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 Front Cover
 Index
 Officers, honorary members, and...
 President's message by A....
 Editorial
 Rossica and British society of...
 New York section of Rossica by...
 Belgian Section of Rossica
 Notes on Russian philately by A....
 USSR varieties of 40K with arms...
 USSR - New Paintings of the standard...
 40K. values with smaller design...
 Alexandrovskoe-de-Kastri (addenda)...
 Interesting Russian postmarks of...
 Russian No. 1 with German postmarks...
 Inverted background errors of 4k....
 History of the Russian troops in...
 Railway postmarks of Imperial Russia...
 Postage stamps of Ukrainian National...
 Romeko catalogue
 Russian Erinnophilia by E....
 Tax stamp from the League of Nations...
 Fiscals - Reprint from "Stamp Collecting",...
 1952 edition of Soviet catalogue...
 Revenues, labels, poster stamps,...
 Imperial stamps overprinted with...
 Amur by A. I. Masloff
 Rossica in California by A. I....
 Interesting postmarks by K....


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00009
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1956
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00009

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Index
        Page 1
    Officers, honorary members, and representatives of the society
        Page 2
    President's message by A. A. Chebotkevich
        Page 3
    Editorial
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Rossica and British society of Russian philately meet during A.S.D.A. show
        Page 6
        Page 7
    New York section of Rossica by Gregory F. Illiashenko
        Page 8
    Belgian Section of Rossica
        Page 8
    Notes on Russian philately by A. Rosselevitch
        Page 9
        Page 10
    USSR varieties of 40K with arms by Dr. R. G. Gagarin
        Page 11
    USSR - New Paintings of the standard series of 1939-49 10, 20, 30, and 40K. Values with smaller design by E. Archanguelsky.
        Page 11
    40K. values with smaller design by E. Archamguelsky philately in Russia by Anatol Gar
        Page 12
    Alexandrovskoe-de-Kastri (addenda) by A. I. Masloff
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Interesting Russian postmarks of 1867 by V. A. Rachmanoff
        Page 15
    Russian No. 1 with German postmarks by V. A. Rachmanoff
        Page 15
    Inverted background errors of 4k. & 10k. Russia of 1904 on vertically laid paper - compendium by R. Sklarevski with excerpts from other authors
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    History of the Russian troops in France 1916-1917 by J. Posell
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Railway postmarks of Imperial Russia - continuation by W. E. C. Kethro & John Barry
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Postage stamps of Ukrainian National Republic 1920 by Capt. S. de Shramchenko
        Page 39
    Romeko catalogue
        Page 40
    Russian Erinnophilia by E. Marcovitch
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Tax stamp from the League of Nations by J. Posell
        Page 48
    Fiscals - Reprint from "Stamp Collecting", London
        Page 48
    1952 edition of Soviet catalogue by Kurt Adler
        Page 48
    Revenues, labels, poster stamps, officials, fantasies, etc.
        Page 48
    Imperial stamps overprinted with stars & new figure of value - addenda by E. Archanguelsky
        Page 49
    Amur by A. I. Masloff
        Page 50
    Rossica in California by A. I. Masloff
        Page 51
    Interesting postmarks by K. Adler
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
Full Text


The Journal of the Rossica
Society of Russian Philately



PoCcHKa
OPfAH
PYECKOFO 3APYGEKIHOrO 4HMATHIETJIHEEKorfl
0 Oi 1E TB A,
Cepe6pAHblR MeAanH Ha BtnrpaACKoA HaLtiOH. BbICTaBKt H Ha MOHMAyHapoAHOA
BbiCTaBKt Bb KeHHrc(eprt cOstropa 1935,.
BpoHaoBblR MeAainH Ha meHWAyHapoAHOM BblCTaBKft Praga 1935 H Ha
BtHCKOm MewHlyHapoAHOM BblCTaBKt












No. 49 1956
M 3sAaTen b
A. Lavrov
252 Sherman Street
Passaic, New Jersey
U.S.A.










EDITO-R IN CHIEF
English and Fussian Lpnga Editions
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury 49th. & Locust Sts., Philadelphia 39, Pa.

Publisher & Asst. Editor Enlish Ed. Publisher & Asst. Editor. Russian Ed.
R. A. Sklarevski 640 N. Charles St. A. N. Lavrov 81 Monroe St., Garfield,
Avenue, Towson 4, Md. New Jersey.

EDIT0 RIAL BOARD
A. A. Chebotkevitch E. Marcovitch Capt. S. do Shramchenko E. L. Wisewell, Jr. *

INDEX

Pages
2 Officers, Honorary Members, Representatives, etc.
3 President's Message A. A. Chebotkevich
4-6 Editorial
6-8 Rossica and British Society of Russian Philately Meet During A.S.D.A. Show
8 New York Section of Rossica Gregory F. Illiashenko
8 Belgian Section of Rossica B. Legky
9-10 Notes on Russian Philately A. Rosselevitch
11 USSR Varieties of 40k. with Arms Dr. R. G. Gagarin
11-12 USSR New Printings of the Standard Series of 1939-49, 10, 20, 30 and
12-13 40k. Values with Smaller Design. -E. Archanguelsky
Philately in Russia Anatol Gar
13-14 Alexandrovskoe-de-Kastri (Addenda) A. I. Masloff
15 Interesting Russian Postmarks of 1867 V. A. Rachmanoff
15 Russia No. 1 with German Postmarks V. A. Rachmanoff
16-25 Inverted Background Errors of 4k. & 10k. Russia of 1904 on Vertically
Laid Paper Compendium -R. Sklarevski with excerpts from other authors.
26-33 History of the Russian Troops in France 1916-1917 J. Posell
34-38 Railway Postmarks of Imperial Russia Continuation W.E.C. Kethro &
John Barry
39-40 Postage Stamps of Ukrainian National Republic 1920 Capt. S. de Shramehenko
40 Romeko Catalogue
41-48 Russian Erinnophilia E. Marcovitch
48 Tax Stamp from the League of Nations J. Posell
48 Fiscals Reprint from "Stamp Collecting", London
48 1952 Edition of Soviet Catalogue Kurt Adler
48 Revonues, Labels, Poster Stamps, Officials, Fantasies, eto.
49-50 Imporial Stamps Overprinted with Stars & New Figure of Value Addenda -
E. Archanguelsky
50 Amur A. I. Masloff
51 Rossica in California A. I. Masloff
52 Interesting Postmarks -K. Adler








S 48 1












OFFICERS OF TFE SOCIETY

PRESIDENT A. A. Chebotkovich 40 E. Old iMill Rd. Ridge Farm, Lake Forest, Ill.
SECRETIaY Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
SECRETARY English Speaking Section Dr. G. B. Salisbury


HONORARY MEMBERS

A. A. Chebotkevich E. I. Marcovitch N. V. Savitzky
N. I. Kordakoff V. A. Rachmanoff H. M. Shonitz
A. N. Lavrov A. M. Rosselevitch R. A. Sklarevski
B. Legky Dr. G. B. Salisbury


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

NEW YOFK V. Cerny-841 W. 177th. St. Apt. 3J, New York 33, N. Y.
WESTERN U.S. A. I. nasloff-671 S. Norton Ave., Los Angeles 5, California.
GREAT BRITAIN J. Barry-77A St. James Rd., Sutton, Surroy, England.
BELCGIU B. Legky-16 Sq. Gutonberg, Brussels, Belgium.
MGR1iNY Dr. B. Woropinsky-16 Auerbach-Bonshoim, Banhofstr. Rolag, Germany
ISRlEL A. Trumpeldor-Arba Artzot 25, Tol Aviv, Israel.
FR. MOROCCO V. N. Butkov-49 Rue Laperouse, Casablanca, French Morocco.
CAiADA P. Domianenko-354M- Yong St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
VENEZUELA E. I. Marcovitch-Edif. "Camuri" Apto. 25 Calle Real do Sabana,
Grando, Caracas, Venezuela.
BRAZIL P. Boloff-Rua Pedrozo 238, Caixa Post 2960, San Paulo, Brazil.
ARGENTINA B. Riasnianski-Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina.



Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries. Application
forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request. Journal,
membership lists, code, bulletins, and supplements to the membership will
be sent out annual.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers.
Full page $30.00, Half Page $15.00. Quarter Page $7.50. Twelfth Page
$2.50 (5 lines). Members of Rossica pay only 50% of the cost. With a
discount the cost per line to members is only 25 cents. By helping
yourself, you also help us.









2 ----------------------------------------
2 1+








PRESIDENT S MESSAGE
"A, A. Chebotkevich

I begin my message with a note of sorrow, that of the passing of our
SHonorable President and founder of Rossica, E. M. Arkhanguelsky, in Jugo-
slavia, on February 13, 1956. We wish him peace and eternal memory,

You have received the new membership lists, and can see the growth
of our society. Many new members have been added since that time, thanks
to our representatives, and members who have been most active.

First of all we must note the success of the joint meeting of Rossica
and BSRP, at Hotel Vanderbilt, in N. Y., which was attended by more than
forty members and guests, including our member, Mr. Bernard Davis, Director
of the National Philatelic Museum. Details are given els ewhero. We are
also appreciative of the double number 46/47 which received wide acclaim.
Mrs. Charlotte Downs, Editor of STANPS magazine led other publications in
praising the Journal and in writing up the meeting. For this, we extend
our warm gratitude,

The Chesapex National Exhibition, 1956, held in Baltimore, gave our
Society added honors. Publisher R. A. Sklarevski was its Chairman of Ex-
hibits and Dr. G. B. Salisbury the guest speaker at the banquet. The former
received a Silver Medal for his "British Occupation of Batum", while the
latter a Gold Medal for a 160 page display of Romanov Issue, and a silver
tray for his speech at the banquet,

I wish to thank Mr. Lavrov for his work with the Russian Edition, the
membership lists, and Mr. Masloff, Representative in California, for his
unusual activity there in our behalf. Mr. Vansovich of Rio de Janeiro, our
member and our friend is to be congratulated for the long and fine article
in the journal "Russia" published in Brazil, as well as for his efforts in
establishing a strong group in Brazil.

Our Hon. Member A. M. Rosselevitch was recently honored withaa biography
and photo, as well as publication of his article in UBalasse Magazine" in
Belgium, of his "La Poste Russe on Chine". Congratulations Honorable
member, E, Marcovich has boon most active in our behalf in Venezuela, and in
the journal "Corroo dol Orinoco", No. 4 he is highly praised, while No, 5
mentions Dr. G. B, Salisbury.

Our new Constitution is finished, and will soon be presented to the
members, and then we shall hold general elections. Many of our members are
exhibiting at the FIFEX, and we wish them luck.
oooooooooooooooooooo

00000000000000000000000000000000ooooooooo0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
o ZEMSTVO COLLECTION OF 1950 all different. Many R and BR included. Very o
o fine condition. Mounted in two volumes...................Price $950.00 o
o o
o CHRISTIAN HACHE o
o 74 rue du Rolais o
o WATERMAEL, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM o
o (ASDA, AFS, SPA, Collectors Club, Rossica, etc.) o
S 00oooooooooooo 0oooooooooooooo ooooooo ooooooo oo oooooooooooooo00000000000

483








E D I T 0 RIAL

We are very happy with the comments about our last effort in the phila-
telic press. We shall show our appreciation of the kind reviews by continuing
to do our very best. The inclusion of our journal and all of its articles in
the important lists of all major publications throughout the world, is a big
boost for Rossica, especially in the Philatelic Index of the American
Philatelist, U.S.A. and the Stamp Lover, Gireat Britain.

Mrs. Charlotte N. Downs, Editor of STAMPS, weekly magazine of philately,
and member of Rossica Society delighted us again, by her immense and most
useful publicity given to Rossica, since the last issue, 46/47. As a token
of our esteem and appreciation, we are presenting a photo of Mr. Le Roy Downs,
her jovial husband and Mrs. Downs, on our society photo page, and we urge our
members, nearly three hundred strong, and their many friends to subscribe to
STAMPS, an excellent magazine.

We are reproducing the article which Mr. H. L. Lindquist, publisher, and
Mrs. Downs placed on the first page of StAMS, Dec, 10, 1955, describing in
detail the Annual Joint Mseting of Rossica and B.J.R.P. and the photo taken
at this event, also shown by us on the society page, as well as a lengthy
review of 46/47, which, alas we are unable to reprint because of lack of space.
All in all Editor Downs gave us five first pages, and we thank her for this
generous gesture, as well as for publicizing the meeting in an earlier issue,
for the past reviews, and lengthy notices about our past activities, for the
fine CHESAFEX National Stamp Exhibition write-up, giving your Editor and
Mr. Sklarevski mention, as well as Rossica, and for the fine obutary recently
inserted honoring the passing of our great founder and past editor of Rossica
Journal, Eugene Mikhailovitch Arkhanguelsky.

The excellent article by Dt. Voropinsky, and the most interesting "reply"
by E. Marcovitch aroused great interest. We are swamped with replies to the
"reply", and to the original article in #44. Previous commitments and pbubli-
cation plans do not allow the inclusion of these very absorbing views on the-
matic and constructive methods of collecting, not even the outstanding ones
by Mr. Rosselevitch, and Dr. Gagarin. In this we wish to be forgiven.

Our friend, Semyon Vorobiev sent a fine letter urging our members who
were "on the spot" when various Post-Imperial issues were produced, as well
as the "States", to write and give us authoritative facts about them. He
rightly states that many issues, especially those of the Armies, and of some
republics, formed after the fall of the Empire, were of questionable nature.
This is a challenge to our members who lived in Russia at that time, and who
have first hand information, or as it is said in Russian, "istina". Please
write, and your material will be welcome. Semyon likewise asks for more
articles of R.S.F.S.Ro and U.S.S.R. issues, and we shall oblige soon, as
K. Adler will soon begin his serialized study, "The Standard or Regular
Issues of U.S.S.R,"

The articles on revenues, and the news of the appearance of the serial
and the catalogue of lables or vinietkas, produced swift results. A Circle
of Collectors of Revenues and Labels (CCRL) has been formed, under the leader-
ship of E. Marcovitch, and this group shall operate within the Rossica Society,
thus, outsiders who are interested in these items of collecting should join
the parent group first. Our editorial staff, having launched this enterprise,
now suggests that members interested in Zemstvos, Russian Air Post, Postal

4 48









Stationery, World War I and II material, etc. should similarly organize,
under our sponsorship, and active aid, and we shall publish their news, and
results of research. Messrs. Prins and Sklarevski, as well as your editor
are launching the Zemwtvo group, and the first two are now preparing an up to
datq study of all of the Zemstvo issues, profusely illustrated, a boon to those
who do not possess a Chuchin Catalogue,or Schmidt, or other similar literature
which, outdated, offer aid to the collectors of locals.

We are publishing in this issue the beginning of an important study by
Mr. Marcovitch on labels or vinietkas, to be followed by a richly illustrated
serial and a detailed catalogue. This should open a new field to many collec-
ors, clear up problems for those who have them, but not in catalogued state,
and solve many questions about some items that are not stamps at all, but labe

Another important article, more historical than philatelic, is that of
Jacques Possell, about the Special Infantry Brigades of Russia, in France,
during the World War I. Until this writer had gathered, after a prolonged
research, all of the data it was unavailable to the majority of our readers,
Philatelic items, belonging to these units, always raised eyebrows and sur-
prised comments. We urge all those within our midst, who were either officers:
or soldiers in these brigades to write us whatever information they can shed o:.
this dark corner of both the history and philately.

Other articles in #48 need no introduction, and their contents speak
for themselves. We are trying to give readers a rich and a varied fare, to
suit all tastes. The major opusi is that' of the inverted backgrounds and
true to our promise made in #44, we bring to you all published data on this
subject, mainly from Russian and German publications, unavailable to most of
our readers, either because of lack of knowledge of the languages, or lack of
the publications in their libraries. Our Russian members will welcome the
material from English sources. Mr. Sklarevsii, in his resume and his owr
article on the subject, we are sure, will arouse much comment from the readers
and from the authors of the articles discussed or condensed in this compendium
.....those who are alive to-day, for many have gone, and we mourn their
passing,

We are back to the normal size, and gladly so. The double number, because
of its weight, and to a lesser extent #45, caused difficulties at the Post
Office. Journals of our type must not weigh over eight ounces with the carry-
ing envelope, otherwise the postage rate is changed from eight cents of the
printed matter, to over thirty five cents of parcel post. We are now exper-
imenting with thinner paper, for the English edition, that will not show the
print through, and we are planning in the near future to change over to typo-
graphy. The latter will enable us to increase the contents of the journals,
and produce a more professional job. To achieve this goal we need your co-
operation. Some have advised us to raise subscription rates and dues, but
this we shall not do, as the present fee of three dollars for all, is just
fee, in spite of the rise in various costs. Our advice is this. Do what the
editorial staff has done' We asked and received ads from all dealers whom we
patronize. We tell them that their gesture will cost them nothing, and will
bring them a potential market of nearly three hundred members and their many
friends, as well as the world wide publicity, as our journals are sent to
various institutions, libraries and organizations-throughout the world.


48 g









Every dealer, by joining as a member, gets a quarter page advertisement
for $3.75 instead of $7.50 the regular price for nonmembers. His membership
thus actually costs him nothing with the first ad, and the saving on the other
two ads in that one year give him an advantage. If he is not interested in
our field, he can sell our journals at a profit to any collector customer as
soon as he obtains his copy. Please bear this in mind, and show your dealer
this issue and the double number. A few extra pages of ads will bring you
great dividends. Good luck!



Rossica and .,British Society of Russian Philately
Meet During A.S.D.A. Show

"Reprinted from Dec. 10, 1955 issue of STAMPS, first page coverage
and photo (shown elsewhere), also review of 46/47, all presented
on five pages."

Publisher H.L. Lindqujist Editor C.N. Downs

The annual joint meeting of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
and the British Society of Russian Philately was held on Sunday, November
20, 1955, at the Hotel Vanderbilt, opposite the 71st Regiment Armory in New
York, where the A.S.D.A. National Postage Stamp Show was then in progress.
We are indebted to Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury for details of the meeting which
follow.

The general chairman was Joseph F. Chudoba, and Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
presided over the business meeting, which was attended by about forty members.

Dr. Salisbury opened the meeting by reading a speech welcoming both
societies, and by presenting to them letters from A. Chebotkevich and W.E.C.
Kethro, presidents of Rossica and B.S.R.P., as well as from representatives
from all over the world, Dr. Salisbury pointed out the close cooperation
existing between the two groups, and how both are progressing with great
strides. Rossica, he stated, has gained nearly a hundred members in the
one year that elapsed since the appearance of the Society's paper, the Rossica
Journal. This is a remarkable advance for such a short period in such a
highly specialized group.

A double issue of the Rossica Journal was published to coincide with
the meeting date, and copies were handed to those in attendance. It consists
of eighty-three pages of text and illustrations, a great advance over the
initial number of last year, not only as to size but also contents. The
Journal will be reviewed elsewhere in this issue, but we would like to com-
ment that each issue of the Rossica Journal seems to exceed the preceding one
in interest and value, and it is little wonder that its advent has been follow:
by a substantial increase in membership. Incidentally, we should like to inte:
ject here a suggestion to the beginner and less advanced collector that the
importance which the mature philatelist attaches to philatelic literature as
a guide to his collecting is an example that he might follow to his advantage,
as it will initate much more quickly into full enjoyment of the hobby.



48 6









Bernard Davis, Director of the National Philatelic Museum, and who is
one of the important new members acquired by the Society during the past year,
was introduced, and he warmly praised both the Rossica Society and the British
Society of Russian Philately, as well as their publications. The British
group publishes an equally interesting and valuable periodical, called The
British Journal of Russian Philately, with Dr. A. H. Wortman and J, Barry as
editors. Dr. Salisbury is the editor of the Rossica Journal.

Mr. Davis urged the two groups to aid him in staging a Global Cover Society
show at the museum in Philadelphias and also asked for their support in the
F I PE X exhibition in New York in 1956.

The chair was then turned over to Kurt Adler, chairman of exhibits who
introduced V.A. Rachmanoff, who presented a wonderful display and talk on
Poland No. One, and cancellations; as well as Russia Number One, with Polish
cancellations, and unique pre-stamp covers of Poland.

Dr. L.S. Snegireff followed with a collection of rare Offices in China
Disinfected Mail, double usage of Chinese and Russian postage, markings and
combinations with postage of other offices in China of various nations.

Herman Shenitz then presented his extensive collection of Masked Cancel-
lations, containing many unique items. He was followed by Captain S. de
Shramchenko and Dr. G.B. Salisbury, who displayed an album of Ukrainian over-
prints on Romanovs, a part of the latter's ten volume specialized collection
of the single issue. Album sheets of Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 were also shown from
his general collection of Russia.

Kurt Adler showed a huge array of World War I censor markings from all
corners of the Empire, and a highly specialized airpost collection of Russia.
This consisted of mint singles, blocks, errors, used and on cover, with very
interesting cancellations, first flights, etc.

A. Kotlar presented albums of numeral cancellations, and Rimma Sklarevski
showed many interesting items from his extensive collection. Gregory Iliashenk
spoke on Imperial and post-Imperial paper money, exhibiting many rare numis-
matic showpicessc F. Julius Fohs had mailed his "Von Schargenberg collection
of Mutes" for display at the meeting, and this was explained and identified by
Dr. Salisbury, who is currently running a series of articles on the subject of
mute cancellations in the B. J. R. P. Jacques Posell likewise had sent his
collection to the meeting, and his fine array of revenues, labels and other
non-Scott items held the audience spellbound.

Xenia Godlevski displayed souvenir sheets: Jos. Chudoba showed a sheet of
the "woman worker" plate flaw, Scott 616, advising his audience that as far as
he knows that only three complete sheets exist of this particular flaw, the
other two being in the collections of J. Schafer and Arthur Shields, both of
whom are members of the two societies.

M. Sage showed censor covers of World War II, and Colonel S. Prince dis-
cussed his collection of Philatelic material celebrating the visit of
Alexander III and Nicholas II to France, as well as the visit of the Prvident
of France to Russia, and the visit there of the French Fleet. He likewise
commented on a letter in his collection which was written by the widow of Major
Whistler, who built the railroad from St. Petersburg to Moscow during the reign
of Czar Nicholas I.

48 7










Following this program the members settled down to trading stamps or to
closer study of the album pages that had been presented and discussed.

Wives of the members joined them.after the meeting and helped give the
affair a real Russian touch by sharing their Smirnoff vodka as they chatted
together in annual reunion.



NEW YORK SECTION OF ROSSICA
Gregory F. IIliashenko

At the general meeting held at the end of 1955, the New York Section of
Rossica, at an election presided by Hon. member H. I. Shenitz, reelected
V. P. Cerny as President, and G. F. Illiashenko as Vice-President and temporary
Secretary.

15 members and 4 guests present heard Mr. Cerny report on activities
during 1955 and on the importance of work performed by several of the members.
We also urged others to be more active, and asked all to support the joint
meeting with B.S.R.P.

Since the meeting, important hearings and discussions were held during
the winter sessions on the new Rossica Constitution.

All meetings were followed by stamp trading and social activities. N. Y.
Section meets on last sunday of each month in the Engineerts Room on the 4th.
floor of 349 W. 86th. Street.


BELGIAN SECTION OF ROSSICA

At September 12, 1955 meeting Belgian Section of Rossica decided to
join "Cercle d'Etudes Philatelique de Bruxelles" as Russian Section. C.E.P.B.
is an organization of philatelic specialist groups, similar to the ones in
U.S.A., and which carries a great deal of weight, known international, and
is very difficult to become a member of.

On October 3, 1955 our honored member A. Rosselevitch spoke on Counterfeit
Overprints of Russian Offices in China. On December 5, 1955 I. Braunstein
exhibited his remarkable collection of stamps and covers of General Wrangel
and spoke on the same subject,

At the general meeting, the following were elected:-

President B. Legky Temporary Treasurer B. Legky
Vice-Pres J. Du Four Delegate to C.E.P.B.- I, Braunstein
oooooooooooooooooo

Because of late arrival the report of the CALIFORNIA SECTION of
ROSSICA will be found in the last pages of this journal

000000ooooooooooooooo

8 48










Following this program the members settled down to trading stamps or to
closer study of the album pages that had been presented and discussed.

Wives of the members joined them.after the meeting and helped give the
affair a real Russian touch by sharing their Smirnoff vodka as they chatted
together in annual reunion.



NEW YORK SECTION OF ROSSICA
Gregory F. IIliashenko

At the general meeting held at the end of 1955, the New York Section of
Rossica, at an election presided by Hon. member H. I. Shenitz, reelected
V. P. Cerny as President, and G. F. Illiashenko as Vice-President and temporary
Secretary.

15 members and 4 guests present heard Mr. Cerny report on activities
during 1955 and on the importance of work performed by several of the members.
We also urged others to be more active, and asked all to support the joint
meeting with B.S.R.P.

Since the meeting, important hearings and discussions were held during
the winter sessions on the new Rossica Constitution.

All meetings were followed by stamp trading and social activities. N. Y.
Section meets on last sunday of each month in the Engineerts Room on the 4th.
floor of 349 W. 86th. Street.


BELGIAN SECTION OF ROSSICA

At September 12, 1955 meeting Belgian Section of Rossica decided to
join "Cercle d'Etudes Philatelique de Bruxelles" as Russian Section. C.E.P.B.
is an organization of philatelic specialist groups, similar to the ones in
U.S.A., and which carries a great deal of weight, known international, and
is very difficult to become a member of.

On October 3, 1955 our honored member A. Rosselevitch spoke on Counterfeit
Overprints of Russian Offices in China. On December 5, 1955 I. Braunstein
exhibited his remarkable collection of stamps and covers of General Wrangel
and spoke on the same subject,

At the general meeting, the following were elected:-

President B. Legky Temporary Treasurer B. Legky
Vice-Pres J. Du Four Delegate to C.E.P.B.- I, Braunstein
oooooooooooooooooo

Because of late arrival the report of the CALIFORNIA SECTION of
ROSSICA will be found in the last pages of this journal

000000ooooooooooooooo

8 48








NOTES ON RUSSIAN PHILATELY
b A. Rosselevitch1
(continuationT

Probably not one nation is so poorly and incompletely written up in
catalogues as Russia. Some catalogues list as official issues, stamps and
entire series of not only questionable, but clearly fantastic origin; others,
on the contrary, omit some issues which have been issued either for local or
all of Russia use. Very little research is being done on Russian philately
and the Russian philatelists have done very little work on systematization
and cataloguing of all known data that counterfeits and tampered stamps find
their way into the market as newly discovered rarities.

I mentioned in the previous number of the Journal, the imperforate
stamps, prepared from the perforated ones. Besides this, we find many in-
stances of artificially altered colors of stamps, by means of various chemical
manipulations. Some of these forgeries find its way to the market in large
numbers, even in full sheets. Some catalogues list them as rare varieties,
describing them as found in archives, unaccepted proofs, or under some other
explanation, to justify their appearance.

Thus, for example, we may find the 1 kop. of 1883 without thunderbolts,
in black color, instead of yellow. Also the 1 kop, with thunderbolts of
1889-1904 issue, which color was changed to black. I saw a copy of the former
cancelled with a normal Russian canceller, which was claimed to be a "mourning
stamp", issued in small numbers, to mark the assassination of Emperor Alexander
II, who incidentally perished at the hands of terrorists in 1881 and not in
1883.

Quite frequently one sees the 2 kop. of 1883 and 1889-1904, in blue
instead of green, and also 7 kop. of 1883 in green instead of blue. All
who know a little about the composition of colors will understand that green
color is easily changed into blue, or into yellow, and blue into green. With
the same success, lilac stamp of 5 kop. of 1883 is altered into dark rose.
All this trickery is done with cancelled stamps. I have not yet seen this on
the mint stamps. Far more dangerous forgery is found of 1 ruble on paper of
chalky network, where the entire brown design and background and the stamp
itself is altered into light olivegreen. This stamp is palmed off as a rare
issue, of unknown origin, and its history is connected with one of the firms,
quite prominent, which included this stamp in its catalogues, issued many
years ago.

Also known to all are the stamps of 1909-17 issue of 15 kop, with green
instead of blue center, 25 kop. with red instead of lilac center, and 35 kop.
with blue instead of green. All of the above are found mint, frequently in
full sheets, or large blocks. Similarly the 10 rouble of 1918 was tampered
with to create a blue center rarity. In this particular case the creators of
this forgery did not know that the original stamps with the blue center, have
a prominent shift of the oval and perforation, a point which allows us to
spot the forgery at once.

A more tempting item for forgers turned out to be the 3 kop. semi-postal
of 1915-16, on white paper, issued to raise funds for aiding the soldiers and
their families. Up to this time we found the following forgeries of this stamp:

48 9











first of all, the frequently encountered and best known fantasy on orange
paper, with varying shades from light yollow"3ream to bright orange. This
stamp confused and fooled many prominent publishers of catalogues. Yvert
listed this stamp for many years, the listing followed by a rather amusing
footnote reading "beware of forgeries". This stamp has been removed from
the 1956 edition of the Yvert catalogue.

Second one was the 3 kop. on white paper, perforated 13 rose colored
on the face of the stamp prepared so as to convert the common white paper
variety into a rare perforated 13y- variety on colored paper. I saw a cancel-
led copy of this forgery, rather well done, and which rested in one collect-
ion for a long time, without arousing any suspicion, until by accident, it
was compared a copy of the same stamp, on rose paper, but with a commoner
perforation. It was found that in the genuine stamp, the medallion picturing
Cossack was dark green, while on the forgery it was dark gray with a rose
tint. This is readily understandable, for those who created this forgery,
had a red and gray stamp, which was then covered with a rose background,

Finally, not long ago a 3 kop. value on sky blue paper, similar to the
color of paper used for printing the 10 kopp colored paper issue of 1914 was
discovered among many Russian stamps sold, after death of one Russian phila-
telist in Paris, Several dozen of these stamps wore found, consisting of a
sheet of 50 and a few blocks. Several stamps have the paper of the same shade
as the 10 kop. of 1914, others are almost gray, without any sky-blue tint.
This stamp was advertised as a color error, worthy of the rank of other rare
shade errors. One small philatelic journal in Belgium, with commercial ten-
dencies, but also with scientific pretensions, hastened to publish a sensa-
tional note about this discovery. However, when I was given several copies
of this stamp for study, and when I learned the ownership of this find, I
became suspicious for many reasons, I suspected that,particularly the stamps
having sky-blue or gray shade of paper, had the design under the color surface
and not over it.

The last word about this stamp has not been said yet, but I am more than
convinced that this stamp appears to be the work of falcificators, probably
those who created the 3 kop, value on orange paper. We can not rule out the
possibility that this stamp was printed in trial colors on white paper of the
3 kop. stamp: gray, sky-blue, cream, orange and possibly others, however the
orange color was utilized as more bright and effective.

These are the better known color forgeries of Russian stamps. It is quite
possible that other fantasies of this kind exist, which are purchased by the
gullible collectors, Although not everything is known about Russian stamps,
we must beware of the sensational items, bearing in mind the frequent examples
created solely for commercial renumerations.

Continuing my review of the forgeries of the Russian stamps, after
"URussian Offices in China", we shall touch the Russian Post in Turkey, known
as Russian Levant.
to be continued

10 48








USSR VARIETIES OF 40 K. ITH ARS
by Dr G, _Gag-rin
(Scott's Nos. 1306 L689)

NOTE:-Editors examined additional copies of these stamps, and found additional
variations in size, which are shown in these notes in parenthesis.

Most of the catalogues describe this stamp as follower-small size, issue
1948 and 1949, 40 kop. red, with arms of USS.R, issued by typography. However
one can separate this stamp into two distinct printings, one by typography and
one by offset printing, which may be distinguished from each other by the size
of the stamp as well as by variations in the design, which are described below,

(Scott No. 1306) (Scott No. 1689)
Type of Printing TYPOGRAFHY OFFSET

Height of Design (22.50), 22.75mm. (21.50), 21.75, (22.00)mm.

Width of Design 15.25mm. (14.50), 14.75mm.

Color brownish red orange red,(brownish red, etc.)

Hammer & Star-Lower rounded, (rays angular, (rays wide)
right corner, narrow)

Vertical lines above long shorter
World Globe.

Size of grains in fat narrower
Wreath.


Both printings are perforated 12x122 and I beleive the first prining
(typographed) is scarcer.

Editorial Commcients:-Dr. Salisbury has covers with stamps of both printings,
dated 1950, showing that both stamps appeared at about the same time. Scott
catalogue doesn't separate the offset-printing or offset-lithography from
lithography, therefore all offset printings in Scott catalogue are indicated
as lithographic prints. E. Archangelsky in his latest article, just written
before his untimely death, found elsewhere in this journal, also mentions the
facts of two printings of this stamp and also other malll size" standard type.
(See also comments following Archangelsky's article).

USSR NEW FRINTINGS OF THE STANDARD SERIES OF 1939-49,
10. 20. 30 AIN 40K. VALUES WITH SMALLER DESIGN.
BY E. Archanguelsky

I am writing about this series because I already have discovered in
smaller size (22xl5mm.), instead of normal (22.5x15.5mm) 10k. lady worker,
30k. aviator and 40k. arms of 1939, unwatermarked issue (Michel's Nos. 677,
682 and 1335). To my thinking, to this newly issued series belong three
other values, namely 5k. red worker, 15k. green soldier, and 20k. green-
female peasant. 15 kop. soldier I already have described in the pages of our
S journal. 20 kop. lady peasant (Mlichel Nos. 1332, Yvert 1327, S.G. 1401b) I

48 11








USSR VARIETIES OF 40 K. ITH ARS
by Dr G, _Gag-rin
(Scott's Nos. 1306 L689)

NOTE:-Editors examined additional copies of these stamps, and found additional
variations in size, which are shown in these notes in parenthesis.

Most of the catalogues describe this stamp as follower-small size, issue
1948 and 1949, 40 kop. red, with arms of USS.R, issued by typography. However
one can separate this stamp into two distinct printings, one by typography and
one by offset printing, which may be distinguished from each other by the size
of the stamp as well as by variations in the design, which are described below,

(Scott No. 1306) (Scott No. 1689)
Type of Printing TYPOGRAFHY OFFSET

Height of Design (22.50), 22.75mm. (21.50), 21.75, (22.00)mm.

Width of Design 15.25mm. (14.50), 14.75mm.

Color brownish red orange red,(brownish red, etc.)

Hammer & Star-Lower rounded, (rays angular, (rays wide)
right corner, narrow)

Vertical lines above long shorter
World Globe.

Size of grains in fat narrower
Wreath.


Both printings are perforated 12x122 and I beleive the first prining
(typographed) is scarcer.

Editorial Commcients:-Dr. Salisbury has covers with stamps of both printings,
dated 1950, showing that both stamps appeared at about the same time. Scott
catalogue doesn't separate the offset-printing or offset-lithography from
lithography, therefore all offset printings in Scott catalogue are indicated
as lithographic prints. E. Archangelsky in his latest article, just written
before his untimely death, found elsewhere in this journal, also mentions the
facts of two printings of this stamp and also other malll size" standard type.
(See also comments following Archangelsky's article).

USSR NEW FRINTINGS OF THE STANDARD SERIES OF 1939-49,
10. 20. 30 AIN 40K. VALUES WITH SMALLER DESIGN.
BY E. Archanguelsky

I am writing about this series because I already have discovered in
smaller size (22xl5mm.), instead of normal (22.5x15.5mm) 10k. lady worker,
30k. aviator and 40k. arms of 1939, unwatermarked issue (Michel's Nos. 677,
682 and 1335). To my thinking, to this newly issued series belong three
other values, namely 5k. red worker, 15k. green soldier, and 20k. green-
female peasant. 15 kop. soldier I already have described in the pages of our
S journal. 20 kop. lady peasant (Mlichel Nos. 1332, Yvert 1327, S.G. 1401b) I

48 11







found perf. 12x121, cancelled Dniepropetrovsk, May 1954 in size 22x15mm, and
in gray olive (instead of original blue green); I also have the same stamp
in olive green cancelled Dniepropetrovsk August 17, 1955.

Therefore, now we have the following values of the standard series, in
smaller size 22xl5mm. and slightly different shades, printed by offset 10,
20, 30 and 40 kop, Now we must find 5k. red-worker in smaller size to comp-
lete the series, but because of small quantities of 5k, value on hand I was
unable to do so, & 1 recommend this work to others, who may even find 60k.
value in that size.

I am anxious that the following specialist-researches Sklarevski,
Lee Black, Chudoba, Adler and others will give their ideas and opinions on
the correct measurements, gum and colors of this contaoversal issue, on the
pages of this *onal.

Michel (1956) already lists 30 and 40 kop. of smaller size, and I hope
that 1957 edition will list other values. I must add at this time that the
best foreign catalogue for the collectors of Russia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia
and Lithuania and Poland is German catalogue, Michel in which I have active
participation. I have made additions and corrections in 1955 edition and
already have sent 12 pages of the same for the 1957 edition for Russia and
Baltics. (January 10, 1956).

Editorial Comment:-We agree 100% with E. ,Archanguelsky that the standard
series of USSR are very interesting and need a great deal of research. Because
of their long use, huge demand for them for postal purposes, lack of informaLior
from original Soviet sources ( we understand a new catalogue appeared in Soviet
Russia in 1952, but we only heard about it 1956, and Mezhdunarcdnaya Kniga
denies its existance-see a letter elsewhere in this journal), unpopularity
with collectors in general because of not being pictorial or commemorative
issue the quantities in hands of collectors are small. Research work by one
person is almost impossible, unless one has entire into the stock of a whole-
saler or data from others. Mr. Kurt Adler will present shortly a serialized
study of all the standard issues of USSR.

I wish to inject into this discussion the following point, that probably
some sizes are results of wet printing, due to stamps being inserted into the
presses with or against the grain of the paper, thus producing various
shrinkages.


PHILATELY IN RUSSIA--Anatol Gar of Toronto, Canada wrote on August 10, 1955 to
Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga in Moscow asking the following questionss-

(1)-Has a new catalogue of Soviet Stamps been issued.
(2)-Do philatelic journals, bulletins, etc. exhist in Soviet Union.
(3)-Do philatelic clubs, etc. exist in Soviet Union with which
correspondence and exchange may be carried.

On Sept. 5, 1955 a reply was received signed by an individual from office
of Export of Soviet Periodicals. "In answer to your letter of August 10th,,
which was kindly transmitted to us by Main Philatelic Office, we wish to state
that philatelic literature in USSR is not being published. We can not send you
new Soviet Catalogue since none has been published.


12 48








"*Unfortunately, we can not rectmend any form of exchange, since neither
we nor any other Soviet organization or individuals exchanges postage sta;Lps.

"for obtaining Soviet postage stamps we recommend you to Toronto, Oanada
company EMPIFE ."

EdgitzrcI1 Cc=3rnt:-Evidently in this case as in many others, where similar
information was asked the an-aer was polite but firm-lWJe know nothing" From
Kurt Adlerts cc=.ent, elsewhere on pages of this journal we can ase that at
Least the answer to the question of the new catalogue is at least wrong. We
guess the answer is, as in many cases. If you write to the right people you
will get the right answer.



A LE X A NDR VSK OE D E
"KA S TR I
by A. I. ,Masloff
Addenda to the "Unusual Russian Cancellation" by Kurt Adlerp..A9 RosL6/L

Fort Alexandovskoe-de-Kastri, originally built along the shore of the
Bay de Kastri, was closed after a short time. The setttlement however remained
and grew, and the harbor became a busy stopping place for passing vessels,
seeking protection from storms and heavy winds. The port was actually frozen
five months out of the year. Estween the years 1890 to 1895 Alexandrovsk- de
Kastri pcesesd a geod harbor, store, hospital and considerable population
which maintained a lively trada with U.S.A., Japan, and England, and with many
countries. Va sels of th9 Volonteer Fleet Line on its Vladivistckr-anchatka
run made a regular stop, while traveling in both directions.
The cancellation reads UPostal Telegraph Kontora (office)" and not
"Postal Telegraph Otdelenie (sub-office or branch office" which was us-d for
smaller settlements or towns only. From that point of view one may assume
that considerable quantity of correspondence, both ordinary and registered,
as well as other, was routed via Vladivostok abroad for the period of ten
years.

The name "Alexandrovskoe de KastriT is not mentioned anywhere in contem-
porary reference works, large encyclopedias, or their addendas. We find Alek-
sandrovsk, Alexandrovsk de Kastri only, and John Bartholec.sw, in his atlas of
1890 calls it Castries. On the Sakhalin Island across the bay at that time,
the most important port office was DME while Alexandrovsk on Sakhalin was an
insignificant place. Its only business with Vladivostok was that of convicted
deportees, its trade was smnal, and hardly had anything to do with the post
office in questions

The early type of cancellation clearly indicates that at the tines
opening of this "Postal Telegraph Office"' (date of opening unknown) there
existed a cottllseent Alexandroviko do :...:- d Irhat influnsad the District
Postal Administration in providing the ne-:ly opened post office with a wrong
name, Further, the canallation incorporates nuieral %2, the type used for
earlier cancellations, the least number of cancellations for postal telegraph
offices of this type boing six"

SOn the canceller which applied the postmark to this envelope, the insert
was either broken off or worn out. It was always permitted,officially, to

48 13










insert in nanu=.ript the "year date', 1890 or 95 in this case, either at the
top or bottom, when there was a shortage of canicelj.ers, or while waiting for
a new one to arrive from regional headquarters, The rule was that the stamps
had to be cancelled, on the envelope to prevent reuse, therefore the clerk
being busy or convinced that they were already obliterated, did not bother
with inserting the date of cancellations tying the stamps to the envelope.

From the paint of view of general interest we would like to find out how
long the Postal Telegraph office used the cancellation "Alexandrovsko de
Kastri%, the date of opening of the post office, and whether at the beginning
the office in question was a branch office (otdelenie) and later on changed
to a post office (kontora).

The actual manuscript addition 195 could not have been continued in use
too long, being of emergency type. The question of its rarity is puzzling,
and difficult to establish from known information.

EDITORIAL CG7 E-rNTS

Yr., .-cloffls points are interesting, Lack of early postal guides, and
incomplete, siactchy information about postal history of Siberia forces us to
grasp avidly every possible item of data, so as to create some day, a complete
story. The latest iTational Geographic maps show "De Kastri", spelled with "Kl,
as a principal air-port, located across the Bay of Kastri from the toen of
Alexandrovek, on the Island of Sakhalin. We hope that this is the old OAlex-
androvskce de Castri". On the other hand, we are puzzled by the fact tht
various reference works and maps, new and old, show numerous small settlements
such as Sophiisk, in this region, but do not show the town in question. We
would also like to know whether the modern air port "de Kastri" is the grown
up old settlement, of our postmark, cr is it a newly built post-revolution
town.

Rarity of the cancellation is governed to a great extent by supply,
which at the present time is very small, As far as we know Kurt Adler has
the only known example of this postmark. The students and collectors of
Russian cancellations, of course know that there are thousands of various
cancellations from out of the way places, found in single or only several
examples, but this does not make then rare, unless there is a demand for them.

EXTENSIVE STOCK......................

IUSSIA & STATES & OFFICES

Stamploss covers9 postal stationory,stamp rarities and regular issues
proofs, assays, varieties, cancellations, covers. Inquiries invited .

S&UEL RAY

50 Od-ale Avenue Chicaco !h.s Illinor'

Alsc, professional mounting and writing-up of collections,



U14 48








INTERESTING RUSSIAN, POSTMARKS OF 1867
by V. A. Rachmanuff

One of my Warsaw friends.iphilatelists recently sent me a cover with a
Russian 10 kop. stamp of the 1866 islie (S;ott #23) mailed on March 7, 1867
from Riga to Warsaw. The letter and the stamp aro of no internjt, ho-wever
my attention was called to the cancellation tying the stamp to the cover,
and which up to now I have never seen. The same impression of the canceller
may be seen on the reverse side of the envelope.

The two line red cancellation was formed most likely from separate type
of single letters and numerals, in which due to shortage of letters "I" a
letter b" was placed upside down and in reverse, and thus we get a strange
letter hVN. Although the postmark was not struck very clearly, it was
possible for me to establish the following two lines of inscription:
OT.i,C q H < HA )!A
which shows that he letter was mailed at the railroad station (vokzal) in
Riga, and where at that time postal branches or otdelenias already existed,
and which had this more or less strange, homemade canceller assembled from
single type letters.



RUSSIA NO. 1 WITH GERMAN POSTMARKS
by V. A. Rachmandff

n one of the recent stamp auctions in New York, a copy of Russia No. 1
with round "HANOVER" cancellation in blue was sold. Few days ago 1 saw in
a German auction catalogue, illustration of the same stamp cancelled with a
black elongated rectangular postmark, of normal Prussian type, reading
"%YSLOWITZ" and date.

It may seem strange to some collectors why Russian stamps would be
cancelled in Hanover and Prussia, but this mystery is explained very simply.
When the first stamps of Russia were issued they had circulation only within
the borders of the Empire and in Poland, when used on regular correc.pndence
only, while the circular 80.33 of the Postal Department, dated December 10,
185'7 stated that all other mail such as registered, insured and foreign
coraespondei.ce were to be prepaid, as up to then, upon receipt at the post
office, in cash.

A number of senders of foreign letters did not know of this ruling and
attached stamps on foreign correspondence before hand. Upon delivery to the
post offJce, the clerk demanded cash payment for this type of correspondence,
and the ttamp or stamps already attached to the letter, being useless remained
on the letter, uncancelled by the postal canceller.

Upon receipt of such a letter abroad, especially at the German post
offices, careful German officials seeing an uncancelled stamp, cancelled it
with the postmark of that particular office, thinking that the stamp was not
cancelled in Russia because of carelessness.

Thus the secret of such first Russian stamps with postmarks of foreign
post offices is solved.

48 15








INTERESTING RUSSIAN, POSTMARKS OF 1867
by V. A. Rachmanuff

One of my Warsaw friends.iphilatelists recently sent me a cover with a
Russian 10 kop. stamp of the 1866 islie (S;ott #23) mailed on March 7, 1867
from Riga to Warsaw. The letter and the stamp aro of no internjt, ho-wever
my attention was called to the cancellation tying the stamp to the cover,
and which up to now I have never seen. The same impression of the canceller
may be seen on the reverse side of the envelope.

The two line red cancellation was formed most likely from separate type
of single letters and numerals, in which due to shortage of letters "I" a
letter b" was placed upside down and in reverse, and thus we get a strange
letter hVN. Although the postmark was not struck very clearly, it was
possible for me to establish the following two lines of inscription:
OT.i,C q H < HA )!A
which shows that he letter was mailed at the railroad station (vokzal) in
Riga, and where at that time postal branches or otdelenias already existed,
and which had this more or less strange, homemade canceller assembled from
single type letters.



RUSSIA NO. 1 WITH GERMAN POSTMARKS
by V. A. Rachmandff

n one of the recent stamp auctions in New York, a copy of Russia No. 1
with round "HANOVER" cancellation in blue was sold. Few days ago 1 saw in
a German auction catalogue, illustration of the same stamp cancelled with a
black elongated rectangular postmark, of normal Prussian type, reading
"%YSLOWITZ" and date.

It may seem strange to some collectors why Russian stamps would be
cancelled in Hanover and Prussia, but this mystery is explained very simply.
When the first stamps of Russia were issued they had circulation only within
the borders of the Empire and in Poland, when used on regular correc.pndence
only, while the circular 80.33 of the Postal Department, dated December 10,
185'7 stated that all other mail such as registered, insured and foreign
coraespondei.ce were to be prepaid, as up to then, upon receipt at the post
office, in cash.

A number of senders of foreign letters did not know of this ruling and
attached stamps on foreign correspondence before hand. Upon delivery to the
post offJce, the clerk demanded cash payment for this type of correspondence,
and the ttamp or stamps already attached to the letter, being useless remained
on the letter, uncancelled by the postal canceller.

Upon receipt of such a letter abroad, especially at the German post
offices, careful German officials seeing an uncancelled stamp, cancelled it
with the postmark of that particular office, thinking that the stamp was not
cancelled in Russia because of carelessness.

Thus the secret of such first Russian stamps with postmarks of foreign
post offices is solved.

48 15









INVERTED BACKGROUND ERRORS OF ZK,_ AD_ ICK. RUSSIA
OF 1904_ ON VERTICALLY LAID F

After the editorial board received two articles on the above subject,
it decided to print both articles in full, and a compendium on a number of
other articles written on the same subject.

The index of articles used in full or in part is as follows:-

(1)-Russia-Inverted Backgrounds of 4 and 10 kop. of 1902 on
Vertically Laid Paper.-by Eugene Archangelsky. (in full)
(2)-Scottts-Russia Type A6-Inverted Backgrounds.-by Rimma
Sklarevski. (in full)

Resume of the following articles:

(a)-Postage Stamps with Inverted Background.-K. Schmidt. Soviet
Philatelist #9 (25)-1924-Pages 4 and 5.
(b)-Varieties of Russian Stamps-Inverted Stamps. E. Hansen
Rosaika J#6-May, 1931-Pages 21 to 23.
(c)-Russian Inverted Background Error-by Dr. Alfred H. Wortman-
Stamp Review-Sept. 1937,-Page 20.
(d)-Finland 10 pen 1901 and Russia 10 kop. 190/4 with Inverted
Background, H. Shenit,!Stamps-Novembar, 1953.
(e)-Czarist Russia InverLed Backgounds. S. G. Rich-S. P. A.
Journal-September, 1952.

In discussing the various articles we were forced to go off the main
subject of 10 kop,, No. 60a (Scott) a bit, but we have done this with a
purpose in mind.

The discussion showed Ist. that with exception of No. 60a, the rest
of the "iverted background" varieties are very scarce.
2nd. Some inverted backgrounds were found as a single cliche in a
sheet of 100,
3rd. With a few exceptions they were accidental.
th lA Majority (except those after 1905) were found cancelled.


RUSSIA-INVERTED BACKGROUNDS OF A AND 10 KOP.
OF 1902 ON VERTICALLY LAID PAPER.
by E. Archangelsky

CATALOGUES RUSSIA OFFICES IN CHINA OFFICES IN TURKEY

MICHEL 51, 52 4, 7y 21, Aa
S. GIBBMOS 67, 70b (60/, 30/)
SCOTT 57c, 60a (10., 1.50) 9, 11 32, 33
YVERT 41, 44 6a, 9 28a, 29
ZUMSTEIN 51, 52 4, 7 31, 32

Table 1

16 48








No. 6 Issue of "Rossika" Journal contains a wonderful study of
E. P. Hansen, discussing the scarcity of inverted backgrounds of 4 and
10 kop. values of 1902, issued on vertically laid paper and illustrating
the background. Hansen states that 10 kop. is not a great rarity, except
uncancelled, and is found quite often cancelled, about 1%. The 4 kop.
value with inverted background is a great rarity, and is very illusive.
Incidentaly the author examined 80,000 copies of 4 kop. and did not find
a single copy with inverted background, and only, shortly before his death,
Mr. Hansen accidental found a copy with inverted background in collection
of his friend in Riga.

I would like to explain to the members of "Rossika" the easiest way to
tell a stamp of this issue having an inverted background, In 30 years I have
examined 10,000 copies of 10 kop. and between 2,500 and 3,000 of the 4 kop.
and found only 22 of the former and none of the latter varieties. From this
research we must conclude, that 4 kop. with inverted background is verZrare
and in most probability only one sheet existed, but one may find this variety
if he has a quantity of duplicates, and is willing to spend lots of time and
effort in examining them. In order to simplify the method of recognizing
these "errors', I will describe the method I used, because majority of col-
lectors, including the most experienced, are often not in position to re-
cognize and find the invert and may miss a chance of getting one (I often
found inverted background copies of 10 kopo in stocks of dealers, marked
as ordinary stamps).

It is very easy, even for those with ordinary eye sight, to recognize
10 kop. blue on vertically laid paper with inverted background. From the
feather of the eagle, above the imperial emblem, right of center of the
stamp is seen a white line of oval, descending and going further between
the numeral "10" and word UkopA., and also, at the left, from the top of
scepter. Just the same I advise the use of 5 to 8 power magnifying glass,
so as to see better the white lines of the oval in the found inverts.

Incidentally only Scott and Stanley Gibbons Catalogues price the 10
kop. with the inverted background, while none of the catalogues list the
similar 4 kop. These varieties may also be found on the same basic stamps
overprinted "KITAI" and on "para" and "Piastre" values of the Russian
Offices in Turkey. I recommend to members, collecting Imperial Russia, to
start hunting for these interesting, and very rare inverted background stamps,


SCOTT-RUSSIA TYPE A6-INVERTED BACKGROUND
by R. Sklarevski

This article deals mainly with the differences in details between
NORMAL and INVERTED backgrounds of 10 kop. issued on vertically laid
paper in early 1900's.

Before describing the differences we like to go back a little and
discuss the basic type-Scott's A6, first issued in 1889. Same background
was used for 4, 10, 20 and 50 kop. values in 1889, for stamps printed on
horizontally laid paper, later for the same values in 1904-05 for stamps
printed on vertically laid paper and finally for the 20 and 50 kop. values
of 1909 issue printed on wove paper.

48 17








As far as I know only the 10 1op. value of 1904-059 i.e. Scotts. No.
60a exists with the background invertedo Others claim that 4 kop, value of
the same series, i.e. Scott's No. 57c exists thus. We have never seen a copy
and would be very interested in knowing whether it exists,

Althogether 10 stamps of this type (A6) were printed with the similar
background and only 2 (one for sure), as far as it is known, exist with the
background inverted. Of the two, 4 kop. is said to be rare by those who
claim it exists, but the 10 kop. value is found quite often. Many sheets of
No. 60a probably were printed, because the study of postmarks show that they
were widely distributed, and over a period of 4 to 5 years. Mint copies of
No. 60a are uncommon.

The 4 and 10 kop. values were printed in one color, in two steps, the
20 and 50 kop. in two colors, and 3 steps. The third step was the center
which was in different color.

The 4 and 10 kop. values consisted of two parts, viz., of background
(Fig. 1) in lighter iml and tho design in heavier ink (Fig. 2-showing only
a part of the design). All shapes and sizes on the drawings are approximate.

When the printed background shown on Fig. 1, was placed inverted in
the presses and the design shown on Fig, 2 (Normal), was printed over it,
the final result (the finished stamp) appeared as shown of Fig. 3. The
drawings are approximate but showing the background and the design.

Since the background consists of two parts, viz., (a)oiong and short
horizontal and diagonal lines or dashes and dots, and (b)-the horizontal
lines, (Figs. Ia and Ib) we will use these components in describing the dif-
ferences between stamps with normal and inverted backgrounds.

On the stamps with inverted background, using Fig. 3, the horizontal
lines (b) overlap frame (c) at the bottom portion of the stamp and go short
at the top. See the outline of the horizontal lines (b) at the top and the
bottom of Fog. 3. Since there is a very much simpler way to distinguish a
stamp with the inverted background and with less strain on the eyes, we will
forget about the horizontal lines (b) and use dots and dashes instead. (See
Figs 4, 5, and 6).

We will now break down parts "ar of Figs. I and 3 conssting of horizon-
tal and diagonal dashes, and dots into Pigs. 4, 5 and 6.

Fig. 4 shows horizontal and diagonal lines, which look the same on both
normal and inverted background stamps. Now the "two dots"that are located in
spaces "a" on Fig. 4 are the distinguishing marks of the normal stamp and one
with inverted background.

Figs. 5 (Normal) and 6 (Inverted) show the difference in position of the
dots on stamps with normal and inverted backgrounds.

On stamps with normal background the dots V' and "2a" are below lines
"I" and "la* respectively. On stamps with inverted background the dots are
above these lines. Therefore after reading this portion of the article in
order to distinguish the two stamps, use this paragraph and Figures 5 and 6


18 48









Now for the proof that the stamps with inverted backgrounds aren't rare
at all followss-I have exactly 100 cancelled copies left, both on and off
cover, excluding Russian Offices in Turkey, but no mint copies.

Below is a partial 3ist of theso stamps cancelled in different localities,
that we have in our collection. There are others, as may be seen from the
articles written by others. (See resume of Dr. Wortman's article).

Moskow (8-11-09) Riga Vernmai (Livonia) (4-20-08)
Vladivostok Odessa Warsaw
Lodz Reval (6-12-09) Grodno
Saratov St. Petersburg (9-23-07)
Kishenev (1907) Wipuri

There has been a number of articles written on inverted backgrounds
which always have a lengthy description of a method for distinguishing this
variety, using Fig. 3 (only partly complete in my drawing,-Imperial eagle,
etc., not shown).

One can visualize oneself examining 80,000 copies (Hansen) and 10,000
copies (Archangeldky) using the method mentioned in above paragraph, strain-
ing ones eyes and probably missing many "inverted backgonds" because, due
to immense quantities of 10 kop. printed and wear and tear of the plates, the
background was very faint on mary stamps. The cancellation on many of the
copies was very heavy, and this likewise rendered the analysis of the stamps
a difficult task.

Quite possibly some of the experts may have missed the easiest approach
to the problem and that was taking a number of copies of 10 kop. and placing
them side by side, and then examining their backgrounds. See Figs. 5 and 6.
That was the starting point of my investigation, after I heard that 10 kop.
existed with the background inverted.

In conclusion we would like to emphasize our interest in the number
of 4 kop. stamps in existence, if any, with the inverted background. Our
readers are urged to send in all the available data on this subject.

Russian Offices in Turkey No. 33a is not scarce. This statement is
influenced by the number of these stamps in our collection.

As far as Offices in Chine No. 11 with inverted background is concerned
I do not think it exists. This stamp was issued in a very small quantity
and very few collectors own a copy. I do not have one and have never seen one
No. 11 was very widely counterfeited and I have copies with forged overprint or
Runcia No. 60a. The irony of it all, is to take a stamp with inverted back-
ground and then to apply to it a forged overprint and then sell it as a
regular but rare variety.

The blocked paragraph found on the previous page is the system of
distinguishing inverts from normal used by this author.



48 19









(a)-Mr. K. Schmidt, in Soviet Philatelist-#9 (25)-Pages 4 and 5, states
that examples of "inverted background" of Russian stamps from 1866 to 1904
(he lists 11 stamps) are quite rare and were mostly caused when faintly print-
ed backgrounds were Epaed ,nverted in the press f'o the 2nd. step cf printing.

He comments that they were accidental,

He lists the following. Scott's Nos, are given for easier indentifica-
tion.

18660No. 19d-Block of 8 cancelled Mitau, June 28, 1883.
No, 19a-Several copies known
187.5-Noo25b-Several copies known
1883-4-No. 31 kopo-Pair on cover cancelled Izum, Kharkov Gubernia,
Feb. 10, 1886.
No. 32e-Copy with numeral "8" cancellation.
No. 33b-Copy with Riga, May 7, 1890 cancellation.
No. 35c-IIalf a sheet was found. Owner used all but a block of
fc.r on correspondence,
1889-04-Noe 46-1 kcp. Seve:'al cancelled coies known.
No. 47c A copy cancelled St, Petersburg.
No. 49--5 kop. A copy cancelled Ostrov.
No. 50b-Found in a bheet of 100 stamp No. 75 in a sheet of
100, It was found on sheets with plate marking
6. J7 .. T cnly, Copy known was cancelled
( 0. MJT .d Uriev-October 30, 1908.

Editorial Notes:-After reading Mr. Schmidtts interesting article, we
have checked various catalogues faor inverted bac'g -iur. l:Lst-ings and found
that they didn't agree 100I We then decided tha t i woald be very interest-
ing to see how many of the varieties were still in existence, and who ewned
them. Also how many were mint and how many were cancelled, where cancelled
and the date of cancellation.

In the table below we give the numbers of inverted background stamps
listed by various cataloguess First number being through 1889 issue, where
Schmidt^s article stops, and the second number gives the total number listed.


SF_____ Number of inverted background varieties listed
Schmidt 111 11
Gibbons 9 18
Prigara 9 20
Romeko 8 13
Scott 8 13

Table 1

Because Scott s catalogue does not list many of these varieties we give
at the extreme right of Table 2 (See the following pages) the numbers for the
normal stamps, so that member collectors can eqsily indontify these vari.eties.


20 48







YEAR VALUE SCOTT SCHMIDT GIBBONS FRIGARA ROlEKO SCOTT'S NORMAL
___STAMP NO.
1866 1 kop 19d x 18d 171 17a 19

1 ikop 19e x .- 19b
1875 2 kop 26b x 30a 23g 18a 26
1883 1 kop x 38a 28d 28z 31
2 kop 32e x 39b 29e 29y 32
3 kop 33b x 41a 30e 30s 33
5 kop 42a 31e 31s 34
7 kop 35c x 43b 32f 32z 35
1889 1 kop x 46
2 kop 47c x 51b 44d 47
5 kop x 49
7 kop 50b x 55a O4f 43 50
1902 1 kop / 64a 52 38ay 55
2kp 65b 5f -56
1904 5 kop 58b 68a 55e 42ay 58
7 kop 69b 56g 59
10 kop 60a 70b 63c 60
4 kop 62d 57c
1905 25 kop 68d 53y 64
1909 20 kop 1 83 82
1 rub 87c 106e 88k 75bx 87
1915 10 rub 109d 147d 115k 109
1917 1 rub 131e 167e 132h 121y 131

Table 2

Prigarats numbers in the above table are chronological numbers and do
do not cor-respond with his Russian numbering. Prigarals list is the length-
iest, listing 20 out of 23 possible varieties listed. It omits 3 that were
listed by K. Schmidt. Additions to Mr. Schmidtts list are very welcome.


(b)-We shall now quote from Mr. Hansen's article, (Rossika Journal #6,
May, 1931-Pages 21 to 23). "Stamps of the Russian Empire printed in State
Printing Works in St, Petersburg were printed under very careful supervision.
Although, each sheet of stamps, never went through the presses less than
twice, and often 3 or 4 times, the possibility of error was so remote, so that
most of the collectors only heard of these errors, but have never seen them."

"If we turn to the stamps of 1889-1908 issues we will find out that the
1905 stamps with .nv.rted backgrounds were not put on sale, because of careful
production and very strict control."

"From 1904-05 the picture changes, for little distinguishable errors in
printing begin to be an almost'daily occurence. Not speaking of using plates
made of number of separate cliches, we often find errors on complete sheets,
produced during the 2nd, or 3rd, step of printing*"

In table 2 (above). (-) means not listed in these catalogues or
handbooks. (x) in Schmidtts listing means listed by Schmidt, and
since his article stops with 1889 issuo we made the space for later
issues blank, or a (X)
AS 21









"Undoubtedly very little control was used in printing the stamps of 10
kope of 190/+ (Miihel No. 44, Yvert No. 32) Ti-cie, the errors cf this stamp
are harder to distinguish, than on the stamps with previous design. Some
catalogues state, that stamps of this issue: 4, 10, 20 and 50 kop. were printed
in one color in one step, and that only the stamps of 1 ruble were printed in
brown color in two steps, 1st. the background, and then the rest of the
design, thus giving various shades of brown on this stamp.'1

"*Actually the stamps of 4 and 10 kop. of this issue passed the presses
twice (background and then the rest of the design), while the 20 and 50 kop.
values, received in addition a center in different color, with white double-
headed eaglu. Careful examination of these stamps will show, off centered
backgrounds, and with luck inverted backgrounds, which until now existed
only on few older stamps of lower denominations."

Hansen then gives an illustration of the background "approximately
correct", as he states, and the horizontal lines of the oval, stating that
there were approximately "9Q" of these lines in the oval.

"If a sheet of half finished stamps of 10 kop. (only with the background
printed) is inserted, it will not be distinguishable as easily, as stamps with
different designs (for example 1, 5, and 7 kop,), where one can see at once
the outline of the white cron. If this sheet is passed through the presses
inverted, what would be its characteristic from the normal."

"1-On inverts, the horizontal shading lines do not cover the upper horse-
shoe of the part of the design having white inscription POSTAGE STMPP. On

letters ------ -- agd-J- -..---I, are very easily seen the dts of
the lower part of the background, instead of horizontal lines, intersecting
all letters on the normal stamp."

"2-Since on the normal stamps the white oval is located not in the center
of the stamp, but in the upper half of the stamp, on the invert it will be
located on the lower half portion of the stamp, where it will be easily seen."

IUe have not been able to find any inverts on previous issue of 1889,
issued on horizontally laid paper. We are making a great effort in looking
for inverts of 4 kop. value." *

"#Stamps of 20, 50 kop. and 1 rub. of the same design, of 1909 issue give
altogether a different picture. We can find here stamps without background
with double background, and with background misplaced, both normal and in-
verted ,"

EPditoqria Note:-Evidently Messrs. Hansen and Archangelsky carried an
extensive ccr;-espondence, for Mr. Archangelsky states that Kr. Hansen shortly
before his death discovered a copy of 4 kop. with inverted background in a
collection of friend in Riga. He does not mention, whether the copy was mint
or cancelled, Incidentaly the only catalogue that lists this invert is the
one compiled by Mr. Prigara,




22 48









(e)-We shall quote now from an article *Russian Inverted Background
Error" by Dr. Alfred H. Wortman-w Stamp Review"-Sept. 1937-Page 20,

"When in 1883 one colour was only used, the two-process method of print*
ing was retained, the background and the main design being printed separately.
This was done to make stamps difficult to forge and indeed very few passable
forgeries of these stamps are known."

"The commonest of all these Innvredgjbacqgound errors and at the same
time least apparent, is the 10 kop. of 1902."

"l-The background around the main design is made up of repetition of a
lozengemshaped device in which are two dots one above the other. This is
best seen in the corners. In the normal stamp the two dots are seen in the
lower half of the lozenge, while in the inverted stamp they are of-course in
the upper half."

Next two paragraphs give the description of the location of the horizon-
tal lines and dots with respect to the oval on both normal and inverted
background specimen.

We states that that by studying dates on postrmarks he assumed that the
"error occurred on succe-ive printing.s. Various "shades are found and some-
times the background is of different shade from that of the design." "The
earliest postmark date is Oct. 10, 1906, used in Minsk, the latest March 10,
1910, at Turku (Abo)."
He states that half of his stamps have Finnish postmarks, and gives the
following list of cities where they were used-

Minsk (Oct. 10, 1906) Helsigfors (Helsirki) Riga
Turku (Abo) (March 10, 1910) Viborg (Wipuri) Odessa
Aanekoaki Moscow
Jyvaskila St. Petersburg

"'From the frequent occurence of the error in stamps used in Finland
and the Levant, it rather looks as though it was not unknown to the autho-
rities and that they sent these defective printings to those places deliber-
ately as a convenient method of getting rid of them."

"It is also unknown in the case of 4 kope which has the same design.
But it is rather a mystery why the error did not occur in the printings cf
4 kop., which has the same design as the 10 kop6 We can only conclude that
the larger quantities of the 10 kop. required caused it to be more hurroledly
and therefore more carelessly printed, and care was not always taken to see
that the sheets were put into the machines the right way up." (See Mr. E.
Archangelskyts article on 4 kop. invert.)

Editorial Conments:-We are inclined to disagree with the statements that
the authorities knew of the rejects (inverted backgrounds) and deliberately
sent them to far away places for use. "It is a well known fact that the
stamps of Finland issued between the years 1891 to 1911 are strikingly simi-
lar in design to those current in Russia during the same period. The reason

4S 23








for this lies in the attempt of the old Russian Imperial Government to
Russify Finland." (H. Shenitz) The Russian postal authorities would have
committed a terrible blunder, by sending !knwingly defective material to
Finland, thus giving them a chance to propagandize the fact of receiving
stamps with inverted coat of arms and crown.

To my mind this error is result of carelessness, and in this ease they
were probably due to the background impressions being light, due either to
the ink being very light or the plates being worn out, and therefore not so
easily seen.

(d).Mr Shenitz in his article "Finland 10 pen 1901 and Russia 10 kop.
1904 with Inverted Groundwork." Nov. 7, 1953 issue of Stamps-Page 194 draws
an analogy between Russia's No. 60a and Finland's No. 72b. He states that
*the occurence of this variety on both Finnish and Russian stamps, is how-
ever purely coincidental." He states that the inverted background variety
of Finland was produced from plates prepared by Berthold & Co., Berlin and
printed in Finland in 1901. He illustrates both normal and inverted back-
ground varieties and then describes the difference, using the horizontal
parallel lines, and their relation to the"horseshoe shaped" part of the
design.

Because of difficulty of describing the differences without an illust-
ration, we recommend to the members the reading of this article.

Finaly we quote Mr. Shenitzts conclusions, which are as follows. "In
other words we see that when these tell-tale spindle-shapee within the
curved inscription label are filled with dots and dashes, instead of hori*.
zontal shading lines, we have the inverted groundwork variety before us."

"Sometimes, in cases of light impressions from groundwork plate ( or
when the latter is in worn out state), the dots within the spindles are not
readily recognizable. The use of a fairly good magnifying glass is such a
case would make the task quite easy. In some cases, with the groundwork
plate not registering correctly sidewise with the plate for the inscribed
portions of design, the dotted spindle space at left or right of the design
may appear narrower (in the vertical sense) than the opposite one. In this
case the wider one of the two would show the characteristics of the inverted
groundwork position with more clarity."

Editorial comments-Although the subject of the compendium is the "10
kop." of Russia, it would be interesting to give here the following facts.
Finland (Scottls No. 72) is actually two printings combined, i. e. two dif-
ferent plates were used.

(1)-Typo. Sept. 1, 1901, printed from plates by Berthold & Co.,
Berlin. Again reprinted in 1906. Total quantity printed (both
printings) 65,000,000.
(2)-Because the above plates were worn out, new plates were ordered
from Lillius & Hertzberg and on July 1, 1908 a new supply was
printed-35,003,000.


24 48











"This is the stamp, which exists with background inverted.", states
C. E. Pelander in his well known handbook on Finland, whereas Mr. Shenitz
stated that they were printed from Berthold & Co. plates.

(e)-S. G. Rich in his article "Czarist Russia Inverted Backgrounds",
found on Page 14 of S. P. A. Journal for Sept. 1952 gives the following
statements. We quote-

"By using a really powerful magnifying glass, you can find these
designs" (he speaks of the backgrounds) but the pale color of 1 kop. back.
ground often makes it hard to see this. At this point, strong light on the
stamp plus greenish or blue-green tinted cellophane, will bring out the
design. You will notice that the figures of value are upright. The I's on
the 1 kop. have sufficient serifs to let you know which is top of the numeral."

"From 1883 on, the modified Kepler design stamps offer us quite a dif-
ferent problem. On these you cannot tell anything by looking at the back-
ground outside the central oval. Instead of numerals, rosettes of dots form
the background."

"Now with the inverted background you will see the outline" (he speaks
of the crown)"showing below the bottom of the central oval,"

"from collectors skilled in this period, I get this warning; normally
about one stamp in 10,000 shows any of these varieties."


if
In conclusion we may state that a thorough study could be made of the
source of this inverted background material we would find that-

(l)-lst. group (up to 1905 issue) was accidental both in printing and
in appearance, and most of these varieties were found cancelled
only and were found by collectors long after their appearance
(2)-o4d. group (starting with 1909 issue) consisted actually of rejects,
which should have been destroyed, instead of sold to the public. The
great majority of these varieties occur in uncancelled condition
only.
(3)-We agree 100% with K. Schmidt's statement thet "inverted background"
errors occurring on 1886 to 1904 issue were "accidental", and we think
this statement also applies to li0 kop." stamp of 1904. issue.

(4)-We also suggest that the readers study various methods of distinguish-
ing inverted backgrounds from the normal, as given by different authors
in this compendium and then decide which one to use.

(5)-The background of 10 kop. is much lighter than the rest of the
design, also because the background is made of much finer components
than the rest of the design, it is harder to see with a naked eye,
and a magnifying glass should be used.



O 25










HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN TROOPS IF FRANCE 1916-1917
by J ,. Posell

The story of the Russian brigades which fought with the French armies
on the western front during the first world war is not generally known. The
official histories of the war give it very little mention and such infor-
mation as is found in personal memoirs is often contradictory Philatolio
mementos are certainly not plentiful and what few the author has are here-
with illustrated and described.
W--
Fig. 1 A charity label inscribed in Russian and in French "To aid
the Russian volunteers in France,"

Fig. 2 Two official postcards printed in Russian and in French and
picturing the tri-colored flags of both nations. Card (a) is dated June -.6,
1916 from postal sector 189. The cancellation in Russian reads "Special
Infantry Brigade seal for Packets" and the cancellation on the left is from
the Mailly Military Dept. in Aube (east of Paris). The card was sent by
Jules Periat, military attache to the 121st, Infantry Regiment, sector 189
of Campiegne, to M. Andre Franoais, military attache to the Russians at Camp
de Mailly in Aube. The message on the reverse side is sadly heroic in view
of the events to come. "My dear Andre: I have made my request to join the
Russian mission in the line of fire. I don't know if I will succeed, but at
least I hope. You, on your side, give me some information. Affectionately
yours, Jules*"

Card b is also from postal sector 189 and is dated March 1, 1917. It
has a violet cancellation in French reading "Special Russian Brigade", and
in the center "Medical Chief". It was sent by a Mons. H. Becquerelle, an
interpreter from the medical department attached to the 5th. regiment
(Russian) to Corp. Erard of the military commission at the R, R. station of
Noisy-le-Sec. The message on the back simply expresses hope for victory in
the new year. Both cards are imprinted "Postage Free" under the imperial
eagle on the right.

Fi ..-..An envelope dated October 15, 1917 and cancelled at SLOBODSKOI.
I: is addressed to Vladimir Andreievich Kolchin of the 6th. Special Infantry
Regiment in Franie. The cover bears no stamps probably due to the fact that
the use of postage stamps was already temporarily discontinued because of
the revolutionary and chaotic conditions prevailing in Russia at that time.
The story behind these few items is a fascinating one of zealous troops who
fought bravely and their subsequent demoralization as fighting units,

In order to establish closer military union between Russia and her
western allies and in order to alleviate the tremendous losses in man power
suffered by the French Armies in the first two yearsof the war, the French
government sent Senator Doumer to Petrograd with a request for Russian aid
in military manpower. Doumer arrived on December 4, 1915 and met with 0he
French Ambassador to Russia, Maurice Paleologue. To bring the French armies
up to strength, it was requested that the Russian government send 400,000
men to France. M. Paleologue pointed out to Doumer the difficulties involved
in suci a move, namely: the question of navigation in the White Sea which is
ice-bound from September to June, the manpower shortage is as critical in
Russia as it is in France, the number of trained Russian soldiers is hardly


26 48








adequate for service abroad and that the Russian soldier would be utterly
at loss when transplanted to foreign soil because he doesn't have enough
intelligence or education to understand the idea of common interest and to
realize that even when he goes to fight in a distant country, it is still
his own land he is defending. These arguments had no effect upon Doumer.
During the following two days Doumer and Paleologue met with Sazonov,
Russian foreign minister, premier Goremkin, Russian and allied military
officials, and finally with the Emperor himself.

Nicholas II readily admitted the necessity for the closest collaboration
between the French and the Russian Armies, but as regards the actual steps to
be taken, his decision would be reserved until after a conference he would
have to have in the near future with General Alexeiev, chief of staff. (1)

Doumer left Petrograd on the 18th. of December 1915, his negotiations
having met with all sorts of obstacles. Alexeiev strongly opposed the idea
of sending 400000 men to France in relays of 40,000 spread offer 10 months
as was requested. He pointed out to the Emperor the almost insurmountable
difficulties of transportation and the inadequate number of trained reserves
at the disposal of the Russian armies especially in regard to the enormous
fronts. His arguments convinced the Emperor, but in order to give proof of
good will, it was decided to experiment by sending one infantry brigade to
France via Arkhangel as soon as a way could be cleared for it through the
White Sea. This brigade soon landed in Marseilles on April 20, 1916. (2)

On May 5, 1916 another French mission consisting of Viviani, minister
of Justice and Albert Thomas, Undersecretary of State for Artillery and
Munitions, arrived in Petrograd "charged with the duty of establishing an even
closer contact between the French and the Russian governments". On 1lth. of
May, during a meeting between Viviani, General Alexeiev and the Emperor,
Viviani made an eloquent appeal for the dispatch of 400,000 Russian to France
in monthly numbers of 40,000 in accordance with the promise Doumer claimed
to have obtained the previous Dscomber. During a prolonged and thorny dis-
cussion, Alexeiev gradial-y became less uncompromising and the following
decision was ultimately reached: in addition to the brigade already sent to
France, five brigades each 10.000 strong would be sent to France between
August 14 and December 15the Thus the result of Viviani's mission was
reduced to the sending of 50,000 men to France, or rather a promise to that
effect. (3)

The French socialist writer, Henri Barbusse, in a book of stories of
the war, devoted a chapter to the Russian brigades called "Their Heads Unbowed".
(4). Barbusse is a rather emotional and biased writer and he paints the picture
of these early negotiations as a damnable plot by Paleologue and Sazanov to
ship Russians to France as a payment for French loans made in earlier years.
He states it was agreed that "40,900 Russian soldiers are to be sent monthly
to the French line of battle". This ofcourse was the number of men asked
for originally by Doumer and Viviani, but the total which was finally agreed
upon was one eight of that.


1. Maurice Paleologue, rAn Ambassador's Memoirs" Entries Dec. 4-7, 1915.
Doran Co., N.Y.
2. Francis A. March, "History of the World War". United Publishers, 1919.
3. Paleologue, "Memoirs" Entries-Dec. 18, 1915 to May 17, 1916.
4. Henri Barbusse, "ISaw It Myself*. E. P. Dutton, N.Y., 1928.

48 27








The arrival of the Russian forces was met with great enthusiasm by the
French. Though they were actually only a token force, it was assumed by
many that much greater numbers were to come. After all, Russia was huge and
the supply of manpower was inexhaustable. Tall bearded Siberians who had
come by way of Vladivistok and a long sea voyage of more than 13,000 miles,
and soldiers from European Russia and Ukrainia who had come over the long
and perilous sea route down the Atlantic coast, well dressed and well armed,
they presented a stirring picture of military strength.

The divisions which were sent to France were called Divisions of Special
Designation (Osoboga Naznachenia) and werecomposed of nominated or appointed
officers and men, representative of the different units of the Russian army.
The freedom of appointment was left to each individual commander of regiments
in order that undesirable men could be excluded. There were also a number
of volunteers who expressed a personal desire to join these divisions, hence
these troops are often reffered to as Volonteer Brigades.

On the fighting front the spirit of the Russian peasant far from home,
in a land where no one understood him and where his ways and habits were
looked upon as barbaric soon wore itself down. Severe military losses by the
French in which the Russian troops were callously used in the forefront of
battle, neglect by their own officers (5) and constant infiltration of revo-
lutionary propaganda from Russian exiles in Paris caused their eventual dis-
integration as fighting units.

The first news of unrest among the Russians in France is recorded by M.
Paleclogue in his "Memoirs"quoted above in an entry dated September 1, 1916:
"The second Russian brigade which recently arrived in France and was to em-
bark for Salonika has mutineed at Marseilles; the colonel has been murdered
and several officers were wounded. To restore order the vigorous intervention
of French troops was required".

Leon Trotzky elaborated on this incident further and offered it as the
reason for his own expulsion from France for revolutionary activities in 1916.
At that time Trotsky was editor of the Russian newspaper "Nashe Slovo" which
was printed in Paris. A Pussian spy and agent-provocateur, Vining, arrived
in France from London and worked among the Russian soldiers at Marseilles.
Due tc his efforts mutinees broke out among the men which culminated in the
stoning tc death of the Russian colonel Krause in the courtyard of the bar-
racks. When the soldiers concerned were arrested, copies of the "Nashe Slovo"
was found upon them. It was later disclosed however, that Vining had distri-
buted the paper to all soldiers whether they wanted it or not. In most cases
the arrested soldiers had not even had a chance to read it. (6)

Three Russian brigades were sent to France between April 1916 and April
1917. Because they were extra-territorialized (the French G.H.Q. had no
control over them) they were under the absolute control of General Lokhvitzky.
Lokhvitzky was an officer of the old school. Imperious and unbending, he acted
as if the handful of Russians under his command had come to save France and
the entire war. There were millions more in Russia at his beck and call, so
the men he had with him were expendable. (7)

5. Gen. E. L. Spears, "Prelude to Victory". PP. 446, 508. Jon. Cape 1939
6. Leon Trotzky, "My Life". PP, 243-257. Scribner, N, Y. 1931.
7. Dr. Weber-Bauler, "From Orient to Occident" Oxford Press, N. Y. 1941


2848








Russian troops participated in many battles with French and later
with the British Armies. They occupied the lines at Courcy in 1916. Here
they fought heroically but were used as cannon fodder by by the French who
sent them on murderous and useless raids. During the attacks on Fort Brimont
which began April 4, 1917 there was a Russian brigade attached to the VII
French corps at Sapigneul. Losses here were extremely heavy due to the fact
that the Germans had managed to intercept French battle plans, One of the
brigades was employed next to the 5th. and 6th, British Armies, West of Amienm
In the battle of the Aisne, April 15, 1917, the Russian brigades fought with
the 5th. French Army under General Mazel and with the 6th. Army under General
Mangin. The Russian soldier in the trenches and in the rain became less
enthusiastic every day. Military losses on both sides, i.e. Western and
Eastern fronts and the final collapse of the Tsarts government in Russia
made him question the reason for his presence in France* Constant pacifist
and socialist propaganda from Paris helped to undermine his fighting spirit.
Before the great Somme offensive in April 1917, under General Nivelle the
soldiers baUoted to decide whether they would fight or not and finally
voted to do so. The men having decided to fight, did fight extreply well,
but did not think that their officers had done their share accordingg to
General Speers). During the attack on Fort Brimont on April 16, the 3rd.
Russian brigade was partially engaged on the front of the XXXII French Corps,
but the heaviest fighting was borne by the Ist. Russian brigade. Here one
of the attacking battalions lost three quarters of its number during the
first rush and by the end of the day the Russian had lost about half their
men, (8).

A Russian revolutionary newspaper 'NatchaloP printed in Paris, found its
way among the soldiers. This was the successor to the earlier 4Nashe Slovo"
published by Trotzky who now was in America. (9) From it the soldiers
became imbued with the revolutionary and pacifist propaganda prevalent at tha<
time. Suddenly new came from Russia that revolution had broken out. Soldier.
had mutineed and the Tsar had been dethroned. The officers tried to suppress
the news but the men knew of it before the officers did (from the clerks in
the orderly room who received the dispatches). And soon after, the order was
received from Petrograd: "Communicate Prikaz (order) No. 1 to the troops.
All units of the land armies and the fleet will constitute Soviets of soldiers
to which the members of the Army Commission of the Duma will be subordinate...
....arms would no longer be delivered up to the officers; discipline was no
longer exacted except on active service: superior officers were no longer to
be saluted.o....*

Since the Russians were in the heart of France and in the face of the
enemy, they were reluctant to organize soldier's soviets but they were soon
affected by the revolutionary spirit and the soviets were elected. Their
open rebellion affected the French troops (in 1916 there were 8,924 desertions
in the French Army. In 1917 the figure rose to 21,719) (10), and the Russians
were withdrawn from the front and sent to Neufchateau. There General Palitzin:
Russian attache to G.H.Q. came to harrangue them, appealing to

8, Spears, "Prelude to Victory9, pp. 331, 332, 446, 447, and 508.
9. J. H. Lukacs, *Russian Armies In Western Europe", American Slavic and
East European Review. Columbia University Press, October, 1954,
10. Fedotoff-White, *The Growth of the Red Armey, p. 103.


48 29









their discipline and their patriotism. The soldiers met him, formed into
companies and battalions but carrying red banners and inscriptions on calieo
which red "Long live the soldier's soviets and down with the war".

The authorities were determined that this debris of an army must be
hidden away and so the brigades were interned in the camp La Gourtine near
Limoges. La Courtine was formerly a camp for German prisoners and its barbed
wire fences were removed so that the Russians might enjoy at least the illu-
sions of Liberty. After a time, the supreme soviet of the third brigade,
less contaminated than Lokhvitzky's troops, decided to break away from the
rebels. This brigade left the camp on its own accord, with arms and baggage
and encamped in a forest clearing a few miles distant. The unrepentant
rebels remained at La Courtine.

The fact that two sovietized Russian brigades were in the state of rebel-
lion in the heart of France and in the middle of war preoccupied not only the
French but also the Provisional Government in Petrograd. Due to Petainrs
energetic action the Russians were withdrawn from the fighting front in MIay.
However, the French took no further steps against the mutineers as they were
anxious to placate Kerensky and keep Russia in the war. But Kerensky himself
resolved to end the Courtine mutiny and telegraphed an order to General
Zankeievitch, Russian representative at G.H.Q. to suppress the mutiny by
force if necessary.

It so happened that at this time a detachment of Russian artillery was
passing through France from Arkhangel to Salonika, This group of Russians had
remained loyal and they were given orders to bombard the mutineers. The
Russians were to be fought by Russians; but it was the French command that
undertook to direct operations.

On September 16, 1917 a veritable revolution occurred at La Courtine.
The camp was completely encircled by French conscripts. Their orders were:
no intervention but no Russian is to escape. The villages in the neighbor-
hood were evacuated. The men in the camp heard the rumblings of the gun
carriages and ammunition wagons and saw the 75's drawn into position on the
surrounding hills. They saw the guns being worked by men like themselves
in grey green blouses. Soon an interpreter appeared carrying a white flag,
who read in Russian: "If by ten o'clock all weapons are not laid down at a
given place, and if the troops do not surrender at direction, the camp will
be bombarded". This announcement was greeted by general boos and shouts of
derision. The regimental band struck up the Marseillaise. At ten o'clock
the first shrapnel burst above them. This was a warning shot. The men did
not beleive that the gunners would actually fire upon them. "They refuse to
fire on us. Long live our comrades the gunners." they shouted. More guns
were soon fired but no casualties resulted. After a few hours respite a
shell fell directly into the mess. The windows flew into splinters; the
band stopped playing and there was a general stampede for the cellars.

Gradually during the night the mutineers emerged and laid down their
arms at the places indicated. The next day the soldiers of La Courtine, a
shapeless grey mob, surrounded to the French authorities. The small handful
who consented to fight on were incorporated into the Foreign Legion. Others
were sent to labor in the forests. The impenitent mutineers, the"conscien-
tious objectors", those who were determined to join the revolution in Russia,

30 48








would go to Africa to Biribi and the penal battalions. (11)

This episode og mutiny and massacre is described variously elsewhere.
Lukacs states that "after seventy hours of fighSt g the rebelsV who actually
numbered 4.800 men, gave in but only after 500 rounds of amunitions had bsen
fired upon them, which alone produced eight dead and twenty eight gravely
wounded." He also states that this occurred in June 1917. (12). On the
other hand Barbusse states that the attack on the La Courtine camp was made
"by Russian troops and French guns plus French troops; the 19th., 78th.,
92nd. and 105th. line regiments with cavalry and artillery" also that the
attack lasted for five days and that of 11,000 men who were under fire, just
a little over 8,000 survived. Barbusse gives the date of attack as Sept. 14
which is closer to Sept. 16 of Dr. Weber-Bauler. (13) Neither writer men-
tions the artillery detachment which was drafted into bombarding the inmates
of La Courtine; both imply that one brigade merely turned viciously upon the
other.

On October 1917 the Bolshevik revolution occurred in Petrograd and the
Kerensky government was overthrown. Now all hope of armed collaboration with
Russia was abandoned. A base was established at Laval in western France and
henceforth all army personnel in France, officers, soldiers and laborers were
under French oddl'rsorders. Agitators were quick to point out that Russia
was now out of the war and that Russians in France were fighting only for
French interests. After the armistice was signed and the war in Europe was
ended, it was finally decided to send the Russians back to their homeland.
A Greek steamer, the Megali Hellas, was engaged to sail from Bizerta to
Dunkirk with those Russians who signified a willingness to leave France.
Trains from all parts of the country brought the remnants of the Russian
Expeditionary Corps to Dunkirk to join the men from La Courtine. From Dunkirk
they went by special sealed train to the Russian lines. Accompanied by an
interpreter who carried a white flag and a red cross penant, they were turned
over to a Soviet officer of a frontier detachment. A total of 2,500 demobi-
lized soldiers from France entered the borders of a revolutionary government
that had made no provision to receive them. (14)

Here again there are major discrepancies in describing the final dispo-
sition of the Russian troops. Lukacs states: "Finally most of the Russians
were shipped back to their country, the greater number sailing before the
October revolution was to break out." (15) And Barbusse claims that after
the La Courtine episode the survivors were heaped in cargo ships and sent to
Africa. There they were joined by Russian troops who had revolted in Salonika
after the October revolution and who suffered a like fate as the Russian troop
in France, "In Africa they were dragged from camp to camp.......at last after
many fierce campaigns......it was decided to send the soldiers home." They
were then sent back to be enrolled in the army of Denikin which they refused
to do and so were then further decimated in "scenes more horrible and more
ferocious which marked this stage in the living tragedy." (16) In regard to

11.- Dr. Weber-Bauler, "From Orient to Occident."
12. J. H. Lukacs, "Russian Armies in Western Europe."
13. Henri Barbusse, "I saw It IlMyself."
14. Dr. Weber-Bauler, "From Orient to Occident."
15. J. H. Lukacs, "Russian Armies in Western Europe."
16. Henri Barbusse,"I Saw It Myself".

48 31









the African story, Dr. Weber-Bauler has this to say: "The French general
in charge of the Laval base went to Africa to investigate the conditions
of the Russians there. In Biribi he found the mutineers cooperative and
courageous in action. The greater part of th9m were with the settlers in
the north getting the harvest. On hio return the general described the
journey. "As soon as men become human beings with definite tasks and under
definite controls, the blackguard becomes a hero." (17)

The fate of the Russian troops in Salonika was similar to that of the
brigades in France. Russian troops had been sent to the Macedonian front
under General Marvehevsky at about the same time that the Russians had been
shipped to France. This was part of the general plan in which the Russian
armies participated in allied military effort. After the first revolution
(March 1917) and subsequent demoralization of the army on the front and at
home, two battalions of 600 men eacZ were recruited on a volunteer basis by
Col. Unterberger in Petrograd. These troops, a battalion of engineers and
one of artillery, volunteered for service on the Salonika front which was
still in action under French command. After much delay, they finally embark-
ed from Arkhangel on an old French steamer, the "Melbourne'. Their route
took them over the White Sea into the Arctic Ocean and down through the North
Sea to Scotland9 England and to Brest. There they were transferred to trains
which brought them to Marseilles and from there they were shipped across the
Mediterranean to Salonika in Greece. In Salonika the Russians fought with
the French Army of the Orient stationed in Florina. Here again, on the
Greek front, news of the October revolution and speeches by revolutionary
agitators who had slipped in with the battalions and had come all the way
from Arkhangel, caused the domoralizstion of those units toop

On the fighting front they were disarmed by the French and in a locked
and guarded train were sent back to Salonika. In a large camp outside the
city of Verria they were kept in an open barbed wire entanglement guarded by
machine guns in position. Officers and men were all lumped together regard-
less of their political sympathies. Soon a state of rebellion prevailed
where the officers were in constant danger of being attacked by their men.

After two weeks behind barbed wire, the French command gave the Russians
three choises:

1. To go back to the front, into the French Army.
2. To work in the rear on the railroads and i# power plants.
3. For those who refused both, to be sent to labor in the salt mines
of South Algeria until the end of the war.

The majority chose Africa. These were the men who were mainly affected by
the revolutionary propaganda and who wanted to go home. They were surrounded
by Morrocan cavalry and herded back into the barbed wire entaglement.


Those who signed the offer to go back to France were formed into a new
volunteer batallion consisting of some 800 men and all the officers and
sargeant-majors. The battalion under Col. Pavlov was sent to Laval which


17. Dr. Weber-Bauler, "From Orient to Occident".

32 48









was already established as the base for the Russians in France. There they
came in contact with Lokhvitzky's demoralized troops which were being drafted
into labor units. Here new signs of unrest again occurred and at a review
held by General Lokhvitzky an iron bolt was thrown at him while he was pass-
ing along the ranks. During the first weeks of April 1918, the new brigade
was ordered to the front. 200 men of the cuprany refused to go. It was only
after a speech and a pistol threat from the captain who offered to shoot the
first man to cross a line for deserters, that they consented to keep their
agreement with the French and continue the fighting. The battalion was
attached to the 10th group of Chasseurs with the 56th. French Division hold-
ing a sector at Dembasle near Nancy. (18)

After the armistice and the conclusion of hostilities, all officers and
men who had previously signed a paper stating that they wished to return to
Russia after the war, were sent back. These were the men who enlisted in
the Volonteer Army of General Denikin upon their arrival in Odessa. Another
battalion which was left in France and which took part in the final offensive
on the western front was later sent back to Russia. Hereafter volonteering
for service in the Denikin army, it was surrounded by the Reds and completely
destroyed. Since the volunteer Army of Denikin had only one objective, to
help suppress the revolution and defeat the Reds, it is hard to accept the
statement that revolutionary troops would be forced to join him as Barbusse
has written. It is because of these major discrepancies and controversial
versions that the true story of this most interesting chapter in recent
Russian history can perhaps never really be told. In the preface to his
book, Barbusse has written that the twentieth century may be described above
all as the age of Blood. He is not far wrong if this tale of man's inhumanity
to man is entirely true.

Nothing is known of the postal system used for the distribution and
delivery of mail to andfrom the Russian troops. While the soldier's mail
Acth was sent on the official postcards illustrated, required no postage,
it would be of interest to know whether mail sent in sealed envelopes received
the same privelege. It is also not known for certain whether mail sent frcm
Russia to the soldiers in France was sent free of postage, though this is doub:
ful. The author would welcome any information which readers may have as to
the operation of the postal system in this area; also the use (for purpose
of illustration) of any covers or cards showing additional postal or censor
markings; and ofcourse, any further notes of historical value. Such addition-
al information would be used as an addenda to the present article in the hope
of completely solving the riddle of the Russian troops in France.

18. A. Lobanov-Rostovsky, "The Grinding Mill", MacMillan, 1935.
oooooooooooo

Your W1T-LISTS have a good chance of boing filled from my specialized
stock of Russia------Czarist and Soviot- --mint-used--orrors; also
variotios, now-issuo service of USSR and other foreign countries: late
Soviet covers. I will bo interested to learn whar interests you.

LESTER S. GLAS (A.S.DA., APS, SPA.)

5 1831 Glonifor Street, Phila. 41, Pa.



48 33









This postmark is a double circle, diameters 28/16am.

Between the circles at top.........H.FCRS ST. P. BURG (latin charact.)
Between the circles at each side...a star
Between the circles at bottom.....F. P. VAGON (in Russian characters)
In center above date..............No. 1 (or 2)
Date type.......................... 16.V1.08

Below the date is sometimes found a heavy black circular "blobp which
thought to designate night service.

There exist No. 1 with black blob
No. 2 with black blob
No. 1 without black blob
No. 2 without black blob
The earliest date we have is 1894, the latest 1913. In 1912 two ex-
presses ran from St. Petersburg to Helsingfors, one leaving at 0945 hours,
the other at midnight which makes the explanation of the presence and
absence of the"blob" quite feasible.

Again the 1 and 2 are presumably the numbers of the mailoaches.

In 1912 (when these postmarks were in use) trains ran:-

(a) Express No. 11 St. Petersburg 0945 hours to Helsingfors 1812 brs.
(b) Express No. 1 St. Petersburg midnight to Helsingfors 1000 hrs.

Returning:- 0

(a) Express No. 2 from Welsingfors 2325
(b) Express No. 12 from Helsingfors 1450

Thus (a) could have run as No. 1 without "blob", returning as No. 1
with blob, and (b) could have run as No. 2 with "blob", returning as No. 2
without "blob".


OCTAGONAL POSTMARKS

TYPE E (Fig. 5)
These are scarce on cover -their size (29mm. across) precludes much
chance of reconstruction from single loose stamps.

Description:"---Octagon 29mm. across from side to side. Prigara gives
the size as 31mm.
----In an incomplete circle within the octagon, the words
"POCHTOVOE OTDELENIE VAGONA No._, (Postal Division
of Mailvan No._).
----At bottom:-a numeral. 25
----Date Type:-------------------P
1886
31 :S







The following have been traced:-

P.,OV.No. No. at bottom Date On cover

3 1 '1883 Tukkum-Riga-Revel
3 2 1892 Vilna-St. Petersburg
3 4 1894 Gatchina to England
3 ? 1881
4 1884
4 4 1884
4 4 1892 From 7 to Riga
4 6 1889 Lublin to Moscow
4 7 1886
4 __? 1886 Vilna to Finland
5 1 ;____ 1895__
9 2 1890 Grodno to Warsaw
Found in black, violet and blue,

Prigara states these cancellations were used on mail that was carried
in a special section of an ordinary coach instead of in a mailcoach. He
adds the number at the bottom stands for express train -the "1" for the
outward journey, the "2V for the return. Apparently he was unaware that
these numbers run up to "7" and possibly beyond.

The scarcity of material is a handicap, but as mentioned earlier in
" the article, measures were taken in 1875 to make the operation of mail
carrying more efficient. The octagonal marks are dated 1881 onwards and
appear on main line routes which one would expect to be properly organized.

One significant feature is the use of the word "OTDEIENIE" (Division)
for the first time. In view of the statement in the preceding paragraph
we would suggest that these octagonal transit marks were used on mail-
coaches that were either manned by staff from Divisional offices instead
of from offices of a lower status or that such trains came directly under
the supervision of Divisions with a view to giving a first class mail
service on certain routes.

TYPE El (Not illustrated)

Yet another postmark shows the existence of a type with the word
OTDEIENIE in a curve just above the numeral at the bottom -an entirely
different position to the other types.

TYPE E2 (Not illustrated)

There is a cancellation similar to the type E with the day of the
tonth in Roman instead of regular numerals. Prigara quotes a P.O.V.No. 13
with numeral (2) at the bottom, dated 1904 whilst we have portions on loose
stamps.

On March 5, 1890 Order No. 13 stated that all receiving and sending
cancellers will have the "month" indicated with Roman numerals. This change
was to be gradual when "replacement cancellers" were needed. This evidently
applied to the Railway cancellations also.

A8 35







TYPE E3 (Not illustrated)

Another octagonal type was used about 1898-1902. As far as we can
reconstruct from single stamps, it reads PCCHTOVI VAGON NO._; the number
is indistinct but is number one hundred and thirty-something. We have
also found a part postmark with a clear 138.

Prigara illustrates this type of cancellation, and gives three ex-
amples of "Postal Car No. 136", used between 1898 and 1901, all with Roman
numerals for the "month", and numbers 2, 3, and 7 at the bottom.


RAILWAY POSTMARKS

TYPE I (Not illustrated)

On the first railway to be opened, the 25 verststretch St. Petersburg-
Tsarskoe Selo-Pavlovsk, there two if not more interesting postmarks con-
nected with this line.

The first was the subject of an article in B.S.R.P. Journal 14/15
May 1954. It is a rough circle, diameter 15mm. containing a numeral
above the word PCEZD (local train) which is printed in a semicircle.

"3 POEZD", in black was found on cover from Tsarskoe Selo to St.
Petersburg, September 1880.
2 PCEZD" going in the opposite direction was reported by Dr. A. H.
Wortman.
"4 PCEZD", in blue on cover from Pavlovsk to St. Petersburg, dated
1891 was announced in B.S.R.P. Journal 16, December 1954, as in possession
of Mr. A. Gold.
"Al PCEZD" from Tsarskoe Selo to St. Petersburg, dated July 4, 1888
was foundby Mr. J. Buchanan.

TYB 2 (Not illustrated)

The second is a single circle (27mm.) which carried no date and which
we have on loose 7 kop. grey carmine.

At top-------------ST. TSARSKOSEL.
ist. line---ZHELEZ
In center 2nd. line---DOROGI
O.3rd. line--V. TSARSKOM
At bottomw--------------.SELE

The above cancellation is similar to the one illustrated by Prigara,
were the top and bottom lines are in the curve. He lists cover dated July
3, 1892 and states that they are known on 8 kop. of 1875 and on the stamps
of 1866.

TYPE 2a (Not illustrated)

A part postmark shows a sub-type of TYPE 2.

In the center is---------..------- ZHELEZ
DOROGI
In the curve at the bottom---------V. TSAR..(SKO M.SELE)..
36 48









TYPE 2b (Not illustrated)

The PETERHOF CRANIENBAUI. railway was opened comparatively early.
SWe have found one incomplete postmark relating to this line a single
circle dated April 21, 1892.

At the top.............a star followed by "PETERH. ZH.L.D...."
At the bottom.......... "IZ ORANIEN......"(probably ORANIENBAUM)"


From 1864 postmarks of the railway routes become fairly common. The
usual type is a single circle of the old 26mm. diameter and the date in
the form;-
12
MIAP
1862



TYIE F (Fig. 6)

There is also another type of railway postmark which cen be mentioned.
At the top is the name of the town followed by P. 0, (abbreviation for the
POCHTOVOE OTDELENIE), i. e. Postal Division. At the bottom is the route or
the name of the railway followed by ZH. D. At the sides one finds either a
star, numeral or a diamond. The dates of the specimens inspected range from
1864 to 1903.

SUB-TYFES OF F
_Not illustrated)
Sub-types have place names at top with, at bottom, a reference to
the Otdelenie:-

SUB-TYE TOP AT SIDES BOTTOLI DATE
"Fl ODESSA P. 0. blob 9 OTD. ZH. D. 1888
F2 ODESSKOE P. O. ZH. D. 9 OTDELA
F3 RIGA diamond OTDELA ZH. D.

The change to ROMAN numerals for the month is found about 1896. See
also the NOTE under Type E2.

TYPE G (Fig. 7)

Another type appears in 1900 a single circle with place name at top,
numeral each side, at the bottom "ZHELEZNODOR. P. 0.", date with month in
ROMAN numeral.

NARROW GAUGE RAILWAY CANCELLATION

One interesting postmark was dated 1894 with "STARIA RUSSA" at top
and "NOVGORODSKAIA IZKOKOLEINAIA ZH. D." (Novgorod narrow gauge railway)
around the sides and the bottom. This is the only specimen we have found
which refers to narrow gauge railways.

S 8 37








OVAL POSTMARKS OF THE RAIL HAY ROUTES

TYPE H (Fig. 8)

From 1905 we find a different type a double oval with the date in
the form "16. 8. 06" between two lines. Between the ovals is the point of
departure, the route number and the place of destination, i. e. KALISH 274
WARSAW. At the bottom is a letter (script or capital) or a star. These
letters no doubt performed a similar function to the numbers already dis-
cussed earlier in the article.

The route number is odd in one direction and Even for the return, i. e.

WARSAW 273 KALISH KALISH 274 WARSAW

Sometimes the route named on the postmark is shorter than that given
on the list, i.e.-

No. 3 listed as S. P. B. WARSAW is found also as S. P. B. VILNA.
No. 122 listed as TSARITSIN NOVOROSSISK is also found as
TIKHORETSKAIA NOVOROSSISK

There also appears to be some overlapping. Taking the section of
line: -

HAPSAL..X ....89-90.......TAIS.......39,O4.. X....ST. PETERSBURG
X


.39-40 continued

X RIGA

Dr. A. H. Wortman has HAPSAL 40 S.P.B. which is partly 90, partly 40
on the list. We have also found a clear 89 (not 39) Petrograd 89 Taps
which one would expect to be 39.

We have other runs which are longer than listed:-

Staraia Russa 58 Petrograd longer than listed Staraia Russa to Chudovo
Andizhan 208 Tashkent longer than listed Andizhan to Cherniaevo
Samara 216 Moscow longer than listed Sizran to Ruzaevka

SUB-TYFES OF H
(Not illustrated)
Hl-----No. 153 has a series of dots between the inner oval and the
line above and below the date.

H2------Another series of ovals ran concurrently; these had no route
numbers, but otherwise were similar to the TYPE H. They were
mostly used on such branch lines as-

TFOSTIANETS-DENKOVA BOROVICHI-UGLOVKA RIGA-TUKKUMI
to be continued-
38 48








POSTAGE STA _, OF KRAJIAN _NATIONAL REIUBLIC 1920
by Cartl '.S de Schra!C-'. ;6
--IJScojt s 1
See *ROS3ICA" No. 45, P.58 (1955). "Stamps"-Nos. 1146, 1148 (New Issues
and Discoveries).

Plans for issuing of long series of stamps with nationalistic designs
and without overprints was made in Summer 1918. After appearance of "Shagiv"
issue (Scott Nos. 62 to 65), a plan was worked out to continue this series
from 60 shagiv to 20 griven. From this series only the 20 grivni value made
appearance. In 1920, the Ukrainian government, which was then located in
Kamenetz-Podolsk, again started anew with the plans of issuing stamps on
Ukrainian theme, and appointed a commission for that purpose, which was part
of the Ministry of Posts & Telegraphr According to Act of August 27, 1920 all
of the Ukrainian stamps overprinted with the "trident" official became inval:i
in City of Tarnov (actually these stamps continued in use until the end of 192:
on all territory of Ukraina, largest part of which was controlled by bolshevc.
On October 14, 1920 a new 14 value series begun to be printed at the orders of
Ukrainian government at the Military.Geographic Institute in Vienna, Austria iL
the following quantities.

1 g. Trident 2,000,000 30 g. Het. P. Polubotok 4;000,000
2 U. Ukr. girl 4,000,000 40 g. Het. S. Petlura 20,000,000
3 g. Ukr. home 4,000,000 50 g. Cossack Musician 5,000,000
5 g. Oxen 4,000,000 60 g. Parliament of Ukr. Central Rada
10 g. Het. B. Hmelnitski 20,000,000 3,000,000
15 g. Het. I. Mazepa 4,000,000 80 g. Cossack on Black Sea 3,000,000
20 g. Het. T. Shevohenko 20,000,000 100 g. Monument to Vladimir the Great in
200 g. Windmill 1,000,000 Kiev. 6,000,000

Design of this issue is in pure Ukrainian style. 2, 3, 30, 50, 80, & 200
gr. values are the work of the well known Ukrainian Artist M. Ivasuk. The
stamps were lithographed from Zink plates, and issued perforated ll- in sheets
of 100 to 1000 stamps. The plates were destroyed on May 31, 1921.

All values exist imperforate in small quantities, as well as "trials" on
various papers, including geographic maps, with inverted, misplased and mission,
centers, with centers of other values (6ogr. with center of lOOgr., etc.). All
of these trials are rare now & command high prices. The author has a complete
collection of these trial stamps.

When these stamps were being produced, Ukrainian Peoples Republic control
almost all of Podolia, Western Volhynia & part of Kiev, and the government
tried to get these stamps as fast as possible. At the end of October 1920
Courier from Vienna arrived with small quantities of 10, 20 and 40gr. stamps,
the values necessary for various rates of "Ukrainian Courier Field Post", and
these were issued for normal postal use (See Rossica No. 45, pp. 34 to 38).
They are known with Ukrainian postal cancellation off (see reproduction of
cancellation below), and with old Russian cancellation of the same and other
localities. Abroad, Ukrainian covers with these stamps are rare, and for that

Ii r
B ^.n o I \ c b K .51. r l'.h n p oc K p _a I pE .u

48 39







reason most of the catalogues list them as issued but not used. It is true,
for with exception of 10, 20 and 40gr., which were used postally, others were
not, because they arrived late with the second special courier. Large quanti-
ties of the 2nd. shipment vent on November 21, 1920 with Ukrainian Government
and General Staff of Ukrainian Army wnder the command of General Omelianovich-
Pavlenko, which because of great pressure from bolshevics was forced to cross
into Poland where they were interned.

In 1921 a small quantity of these stamps were overprinted (see below
Fig. 1) and was used during 2nd. Winter Campaign of Ukrainian Army into
Ukraina under the command of General Tetunick, from end of October to the
end of November 1921. Letters with the following cancellation are very in-
teresting (see Fig. 2). The part of the cancellation which has "N" exists
in 5 varieties.

i I A -.bKA KPAIHA (Fig. 1)

1.=-Frioj1b013A Flou TA DAiIA -"N (Fig. 2)
gig. 3)

Incidentally, complete series of these stamps were cancelled with Nos. 1
and 4 of the cancellation shown on Fig. 2 on the official sheets of IMCA,
which was then used with help of Ukrainians. These stamps are listed in
Maximchuk's Catalogue, and all of the documentary evidence is given in No. 1
issue (1926) of Ukrainian Philatelist, issued monthly in Vienna from 1925 to
1940.

In 1923 with the hope, that anti-bolshevic insurrection in Ukraina would
grow, a three letter overprint (see Fig. 3 above) in rectangular frame, and
new values from 1000 to 25,000gr. was made on 10, 20 and 40gr. values.

The letters of the overprint stand for "Ukrainskaya Povstanchaya Pochta"
(Ukrainian Insurrectional Pest) and the revaluing was necessary to equilize
temporary fall of currency in Ukraina under Soviets. The events were such,
that these stamps were not used for normal postal usages. (See iaaximchuk
pp. 12 and 13).

EDITORIAL COTiENTS

Maximchuk also states that approximately 2000 sets of "Vilna Ukraina" over-
prints were issued. The set consists of 14 values.

The "Y.P.P." set consists of 11 values.

There also exists a 6 value set overprinted "Doplata" or postage due.
Overprints on all 3 sets are in black ink.
ooooo00000000000oo

Wo just recoivod a copy of now catalogue in French from Lostor S. Glass.
Ho writes 'I am sending you a copy of tho just issued "Corclo* catalogue of
Russia. This is mostly the work of Serge Rockling (Maison Romoko of Paris)
and is to some extent basod on his older catalogue but contains a good deal
of additional material, and is of course very up to dato, oven showing the
last Russian issue of January 31st. 1956.'
oooooooooooo0

40 48







RUSSIAN ERINN OPHILIA
by. E. M, -fevjtch

To most of the collectors the word "ERINNOTHILIA" is unknown; therefore
before we start on the subject of "Russian Erinnophilia", we must say a few
words about it.

This word is of German origin and literally means the love of collecting
commemorative stamps, issued for other than postal or fiscal purposes, mainly
by private groups and rarely by government organizations, with the idea of
commemorating some sort of an event or a jubilee, and issued for charitable,
propaganda or other purpose.

This word made its appearance first in Germany, at the end of the last
century, Etymologically it is made up of two words:- German word "erinnern",
meaning to remember or recollect, and a Greek word "philos" meaning friend
or a lover.

Already in the nineties in Germany and in France illustrated albums
appeared for this type of material. In 1906 in St. Etienne, France E. Fontaney
dealt in this type of material and issued a specialized catalogue entitled
"UPrix-Courant General de Timbres Commemoratifs". Some of the earliest labels
listed in this catalogue were:-

1-Label honoring Ferdinand Lassalle &Countess Hatzfeld, he being the
founder of the Social Democratic Mlvement in Germany. Issued in 1863.
2-Label issued in 1864 for the 300th. Anniversary of birth of William
Shakespeare (England).
3-Now very rare label issued in 1866 in Italy honoring Garibaldi.

The earliest commemoratives listed in this catalogue are the London Exp.
stamps of 1851 and those for the International Paris Exhibition of 1855. All
of these vignettes are quite rare and exist in a very small quantity.

In the beginning of 1860's first etiquettes made their appearance in
Germany (oval and square shape) for the purpose of sealing the government
correspondence, and which gradually replaced the wax seals. The etiquettes
at that time served the same purpose as the later appearing official stamps,
and were called "timbres de franchise", i.e. stamps which when attached to
correspondence, carried it free of postal tax.

Very soon these etiquettes, called "cachets de fermeture" (sealing labels)
appeared in other countries, particularly in Russia, where they found wide usage

In order not to mix these label with postage and revenue stamps it was
decided to call them vignettes as was the practice in France, Italy and othKr
countries.

Therefore the oldest type of vignettes are the exhibition and jubilee
labels. Later on appeared the charity type of label, namely those for Red
Cross, Anti-tuberculosis, Anti-alchoholism, Cancer, etc. During the Ist.
World War a great many of charity labels made their appearance in many
countries, issued by memerous organizations for draftees, wounded in war,
invalids, widows and orphans of the war, etc,

48 41







At the beginning of the Aviation Era, various Flying Meets were held and
the organizers issued special air labels, with various information pertaining
to the event indicated on these etiquettes. These air-mail labels are widely
collected by airmail collectors.

At the same time advertising and propaganda labels, issued by fairs,
tourist, sport and boy scout organizations also found wide distribution.
Also religious vignettes to raise funds were issued mainly in the catholic
countries and to a lesser extent for other religions.

Fantastic stamps (timbres de fantaisie) may be also considered as a
separate branch of "Erinnophilian. These labels in the majority of cases
were prepared by adventurers of great imagination, for the same purpose, as
forgeries which were prepared to fool the gulible collectors. These types
of labels existed from the earliest times and appeared in great numbers.
Stamps were issued for non-existant countries and territories, such as Acre
Territory, Amazon (1901), imaginary Clipperton Island (1895), Republic of
Counani (1893), etc. also made their appearance.

These types of Fantastic stamps made its appearance almost as early as
the postage stamps. Already in 1867 two Belgians, Archeologist Chalon and
Louis hancian, one of the oldest Belgian Philatelists and the editor of the
journal "Timbre Poste", issued, as a gag, stamps for the territory of Moresnet,
located on the border of Prussia and Belgium. By treaty of 1816 this locality
was made neutral and was to be governed by local administration. Post was
administered by Prussians and Belgians and stamps of both countries were used;
Prussian post office was located in Herbesthal and Belgian in Montzen. This
was analagous to postal system of Andorra where French and Spanish administra-
tions functioned and existed until 1931. Therefore April 1, 1867 issue of
"Tinmbre Poste" illustrated and gave detailed description of this new issue.
Other philatelic journals reprinted this information, and for a long time
collectors of that era considered this issue bonafide and included it in their
collections, until it was proven that these labels were issued by the above
mentioned individuals as a joke.

Fantasies often were of different character. In France for example
General Boulangar attempted coup dtetat, but his attempt at a military
dictatorship was unsuccessful. One enterprising German, a native of Frank-
furt on Main, in hopes that General Boulanger would be successful in his
quest issued a set of stamps with his portrait, for the purpose of selling
thea to him when he took over the reins of the government.

Fantastic issues also appeared in the other countries, series purported
to be for Prussian city of Breslau, Saxon city of Dresden, both series
appearing in 1867, for Fire Land or Tierra de Fuega in 1891 and many others.

Each one of these fantastic sets has an interesting history, based on
historical facts, and therefore collections of these labels are extremely
interesting and often collected by specialists and thematists.

In 1936 well known philatelist (French) Georges Chapier issued monograph
on this theme, cataloguing all known to him series and single stamps. The
title of this work was #Les Timbres de Fantaisie. Etude historique et des-
criptive des enission apocriphe et de Fantaisie* First addenda appeared in
1039, and at the present time second addenda is appearing serially. These
monographs describe numerous fantastic issues relating to Russian philately.

42 48








Vignettes were collected, and are collected by many collectors, from the
early days and in many countries. It is true, that Erinnophilia is not widely
spread as philately, but already beginning in nineties, and specially with the
beginning of this century societies for collecting vignettes were organized in
France, Germany, England, Scandinavia, United States, and other countries.
Literature on this subject, such as catalogues, monographs, journals, etc.
also exist.

At the beginning of XX century a German P. Mattes issued a high sounding
catalogue: "Katalog aller Gelegenheitsmarken, enthaltend alle bis 1901 ers-
chienen Austellungs, Jubileums, Kongress, Gedachtnis und Festmarken, politis-
chen, patriotischen und agitatorischen Gelegenheitsmarken und dergleichen.
Nebst Anhangs Die Spanischen Sellos patrioticos und die Marken der Spanis-
chen Separationsbestrebungen nebst Nachtrage" (Catalogue of Commemoratives to
1901, including all issued exhibition, jubilee, congress, fair and memorial
stamps; also political, patriotic and propaganda commemoratives, etc., with
addenda describing Spanish patriotic issues and those issued by separatist
organizations.).

In Paris, France, Gazin and Rochas issued general catalogue of vignettes,
under the title "Catalogue des timbres commemoratifs parus depuis leur crea-
tion jusqua'en 1914, avec leur estimation. Paris, 1914" (Catalogue of commemo.
rative stamps, from the beginning to 1914, with prices, Paris, 1914) This
catalogue although obsolete, is considered the classic among the literature
of erinnophilists. Monograph of Gustave Bertrand, titled "Les Vignettes de
France" is considered the best work on French Erinnophilia. This detailed
work appeared serially in 1930's and was completed after the last war.

In April 1913 in Paris "Arc-en-Ciel" (Rainbow) Society of Erinnophilists
was organized with members in France and many other foreign countries. This
society is still active and issues a journal, the "Archives of Erinnophilists?
and not too long ago they held an exhibition of the most interesting collect-
ions of vignettes, which was very successful both to erinnophilists and
philatelists. In most probability such exhibitions will be held annually.

The number of vignettes issued is tremendous and to collect the whole
world is impossible, therefore each collector has his own specialty, either a
country or a topic such as Red Cross, T-B Seals, WorldWar I or II. More
often topical collectors extend their collections by adding to it vignettes,
and one of the most important mixed collections of this type are the "Air-
Mails", Special catalogues such as Sanabria, Silombra, etc. include a great
number of vignettes. I wish to state that without addition of vignettes many
air-mail collections would be considerably poorer in their coverage. Among
the members of "Rossica" one finds many collectors of Air-Mails and other
topics, such as: history of stamps, development of philately, Red-Cross, etc.
An important collection I feel can not be complete without addition to it of
vignettes of the same type.

In passing I may state that many collectors of Zemstvo Post include in
their field examples of etiquettes used for sealing letters (cachets de
fermeture), which I described earlier in the article. These labels have the
characteristics of the official stamps and therefore remind one of the official
stamps. Unfortunately no- otalogues or monograpbs exist listing these Zemstvo
etiquette.

48 43








To the field of erinnophilia a great number of collectors add items
belonging in a class between stamps and vignettes of which there is great
number. I already have discussed fantasies, which in the eyes of their pro-
moters are stamps, and which although have no philatelic value, are interest-
ing documents. They cbuld have been exhibited in the recently held exhibition
of fakes (Exposition de faux) in Paris, which displayed pictures of great
masters, illustrating the style and character of each master, fakes of old
documents and also philatelic rarities. Without a doubt a well developed
collection of philatelic fantasies, specially the earlier ones, and those
appearing during the turbulent war times would have found an important place
in this exhibit.

Of the great historical interest are the stamps of the concentration
camps issued during and after World War I and II. Stamps issued during the
war in 1914-18 by English prisoners of war in Ruhleben Concentration Camp
are known to many and are even listed in some catalogues. During the last
War Polish Prisoners of War in Germany organized their own postal system.
The camps were very large, 20 or 30 km. long, and I think the organization
of the local post was justified.

Among the prisoners of war were a number of talented artists, who pre-
pared artistic design in wood. Stamps were printed from woodcuts on pieces
of writing paper, margins (white) of German newspapers, and occasional on
toilet papero Envelopes were prepared from old newspapers, and the addresses
were printed on small bits of paper and glued on envelopes; because each small
ptece of paper was valuable and necessary for printing stamps. This post was
organized in two Polish Prisoner of War Camps; namely Waldenberg in the Easterr
and Murtau in Weeturn Germany. It functioned from April, 1942 to April, 1945
and a uYmbwr of different stamps, miniature sheets, etc. was produced. Smith's
catalogue IUiLJ 70 varieties for Waldenberg and 17 for Murnau not including
entj.rot akn special blocks. Administrators of the camps permitted the exist-
ence of this post and printing of these stamps, because a number of them were
philatelists, who in turn received from Polish Prisoners of War part of the
issues. This condition radically changed in 1945 when Russian troops were
approaching closer and closer to Camp Waldenberg. Germans evacuated the
prisoners of war hurriedly to the West; without allowing them to take any of
their possessions.

Some prisoners of war were able to take with them quantities of these
stamps. Those who lived through the inhuman trip of 1600 km. were interned
in Camp Murnau from where they were soon liberated by American troops. Later,
those that saved some of these stamps were able to sell them, so that they
could exist during the early days of their struggle in the free world.

General catalogues such as Scott, Gibbons, Yvert & Tellier do not recog-
nize them, neither are they listed in Hurt's Catalogue of Locals. However,
specialists of Polish stamps, are on lookout for them, and pay good prices
for them. Therefore these stamps can be included in the collection of vignet-
tes. They are considered to be a very valuable historical document and must
have an important place, in specialized collections of Poland, as well as in
the topical collections of World War II.

At the end of the war some D.P. camps of Russian, Ukrainian, Polish and
other nationalities, located in Russia, organized their own local posts and
issued stamps. Also numerous political organizations of various types issued

44 48








propaganda labels for the purpose of raising funds. All of these steps and
vignettes are very interesting to Erinnophilists as well as topical collectors.
More will be said about this subject when Russian Eittoophlla of World War II
is discussed.

In Russia vignettes appeared comparatively late. The earliest known to
me was one issued for Riga AgricUla3al Exposition in 1879. Next, dated 1862,
was for Industrial Art Exhibition. Next appeared in 1889 for propagandizing
the Russian National Loan of 1889. The inscription on the latter is in
French, and it reads W"aprunt Russe 1889" and underneath is the Imperial coat
of arms of a "double headed eagle".

Until 1914 the number of vignettes, although gradually growing with each
year, was considerably smaller, but with the beginning of the World War I,
series of labdles of various types started to appear in great numbers in many
cities and localities of Imperial Russia. During the Soviet regime the number
of varieties issued was considerably greater. Numerous series of vignettes
appeared abroad during the war of 1914-18 issued by Russian organizations and
others, on Russian theme. Also during the period between the two great wars
countless Russian Emigrant organizations and organizations of nations popula-
ting Russia, issued their own vignettes on various themes for the purpose of
raising funds for numerous causes.

For the above reasons classification of Russian vignettes is very diffi-
cult. To make it doubly difficult it is often impossible to assertain the
time and the place of their issuance, and at times even the organization
issuing them.

Literature and catalogues on Russian Erinnophilia is limited. In 1920
a small catalogue on Russian military stamps, was published in Amiens by Yvert.
The author of this work was V. F. Trachtenberg. Part of this catalogue is
dedicated to War stamps of Red Cross. In the foreword the author explains
that his listing of the Red Cross stamps includes government as well as private
issues all issued for the charity purposes. At the same time in this cata-
logue are listed stamps of entirely different character, such as propaganda
stamps of 1915 Military toan or stamps of the North Caucasus Regional Commit-
tee of Volonteer Revolutionary rrmy for the formation of Shock battalions, etc

It is considered to be a fairly good catalogue of Russian vignettes,
although far from complete, of war of 1914-1918. Rather well are written up
and described the fantasy overprints on Romanov stamps (1917 issue) (Phrygian
nightcap over two crossed wwords with the inscription-Praternity, Equality
and Freedbou, and also reduced reproduction of front pages of neswpaper "News
of the Petrograd Soviet" with the communication of the abdication of the Czar
on blocks of 4, 8, and 12 stamps). It appears that the author of the catalogue
was also the author, or at least party to creation, of these blocks with over-
prints, and undoubtedly one of his reasons for the publication of this handbook
was the advertisement of this fantastic issue. Soon after their appearance on
the market a great umber of counterfeit overprints appeared also. Then the
author started to sell these blocks with his guarantee marks. Incidentally,
he was able to get the Russian post office to cancel for him a number of
self prepared ordinary as well as registered envelopes bearing these stamps.
He used these letters as proof that these blocks were sold at the post office
and that they had legitimate use*

48 46








personally I think that this fantastic issue, although of private
origin, has considerable interest as a historical document and must be
considered on the par with fantastic issues of the Russian Erinnophilia
of the period before the revolution.

For the information on vignettes issued in France and having Russian
themes we must go to the Erinnophilia catalogues of Gazin and Rochas (1914)
and one issued by the Society "Arcaen-Ciel. These catalogues for example
list and describe labels issued in honor of the visit of Russian Squadron
to Toulon in 1896, others commemorating Franko-Russian Union, those adver-
tising Russian Pavilion at the Paris International Exposition in 1900 and
picturing Russian Pavilion and the portrait of Czar Nicholas II, and many
others. Further on, I will give detailed information on these vignettes.

After World War II several monographs appeared on the theme of Russian
Erinnophilia to which I consider belongs the literature on vignettes of
countries relating to the Russian Empire. In 1947 E. A. Hellman in Helsinki
issued a catalogue of Finnish charity vignettes in three languages, Finnish,
Swedish and English, entitled, "Catalogue of Finnish Christmas and Charity
Stamps". Unfortunately this well done monograph of all Finnish vignettes
does not mention those of other types. In 1948 very fine work of H. M. Smith,
"Polish Post Seven Years' War (1939-45)" made its appearance, which described
and catalogued stamps of the concentration camps of Polish Prisoners of War
and which I described before. This monograph also includes the unofficial
local issues, which may be considered as part of Erinnophilia.

In one of the Russian D. P. Camps in Germany, political organization Ronnc
started to issue complete series of Icaq ae osa taEms, later overprinting
them for various events* For better sale cf these labels the organization
issued a catalogue, which incidentally is of purely propaganda character.
Undoubtedly these labels and catalogue are valuable documents in history of
modern Russian emigration.

Very widdf field of collecting is the Ukrainian Erinnophilia, having a
great variety of issues, beginning of which starts with the start of our
century and which still continues. During the last few years 2 monographs
appeared on this theme, both from the pen of J. L. Maximchuk. First brochure,
small in size, entitled "Catalogue of Ukrainian Postage Stamps' appeared in
1949. In 1950 he followed it with a very complete work, entitled "Catalogue
of Ukrainian Postage Stamps. Unofficial Issues." The first covers in detail
all known Ukrainian Unofficial issues of postage and revenue stamps, vignettes
and also stamps and vignettes with Ukrainian theme. This monograph is both
well illustrated and edited. At the present time the author is preparing
addenda to the above work, which by its contents will be as large as the
original.

To Russian Erinnophilia I also attach foreign vignettes with Russian
theme, which I already have mentioned, and also foreign vignettes issued for
Russia, such as Italian charity vignettes issued for the benefit of sufferers
of earthquake in Calabria and Sicily in 1909, with values printed in "kopoeU.s".
I also consider propaganda vignettes of International Exhibitions and Congres-
ses issued in Russian language. My collection has several vignettes issued
in Leipzig in 1914 for the Exposition of Graphic Arts and one for the Olympic
Games in Stockholm, in 1912. Classification of Russian vignettes is quite
complicated; more complicated than revenue stamps, because of great variation

46 48









of places, purposes and organizations issuing them, but for thematic colletors
their classification is simple* Vignettes for any particular these can be
elasoified chronologically. Far example those of Air Mail, Red Cross, etc,

It is easier to classify all known vignettes pertaining to lusaaan
Erinnophilia by periods and branches, and by breaking down each bra h into
the location and the purpose of issue, and I propose to breakdown the future
catalogue of Russian vignettes into the following periods and subdivisionst-

I-Vignettes from the earliest period of War of 1914.
a-those issued in the territory of the Russian Empire.
b-those issued abroad with a Russian theme.
II-Vignettes issued during World War I.
a-Same as la. b86ame as Ib
c-Fantasies issued from the beginning of February Revolution
until the formation of Soviets.
III-Vignettes issued by Soviets.
a-in USSR until World War II.
b-abroad, until World War II, and those issued by various
groups of emigrants.
-Vignettes on Russian theme issued during the saae period.
IV-Vignettes of the World War II issued in USM and Abroade
V-Vignettes of post war emigre organizations on foreign & Russian theme.
VI-Vignettes of countries which were part of the Russian Empire.

Collecting- f vignettes, specially those pertaining to Russian Erinno-
philia is much more complicated than collecting postage stamps, and the number
of Erinnophilists is much more smaller than that of philatelists, therefore
the number of dealers on this subject is limited, & vignettes are more dif-
ficult to find, and when one finds them they are usually of the same kind,
Rarer examples one usually sees only once in lifetime and therefore the collect
or of vignettes should never pass an occasion to acquire for his collection
needed examples, because most likely he will never have a second chance to do i.

Another difficulty, is finding out the name of the organization, time &
place of issue of vignettes about which there is no information; lack of mono-
graphs and catalogues makes their classification difficult0

Notwistanding the difficulties of their collecting, the demand for
vignettes during the last few years has increased tremendously because of
great increase in topical collecting. Collectors seek vignettes on various
topics in order to broaden their philatelic and topical collections.

For these reasons the question of eampiling the catalogue of Russian
vignettes at this time is timely. Due to the fact that members of "Rossica"
are busy with Russian Philately and Erinophilia, we mist have initiative for
gathering material not only on the subject of posted and revenue stamps but
also on the subject of Russian vignettes, and compile listings, catalogues
and write monographs. For that purpose I will give in the future issues of
Roeesa detailed cataloguineg known to me vignettes so that members and
readers of our journal can add to gy notes on little known issues.

I start my listing with the earliest known vignettes for the period to
the beginning of the World War I.

A8 47









EDITORIAL NOTE:-We have taken the liberty of adding illustrations Nos. 73,
74, and 75 to Mr Marcovitches article, as well as additional notes on the
Finnish #Mourning Issue" of August, 1900. Incidentally there has been a number
of important handbooks, articles, etc. written in England and USA during the
last 20 years describing a great deal of material, both from historical as
well as bibliographical stand point of view.


TAX STAMP FROM THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS4Mr. J. Posell reports an offer from
an American dealer, which is in the form of a document from the old League
of Nations, pertaining to a Russian Army man and cancelled 1931. It is from
the *Office des Refugies Russes, en Belgique*, and the Tax Stamp from the
League of Nations is tied to the document by a "Societs des Nations" cancel-
lation,

FISCGAlISThe following is excerpt from *Stamp Collecting, London. We quote
in full "Is there an increased demand for the revenue stamps just lately.
This question is prompted by several small signs. First, the keen competition
for a 1915 FPobin's Fiscal Stamp Catalogue (the last one published) when it
came up for sale in a provincial auction a short while ago. This catalogue
is a great rarity today and readily fetches L8 LIO when offered. The only
library copy that we know of belongs to the Royal Philatelic Society, London,
and is kept as a rare book for consultation on premises only. Secondly, a
dealer has been advertising in our pages recently to buy fiscal in any
quantity. Thirdly, one of the specialists' societies has published a priced
catalogue of the revenue stamps in which its members are interested. In
America and Canada revenues have been collected and catalogued for many years
and fetch high prices in auction. The three signs we have mentioned indicate
that there is a growing demand in this country and we suggest that specialists
in single countries might include the revenues in their groups while they are
still cheap. What is now needed is for the various specialists societies to
follow the example of the Channel Island Specialists' Society and list the
stamps either in a catalogue form or in their bulletins.

1952 Edition of Soviet Catalogue-Kurt Adler writes that he has on hand a
1952 edition of the Soviet Catalogue listing stamps through 1951. It was
sent to him for inspection by A. Prado of San Paulo, Brazil. The editorial
board desires more information on this new catalogue.


Revenues. abels. Poster Stams. Officials, Fantasies. etc..The readers
will have noticed that the pages of Rossica include., articles, fill ins, etc.
of material not listed in standard catalogues of the world. The editorial
board is very much interested in acquainting members with material included
in their collections about which they are puzzled. Messrs. Posell, Sklarevski,
Marcovitch and Dr. Salisbury are but a few who are building such collections.
They urge collectors, dealers and others to send the above mentioned material
to the members mentioned above for recording and also for sale or exchanging.
Any information on this type of material will also be welcome.


48 48









EDITORIAL NOTE:-We have taken the liberty of adding illustrations Nos. 73,
74, and 75 to Mr Marcovitches article, as well as additional notes on the
Finnish #Mourning Issue" of August, 1900. Incidentally there has been a number
of important handbooks, articles, etc. written in England and USA during the
last 20 years describing a great deal of material, both from historical as
well as bibliographical stand point of view.


TAX STAMP FROM THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS4Mr. J. Posell reports an offer from
an American dealer, which is in the form of a document from the old League
of Nations, pertaining to a Russian Army man and cancelled 1931. It is from
the *Office des Refugies Russes, en Belgique*, and the Tax Stamp from the
League of Nations is tied to the document by a "Societs des Nations" cancel-
lation,

FISCGAlISThe following is excerpt from *Stamp Collecting, London. We quote
in full "Is there an increased demand for the revenue stamps just lately.
This question is prompted by several small signs. First, the keen competition
for a 1915 FPobin's Fiscal Stamp Catalogue (the last one published) when it
came up for sale in a provincial auction a short while ago. This catalogue
is a great rarity today and readily fetches L8 LIO when offered. The only
library copy that we know of belongs to the Royal Philatelic Society, London,
and is kept as a rare book for consultation on premises only. Secondly, a
dealer has been advertising in our pages recently to buy fiscal in any
quantity. Thirdly, one of the specialists' societies has published a priced
catalogue of the revenue stamps in which its members are interested. In
America and Canada revenues have been collected and catalogued for many years
and fetch high prices in auction. The three signs we have mentioned indicate
that there is a growing demand in this country and we suggest that specialists
in single countries might include the revenues in their groups while they are
still cheap. What is now needed is for the various specialists societies to
follow the example of the Channel Island Specialists' Society and list the
stamps either in a catalogue form or in their bulletins.

1952 Edition of Soviet Catalogue-Kurt Adler writes that he has on hand a
1952 edition of the Soviet Catalogue listing stamps through 1951. It was
sent to him for inspection by A. Prado of San Paulo, Brazil. The editorial
board desires more information on this new catalogue.


Revenues. abels. Poster Stams. Officials, Fantasies. etc..The readers
will have noticed that the pages of Rossica include., articles, fill ins, etc.
of material not listed in standard catalogues of the world. The editorial
board is very much interested in acquainting members with material included
in their collections about which they are puzzled. Messrs. Posell, Sklarevski,
Marcovitch and Dr. Salisbury are but a few who are building such collections.
They urge collectors, dealers and others to send the above mentioned material
to the members mentioned above for recording and also for sale or exchanging.
Any information on this type of material will also be welcome.


48 48









EDITORIAL NOTE:-We have taken the liberty of adding illustrations Nos. 73,
74, and 75 to Mr Marcovitches article, as well as additional notes on the
Finnish #Mourning Issue" of August, 1900. Incidentally there has been a number
of important handbooks, articles, etc. written in England and USA during the
last 20 years describing a great deal of material, both from historical as
well as bibliographical stand point of view.


TAX STAMP FROM THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS4Mr. J. Posell reports an offer from
an American dealer, which is in the form of a document from the old League
of Nations, pertaining to a Russian Army man and cancelled 1931. It is from
the *Office des Refugies Russes, en Belgique*, and the Tax Stamp from the
League of Nations is tied to the document by a "Societs des Nations" cancel-
lation,

FISCGAlISThe following is excerpt from *Stamp Collecting, London. We quote
in full "Is there an increased demand for the revenue stamps just lately.
This question is prompted by several small signs. First, the keen competition
for a 1915 FPobin's Fiscal Stamp Catalogue (the last one published) when it
came up for sale in a provincial auction a short while ago. This catalogue
is a great rarity today and readily fetches L8 LIO when offered. The only
library copy that we know of belongs to the Royal Philatelic Society, London,
and is kept as a rare book for consultation on premises only. Secondly, a
dealer has been advertising in our pages recently to buy fiscal in any
quantity. Thirdly, one of the specialists' societies has published a priced
catalogue of the revenue stamps in which its members are interested. In
America and Canada revenues have been collected and catalogued for many years
and fetch high prices in auction. The three signs we have mentioned indicate
that there is a growing demand in this country and we suggest that specialists
in single countries might include the revenues in their groups while they are
still cheap. What is now needed is for the various specialists societies to
follow the example of the Channel Island Specialists' Society and list the
stamps either in a catalogue form or in their bulletins.

1952 Edition of Soviet Catalogue-Kurt Adler writes that he has on hand a
1952 edition of the Soviet Catalogue listing stamps through 1951. It was
sent to him for inspection by A. Prado of San Paulo, Brazil. The editorial
board desires more information on this new catalogue.


Revenues. abels. Poster Stams. Officials, Fantasies. etc..The readers
will have noticed that the pages of Rossica include., articles, fill ins, etc.
of material not listed in standard catalogues of the world. The editorial
board is very much interested in acquainting members with material included
in their collections about which they are puzzled. Messrs. Posell, Sklarevski,
Marcovitch and Dr. Salisbury are but a few who are building such collections.
They urge collectors, dealers and others to send the above mentioned material
to the members mentioned above for recording and also for sale or exchanging.
Any information on this type of material will also be welcome.


48 48









EDITORIAL NOTE:-We have taken the liberty of adding illustrations Nos. 73,
74, and 75 to Mr Marcovitches article, as well as additional notes on the
Finnish #Mourning Issue" of August, 1900. Incidentally there has been a number
of important handbooks, articles, etc. written in England and USA during the
last 20 years describing a great deal of material, both from historical as
well as bibliographical stand point of view.


TAX STAMP FROM THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS4Mr. J. Posell reports an offer from
an American dealer, which is in the form of a document from the old League
of Nations, pertaining to a Russian Army man and cancelled 1931. It is from
the *Office des Refugies Russes, en Belgique*, and the Tax Stamp from the
League of Nations is tied to the document by a "Societs des Nations" cancel-
lation,

FISCGAlISThe following is excerpt from *Stamp Collecting, London. We quote
in full "Is there an increased demand for the revenue stamps just lately.
This question is prompted by several small signs. First, the keen competition
for a 1915 FPobin's Fiscal Stamp Catalogue (the last one published) when it
came up for sale in a provincial auction a short while ago. This catalogue
is a great rarity today and readily fetches L8 LIO when offered. The only
library copy that we know of belongs to the Royal Philatelic Society, London,
and is kept as a rare book for consultation on premises only. Secondly, a
dealer has been advertising in our pages recently to buy fiscal in any
quantity. Thirdly, one of the specialists' societies has published a priced
catalogue of the revenue stamps in which its members are interested. In
America and Canada revenues have been collected and catalogued for many years
and fetch high prices in auction. The three signs we have mentioned indicate
that there is a growing demand in this country and we suggest that specialists
in single countries might include the revenues in their groups while they are
still cheap. What is now needed is for the various specialists societies to
follow the example of the Channel Island Specialists' Society and list the
stamps either in a catalogue form or in their bulletins.

1952 Edition of Soviet Catalogue-Kurt Adler writes that he has on hand a
1952 edition of the Soviet Catalogue listing stamps through 1951. It was
sent to him for inspection by A. Prado of San Paulo, Brazil. The editorial
board desires more information on this new catalogue.


Revenues. abels. Poster Stams. Officials, Fantasies. etc..The readers
will have noticed that the pages of Rossica include., articles, fill ins, etc.
of material not listed in standard catalogues of the world. The editorial
board is very much interested in acquainting members with material included
in their collections about which they are puzzled. Messrs. Posell, Sklarevski,
Marcovitch and Dr. Salisbury are but a few who are building such collections.
They urge collectors, dealers and others to send the above mentioned material
to the members mentioned above for recording and also for sale or exchanging.
Any information on this type of material will also be welcome.


48 48








PPERIAL STAMPS OVERFRI_ED WITH STARS & NEW FIGURE OF VALUE
agenda by-. ._l. Arkha qngi
=t3,-Correction-Rossica' 5,p.19- 30r. on 15k should read 30r. on 5k.
Under this title in #45 of "Rossica" appeared an excellent article of
John Reynolds. However there appear to be a few discrepancies which I deal with
below. lam also giving additional data which may be useful, and the table
giving various types of overprints does not exactly agree vith the one given
in 1949 Soviet Catalogue,
Reynold's Table Arkhanguelsky's & Soviet Table
Value Perforated Imperforate Perforated Imperforate
5r. on 20k. T L T L-X T L T *
20r. on 15k. L L L L
2Or. on 70k, T *-X T L T L T L
30r. on 50k. T L ?-X L T L L
40r. on 15k. T *-X T L T L T L
lOOr. on 15k. L L L L
200r. on 15k. T L T L T L T L
200r. over L *
40r. on 15k.

Noeg-The editors added Reynold's table so that the reader could see the dif-
ference for himself. (X) in Reynolds' table shows where the variations
occur between the two lists.

In describing the difference in printing on the counterfeits the size of
the overprints must be indicated. The following are the characteristics of
the genuine overprints:-

Width and Height of the star-15.5mm. (all values) 2k -o 19; often 15mm.
Corners of the Star-Blunt or sloping (genuine). Sharp counterfeits)
Length of Loj!er overprint-100r. & 200r. (14.5mm.) Others (14mm.)
Period after letter "F-10Or & 200r. (round) Others (triangular)
Height of Zeros and "5"-100r. (5mm.), 200r. (5.5mm.), others (6m.)
Height of complete overprint.-Varies between 20.5 and 21mm.
Color of the overDrint-Black & dull (genuine), gray black (counterfeits)
Letter "P (30. 40 and 200r.)-Shape of space inside always triangular on the
left or right letter (genuine). Always a sliced
oval on the counterfeits.
Also because of insufficient inking on genuine stamps one often finds
the zeros and numerals incompletely printed, specially on 5r. on 20k.

Lozenges of varnish on reverse side are oftener found on 40r. & 200r.,
misplaced and angular overprints are found oftener on 200r.

A counterfeit of 20r. on 15k. exists prepared from 4Or. on 15k. where
numeral u4, was removed chemically and "2" was inserted (see also the comments).

Editorial Comments-We were aware of discrepancies between Mr. Reynold's article
and the Soviet catalogue but because of certain facts decided at that time not
to give our comments. The Soviet catalogue lists perforated stamps & errors
of those, then treats the imperforate in the same manner. At the end of the
listing it gives a note stating which values exist lithographed and which
typographed, but does not treat the errors in the same manner, while Mr. Reynold?

4 49








does. It was known for a long time that some of the values existed typographec
and some lithographed, and some both, but because of the difficulty of separa-
ting some of these, specially cancelled and also because of numerous counter-
feits existing very few students studied them. We also have never been too
sure that the Soviet Listings were correct. Mr. Arkhanguelsky's addenda is
printed in full, part of which is a listing from the Soviet Catalogue, while
the other is his observation on the counterfeits. We have F. Billig's excel-
lent handbook on counterfeits on this issue written in German and K. Kayssner'
handbook listing of the counterfeits of the 5r. on 20k, and the 20r. on 15k.
written in English, but again we were waiting for some one more familiar with
this issue to write additional information about them, Incidentaly neither
F. Billig nor K. Kayssner give and list sizes of the overprints.

20r. on 15k. Imperforate-Reynolds states that value "20" was counterfeited,
while Arkhanguelsky states that numeral 2" was substituted for "4" in a40".
Billig agrees with Reynolds.
20r. on 15k. Perforated-Was prepared by "Kull", where the whole overprint was
counterfeited. It was prepared in considerable volume, both mint and also
cancelled with a forged cancellation.
5r. on 20k. Imperforate-K. Kayssner lists 3 Types-lst. of unknown origin-
known mint and lightly cancelled. Products of "Kull"-lst. type, known mint,
cancelled and on covers. This was distributed in large volume and is of
excellent work. The second type, poorer in quality was issued in small
quantity.
K Kaner illustrate a forged cancellation-Double circle-Moskow (top), 19
(bottcjr A(left center between circles), *(right) and the date (5 4 22). He
states 'it must be noted that it was never used on Soviet stamps, but was
purchased in 1919 by an Estonian officer in Pleskau from a postal official
and probably resold later to Estonian forgers."

In conclusion,we would like to hear from others on this issue.


A M U R
by A. Lasloff

I have in my collection a 5 ruble Oblast (territory) stamp, having the
following inscription "Amur Oblast Zemstvo Post. Five Rubles 1917-.
Issued, as based on point 5, p2, law 15 June". It is printed oy typography,
lightly on thick paper, with design on the reverse side, and numeral 5 rubles,
and of the size of the Russian revenue stamps. This issue was based on the
following reasons. The territory was still under the control of the old
regimes and the communications between various points and the value of the
currency were still good. K. Schmidt states that there was an issue from 5T-
to 5 rubles in 1919, but from 1918 to 1920, while I lived in this area, control
of this section passed through various hands, namely-Eseri, Temporary Govern-
ment, Japanese Occupation, Partisans, etc. then Bolshevics, and back to
Japanese and others. Thus, if another issue was made, as stated by Schmidt,
these stamps of 1919 had very little rhyme or reason, and the 50k. stamp was
useless, as the amount was of no use or value at all.

During all of 1919 and part of 1920, such stamps were used as currency
for making change, and one could pay for a passage on a ship crossing Amur,
either from Chinese or Russian side.


50 48












To call these stamps rare is hardly possible. .Although, in Schmidt, the
emission is given at l8,000,000 and however, in view of their total loss of
value in 1920, equally with other paper isses,j in that territory, and use of
only the silver, gold, and gold nuggets, sand and bars, these stamps were
discarded. It is doubtful if anyone was interested in saving these useless
emissions. These could have been found only accidently by the officials of
the Far Eastern Republic, after the departure of the greater part of the
population from Blagoveschensk to the Chinese side, never to return.

ROSSICA IN CALIFCPNIA

During the first throe months of 1956 two general meetings woro hold, as
wo1l as four others, all in Los Angolos. Our main objective was tho increase
in momborship, and consolidation of the hugo memborship, already present here.

At the general meetings the now constitution, organization of the sales
packet for circulation among our members, etc. wore discussed. 1.I. oMasloff
secured the permission from the Presidont of Fhilatolic Club of Los Angoles,
Q, Fosdick and Soc. J. Sione for the Rossica to meet in the philatelic library,
second largest in U. S., whore the various clubs of Los Angolas moot.

At the smaller mootings stamps wore traded, philatelic literature, and
the news from the Rossica headquarters wore discussed. Trade and sales
packets have now boon circulated among the interested members. Thrico during
the season, our Roprosontative oxhibited before the China Stamp Society Rossicc
and B.S.R.P. journals and discussed our activities.

Charles Dougan & Vartan Govonian wore elected Secretary & Troasuror ros-
poctivoly. Our joint meeting with tho'San Francisco group was not held recont-
bocause of the illnesses of bur Representative and of the Secrotary of S. F.
Section, N. I. Kniazeff. Cur contacts are actively maintained nevertholoss

Wo marked the rocont death of our Honorary President. E. M. Archanguelsky,
in Jugoslavia, by appropriate service in the "pravoslavny" churches in Los
Angolos and San Francisco.
0000000000oooo
10% DISCOUNT on al purchases 15% DISCOUNT on all purchases
of $2.00 and up. of $10.0C and up.

1EW ISSUES ERRORS COVERS VARIETIES ZELSTVCS LOOLS

L. & F. S T A P SERVICE
Box No. 1

1. Stamplos covers from 1812 to 1870 in stock. Also postal stationery.
2. Prico list furnished on request.
3. Approvals at about 70% discount from Scotts on Russia, States & Poland.
I also have Zomstvos in stock.


48 5






INTERESTING P 0 STMARKS
by Krurt Adler

1, Straight line, PSKOV, probably 1851, on 1848 postal stationery to
Holsingfors, Finland, ( 2 line).
2. Lutsk, straight one line, date unknown, on 1848 postal stationery to
Biala, Poland,
3. Foodosia, straight one line 184?, on stampless cover to Genoa, Italy.
4, Taganrog, straight one line 1832, on stamplessfumigated, to Trieste,
5. Frauenburg, Kurland Gub., manuscript date inserted (26 Aug. 1858), in
rectangle, also Russia #1 (penmarked), to Linden via Riga.
6. Polish 4 ring, letters (BJW.) taken out by Russian Postal authorities.
Because the Cyrillic spoiling was not used, the Russians, after taking
the Polish Postal System, deleted the letters. This took place only in
1874 & 1875, Additional postmark reads 'Pocht, Otdelenie, Warsaw, 24
,arch 1875". Scottts Russia #23, Cover addressed to Germany.
7. Illuktskaya Pocht. Kontora 9 April. 1869. Very early example of "Pocht.
Kontora" cancellation, of a small post office. Circular with arabesque.
8. Philippopel-Flovdiv (Circular), 1879. Under Russian Postal System; this
Bulgarian city was occupied shortly after the Russo-Turkish Wiar of 1877/78.
9. On Scottls 27b.
9. Large ovalcincellation of Kovno Post and Telegraph Bureau of 1913, recei-
ving number filled by hand. Appears in purple & red on Arms & Romanov
set. We assume it was the receiving cancellation for the official mail,
addressed to Kovno post office.
10. Ramenskaya-Moscow Rail Road Mail Car. Circular T.P.O,, without number
cancellation. On a 1915 Red Cross cover addressed to Copenhagen, Denmark.
11. Moscow-Brest Railroad Station, oval, different in size & lettering from
usual. Numbers of date are large & not framed by crossbars. Same type
as Warsaw, Brest R. R. Station. Both used in 1906.
12. Kremenets-Dubno, oval T.P.O., for Rail Road Cars without numbers. The
number of canceller (No. 1) at top instead of bottom, which is confusing,
since "Rail Road Mail Car Route #1" is reserved for St. Petersburg-Moscow
run. Clear T.P.Ots without numbers are always somewhat unusual, the Rail
Road line is always a small one.
13. Petrozavodsk-Lenilrad Pocht. Vagon, 1941. Soviet, circular T.P.0, without
numbers. Petrozavodsk is capital of Soviet Karelia.
14. Aralskoye More, Syr Parya.15s Ust-Chardzhisk Harbor, Tomsk Gov, Two
far away places in Central Asia & Siberia.
000000000000

A L EX A N D ER B I SK '
280 Riverside Drive.
New York 25, N. Y.

EUROPETANI COUNTRIES

Want lists for collectors and dealers filled by return mail. Better
grade approval books by country also available. Many rarities and
oddities for specialists.

B.SSIA. UKRAI!TA, BEELUX. BBAIKAPS. CENTRAL--kESTERN-&-EASTERN EUROPE.
SCz, -.L:,7AIAE, ETC.

^ ~Other Continents at hand, although weaker, "

52 4





A ^0~ S Sl CA vSO CIETY^ A- E jjU









A.N. L AVROV H.CHEBOTKEVICH
Treaeryisr r JOINT MEETING-ROSSICA B.S.R.R IN N.Y. Prmidn
Russian Lansuage Ck,'irmv: .J. ChudobapDirector,Nail ser. Co-ouner of
Russian Languae Bernar DayvDPrasidet YSechon. V erny ROSSICA
Section R.Krivosnhap a 'torv Dr. G.B.Salisbury









MR. and MRS. LEROY DOWNS THE CHESAPEX 1956 LUNCHEON
Mrs. Downs our member, i's Ik J-dges; Mueller, Bxun. SpgekeDr. Salislury.
Editor of tiamps May;zine. Chairma;.RA.Sklarevki. Jude' XKunze,











AT A MEETING IN LONDON EMILE M KOVITCH
eft to ;vik,; Messr. Roberts, gtibbe)Tchilingirian Represendive for Venezuelaz,, emher
Re'. for rea Bnrdi; John Barryj Dr. Seichter. of editorial Board Rosslia Journal
,P. i or Urealgrdziix Dr. Seio~zi:in Re~rsetaiufoter. 'oa~/p~ ~









HISTORY Of THE RUSSIAN TROOPS IN FRANCE 1916-17
SJ POSELL


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InterestinO Postmarks
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