countries,
was sold in England for 1,200,000 franks.

I met K. K. Schmidt three times after the First World War, in Berlin
and Koenigsberg, and A. K. Faberge in Vienna in 1933 where he went to exhibit
for the first time his famous collections of number one's of Russia and
Poland, Russian Levant and entire, all of which were shown "hors concours".

Our meeting was very touching and we continually remembered our
St. Petersburg times. Incidentally, Faberge carried in his vest pocket a
proof of the first Russian stamp, work of the engraver Franz Kepler, made
in actual size and colors, brown and blue with gouache pigments. This was
housed in a small silver box, specially made for this purpose.

4 46, 47

I corresponded with Faberge until his death. His outstanding collection
was sold in 1939-40 at auction in London by H. R. Harmer, at very low prices,
during the war. Thanks to his advise and historical data given me I was able
to publish a very extensive article on the First Russian stamp, 1858, in
Collectors Club Philatelist, September 1953, #5.

As far as I know, none of the colleagues of mine of 190740 are alive.
It is possible that I the youngest of them all, am the "last of the Mohicans"
of the former "section" of St. Petersburg Internationaler Philatelisten Verei
Dresden 1877, into which I entered as a youth of twenty one years of age, 48
years ago.

by Joe Chudoba

I was very fortunate in discovering a constant plate flaw variety on
10 kop. gray blue shade of Scott's #616 and have in my possession a mint single
and a complete shee of 100 (10x10).

Stamp No. 80 in the sheet has a broken "zero" (0) in "10". A small "cut
out" is missing on the left middle side of "0", making it resemble a letter
"C" turned over to the left.

Since this stamp was in use for a long time and a number of printings
were made,I have checked with Mr. Sklarevski who possess a number of sheets
of this stamp. His sheets do not have this variety and have different margin
markings as well as different gum, paper, etc.

The stamp in question has thin white gum, and is printed on somewhat
transparent white paper, perforated 12x124. The sheet has the following

Over stamp No. 1, 2 and 3 in the sheet, i.e. top left margin-
VI ACT. YK J2 M AU.. N 3,SJuj p. NJc 6
Top, left and bottom margins have-long narrow bands in the color of
the stamp.

Sklarevski's sheets have:-

Type I-No markings on the margins.
Typell-Top part of sixty stamps-Colored band on left side only.

NOTE:-Art Shields of Hollywood, California and John Schaffer of New York
City have each one sheet containing this plate flaw. It would be
interesting to know if the markings on the two above sheets and any
others containing this variety are the same as the ones on Mr. Joseph
Chudoba s.

We wish to extend our condolences to Mr. and Mrs. Edward L. Wiselll,
Jr. for the terrible loss of their only son Richard.

46, 47 5


by W. E. C. Kethro and John Barry


This article deals with travelling post offices, etc., as found on
stamps and covers of the Imperial regime; we have not extended it to the
Soviet period.

The subject under discussion was found to be a very complicated one
and naturally our conclusions are bounded by the amount of material avail-
able. One some points, even twice the amount would not have sufficed. One
manrs collection would have to be unusually extensive to deal effectively
with such a wide subject.

However, the authors hope members will examine their collections and
communicate any additional information they may have.

We are indebted to several collectors for their ready assistance.
Dr. Gregory Salisbury kindly supplied some useful details of the Russian
Railway system, whilst Messrs. Kurt Adler, Peter Ashford and Dr. A. H.
Wortman also supplied detailed information. To Mr. I. L. G. Baillie we
owe the illustrations of the various types of postmarks

Lists 1, 2, some of 3, and all of 5 were reproduced in Prigara's
Handbook, in Russian on pages 208-11. Appendix 1 was reprinted in English
in #4 issue of B. S. R. P. Journal, Appendix 2 in #3 issue. The original
sources of each appendix are given in the foreword to each listing.

The story of the mail on the Russian railway system is one of ex-
pansion with the steadily increasing mileage.

The first railway system to be built in Russia was the route St. Peters-
burg-Tsarskoe Selo-Pavlovsk which covered a distance of about 17 English
miles and which commenced operations on April 4, 1838. A mail service to
carry the town post of St. Petersburg was organized (called the Tsarsko-
selskia Pochta) and mail boxes were installed on the stations. The first
mailcoaches (POCTOVIA VAGONY) were put into operation on April 16, 1851.
Four of them were used on the Nikolaevsd Railway (St. Petersburg to Moscow
and back), each carrying the necessary staff and equipment to deal with the
mail. Sometimes two coaches were attached to the train, sometimes the
baggage van was used. Collections were made at the two termini and en
route every day (Sundays and holidays included), the correspondence being
sorted and cancelled on the journey. It is these cancellations we propose
to investigate in the course of this article.

The study of covers involves a knowledge of the opening dates of the
various railways. Research at local libraries, etc., yielded nothing at
all on the subject. However, through other sources, we can append a list
of opening dates to 1873. SEE APPENDIX 1.

6 46, 47

From this list one can see that some ..500 versts (one verst equals
about two-thirds of an English mile) wera in operation by the end of 1867.
By that date about 40 m locachs were in use. The ne:,r eight years saw the
system almost quadrupl3d-some 120 mailcoaches running over 17,000 versts.

In 1875 measures were taken to speed up the service and to include
two daily collections on the more important routes.

At the beginning of the twentieth century tho rail coverage was in the
neighbourhood of 50,C00 versts with nearly 400 mailcoaches, postal operat-
ions being undertaken at about 4,500 stations; in 1912 the mileage given in
the timetables amounted to over 65,000 versts ( including Poland but ex-
cluding Finland).

The building history of some of the routes makes strange reading. The
Transcaucasian Railway, for example, was commenced by an English company in
1867; this Company got into difficulties and had to give way to a French
Company which in turn got into trouble and was handed over to another
English Company to which the Imperial Government rendered sufficient assist-
ance to permit completion of the Poti-Tiflis section by October 1872.

The mileage covered by some of these lines is prodigious by English
standards. To mention a few-

Samara-Tashkent 2,090 versts
Krasnovodsk-Tashkent 1,748 versts
Cheliabinsk-Innokentievdkala 3,059 versts

.When the network of the railways was well established, mail had to be
carried on all passenger trains and a minimum space had to be provided for
this purpose, a charge being made to the Imperial Post.

Several types of trains carried the mail:-


On some of the minor lines, it is possible some mail may have travelled
by "Smeshanni" ('ixed), whilst military mail may have travelled by the
"Voinski" (military).

To demonstrate the difference between these trains, from St. Petersburg
to LUoscow in 1912 the express took about 11 hours with seven intermediate
stops: the mail train took about 15- hours with 51 stops and a fast passen-
ger train 13 hours with 12 stops.

The "Kurierski" collected the mail at terminal points and at stopping
points; the "Skori" acted in a similar manner but served rather more
stations. The "Pochtovi" stopped at all stations so its function was to
serve those places at which the faster trains did not stop.

Before dealing in some detail with the postmarks, it would be well to
explain some of the terms found on the cancellations.

46, 47 7

The mailcoach was known as the "POCBTOVI VAGOQ"F. It appears as


The term "ZHEIEZNAIA DOROGA" (iron road) signifies railway and is
found as


etc .

A railway station was known as "STANSIA" usually abbreviated to "ST*,
the same name by which the road post-stationscwere known. For some time
the term was used for even the major termini and stations but by 1885 a
new word was in general use for the larger railway stationsJVC(KZAL"
(abbreviated often to "VCKZ")o As pointed out by Dr. Wortman in B.S.R.P.
Journal No. 3, June, 19/9s9 the derivation is interesting. A Monsieur
Vaux founded Vaux Hall Gardens where concerts, etc., were given. The word
"Vauxhall" was borrowed by Russia for "concert hall". A large restaurant
and concert hall was built close to the Pavlovsk railway station on the
St. Petersburg-Pavlovsk line; this was called Vauxhall, which term soon
applied to the railway station. It then spread as a general term to the
major stations.

Various abbreviations of "POCHTOVGE OTDEIENIE" (Postal Division) are
found such as "P. 0.", "POCHT. OTD.", etc.

Some of the routes were narrow gauge but so far we have only found
one postmark with "UZKCKOIEINAIA".

As already mentioned, the study of these postmarks requires a list of
opening dates of the various railways; it requires also a list of the
numbers allotted to the routes, We propose publishing these in this instal-
ment so that readers may more easily follow our reasoning. We have found
it easier to follow th3 routes when marked clearly on the map.

We are also illustrating the main types of postmarks encountered on
covers and stamps.


The first t7pe one meets is a numeral surrounded by a pattern of dots
as in Fig. 1-(TYPE A).

Prigara mentions these in some detail but his remarks do not quite
accord with the evidence afforded by covers. We are indebted to Dr. A. H.
Wortman for kindly supplying us with details taken from his wide collection
of covers.

8 46, 47

The numbers seen so far are 1 to 6 inclusive, 11, 12, and 14. Prigara
quotes 1 to 8, he questions the use to which 9 and 10 were put and quoted
12 to 17. This type of cancellation was used first in 1858, shortly after
the introduction of the first postage stamp. They are fairly common on the
early stamps but are often blurred; they are not common on covers.

No. 1 seems definitely to have been allowed to the St. Petersburg
Station of the Nikolaev Railway as covers bearing this cancellation were
addressed to Moscow from St. Petersburg. For similar reasons, No. 2 can
be traced to the Moscow station on the same line. No. 3 is found on covers
from Moscow to Warsaw and each cover bears on the reverse "NKOLAEVSKI ZH.

4 Hoscow-St. Petersburg Nikol. Zh. D. Pocht. Vag. No. 2 (i)
(could be 3 or 8)
4 Moscow-Warsaw Nikol. Zh. D. Pocht. Vag. No. 2
11 St. Plburg-Warsaw St. P'burg-Waraaw Zh. D. Pocht. Vag. No. 6
11 St. P'burg-Mitau n" n a "n a 6
12 To St. P'burg with 10k. Polish 6
12 To Riga with 10k. Polish n a s 1
16 To Moscow with 10k. Polish n 2
16 To St. Plburg with ICk. Polish a 2

Prigara places Noa.3 and 8 as used on the Nikolaevak Railway (and possibly
Nos. 9 and 10), Nos. 12 to 17 to Warsaw Railway but he does not quote any

One is left to conjecture the exact significance of Nos. 3 to 16;
possibly they refer to the station at which they were collected.

St. Petersburg-Warsaw Railway line was opened partly on February 1,
1861 and completely on December 15, 1862. Decree of February 11, 1863,
No. 123 eliminated the use of the dot cancellations, i.e. TYPE A.

TYPE B (Fig.2)

The successor to the "dots" was a single lined circle with a diameter
of about 26ma., the date is in three lines and there is a "star# at each
side. At the top is the name of the railway and at the bottom "POCHT. VAG.
NO. __. Alongside the day of the month (top horizontal line) in the date
is a numeral which may be found upright, inverted or sideways. These numer-
als were obviously capable of being inserted separately and inverted and
sideways specimens were due to carelessness. The significance of these
numerals will be dealt with under a later type.

TYPE B cancellations fall into two groups, which are described on the
following page.

46, 47 9

I GrouG Cover At To At Bottom iDatae No. Next to Date
1 Nikolae oi hD Pocht. Vag. No. 7'il60 1
a "1 a n 4:1865 37
b n i "a 2 1868 X ( )

2 St. P. B.wVarshatsk 1 1862 1
Zhr D. 2 1863 37
3 1864 1
e 6 1864 1
4____1865 1_

(a) is on cover St. Petersburg to Germany
(b) is on cover Moscow to St. Petersburg
(c) is on cover St. Petersburg to Germany
(d) is on cover Moscow to Bordeaux
TYTE C (Fig. 3)
The next type of of postmark found is rather different, the stress
being on the route (coded by means of numerals) over which the mail was
carried rather than on the number given to the mailcoach as in previous
types. Again it is a single lined circle of about 26mm, diameter. Inside
the circle are the words "mail coac- No." followed by two numerals sepa-
rated by a dash, i.e. i POCHTOVI VAGON No. 1-21 The date is given as before,
i.e.l 20 land on the left (usually) of the day's date is a numeral or numerals
which again may be found upright, sideways, etc.. Letters have serifs. At
the bottom is a number with brackets. The earliest date we have found is
1864, the latest 1878.

The numbers after "Pochtovi Vagon" indicate the route over which the
mail was carried-see APPEWDIX 2.

Some discussions will be necessary in this article on the subject of
this list, i.e. what changes, if any, took place, etc.

At this stage we will be content ourselves in stating that each route
had an odd number for the outward Journey and an even number for the return.
Thus route 1 was St. Petersburg to Moscow and 2 was Moscow to St. Petersburg.

About this period there were several other types in use which are some-
what rare. Instead of "Pochtovi Vagon N6* r they read:-

CI-Pocht. Vag. Lugansk-K.... .(possibly Kupiansk) ( l) 1881 (2)
C2-Pocht. Vagona Potig.Mtls Zh, D,- (15) 181 (
C3-Pochtov. Vagon Valkuno-,.adzivilishsk Zh.D. ( 8) 1878 (3)
C4-Pochtovavo Vagona Rigo-Mozheikov Zh.D. ( 1 875 (3

Here we have four different renderings of "mailcoach" in one sub-type!

Mention has been made already of the numerals which appear near the
day of the month. Of the numerous examples examined, the highest was 43,
the lowest 1. Prigara states that the nemeral was changed at each stop
on the line; for example, the obliterator was set at n"I at St. Petersburg,
10 46, 47

changed to "2 at the next stop and so on. We found it impossible to
prove or disprove this statement. So many of the covers at our disposal
gave no clue to their starting point, they may have been picked up at
the commencement of the journey or en route.

It is not clear exactly what Prigara meant by "stop". Presumably
mail was carried by different types of train each of which would have
different stopping places on any given route. It is possible that each
station ca each route was given a number which remained static whichever
way the train was going. There is some evidence that this was the case
as covers posted in Odessa travelling on route 22 often carry 29, 34 and

Whatever the system was, it was abolished about 1880 probably too

TYPE D Fig. 4

The next type to appear (1879 is our earliest example) was a single
lined circle of about 25 to 26nm. This time there are no numerals next
to the day of the month, otherwise the date is as in TYPE C. The words
"POCHTOVI VAGON No.__. are in sans-serif letters. These numbers vere
obviously inserted and removed as occasion demanded; they are often well
out of alignement and of size that does not conform with the rest of the
lettering. At the bottom is a numeral between diamonds.

When studying this type, one finds a strange thing. Type C (which
has letters with serifs) gives no indication that the route numbers
(numbers indicated by No. ) are other than fixed. In Type D they are
obviously capable of change. Type C has stop numbers, (numbers next to
the day of the month) Type D has none. Despite that, one meets an
occasional mixture of the two.

Route 22 (1881) shows stop 11 and is of Type B; a No. 61 (1879) is
Type C but shows the one number instead of two, whilst a number 72 (1880)
is definitely a Type C with stop 1 and only one route number. A No* 4
is Type D but shows stop number 25. Further search showed a number 4,
Type D, stop 43 and a No. 39, Type D with stop 3, both 1880.

The above are exceptions; usually postmarks conform to type.

The number after POCHTOVI VAGON refers to the route number which
will be subject of comment later. At this stage some discussion on the
significance of the figures found at the bottom of Types C and D would
not be out place.


Various suggestions have been put forward:-
(a)-they show the type of train by which the mail travelled.
(b)-they refer to the number of the train.
(c)-they refer to the number of the mailcoach.
(d)-they refer to the number of the actual obliterator.

46, 47 11

(a)-The highest number we have found is 14 in fact, we have found
all the numbers from one to ten inclusive and one isolated 14. The sug-
gestion was that "l" represented the express, "2" the fast train and so
on. However, "In and "#2 by no means predominate as one would expect on
correspondence between big cities. In view of our earlier remarks on the
types of train that carried mail (i.e. four with two more possible),
fourteen is too high a number so this theory seems unlikely.

(b)-The Russian railways had a system of numbering their trains with
an odd number for the outward journey and an even for the return. As an
example we quote the Nikolaev Railway, St. Petersburg to Moscow.

MAIL 3 4

If suggestion (b) is correct, one would expect odd numbers to be
travelling all in one direction and evens in the other but it does not
work out that way in every case. Route 22 (Types C and D) showed 3, 4 and
5 all going the same way.

Mr. P. T. Ashford gave us considerable assistance on this point
as he has specialized on the Baku-Batum route 95-96. By taking careful
tracings and superimposing them, he was able to prove that, although the
95 and 96 were interchanged, the number at the bottom remained unaltered
and traveling both ways. On the evidence we may rule out (b).

(c)-This seemed a likely explanation worth analysis.

Route 3- 4 showed numbers 1 3 5 6 7 8
15 16 showed numbers 23 4 6
21 -22 showed numbers 2 3 45
25 -o26 showed numbers 2 4 5 6 7 9
27 28 showed numbers 1 3 4 5 67
39 40 showed numbers 12 3 4 5 6
41 42 showed numbers 12 3 4 5 10 14
45 45 showed numbers 1 2 3 4 6
In previous types the number of the coach was given and it seems
reasonable to expect it to continue.

(d)-This is another possible explanation. For security reasons (pre-
vention cf fraud, etc.) some check was undoubtedly kept on the use of
obliterators and it has been suggested that the number at bottom served the

The choice seems to remain between (c) and (d) but we have insuf
ficient evidence to prove or refute either.

12 46, 47

TYME Dl (Not Illustrated)

In 1890 an order was made that the month on obliterators was to be
shown in Roman numerals; dates then appeared in the form

19 -- 02
Otherwise details are as TYPE D.

TYPE D2 (Not Illustrated)

We have a few copies of another type to which we can find no previous

Date type as in Type D1
At Top Pochtovi Vagon
Each side a numeral
At bottom name of route

Copies are dated 1903-04. The numeral at the side of all copies is
"1"; at the bottom is "Lodz Koliushki".

TYPES D3 (Not illustrated)

(a)-A cover of 1863 bears a postmark of a single lined circle "POCHTOVI
VAGON No. 4"; it went from St. Petersburg to Bordeaux via Bromberg. The
date is given as 1/26; in this case "I" may well be the stop.

(b)-However, I found another series in which the first number seemed
to have a different meaning, i.e..

single lined at top place name
circle at bottom NIKOL. ZH. D.

date type 1/13 II/13
1885 1885

(the "I" and "II" are in Roman numerals)

So far we have found MOSCCO I 1887, 1901
MOSCOW II all 1885
S.P.B. I 1885
Bearing in mind the dates of this type (after the speed-up and twice
daily collections), it is possible that "I" and "II" refer to the first and
second collection.


Although not proposing to go into details of Finnish Postmarks, it
seems appropriate to include in this article a few words on the St. Petersburg*
Helsigfors route.
S*-continued in the next issue-

46, /7 13


'. APO.

-Oa tt- 1 'o 1 1 1
FIG.I:TypeA FIG.2:TypeB FIGO.3-TypeC FIG.4:TypeD

c 110, A AEK. 2 g 19 -01- -2 7 13 5
~1 OAO? -

FIG.5:TypeE FIG.6:TypeF FIG7:TypeO FIG.8:TypeH


Prom Rurnt r i ia, i/pauiJng
The first Tsarskiyc Sdho railroad tr.in as it was cnsis.idid 1 (;t-rtncr in i8(6 (top). anil the suna r aii whslun it a tually
ran in the tall of 1837 (lo,ttomi). Note the atilitlis n, i the actu.il tra.n, sit mithimn thi.t li k likc a tcnemlr.

by J. Posell

The appearance of Mr. Marcovitch's excellent article on Russian revenue
stamps in Rossika Journal #45 should herald the beginning of a long neglected
interest in these very colorful and fascinating stamps. Here for the first
time is an extensive treatise on this subject giving the background and ex-
pla4ning the usage of these stamps. It is hoped that Mr. Marcovitch will
continue .with his project and that the Russian collectors will cooperate in
this so that eventually new and complete catalogue of all Russian revenue
stamps can be produced.

I should like to speak here of certain revenue stamps in my own col-
lection which are neither listed in Forbin nor described by Mr. Marcovitch.
He speaks of a set of 9 stamps which appeared in 1907 for general tax use
and range in denomination from 5 kop. to 1 rub. These are of course the
values as listed in the Forbin Catalogue which appeared in 1915. In addition
to these values there are also I ruble red and 2 rubles brown violet. (Fig. I)
I do not know when these were printed but they must have appeared after the
issuance of the Forbin catalogue.

About three years ago a short check of Russian revenue stamps by E. E.
Stefanowsky of Kharkov appeared in the French magazine "LtExchangiste"
(October 1952 issue). This hopeful beginning limited itself to list the
stamps which appeared after the publication of Forbin's catalogue & included
some corrections and additions. I will therefore occasionally quote Stefan-
owsky as well as Marcovitch.

Of the many surcharges on these issue (1907), due to revaluation of
the ruble as described by Marcovitch, I illustrate the following represent-
ative examples (Fig. 2). I have also in my possession a set of the original
nine stamps of 1907 overprinted with the Polish eagle in red within a red
square. (Fig. 3). I have no information about these stamps but I presume
they were applied to remainders of Russian stamps left in what later became
Poland, in 1918, Of these stamps of the 1907 series which were surcharged
by the White Armies "Vooruzh. Seely Yuga Rossii" which Marcovitch describes,
I have the following varieties:-

a-Handstamped in violet. b-Typographed in red.

1-1 ruble. 2-5 rubles. 1-15 kop. 2-20 kop. 3-1 ruble.

c-Handstamped in violet and new values typographed in black.

1-3 rubles on 10 kop.

d-Typographed in red and new values typographed in black.

1-15 kop. on 5 kop. 4-50 kop. on 5 kop. 7-3 rub. on 10 kop.
2-20 kop. on 5 kop. 5- 1 rub. On 10 kop. 8-5 rub. On 75 kop.
3-25 kop. on 5 kop. 6- 2 rub. on 10 kop. 9-10 rub. on 75 kop.
10- 10 rub. on 1 rub. 25 kop. These new values were applied
five times on each stamp not four.

14 46, 47

(dW-New values only, without "Armed Forces" overprint:-

1-15 kop. on 5 kop. 3-2 rubles on 10 kop.
2-20 kop. on 5 kop,

(e)-Overprinted 3 times instead of five. (Fig. 4)

1.2 rubles on 10 kop.

Of the tobacco license stamps of 1902, Stefanowsky states there is
a 2 ruble also in existence. These are the same stamps ( 5 and 10 rubles)
which originally appeared in 1871 but with a smaller eagle.

Marcovitch speaks of special stamps for the benefit of the Address
Inquiry Office in St. Petersburg. Also stamps for the same purpose issued
in Arkhangelsk and Chernovets in 1915-16. I illustrate an additional one
from Novocherkasak. I do not know the date of issue. (Fig. 5).

In the listing of the Consular stamps of 1913, of the Ministry of the
Foreign Affairs, the 10, 30, 50 and 100 ruble stamps are listed by Forbin
and the size given is 80x60mm. I have three stamps-10, 50 and 100 rubles
in two colors which are 44x56Bm. I do not know whether these are the same
stamps which are listed in Forbin, if they areForbin's sizes are iwong, of
course these may be of different and later issue. (Fig. 6). I have never
seen the 80x60mm. stamps and I should appreciate hearing from other collectors
regarding this. Stefanowaky also lists these consular stamps in the values
1, 2, 5, and 25 kop. In the addition to these 4 values I have also stamps
of 10, 50 and 75 kop. These 7 stamps are slightly smaller than the stamps
listed in Forbin and the border is of a different design. The measurements
are 37jz29mm. as against 40x31Om. Does anyone know the date of issue of
these smaller stamps and whether the above denominations are the complete set,

In describing the Theatre Tax stamps (Empress Maria Feodorovna
Institutions ) Marcovitch states that the first issue of 1892 consists of 6
stamps from 2 kop. to 50 kop, Forbin lists only 5 and if there is another
stamp in this series I do know of it. The second issue appeared in 1898
in the same denominations but in a horizontal format. The third issue which
Marcovitch claims appeared in 1909 is stated by Stefanoweky to have been
issued in 1916. This seems to me to be more logical date otherwise Forbin
would have listed it in his catalogue of 1915. The surcharges also appeared
in 1916 according to Stefanowsky and were as followst-

1-1 kop. blue. 3-30 kop. green. 5-60 kop. blue. 7-3 rub. black.
2-20 kop. red. 4-40 kop. blue. 6- 1 rub. red.

All of these were overprinted on the 2 kop. stamp of 1898. In addition
to the above I have 1 kop. black surcharged on 2 kop. In the last printing
of 1916 the 1 ruble and 3 ruble values are of a larger format than the kop.

Of the revenue stamps issued by the Zemstvos, I have the following which
are not listed by Forbi" and are not mentioned by Marcovitch. Tax stamps for
medicng. iasued by Eotolnich, Viatka, Glazov and Nolinak. These are grouped
together and LUuatraated- a Fig, 7.

46, 47 15

Since I am limiting myself in these pages to adding only here and there
to what has already been written, I will close at this time with additional
notes on the Moscow Orphants Court stamps of 1892. As listed in Forbin:-

1-20 kop red, 3-60 kop. green. 5-1 rub. brown
2-40 kop. blue. 4-80 kop. blue, 2a-40 kop. blue, imperf,

In addition to these I have also:-

la-20 red, imperforate. 5a-1 rub, brown, imperforate.
3a-60 kop. green, imperforate.

and in addition to these I have two stamps printed in entirely different
colors, dates of issue unknown, and illustrated on Fig. 8.

6-20 kop. yellow 7-80 kop. reddish brown.

In conclusion I would like to express the hope that the other collectors
with additional information on this subject will check their materials and send
whatever data they may have as to varieties, dates, etc. to the Secretary who
will forward such information where it will be of most advantage in the eventual.
production of a new Russian Revenue Catalogue,

by Capt. S de Shramchenko
(see Journal)

Mr. Jacques Posell, member of Rossika sent me for expertization an
Ukrainian stamp of 20 shagiv with violet overprint in four lines, small
print in Latin letters "Courier, Field Post, 80" and "grivai" instead of
"griven". This is not a forgery, but a fantasy of unknown origin, because
by the measurements, position of words, Latin script, instead of Cyrillic,
some kind of a non existent numeral "80" and "grivai" instead of givenen,
the entire thing is fantastic.

As for the forgeries of the original Ukrainian Courier Field Post of
1920, up to now none have been reported.

EXTENSIVE STOCK...................


Stampless covers, postal stationery stamp rarities and regular issues,

proofs, essays, varieties, cancellations, covers. Inquiries invited.

Samuel Ray

350 Oakdale Avenue Chicago 14 Illinois.

Also, professional mounting and writing-up of collections.

16 46, 47

Sby Jacques Posell

F I .- ------ -I

ml ---------



FIG. 5 FIG. 6

-- --
FIG. 7-

j FIG 8


Many have written that without our mention of the current periodicals
of interest in our field, most of the valuable material would have been
lost to them. Valuable libraries can be formed cheaply out of the present
day publications, but it takes time and money to subscribe to them all and
to search for the information of use to us. Here is where we may be of

Edwin Mueller, editor of the Mercury Stamp Journal stated that "the
only enduring hall of fame in the world of stamps and stamp collecting is
the philatelic library". How trueL Information, unless published is lost
to philately. This thought has been echoed not so long ago by W. W. Wylie,
editor of the Western Stamp Collector, who stressed the value of catalogues,
check-lists, and handbooks in his fine editorial. H. M, Goodkind the editor
of the Collectorts Club Philatelist adds "the field of philatelic writing is
bankrupt. The only reward in this work is personal glory, which obviously
few can afford to indulge in, while others regard this as almost worthless.*
At this point we must congratulate our new member, Bernard Davis, Director
of the National Philatelic Museum in Philadelphia, for his wonderful editor-
ship of the "Library" issue of the Nat. Phil. Museums series of excellent

Edwin Mueller, in his 'Mixed Franking, their cthesifications", P. 316,
Col. Club Phil., Nov. 1954, illustrates *Due Collecting Multiple Country
Franking" Russia and Greece (1868) and states that letters from Russia to
Greece could only be franked to the border, and domestic postage due was
collected by the addressee by means of the postage stamps,

Finally we quote Sir John Wilson (West End Philatelist). "The most
serious decline of all is in the appreciation of literature... People who
often give absurd prices for the very unimportant stamps and grudge the buy-
ing of invaluable works of reference, This was not the way of the giants of

Recently when part of the Kimble library was sold at an auction, out of
1200 items listed, the only item in our field was a single copy of the Russian
American Philatelist, estimated at one dollar,

Hadfield Craven, recently offered, Forbints Fiscal Cat., Fiscal Philatel-
ist, 1892-93 and 42 Bulletins of the Fiscal Society, 1904-26, almost complete.
Approx.-L2. Dr. L. Hartley, 342 Madison Ave., New York 17, N. Y. in "Stamps"
(Nov 27, 1954) offered to write up any country, provided there were enough
requests. 1915 issue of Forbin (French) was the last issue of the General
Revenue Catalogue. We are planning to produce an up to date REVENUE catalogue
in serialized form, fully illustrated, in future. Those who are interested,
pleae contact, R. Sklarevski. Similar projects are also in rough form,
covering Zemstvos and Postcards.

The Third Ouarter (1954) issue of the Philatelic Review and the letter
from its editor D. W. Wooys, P. 0. Box 300, Canajoharie, New York, congratulate
us or our Journal, and asked us for permission to reprint some of our articles
in the future. The same request was made by Editor Zinsmeister of S. P.. A.

46, 47 17

Vclumel-Palestine (Russian Offices), Siberia, Western Ukraine.
Volume II-Batum, genuine and forgeries.
Volume V-Deutsch Baltiches Comite St. Petersburg, Tiflis, Wenden and
Russian Levant Steamship Co.
Volume IX-Russia, catalogue of Imperial and Soviet Issues, 1st, and
Special Flights, numeral cancellations, etc.
Volume XX-(a)-The Post of the Wrangel Army in Turkey by H.D.S. Haverbeck,
reprinted from the Collectors Club Philatelist.
(b)-Stamps of the Refugees' Post by W.E.C Kethro and P. T.

The listing of Philatelic literature, started by R. Sklarevski, will
be extended in the near future by the material held by E. Marcovitch and
by B.S.R.P. A catalogue of the B.S.R.P. library was recently published
by Mr. P. T. Ashford, the Honorary Librarian of the Society. Others holding
large collections of Thilatelic Literature are urged to send in their lists.

W. E. Fyndem comments on the scarcity of S. G. 706 (North Pole Flight),
and that the flight covers are exceedingly scarce. "Crimean Conundrums"
(Nov. 12, 1954 issue) describe British postmarks used in the campaign. This
publication also describes "Batum Provisionals".

THE HOLY LAND PHILATELIST:-13 Montefiore St.. P.O.B. 2032, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Editor F. W. Pollack, F.R.P.S.L. in Tel Aviv, Israel desires to contact
those philatelists who have a good knowledge of Russian Levant Mail, with
special reference to the Eastern Mediterranean. Lets cooperate.

"A Russian Forerunner" is the title of an article in Jan. 1955 issue,
written by our member Mr. Edmond Tolkowsky.

COVERS:-June, 1955. Finland.
George Wiberg, describes the use of bisects on covers, which although
prohibited by the postal authorities, sneaked through the mail. They were
also official used in several emergencies. These stamps were used during
the Russian Rule.

"The Fundamentals of Philately" by L.N. and M. Williams, shows examples
of Imperial Russian stamps, and we are proud to say that we have contributed
some of these.

Marian Came Zinsmeister in her articles on Souvenir Sheets, describes
October Revolution Imperf sheet of four (June, 1946), Pushkin Sheet (June,
1949) and Leningrad Imperf. Sheet (Nov. 29, 1944).

Our member Dr. H. C. Pollack of Chicago, who serialized "X-Ray Philately"
received SPA gold medal. Similar medal was presented to co-author C. E.

18 46, 47

Recent issue of this journal carried an article *Study of the Bulgarian
Air Counterfeits of 1931" by our Honorable President E. Archangelsky.

S, A. Liebman of San Mateo, California, after writing to Kizil (Tannu
Tuva) postmaster, enclosing an International Reply Coupon received two ocvers.
One is cancelled, lizil, June 29, 1937, backstamped N.Y. July 26, 1937 and
dated San Francisco July 30, 1937. The second mailed from Kizil in 1940,
was sent to Mr. Liebman in Philippines (July 25), The mailing date in Kizil
is obscurred by censors seal in Hong Kong. This shows the actual postal
use of what many collectors consider nothing but labels.

STAIFS-Julv 17, 1954
Tannu Tuva entire bearing full sets of nicely cancelled stamps, product
of the Soviet Philatelic Agency, Moscows are on common offer in bundles of
50, 100, 1,000 and 5,000, and I am sure one could have 100,000 if one called
for them and allowed a few weeks. They are carefully cancelled KYSYLCHTO.

(a)-STAMP COLLECTING-"Bedicine and Philately in Russia" by HJ.. Tozer.
(b)-SPORTS (Nov. 22)-"The Red Stamps on Sports" by Ira Seebacher, A
well illustrated article featuring Soviet & Sattelite sport stamps.
(c)-AUl reports emanating from Europe, confirmed by Edwin Mueller and
Kent Stiles show that TOFICALS are on decline in Europe, its cradle,
and on upswing in U.S.A.

WESTERN STAMP COLLECTOR-"Janus Report". Exerpts.
(1)-All stamp trade is centralized in Moscow's Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga.
(2)-M. K. has branches all over Russia and in many Sattelite countries,
controlling import of foreign stamps & export of Russian stamps.
(3)-Officially, export of Soviet stamps other than under official
auspices is forbidden, but registered letters with up to $15. worth
of mint stamps have been passing in both directions unmolested.
(4)-A small amount of private stamp trade is conducted by individuals to
get stamps otherwise unobtainable.
(5)-Then trading with U.S.S.R., the official rate for rouble is 25 cents,
while the purchasing power is only 10 cents.
(6)-P. O.'s. in U.S.S.R. stock certain single values used between 1941
and 1954, apart from current definitive series (small heads), 40 kop.
(Arms of the Soviet Unio#) and I rub. (Kremlin, Spasski Tower). All
new issues are sold until printing is exhausted in Moscow. Other
towns sell only certain stamps, in single values, in demand for
postal duty.
(7)- Book stores sell stamps at 30% to 40% over face value, except
the regular stamps, which are sold at face.
(8)-Single values of Comm. & special issues are used postally in large
(9)-There are philatelic groups in U.S.SR. organized by sport clubs,
trade unions, factory and office associations.
(10)-State promotes philately by the sale of new issues of Russia and
Sattelite countries.
(11)-New issues of Western countries cannot be bought, but stamps to 1941
are available.

46, 47 19

(12)-There is no private stamp trade by dealers in USSR.
(13)-Cancelled new issues are sold at 40% to 50% of face value.
(14,-There are no blocked values (stamps sold in restricted quantities
at a large value over face). Limited quantities exist of the
souvenir sheets from the 25th. Anniv, of Lenin's death and the
Imperforate U.P.U. issues.
(15)-Almost all issues after 1924 (after the inflation of the rouble)
are still valid for postage. Scott Nos. 1341-47 & 1650-54 are
current regular series. All stamps sold by the agency are impres-
sed on the back with a tiny black circular device "MK" in a circle.

A. Niven writing in "Stamp Collecting-Oct. 8, 1954" corroborates
points #8 and 15.

Janus describes the "Etudes Sovietiques" of the Cercle Philatelique
France-URSS "I have seen a copy of this book which is an octave size ma-
gazine reproducing current propaganda handouts from the Kremlin in the French
language, and its occasional philatelic articles are no more than rehash of
the official communiques."

Editor C. Downs gave our Rossica Journal No. 45 and the society in general
great publicity in her two column review. (May 21, 1955). We must also
thank our member for featuring the picture of the Rossica and B.S.R.P. groups
at a joint meeting in New York. (Cover of March 26, 1955 issue). Editor
Downs has given us a great deal of publicity, not only now, but in the past,
when our No. 44 made its modest appearance. We are deeply grateful for it all.

Stamp papers coming out of the East Germany "offer almost nothing except
Russian-since 1917 sets and new issues from behind the iron and bamboo
curtains". (April 2, 1955).

"Der Berufs-Philatelist" a German trade journal cautions dealers against
forgeries of the 1922 Consular Fee Airmail stamps of Russia. "The rarer values
of the complete sets, which are being offered from different sources at knock-
down prices, are with faked surcharges; the guarantee mark of Dr. Paul Jem-
tschoujin, on the reverse of the stamps has also proved to be fake." (April
30, 1955).

WEEKLY PHILATELIC GOSSIP-March 5. 12 & 26, 1955.
Mr. Warner, guest columnist states that Russia and associated countries
are good hunting ground for varieties. He discusses Karelian stamps, covers
from Urga, Mongolia, Forces of General Yudenich and Wrangel. He stresses the
point that the stamps between 1924 and 1938 have become very scarce, and that
collectors should stay away from the cancelled to order stamps from any
period. He mentions the unpopularity of "States" such as Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Far Eastern Republic, etc. that the collectors have a hard time locating their
stamps (may I add, genuine) and that postally used covers of these states are

S. G. Richts article "Kingdom of Poland's Lone Stamp" appeared in March
5thi issue (Reprint from Polonus Philatelic Society Bulletin).

20 46, 47

Chester A. Schafer, the editor, sent me to-day a very warm and a
complimentary letter about /'45 and asked for permission to reprint one of
our articles. In the next issue of the Rossica Journal a complete listing
will be published of all the articles in the Bulletin of the Polonus Phila-
telic Society which are of interest to the collectors in our field. These
include the articles by our Hon. member V. Rachmanoff on Russia #1, numerous
articles on Poland #1, postal history of the Polish Kingdom, articles on
samples covers, cancellations, forgeries, etc.

Soviet Government recently sold a large quantity of remainders of
Soviet issues to a New York wholesaler. This lot is said to amount to about
250,0C0 stamps, mint and cancelled to order, from the early days of the
regime to date. We are curious to see the effect of this "dumping" on the
catalogue values of the stamps, and their selling prices to-day.

by E N. Archangelsky

Readers, I am sure will welcome the data about the SYSTEM OF PLAIES,
on the airpost stamps of USSR and Touva which list below.

Planes of USSR Manufacture Year of Issue. Scott #. Sanabria # Yvert #
Sand value I _
1 A. T. biplane 927-10 & 15k. C10, 11. 21, 22 18, 19
2 n on skis1935-25k. sC64 80 55
3 -2, monoplane 1937-10k. C69 86 60
on skis 1935-5k. 060 76 51
"5" n n -, n 1937-30k. I71 88 62
6 1936-1r. I 112 684
"7 "- 9, 1934-5 to 80k.IC40-49 56-65 41-45
S8 ", 1937-20k. !070 87 61
9 ", on skis 1935-20k. C63 79 71
'101 -, 1934-25k. T-T. 5 5
11 "I ", 1936-1-3t." -. 16-18 16-18
121 A. N. T. -14, 1937-1r. C75 92 66
13 -20, 1937-80k 074 91 65
14 A. N. A. -Amphibian !1937-40k. 072 89 63
15! R. S. biplane on skis 1935-30, 40k. 065, 66 81, 82 56, 57
*16 T. B. I. monoplane 1937-50k. C73 90 64 ..
17 Fokker F:2 Monoplane ,1934-1k. T-T. 1 1
"18 F:3 '1923-24-1-10r. C2-9 11-20 10-17
19 1932-50k, Ir. C34-35 49-50 31, 32
i201 Junkers F;13 : 1934-2tu. T-T 9 9
21, Junkers F:52 11935-5, 15k. 2, 4 2, 4
S22 Klemm K1:25 Hydroplane 1937-lr. C75 112 66

T-T Abbreviation for Tannu-Touva

46, 47 21

Planes of USSR manufacture Year of Issuej Scott# Sanabria #F Yvert #.
and value
23 Iliushin 2, tormovik Tr lr. 135 41 74, 8
24 4, Bomber 19454-3o.;.r. 134, 145 77, 86
25 -12. 1949-50k.,3r. 153, 160 90, 97
26 Lavochkin-7, Destroyer 1945-50k.,lr. 131, 146 79, 88
27 Fetiiakov-2, Sabre bomber 1945-10k.,lr. 132, 140 73, 82
28 -8, Heavy bomber 1945-15k.,1r. 138, 142 75, 84
29 Tupolev -2, a 1945-20k..,r. 130, 143 76, 85
30 Polikarpov2, biplane 1945-30k.,lr. 133, 144 78, 87
31 Jakovlev -3, Destroyer 1945-5 k.,jr. 137, 139 72, 81
32 -9 1945-60k.,lr. 136, 147 80, 89
33 -9 1947, 48, 49 148-152 1142,3,1308
30k., lr., .1
Besides Russian planes as pictured on air post stamps.
34 Iliushin-4 Jugoslavia, 25-36 17-22
35 Jakovlev-16 I Hungary-1954,
36 Mig-15 Hungary-1954,

I hope that the readers will use this data in studying and identifying
the system of planes.

Editorial Note:-Because of variation in nomenclature used in Scott's
catalogue, some of the Scott's catalogue numbers are
omitted in this article.

Following Information is requested by A. Prilutzki
20 Oman Court,
Oman Avenue,
London, N. I!. 2, England.

(1)-I have in my possession a 3 kop. stamp with a postmark "Riga
Exhibition, temporary Post Otd. ", dated 1.9.1901. Could any
member suggest how long the Post Office was in use.

(2)-Could members possessing entire with the numeral cancellations of
St. Petersburg and Moscow Town Post, kindly supply the dates of the
entire in their possession (for each number), as I would like to
tabulate the numeral cancellations of the two "Townpost'.

We wish to extend our condolences to Gregory F. Iliashenko for the deep
tragedy of his wife's passing, after a recent automobile accident.

22 46, 47

Continued from ^4-I (Pares 13-19)
by R. Sklarevski
At this time we wish to thank the following for writing to us, and
making possible this addenda:-

Kurt Adler C. C. Handford J. Posell A. Shields
E. L. Filby A. Kotlar J. H. Reynolds J. V. Stuart

We are very sorry that space does not permit us to write about many
interesting items in various collections. We have therefore omitted all
duplication. For example if two members sent information on Scott's No.
B4 on cover, we are listing only the one with the earliest date, etc.,
unless of some interesting feature.

We are therefore covering only:-

(1)-New information.
(2)-Information superceeding previous information which we
feel is outdated.
(3)-In this article we refer to our own numbers and those of
Scott's catalogue.
NUIBERS 1 to 4 (Scott's Nos. B1-B4).

Lr. A. Kotlar in his letter (March 19, 1944) as well as other collect-
ors doubt the existence of Scott's Bl, perforated llxl3-2 (No. Ic), which
we are deleting from our listing in Rossica No. 44. Below ie give the
statistics, taken from various catalogues, listing various perforations for
the 3 kop. value, the commonest perforation first and scarcest last.

Of course it is possible that some catalogues put horse before the
buggy, while others the reverse. We wish to go on record that unless
proven otherwise No. Ic (Scott's No. Bl) doesn't exist perforated ll-.r13-.

NOTE:-Letters a to a in this table have nothing to do with original listing.
Catelogue Date a b c d e
Sklarevski (1955) 12x121- llxll-1 13:13_ 13-xll-
Zumstein (1949) 12712'- llxlli- 13xl3- 13-2
Iiichel (1952) 12x122 1-ll'l- 13x13-2 112 x13 2
Romeko k1933) 12x12 1lxll:- 13x13i ll13-xl-
Soviet 1924) 12x121- llxll 13y 13- lXxl3
PPigara (1941) 12:,12 llll-- 13xl3i 132xllI 11 jp_
Gibbons (1952) 12x121 11 1- 13:13o Perf, comp. of II- &13*
Billig (1942) 12xl2- llxlli 13x13i- 11- & 13I- compounds.
Scott (1955) nT-, 12-, 13-. -

At this time we will digress a little and go on record that when we
list compound perforations we travel clockwise around the stamp, starting
at the top, then going to the right, bottom and finally to tha left sida
(when we list 4 perforations). When only 2 perforations are given, the 1st.
one is for the top and bottom, and the second is for the sides.

46, 47 23

Nos. 1 to 4 (Scott's Bl to B4) are free of fakes. The only known
example (possibly) is in the collection of J. V. Stuart and in this case
the person who reperforated the '"Fan tail" (top imperforate) variety, re-
duced its original value considerstly, for wG know of no examples of BI
to B4 without perforations at any of thei-: sides.

We may add another interesting point and that is that the "fan tail"
(imperforate at one side only) varieties occur occasional on the Russian
stamps and are prized highly. We list these when they are reported.

Mr. Posell corrects us with the information that all but 3 kop. (Scott's
No. Bl) have the initials "P.Z." or "R.Z," somewhere in their design. The
initials of the engraver Richard Sarrin so far have not been found on the
3 kop. value. Gibbons catalogue has also made the correction stating that
R. Sarrin and not E. Frank was the engraver.

This interesting question was brought up first in the January issue
of "Illustriertes Briefmarken Journali by its editor Theodor Haas. He
stated that Sarrin was at that time (1904-05) "assistant to the art director
of the State Printing Works where these interesting labels were manufactured."

He also states that the profit came to barely 50,000 rubles or $25,000,
a trifling sum, compared with the funds raised nowadays. He also states
that among other things, the quantities of each value are known. Perhaps
some member can find this information in old copies of the above mentioned
journal. (Reprinted from Page 8, #10, January 1, 1906 issue of Stamp
Collectors Journal.)

Bill Kethro's cover franked with Scott's No. B4 is quite interesting.
"It started from St. Petersburg addressed to a man in Manchester, England.
This thrifty gentleman opened up the envelope, and using it as a wrapper
or banderol, the front of the envelope being on the inside, addressed the
reverse to a firm in Huddersfield. It was franked with Great Britain,
Edward VII-dd, and postmarked at 10 p.m., Manchester, March 3, 1905 and
received in Huddersfield at 2 a.m. March 4th." Mighty fast work by the
gentleman from Manchester. "It is worthwhile to note that, 50 years later,
the service is no quicker."

Mr. J. V. Stuart has a 3 kop. (Scott's Bl) perforated lxl2xl2x12-.
He thinks the top of the stamp was reperforated 14. We agree with him.
Incidentally the margins on this copy are of right size. If the stamp was
reperforated it may have been because it was a "fan tail" variety or damaged
at the top. Who knows.

An example of an unbroken strip of 8 stamps overprinted with the word
"0 B R A Z E T S" with margins on both sides in collection of Mr. A. Kotlar
tells us, what we did not know before and that is, the sheets of this issue
consisted of horizontal rows of 8 stamps.

Incidentally when sending data on the "0 B R A Z F T S" overprints
please state: (1)-perforation, (2)-the letter, (3)-size of the letter,
(a)-large (L)-7mm. or (b)-small (S)-5mm.

24 46, 47

NU BERS 5 to 12 (SCOTT'S Nos. B513)

We J. H. Reynolds of England reports a complete sheet of Scott's No.
S3 (No. 12) with broken lance varieties, which occur 4 times in the sheet,
on stamps No. 43, 48, 93 and 98 (perforation unknown). This unique piece is
in the collection of Jonkheer Schmidt of Amsterdam.

#11b (Scott's Bll), cancelled-Double circle-"Odessa" (top), bottom
(two six-rayed star), date 7-5-18 or 7-15-18 (not clear), we think is a
counterfeit cancellation, for we have never seen a Russian cancellation
of that period with six-rayed stars. (Collection of Arthur Shields).

Below we list:-

(A)-Additional varieties and changes. (C)-Specimen.
(B) Covers. (D)-Essays.
*#lc-(Scott's Bl-3 kop.)-Perforated 11x13k (Delete). Does not exist.

#5e-(Scott's B5-1 kop.)- #5a, perf. 12 on 3 sides, imp. bottom.
#9f-(Scott's B9-1 kop.)- #9c, perf. on 3 sides, imp. top.
#10f-(Scott's B10-3 kop.)-#10b, perf. on 3 sides, imp, right.
#10g-(Soott's B10-3 kop,)-#10c. perf. 1 on 3 sides, imp. top.
"ilOh-(Scott'e B10-3 kop.)* #10, perf. 1, Horiz. pr. imp. between.
#5e (Collect. E. L. Filby). #9f (Collect. A. Kotlar)

#4-(Scott's B4-perforated 12x122). St. Petersburg (oval canc. Jan. 1,
1905) to Tubingen (Jan. 19, 1905). This is the earliest date reported
on #4 and probably is the Ist. day of cane. (A. Shields)
'la-(Scott's i'B1 and #55, plus 6 cents postage due of US) on post card
from Revel (black canc.-March 12, 1905) to New York (April 5, 1905)
(E. L. Filby).

#3a-(Pair of Scott's #B3) cancelled Warsaw (circular-red-June 16, 1907)
plus a registry label #917. (E. L. Filby).

#4a-(Scott's #B4 plus #55). St. Petersburg (Oct. 3, 1907), plus a
registry label #109. (E. L. Filby).
#1 to 4-(Scott's Bl to B4)-perforated 12x12 Registered from St.
Petersburg (March 12, 1905) to Amsterdam (March 25, 1905). A very
early usage. (J. V. Stuart). A similar cover addressed to London
(March 16, 1905) is in collection of W. Kethro.

A number of collectors submitted for the record single values with
various letters, but where the complete strips are known these were omited.

46, 47 25

We are interested in knowing if all perforations known were overprinted with
small and large letter words "0 B R A Z E T S". Earlier in the article we
described a complete strip of 8 with margins on both sides. Mr. A. Kotlar
has 8 complete strips in his collection.

Small letters-5mm. (S) Large letters-7mm. (L)

#lb-(Scott's Bl) (S) Perforated 1lxll- (A. Kotlar)
#2 -(Scott's B2) (S) Perforated 12x12- (A. Kotlar)
#3 -(Scott's B3) (S) Perforated 12x12 (A. Kotlar, C. C. Handford)
#4a-(Scott's B4) (S) Perforated 13x13- (A. Kotlar, C. C. Handford)

#la-(Scott's Bl) (L) Perforated 13xl3- (C. C. Handford)
lb-(Scott's Bl) (L) Perforated llxll- (A. Kotlar)
#2 -(Scott's B2) (L) Perforated 12xl2 (A. Kotlar C. C. Handford)
#3 -(Scott's B3) (L) Perforated 12:-J12 (A. Kotlar)
#3a-(Scott's B3) (L) Perforated 13x13- (J. V. Stuart)
#4a-(Scott's B4) (L) Perforated 13xl3i- (A. Kotlar)
#4 -(Scott's B4) (L) Perforated 12x12- (W. Kethro)-Letter B.

We have a record now of 88 varieties of "0 B R A Z E T S" existing out
of possible 144 (72 for each size of the letter). Table below shows what
we have so far completed. Existence of any one letter will tell us that the
other 7 were printed also.
_12x12_ 13x13 71l
#12 #la- .L. #1b-S.L. #ld- .
#3-S.L. 3a- .L.
i4- .L. '4a-S.L.
ESSAYS SCOTT'S Nos. B3 and B4 (Collection of A. Kotlar).

B3 and B4, printed on cardboard, imperforate with very large margins.
Same designs, but surrounded by ONE line frame 1-mm. from the design. The
inscription is black instead of blue. No dots or lines in the background.

On B3 the outline of the statue on the rock and the shadings are in
black, same on B4.
COLORS:-B3-Much lighter, very light blue, light blue & bright rose.
B4-Auch lighter, very light blue, light blue & very pale yellow.


In 1898 "Mlain Office of the Charity Letters for the Benefit of
Orphanages under Patronage of Empress Marie", located in St. Petersburg,
issued envelopes, inscribed with advertisements of various firms.
Evidently the stamped envelopes were purchased from the Government
Post Office and then overprinted by private printing establishment.

26 46, 47

Now dividing the face of the envelope into 5 parts, we will describe
Russian inscriptions, designs, etc.

(1)-Top center inscription-"This blank is sold everywhere for 5 kop."
(red or red-brown color).
(2)-Top left corner inscription, below inscription "i*. "CHARIT'Y
(printed in semicircle over and above a portrayal of a pelican
feeding its young). Blue or violet.
(3)-Top center-two line inscription, below inscription "I", reads
"CLOSED LETTER" or envelope (1st. line). ITH ADVERTISEMENTS"
(2nd. line). Blue or violet.
(4)-Top right corner, below inscription "1" embossed 5 or 7 kop.
(depending on the value of the envelope government stamp. 5 kop.
violet, while 7 kop. is blue.
(5)-Bottom two line inscription, "NET INCOME IS FOR THE BENEFIT OF
brown color). "EMPRESS MAIE" is 2nd. line.

The above letter was illustrated in Prigara's catalogue and described
in Rossica #37, page 242 in the article written by K. K. Schmidt, one of
the greatest students of the Russian Postal History.

The envelopes were issued in Series of 3,000 for 5 kop. and 5,000
for 7 kop. values.

Now analysing the various costs:-

(a)-Russian Government t Post Office received from sale of each envelope
5 or 7 kop.
(b)-l kop. went into the Fund.
(c)-l kop. was the cost of printing.
(d)-Total cost to Charity Organization was 7 or 9 kop. Derived by
adding a, b, and c.
(e)-Selling Price to Public was 4 and 5 kop.
(f)-The loss of 3 and 4 kop. respectively, was covered by the money
received from the advertisers. It is said that the fund received
6,300 rubles or ;3,150 in approximately three years this plan was
in operation. This organization was liquidated in 1901. One of
the reasons why this plan was interrupted is because the firms
using this type of advertisements found it unprofitable.

For cataloguing purposes K. K. Schmidt's list on page 243 of Rossica
#37 is used.

Size 150x15 mm.

#AEI-November 1898. Series 1 to 5. St. Petersburg. 7 kop. blue
(Selling price to public 5 kop.)
#AE2-December 1898. Series 6 to 123 various cities. 7 kop. blue
(Selling price to public 5 kop.)
#AE3-September 1899. Series 1 to 8, 125 to 130. St. Petersburg and
Moscow. 5 kop. violet. (Selling price to public 4 kop.)

46, 47 27

The main office of "Empress LJarie" organisation was located in St.
Petersburg, while branches existed in other cities.

The following list gives the names of the "CITIES" where the advertising
envelopes were probably used, K. K. Schmidt states that the envelopes marked
X exist. More research will probably uncover other cities.

XI-St. Petersburg 7-Simferopol 13-Lodz 19-Penza
X2-Moscow X8-Kharkov 14-Samara 20-Lodz
3-Saratov X9-Rostov on Don 15-Tiflis 21-Astrakhan
X4-Riga XlO-War saw X16-Stavropol 22-Taganrog
X5-Odessa Xll-Ufa 17-Vilna 23-Tsarytsin
X6-Kazan 12-Kiev 18-Grodno


(1)-S. V. Prigara Handbook-Illustration
(2)-Envelopes with Advertisemeints. K. K.Schmidt.
(3)-" " .#4 Samler loche Journal,
1939. F. Kalgov.
(4)-Soviet Catalogue of Postal Stationery. 1928.
(5)-Journal Illustr. Briefmarken. 1898. Pages 66 and 342.
(6)-Deutsche Briefmarken Zeitung. 1899. Page 11.
(7)-Der Philatelist. 1899. Page 5.
(8)-Collection of Dr. G. B. Salisbury.

Finally we might mention here that F. Breitfuss stated that unsrupo-
lous people cut out the embossed stamps, which were still uncancelled and
by pasting them on envelopes used them over again, thus gaining 2 kop. by
their action. This of course was against the law.

We have on hand, on loan, two examples of 7 kop. advertisement
envelopes, from the collection of Dr. G. B. Salisbury. We are using these
to tell an interesting story. When the envelope is opened (outside), this
is a mint example (advertisements have addresses of various cities). We
have counted 23 advertisements, two of which are on the outside of the gum-
med portion of the envelope, and is very small.

Also on the same side is a 3 line inscription reading:-

1st. line-"Office of Charity Letters: Moscow, Petrov. Line D. tov.
Petr. L Podeez. No. 6."
2nd. line-"Printed by permission of Police, Moscow July 24, 1899.
Series 98.
3rd. line-"Par. Skoropechatnaya P. 0. Yablonskovo, S. P. B."

Besides place for the address the outside of the envelope has a large
space (half the size of the back), i.e. when it is opened up, for the message.
See the illustration.

The inside of the envelope has 18 advertisements, surrounding two large
sections for the message. See illustration.

Altogether this advertising letter has 41 various advertisements, and
they all are in blue, which is the color of the various inscriptions on the

28 46, 47

The second example, which is also a 7 kop. has all the advertisements
in violet, while the various inscriptions on the envelope are in normal
blue color. This is a cancelled example from Odessa to New York, dated
1899. It is of series 30, and the top line (the only one visible) has the
address St. P. B. Nevsky, 66.

This envelope, which evidently is not complete, the message part is
missing, contains 16 advertisements, from various cities.

From the two examples on hand we assume that:-

(a)-envelopes were printed in various cities, perhaps
only St. Petersburg and Moscow.
(b)-advertisements were from various cities.
(c)-each envelope carried the location of the
printing establishment.
(d)-each envelope carried the date when Police
permit was issued.
(e)-each envelope carried the series number.

Finally in order to open up the mint example we must turn over the
address part to the left, while on the cancelled example to the right.
Thus we assume that evidently the envelopes were printed either from rolls,
large strips or sheets and when they were cut into advertising blanks for
printing they were cut haphazardly, thus varying the position of the
"address section". (See the illustrations below).

* ______;\ _r_____ _____

Address Address

Place for the

SI Cancelled (Front)
Place for "he I message
"a --I-e 1 No place for the
----- -message for the
cancelled letter.

Mint (Front) Mint (Back)

We urge members to check their mint examples for various positions
ta)-of the address part, (b)-the origin of the cancellation, on the cancel-
led items, (c)-the location of the printing establishment, and (d)-the
series number as well as the date when the police permit was issued.

These series of articles on "Postal Charity" items of various sorts
will be continued in the fclloving issues of Rossica. He welcome additions
for future addenda for the Part i and I, as well as information for paTLs-
III to VI, which we enumerate below and which at this time are quite skimpy,
except Part III. We are interested in photos bibliography, etc.

46, 47 29

Part III-Private Charity Labels.
IV -Privately issued Postal Stationery.
V -Private Letter Sheets.
VI -Envelopes of the Red Cross Society.

Please address all comnnications directly to the writer, or to the
Editor Dr. G. B. Salisbury,

NOTE:-A very interesting cancellation was shown to me by Dr. Salisbury.
It is a piece consisting of Scott's Nos. 77, 91 and B5 franked with
double circle cancellation reading at top-OKALGAN ZAGRANICH.", at
bottom-star-star-letter "a", in the center between two lines-12-7-16.

S. D. Tchilinghirian of Switzerland gives the following remark-
"l4hat is surprising of course is that Kalgan should have been using
ordinary stamps of Russia, as witnessed by the piece in your possession,
rather than KITAI overprints, like the five other offices in China proper
(Peking, Tien-Tsin, Shanghai, Hankow and Chefoo). I suppose the reason
for this apparent anomaly is to be sought in the position of this town:
being situated on the border of Inner Mongolia, it was probably considered
as belonging to the Mongolian group (Urga, etc.) rather than to China
proper, in which case it would of course be supplied with the same kind
of stamps as other Mongolian offices, i. e. ordinary Russian adhesives.

10% Discount 15% Discount
on all purchases on all purchases
of $2.00 and up. Free Price List on Request of $10.00 and up.

Errors*Covers-Varieties-New Issues-Cancellations-!.ant Lists Requested
from No. 1 to Present.

L. and F. Stamp Service Box #1, Grand Ledge. Michigan.

1113 Imperf at left 4.00 --- B29x Inverted Ovpt. on piece ---- 25.00
1125Aa Blue color B40 Pelure paper 2.00 ---.
missing 2.50 --- C57x Orange color proof,rare40.00 .---
1132x Imperf betw. 8.00 .-- 66a Sanabria, Perf. 14,
1133x Imperf betw. 7.00 ---- Cat. $50,00 20.00 --.
ll66x Imperf pair 7.00 ---- 1934 Jubilee Imperf between
1217 Imnerf at bot. 3.50 ---- Sanabria Catalogue $100.00. 40.0 .
1217x ---- 3.00 C48x Green Proof Imperfor. 20.00 -.---
1227-29x Imp. prs. 12.00 --. C48x Black Proof Imperfor. 20.00 ---
1254x Imperf at top.---- 3.00 Sanabria-128a "A" missing
1403x r -- 3.00 in bottom right stamp. 25.00 ----
1405x Imperf at bot.4.00 ---- Sanabria-96a Cat. $60.00 20.00 -----
1406x Imperf at rit.3.50 ----- C82 Imperf margin at right 4.00 -----
1445x Imperf at top ---- 3.00
1448x Imperf betw. 10.00 ---- All of the above numbers are Scottls
B5x Imperforate 10.00 --- or as otherwise stated. First Column is
B7P Imperf roof 5.00 ..*- mint, the second column is cancelled.
BlOx Imperforate 10.00 stc.
B21x Inv Surch. Many other varieties are in stock.
Block of 4 9.00 ---

30 46, 47

by E. Marcovitch

Shortly after the First World War, articlesbegan to appear in the
philatelic press about the subject and motif collections. This method of
collecting became in time widespread, and in the recent years enjoyed such
popularity among the stamp collectors that it led to the formation of
special societies, which issued and still issues journals, handbooks, etc.
en various topiee.

We learn from the articles in the Rossica Journal that various European
and American nations organized international exhibitions devoted to the
"Constructive Philately3, as this method of collecting is now called, These
exhibitions enjoy great popularity not only among the philatelists but
also among the non-collectors, i.e. the general public* This is understand-
able, for to enjoy topical collecting it is not necessary to be a phila-
telist, subjects on stamps speak for themselves. One does not have to be a
specialist to understand a collection of topics shown on stamps, such ass
animals, plants. portraits of surgeons, artists, writers, and other famous
people. Such type of material is more readily available than the specialized
items developed along the lines of shade variations, perforations or cancel-
lations. Thus the exhibitions of subject matter collections are attended
by a wide section of the public and enjoy great success, much mere so than
the exhibitions of specialized philatelic collections which are monotonous
and boring to the uninitiated. These collections, usually are composed of
minutest variations in the design, shade, also errors and cancellations,
often of only one stamp. For example, our noted Honored Member, V. Rach-
manoff owns a unique collection of Poland No. 1-1860, Beginning with essays,
proofs, followed by a wide field of shades, both mint and cancelled, all
possible varieties and cancellations on and off cover. At present he is
working on a similar collection of Russia No. 1-1857. He had a fabulous
collection of this stamp when he lived in Poland, but lost it during the
Werld War II, in Warsaw. This information was given recently by Mr. Rach-
manoff in New York, to our editor, Dr. Salisbury.

Of course such collections are exceptional. A majority of collectors
have specialized groupings of a certain country, or countries, generally
bearing relationship to one another. Thus a majority of members of Rossica
or BSRP collect stamps of countries which formed the Russian Emprire, or
countries relating to them. Many specialize in one country, or limit them-
selves to only a certain period of time.

In such a specialization one finds a great variety of individual taste,
and a great latitude of ability of the collector. For example, one may find
collections of pre-revolutionary period, including Poland, Finland, Russian
Levant, and Creta, stamps of only Russia and USSR, or stamps of only one
newly formed country, or group of countries like Caucasus, Baltic States,
etc. In a more narrow sphere of specialization one may show collections of
Zemstvo stamps, local emissions, or the town post ssamps, or those of the
steamship posts, and others. It is sufficient to examine any issue of the
Rossica Journal, or BJRP to see the great detail which is used by different
collectors in covering various angles of their specialties. For example, in
#44 Rossica Journal, Russian Edition, we find the brilliant article by our

46, 47 31

Honored :Member and Editor of the Russian and English editions of the Rossica
Journal, Dr, G. B. Salisbury, about the Romanov Jubilee Series of 1913 (more
fully detailed and richly illustrated in the BJRP, in a serial form begin-
ning with #8). We also find uForgeries of the Airpost Series of 1934 USSR"
by our Hon. President, E. M. Archangelsky, in the Russian Edition, and many
others dealing with specialized subjects.

A direct opposite to these type of collections are the subject collect-
ions. Here the main element appears to be the picture on the stamps. If
more than one stamp bearing same picture has been issued, the collector will
often show only one of these and variations in shade, perforations, etc. are
ignored altogether, nor are the postmarks shown, as these do not play any
role in a collection of this type. The cheaper stamps of the series are used.
Under these conditions it is not difficult to form complete collections, as
these can be housed in small albums, and they do not call for any special
efforts on the part of the collector. One can enter a stamp store and easily
acquire a complete collection of waterfalls, animals or flowers on stamps of
the entire world. Of course, for young collectors, and those who gather
stamps of such type this may be very useful and pleasant, as it gives them a
chance to collect stamps of the entire world. It teaches the young to
motivate their collections, and to love stamp collecting.

As I had said before, subject collections can be very easily completed
as a great majority of these emissions are issued specially for the collectors,
therefore the quantities issued are large enough to take care of the increased
demand for these stamps, and is within the reach of the majority of the
collectors. S

Almost all the stamps of the "subject" issues are on sale and can be
found in any stamp store. Thus it is possible to complete such a collection
within a short time, all depending on the ability of the collector to pay
the price. What, then remains for the collector to do when his collection is
completed The answer is simple: almost nothing, except to look for the new
issues. Even better, easier, one can place a standing order with any dealer
for all the new issues featuring the subject matter, and they will be sent to
him as they appear on the market. The collector does not even have to worry
about purchasing the stamps or to lose any time in seeking them, all that he
has to do is to mount them in an album, which in this way will always be
complete. Can we call this type of collecting, philately.- No, of course
not! This does not offer any interest to the serious philatelist. This is
nothing but a primitive accumulation of picture which have nothing in common
with philately. Such methods of collecting is a complete fall or decadence
of philately. A serious collector will not pay any attention to such "subject"

Philatelist, in the full meaning of such a word, knows fully that he
can never have a complete collection, that his collection will grow, altering
its character, widening in its scope. A full and complete collection cannot
be possible to atrue philatelist, even if he does have all the numbers in the
catalogue in his: field of collecting. This is but the beginning of his special-
ized collection which he can never complete. A collection of this type can
be continued by several generations and improved with years.

32 46, 47

In my eyes, an entirely different type of collection is the thematic
collection, which the majority mix up and confuse with the subject collect-
ing, although there is nothing in common between them,

In a thematic collection the governing and the controlling idea is the
theme of the collection. The theme itself selects the countries, territories
and the epoch of the philatelic side-line in which the subject matter on-the
stamps plays but a secondary role. I shall clarify this by several examples.
One of the earliest branches of the thematic collections was the "Air Post".
Almost from the first, the use of the airways for postal communications in-
terested many philatelists who begun collecting air mail stamps. During the
first years of the air mail, when there were no special stamps issued, the
collectors started to accumulate covers which were sent by air post, many
having cancellations showing that they were flown. These covers were the
first items of the air mail collectors. Shortly afterwards a term "aero-
grammes" appeared for the flown by air covers. This was quickly adopted, and
accepted by philatelists. As it is known, the aerogramme is the letter sent
via air, having dated postmarks of mailing and reocipt and special cancella-
tions or etiquettes, or both, proving that the letter was carried by an air-
plane, or other air conveyance, At the dawn of the air mail development,
various pioneers made special sclo flights, and took with them a small number
of letters, which received special cancellations and cachets, with the name
of the pla.a and sometimes with the name of the aviator. Such aerogrammes
are extremely rare and are valued by the aeTophilatelists as much as the
rarest of stamps, I do no say "by their weight of gold" as their worth is
far greater than that.

With the appearance of special stamps for the air post, the number of
aerophilatelists immediately greatly increased, clubs were formed, and spe-
cial catalogues, Sanabria, Silombra, etc. as well as the journals were
published. With the establisiimunt of the regular air routes we find letters
with imprinted or gummed etiquettes with inscription "Air Post". In almost
all of the countries these inscriptions appeared in the native language plus
the Frenth equivalent Par Avion". These are collected by the specialists
and are catalogued and described in a special catalogue, such as one written
by FraLnk I.ueller and published in France.

Almost from the first development of aviation when the air flight meet-
ings of pioneer pilots were organized, and which were attended by great
masses of spectators, special commemorative cachet or vignettes were pre-
pared by th3 organizers for these events. These gave complete data of the
event. With the organization of the air post, semi-official stamps began to
appear issued by private air organizations. All of these labels and unof-
ficial stamps became part of the thematic specialized collections of the air

Likewise aereohilatelists included into their sphere of collecting aero-
grammes of the tie of the siege of Paris (1870-71) when the sole method of
communications between the besieged town and the outside world, were the
balloons which carried official documents of various departments as well as
letters from private citizens.

These balloons functioned with regularity from September 18, 1870 to Janu-
ary 27, 1871 and their pilots chanced the winds, not knowing where the baloons
would land. These baloonists, landing in the friendly territory, turned over
the documents and the letters which they carried to proper authorities whicn
delivered the mail to its final destination.

46, 47 4

The aerogrammes of the time of the Siege of Paris "par ballon monte"
are scarce and are highly prized by the specialists of France and airpost.

To aerophilately we can also add private messages sent by the pigeon
post during the siege of Paris. They were sent on the thinnest of paper.
Pigeon Post also existed in 1898 and 1899 on the little island of Oceania,
the Great Barrier Island, which the steamships visited very rarely. This
post supplemented the usual steamship post. It was privately organized by
firm of lessrso Smales and Parkin, and existed almost a year from October
1898 to October 1899, Letters sent by this post and bearing stamps specially
issued for that purpose are extremely rare and are much sought after by the

Enough on this subject. One only has to read the articles about aero-
philately in the pre.-war issues of the Rossika Journal, written by our. Hon
President E. M. Archangelsky to realize the great development of the airport.
I merely wish to state that this branch of collecting is nothing else but one
of the types of thematic collecting.

Dr. Voropinsky in his article in #14 writes of one collection which
received the highest honors at several exhibitions, titled the "Second World
War". This theme is extremely interesting as it allows collectors a wide
latitude to present their individuality and to create with their collection
a most interesting historical document, I have not seen this collection, 1
am very sorry to say, but judging from the fact that it received the highest
awards at the international shows. I presume that its owner collected not
only the official postage stamps of the warring nations but also included a
wide field of postal documents and letters, not seen generally in the
catalogues. This would cover the censor letters, letters from one warring
nation to another, essays or projects of stamps which were not issued, such
as the Vlasov stamps, stamps issued by the Polish prisoners of war in the
German camps, stamps issued by the Germans for the use in the Jewish Ghettos,
forged stamps created for the purposes of espionage and other uses, although
not official, of great interest as historical documents of that period.

I saw an analogous collection of the theme of "First World War" formed
by the late Nicholas N. E"vrepnov, one of the greatest Russian theatrical
figures, author of nany monographs on the theatre, and a famous dramatist.
It is quite understandable how a man of such delicate taste and an esthete
by nature would create a philatelic chev d'houvre. He worked on this theme
for years, including not only the regular postage stamps, but a large number
of unofficial ones and labels and vignettes, issued by all the warring
nations, and some neutrals. Description of this collection would entail a
separate and lengthy article, but I limit myself to but a few words. H4s
collection which covered the entire story of the World War I (1914-1918)
was formed with a great knowledge and skill, so that a viewer could study it
as if it were a historical monograph.

Dr. Salisbury informs us in his "Literary Review" of the collectors of
the letters of Crimean and the Russo-Japanese Wars, and in the prewar issues
of Rossica, readers frequently were informed of similar collections of the
Russo-urkish War. These collections consisted almost entirely of war post-
marks, or special numeral cancellations on the stamps current at that time
and used by the warring nations, as special stamps issued for sale to the
philatelists did not exist at that time. This type of material is very rare

34 46, 47

and to create a sho-piece out of srch collection is extremely difficult.
Few letters remained or were saved from those epochs and for that reason
they rarely appear on the market. Thus the collectors of this type of
material produce purely philatelic and not speculative collections. In
spite of their scarcity they do not bring high prices. As for the philate*
lists who create these war thematic collections over a long period of time,
they show true and unselfish love for philately.

Besides "war" or "fieldpostl' collections, there e;:ist many other
interesting thematic collections. Known to me are the specialized collections
of Red Cross, Anti-Tuberculosis, and other welfare or charity organizations.
In these we find not only the postage stamps but also vignettes (vinietki)
or labels of these organizations, and these collections are formed with skill
and originality. I must men+ion a mos, interesting collection which I saw in
the far of Venezuela, on the theme of the "Civil War in Spain". It was for:aec
by our Rossfca member I.martin -o''r-, who was at that time in Spain, and who
began to gather this material at beginning of the conflict and under most
trying circumstances. He was fortunately able to emigrate to South America,
and there he continued his proieut to the present day, by corresponding with
Spanish philatelists, who send hin the needed material, During the nineteen
years he created a most interesting and richly historical thematic collection.

A large part of the postage stamp material in this collection bears a
semi-official character. These stamps were issued by local town, governments,
military groups, charity organizations such as Red Cross, etc. by both warring
factions and in large quantities. A major portion of these stamps has never
Ieen catalogued, nor described. For this reason, few ever collected them
and over the period of years they have gradually disappeared. This collection
in my opinion is rare, and is a historical document, in view of its complete-
ness and write-up and development. It tal:es up about 600 al-um pages of large
size. I am exerting all of my efforts to have the owner of this collection
write it up completely, and catalogue it.

Extremely unusual thematic collections are held by Dr. Salisbury, and
these are valuable contributions to the history of the posts and philately.
One of these, is the previously mentioned Romanov Tercentenary Issue collect-
ion, housed in ten huge albums, and containing not only the various essays,
proofs, errors, and other varieties but also the followings

1-Geoeraphic charts of the domains of all the Czars.
2-Geneologic tree of all the Czars and the Grand Dukes of the Dynasty.
3-Kand painted portraits of all the Czars, drawn by Dr. Salisbury.
4-Documents, acts concerning the major accomplishments of the Czars,
especially those dealing with the development of the posts, as well
as historical outlines of the individual reigns,
5-All historical data, and the story of the Issue of 1913, and detailed
information about its preparation and use,
6-Romanov stamps with cancellations prior to their legal appearance,
i.e. 1912 and afterwards the last known cancellation (July 14, 1922)
7-Romanov stamps with the first day of use cancellations, various
postmarks, and colored cancellations.
8-Romanov stamps with overprints of Levant, 1rangel, Far Eastern
Republic, Armenia, Ukraine, etc. Cancellations of the entire Empire,
postmarks outside of the Empire such as China, Percia, etc. Lute

46, 47 35

cancellations of World War 1, censor markings, Red Cross, Prisoner of War
combinations with Zemstvo stamps, J. N. F. labels, charity labels, etc.
Combination of Romanovs and other stamps, also with Soviets, Soviet over-
prints on Romanovs, Soviet cancellations on Romanovs, etc. Railroad and
steamship cancellations, as well as other postmarks of that period. For
complete study of this issue see the serialized and illustrated articles
beginning in #8 issue of B.JR.P.

Another collection formed by Dr. Salisbury has the brief title,
"History of the Posts" and it consists of a whole series of independent
collections, united by the theme of the 'H:Ltuvry of ths World Wide Posts".
We wait ,rith impatience a write up of these cll.ectioud and we hope that
this will enrich our journal by the details of this theme. Here is the
brief outline of the various parts of this collection.

1-Photographs and historical relies and documents on which are de-
scribed ancient methods of correspondence such as papyrus, clay tablets, etc.
2-Photosp descriptions and pictures on stamps depicting methods of
mail delivery in various lands smch as Pigeon Popt, letters tied to arrows,
covers with cachets and cancollationa of the Pacifit "Tin Can Mail", etc.
3-Examples of pre-philatel"c or pre-Otamp letters, special interest
being placed on Russian and British Mails,
4-Examples of transit markings showing routes via Prussia, Poland,
Italy and France,
5-Cholera letters, and other types of disinfected mail from the areas
hit by epidemics. On these one finds evidence of chemical disinfection,
i.e. specially made slits and perforations for the destruction of harmful
germs. These letters show the cancellations of Lazarettos or disinfection
centers which performed the cleansing of mail.
6-Stamps showing varies methods of mail delivery during various
periods. They include coaches, runners, riders, sailships, steamships,
railroads, airpost, etc.
7-Stamped envelopes, postcards and other types of entire of first
8-Letters tied with stamps of the first issues of various countries.
9-Stamps, cachets, souvenir sheets, issued in honor of 100th. anni-
versary of the issuance of the first postage stamp, as well as material
related to it such as Penny Blacks. Penny reds and two penny blues on and
off cover, Mulready envelopes, stamps of the world showing commemorative
stamps of various lands on and off cover mounted on pages along with the
first stamp of that country.
10-Philatelic terminology as shown on stamps such as imperforates,
various types of perforations and paper, watermarks, errors, se-tenant
and tete-beche varieties, etc. Various types of mailing, such as regis-
tered, insured with declared value, wrappers (banderoli), letter cards
(secretki), postcards (otkritki), etc.
11-Methods of stamp manufacture with examples and description, also
names and inscriptions of engravers and designers.
12-Stamps with portraits of leading world collectors, stamps with
post offices, postmasters, etc.

36 46, 47

13-Great Siberian Route-letters and stamps with cancellations of all
the Post Offices located on the rairoad in European Russia, Siberia
and China. Geographic charts, photos of towns, stations, trains
as well as advertising pamphlets showing train interiors.
14-Stamps and other material relating to the 75th. Jubilee of U.P.U.
15-Material such as stamps, labels, cancellations, etc. pertaining to
Philatelic exhibitions, congresses, and many other special events.

From my experience I can say that this thematic collection is one of
the most important and interesting to have. We can only hope that it will
be shown at one of the early International shows. Frlatelists will be
able to learn how to unite by one idea their collections and create a truly
historic document.

There is quite a difference between the early primitive collections in
which the perforations were carefully trimmed by scissors and stamps then
glued with thick glue into notebooks, aad the artistically worked out
special collections of the present day philatelista.

The aim of this article is to enlarge the horizons of the collectors
and to give them the ideas of how to enliven and to enrich their collections
and give them a theme and a purpose.


by Leone de Yiagistris, Genova, Italy, 1954. 31pp. Price $2.50.

Reviewd by Capt. S. de Schramchenko

This fine and well illustrated catalogue of the war time revenue
stamps of the Allies in Europe, includes the U.S, stamps issued for Germany,
Venezia, Trieste, especially of Zone B, etc. Jugoslavian occupation,
covers stamps of the League of Nations and OHY beginning with year 1926
issue for Passports of Nansen, where we find stamps issued for Armenian,
Saar Territ'r.y, Russian, Georgian, Ukrainian (see Fig. 1) and Spanish
refugees, Valuation of the stamps is very high. As for example one of
the stamps issued for the Ukrainians, i.e. one in blue color, having a
face value of 50 gold franks, is valued at $18.00.

It is regretable that the author did not include in this catalogue
the Nansen stamps of France, "IPO" issues for various political Nansen
emigres, namely the Ukrainians, which issued a 5 gold frank stamp shown
on Fig. 2,


We wish to extend our congratulations to Mr. Arthur Shields on his
recent marriage to Miss Laurie Bailey.


BALTIC POSTAGE STAi.P CATALOGUE, published in 1948 lists Soviet
issues overprinted for use in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Each
country is written up in its mother tongue, plus German and English.

46, 47 37

(Courtesy of the B. S. of R. P.)

This is probably the most controversial subject within the Russian
philatelic galaxy. I do not intend to enter into a debate as to whether
or not they were official issued, suffice it is to say that they were at
least tolerated and covers are known genuinely used. They present an
interesting philatelic background to those very troublesome times and the
many forgeries only serve to whet the collectors appetite.

I do not intend to cover old ground, the historical and controversial
backgrounds have been amply covered by Dr. G. B. Salisbury and Dr. A. H,
Wortman in various issues of the British Journal of Russian Philately and
there seems to be a slight chance that the Soviets DID authorize the over-

PHRYGIAN CAP on blocks of L.

These overprints are said to have been printed at the Soviet Printing
Works at Petrograd (Saikin, Per 6) and were authorized by the Soviet Council
which was meeting at the Smolny institute, the issue is stated to have been
on sale at the Petrograd and Kolpino post offices only.

The date of issue has been given as March 15, 1917.

The overprint consists of a Phrygian Cap superimposed on two naked
crossed swords, the spaces between the blades and the hilts contain the
inscription "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity" in Russian.

As will be seen from the illustrations, there were at least four known
forgeries and a sub-type, for convenience I think it would be better to des-
cribe the forgeries first and the originals.

Forgery Not 1.

Easily recognized by the large blob of ink at the bottom of the
rignt point,

Forgery No: 2.

Points rounded, printing indistinct, but recognized at once the missing
nob on the left hilt.

Forgery No- 3.

Clear, sharp printing, points of swords broad and regular.

There are two types of this forgery:-

Type A. Type B,

Cliche measures 38 mm. high. Cliche measures 29- mm. high.

38 4 46, 47

This forgery was set up to cover two vertical strips of 20 stamps
each and the cliches were arranged alternately normal and tete-beche.
Four out of ten cliches were type "A" and six were type "B".

Forgery No: 4.

Both points are pointed.


Left point rounded and right point sharp.

General Notes:-

From a very large collection the following facts emerge:-

1-All stalnps overprinted sideways have been either forgeries
No. 3 or No. 4.

2-The colors of the genuine are fairly consistent as shades of red,
but the colors of the forgeries are most variable, black, however,
is an exception, it is consistent to both genuine and forged.

3-Postal stationary exists, but since my collection contains only
four items it would be useless to list them.

4-Many blocks may be found with "guarantee marks, those of Trachten-
berg to say the least are questionable.

5-Fronm y own collection it seeae that only one is eight is genuine.

6-Forged Postmarks.

I possess the following, all of which appear on one or another of
the four forged overprints, some are found on forged Registered
letters vith Pegistration labels:-

Postmarked Yekaterinodar Postmarked Kohilev

9. 12. 17 29. 1. 18 7. 2. 18. 5. 8. 17. (in black)
8. 2. 18 22. 2. 18 9. 8. 17. (in lilac)

LISTINGS Overprint varies in shades of red,

(a)-On ordinary postage stamps

Ik. orange 4k. carmine-red
a-overprint black a-overprint double
b-overprint inverted
2k. green c-overprint double, one
a-overprint black inverted
d-overprint double
3k. red

46, 47 39

(a),-On ordinary postage stamps (continued)

"4k. carmine-red (continued) 1Ck. blue
14k. Blue-green. Forgery. Type 3
T .e 1. normal
double, one inverted 15k. Red-brown
one black,one red
Tye 3. normal 20k, Olive-green. Forgery. Type 3
Type normal 35k. Dull-green and Slate-violet
inverted a-inverted
sideways to left b-double
sideways to right c-double, one inverted
sideways to ri ght,...-
double Forgeries:-
7k. Brown
a-double Te L sideways to left
b-double, one inverted sideways to right

Forgeries:- 50k. Slate-brown
Type 1. inverted
Tvoe 3, normal Forgerg:-
Tvye A. normal
inverted Type normal
sideways to left
sideways to right

(b)-On Currency stamps of 1915.

10k. Blue 15k. Cinnamon. Forgeries.
b-double Type 1. normal
c-double, one inverted printed on back
d-overprint in black double inverted
TyNe 2. normal
Forgeries:- inverted
TyNe v sideways to left
Type 4. sideways to left sideways to right
sideways to right
Type 2. inverted 20k. Olive-green
Type 1. normal a-inverted
inverted, double b-double, one inverted
c-overprint black
15k. Cinnamon
a-inverted Forgeries:-
c-double inverted Tye 1. normal
d-double, one inverted normal, black
Type 2. inverted
Type A. sideways to left
sideways to right

40 46, 47

(c)-On issues of 1916-17,

10k. on 7k, brown 20k, on 14:. green
a-inverted a-inverted
b-double b-double
c-double, one inverted c-double, one inverted

Forperies:- For eries:-

TTvre I normal i Tye 1. inverted
inverted Tre 2. inverted
T_-e 3 normal double, one inverted
sideways to left Tye 3, normal
sideways to left
sideways to right

Summary Table of blocks of four.

A. Normal G. Printed on the back
B, Double H. Sideways to left
C, Inverted I. Sideways to right
D. Double, one inverted J. Black overprint (the normal is red,
E. Double inverted or shades).
f. Double (red & black)

All overprints listed in the table below may be taken as red,
except those in the column "J".

"VALUE IA.C.D. F .G.H .I.J....A,BC .DE.F.G.H.I.J.. .AE .C.D .-F.G.HI.JIL
2k. I 4

S 15k. *
50k. *

On 1915
I k.
i 50k. *

On 1916-17
10 10k. *

120k. on k. ** *
46 k. on 41k. * **
46,4-7 _.,_--- -- -i1

4 6, 47 41

I -;

SVa.ue... ..A .C.D .E .F.G.H.I.J.. ..... .C...F.GH.I .J

i4k. ** i
7k. *
14k. *
15k. i
20k. *
50k ;

On 1915

10k. !

20k. *

On 1916-17

10 on 7k *
20 on 14. *

Overprint of the first communique of the Soviet Deputies, covering
blocks of eight stamps.

TRANSLATION OF GO"TULi'T7E (by Dr. Fleicher)

"The Deputy Karaulov arrived at the Duma and announced that the Tsar
Nicholas II had abdicated in favor of the Grand Duke Miichael Alexandrovich.
The latter in turn had abdicated in favor of the people."

"Rejoicing and congratulations took place in the Duma. The enthusiasm
is beyond description."

As far as I know there are no forgeries of this issue. There are two
types of this overprint, as follows:-

Place the block so that the overprint reads down, as in the illustration.
It will be noticed that the BOTTOM of the stamp is either pointing to the
left (as in the illustration) or to the right.

Tyael. Bottom of stamp to right.

Type 2. Bottom of stamp to left.

42 46, 47

Overprint in BlacV

Tvpe 1
(a)-On ordinary Romanov postage stamps

1k. Orange 35k. Dull-green and Slate-violet
i a-overprint red
4k, Caruine-red
a-double, one red, one black. 50k. Slate and Bronm.

7k. Brown

(b)-On currency stamps of 1915

10k. Blue 20k. Olive-green
a-overprint red
15k. Cinnamon b-double, one red and one black

(a)-On ordinary Romanov postage stamps.

4k. Carmine-red 35k. Dull-green and Slate-violet
a-overprint red
50k. Slate and Broirn
7k. Brown

(b)-On currency stamps of 1915

10k. Blue 20k. Olive-green
a-double a-overprint red
b-double, one red one black
15k. Cinnamon

(c)-On issues of 1916-17

10k. on T7. Brownm 20k. on 14k. Green
Summary Tnble of blocks of eight.
________ TYF 1. _TYPE. 2.
Value. .A B. C. D,. ..A. B. C. D..
lk, -

7k. A.-Normal (black overprint)
35k. B.-Double
50k. C,-Double, one red and one
"- black
10k. D.-Overprint red
15k. *
20k. *

1GIk. on 7. *
1 20k. on 14k. *

46, 47 43

Overprinted with the proclamation by the Tsar and Grand Duke Michael,
covering blocks of twelve stamps.

Translation of Proclamation (translation by Lr. Prilutzki).

"Information for the Petrograd Soviet of Horkers and Soldiers Dele.gtes".

No: 5 Free issue.

larch 4, 1917

After reading out, to be distributed and stuck up on walls.


Abdication of Nicholas and Lichcel Romanov. Abdication of Romanov of
Holstein. Relations between Officers and Men. Difficult inheritance.

Abdication of the Throne.

Nicholas II appointed Prince Lvov as Minister General.

Telegram from the Commander in Chief of the North Front Army, General Danilov.

tGeneral Alekseiev informed that His Maajesty signed a decree for the
Government appointing Prince Lvov as a President of the Senate.

Adjutant-General Alekseiev. March 3, 1917'

The following telegram will be conveyed to all Armies and is then to be
printed and dispatched to all Units of the Armies.

'Abdication of Nicholas Romanov1

Telegram transmitted:-

for Commander in Chief of the Navy by
Captain ist. class, Count Kappist.

for Commander in Chief of the Baltic Fleet,
by Vice-Admiral Nepomochny.

Text of Declaration.

tIn the days of the great struggle against the outward enemy who has been
trying for nearly three years to enslave our country, it is the Will of
Heaven to send a new strenuous trial for all Russians.

In accordance with the SLate Duma, We acknowledge it is best to abdicate
the Throne of Russia and to resign from the High Command. As We do not

44 46, 47

not lite to part from our dearest son we pass on the legacy to our brother
Grand Duke iichael Alexandrovich with our blessings on him to ascend the

We appeal to all our faitfull sons of the Fatherland to fulfil their
Holy Duty to it in obedience to the Tsar in his grave minute of trail for
all the peoples and to help him, together with the peoples representatives
and to lead Russia on a road to Victory, prosperity and Glory. May God
help Russia.


2nd. March, 15.00 hours, 1917. Pskov.


Secretary of the Emperor's Court.

Count Frederics. Adjutant-General.

As far as I know, there are no forgeries of this issue. The normal
normal cverprint is in black.

Overprint in Black:-
(a)-On ordinary Romanov postage stamps.

Ik. Orange 35k. Dull-green and Slate-violet
4k. Carmine-red
a-inverted 50k. Slate and Brown.
c-overprint red
d-overprint red, double
e-double, one red and
one black.

7k. Brown
bmoverprint red.

(b)-On currency stamps of 1915

10k. Deep Blue 20k. Olive green
a-inverted a-inverted
b-overprint red b-overprint red.
c-overprint red, inverted c-double, one red and
one black.
15k. Cinnamon

46, 47 45

(c)-On issues of 1916-17

10k. on 7k. Brown 20k. on 14k. Green

Summary Table of blocks of twelve.

Value A B4 C.1 D, EJ F. G.

4k." ,*! *_ -"- Symbols.

3k.i *k A-Normal (black overprint)
50k. 'i !. B-Inverted
--. .-- ------ ... -Double
10k i D-Double, one black and
..5k. 4 one red.
"-20k E-Overprint Red
.--- F-Red double
10k. on 7k. GRed inverted
20k. on 14k. '
_____ IJ.. ... .. i L

*0 .* ** *0 0 ** *** *** 0

048 00 0 0 0a *. *@0 00a


Oordially invites you to Join its ranks if you are interested in the
Postage Stamps or Postal History of Russia or associated States. Founded
in 1936, the society has over 150 members in many parts of the World. The
Official Organ of the Society--the profusely illustrated BRITISH JOURNAL
OF RUSSIAN FHILAtTELYis published three times a year and offers results
of research into many problems concerning Russian Philately. Membership
offers a great many advantages to the collector keen on the Russian group
of countries. Write to Honorary Secretary, J. Barry, Esq., 53a St. James
Road, Sutton, Surrey, England. Dues $3.00 a year plus $1.00 entrance fee
on joining.

From time to time, many handbooks are published either by or in ass-
ociation with, the society. THE TRIDENT ISSUES OF THE UKRAINE: PART III,
(Price $1.50), also ARMWEIA Part I (Price $1.25), Part II out.
Back Issues of Journal------ ..----Nos, 8 to 17 for sale at $1.00 each.

46 46, 47

by J. H. Reynolds




BLOCKS 8 8 .

S o uhi g =
fORE Y O,3 OSsR P0.


by R, POlchaninoff
A series of stamps is known under this title with the Russian inscript-
ion "FOCHTA" (post) and the values in "kop" and "rub". This series consisting
of 50 kop., 1, 2,4 and 10 rubles was issued by the Nazis for the Vlasov Army
or, quite probably for his "Civil Government",

This issue does not appear as "unique" of its type, as a similar one waE
issued by the Hindu Legion "Azahind" for the punpose of propagandizing the
idea of liberating India. "Azahind stamps are known to collectors and
are not scarce. Vlassov stamps however are not well known and no one can
give exact information about them at the present time. Franklin R. Bruns,
curator of the national stamp collection in the Smithsonian Institute,
Washington, in his book "Stamp Guide" mentions three values (50 kop, 1 and
2 rubles) and gives the following absolutely inaccurate information.
"German stamps prepared by GoeLbbels for use in Russia, but never used". I
wish to answer the author that if the Nazis had decided to allow postal
communications for the Russian population Goebbels would not have been
involved directly, the issue would have been approved by "Ost Ministry"
and issued by the Postal Department or ministry of Posts. Further, I wish
to call author's attention to the fact that during the first months of the
war, in the territories occupied by the Germans, at the initiative of the
local governments, posts were established, for the use of the local populatioL
but these were quickly suppressed, after the party circles in Berlin found
this out. There the"CBusade against Communism" was developed and enlarged
as a war against the Russian people, uning the Nazi terminology uUntermensch"

A "Dienstpost" was established on the territory of USSR occupied by the
Nazis, but only the Germans were allowed to use it.

The population was permitted to use the German post only in the Baltic
region which along with IWhite Russia constituted Ostland, and here the letters
could be sent either within this area or to Germany.

As for the designs of the stamps of the so called Vlassov series. I
consider it necessary to point out a fact that they carry no inscription
except "P 0 C H T A" nor any emblems, thus there is no incontestable proof
that they were printed for Vlassov. At the same time the stamps of the Hindu
Legion contained the inscription and very suitable designs such a legionaire
with the machine gun, nurse, etc. If there were no Russian inscription
"P 0 C H T A", it would be difficult to find any connection with Russia.
Even the letters "k" and "P' for the Russian values are so printed that they
are barely noticeable.

Those who know the politics of the Nazis towards the Russian Army of
Liberation, will not find anything unusual in this. Nazis created various
difficulties to the Vlassov Movement of Liberation, from the start in 1942,
to the end (before November 1944. Even in 1943 Vlassov was confined at home
under house arrest. Nazis needed the ideas of the Vlassov movement for pro-
paganda purposes on that front, but feared it and limited it in every way, in
Germany and in the occupied territories. The author of this article had spoke

46, 47 47

with many officers of P. 0. A. and officials of the Civil Government, but
no one, not even the philatelists knew anything about these stamps, noT
heard of them. Truethis does not prove anything, as the majority of these
men were turned over to the Communists immediately after the war, according
to the Yalta agreement.

We must assume that these stamps were issued in 1944 or even in 1945,
possibly after the Prague Manifesto (actually at the beginning of his
activity 14. X1. 1944), then it could have been possible that neither the
P. 0. A. nor the Civil Government could have seen those stamps ad soon after
the lianifesto the entire staff was evacuated from Berlin to Karlsbad. Had
they been issued earlier they could not have gone through unnoticed by the

I read about these stamps in "Briefmarken Neucheitenliste i", Munchen,
issued by Kuzzl in 1946, as unknown stamps, possibly as Soviet occupation
stamps. From this we see that the German philatelists, very well informed
about the "Azahind" stamps knew nothing about the Vlassov stamps.

After this notice in the press, I learned the following details from
one prominent German philatelist in the Soviet Sector of Berlin.

"Vlassov stamps, about which we speak, during the moment of capitulation,
were lying about on the streets of Berlin and these were grabbed by boys.
Those which fell into the hands of the Soviet authorities were confiscated,
but a certain quantity fell into the hands of stamp dealers and these were
sent to the Western Germany".

Another important philatelist, Dr. Schultz, well known author of the
Book "Deutche Dienpost 1939-45" (German Post in the occupied lands) wrote
to me that he has a Vlassov stamp on cover cancelled by point "Ostskommand-
antur Sloboda".. This is a phantasy of a philatelist, amd it is most likely
of the time of post capitulation.

Known to me are also three stamps (50 kop., 1 and 2 rub.) cancelled in
German "Berlin" with the gum on the back. Officially these stamps could not
have been cancelled by the German post and are likewise a phantasy.

280 Riverside Drive
New York 25. N.Y.


Want lists for collectors and dealers
filled by return. Better grade approval
books by country also available. Many
rarities and oddities for specialists.


Other Continents at hand, although weaker.

48 46, 47

Hacmosauue:C E S .-GENUINE

noggeyxu: C E S *FORGED
I. TIFLIS, Nov. 1857.
1 2 3 N





by Kurt Adler

Recently an interesting cover, illustrated elsewhere in this journal
came into my hands. It bears the unusual postmark of AIEXANEOVSKOYE Ez
CASTRI. It took a great deal of research to establish the identity and
history of this little town.

Alexandrovskoye ( or Alexandrovaky )-de Castri is situated on the
Eastern coast of Siberia, across from the Island of Sakhalin, and divided
from it by the Tartar Straits. It lies on the Bay of de Castri (named
after a former Russian Naval Minister) and was founded as a military post.
In order not to be confused with the larger town of Alexandrovak on the
Island of Sakhalin, the name of the Castri was added to its postmark.

Alexandrcvsky, now renamed de Castri by the Soviets, is not easily
accessible for ships From December to the end of April it is icebound
and during the summer months there is a lot of fog which makes navigation
extremely difficult. The Bay of de Castri, however, offers an excellent
refuge to ships fleeing the storms of the Tartar Straits.

The postmark measures 22-- am. in diameter and contains no year date.
On the left side of the postmark, the year (18) 95 is filled in by
manuscript, and the day of use is July 22nd. In 1895, the Transsiberiea
Railroad had not yeat been built and the mail to Europe would be dispatched
much faster by boat via Japan.

This cover bears on the reverse side the cancellation of "Nagasaki
23 August 95" and "Yokohama, 28 August 95" and originated from "H.M.S.
Edgar". The writer was either a passenger on that ship or used its
stationery. *) It is addressed to Colne, Lancashire, England, where it
was backstamped Oct. 5, 95. Since weather conditions permitted only com-
paratively few ships to anchor at Alexandrovsky during the year to take on
mail and since the town must have been small in 1895, the postmark undoubt-
edly is a rare one.

*)The interim of one month between the original postmark and the
Japanese transitory postmarks illustrate the difficulties of
mail service from Alexandrovakoye-(de Castri).



One of our members, Kurt Adler, had the good fortune to acquire at
an auction a copy of a COLOR PROOF of Russian Offices in Turkey, Scott No.
1, in chocholate brown color. This proof, although rarely seen on the
market, is not unknown. Two copies were sold at the Faberge Auction and
the proof is mentioned in Prigara's handbook. Another Color Proof of this
stamp exists in rose (pink) color).

46, 47 49

Addenda by vaius membera-(Cont. from Pe -26 Roassiea 4).

Wm. Stephen of Scotland

"The Russian Royal Family had large interests in this Company.
Alexander I had 10,000 Rouble holding and the Tsaritsa and Tsarevitch had
similar investments, The price of the original shares rose in first three
years from 1000 roubles to 3727. Baranov was governor for 28 years, 1790-
1818, handing over his accounts, in perfect order, to his successor Capt.
Hagemeister. Baranov's great dream of a Russian-Asiatic Empire based on
Okhotsk, Novo-Arkhangelsk, Roos Colony and Hawaii was never realized. Dr,
Scheffer was responsible for the possible loss of the Sandwich Islands by
his misconduct. Baranov had sent him there in 1815."

Ross Colony was founded on August 30, 1812 by Kuzkov, a lieutenant
of Baranovrs and was eventually sold to a German-Swiss Johann August
Sutter, (the Emperor of California) in 1841. On this property the first
discovery of gold was made in Western America 7 years later.

R. Sklarevaki has a stampless dated October 4, 1844 from St. Petersburg,
enclosing a list of bonds, etc. from Joseph Pongis. It lists the bonds
of "Companie Russe-Americaine". Original Price 142.85 5/7. Selling
price 218.

R. S. Calhoun (Covers Vol. XV. Nov. 8. Aug. 1955) states, "little is
known of Russian postal service but one historian reports a cover sent to
Hong-Kong in 1857 by the.Russian American Ice Co. of Sitka, Alaska; it
carries a San Francisco ostmark."

Rossika #48 will have an interesting article from the pen of W. S. E.
Stephen of Scotland-"Notes on Early Period of Russo-Alaskan Position
During the Early Period of Colonization."


Because of a change in type of collecting I am disposing of a
collection and duplicates of stamps of Europe. You can purchase at
moderate prices complete series of stamps and singles of Russia, USSR,
Austria, Germanys French Occupied Zone, Saar, France, Trieste A and E
and other countries. Also the Cpat of Arms of Provinces of Venezuela.
All stamps are in excellent condition, many varieties.

Want lists and requests for want lists are desied.

VIKTCR CERNY 841 W. 177th. Street. New York 33. N.Y.


by S, Gibrick

A part sheet of 36 6o South Russian Revenue stamps gives us an
interesting insight not only on the revenue stamps of South Russia,
but also on the original printing of the revenue amps of the Imperial
Russia, and also brings up a number of interesting questions.

50 46, 47

Thsse stamps of South Russia were discussed in Marcovitch's article
in the previous issue of Rossica, and also by Posell in this issue of the
journal, The illustration shows that the original. Imperial revenue stamps
of this printing were printed NCRMAL every odd row and INVERTED every even
row, thus giving the following varieties in the sheet.

(a)-tete-beche top to top. (b)-tete-beche bottom to bottom.

The following facts would be very interesting to learn.

(1)-Were the stamps of this issue printed in complete sheets as
described above, or they were printed in NaRMAL manner, except
in some printings*

(2)-Were all values printed in the same manner.

(3)-What were the sizes of the sheets.

One of the reasons were are asking these questions is because we know
that Mr. Sklarevski and others have tete-beche pa.trs of the original
Imperial stamps, mint, in both types (a) and (b), for many values and no
vertical pairs of any, both stamps being normal.

Below is reconstruction of the part sheet of 36 in Gibrick's collection.

Normal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 lst. Row NOTE:-We do not know the size
Invert 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 2nd. Row of the original sheet,
Normal 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 3rd. Row therefore the numbers
Invert 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 4th. Row apply only for this
Normal 33 34 35 36 5th. Row part sheet.


11"50 kop." five times on a stamp,
(A)-Stamp No, 1, etc, normal single.
B)-Vertical pairs (1 & 9, etc.) tete-beche, bottom to bottom.
C)-VtrVical paid's (9 & 17, etc.) tete-beche, top to top.
2-' 50 kop." (4 times) & "20 kop." once on each stamp.
3-Combinations of 1 and 2.
(E)-Vertical pairs (25 & 33, etc.), tete-beche top to top (orig.
stamp). Overprint tete-beche and se tenant, 1 & 2 overprint.

Variety (E) is quite interesting. Of course if one wants a
combination of all, a strip of 5 stamps, stamps 1, 9, 17. 25 and 33 will
tell the whole story.

All 37 stamps are overprinted "Vooruzh. Seely Yuga Rossii" in red
(making them revenue stamps of S. Russia). In addition stamps 1 to 32 are
overprinted "50 kop." in black (5 times) on each stamp. 33 to 36 are over-
printed "50 kop." (4 times) & "20 kop." once (upper right corner) in black
on each stamp.

I strongly believe that the orig. rev, stamps were overprinted "Vooruzh.
Seely Yuga Rossii' for use in S. Russia as Revenue Stamps. Then further
surcharged with the values FOR USE AS REGULAR POSTAGE STAMPS. Of course,
this is only a conjecture, until we find this stamp POSTALY USED ON COVER.

46, 47 51

continuedd from _L45)
by A.M. Rosselevitch

Russian Post in Chinar Issue4 I1_7 in cents ad dollars (los. 50 to 70)

Unlike the previous issues overprinted "KITAI" which have similar
distinguishing characters stics, which alloweasy detection of forgeries,
the stamps of the 1917 issue present many 'diffXic.utics, and because of
that a uniform system of checking become impossible... First of all, the
overprints of 1917 differ, one from anotheIr in forn and measurements,
falling into scvoral groups, about which I will spnea'k later, Besides
this, thorc also e:dst poorly executed genuine overprints, and very
good forgeries.

I am not in agreement with many experts who state that all the over-
prints of 1917 are distingai;ed by clearness and legibility of contours,
and that they were prepared just as carefully as those with the "KITAI"
overprint. This statement is correct only in case of the overprints made
with large and heavy print, LiTh the except-on of the 5 dollars (7i68). The
overprint on Nos. 50 to 63 and 68, is generally executed poorly: in par-
ticular on #63 (one dollar), which is done carelesoi2y in nearly every case*
It would be a major error to raly on the superticiel examination and to
call stamps with more or less c,'.car ooerprint genuine, and those with un-
clear and poorly legible overprint forgeries.

Those general characteristics of the genuine overprints, described
below, should be used only in case of the presence of other data, which will.
be described, and which is essential either for every separate value, or for
groups of similar overprints.

General Characteristics of Genuine Overprints

1-Genuine"-Bright black overprint, especially on mint stamps.
Forgeri yLota2lly or almost dull.

2-Genuine-Thickening of the color on the ends or edges of letters,
craat.ing the impression of a darker, thinner contour, on
values 1 to 10 dollars.
For2er-Contour is not present.

3-Genuine Overprint is never parallel to the diagonal of the stamp.
Fore:1,*Cn majority parallel or almost parallel.

4-Genuine-The outline of numerals and letters shows clearly sharp
corners. Even in the carelessly executed overprints, this
may be seen on all, or several letters.
Forpery-These are rounded.

5-Incline of the overprint.

GROUP 1 GROUP II (thin letter overprint)
"(1 to 5 cents) (15, 25 35, 50 & 70cents)
Genuine-51 degrees. 50 degrees.
Forgery-50 and 52 degrees. 51 or 52 degrees.

52 46, 47

The characteristics for both of these groups of genuine overprints
may be found in the variations in the letters C, E and S in the word "cents"
and may be seen in the illustration.

Letter "C".

Genuine-Resembles a circle with a little cut out on the right.
Forgery-The cut out is larger.

Letter E".

Genuine-All 3 horizontal lines are of different length. Longest-
lover, followed by upper, then the middle line,
Forgery-(a)-all the same length.
(b)-top and bottom the seme length, middle shorter,

Letter "S"z

Genuine-More rounded and the ends bend inside.
Foreerv-Letter is more open and its ends are more horizontal.

A group of three stamps stands apart, having large thick overprints.
Inclines:.310 cents (54). 14 cents (52). 20 cents (51).
Genuine-All vertical strokes of letters are thicker than the horizontal.
Forgery-All are of same thickness.
C!e must note that the forgeries of these three overprints are found
comparatively seldom, as compared with the previous ones.

3 dollars 50 cents (#64). 5 dollars (W65) and 7 dollars (,'66). 10 dollars (/'70:
Stamps printed on the vertically laid paper are to be found with forged
overprints only on cancelled stamps. This is explained by the fact that the
uncverprinted mint stamps of this issue are more o;;pensive than those with
the overprint, thus forgery of overprint would have lowered their market value
Regardless, one must carefully check uncancelled specimens, as we may encounter
forged overprints on stamps with forged gum. One must also examine the
cancellations. We recently examined a very good forged overprint of 10
dollars on a stamp that had a very clear "Peking" postmark. Both the over-
print and the cancellation were forged, placed on a mint copy of Russia 10
rubles (#109), which as we know can easily be found in complete sheets.

Inclines-3 dollars 50 cents (46). 5 dollars (36). 7 dollars (Type 1-37),
(Type 11-47) rarer.

Forged overprints were made on separate cancelled stamps by hand. Inclines
vnry. Black color is uneven, often one side of the overprint is clearer
than the other, and the overprint is often slightly crushed, either fully or
partly. As all of the genuine overprints, without exception, are character-
ised by clearness, legibility and accuracy, it is very easy to distinguish a

46, 47 53

1 dollar.(#63l -Two Types.

1-Very careful overprint. Incline 36 degrees.
2-Carelessly made overprint. Incline 46 degrees. (Scarcer).

Forgery l-Incline 47 degrees.
(a)-ands of letters rounded,
(b)-overprint imm. longer than the genuine.
(c)-color dull black and not bright and shiny as
in genuine.
Forgery II-To distinguish this forgery is difficult, experience
is needed so as not to call a stamp a forgery or
genuine one, because of the careless method of product-
ion of the overprint.

5 dollars (#68). Wove .aper.

This stamp, printed on paper with chalky network, belongs to.a. special
group which differs from the normal (#63). These stamps were overprinted
from a specially prepared cliche inmsheets of 50 stamps, of a slightly
different type than that used for printing sheets of 25 stamps, on paper
with vertically laid lines. It is difficult to describe differences
between the two types of the overprint, i.e. on No. 65 and No. 68. There is
slight differences in spacings between the letters. The following character-
istics are noticeable;-
(a)-incline 36 degrees.
(b)-color of the black overprint is shiny.
(c)-thickening of color on edges of letters, forming a
light contour.
(d)-letters and numerals give the impression of being slightly
crushed, and have rounded corners.
(e)-general view of the overprint is that of a careless job.

Forged Overprints:-
(a)-Inclino 36.5 degrees.
(b)-color of ink blackish gray, this is especially noticed with
a magnifying glass, having in back of the stamp a strong light.
(c)-complete lack of thickening of color on the edges of the letters.
(d)-letters and numerals, strangely, considerably cleared and more
accurate, corners not rounded.
(e)-often, in each letter, to the right or to the left can be seen a
light doubling of the lines, as if the cliche shook or slightly
moved to a side while the printing was done.
(f) length-30mm.
10 dollars on 10 rubles (#70).

The last stamp of this series is on the stamp Vdih chalky network,
which is often seen forged in mint condition, and also cancelled with the
postmark generally illegible.

a*-ncline 49 degrees.
(b)-distance between the vertical stroke of numeral "I" and the
right corner of the last letter equaling 30.75mm.

54 46, 47

(c)-overprint is very clear and lepible, has properly executed corners
and thickening of the ink on the edges of letters.
(d)-color is black and shiny.

(a)-inclLne 48 degrees in the majority of cses (mint stamps).
(b)-distance 30 to 29.5mm.
(c)-rounded corners.
(d)-dull grayish black ink.

10 dollars on 10 rubles Y(72) of 1906.

In Yvert catalogue is found a note about the existence of the overprint
on 10 rubles of 1906 issue, with vertically laid lines. This stamp is priced
very high, and has been listed only for a short time, two or three years.
Neither I, nor any of the important collectors of Russia have seen this
stamps nor has any one been able ti: tll me aboat it. Thus we must place
this stamp under suspticion, rsp'-ially since in Yvert are listed many fantastic
Russian stamps; whion the caLai'{ue:' stubbornly refuses to remove, despite
many protests, and explanations from Russian specialists.

With this I end my brief review of overprints on the stamps of Russian
Post in China, hoping that these notes may help beginners to avoid forgeries.

Rare Imperforate Russian Stamps,

With the development of philately, naturally the number of forgers
has increased, who have altered cheap stamps into more expensive ones,
particularly where the cheap stamp is perforated, and the more expensive
one is imperforate. It is easy to find these cheap perforated stamps,
trimmed to make more expensive Imperforate rarities. In some cases per-
forations are simply cut off by scissors, if the stamp has wide enough
margins, so as not to touch the design. Easy check is made by placing
the so c-isld imperforate stamp on the perforated one, in which case the
perforations will be seen on all of the sides. Examening such a stamp
under the magnifying glass, one can see edges and barely perceptible
indentations (remains of round holes between the cut off perforations).
This sort of treatment was accorded the the 7 kop. light blue (#78) of
1909, in turning it into the imperforate rarity of 1918 issue. More
frequently one finds such trimmed stamps in Soviet issues of 1923-25, where
many imperforate stamps cost much more than the perforated ones.

There is however another method of trickery which is much harder to
distinguish. The perforated stamp is cut accurately along the line of the
design, and the back of the stamp is thinned to the thickness of cigarette
paper. Afterwards this is glued on, with colorless glue to a square of
paper, more often to the paper removed from the margins of the sheets on
which the stamps of this issue were printed. Then under the great pressure
of the press the two parts are compressed. The finished product now looks
as well as the genuine stamp rarirty. To complete the job it receives
either a fake cancellation, or fake gum, or the existing cancellation is
completed by drawing on the new paper margin.

46, 47 55

It is easy to discover this type of a forgery with the aid of benzine,
for upon immersion into the fluid, the entire center of the stamp will be
lighter, while the borders will be seen as a darker frame. However, often,
to hide the evidences of the forgery, a stamps such as this one will be tied
on to a cover, from which a stamp has been removed.

I have seen covers with No. 2 Russia altered to Have No. 1, in several
instances also the famous 7 kop. of 1918 manufactured from the ordinary stamp
with perforations of 1909, with drawn in, or uncJear cancellation. I have
also seen the very rare imperforate stamps of 1868-1875-1883 made by the
previously described method from the perforated stamps of the same value.

In all of these instances, check up is more difficult, because the
cover with number of cancellations always make an impression which seems
to eliminate the very thought of forgery. Nevertheless we must warn the
collectorsat t thero exists on the market a considerable number of such
"rarities", especially in Europe, and in all cases it is most important
to expertise the stamp; the cover and the cancellations. A powerful
magnifying glasj will often allow one to detect the line of the cut, along
the design, slightly cut into in the process of trimming. If the paper of
the envelope is not thick; it is possible by wetting the back of the stamp
with benzine to note the forged margins of the stamp. All of this is for
the collectors who do not possess the Wood lamp, to aid them in detection.

At the present time, such forgeries, on letters are found quite often
because of the increased interest in the stamps tied on letters of the last
century, price for which often reaches large figures, especially if the stamp
is rare and superb. One of such rarities was sold in Paris at the end of last
year: this was a cover with 7 kop, blue of 1883, without the thunderbolts
and imperforate (#35b). This imperforate stamp had wide margins, 6mm. on
the right. It was cancelled with the numeral cancellation of the "2nd.
Otd. Moscow Town Post" (oval with numeral 12"). The cover carried "Moscow,
July ll, 1886" cancellation. The letter was addressed to Smolensk. It was
offered at one of the auctions with the starting bid of 3,000 French
franks. Over ten collectors quickly bid it up and it was sold for 7,035
franks. Without a doubt this was one of the greatest and most interesting
of rarities of the Russian Empire. I am sorry to say that the buyer was
not a Russian collector.
(to be continued)


Your WANT-LISTS have a good chance of being filled from
my specialized stock of Russia--Czarist and Soviet---
mint; used; errors; varieties, new-issue service of-
USSR and other foreign countries: late Soviet covers. I
will be interested to learn what interests you.


1831 Glenifer Street, Phila. 41, Pa.

56 46, 47

TIFLI S, N 0 V. 1 8 7

by Dr. G, B. Salisbury

iost of the literature about the Tiflis stamp is found in the Russian
language publications, as well as in a few German periodicals, thus all the
philatelists who cannot read the above languages, or cannot obtain the obso-
lete journals, cannot fully study this controversial postal emission. It is
thus the task, or rather the duty of the Rossi:a journal to bring all of the
available data to you, properly fused into one article, for convenience and
reading pleasure. There is no effort to claim originality. It is the aim
of the editorial staff to provide you with all of the files and books on
the subject. Our bookshelf is yours.


K. K. Schmidt Tiflis Town Postage Stamp-Soviet Philatelist ri7(23)
July 1?24, in Russian.
K. y. Schmidt Die Postmarke, answer to the critics, in German.
K. K. Schmidt First Postage Stamp of Russia-Stamp Collectors Fort-
nightly, in English.
C. Kusovkin Fcrgotten Philatelic Unique Stamp-Soviet Collector, in
Russian. #1-3, 1929. Pages 28 to 33.
B. Agapaev Tiflis Stamp. RossLka, in Russian. i#3 (October, 1930).
E. F. Hurt The First Stamp of Russia, the 6 Kop. of Tiflis. Record
of Philately, in English. Pages 38, 39.
R. F. Tiflis Stamp. Illustriertes BriefmaIken Journal, #15,
August 1, 1936, in German.
N. E. Nosilov About the First Stamp of Russia. Soviet Collector, #11
(1930), Pages 277-279. In Russian.
A. Faberge Catalogue of the Auction Sale. Photographs and notes
describing the three stamps offered for sale. In English.
Prbf. lM.i'. Pokrovsky-Russian History, Vol. IV, page 418, edition "1TIR" 1920.
In Russian.
Acts of the Caucasus ccheographic Commission-Volumes X, XI, XII. In Russian.
Calendar of Suvorin-1872. In Russian.
*Caucasus Calendar 1858, page 151, section IV. In Russian.
Kavkaz newspaperr) 1858, i"6, in Russian.
Caucasus Calendar 1895. In Russian.

-Edition of the Office of the Viceroy of Tiflis 1857.

Stamps of Tiflis were found before the First World War, but phila-
telists, literature and the catalogues ignored their existence up to 1924,
when our Honored Member and famous specialist in the postage stamps of
Russia, K. K. Schmidt published an article about this unique issue. This
article and copies of the stamps which were shown at the exhibition "IPOSTA"
in Berlin, created a sensation, and brought forth, in the Western Europe a
critical outburst in the philatelic press. The criticism may be summarized
as follows on the next page:-

Correction-following pages;-XIIIO(rug should read "XII Okrug", date
organized should be 1840 instead of 1830.

46, 47 57

1.-The stamp was not a town post issue but a Zemstvo,
2.-It was used on letters from Tiflis and environs such as Kadjary.
3.-In its production, this stamp differs basically from other Russian
4.-Againist their official character, speaks the fact of being found
only recently.
5.-Presence of the Imperial eagle on the stamps, does not alter its
character. Melitopol Zemstvo stamp had an eagle,
6.-Doubt as to the right of the Viceroy to issue stamps.

In order to answer all of the questions properly, it is important to
study the entire literature and to give the readers all of the data. Schmidt
in his first article wrote about the rumors of the Tiflis Town Post, in the
80's. These rumors caused the distinguished publisher of the "Timbre-Poste"
J. B. Moens in 1889, to write to the Director of the Post Office in Tiflis
with the question of their existence. The Director replied that he remembered
the special town post stamps but could not give accurate date of their use
(Timbre Poste No. 318, June 1889).

Three copies of the Tiflis stamp were found before the start of the
World War I, and the circumstances of the finding precluded any possibility
of falsification. In 1913 Schmidt acquired one of these stamps. He photo-
graphed this stamp and with letters of recommendation, sent the photos and
the letters to some old timers in Tiflis, with the plea that they supply him
data about these stamps. Not achieving any results he turned to the local
newspapers, via personal advertisements about the matter, and offered con-
siderable reward for irrefutable information about these stamps. This like-
wise brought no response.

The Tiflis stamp was made by colorless embossing on yellowish-white
carton, similar to cardboard, the embossing producing a clear and clean
design. Measurement% according to Schmidt was 22x22im., Agapaev and others
give21.5x21.5mm. In the center of the design is the seal of the town of
Tiflis, above it the two headed eagle with lowered or drooping wings, of the
type of the eagles drawn during the reign of Czar Nicholas I. A relief
circle, thin and clear, surrounds the seal, and this is enclosed in a double
lined square frame, with the inscription "TIFLIS(kaya) GOROD(skaya) POCHTA
6 KOP." or the "T ILIS TO)IT FOST 6 KOP. In the corners, between the circle
and the fame are two crossed post horns. Thickness of the stamp paper is
0.2mm., and it was covered on the back with a thick layer of yellowish white
glue, which was very cracked.

We may state at this point that there were three stamps in the collect-
ion of Faberge, and these Tiflis Town Post stamps were illustrated in the
catalogue, and are reproduced in this issue of the journal. They were des-
cribed as follows:-

1.-6k, white, very fine, with full original gum and with margins all
around, perfectly embossed, has very slight gum stain.

2.-6k. white, another unused, fine with part gum, well embossed and
with margins all around.

3.-6k. another unused, traces of gum, slightly thinned and cut into
and somewhat stained in places.

58 46, 47

These stamps were sold on November 20, 1939, at the auction of H. R.
Harmer in London. iir. C. Stibbe, my fellow mcmbei of B.S.PP. in England,
and owner of one of the worlds finest Zenstvo, Town Post and Imperial
collections, ownsan expertized, excellent Tiflis stamp, according to Mr. John
Barry, Co-Editor of J3.S.R.P., and Secretary of the Society.

Schmidt writes that, according to the design of the eagle, current
up to 1885, one may judge when the stamp was in circulation. During the
reign of Csar Alexander II, eagle already received a fan-like set of wings,
as it is pictured on the first postal emissions of the Russian stamps. He
likewise,writes with conviction, that the stamp was an Imperial issue. One
cannot classify it with the Zemstvo stamps, he states, as that time Zemstvo
establishments or uchrezjdonias were not set up, and in Caucasus, they were
never in existence. Caucasus was always ruled by the Viceroy or Namestnik.
On the other hand, says he, we cannot add the Tiflis stamp to the so-called
private or chastniye postage stamps as such stamps were never in existence
in Russia. It remains then only to classify them along side of the town
post stamps of St. Petersburg of 1863, and the town post envelopes of the
two capitals, St. Petersburg and Moscow.

Schmidt came out in the "Die Postmarke" with a definite answer to his
critics all of whose judgements he attributed to the lack of knowledge of
the condition of things in the old Russia, her history, and most of all,
her postal history. To compare the Tiflis stamp with a Zemstvo emission,
is impossible, as it has nothing in common with it, as to its origin. One
can only compare it to the capital's town post of 1863. Speaking of the
official character of the town post as such, Schmidt gives interesting data
in the field of its history. Nosilov, in the Soviet Collector discusses
this, and it is most important that those who cannot avail themselves of
this information from the direct source should now get the complete story.

From the very beginning of postal communications in Russia, to the
beginning of the 30's of the last century, the Imperial post took care of
only the out town mail, as the town post was deemed unnecessary. The
function of the latter could very well be done by hired messengers, or
personally. The growth of the size of the towns altered this concept and
the town post was organized with an independent organization and direction.

The first town post was set up in St. Petersburg on January 17, 1883,
with the establishment of 42 collection points for receipt of correspondence.
In 1835 31 more were added, and from that time the town post was firmly
integrated into the government system. hhen the Tsarskoselskaya Rail Road
was opened, the services of the town post were extended to Tsarskoe Selo, the
Tsar's sunmer residence near the capital. On January 1, 1845 the town post
was established in ELoscow, while on the October 19, same year, old style
calendar, government decreed use of stamped envelopes fot the town post,
the sale of which started in St. Petersburg on December 1, while in Moscow,
the sale began at the beginning of 1846. In spite of the obvious success of
the town post, the government was slow in organizing it elsewhere. In the
50's it was set up in Warsaw, in the 60's in Kazan.

46, 47 59

In 1863, the 5 kop. stamp was issued for the capital's town post. In
the end of 60's town posts were established in Odessa, Kiev, Jitomir,
Kishinev and Kharkov. One cannot state exactly just when the Tiflis post
was established, as the town post, because of the recent finding of the
stamps, and the dearth of information Regulations of the 70's, printed in
the early part, state that the town post in other towns may be organized
upon the study by the local gubernia and postal administration. From the
same historical source, is deduced that the Tiflis stamp was in the category
of the previously described signs of prepayment of the town post.

Town post mail in Tiflis was considerable, as will be shown later in
the statistics from the Calendar of Suvorin of 1972, and this prompted Post-
master Krudner to suggest the issuance of the special stamped envelopes for
local town post (5 kop. for postage and 1 kop. for the envelope, i.e. a
total of 6 kop.). Other towns had no need of this, as already along with
the town post they had the issues of the Imperial post consisting of stamps
of low denominations of 1, 3, and 5 kop. So we see, that the tariff for the
town post corresponded with the value of the Tiflis stamp. Delivery to the
Tsarskoe Selo corresponded with same to Kadjary also a summer suburb, near
Tiflis. Difference between the tariffs for both, is set by the fact that the
road to Kadjary was mountainous, and difficult to overcome, even by horses,
while the summer residence near the capital was on an even level, traversed
by the railroad.

In 1830 the territory covered by Zakavkasia or Transcaucasia was formed
by the government Postal Authorities into what was known as the XIII postal
okrug. Main post office was in Tiflis, with branches subordinate to it in
Baku, Erivan, Nakhichevan, Kutais and Redut-Kale. Later on subbranches were
opened in Gori, Dushet, Anapur, Telov, Singhhakh, Elisavetpol, Kub, Derbent
and Vladikavkaz. In the last one, according to the latest postal regulations,
was sold the Tiflis town post stamps. These were sold in strips of five.
None of these strips have yet been found. According to Schmidt, up to now
only three stamps, and one on cover, have been found. It is not surprising
that only this and nothing else was found until now, as there were no phila-
telists then, and stamps themselves were of no interest to anyone. Schmidt
states that Kazan post office fared even worse. Up to now, although according
to archives, there were sold 1,070 stamped envelopes from July 1866 to April
1869, no one has found one envelope of all the St. Petersburg stamped envelopes
that were used there.

From the time the town post was established to 1879, when it was absorbed
into the government post, it was under the jurisdiction of the latter, and
was under the control of its officials, and the Postal Department. Division
of the town post from the Imperial post was merely organizational and function-
al. Shown Imperial eagle and crossed posthorns, are but an outward evidence
of their actual unity. "I'f, states Schmidt, "the eagle was also featured
on the stamp of Melitopol, we must remember that upon this discovery, it was
immediately removed from circulation by the postal decree of May 11, 1871,
No. 6,863." A comment by one critic that the stamp was but a cut-out from
a stamped envelope, is refuted by the known postal rules stating that the
stamps should be glued to the envelopes, and that they should be sold in
strips of five (5).

60 46, 47

There remains not only the statement that the Viceroy had no prerogative
for issuance of stamps. The Viceroy, was the representative of the CZ-r,
and thus had more power than a governor of a g'feinia. He had the right to
interfere with the govorinent post, although that was an independent organ-
ization, under the direction of the Postal Department, Highest decrees of
the postal adiniistraton needed the sanction of the Cza, regulations or
orders of the Viceroy did not need the I.periaal sanction, inasruch as he
represe--ed the Czar, Himself. With th3 exception of the establishments
under the gevernmont control, such as the imperial bar-k and Department of
Justice, he cuJ.d allor any dsree of any mn-i ;r, 'r n til corntacti-ng the
Czar. This shows that he had full power to establish the Tiflis town post
and the stamp issued by him was of official character.

V. Agapaev, in Rossika '3, gives four paragraphs on the subject, des-
cribing the Tiflis stamp briefly, and commenting on the article by Kusovkin
in the Soviet Collector. This article, by Kvsovkin we shall now translate
and present to you in a condensed form. Facts as given in this article
"Forgoton -hilatelic Uniqie Stamp' are too important to leave out, and are
most necessary for full evaluation of the problem.

During the Civil War (Gragjdanskaya Voina) archives of the post were
destroyed in Tiflis in 192., Thus official source of postal history was
either burned, or used up as wrapping paper, by the inhabitants.

Kusovkin writes that Schmidt makes a statement that the stamp of Tiflis
judging by the design of the eagle, must have been issued not later than
1855, at which time, according to his opinion the design of the government
eagle on the coins was altered. Such a pronouncement is absolutely wrong,
because the alteration of designs on coins was made in the main, by efforts
for improvement of the methods of coinage, and was not caused by any govern-
ment act, which was necessary for the alteration of eagle on government
issues, paper goney, or anything else.

Pokrovsky, in His Russian History (Vol. IV, Fage 41H) states that the
basic design of the Inperial eagle, executed by engraver P. Utkin and used
from 136, iin in p.rts was altered and changed.

Kusovkin agrees with Schmidt in that there was never any Zemstvos in
Zakavkaizia, tnd that the Tiflis stamp is not a Zemstvo stamp. In order to
clarify the question of postal communications in Transcaucasia, he cites the
facts from the acts of Caucasian Archeographic Commission. These for the
convenience of the readers are given below; acts used were in Vol. XI, XII.

From the time of the addition of Georgia (January 1U, 1801) to the Russian
Empire and until 1830, postal communications were not introduced as they
were in the other parts of the Empire. In the beginning Cossak outposts
carried the mail as "letuchia pochta" or the flying post, and thus the post
horses were not kept at the expense of a Zemstvo (zemskoy novinnosti). At
that time the correspondence was very small, Later, as the post increased
in volume, especially the government or Kazennaya Pochta, "Chaparkhani" were
added to the Cossak Stations, because of insufficiency of horses. These were
the local inhabitants, mounted on their own horses, (po nariadai ot zemli)
according to designation from the land, translating broadly. From 1830,
stations on certain tracts of Georgia were given to certain contractors or

46, 47 61

traders. *!e mst note here that to 1830, carrying of the mail was done
on viukas (na viukakh) or packs because of the poor roads, floods, and of
danger of travel.

In 1830, as we mentioned before the XIIth. Okrug was established in
Transcaucasia, and in 1845, with the development of administration in the
conquered territory or oblast of the Krai or region and with increased war
activities on the Black Sea and Caucasus line, postal communications also
increased in volume. Types of mail service seen in 40's in Georgia and
thus in Tiflis:

I,-Extra-Post-(Special) by which correspondence was sent to the center
regularly, twice a week, via a definitely specified route. (St.
Petersburg, ioscow, Novgorod, Twer, Tula, Voronezh Gubernias, Lands
of the Don Armies, Nizhni-Novgorod, Odessa and Iarsaw Gubernias.

2-v Heavy Post (Stage) also twice weekly to the center, with a division
for correspondence to other parts of the Empire.

3.- Light Post-to posts of Transcaucasia and adjacent Gubernias.

4.-Flying Post-(letuchaya) to border garrisons.

5.- Estafetnaya (Relay) post-beyond cordon of troops, Vladikavkaz, by
special arrangement, with payment of money for the postal services.
(Telegraph lines at that time were not in existence. Ist, line was
opened between Tiflis and Poti in 1860).

Viceroy, Prince N. S. Vorontsov(1844-54) developed the post in Trans-
caucasia, by the building of post roads, bridges, steamship lines on the
Black and Caspian Seas, and the formation of postal communications. This
talented, educated nobleman, born and raised in England, gave tremendous
stimulus to the growth of Tiflis post office. In his early years of the
control of the Krai, the Viceroy, in his report to St. Petersburg, marked
the increase of correspondence, and deemed it necessary to allow and expand
the use in Transcaucasia of the stamped envelopes for postal use, as these
have already been in use for sometime throughout the Empire. (Acts of Caucasus
Archeographic Comm. Vol X, page 858.)

In 1855 quantities of sent and received correspondence in Tiflis Gubernia,
as taken from Acts of Caucasus Archeographic Comm. Vol. XI, were:-

If-ivate 197,8 24.72, 9,;349 ,.,26j 9 41,288 12U,213
Gov't. 385,988 15,7281 2,517 65,263 19,50 13809
l(kazennia) |

Calendar of Suvorin, for 1872 gives the following statistics: at that
time (end of 50's of the last century), when for every 100CO inhabitants of
towns of the Empire 12.3 letters were sent and received annual. Tiflis
showed 36/100, and as comparison, in England the number was 300/100 inhabit-

62 46, 47

Acts of Caucasus Arch. Comm. Vol. XII likewise give interesting data,
the removal of postal stations of Tiflis Gub. and Tiflis itself from the
supervision of the Zemskoi police, and the turning of them over to the
jurisdiction of postal authorities, as an experiment, for three years.

According to Kucovkin, the administration of the Transcaucasian Krai
tried in every way to ease postal services. In postal regulations of that time
one sees arnountcements of the opening and closing of the post offices, of
letters that were received from transient persoiis at irregular hours thus
making it easy to understand the reason for the administration's efforts to
procure sigas of postal payment which would have eased postal services to
the inhabitants. This explains the efforts to obtain stamped envelopes.
(A pair of these stamped envelope proofs, of the Tiflis Town Post were found
by Schmidt, and were described by him in the philatelic press). And then
one can thus easily oxplain the reason for the issuance of the Tiflis town
post stamp of 6 hop. value.

We must add that the above mentioned Kusovkin found the material stating
the official existence and postal use of the Tiflis stamp, in the summer of
1928, in the library of the museum in Stavropol4Kavkazki. There he found
complete Kavkaz callondars, in full set (18,5-1917) These contained
valuable data, and Caiendar for 1858, p. 151, sec. IV, edit. Office of the
Viceroy, Tiflis, 1857 had the needed facts about the Tiflis stemp. Due to
the lad; of space, all irrelevant matter to this subject will be excluded.

1.-A special branch of the town post, in the Tiflis gub. Post Office
is established for sale of special stamped on paper prints (shempel-
nie pechati) called "oblatki", with payment for each of 6 kop.
Sale of less than five prints will be prohibited. Visiting cards,
and invitation cards will be likewise accepted for mailing at this
branch only, payment for each will be 2 kop.

2.-To each letter, sent by town post, shall be glued and affixed one
stamped print, to indicate payment of postal tariff.

3.-Letters will be received in the branch or otdelenie of the Post
Office of the town post, and special boxes likewise will be provided
for collection of this mail.

4.-5.-are merely regulations about money, documents, government
letters, etc.

6,-Delivery of mail to Kadjary and from there to the city, will be
in effect from June 20th. to Sept. 1st. with payment of 18 kop.
per letter, thus to every letter must be glued three stamped
prints, each of 6 kop, value.

7,-Those who desire to send out a private letter from Kadjary to the
post office, for mailing out with the first outgoing mail, may send
their letters in then existing stamped envelopes, placing it in
another envelope addressed to the post office, and paid for by three
prints. The inscription on the envelope, is to indentify the sender,
for the reason that, if the letter carries heavier weight that that
established for the envelope, it can be returned to the sender.

46, 47 63

8.-Various regulations about the mail in the Town of Tiflis and the S
settlement of Kadjary (16 versts from Tiflis). These bear no import-
ant angle on the subject.

One sees in this official document that the word "Marka" or stamp is
not used anywhere. Marka as a sign of postal payment did not go into use
until December 1, 1857. Until then it was called "paper shtempel" or"stamped
print" or "pechat" or "having likeness of oblatki". The latter shows that
the reverse side of the print" or "pechat" was covered with glue, as oblatka
was a label with the glue on the back,

Embossed inscription on the stamp shows region of its usage and thus
places the stamp in the category of the town post of St. Petersburg and
Moscow (5 kop. for postage an 1 kop. for the envelope).

The design of the eagle on the Tiflis stamp, type of Czar Nicholas I,
during whose reign the town government was established in Tiflis does not
prove conclusevly that the stamp was made in Tiflis at any given period, or
within his reign. One must search fully the complete collection of laws of
Czar Nicholas I (1825-1854), and the laws of His Heir. Actually the date
of the calendar fully establishes the time of issuance of the stamp#

This was November or December of 1857, most likely November. These
stamps were not popular as one had to buy five of them at a time. As the
tickets, visiting cards, congratulatory and invitation cards were simply
handed over at the office for mailing, upon payment of the tariff, the
town post stamps did not find wide use. Their sale was stopped by the use
in Caucasus starting from March 1, 1858 and in Tiflis, of course, of the
Imperial postage stamps and stamped envelopes. Regulations about this was
noted in the official newspaper "Kavkaz" for 1858.

Thus, all the known data has been presented to the readers of this
journal. If any of our members have any additional data, it is most welcome
and it shall be recorded in the next issue, with proper credit given to the
source of information,

by E. M. Archangelsky

New issue of USSR 10 kop, woman worker, Scott No. 616, Yvert 611,
Michel 677 is smaller in sise of design 14.5x21mm. instead of former
15.75x23.25nm. in gray-black color. Word "P 0 C H T A" measure 4mm. instead
of 4.25mm., numeral of value, "lO" measures 2.5xl.75mm. instead of 3x2mm.
on paper without watermark, print is offset, perforation 12-, but the over-
all measurement of the stamp is same, 12,5x26.5mm.

64 46, 47

by A. Prins

In the course of my Zemstvo collecting activities I have been in
contact with many collectors, and found that the majority have Chuchin's
catalogue, either in English or in Russian, and that they think it is the
best that has ever been issued. It is true that :r. Chuchin, the Soviet
Commisar; has done extremely good pioneer.rg work, probably because of the
very good s-urces available to him, but the information given by the Schmidt's
catalogue (1934.) is not to be denied, it is far more extensive.

Although a few trifling varieties are neglected by Schmidt, and described
by Chuchin and L'Exchangiste, the work of the former is preferable, because
it deals thoroughly with "printings", which in most cases can be separated.

Other catalogues give varieties, such as errors, shades, etc. just as
mere facts, but Schmnidt shoais that these aberrations, indicate different
printings, which consequently have different dates of issue. This is of no
small importance to the Zemstvo stamp lover, as there may be intervals from
twenty to thirty years between the first and the last printing from the same

Schmidt tells us how to distinguish the various printings. The clues
by which we determine the printing to which a certain stamp belongs may be
found in:-

(a)-The paper (shade, thickness, etc.) (e)-Date of cancellation.
(b)-Th9 gum (f)-Condition of tle matrices.
(c)-:Jatormark, if any. (g)-The composition of the plate.
(d) -Separation.

Classifications (a) to (f) will be understood without further explanation,
but (g), i.e. the "Composition of the Plate" will cause trouble if we are not
acquainted irch the wav the plates were fabricated. Here we must, because
the grc.or part of the Zemstvo stamps were lithographed, acquaint ourselves
with the subject of types and transfers. After the officials picked out the
design for the stamp, the lithographer set to work to cut the design on stone.
It practically never happened that the original matrix was used in laying out
a complete plate. This matrix was multiplied or duplicated and then made into
horizontal or vertical pairs, strips of 3 to 6, and also blocks made from 4
to 12 single pieces. We call these multiplied designs "transfers" (undruck-
stein). Sometimes more than one transfer was prepared. The plates were built
up from these transfers. It is remarkable that in the various parts of the
immense Russian territory the printers of Zemstvo stamps seemed to get great
pleasure in placing transfers upside down in the plate. This explains the
many tete-becne varieties that may be found on the Zemstvo stamps: they are
not comparatively scarce, and may be found in horizontal as well as vertical
alignements, with and without a gutter between them.

These gutters, or spacings are resultant from the way these transfers
are laid to make up a plate. Some printings may have narrow spacing between
transfers, other wide spacings, a third may have transfers placed tete',beche
on the plate. Of course there may be combinations of the above. What is said

46, 47 65

about the placing of transfers on the plate can in many cases be applied to
placing of the stamps in the transfer

It is quite evident that it is hard to establish the date of printing
of a single stamp, if no clues obtainable from the composition of a plate
or transfer is available.

We have now dealt with the transfers in relation to the plate. The
Schmidt catalogue gives complete information necessary to determine to
which printing a stamp belongs. The majority of Zemstvo stamps thus can
be separated, even when no sheets are available, but when one has only
pairs, strips or blocks. Cancellations may also be of great help.

References have already been made to types. Types came into existence
when the prepared designs were multiplied. It was practically impossible
to prepare an exact replica of the first design. The little differences
(flaws) caused by the rough way of making a transfer formed the types. As
a rule there are as many types as the number of the stamps in the transfer.
Schmidt gives these numbers, but does not describe the differences in each
stamp in the. transfer.

It is up to the student of Zemstvos to detect and recognize the dif-
ferences (which often are slight) himself. This is a very interesting study
and requires research work which in most cases can successfully be carried
out. One problem remains to be solved, and that is the location of the
different types in the transfer. This can be successfully accomplished when
one is in possession of a complete set of types, and a transfer.

What has been said about printings, transfers and types on lithographed
plates also applies to the first typographed stamps of Zemstvos. Schmidt
calls it BLACK TYPOGRAPHY (Schwarze Buchdruck). In this case the printer
knew the value and the name of the district that should appear on the stamp,
and the rest was left to his imagination, and he used for the rest of the
design ornaments, lines and edges after his own fancy.

Ornamentswere placed in various directions on different stamps and when
a certain line or an edge could not be made in one stretch, because of short-
ages of some type. it was built up from two or more pieces. A solid line was
replaced by two thin lines, so on and so forth. Therefore the number of
types in the first typographed stamps is just as numerous as it is in the

Besides the above mentioned types which arose so as to say in an
unavoidable natural way there are a few comparatively scarce varieties which
will be dealt with later.

Space permits to make just a few remarks of general interest. I have
always wondered whether Zemstvo collecting was undertaken by many collectors.
Upon inquiries, I found out from Mr. H.R. Harmer, a well known auctioneer,
that he thought there were no more than half a dozen serious collectors of
Zemstvo in Great Britain. The great Faberge exhibition collection was sold
in 1951, and contained the greatest rarities, and is still in the hands of
the man who bought it. With the exception of the Faberge collections
nothing much of importance in Zemstvos was sold at Harmerls auctions during
the last 20 to 30 years,

66 46, 47

Another fact that might interest Fossika readers are my recent ex-
periences during my visit at the Russian Pavilion at the annual fair in
Utrecht in Harch. Neatly arranged stamps were exhibited in the movable
frames and divided into groups described as sports, science, history, agri-
culture, industry, etc. The were only the recent issues, and no philatelic
material was exhibited. I tried to enter into conversation with the young
lady in charge, and although I tried hard using the dozen of Russian words
that I knew and although the young ladry cpoce Dutch the only thing that I
could get vas an address in Am.terdam where bok:r- and imga-inee were sold,
I went to that adareas, and there I had no mnre luck, the managr of the
Russian department was on leave, and they promised to w.':'.te to me later.
They wrote to me later, and told me they would be pleased to be of service
to me, but. tney were sorry they could not help me. I did li]e to find out
whether there were any stamp collectors in Russia.

eui-:cjr- Disritch')

Moscow, Saturday, February 27 (AP). With front-page fanfare, the
Supreme Soviet announced today the territorial transfer of the Crimea to
the Ukraine. The Crimea had been part of the Russian S. R., largest of
the sixteen Soviet Republics.

The Supreme Soviet decree published this morning said the transfer
was made because of territorial proximity and close economic and cultural
ties between the Crimean region and the Ukrainian Republic.

It was hailed as a gesture of friendship between the Ukrainian and
Great Russian peoples during this year's celebration of the three hundredth
anniversary of the accession of the Ukraine to Russia.

by A. Shields

Not too long ago we bought a kilo of Russian stamps on pieces of
paper and cardboard. All of the stamps were cancelled with a single
circle foreign (Etranger) cancellation, reading at the top URSS 5 pointed
star below, date in a rectangle, a letter below. Along the bottom was
"M.ioskva 8".

It was a disappointing lot, which included 139 copies of 7,616, 86
of -"735 and 10 71,36. in pairs and strips of 3, and a few odds and ends.
To our thinking it was extremely skimpy KILO.

Personally we have never seen advertisements of such Soviet mixtures,
and would be interested to hear from others.

Since very little is known about the cancellations of the present
Soviet Russia, such well assorted mixture would be of great help in
studying cancellations.

46, 47 67

Another fact that might interest Fossika readers are my recent ex-
periences during my visit at the Russian Pavilion at the annual fair in
Utrecht in Harch. Neatly arranged stamps were exhibited in the movable
frames and divided into groups described as sports, science, history, agri-
culture, industry, etc. The were only the recent issues, and no philatelic
material was exhibited. I tried to enter into conversation with the young
lady in charge, and although I tried hard using the dozen of Russian words
that I knew and although the young ladry cpoce Dutch the only thing that I
could get vas an address in Am.terdam where bok:r- and imga-inee were sold,
I went to that adareas, and there I had no mnre luck, the managr of the
Russian department was on leave, and they promised to w.':'.te to me later.
They wrote to me later, and told me they would be pleased to be of service
to me, but. tney were sorry they could not help me. I did li]e to find out
whether there were any stamp collectors in Russia.

eui-:cjr- Disritch')

Moscow, Saturday, February 27 (AP). With front-page fanfare, the
Supreme Soviet announced today the territorial transfer of the Crimea to
the Ukraine. The Crimea had been part of the Russian S. R., largest of
the sixteen Soviet Republics.

The Supreme Soviet decree published this morning said the transfer
was made because of territorial proximity and close economic and cultural
ties between the Crimean region and the Ukrainian Republic.

It was hailed as a gesture of friendship between the Ukrainian and
Great Russian peoples during this year's celebration of the three hundredth
anniversary of the accession of the Ukraine to Russia.

by A. Shields

Not too long ago we bought a kilo of Russian stamps on pieces of
paper and cardboard. All of the stamps were cancelled with a single
circle foreign (Etranger) cancellation, reading at the top URSS 5 pointed
star below, date in a rectangle, a letter below. Along the bottom was
"M.ioskva 8".

It was a disappointing lot, which included 139 copies of 7,616, 86
of -"735 and 10 71,36. in pairs and strips of 3, and a few odds and ends.
To our thinking it was extremely skimpy KILO.

Personally we have never seen advertisements of such Soviet mixtures,
and would be interested to hear from others.

Since very little is known about the cancellations of the present
Soviet Russia, such well assorted mixture would be of great help in
studying cancellations.

46, 47 67

*Statiohery, by C. W. Roberts. 250 copies. Price 12/6d. Shopton Haoue,
Shepton Leauchamp Ilminster, Somerset, England, 1955.

As the title implies, this is the fourth part of the immense study of
Ukraine tridents, dealing with the tridents of Podolia, as well as with the
postal stationery of all six Postal-Telograph regions or Okrugs of Ukraine.
The author was aided by such well known experts of Ukrainian philately as
Dr. Seichter of Germany and President of U. P. V, and Dr. Hassler of
Stockholm, whose collection Mr. Roberts ves able to acquire recently, Mr.
Ian Baillie, an excellent artist, and like the author, and Dr. Seichter,
member of Rossika as well as B. c. R. P. has been responsible for the fine
drawings in this book.

The author shows nine tridents of the Podolia Postal-Telegraph Okrugs
on postage stamps and gives measurements of each trident as well as four
tables of the detailed designs of each trident. For simplification he places
these, although not always correctly into 18 groups. He follows with two
tables of fake tridents, also described in detail. In spite of this, although
the author gives a fuller and more complete study and more complete study of
tridents of this part of Ukraine, than that which is in print to-day, his work
is nevertheless incomplete, omitting some types of Podolian tridents, as well
as some of the Ukrainian stamps overprinted for use in Podolia. The dies for
these tridents were made out of metal, rubber, and most of all out of wood.
The latter, during the overprinting, broke down rapidly and therefore the
impression of the trident on the stamp altered. These broken down wood dies
were replaced by new onss, but because of primitive means, it was hard to
match the old dies, and therefore a new type emerged. Therefore we must use
a great caution in study of Podolian tridents, because many of them that
seem to be false to us, can be bona fide tridents. Of course we must take into
consideration the chemical side of the story, such as the irk, the color, etc.

It is known that at the end of August 1918, the Ministry of Posts and
Telegraphin Kiev, telegraphed a decree that beginning September 1, 1918 all
the Russian ozamps in circulation should have Ukrainian trident overprints,
without which the stamps would be unacceptable for postage. The text of this
telegram was published by me in "Ukrainian Philatelist", a monthly journal
that appeared in Vienna (1925-1940). Later on, the date was definitely moved
to October 1, 1918, and the additional decree issued, stated that the postal
branches which had on hand large quantities of Russian stamps were to forward
these to the centers of each Postal-Telegraph Okrug, i.e. Kiev, Kharkov,
Poltava, Ekaterinoslav, Odessa, and Kamenetz-Podolsk, where they were to be
overprinted with tridents.

Because many of the smaller post offices were quite distant from the
Postal-Telegraph Okrtg centers, and because the uddit. decree did not allow
enough time for stamps to be sent to the centers of each Postal-Telegraph
Okrug, and because there was great urgency to overprint the Russian stamps
with tridents, the Chief of the Podolia P. T. Okrug, Spiridon Hichailovich
Navrotzki solved the problem by allowing the overprinting of the stamps at
the local post offices. Other Okrugs followed this example, the only dif-
ference being, that in the Podolia P. T. Okrug majority of the local postal

68 46, 47

establishments overprinted all of their supplies of the Russian postage
stamps, while the other Ckrugs sent some stamps to the centers and in their
place received stamps that were overprinted at these centers, for example
this was so in Volynia, stamps with tridents coming from Kiev, etc.

A historical correction should be noted on page three. Although during
the years of the Ukrainian Government tenure (1917-1920), Podolia was oc-
cupied briefly by the Red Army, the postal control locally was always in the
hands of birainians, For example :.-amenetz-Podolsk, the center of the Podo3ia
Postal-Telegraph Ckrug, fell temporarily and was occupied by the Red Army
from the end of April 1919 to June 5, 1919 and again from the beginning of
August 1920 to September 1920. Ukrainians controlled it from that time until
November 20, 1920. During the alliance with Poland from April 1920, all of
the Podolia postal branches were Ukrainian.

Also on page 3, Mr. Roberts citing the Soviet Catalogue of Ukraine, 1927,
gives the type Podolia 17 (Soviet Type 36) as coming from locality "Restavra-
tsia", and type 17L from locality "Natyra"". This great error is caused by
the lack of knowledge of the language. This type of trident was that way
originally, then its design vas "Restored", and later, being made from lead,
was greatly deformed with use, and thus in the main, it looks "v natyre", or
naturally as it does in Type 17L, However we must not forget that between
the "restored" and the "natural" existed many middle types. This is a good
example of the majority of the Podollan types of tridents.

The author is quite correct, in view of the rarity of the stamps of
Podolia to give them high valuations.

1Mr., Roberts left out the existence of the tridents of Podolia on Romanov
stamps. This official issue appeared in the very beginning in Kamenetz-
Podolsk. The values issued were 1, 2, 7, 10, 10/7k- 2C00 each and 1 ruble,
20 copies. He also left out Podolia trident overprints on control, postal-
savings, revenue, passport and various types of court stamps. The second part
of the book did not cover all types of tridents and especially so on entire
or postal stationery.

This book is recommended to all philatelists who are interested in the
Ukrainian stamps, to those who have 100 types of Podolia tridents and to those
who are content with the 18 types.

For completion of the book, we must include the Fantastic violet trident
in a frame, a work of the French officer Haller, Kamenetz-Podolak in 1920,
which exists even on philatelic letters, cancelled by the proper postmark of
Kamenetz-Podolsk, and overprinted on various Russian stamps.

Jacques Posell 2469 Kingston Road Cleveland Heights 18 Ohio. *

I collect Russian revenue stamps, propaganda war labels, *
sealsa labels, poster and charity stamps, etc. I would like *
S to hear from collectors who have this type of material for sale. *

46, 47 69


Since we have a great deal of ground to cover and not too much space
we will try to make this edition of the "Auctioneer" as breif as possible,
but without eliminating any of the philatelic information.
--Recent Price List of Alex. S. Juliard gives the following information:-

1857-No. 1 tied to a cover $32.50. Same (str. line cane.) -$25.00
No. 1 -$17.50 No. la -$5.75 No. lb $12.00
1858-No. 2 $1.75 NO. 3 -$32.50 No, 4 (1868) -42.50
1866-(Mint blocks of 4) Nos. 19, 19a and 20 $7.50
1875-(Mint block of six) No. 28 $5.75
1884-(Mint)-No. 40 $23.50
"---, Serebrnkian Auction 300 covers. Prices realized.

1857-No. 1 on cover to Farsaw -$17.00
Estonian Cancellations:-
(1)-1870 4,7 9 1912, i4. -cancelled "Reval"- 3 stamped envelopes, plus
3 covers, one of which has Nos. 19, 19a, 20, 20d and 23 all
addressed to "Zurich" $11.00.
(2)-1862, 4, 9, 78 cancelled "DERPT", "PERNAU", etc. covers plus
one stamped envelope Nos. included 5, 15, 21, 26, etc. $11.00.
Latvian Cancellations:-
(a)-1870 cover with Nos, 19c, 20c and 23 addressed to Amsterdam
cancelled "Riga", "Aus Ausland Franco" $4.00.
Lithuanian Cancellations:-
(a)-1872, 78 Nos. 23 and 28 on 2 covers, cancelled "WILNO" and
"BREST" addressed to Riga and Warsaw. $6.50.

Polish Cancellations:-(a),also other cancellations:- (b), etc.
(a)-1866, 75-Nos. 19 (3) (3)(3), 22 (2), 23 (3), 24, 28 and 29 on
6 covers and 2 stamped envelopes-cancelled Warsaw (2 octagon,
Franco, etc.) "GRODNO" ,"VIIKOMIR". 4 $10.00.
(b)- Registred cover canc "ACHTIBKA", 1885-mixed franking-1866 (No. 20)
and 1883 (No. 31) $7.50.
(c)-1866-Stampress cover Moscow to Brusselles cane. "NIKOLAY. RAILROAD",
(d)-1866-cover from St. Petersburg to Paris, with mute cancellation,
28k. rate (Nos. 13, 14, 17) cane. "AUS RUSSLAMD, FRANCO, P. D.
(paid)", last in red. $0.0.
(e)-1869-Two covers Odessa to Geneva, 35k. rate, carrying Nos.,14 (2)
and 18 (2) cancelled "FRANKIROVANO" in red. -$10.50.
(e)-1872-Covers to Frankfurt A. M. with Nos. 19c, 20c and 23 with
Postal Car #47 and "FRAIKIROVANO" cancellations. $8.00.
(f)-1873/4-2 covers Moscow to Zurich & St. Petersburg to Andeer-
cancelled "AUS RUSSLAND FRANCO" & romboid of dots with Nos,. 19c (4),
20c (pair) and 23 (2). $10.00.
(g)-2 covers Odessa to Messina with Nos 20 (3), 24 (3, one pair)

70 46, 47

(g)-1875- Cover St. Petersburg to NTaples with Nos. 19 and 23 cancelled
"OFILACFENO" and Warsaw Railway Postal Car f;25. $6,00.
(h)-1909-15-No. 78 (Fake to defraud the Government-Perf. 1i- instead
14x141-) plus No. 121 on cover cancelled Petrograd 13.6.22 used
by Soviets at revalued rate (without overprinting)-Rare-$g25.0.
(i)-Registered cover with mixed franking, cancelled OTIFLISO and
franked with Nos. 121, 123 and Savings Stamps of IK.,and 5k. (6)-
(j)-1924-2 covers with Postage Due stamps Nos. J1(2), J5 and J6
cancelled "DOPLATIT" 7.00.

(k)-1908-Offices in China stamped envelope-10k. (red overprint) flown
from .oscow to Berlin. -$5.00.


1858- 20k. greon lilac essay, wmkd '2" and signed, Var. of No.3
Iichel-(cat. 65 .CO) "18.CO.

1858-No. 3 (20k.)-;1.CO. No. 4 (30k.)-27.0,.
1866-75-lk.( os. 19, 19a). 3k.(No. 20), 81'. (o. 28) -4 mint
blocks of 4 -._.ogO
1875-No. 30a ( 3 stamps "t" in shape of a cross-Mint) -18.00.
1889-No. $5 (14k. ble-rose, ixrt)-right top without prin 1T stamp.)
17 .00.
1902-Ho. 58 (5k., block of 4, mint)-double impression, right top
of two stamps. $800.
1909-17-1r. center inverted- No. 131a (imperf), 87a (perf.) $5.00.
1917-No. 87h sheet of 50 of Ir. imperf., horiz. loz. 5.0G .
-No. 87h sheet of 50 of Ir. imperf., horiz. loz.- (Plate 6),
centers shifted approx. 30%, background shifted to left
approximately 505. $2.00.
-No. 131a-"int block of 4 with centers inverted. $12.00.
-I1o. 131c-background inverted, mint-unpriced. Q3.50.
CHARITY:-1915-B5-lk. mint with margin imperforate. $3.00.
1914-B10-3.1. mint-Harizontal pair, imperf. between. $7.00.

Wenden:-No. L2 (1863) 2k. rose and black. "12.50.

GECFCGI:-1917-Varieties of ios. 12, 13, 14 and 16. -errors- 10k. blue
one stamp sideways, /0k. (ST. George missing), 50k. (center
misplaced), 70k. (Tete-beche)-all in blocks of 4 -1.00.
1919- Variety of No. 17-1r. ( 3 normal stamps and one with the
center inverted.)-block of 4. $2.75.

J. &? H. Stolow Auction.

A page of 22 stamps, consisting of Polish Corps overprints of Russian
stamps-on pieces-including the scarce Michel Nos. 4, 8, 151 (inv.), 15B,
etc.-Lichel Cat. 870 DI., -est. $100.00.

46, 47 71

"Este Post" (Rikwre)-3 local overprints of Russian 2k. green on buff
wrappereZaw4atein Noe. 1 to 3. (Cat. 480 Swiss Fr.) Est. $125eo0.
~LT~~ -

1919-Overprints on Russian stamps Nose 2N1 to 8. Est. 125.,00

HARDER, LJC DN Auction Sale.

1930-Nas, Ci2b, 013b. Zeppelins imperforate. $g.0 to $geS 0.
1922- Cosular Airmail 241. on 3r. Type I, mint,Inverted Ovpt. L85-
12001M on 50k. Type I, mint, .L77-
na Type III, 2-
1935-C68a cariety -Moscow-San Francisco Flight mint block of 4
with inverted overprint and small "f" variety. -*L8-


(a)-1381 Zemstvos -L 25-
(b)-28 letters (1912-18) plus 5 post cards from Finland with Russian
stamps (Finnish cancellations) Most of the letters are addressed
to Baron von Mannerheim. Est. L 6-
(c)-1919-23 11 covers plus one piece Azerbaijan Republic. Original
business correspondence, including 2 stamps of Transcaucasian Fed.
Republic plus large blocks of handstamped provisionals. Est. L 14-


1919-Nos, 170-6 North Army set tied on cover (23.11.19), backstamped
"TTALLINN" Est. L 2-1Q.


Cover from Russian Embassy in Peking to France, bearing Imperial
Russian Seal (Arms embossed in white on blue), tied with a pair of I cand.
and a pair and 2 singles, another single having fallen off, of 5 cand of the
1st. issue of China, plus 1 Fr. Peace and Commerce of France. Cancelled in
transit at French Post Office in Shanghai. no price.


5k. stamped envelope -St. Petersburg to Switzerland 22k. rate (St. P.
5k. town post stamp of 1863 plus 5 and 7k. stamps), "ZAKAZNOE (registered)"
framed cancellation. 60 M.

"nLODON LETTER" by Dennis Way in Western Stamp Collector.

1902-04-No. 57c (unpriced)-3k. carmine-backgr. omitted. L 7-10.

72 46, 47


The greater part of the famous von Scharffenberg collection of Russia
and states. Many of the lots were illustrated in von Scharffenborg Collect-
ion Catalogue published in Berlin in 1925. Prices were very reasonable.

(a$Part of Cover (money bank letter) franked with Romanov stamps-
5r. (50 copies), 3r. (8 copies) and Ir, and 20k. rate 275r. 20k.
cancelled CREL 13.4.1915. $65.0g.
(b)- 7 blocks of 10 of Nos 119-23, 125 and 126 overprinted "OBRAZETS",
two types of overprint, one of which is believed to be a fake. $13.00.
(c)-No. 131 Lr. vertical bisect on back of a cover with a note by
postmaster "50k. Paid" $4.25.
(d)-Several parcel post cards with "KUSTANAI" provisionals. $13,00
I2M.C and RE00.
(e)-l122;23-No, 219d-groundwork omitted. $10Q.5.
(f)-190l5os, B1 to 4 -4 complete strips of 8 overprinted "OBRAZETS"
( one letter per stamp) -* Perf. 12A-. $21.00,
(g)-1922?; -3ock of 14 of 25r, Control stamps aiichel Ila) used on cover
to Vienna. $2.50..
(h)-19133*No. 0l1-l. Romanov-used block of 16 perforated with initials
"nO. P. K." (Odesckaya Pochtovaya Kontora). It was a common practice
to perforate stamps thus, when stamps were sent in lieu of ca.
from branch post office to the main post office.
Office in Turkey:*

No. 2 $46.00. No. 3 w$3.. No. 16a $25.00.

Covers with provisionals brought $3.0 to 6.0.

1922-No. 302 tied to post card from Baku to Berlin $1.5.

Covers to Switzerland brought. $12_.O to $17.OO.
Far Eastern Republic:-

No.s 2 to 56 Famoues blocks of 4 tied on Registered covers- best
price was for No, 18 $'U 0.

1923-No. 48 -Cover Tiflis to Berlin 100 cpoies (15,000r. on
15k.) in strips of 5. Estimated $150.00. $15.00.
Nikolaevsk on Amur:-

No. 52 .$50.o0. No. 58 -$21.00. No. 59 (double ovpt.) $4SQ.
No, 53- 9-;" co. No. 59 -4 75._ No. 60 190, No, 61 -1Z .
No. 53a (slight crease) 16.50. Nos. 60 & 60a (pair) $,0Q

46, 47 73

Nikolaevsk on Amur:-

No. 62 (inverted) *- 2.00 No. 62 $36.00. No. 63 $2.00.
No, 67A (pair) -* $366 No. 64 $23.50. No. 69 $69.00,
No. 69 Sa.0. -

Armavir Proviuial: -

1920-Armavir to Moscow parcel post card with a block of eight (8) and
a single of 0lr. on 15k. 47.25.

Rakwere ProviDsonal on Russian wrappers. All signed by P. Jemchujin.
Michel No. 1 $i_4.... Michel No. 2 $122,.. Michel No. 3 $25.00.
35k. on 1k. Romanov wrapper (26 copies printed) -$149,5f .

Yekaterinogeav overprints on Ruble values- Very Good Prices.

(a)- C7a-Hide "5"- $Q96OQ. (b)-No. 444 (variety) -violet brown
(c)-Sanabria NO. 51b $.00, (only 24 said to exist)-our opinion
(d)-Sanabria No. 58-20k. carmine, that it is a color proof. -$, .
Perf. 132xl23V13jxl0- (listed (e)-No. 62a (San.)-horizontal pair,
in New Sov. Cat.) -canc .-$28.0. imp. between. $15.0.
(f)-San. No. 66a-Perf. 14 $ 0. (g)-San. No. 96a-imperforate margin
copy, mint. $9,.00.
H. LAZARUS. New York.

(a)- Mute (skull and crossed bones) cancellation-"*PERTAU",on cover-$55Q.
b)-1828/38-2 prestamp covers from MITAVA & LIBAVA. $15.00.
c)- Latvia-2N7 used on cover-$7.00.
21/12 (pr.), 17 and 18 used on 2 pieces.- $jIt50.
2N23, 26 & 27 (cover) $8.75. 2N32(registered cover) $10.50.
2N33-backstamped registered cover-RARITY. -$21.50.
(d)-12 Romanov stamps on 5 pieces, large violet oval cancellation
(e)-Poland-1847-stamples-cancelled "OZARKOW a. m. Karty No. in red.
Rachmanov Pol. No. 52. $2.LQ.
(f)-Poland No. I on cover, cane. 311 in ring, and "ALEXANDROW-
(g)- Russian Postal Stationary. Ascher Catalogue.
Nos. 3a, b $10.50. No. 5a 45.150. No. 5b $8.00.
No. 3a-cancelled $16.00. No. 3-dull green & violet (proof) -$16.00
(h)-Russia No. 32c-2k. imperforate, large margins, exp. by Friedl $13.5C
(i)-Field Post cover-1904-cancelled "17th. Army Corps" $8..
"U -1905- "16th. .2
(j)-Wenden L 11 on post card $9.25.
(k)-104 German W12 Dentube Dienstpost Ostland covers, with and without
stamps. $QD0.00.
(1)-Ukraine-1944-"Dentube Hilfspost Cherson" & Krivoy Rog. 'Urr$ each.

74 46, 47

Monograms by S. D. Tohilinghirian and P. T. Ashford. May be obtained
from P. T. Aahford, 27 Addiscombe Road, Wells Road, Bristol 4, England.
42D Price $1.15 Post Free.

The second volume of the study of the interesting and very little known
eztwiou s from Armenia shows that the authors have done a great deal of
research on postal organizations of the Armenian Republic, the names of post
offices at the present time and their former names during the turbulent
period of 1931822, as well as most important research and greatly detailed
study of various unframed HP monograms overprints.

The bodk starts with discussion of unlisted Zangezur provisionals,
which includes their historical background, an illustration of a registered
cover with 5 copies of l.20r. from KATER1KY ZAVOD (Zangezur) and listing of
the two values issued in that district.

A map of Armenian Republic (1918-22) showing various districts and
localities where ur-ramed HP Ionograms were issued, follows illustrations
of numerous geniine and forged what majority of the collectors call "Z"
overprints. It is for the first time in the philatelic press that a col-
lector can with the aid af this volume study the mysterious "Zs", the
variation in their shape, size, color, etc. caused by human factor in their
application, One has only to posses a complete sheet to see these interest-
ing variations.

Enlarged "HP Monogram is illustrated and its 15 component parts are
discussed, to help the student in identifying the overprmins,. Detailed
description and numerous illustrations of types and sub-types and the "re-
conciliation of the unframed types with their framed originals" will help
the collector a great deal in classification and identifying the unframed

Last 4 pages of the handbook have a very detailed priced check list of
Various types with reference to pages where the detailed study of each type
is given.

"Postal Organization of the Republic" chapter giving lists of P.O.ts
in 1918/22 and at the present time, as well as various notes will help the
collector a great deal in locating covers and cancellations for the periods
before and after issuance of the various Armenian stamps.

In the list (E) for the P.O.,'s opened after 1923 we note one named
BERIA in district of the same name. We assume it was beried along with its
namesake. Since the Russian revolution of 38 years ago names of numerous
towns, districts, etc. have changed from time to time, some more than once.

This limited printing work of Ashford and Tchilinghirian we feel should
be on bookshelves of all important libraries, not only of those dealing with
Russia and Related subjects, but all others, because of its historical
importance and the artful, logical and simple way of explaining these
mysterious stamps, and because of great help it can be in separating
genuine from the numerous counterfeits found in most of the collections.

46, 47 75

y R, Skiareyski

1956 Scott's catalogue is on hand, and numerous changes are in
evidence. A quick glance shows approximately 825 cuts in mint and 940
in cancelled stamps. Rises are few approximately 45 mint and 30 cane.

Now giving a short analysis of changes:

(1)-Most of the rises are in stamps of low value with topical interest.
(2)-Many errors of 1909-12 Arms issue and 1922 Soviets are cut.
(3)Iany cancelled to order stamps are down in price.
(4)lany cuts are due to recent dumping of huge quantities of Soviet
mint and cancelled to order stamps.
(5)W-0#263 and 264 are up from 90 cents to $3.25. #224 is down from
$60.00 to $40.00, ,#1246-47 are down from $8.00 to $5.00.
(6)-4Iany shades have been removed from the catalogue.
(7)-General MIillerxs set (170-76) "prepared but not issued".
(8)-Policy of combining sets that were issued both perforated and
imperforate under one number, when their values are the same.
Azerbaijan, Karelia, Batum, Occupation of Lithuania, Georgia,
Dorpat No ch.anea, White Russia Out of the Catalogue.
Libau Down-4(mint), up 8(mint) 4(Cancelled).
Aunus Mints up from $36.30 to $76.20. Mongolia 3 stamps up.
North Ingermanllad Up 2(mint), l(cancelled).
ranglas Priced cancelled now. 96 cuts, 16 increases.
Wenden JL4 (up), L12a (imperforate)-priced. Tannu-Touva 4(up)
Siberia Down ll(mi*t), ll(canc.), up(l). #'13 to 23 (private
Origin). 1 kop. postal savings ovpt. "70k." is a proof.
Western Ukrain Many previously unpriced cancelled are priced now.
Down (48) many expensive ores, up(18).
Estonia '17 is priced now @ $185,00, #20 @ $400,00. Down l(mint),
l(cancelled), up -4(mint), 5(cancelled).
German Occupation few changes up and down.
Offices in China #U1 down $10,00 each way. Down 4(mint), l(canc),
up 18(mint), cancelled(16).
gfices in Turkey Down 4(mint), 4(canc.), up 3(mint) & 3(canc.).
Armenia No changes, except #294A-294P combined with imperforates.
Far Eastorn Republic Nos. 50 to 58, 60, 67 to 70 up, 7'66(down).
Transcaucasia Up #'2 to 8(canc.), mint 7#7, 8, 22 and 23.
Ukraina Following now priced ##22 to 40, 62 to 65, 170 to 172.
A#151 priced cancelled. Down-4(mint), cancelled(4), up-
W(mint), cancelled(9).
South Russia #52 cancelled reduced from $5.00 to $1.00. Following
are priced now Nos. 68a, 69a and 71c.
The changes in the new catalogue were actually a sort of "house
cleaning" process which was actually needed for a long time and long
overdue, and which by no means is complete yet.
76 46, 47