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 Front Cover
 Index
 Officers of the society
 Representatives of the society
 Editorial
 Poland no. 1: Forgeries, fakes,...
 Unlisted discoveries in my collection...
 Stamps and receipts of Adresny...
 Editorial comments on Poland no....
 Stamped envelopes of imperial Russia:...
 Interesting envelopes of St. Petersbourg...
 The Russian consular post in Bulgaria...
 New information on the Russian...
 The first Russian special cancellation...
 World stamp exhibition "Praga 1962"...
 Cover from Liverpool via Ostende...
 The development of the post and...
 Stamps of the Warsaw Local Post...
 Covers of interest to Russian and...
 Special Spunik cancellations and...
 New York, Ukrania by Kurt...
 Flaws on the 10R stamps of the...
 Jugoslav post in Siberia by R....
 Russian boy scout cacheted covers...
 A new checklist of the arms type...
 Notes from collectors
 Literature review
 Fiscal stamps of the Soviet government,...


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00008
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1962
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00008

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Index
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 4a
    Poland no. 1: Forgeries, fakes, and frauds by M. A. Bojanowicz and S. J. Capes. (see editorial comments - top page 18)
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Unlisted discoveries in my collection by J. F. Chudoba
        Page 10
    Stamps and receipts of Adresny Sbor in St. Petersbourg by E. Marcovitch
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Editorial comments on Poland no. 1
        Page 18
    Stamped envelopes of imperial Russia: 1st period, 1848-1863 (notes based on recent research), continued from page 21, of Rossica no. 62. by O. A. Faberge
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
    Interesting envelopes of St. Petersbourg town post by O. A. Faberge
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The Russian consular post in Bulgaria before the liberation by D. N. Minchev
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    New information on the Russian post in Bulgaria before the liberation by D. N. Minchev
        Page 34
    The first Russian special cancellation by Kurt Adler
        Page 35
    World stamp exhibition "Praga 1962" by Kurt Adler
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Cover from Liverpool via Ostende and St. Petersburg to Finland by M. M. Kessler
        Page 40
    The development of the post and communication services of the Mongolian National Republic and the postage stamps of Mongolia. (translated form the original Russian by A. Cronin)
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Stamps of the Warsaw Local Post - 1915 by I. Braunstein (continued from no. 62)
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Covers of interest to Russian and US Collectors by M. M. Kessler (conclusion from no. 62)
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Special Spunik cancellations and cachets by Kurt Adler
        Page 50
    New York, Ukrania by Kurt Adler
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Flaws on the 10R stamps of the 1906-1922 issues by E. F. Newman (continued from No. 62)
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Jugoslav post in Siberia by R. Polchaninoff
        Page 55
    Russian boy scout cacheted covers by R. Polchaninoff
        Page 56
    A new checklist of the arms type issues of 1909-1923 by Dr.C. de Stackelberg
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Notes from collectors
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Literature review
        Page 63
    Fiscal stamps of the Soviet government, RSFSR and USSR by E.E Stofenovsky, Kharkov -2, USSR
        Page 63
Full Text

THE JOURNAL
Sof the

ROSSICA SOCIETY
of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY

Silver Medals at Belgrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937"and
v) the International Exhibition, Koenigsberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronze Medals at the International Exhibition "Paa 1935"and
Vienna International Exhibition "WIPA1933"
Recent International Awards:
Silver Medals at Berlin,"Bephila 1957", Parana,'Eficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires,"Temex 1958"
Hamburg "Interposta 1959" Palermo "Sicilia 1959" "Barcelona 1960"
Johannesburg, S. A. "Unipex" 1960 Warsaw "Polska" 1960
















No. 19"

OP A H

PYCCKOFO 3AAPYiGEHOFO 4HJIATEJIHClaHqK(Or
0 IIl ECGTBA.
* Editor
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.









0
E D IT.OR I N CHIEF F

Hon. M cnimb. Ir. G. B. Bondarenko-Salisbury

PUBLISHER AND ASSISTAiT PUBLISHER A'D ASSIST T
EDITOR. ENGLIS:i EDITION EDITOR RUSSIAN EDITION,

Hon. iomb. P. A. Sklarovski Hon. eom. A. N. Lavr.ov

B U IE SS ELIT OR

Hon. 1emb. A. N. Lavrov

ED T.0 R I A B 0 A R L

K. Adlor Hen. lomb. E. Marcovitch Hon. ecmb. V. Kurbas

I N P E X
Pages
2 Officers of the Society, Honorary Loemrbers and Representatives of the
Society
3---4 "Editorial
5 -10 Poland No. 1. Forgeries, Fakos and Frauds. By M.A. Bojanowicz and S.J.
Capes. (See Editorial comments top page 18)
10-11 Uplisted Discoveries in Ky Collection. By J. F. Chudoba
11-17 .St-aps andRoceipts of Adrsny Sbor. in St. Potersbourg. By E. Marcovitch
18 Editorial Comments on Poland No. 1.
19-24 Staceid Envolopes:of InporialIRussia. 1st Period. 1848-1863. (Notes
b-scd on recent research). Cent. from P. 21, of #62. 'By 0. A. Faborge.
25-28 Interesting Envelopos of St. Petersbourg Town Post. By C. A. Faberge.
29-34 The Russian Consular Post in Bulgaria Before the Liberation. By D.N. Mincho-
34 Now Information on the Rupsian Post in Bulgaria Before'the Liberation. By
D. N. Kinchev.-
35 The First Russian Special Cancellation. By Kurt Adlor.
36-39 World Stamp Exhibition '"RAGA 1962". By Kurt Adler.
40 Cover from Liverpool Via Ostende and St. Petersburg to Finland. By I. Koss'
41-43 Tho-Devolopmncht of the Post an' CGomiunication Services of tho Mongolian
National Republic and the Postage Stamps of Mongolia.(Translated from the
original Russian by A. Cronin).
44-47 Stamps of-th Warsaw Local Post -.1915. Cent. from #62. Ey I. Braunstein.
48-49 .Covers of.Interest to.TRussian and TJ Collectors. (Conclusion from #62).
By M. '. Kosslor.
50 Now York, Ukraina. By KUrt,Adlor.
50-51 Special Sputnick' Cahncllitions and Cachets. (Cont. from #60). By K. Adler
52-54 Flaws on the 10R. Stamps of the 1906-1922 Issues. (Cont. from #62). By
E. F. Newman.
55-56 Jugoslav Post in.Siberia. Ey.R. Polchaninoff.
56 Russian Boy Scout Cachotc'd ovoes.. By.R. .olchaninoff.
56-59 : A New-Chock List.of the Arms Typo Issues' of 1909-1923. By C. do Stackelberr
59-62 :NKotes from Collectors.
62-63 Litorature Re-view
63 Fiscal Stamps of the Soviot Governr.ent; RFSR and USSR'. ]By E. StefafiovSky.


No. 63 Page










O OFFICERS OF T.HE SOC IETY

President- Dr. G..B .; Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian speaking section A. N Lafrov r
Secretary English speaking section R. A. Sklarevaki
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper-Money Circle K. Jansson

HONORARY MEMBERS

A. Kotlar K. Jansson V. Kurbas
N. I. Kordakoff A. N. Lavrov E. I. Marcovitch
G. B. Salisbury R. A. Sklarevski


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

New York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, New York
San Francisco K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Western USA L. S. Glass 1533 So La Cionga Blvd., Los Angeles, California



Argentina B. Riasnianski,.Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Airos,' Argentina
Australia V. Tvelkmeyor 21 Elizabeth St. 'Paddington, Sydney, N.S.W.
Belgium I. Braunstoin 6 rue Eighot, ]elstanche, Uxelles, Brussels, Belgium
Brazil A'. Vansovich c/o Livraria Freitas Bastes, Caixa (Rio Region) .
Brazil P. Baloff Rua Podrozo 238, Caixa Post 2960 (San Paulo Region)
Canada G. Rozday Woda 65 Dorking Ct., Downsview, Ontario, Canada
France A. Liashenko 1 Rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Great Britain J. Barry 77A St. James Road, Sutton Surrey
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel


..... ........ ...... ....
Views expressed by authors are their own and the editors disclaim responsibility


Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries. Application forms
which must be filled out are available upon request. Membership lists, codes,
bulletins and supplements to membership lists will be sent out annually. Kindly
make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov and not to Dr. G. B-. Salisbury.



We welcome advertisements from members, non members and dealers. Full
page add is $30.00; half page $15.00, quarter page $7.50 and 5 lines $2.50.
Members of Rossica'pay 50% of the above rates. -Net cost'of advertisements to
a member is therefore 25 cents per line. We have .on salc some :b -.ssuep- a
the Joun-l, bth in Englsliar d PorniA -language.



Page 2 No. 63










O OFFICERS OF T.HE SOC IETY

President- Dr. G..B .; Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian speaking section A. N Lafrov r
Secretary English speaking section R. A. Sklarevaki
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper-Money Circle K. Jansson

HONORARY MEMBERS

A. Kotlar K. Jansson V. Kurbas
N. I. Kordakoff A. N. Lavrov E. I. Marcovitch
G. B. Salisbury R. A. Sklarevski


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

New York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, New York
San Francisco K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Western USA L. S. Glass 1533 So La Cionga Blvd., Los Angeles, California



Argentina B. Riasnianski,.Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Airos,' Argentina
Australia V. Tvelkmeyor 21 Elizabeth St. 'Paddington, Sydney, N.S.W.
Belgium I. Braunstoin 6 rue Eighot, ]elstanche, Uxelles, Brussels, Belgium
Brazil A'. Vansovich c/o Livraria Freitas Bastes, Caixa (Rio Region) .
Brazil P. Baloff Rua Podrozo 238, Caixa Post 2960 (San Paulo Region)
Canada G. Rozday Woda 65 Dorking Ct., Downsview, Ontario, Canada
France A. Liashenko 1 Rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Great Britain J. Barry 77A St. James Road, Sutton Surrey
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba Artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel


..... ........ ...... ....
Views expressed by authors are their own and the editors disclaim responsibility


Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries. Application forms
which must be filled out are available upon request. Membership lists, codes,
bulletins and supplements to membership lists will be sent out annually. Kindly
make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov and not to Dr. G. B-. Salisbury.



We welcome advertisements from members, non members and dealers. Full
page add is $30.00; half page $15.00, quarter page $7.50 and 5 lines $2.50.
Members of Rossica'pay 50% of the above rates. -Net cost'of advertisements to
a member is therefore 25 cents per line. We have .on salc some :b -.ssuep- a
the Joun-l, bth in Englsliar d PorniA -language.



Page 2 No. 63












The year 1962 has boon kind to our society. We have added many now mon-
Sbers, our mooting at Interpox was -a succeps,J we actively participated in the
American Philatelic Congress .at Scpad '62 and Postal History Society Exhibit-
ion I 62 program, -our members won':high honors at Praga 162, the Rossica
Journal won its ninth silver modal (this onq on a bronze plaquotte) in its
ninth consecutive International .Ehibition competition, our members have been
honored by various.national exhibition medals, and our Now York branch finally
blossomed into a most active organization.

Under the dynamic leadership of Jseph F. Chudoba, aided by the energetic
VsovolodKurbae, Alexander Katlar, Lydia Calahan, Murry Schulman, Abo Cohen,
Jorri Chaivoo and thirty others, tho::Now York branch has boon breaking all
records -at the Sloane.House, YMCA-356 W, 34th Street, -Now York, every last
Sunday, at 1:30 pm.

Li6mbar Charlotte N. Downs, Editor of Stamps provided excellent publicity
in her'journal coverage. A bulletin, Chit Chat is the organ of-the branch.
There is also a growing library, an active -bourso; proninont speakers, and
annual exhibition and lovely prizes for the winners. Chairman Chudoba has
produced an excellent constitution for the Sociotyls future consideration.
Oar society salutes you all fora job-wll done.

Wbohave the pleasure of informing you of two big events. Car member
Robert W:. Baughman has been elactcd President of the Socidty of Philatelic
Americans, having a membership of nearly 10,000. Our member 'Miroslav A.
Bojanowicz of England, winner of the highest award at. WarsawPolska '60, will
specak at :the Collectors Club of Now York on Iarch.20, -1963. All Rossica
bombers are urged to soc his fabulous collection of Poland No. 1, and Polish
rarities.

Cur No. 64 promises to be an outstanding number. We are proud to present
Molvih M. Kosslor's research on postal routes,. log 0. Faborgo s "Soviet
Countorfoits of Zocstvo Proofs", 'Additional Data on Post Cards and better
Cards of Russian Er-piro", "Someo ata,n -Stamped Envelopes with Advertisements"
Emile Marcovitchts "Eolgian Expoditioinry Corps in Russia, 1917", Andrew
Cronints Kyzil Postmaster and His 'Spravkas'", E.N. Minchoevs "Russian Post
Offices in Rumania", Kurt Adlorts historic-philatolic docunmnt from the Ci-il
War in the Seven River District of Siberia, A. Crcnin's continuation of the
Monigolia" sorids and-of "Tanna-Touva":, R. Polchaninoff "Latvian Legion in
Pussi'",% and many others. We urgo our'mombers, whohave not as yet paid thoix
1962 duas to rush them as well as the 1963-duos so as to be eligible to
receive #64 and others. .Happy. CollectingL


ROSSICA SCCITY I-=TS AT Ti ASDA SHOW

Rossica Society of Russian Philately hold a wook-ond Annual Mooting,
Party and a joint session with the British Society of Russian Philately, on
November 17 and 18 during the ASDA Show. The turnout broke all previous
attendance records, listing over fifty members and guests, who participated
in one or the other event or both. A small section of the crowd is shown in
the two photos taken during the program on Sunday.


No. 63 Page o










On Saturday, members of the Rossica Society met at the Vanderbilt Hotel,
in the suite of Er. Grogory B. Salisbury, President and Editor. The major
portion'.of the meeting'was devoted:.to the. discussion pf the new constitution
wr2itteh by Joseph-.Fi. Chudoba,, Chairman. of the .Nw. York branch of Rossica.
Afterwards an "open house" was held,fo r members, their wives and. gua.sts, en-
livened by a bar and buffet. Among., those present were Ernest Kohr, judge and
US Commissioner at many Internationals; Vincent :omansli notod judge at'
Internationals., author and past head of'SPA & National-Philatolic Museum-
Ir. Gordon Torrey, authority on Levant; ..Br. John A. Buchn&ess, famed special
of Lithuanian stamps; Kurt Adlor, conductor of the Metropolitan Opera Assoc.
and possessor of one of World's greatest collections of Russia; Lt. Col.
Mark M. Cassidy former. Chairman of Balpex'62 and editor of the Year Book of
the American Philatelic Congress,-who along with RimmtneSklarovski, publisher
of the Rossica Journal and authority oh Postal Stationery and Batum,' headed
the Baltimore dolqgation; and Herbert Rosen, of INTERMEX fame and his :lovely
wife.

On Sunday the society held a .busy bourse of selling & trading conducted
by dealers in specialist material- and this' was followed by. a Joint Meeting
of- the Rossica Society and-tho British Society df the Russian Philately.,
Among the notables presont-woro-:. Charlotte Downs, Editor of S T A F, P S,
Robert W. Baughman, President of SPA., W.E. Norton noted Latvian specialist,
Colonel Eugene Prince postal historian, and Samuel L. Bayer specialist bof
Israol and a well known dealer. The program consisted of the following
speakers: -Arnold Engel who presented albums of Latvia, Dr. Gordon Torrey who
showed Russian Offices in Levant,. with many items unrecorded in literature,
*Joseph F. Chudoba who exhibited scarce covers bearing 1865-75 varieties, a?:.Ad
Kurt Adler who displayed his prize winning (Praga T62) collection of the Russo.
Turkish War of 1877-8, Russian Offices in Bulgaria after this'war Boxer
Rebellion Covers, and early stampless covers with unusual postmarks.

We urge our members to remember that we automatically hold annual'meeti-ng.
during Saturday and Sunday of the ASDA Show at Hotel Vandelbilt. Meeting at
7 pm. on Saturday in Dr. Salisbury's suite followed by a party 'at 9:30. Guest -
are invited to the latter. On Sunday wa.always hold a bourse at 12 noon in
Room 111 at the Hotel Vandorbilt, followed by a joint meeting and a program at
1:30. All are invited, as. we can only send cut invitations to 90 out of 400C
Those living within easy .rach of New York City. Please comho to our 1963
affair

"Just a day before this'journal was to gc into print the ppdblisher' re-
'.ceivod a copy of S T -A M.P S (Docombor 8, 19(2 Issuo) which included-on
page 417 a photo of tho.-Joint Mooting hold at the Hotel Vandorbilt, and
likewise a wonderful write up of the .mooting, from the pen o"f its Editor,
our good friend and member, Mrs. Charlotte N. Downs.









Page 4 No. 63







SOcImrT'Y PAGE -1962,



















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SP.- L I ND N 0. 1

SFC GER1M ES. FAKES AND FRAUDS
"by M. A. Bojanowicz and S. J.Capes
"The majority of the classic stamps, at one tine or another, have re-
'ceived the attention of the forger, with varying degrees of success. Speci-
mens of the work of such famous forgers as Sperati and Fournier have, in fact,
found a place in certain well known collections as well as in the collections
of forgeries used in expertisation for showing the difference between the ge.-
nuine stamp and its forged counterpart.

Poland No. 1 proves no exception having been forged, curiously enough,
once only, and that by an unknown forger. Even the country in which the for-
gery was produced is. unknown In view of. the latent interest in the stamp
"itself, it was probably considered not. to be worth forging.

Figure 1 reproduces the genuine and the forgery from the collection of
Prof. Mikstein.

"It Will be noted immediately that the spelling of the inscription in the
forgery is incorrect, indicating that the forger had little or no knowledge of
the Polish or Russiah languages. The missing accent to the letter "Cp and the
missing bar to the letter. Vy illustrate this point. Ii'addition to this,
aniline color was used. a type of printing not used for stamps before 1870.

For many years certain catalogues and listings mentioned a.variety of
Poland No. '1 a's on lai-d Raper, the. listing being accepted without question.
As the f6rged stamp .is oi laid paper it could well have been the cause of the
errone our listing.

It has been suggested that the laid paper of the. forger (Fig, 2) was
probably due to it having been printed on marginal paper-of Russian issues of
1866 or subsequently; but further -proof is necessary before this theory be-
comes finally accepted.- As these sheets have letters included in the water-
hark (Fig. 3), it is -reasonable to suppose that some copic .&of',the forgery
Swoud reveal evidence pf this. If such information -wiS. forthcoming it would
add considerable .'weight to the supposition, Which was put forward by Mr.
Perzynskiego in an.issue of-t"Filateiysta" of Wartaw. The small numbers of the
forgery reported so far does not allow confirmation or denial of the point.

This particular forgery cannot, of.course, be-considered as .a postal for-
gery as it was not produced to defraud, the post. It is,.however, a scarce and
desirable item for.:any specialised collection of PolandN6d 1. Clearly this
is one- of those cases where the valub of the forgery is greater than that of
S the genuine stamp. The copy in the possession of Mr. Piotrzynsdi (Fig. 4)
; shows a plate variety and other known copies showdifferent shades of red.

SAn article" in No. 15 of Przegladu Filatelistyczego by T. Gryzewski an-
nounced that three copies of the above mentioned forgery were known, one of
which was in possession of lrr. V. Rachmanow, a further one being owned by
Professor Mikstein (Fig. 1), the whereabouts of the third being unknown,
"possibly the .PitPaynki copy (Fig. 4).

No. 63 Page







Following the recent war a fresh check real e-thoa one .6opy remained in
Poland, that. another was in a. collection in, Lodon and., further example was
reported from Austra'4 but this we have Iit seen., y .own.ollecti6n now has
two copie s. It is possible-:that there '; further *op eas.in Ameriian collect-
ions and it would. helpoonsidditbly.if their, pwnere would:acl6se tHe fact.
Such information::is of- the. greatest' vite to those engaged in research. It is
an unfortunate fact that the copy of Mr. Rachmanow was lost during the war.

Slr ...iotrzyfp i -has stated that mint copies eiist but according to my
finding almost all..are usdd.. Of those known to me, or about which there is
"published'. ipformation one" only 'shows the' phXlatelic purpose of the product-
ion, by virtue of the.-Efact that it' is on piece.

.The articaby-Mr.. :Pie-trzyng i appearedd in "Filatelysta" slt October
* 1960, ard was entitled "Falszerstwa Znaczka Polska No. I". According to the
author the forgery was first noted in 1935 .and. was produced;in France. Un-
fortunately no evidence, is provided' to st po 'his-dat ;
S The. paper of the. forgeTry is, thin and bhrizontaally lai, ::almost transparent
inbA'acbt (ae Fig,. 2)n. en an'article include d in one,.of the. numbers of Ikaros,
1935, Profesr pr .katein confirms the supposition that the forger had based his
'production "on the Russian stamps of 1866/71 and.therefpre ; ed laid paper. In
accordance with this theory it is, theref6rS a p sibility that-:the forgery may
be found 'o both horizontally and e- saridcat y laid paper., if. h.marginal pape.
of the 1866/71 issue.. ws used. : S5 far we have heard of no -cdpy.on vertically
laid paper.

The question of. laid paper tand watemiarks, ip coppection. with Poland No.
1 still, gives rise to discussion as'it' seems that. some of the .original paper
supplied f6r the.. priting of-the genuine stamps by the,paper factory of Jezior-
na contained some strips -with wateimark letters... These,-:-unfortunately, we
habe never. seen,. ..

It is, therefore, -notyet an e6abl pId fact. that no ;laid paper''was used
in the production .of Poland No. 1 but' tis brings .u-tp. an important point
about the application of gum. to this'i An appearance of laid paper could
have been brought about by chemical action following gumming. The gumming was
carried out by a brush moved vertjially'6n the sheet with consequental' streak-
iness which showed through to the frnb" f the' stamp -.* -

0According to Mr. Piotryrnd-i there,' are about seventeen linas on the paper
of the forgery. On genuine copies affected 'by gum there are between eight and
Eleven irregular lines. -The perforati'on of' the forgery is irregular and looks
,as if it has been prepared by hand. In this connection e, Pir'.try:n'tLi car-
ried out some special measurements (d'ee above mentioned article).

In addition to the above there are alsodifferences between the.genuine
red die .and the forgery, particularly ini the crown'..ahd the ornaments. :.Certain
other obvious differences can be seen by comparing the illustrations above.

According to my researches no copy of this forgery is to be found in the
collections of forgeries kept in London for expertisation purposes by the
Royal Philatelic Society, London, the British Philatelic Association or the

Page 6 ioi, 63







POLt. N D .W*-l- FORGERI FS PKES ATN FRUODS. M.BOYANQWICJ S.CAP.I,




algr



















Fig. 1.











4.. D
kg ;












Fig. 4. V ITy










.. .M PKR "


UN LISTED DISCOVERIES-3.c01U]OB.






Junior Philatelic Society. It is amusing ales frot th vast collection of
forgeries kept by the well-known Auctioneers of Laodon, Robson Lowe Ltd.,
Sadid H. R. Hari. .

In May 1947, the well kcnown Qolector of -Poland No.-1, 1r- Derek Palmer
-of Chile., public hed in the Pelonis BiBlletin, naotp.t together wit two phot-
g aphs 'j whathie considered to be a forgery with genuine stamp fpr comparison,
listing the differences below. It is my opinion that both stamps are gemnine,
one showing only some small varieties.,. ...

A quite different, type of forgery is that produced to defraud the post.
he"e usually -nsist ,of a genuine stamp;. already used once, in which the
Spostmark has been painted over ini part, or completely. In amy own collection
"I have a copy t'f Poland No. 1 in a Very 'dark" shade. This stamp -showed up in
a most unusual manner when placed with other shades. *The stamp puzzled me for
a number of years until one day, when preparing, matsrial.for the Warsaw Ex-
"' hibition,I i -subjected it ;fa ry through $cirti.ny.an dirioveed that it
Shad been hand painted? U ilhien again Used postally in Warsaw.. Other examples
"I have seen have only one of the colors repainted before,being used a second
S time '

SA, further case of forgery to dfraud. the .'stis described--4 Section 10
of the monograph bf Domanski and Rich; c printed in'The Stamp Specialist" under
the sub title "Reproductions nd Count rfe.its... This forgery takes the form

'i uly .20 1862 Fig. 5) i As the. ; lf attfoni shows -the frau w- e discovered
by -j posta entyle, but there is no indication that any steps were taken
along the lines of prosecution. This cover fored,4part,,o- tae Faberge collec-
. tion and when -sold -in Londoni p-assed into -tVhe-collectpn n of M.l Rich. Subse-
Stquenit ownership pireseits sdtmbhing ;of a mystAryp .a'S b cg coyr. was-not listed
V among- the sale items offered by the etcury $tampi. rganisation, following the
death of MW. .Rich,'hen the collection wes pu up.-r.. auction. It would be
Sof interest to kiowi ihto whosh possession it ,.psasp&.nd toi. the reason
also why it was not sold' vith.te ohe i .tO..it .. .-

Besides the& andpainted stamps used to defraud the yt; thqre- are quite a
number of examples existing of used stamps which have been used a second time
for franking purposes. Examples8oan be found on RuEsiaq stamps used in Poland
as :well as on the first Polish issue. .Frontier. post officea.lead the field in
this type of fraudulent use, particlarly 4ibarty. and. Graniea,. -There was, ob-
S viously, ess'chance' of detection on .lettrs which were sent abroad.

It has been often stated in the philatelic press that this double ue was
Sfor patriotic reasons in order to damage the income to the Russian Goverrnent,
We are rather doubtful about this point and think it more likely that post.
employees indulged in a little sharp practice for private gain. The value of
money was rather high at that time and the acquisition or saving of 10 kop.
would be quite a temptation. It is our experienoe that covers bearing copies
of Poland No. 1 which have been used twice in the same town are the more dif-
fioult to find, e.g. LublUn (T5), In such caeee the dang r po towing ?wnd out
would be considerable.
No. 63 Page 7






Besides repainting a part of the design in an effort to obscure the ori-
ginal postmark, the postmark in other cases was often applied twice in such a
way as to cover the previous cancellation. Alternatively a good deal of ink
"was sometimes put on the chancellor in order to obscure the previous mark and
then sand applied applied to dry it. I have a good example of this practice,
cancelled Wier'bo3ow(25) which goes some way, we suggest, toward confirming
our suggestion of personal gain on the part of the postal employee. The
fraud was probably facilitated by letters being left at the Post Office with
the necessary money for payment, the stamp often being applied by the postal
employee. Again letters together with payment were possibly given direct to
postal carriages going abroad.
This practice of using the same stamp twice must not be confused with
double cancellations applied on certain railway routes, e.g. (D.T. on Warsaw -
Terespol line, applied on top of a previous town cancellation). Further we
must not confuse such fraudulent methods with the pen cancellings of the
1858/9 period whe, in accordance with Russian Regulations, pen cancelled
stamps were later recancelled with the- normal numbered cancellation or town
mark. : :

We have .seen also stm pslfrom which the'pen cancellation has been re-
moved and the--stamp used again inforder to defraud.the pest. Here again
this type .of fraud wast not be confusedd with pen cancelled copies, the can-
Sdellation of which 'has been removed by the faker in order .to sell the stamp,
philatelically, as unumed. This is a form' of faking often perpetrated with
Russia .No. 1. ,

A form of sharp practice 'sometimes used to defraud the post consisted of
sticking together parts of stamps left uncanceled in order to make up an
apparently unused stamp. I have an example used at Pilica (171) put together
from two parts. On Kalicz' (191) and other towns we have seen several frauds
of which a typical example consists .of a piece bearing a 3 kop. Russian stamp
affixed in such a way as to cover the used part of a 5 kop. stamp, giving the
impression of two unused copies, making a total of,.8 kop.
Figure 6 illustrates a cover sent to Vienna where on the frontier an un-
cancelled 10 kop. was removed and another, previously used, sustituted. The
substitute was then cancelled with the 175 numeral chancellor (Granica).

We have also seen examples of cancellations removed by chemical means, or
by scraping clean. The intentions here, of course, was to defraud the post.
The same methods were to be employed later in order to defraud collectors.
Examples seen have included the covering of parts of stamps which have become
damaged, the removal of a cancellation and the application of other forged
ones using scarcer numbers and other such trickery. These methods are used,
of course, by unscrupulous people hoping to defraud collectors. In common
with many other collectors we consider it better to preserve a damaged stamp
than a repaired one.
In conclusion we shall deal with further frauds and tricks perpetrated
to defraud the collector. Within recent years there has been a great increase
in the study of Poland No. I and the various Russian issues used in Poland
during this period. This has brought a corresponding increase in the number

Page 8 63
How s!







of forgeries prepared for the collector. As a member for many years of a
. gr.qqp of international. philate.llst engaged ,on .the expertisation of Poland No.
I and Russian stamps used 'i Poland, I must say that the majority of these
forgeries are easily detectable, provided one has the necessary material for
coBmparison. .. .. ..,
*. ..In many serioj g collections and at auctions we. have.found items, consider-
ed 1o be getine, which ave- been common forgeries and which reveal a lack of
fundamental -knowledga op the. part of the forger. The following represent some
t .typicdl examples, of scih. forgeries zseei and which 'have been prepared .with the
object of defrauding the collector.

P a e. r Thinned a partly damagqd stamps rabacked and showing a. thickness
beyond/ the normal, ,

G um Unused stamps regummed in a manner differing from the normal,
showing smooth appearancee which cracks .i time In the case of
Pooland ;No,. 1 the. original grey-browiish sihAe of gum ,was appliecd
: .. .; by iab'in veical t s.rokes., .Forgeries usually have too much gum
ain i .the wro i iade... A, rather mistake on the part of the
Ser Asg been to aliow tha. gtm tbo PhdV: thiOa the.periation
"'". .- ;. ^, p. : :. ; + +
C o vse s .'I-.order 6 obtain a better: pi', satana hav, been added to
pre-adheslve covers, the missing part of thb cancellation being
painted in. Quite oftten.iA these caes the number of the cancel-
"'lion 0oes n brre nwit th town mahk. of the cover,,. This
"s"t inevitably aouse spicon. "
""an c e 11 t s u ye saieikbna' ha i bein altered in such a
""a : d. ..thata a88at;ivy .oc rmb has been altered to a
"scarce 'one. There TI some diffiluty here for the forger as. he is
rarely aware of the fact that certain groups of numbers are hno'
u. uniform This has led to forgeries being, prepared in large fir-;-o.
S... 'hii .do dt in. ffct. itt geinwtnely in such form.' "From the
"group 7i /79, for example, number 4 /(Lublin) ii. small figure i
known, altered t o 78, a much scarcer number. The original 78Y h.---
eve.r .exLsty.only ..n arge .fi-g. This, of course, makes th'
detection of the forgery a 'simple matter.

A similar forgery .exdsets -n the Ooup.280/300, ..-group which contains
many rare cancellations. Numbers '281= e s283 a small -in size, but 297 is
known both large and small'. A sound'knhwledge of these facts makes the de-
; section .of forgeries a.good deal. agier and it.takeq inexpertt trith-plenty c
material at his disposal to see all sides of the..problem.,
Only. recently I discovered what seemed -at first glance to be a copy o'
the rare cancellation No. 133 (Wolbrom). Close inspection soon revealed thet
the shape of the figure 3 was not normal and, in fact, the postmark'waS a
fake, having been-altered. from the more common 155. .

S Colored cancellations in red and blue are often forged. In particular
the red color is not easy to imitate as the originals have been: oxydised by

No. 63 Page 9








age and chemically influenced by the oil used in the ink. They areltherefore,
not easily imitated.. .

In spite of the above it must be assumed that postmanrks with figures of
different sizes are necessarJily' forgeries. Some cancellations were changed
during their period of use owing to the loss of, or damage to, the original
chancellor We know for sure that some cancellors were in use with both small
and large letters (e.g. Lublin 73, Miechow 131, Ziotoryja 297, etc., etc.).
We have also seen one cancellation which, owing to damage, has lost one ring,
being'left with three (179 Piotrkow).

The application of the"stop" in some figures is of importance. Thus the
cancellation "6" must have a stop, but number "9" has no stop. The same
applies in the case of "66' with stop and "99" without stop.

In conclusion mention should be made here of the reproductions contained
in the monograph of Polansk, dealing with Poland No. 1, the. most complete
treatise to date. Plate f1 of this book shows a beaditiful block of eight and
an imperforate single. Thi reconstructionn" :which ha's been often mentioned
as the largest block.known of Poland. No.-1:is no "a reproduction of an exist-
ing block at all, but is, i fact, a reproducti6h of eight single stamps made
into a .block of eight. Th@ largest k wahlock is one of six -stamps (ex
Tysodwicz collection),' now 'in the collection of Dr. Kozakie';iz.

On the same plate IX is printed. an imperforate reproduction showing a
double frame variety a fact',apparently ndt abticfg by the author.

"^: Owingg to the limited number, of copiesprintted (500). these two items are
rarities in their own right. It will be seen in the imperforate example that,
the red underprint extends into the area of the cloak, which is white in.the.;
reconstructed block. "

This .magnificent plate is .ihluded in all editions of the mopograph,
French, German and Polish, the .Gepran issue being producdi'.collaboration
with Rachmanow.
Editorial Comments See top of Page 18.
oooooooooooooooooooooopoooooooo oooob6 o.' b

UNLISTED DISCOVERIES' IN MY .COLLECTION '
by J. F. Chudoba : :

In making a comprehensive study.recently;, of the stamps ain', y .collection,
the following unlisted varieties have been found. Although some of these
stamps had been issued anywhere'from 39 to 97 years ago; a search through the
popular and.specialized catalogues fail to show any- listings of these varie-
ties.
1. Issue of June 1865: 10 kopeks, Red Brown and Light Blue. After
looking over numerous copies of this stamp in both unused and used
condition; one was found to have a definite period after the letter
"T" in the bottom inscription "10 KOP:Za lot". The size and color of

Page 10 I-o. 6







the period, are identical with the last period after the Russian letter
.tOradi anak.- in the ipscription.: Scott 's0#15' Minks .i#14 Michel #15;
o Gibifns 15 -
2. :'ssue of May .1889:. 20 Kopek, Blue :andCarmiitne Ceiter'D Wign (Imperial
Eagle and Post' Horns with Thunderbolts), completely omitted. Diagonal
bottom half of numeral "20" only Carmine inscription on entire stamp. Ob-
viously the center had been. omittedadu to paper fold-In priting. This
is a nint copy.otta #,43; -Minkas #4pk Mictel'53x; Gibbons #58.

3.. Issue of. May 1889 -50 Kopeck. Violet and Green. Line of' color after first
Letter "A" of the word !"MAIA".. After looking over se eral. hundred mint
and used copies of thie- stamp; both in my coalt action, and the. collections
Sof other iembers-of "Rossica" Society, : haVe found.two mint copies of this
'stamp variety... .There is a istinht:linse inhthe ame color. (violet) of the
:frame design. The length of the line is-lim. long, aid 'varies in width
from 1/8 to 1/4mm. and can be easily spotted even without a magnifying
glass ,co.t's #4I Mindusg 51p; Mlchel' #4xq Gibbons #60.

4. Issue 'of 190.;: I Rouble. Light irown Chocolate arid range Block of four,
Imperf. betwegy _borzonbally; and imperf'at bottom 'Thiss is.a lower right
sheet mnar n block with Pl-ate #6; which is perforated at the top, and with
vertical perforations, but has no other horizontal perforations, thus making
two pairs, mperf between; and two-:staps iipeft: the bottom. Scott's
#68 var; M4nkus: #53 3v- ira; :Michel #55y Vat; Gibbons #76e var.

5. Issue of May 1923: 10 Rouble, Gray. Double Impression. Although Minkus
mentions of. the..5 Rouble ad -20 Rouble values off-this .stamp with double
Simprssion, no menfiti-is. made,of other valuess in this variety. Cercle
Philatelique "Cataogue Special de:.'imbrefl 'Poste dW Russie* mentions all
of the regularly issued stamps of this series as having been printed with
double ipreJions. ..Scott' s o s ilyl the t Rouble 'and 20 Rouble
values .ith" cl4uble impressions e SCdttt!. #241var; "nkus #261. var;
Michel 218$:.arT Gibbons #323- var..,' :. .
...oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
00000000000000000000000000000000

STA LPS a. RECEIPTS. OFF 4DBESNY SB,R IN ST. ETSRSOURG
... byE : careovitch
Stamps of, te St. ?etersbourg Adresny Sbor were known for a long time t-
the collectors of Russian revenue stamps, but very few knew how they were us: -
who had to pay for..them and for what purpose they wer. used. .. .

-: "* ':The receipts or'kvitantsii of the St. P. Adresy Sbor wee 'fa less
known and a very few collectors had an opportunity to see them.

cause of the .research made by our esteemed collecta:r-iniber: of Rcs:: ,
0. A. Fabeige, e. are able to- shed light :on this little known field of Russil:;-
'fiscal stamps and at the same time give them a new catalogue listing.

In the capitals and certain large cities of pre-revolutionary Russia

No. 63 Page 1








existed an institution of so called Address Tables or Adresny Stolov, where
anyone could obtain the address of any one person, either living permanently
or temporarily in that particular town.
At that time such establishments were possible as each inhabitant, male
or female was obligated to sign up at the police station in the district where
the inhabitant lived. In case of departure one had to state kt .the pQlice
.9,atecn .s. na s tts .I iniediaey:at. a et police. :atid;;. .'.. .
Thus the police knew at all times the movements of each inhabitant and
his ad dess, whet e .-it.wag permanent or te y.. .-
To. ease the ;4nd ..gte of he., d:t; address s, .he-Ministry bf-Intrnal
"1A4airs org-anioed Address Tables. or lAdresnie, Stbli,' here each totwnsman or
a,:isitor was regioteredt.on a- special list.. Ths -.fit- was v yir ar to find
the address of' a person, if one merely heard that he was in a certain town.
On merely.,had, to a inquire *at' tp a.d k tpol l.: ']nes .ad a and th
..ad.res was given rpmpy
T covr :he'e es sof. operating of heLSt : tertabug dbSs Table
a. so',ial -faq way intituted., Tkbi fee wa's collbcted from %he: 'per sos who
caT la. to the. capitall or,. a pertain period of time .r The receipt for the af ore-
tpp enti d ee wre^ in form :of special stamps, *which ,were afi to the pass-
porte of the .arriving people at,,the time:;,f registering.' "' -;,i
S.Thie fee-. was-not the same for' was pe 6nsh arriving. It as ndternined
from a tabl.qbased o ohe folloing.:.factors ,listed beldw' -i: :

I .- The -pe-riod of e.pected stay of the visitor in' the capital :
U., The, sex- of the personvs-male. or femle. .
III. His or her profession.

o of'.hise pui^ e tii $t.^ ^tear fg.^T wn Governin nt issued Seirie s
of stamps, dffering di tinctly foiier ech other; Twoe series -erei:6 persons
coming '-o St : .tersbeorg -fo a period of rio 7tibre, thal x months. 'To other
series. were for those.;who intended ot stay :for-a period fom 6 to '2 months.

T A I' *. :.s-E R r(S 2: th
1. For men for a period of up to 6 months
2. For women -a :xat!period of up t S'six months
3. For men for a period from 6 to 12 months
4. For women for a period from 6 to 12 months

Fowas i ep nseri 5 stamps of various denominations
was ssued, and the use of ch of 5 values depended on ones professional
eategoryc l or 'azri-iarl d e

ere wereix ctegories om.. r aszitd, fiLrst .ve obf which included.,
various professions, while the Sixih one was for paupers or those out of work.
The. personAcld d sixth Oa or 'w.otcharget a es and there eor

Page 12 ..
'No. 63






.TAMP5 AND RECEIPTS OF JRDRESNY -\/ So INt ST.PETERSSBOURf-
S. M WIR COVLITC-t



0 ..i. 4,








TYPF E TYPEIL q

1. Y. Io up. C. I.

S W"erp H aro oTor, enix
14 -A M9

uojyqr p. ) I "U


-.wU1, no poA 8anriT ...." o

no eporw. V
i O COW ,,m 7, ,..,, .



_____ -- 'r IfAt9ED Et4VEAOPVE It9.PJISSuiA
CJ' 1. Ir +'


T 262..
-Ir


"goL, I papaly p. M.
ullJHIl .Ai'J lllB _

ueimmq li'OIv

H I /19i r.


P+clnroprt,, Il. .







no. stamps issued for the 6th category. *Hqwewzer -as. soon As the persons listed
in the 6th category .ent to work, -they were tratiserr.d to the. proper category
and had to pay the fee of that category.

Biasedc n..the. documents which we sawv we vere able to establish several
professions of -vrioius razriads, which we list below.,

Razriad 1. Merchant, cashier, foreman, mechanic, clerk and bbkkeeper.
2. Office worker and machlinist.
3. Seamstress, paperhanger, governess, cabinet-malcse and widows.
S 4- Cook and janitor.
5. Laborers.

Along with the stamps which were affixed to the passports of the persons
arriving in capital, several special receipts or kvitantsias were used on
which were printed the same details as those appearing on stamps namely -
the ntber of the category of the profession and the amount of fee to be
collected. Such receipts were prepared in no less than two types, but most
likely in four.

On some receipts the data was not printed and had to be entered by hand
in the proper column. Besides the number of the category, and the amount of
the fee, all of the receipts had the following information entered by hand:

date family and profession of the visitor
name the period of stay for which the feb was paid
title

The aforementioned receipts were issued.free of charge as is attested by
the inscription on each one of the receipts. The final disposition of the
receipts mentioned and their purpose is not known, but we deduce that they
were pasted into House Books in which were recorded the information about the
people living in the respective house, likewise in police lists and other
documents..

There were also receipts; of another type, lamely those "ised to indicate
a transfer from one category into another. They also indicated the additional
fee to be charged..

On nearly all of the receipts or kvitantsias the names'of sections of
town and the number of the police district were printed. A partial list of
the aforementioned information is included at the end of the catalogue of
stamps and receipts.

Special lists were maintained for the foreigners, independently, by the
foreign branch of the St. Petersbourg Town Uprava or Board.- The receipts used
did not have any indication of the names of the parts of the town, nor the
number of the police district, but had a printed inscription, reading "Ino-
strannoe Otdeleniae" or "Foreign Branchf".

Thus: each staiap had a corresponding receipt with the same data. In view
of the fact that th,e receipts were not handed to registrarns, but remained
in the archives, the majority of collectors did not see them .nor knew of their

o. 63 Page 13
".' o. 63







of their existence. ThusAthe '"aorementioned receipts are: very rare. There-
fore, any information about them, in our opinion, should7-interest all of the
collectors of Russian revenue stamps. : .

Below, we are listir g ta1 'of the S temps and Iacei-pts, vhiQh will be in-
cluded in the forthcoming cataloguS of:,thE iRuussian fiscal- stamps,, now. n,.
preparation., .: .


1889. Printed on white paper. Colored print 'on -brownish yellow, background.
The numeral of the category and the value in black. Numerals"4" in
"4 RaF3iad 4". and the numeral in the value appear in two types.

"A Tp "4" closed on top. e 2- Open on top (see iillustration)
SI. Stapps.-of the Adresy' Sbori s ied 'or' duration-of stay-in St..Peters-
bourg lasting not longer than 6 months. Vertical'7 rctangle, 23x46mi;.-
Perforation 13.
A. :-.o r n,

1. 43 kop. 'Catgory $ (Type I) 'brown
la. .. Category 5 (Type II)brown
2. 72.kopp., Categoty4 (Te I) green (Seeb the illustration)
2a. Category 4 (Type II)green
3. lr.43kop. Category 3 Type I) orange
:a. Category ,3 (Type II)orange
S.4.,.2r5kop Category 2 ble :
3r op. atgoy' carmine,
1 B.F r VW; O 'i..

6. 15 kop. Category 5 brown
7. .36 k/p..Categor 4 (Type I ) green (See the Illustration)
'*:* 'Sa.. Category 'ypeII)-' green 2 ..:
8. 7 s kop, Category' "' 'rage
9, 2r. 8 kop. Category 2 blue
S. ,- 0. 2r. 15)kop. pCatego.ry, carmine

II. Stamps of the Adresny Sbor issued for a duration of stay in St.
Petersburg lasting from 6 to 12 months. Size and perforations as.$n I.
Changed design, .
S A.- F 6r Men

.I.., 86, kop. category 'rown
12. Ir. 43 kop. Category 4; (Type I ) green
12a. Category 4 (Typ, ITI) geen :
1" : 3., 2r. 86.. kp,.p Caegory 3 orange
S.4- .-29,.kp..Casgory 2 (Type I ) blue (See the illustration)
SC &14a "6'gory 2 (Type II)" blue-
15. 7r. 15 kop. Category -. carmine .

Page 14 No. 63







B, F or Women
16. 29 kop,. Category 5 .. brown. .
17. 72 kop. Category (Type I) greeen
17a.. Ca4tegooy 4 iType ZI) ee.n
18. Ir. 43 kop. Catgory -3"(Typ I),.orange...
18a. Category 3 (Typed 'I) orange
19. ,2r. 15 kop, Category 2 blua
'20: r. 29kop. Category 1 (Tye ) tami e...
20a. Category 1 (Type II) carminee
1906 Temporary Issue. Change of fee indicated b a rubber stamp overprint.

(V) Viblet overrint (B)-Black ovrpnt

"21. 2r. 75k.op. on 2r.: 86 kop. (on W13 :(V.
21a. ( .on 113 (B)
22. 3r. ;-4kop. on 29 kop. (on 16 (V)
23. Ir. 40 kop. on Ir. 43 kop. (on #3a (B)
1906 Final Issge, Final printing of stamps of type of 1889 in lowered
fee values. All numerals "4' are of Type' II. Size of rectangle and
perforation gauge same as on previous issues.

24. 38 kop. Category 4 green (design of stamps #1-10)
25. 60 kop. Category 4 green (design of stamps 11-20)
26...lr. 40 kop. Category 3 orange (design of stamps 1-10):
27. 2r. 75 kop. Category 3 orange (design.of stamps ll-20)
Stamps #26 and #27 exist with forged overprints, handwritten
with a blue pencil.

1906. Temporary Issue.. Further lowering of.the fees. New, lowered fee is
made by rubber handstamp overprint in violet.
28. Ir. 25 kop. on lr. 40.kop. (on #26)
29. 2r. 50 kop. on 2r.'75 kop. (on #27)
1907. Additional Value of stamps of Type of #1-10. The Vilue listed below
is catalogued in.Forbin.(not known to us). ,

30. Ir. 20 kcp. orange
1908. New Design. .The stamps of new design, without the numeral denoting
category. Size of rectangle and perforation gauge same as on previous
issues. .-. .. -

31. 1 kop. blue and red
32. 3 kop. violet and blue
33. 5 kop. red and green
.34. 15 kop. green and red (see the illustration)
35. 25 kop. blue and red
S36. 50 kop. violet and blue
.37. 1 rub. red and green
38. 2 rub. green and red

No.63 Page 15







RECEIPTS OR K y TANTSIAS

1889. Typographed4n black on paper of various colors. .Each receipt is
numbered. There aree fo, (o4) types, placed vertically se-tenant.
Format measures from 68;to 89mm, and depends on placement of
perforations and horizontal cuts. -
L. Receipts of Adresny Sbor for a duration of stay in St. Petersburg, not
exceeding 6 months. -

A.F or e n.

1. 43 kop. Category 5,black on green paper
2. 7:kop,: -:ategory. -41,black on--j(color nodt known) paper
3. Ir. 43 kop. Category 3,black on (color not known) paper
4. 2r., 15 kop.. ,Gate gory 2,,black on (colbr. not kiiown) paper
5. 3r. 58 kop. Category 1,black on blue gray paper.

B Fo r W me. .

S .., 6 -. ,5 Ikpp Category 5,- black. on''gr6en paper.
S. 7 .. 36 kop. -Opat'egory 4: black, :.o(c.blor not .known) paper
8. 72 kop:. -at.gpry 3, blackk on: gray paper
9. Ir. 8 kop. Category 2, black on (color not known) paper
.. 2r,. 1.5kop. Cat$egory -l black on, blu ish gray paper

ii'RRcebSe f ,Adxs, Sb6rfor aof A64nta ,ofastay in':St,.'Petersburg, from

;. .- A F o r J .. e n ? ; .: -' ; : .t ': .

1. 86 kop. Category 5, black on violet paper
S.... .. 12 Ir. 43i k.op. Category 4,-black en' brownisK,, yellow paper
13. 2r,. 8 lop.: Categor 3,: black -on''bdwnlishgray paper
14. 4r. 29 kop. Category 2, black on pale rose paper
15. 7r. 15 1op: C 4tegory l, .back on-ky :'blue' papr

B. F or W o'me n.

16. 29 kop, .ategory 5, black 'on Iiolet paper
17. 72 kop. Category 4, black on brownish yellow paper
18. Ir. 43 kop. Category 3, black brownish gray.paper
19. 2r. 15 kop. Category 2, black on pale rose paper
-..:..::;.:.:- Q..a ^. i- p ..Cqtegory. l black .on asky. blue: p pf....:. :
Receipts for transfer from one category into another, for men and women.
Category and fee of collection are handwritten.

21. ) ck k rose violet paper
1890. R No. .21e. 9ed fNo21 cqrieevidn in accordance with
the etablishd rates and for additioja( fee on:transfer from one
category to another. Sameaas No. 21, but with overprint "1890" on
"t88g9'. clack ovarprlnt1 is handbsVpo.' .Tbero are two types of

Page 16 No. 63
;r !,' 7








overprint varying in size.

Tye I 10.5 x 4.5mm. Type II 9 x 4am.
22* -22 )- black, 'dark xose violet paper. (Type 1) -
22a.() (Type II)-
1891. :'Saemlas 'No. 21 but with the year date indicated as 189.....g
instead of 1889. Oolor of the paper changed. abb
Note g" is abbrevia-
23. (-) black, brownish paper. tion of "god", which E.uf aiis -for
-.. ....... year" .
1900. Same as No. 23, except the year date is indicated as 190...g. Same
paper.

24. (-) black, brownish gray paper.

1900. Receipts for the auditing branch.
"Receipts are- of altered type and are numbered. Large format
" ... -varying from 100 to 106mm. by 99Jto 100amm. Category and the fee are
entered by hand. Perforated 11- on right side.

25. (-) black, white paper.

On all of the receipts with the exception of No. 25, above the word
Kvitantsia" are: rihted h snaii of thefsections of St. Petersburg, and
the numbers of Police Districts. On the receipts for foreigners there
is an overprint .eaidig' "Innostranhoe Otdeleiiel' or "Foreign Branch".
S: Belo'wis a- ist of sectiosa and &n nbers of Police districts of
St. Petersburg on receipts, which may exist. The districts which we
saw are underlined. *

Admiralty Section I* 2* district
Aleksander Nevsky Section 1* 2* 3* 4 district
Vasilevskaya Section 1* 2* Suvorov' Harbor district
Viborg*Sectin ..............* -k* (khtensky district *
Kazan Section 1* 2* 2* district
Kolomenskaya Section : 1 2* district
Liteynaya Section 2* 3* A* district
2. *Moscodiw ci : 6ci- 2* 3* district
Narva Section-:- 1"I* 2* 3* 4* district
Petersburg Section : district
Rozhdeptvenskaya Section t* 2* 3* district
". Spasky S ec ..lo "; 1* 2* 3* 4* district
Fr' Feign Bradch ';. The'ine of the: sections of St. Petersburg and
Sntiters of-e tHe 'Pdlite Districts- lay. bb -seen on the cancellations
of the stamps of the Adresny Sbor- patB d on the passports. The
cancellations known to us are indicated by an asterisk, following
the district. (All but M4" of Aleksander Nevsky and "Harbor"
districts of Vasilevskaya sections).

No. 63 ... Page 17
No. 63.











Editorial Comments- See Paragraph 3) Page 7 of this Journal.

Inasmuch as No. 1 stamp of Poland could not have been deposited into a
mail box in Minsk, a city of' Imperial Russia and' ndt dlandp .and since the
mail boxes were not u in use' at that time, we' consider the entire item to be
a fraud.



C ASH and EXCHANGE -

-For COVERS, POSTCARDS, EPTIRES, stamps, seals, revenues, -.vignettes,
-reply coupons, money orders, bank notes, just everything from the Baltic -
-AREA, especially L A T V I A. All time stampless -o recent. .

Andreu PETRE'VICS 67 Borden Avenue PER R Y, New York


000000000C000000C00000000 00000C000000CO0000000000000000000000000000000000
0 0
o U K R A I N E 0
o
o I have-at all times the World's largest'stock of Ukrainian stamps, u
o
b entire, covers money transfer cards, and other material.. ."Likewise, u
o 0
o I also want sa me: typ of material-and .lso'Ukrainian paper money, o

o officials and local issues. o
o 0
o John B U L A T 141 Elm Street. Y 0 N K E -R-:SZ New York o
ooooooooo00oooo0oooo000oo0000000000 oooooc0000oooooo0oo00booo006ooodoooo0oooo0ooco0000oc

----- ------------------------------------ --------------
0 0
o RUSSIA IMPERIAL SOVIET o
o o
o STAMPS Singles (miint and used) from #1 to #2400,: pk-rs, bJlocs o
o of ''All sies to 25 and numerous covers. ... o
o STATES BatUi', T'rnsoaucasi4 Republics, Far Eastern Republic,, o
o Siberi*ai and others. 0 :. .. o
o OCCUPATIONS Latvia, Lithuania, Finl4d, Crete, Mountain-Republic, stc.o
o FOFRIGN OFF. China, Turkey, etc. o
o SPECIALTIES Airs, including Consulars.-- Postal St:ationery (early)- o
o Covers, including stampless. Numerous duplicates. o
o Also Philatelic Literature. o
00
o Will sell, above 26 volumes outright if reasonable offer o
o is suggested. Telephone FU 9_3227. o
o
o Dr. Louis SCROKIN #2600 So. Franklin St. Philadelphia 48, Pa. o
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

Baee 18 No. 63
Ho. 63








"STAMPED ENVELOPES OF ITPEERIAL RUSSIA
"1st Period. 1848-1863
(Notes based on recent research)
Continued from Page 21, Fossica
by 0. A. Faberge
C COLORS OF E M B OS-S ING-

"The original colors of the embossings on all of the stamped envelopes
of the 1st period were:

10 kop. black 20 kop. blue .-30 kop. red -

Black Color

Embossings of the 10 kop. .stamped envelopes are found in numerous shades
varying fromr-light gray. to deqep coal-black, the latter being rare. 'Almost
all of the shades'are found to exist on all of the printings.

Blue 0'olor

The shades of blue found on envelopes of 20 kop. likewise vary consider-
ably. During the complete lst period there are stronger contrasts in shades
of blue than in the shades of the other-two colors. Here we find besides the
bright, pure blue colors, also others which lean.strongly towards green, ard
which in :855 printing are in most cases always blue-green. -The envelopes
with the embossing in the aforementioned shade, watermarked on its head,
belong to t :greatest rarities. Among the colors-of 20 kop:. are found not
only the very dark blue but also b(ick blue and the delicate; skyibolue.
y.. edeli qa a .- .

Th"e ultramarihe colr ib"'that of 1861 issue and the envelopes with
watermark on its head re likewise th. rarest of thei envelopes of Russian
Empire." :' -- . .. .

The: tLrjriF e col6 r is interesting for another ,easmon-. It':appeared
"first on etielope's' of Rnusian .post at .he end of. sixties, and it 's 'ebct!ly
ihe same a' the ultramidne used6n the stamped, envelopes :of: the. St eterburg
City Post of the same period. A'study of cancellations on envelopes found
in my collection reveal%- that. the ultramarine color begwn to be. used: on the
stamped eitvelope of the inpire., soon after its- usage -on thie. envelopes of the
St. Peterssrw .City Post was stopped in favor of prussian-blue..

The interesting question is,. was the remainder? of- the aforementioned
color used up 'for rentingg a s9mefahat small lot. of..20 kop. envelopes, after
the-pure blue color began to be used- for printing the embossings of the
envelopes of St. Petersburg. .'

According to the dates found on the envelopes in my collection, the
"- envelopes of Imperial Post with embossings in ultramarine were used.only
during the first four months of 1869, which is also the period of use of the
St. Petersburg envelopes of the same color which covers no less than four
years (1864-1868).

This theory is confirmed by a fact that the Imperial envelopes in ultra-
marine are comparatevly scarce, while the St. Petersburg envelopes are
scarcer in blue than in ultramarine.

No. 63 Page 19











To completely settle the question of the time of appearance of the ultra-
marine color on the stamped envelopes of sixties:a large number of cancelled
material is required. Therefore .I hope: that the readers who have aforemen-
tioned envelopes in their collections will record on the pages of this jcur-
nal the date of use of these envelopes, s6 that .my, theory may be confirmed
or replaced by another,
RED COLOR
The shades of 'red embossings on '30-kop envelopes 'are less numerous.
The shades change with printings, while the color of embossing of a particular
printing varies only in intensity of the color, while the shade .varies alight-
ly or not at all.
"The color of'the earlier riintings6 is either cAriminedor rose-carmine.
The only variation 'in the printing witthe wide-tailed eagle is in Ascher
#3b, which is brown-carmine. In later printings to 1861, it remains rose-
carmine. In 1861, for some reason, the embossing of 30 kop. envelopes.is
Sbrick-red, and is found in all, occasional somewhat brownish shades, begin-
ning with pale and-ending with rich and dark: bickjred.

Figures 12 !and 13 illustrate the original, engraved 'on copper, cliches,
which were used for printing the embossings onr20 and 30 kop, envelopes of
the issue with the 'wide-tailed eagle.

S H A PE 0 F K N I V E S (KLAPPENSCHNITT)
The Imperial stamped envelopes of the 1st period existed only in three
types of knives (shapes of envelope blanks), namely Type':III, IV and V.
Years ago, for some reason into cataloguing crept erroneous information,
which was used for a statement that the Imperial envelopes existed in nives
of Type I and II. The aforementioed error was repeated in later catalogues
thus undoubtedly confusing many collectors who tried t'o6 lasify these issues.
After 'seeing and examining a tremend'is rnumber'of envelopes of the
Imperial' and City Nt! I 'caine to the 'following conclussioi,:-that .Knir s of
Type I and II.weire used lti.ively fo 'the envelopes. of the St. Petersburg
and Moscow..City. Post 'Khife'" I was' thUde f _6r'St.;ter sburg': blue s"' andm oscow
"reds" fi e latter' in severail'variations.- Krdfi I is:'known to mee only in
connection with St. Petersburg City Post,
If one' of the elderss has in his collect-ioh ilimperial envelopes .ith
Knife I' or :II, I woudd' be very much intere sted. in-:seeing, it: or: at least an
accurate reproduction of the knife in the page bof or journall.

Figures'4 o': 19: illustrate 5 varieties of shapes .bf- eelope blanks or
knives, Of the- aforeinentio;ed three were. used for Imperial envelopes.
(Figs' 16 v10. Th aforementiornd illustrations are e3dt reproductions
of the envelopes in my collection- They are shown from the obvers side, i.e.
when the flaps of the envelopes are unglued and the enaelbopes is laid face
doing. That isi the reason why only the ,shap and location of the embos-
sing is shown on the llUstration..

Page 20 :: ... ..
.7iNo. 63











The following envelopes were used as samples, for illustrations:

Fig. 14- Knife I St. Petersburg City Post 1845 Ascher IIg 124W jl .ma.
Fig. 15 Knife II St. Petersburg tity Post 1848: Aseher- 4d 123.5x 91;Smm.
Fig. 16 Knife III lmpe ral Post' 1848 'Asche r 1 136 x107.8nm.
Fig. 17 Knife liIa Imperial- Post- '1865T Aseher' lOa 137 x107 mm.
Fig. 18 Knife IV St. Petersburg:City Post 1848 Ascher 4g 136 86 mm.
Imperial Post 1848 Ascher hc 136 x 86 mm.
Fig. 19 Knife V St. Petersburg City Post 1864' Ascher 5IId 134" x 84 mm.

Editors Note: To'prevent confusion in the. above table we would like to ot
state that Ascher Number may be fbiind in the aforesaid
catalogue on Pages 973 to 978, inclusive- Likewise, the
sizes are those of the author, while' the sizes correspond-
ing to Ascherrs numbers vary slightly, duo to the fact
that they are average sizes.

Figure 17a illustrates an ,open-envelope blank, with the address side up
(Ascher No. 7a of the Imperial Post). On the illustration one can clearly see
the inclined frame of the watermark Type II and also the typical rounding of
the corners on the side panels of the envelopes of Knife III and IIIa.

Main characteristics of the Knives of the envelopes.

SKnife I All edges de: straight'. All angles are sharp.
Knife II All edges sre-straight. All inside angles have rounded corners.
Knife III Top and bottom edges are straight. Hoorizontal edges of the side
portions of the envelope blank are convex, i.e. having an outward

". -" .There are two vari-tions- of Knife III

III Upper and lower portions of the envelope are without corners.
SII a Upper and lower portions of the envelope hav' small sharp
corners.

"- K fe' I-V All edges are straight.- -Sharp inner -angles'are found in the upper
and lower portions of the envelope only,
"Krife V All ho'cA6ntally inclined'edges 'are concave, i.e. having an inward
bend. Corners are found in the upper and lower portions of the
envelope only,

Knives f 6und oi-envelpes of varies sijs."

"-" To ease 'the classification and" to'pereivnt errors I have enumerated below
"in addition o :the'rImperial envelopes the envelopes of St. Petersburg and
Moscow City Posts, which are not discussed in.tkis article:' (TheiTumberz are
those of Ascher).

Knife I St. PetersbuirgCity P6st 1 (ali
Knife I Moscow City Post (all variations of Knife) 5, 6 (all)
SKnife II "St.'Petersburg City Poj t 4a-e, 5Ia, 5Ib and IIb
Knife III St. Petersburg City Post 4f-and 51c

No. 63 Page 21











Knife III Imperial Post 1-3 (all), 4a, 4b, 5 (all), 6, 7a, 8 (all),
9, lOa, 11, lla, 7F and 8F.
Knife IV St. Petersburg City P.4g
Knife IV Imperial Post 4a, 7b, 7d and 10b
Knife V St. Petersburg City P.51d and 5IId
Knife V Imperial Post 7c

Si z e s o f E n v e 1 op : '

The fact that the envelopes of the first period were folded by hand
makes it difficult to prepare an accurate table of; sizes. That is probably
the reason why Ascher Catalogue, and the table from the catalogue ,of the
Soviet Philatelic Association.which Prigarqaincludes in his wonderful hand-
book, are not reliable in' this undertaking.

Criticism of the'afore-mentioned works is not my problem, my problem is
to prepare an accurate table of sizes. Through a.study of quite a large
quantity of envelopes of these issues, I was able to establish many intern"''
ing facts, which I want to present to readers in the following paragraphs.

As, we know, the 'envelopes were folded by hand, and this fact alone made
it impossible to produce same size envelope's for: an order of specific size,
After careful measurement of; large quantity of envelopes I came to copiclus-
sion that the sizes listed in"Ascher are closer to the factual sizes than the
measurements given in thetable of the catalogue published by hie Soviet
Philatelic Association.
Certain gops- f envelopes were folded very carefully and their,sizes
are exact. -The sizes of others vary- Sa much either i: one direction r th-the
:other, that it would be futile .nd senseless for-me to. serioiouly discuss the
variations in size.

For example I may give ,the three sizes listed in S. P. A. catalogue,
namely: '
S. 120-22 x 79-8.0mm g. 118-23 x 74-7610vt,. 113-16 x 70 -73mm.

All of the afore-mentioned sizes are included in Prigarats handbook, whereas
"'Ascherhas only.-, one, namely: Sizee e l8-21 ,x 70-80mm.
'-The common characteristic of' all of the -aforementined enveibpe is the
fact: that most",of them are very corelegssy olded:, .As one can see from a
table which follows, the i1ngth and the: wdthof. -these, envelopes may be dif-
ferent on both sides, and the variation may-bea up to several millimeters.
On envelopes of small sizes such variation is very noticeable and at first
glance confirms the fac. at tha ho type '-f work us- d In..napodueing th;e
envelopes was careless. ,

I know of te following sizes of eivelopes, which:are impossible to
classify exactly if the data iin S. P. A.'catalo ue is. used,

115 x 73-,iim, 117 x 77-78mm. 120 x 78im,
116-18 x 73 m U. 119-20 x 77mm.
117-18 x 73- .ni. 120 x 77nn ,

Pa 22 ,' Page 63











The smallest and largest sizes of the aforementioned envelopes known to me
are-.

Horizontal 115-122.5mm. Vertical 73-79mm.

I think we can take the position, that it was not logical to issue three
different sizes of small 10 kop. envelopes officially. Especially, since all
afore-mentioned sizes were to be used by the same office. It is true that
these small size envelopes often did not coincide with the official sizes
which were announced to be issued, and this fact may ascribed to careless
production and insufficient control.

Based on the facts mentioned above we can combine sizes"ea'"e"and"a" of
the S. P. A. catalogue and with addition of minimum and maximum measurements,
we can arrive at Ascher's size "e" for Imperial envelopes of 11-23 z.70-80mm.

Using the same conclusions we can apply the same reasoning to the
larger sizes of envelopes listed in the S. P. A. catalogue under "a" and "c".
There is a considerable variation in sizes of the aforementioned envelopes,
and is found likewise with two different variations in measurements both in
horizontal and vertical direction.

The following sizes are known to me:

132-36 x 109mm. 136 x 110 mm. 138 x 108mm.
13438 x 110mm. ,137 Y 108-9mm. 139 x 112mm.
136 x 108mm. 137 x 130 mm. 140 x 107mm.

I think it would be rational to combine sizes "a" and "b" of the S. P.
A. catalogue and. to slightly alter Ascher's size "a" of the largest sizes.
The final result will be .s, follows:

.133-42 x 107-112mm. b. 141-45 x 113-16mm.

Due to the fact that the envelopes of the first period were folded by
hand, it is quite possible that collectors may find in their collections
examples of envelopes, varying more or less from the measurements given by me.
One must not consider the above mentioned variations as newly discovered
size :or unknown rarities. They are always can be fitted into one or another
group of realistically prepared table of sizes. Of-course the exception are
the sizes, which were prepared by some fancier of such "hr.ndywork".

My proposed table, based on Ascher's sizes, and including the results
of my own measurements, takes the following form.

Size a 133-142 x 107-112m. Size d 132-137 x 84-86mm.
Size b 14-145 x 113-118mm. Size e 112-123 x 70-80mm.
Size c 142-145 x 82- 86mm.

Fakes

At first glance it seems very strange that such rare envelopes were
not counterfeited. This probably can be explained by the fact that the
paper used for production of the envelopes had a watermark, which would have
given the counterfeiters considerable problems to reproduce.
No. 63 Page 23
No. 63











I have never seen counterfeits of entire envelopes, and I do not think
such exist. On the other hand, collecting of cut squares, which was popular
in the early days of collecting, opened a new field of activity for the
counterfeiters.

I know of a cut square counterfeit of a.30 kop. value, with z. narrow-
tailed eagle. Despite the somewhat darker shade, the reproduction of the
color was done quite well. On the other hand the letters:of the inscription
vary considerably from the original.' The most difficult tsk for the falsi-
ficator was the.reproduction of the engine,wgrk of the: background. Their
primitive engraving effort at a first glance appears counterfeit. The paper
is slightly yellowish, 0.08mm in thickness, and has no trace of a watermark.
to cc.p it.ail, the aforementioned phony is cancelled with Warsaw, numeral "1"
in concetric circles cancellation.

Conc lusion

Collecting and studying of these bld envelopes offers one.especially
interesting and gripping field of Russian': philately thanks to individual
pea4llarities of almost all envelopes; ';such as paper and its thickness,
color and the type of embossing, the position of the watermark, etc., etc.

Another reason why stamped- envelopes must find their.way, into a serious
collection of Russian Imperial Post is that because of numerous types of early
Russian postmarks which may be .found on .them in their entirety.


If this article will revive a new interest in readers to reexamine the
envelopes in their' collection and make another study,.of them,. 9and-likewise,
perhaps a sadman interest in .tbbers to collect these S.ita$ggiita. -L.
which they had no interest previously,,.then the object of my .efforts .has been
completed.
"--------------------.--- --'-'--- --- -'.--:- --------

SAt this time. I -like to give my .appreciation to -UMr. E, iarcoyitch for
hise untiring, efforts in.working out 'various -details fpr. the text. of :this
article.. :. Faberge.. ...

-------------- ------- -"---------------------------------------------------" -
"W t :. I Er

ST a ii n iu'T o' v a. Scatt Nos.-35 and 36E miqt ;:or cancelled

-- -arles Hugo Doyle Ladycliff College -

"* 'ighland Palls,. New York



S-------No. 63
No. 63







TAMPEDD EHVVELOPES OF IMPERIL RUSSIAF. 1 1V-IS6
O- A. fF48.f- RG Ef'





-.











.,-.










I-~
~I I. .




TIP






























TYPE

7











INTERESTING ENVELOPES OF ST PETERSBOURG TOWN PCST
by .. Faborgo

1. Colorless Brbcssing.

"Colloctors of'onvolopos of St. Potorsbourg-Town Post know that at ticos
such envelopes are found on which one nay soa not only the relief os stanp in
color, but also the colorless impression of sanes or so called albino.

These colorless eobossings are soon only when they are scnowhat shifted
and a portion of then shows up from under the regular colored impression.

One other observation can be made by those who carefully study such
envelopes: Relief embossing can be so strong that it may ponotrate the entire
envelope and mny be seen on the revorsqpide :(Fig. 1 and 2).

On other envelopes of sane issue embossing can be seen as being entirely
flat, and on the other side of such envelopes one can not distinguish hardly
:anything at all, except a f:.int outline of the outer franc of the enbossing.
(Fig. 3 .nd 4).

Double impression of the embossed stanpyof which one is colorless, are
seen occasionally, but they are not hnown tc me'either on the envelopes of
the first or last issue. They are most plent:iful on envelopes of second
"issue (i'schor #4) on which I have socn even several colorless embossings.

The question is, Why and how did:these additional colorless embossings
occur'.

Being interested in this question I collected all the data available to
me and attempted, using the aforonentioned.data to guess the answer to the
riddle.

First of all, before informing the readers of my thoughts and deductions
on this theme, i. is imperative to remember certain details in connection with
the preparation of the envelopes of the St Petersbourg Town Post.

S In the beginhinq the envelopes were acquired by the. town post from vario-
tis sources and ohoy did not differ in any way from the ordinary envelopes,
which at that 'tims were sold in ptap3r trade. Paper was without waterr'rk, and
because of this, the'cuts of flaps cojicidod with those of the envelopes of
the Imperial Post of that corresponding period in corresponding sizes.

The embossing was done by the clerks -of lower postal echelon, who received
S2 rubles 50 kopeks per thcusaad of finished envelopes, inasmuch as this work
did not fit into their dutie% or salaries.

As it was mentioned before, finished envelcpes known to us are:

T. One having an additional one or more colorless embossings, in add-
ition to on, in color.
2. One with very strong relief or embossing, penetrating through the
entire envelope.
3. With nearly flat impression, not penetrating the ppaper cf envelope.

No. 63 age 25












Considerable difference in the sharpnessof embossing may be explained
by the fact that in one case the envelopes received the embossing while lying
on something soft, while in the other instance, on smooth and hard' surface.

Having established this, ..w for.further deductions need to turn-our
attention to the abovementioned postal clerks of the towi post It is per-
fectly clear that they, becoming acquainted with. the new work began to figure
out how to simplify and ease their work. They would not be clerks if they
did not reason 'so'.

Postal clerks undoubtedly quickly deduced that if one took several
envelopes at one time, placed them in a pile. under cliche, and applied
embossing on envelopes one after another,-..removing from the pile each
embossed envelope, the work would be easier.:, than taking one envelope at a
time.

If we allow the course. of such. work -.and this is based on facts borne
out by the envelopes, it is then.easy to explain why we have such a variety
of relief in embossing.

The top. envelope lay on. a softpacket'.of envelopes and:.pon impressing
received a deep embossing. Second-i third. ard following.;envelopes lay on a.
pile whose softness decreased gradually. as more and more envelopes received:.
the embossing. The sharpness of the embossing decreasdd:Likewise as the pile.
of the envelopes decreased. The last envelope lay on the hard surface and not
on a pile of envelopes and thus ieceived:the flattest-relief f ef.embossing."

It is understood that the packet of envelopes during the operation moved
a little, thus we can explain the fact that- dol orlesS.embbssing, waich occuir-
rod on envelopes lying lower in.the pile,6 ws quite shifted. .:Shifts of up to
4mm. are known to me.

The number of envelopes *in the packets which 'wer placed wuder cliche,
most likely varied,. as they'were teaen without counting,.in the speed .of work.
It is known to me that the number was no less. than-five in each, packet. judging .-
by one envelope in my collection. On this envelope are five impressions of
the:. mbossing, 'one in color ancd four colorless ,,-The. colorless -impressionswer
received by'the envelope when the first four envelopes.in the packet received
their impressions. However, as the colored embossing is also the hardest.: .
impression of impression applied, we may deduce that under :.this envelope was
a considerable thickness of paper, i.e. several envelopes. From- is we
deduce that the packet in this instance contained no less than seven envelopes
and.perhaps more.. (Fig. 5). In Fig. 6 we see a-part of another' enveelop6.
which already received considerable compression in production of stamped-
envelopes above it in the packet. One, can-also see on it clearly and.
additional colorless imprint of embossing.

This theory, it seems to me, explains best of all, the appearance of
colorless em bossing on the. envelopes-of St. Petersburg. It also. gives us
cause to make further observations and deductions.

It is not nopoabible that sometimes, in the heat of work, not only one
envelope but two are accidentally removed- from..the packet lying under, the,


Page 26 No 63





iMlTER' STIN ENVtLOPF, Of TtfE STPETERSEBOUP TOWI POST
O.F. F!a ER G







ikF


F IG. f?1. FG.3. f IG.-A











EG. 6.




FIC,. 7.








cliche, after an embossing the second or lower envelope already had a color-
less imprint, which it had received during the preIration of the colored
embossing of the envelope on the top. Thus two envelopes, the upper with the '
colored and lover with the colorless embossing may get into the packet of
finished envelopes, and the mint "albino" may remain undiscovered.

According to the data available to me, such mint albinos are not known
and I have not seen them myself. However we mast allow( that such envelopes
did exist. If so, then they were discovered in one of the stores which sold
envelopes of the town post, and these were returned and destroyed.

It is possible that the appearance of colorless embossed envelopes gave
rise to complaints and this circumstance in connection with the much changing
color of embossing, led postal authorities to turn their attention to the
preparation of envelopes. The fact that the last issue was carefully executed,
that the color of embossing was same that the impressions wero always flat
and without any relief.on the reverse side, all this points to: the establish-
ment of some reforms.

Should we seek the reason for such reforms exclusively in fact that in
the previous years the color of embossing was changed so much or did the
appearance of colorless imprints also had its influence we shall never
fully clear up. In Fig. 7 we- see two imprints of embossed stamp.

a. The spread out inprint, dark gray lilac.on t.rc envelope of the next
to the last issue.
b. The cl.- prussian blue with a metallic tint on the envelope of the
last issae.

II. Rarest envelopes, with the embossing in the upper right hand corner

The envelopes of the St. Petersbourg Tcwnn Post with the embossed stamp
in the upper right hand corner are the greatest rarities in this field, and
possibly the 1-arest entire of Russia.

Only one (f h;I,?, namely the envelope of the first issue measuring
138xL08mm. as /.T :'i scher, is listed unpriced in catalogues. This unused
envelope is cotnlde-id to be unique, but I still knew of another one, used.

This enve3: u,5; u'i.ed miuch la+-r and has on th. reverse side a circular,
lilac-black caralla'l.crn of St. D.-::;-':." with the date "24 JUKE 186l". It
was sent from St. PeL*rsb urg f '>,ve". : t:d i* seemed to have had a 10 kop.
stamp on the other slde. Oni'y a ? 't L-, ij cuter ring of the cancellation
remained on the envelope, whi.-.j tih stamp disappeared.

The impression of the bL::>: embossed stamp was by error impressed in the
opposite corner inasmuch as v-a n7;lope was placed under the cliche in invert-
ed position. Its measureai: i-ers by 1mm. oily from the measurement of the
known unused envelope, manly lixlO.10 n.

These two envelopes are the only ones known to me of the first issue
Issued with'the embossed stamp in the upper right hand corner. The Knife of
"the two envelopes is of Type I, as on all envelopes of this issue, while the
embossing is clear and flat.

The envelopes of the second issue (beginning in 1848 with Ascher #4) are

No. 63 Page 27











listed in catalogues only with inverted embossing in the left hand lower
corner. Notwithstanding this I know of two envelopes of this issue in which
the imprint :6f the embossing, by-error, was made in the upper right hand
corner

1. One envelope, with Knife of Type II, measures 114x76mm. has light
blue imprint-of the embossing-in the upper right hand corner, The
envelope is used, and has on the reverse side a circular postmark in
black, which reads "Gorodsk. Pochta 1851 June 17 8 Oclock" (See Ill.
8). On Figure 9, for comparison, we illustrate an ordinary inverted
imprint of the embossing in the lower left hand corner. The latter
is. also used and has on the reverse side a rectangular cancellation in
black, reading "Gorodsk. Pocht. 1851 Feb. 15 2 O'clock". The envelope
measures 114x77Tmm.

2. The second envelope, prepared much later, probably in the end of 1850's
or in the beginning of 1360's, has a knife of Type III and measures
133xl04nm.

Besides .the blue. imprint in the upper right hand corner, we can dis-
tinguish a second barely visible colorless imprint, This unused, envelope is
illustrated on Figure 10, and -for, omparisscn on Figure 11 is shown 'an
ordinary envelope with the usual inverted imprint of the embossifig in the
lower left hand corner. This envelope measures 124x005mm. and has a very,
clear (relief) imprint of the blue embossing. The 'paper and color of.
embdosing of these two envelopes is the same.

The four (4) envelopes known to me, with the embossing in the UPPER
RIGHT HA1D CORTER, are :as follows:

1. Ascher l,I :138.:108mm.- (Listed in Scmidt & .Ascher)
2. Ascher 1,I 137'kl17mm. 3. Ascher 4,Ie ll4x76mm. 4. Ascher 4,If 133iO14mm.

It would be interesting to hear fsor the readers if other examples
of these:; rarest envelopes a.re known to exist,
': O ,' O :. ooooo0000OO000000000000000000000000O
ooooooooo000000000o oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooocoooooooooooooooooooo
0 .0.
o.' PHIIATELIC' LTTER.TiTUFE price list.32 pages 50c, deductible from first o
o purchase'. o
0 :0 .. ,
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S. o
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0-
o We cover all Fields of Philately. Catalogues are free on request, 0
o 1e buy collections and rarities for cash. o
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o Fritz Billig 168-39 Highland Avenue Jamaica 32, N. H. o

"e0 No,. 63

Page 28 No,. 63













THE RUSSIAN CONSULAR -POST II BULGARAl BEFORER TH- LIBERATIONT
D-y D. T. !.inchev

Trans_-ted from the Bulgarian magazine "Philatelen Pregled" (Sofia),
##I, 2 1960, by A. Cronin.

Two types of Russian postal services, established in Bulgaria before
our liberation can be distinguished. The first, known under the name of the
Russian Consular Post, since it was established under the protection of
Russian Dipl-otatic Legations abroad, carried on its activity from the 18th
century until the declaration of the Russo-Turkish Liberation War of April
1877. The second, founded during the conduct of the war, was intended to--
serve the army on active service. It operated during 1877 and 1878. -The
creation and organization of the Bulgarian State Post, whose 80th Anniversary
was celebrated during May 1959, was the result of the latter war.

The establishment of regular diplomatic relations between Russia and
Turkey dates from 1496-97, when the first official Russian legation was opened
in Constantinople. This also gave rise to tho founding of courier connect-
ions between Moscow and Constantinople, From the middle of,.the .17th century,
Russia began to play an important role in the political life of the Middle
East. Article #13 of the treaty concluded on June 13, 1700.at Constantinople,
obligated the Turkish Administration to ensure on the territory of its Empire
the free movement of the couriers of the Russian diplomatic representative,
both on their departure and on the completion of their assignments. With
this aim in view, they were supplied with special "fermans" (Turkish edicts -
SA.C).

The well-known treaty signed at Kucuk Kaynarca, Silistria District (in
the Southern Dobrudja the naze literally means "Little hot Spring" in
Turkish A. C.), on July 10, 1774, also guaranteed a whole series of.import-
ant'political and trade advantages for Russia.. The Turks once again were
obliged t6 facilitate regular postal communications between the two countries.
Turkey guaranteed the' dispatch and delivery of correspondence between the
subjects of the contracting countries. It appears that the question arose,
not only of the exchange of diplomatic correspondence but also for civilian
mail. Basing itself on the Kucuk Kaynarca Treaty,-Russia quickly opened during
the same year, a postal service to its legation in Constantinople. Postal
services were organized later at the Russian consulates in Adrianople, .lovdiv,
Ruse (Rustchuk) and Varna. In connection with this, we should note that our
country had Russian consulates quite a long-time ago.' The well-known Turkish
Sgographer and traveller, Idrizi, testifies that during the XIIth centruty,
there existed an "agency po- Russia" at Shuman (Kolarovgrad3.

SUpon the implementation o; arctic #76 of the convention>fr trade and
shipping, concluded between Russia and Turkey during 1983. the rights. granted
earlier to Russia were again guaranteed* In this article, the statement
"with a view to facilitate trade between the respective subjects (of each-
country) as well as mutual correspondence" was expressly stipulated. The
Sublime Porte was obligated to take measures to ensure tjie rapidity and safety
of-the Post and couriers. The Russian Post began more and more to serve.
Sthe public along, its route. .
o. Page..29
No. 63










Following Russia, Austria opened its postal service in the Turkish
capital during I.'4-, Oyher European countries had post offices in Constanti-
nople. The establishment of foreign postal services infringed upon the
sovereignty of the Turkish Stat. But that was nothing, newa Its sovoroign-
ity had already been crushed long before by the. groat westor .poU1os of
Francs, England, Austria, otc. with the humiliating capitula.tions for Turkey.
The foreign powers and also the private postal services .expanded their activi-
ties among the larger inhabited places of the disintegrating Turkish Empire.
Their activity especially grew after the Crimean War of 1853-56.

,In direct relation to the activity of the Russian Post in Bulgaria, the
rest of the Balkans and Rumania, Russian postal agencies were cponed main.y
r&,ter the signing of the peace treaty at Adrianople on Septenber 14, 1829.

In accordance with the Russo-Turkish treaties, ap Russian consulate was
opened in Bucharest during February 178'2. This was the first consulate of a
foreign power, established in the Rumanian principalities. Because of the
Swears with Turkey, the frecuont presence of Russia in Wallachia and Moldavia
gave rise to pocal poste. coImmuncOations, which, for obvi'uc. seasons were
under the protection of the Ru-sians. In the semivassal principalities of
Wallachia and Moldavia, the Russian postal service, opened,..around 1830, an
agensy.at Jassy, the capital .of YMoldavia, at-.Focsani on. the MoldavoTWallachian
border, at Bucharest ,the :capital of Wallachia and a little later, also at
SGalati, the chief Moldavian trade and communications outlet on ,the Danube.
Correspondence exchanged between Turkey and Russia was sent via the Russian
-. Postal :services in-Rumania., These Russian -postal a o ''ci-, .opened on the
basis of the treaty of 1774:., were closed at the oed of ',67 or the beginning
of 1 i68, in accordi.,:ncc with the L-ining of the csri7ac, t bctwOe n Rumania
and- Russia. : : .

The transmission of the Russian Post was carried ..jot by .land end by sea.
Up to 0'o0.t 18A40, the Russian postal'courier-.loft Cont.-.ti-ople for St.
P. .ttrsbur- every woot2 i';: Adrianople, Karnobat (Polyarovgrad), the well known
Chalukavak Pass (RTishki). :y:and ,Ruse. .Later '-aroiumd 184. the- postal courier,
: carrying'not- only coll- -. :o: -- rce buti jso -vaal...-les. set out from Constantinople
for St. Petersburg' every .fo'igai; .on Tronra,: -:. His route was Constantinople,
SAdrianopleT, ambolZ .Koita'L, .e L.otel Paa.c. Os..an Pazarj (cui-tage),. Esk. Dzhumaya
:T'gpovishte), Shumn. (Kolarovgcad), Prv.adiay.aVal-a;. ,Dobohich (Tolbukhir), Man-
-..galia, Constantas,Babadag l.ir-1 nGalati and ?'n there via: EBirlad-y Jaasy and
-- Sculiani (or sometime, occasionally via. Carpinieni) to St. Pete'rsbrg.
Ordinarily the courier-arrived at Constantinople on Frid'ays.. Later the trip
"was- again put on a wepkly basis The couriers also utI-ized the: Ruse-Giurgiu-
Bucharest rqute.. From Bucharest, the courier set out once weekly on Thursdays
for Jassy and St. Petersburg. From Ruse to Constantinople, the route went via
TrnovoGabrovo, the Shipka Pass, Kazniik, Stara Zagora and Adrianople. We
believe that :sometimes another route was. also used: Ruse, Razgrad,' Kolarovgrad
(Shumen), the RAhki Pass, Karnobat, Yambol and from there -via Adrianople on-
wards, 'following the well known route to Constantinoplei At Stara Zagora and
Adrianople,. the connection with the .consulate at Plovdiv was carried out by
d."local couriers. This;, postal communications route was of great importance, the
Russian: Vice-Conasu at Plovdiv, Naiden Gerov, refers to this in one of his de-
tailed and interesting letters dated April 21, 1863, and addressed to Nikolai
Dmitrievich Stupin, the former Russian Consul at Adrianople after the Crimean
:War and a great Friend of the Bulgarians.

Page 30 No. 63







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The extent of political and moral meaning that the rqute via .T'rnovo,
used by the Russian postal couriers, had fbr Bulgaians .ia apant from a
letter of the eminent T'rnovo merchant, Iliya Stoyanovich` addessed to Nai-
den Gerov andd ad August 29, 1859. In this. letters after hating stressed
the necessity -of opening a Russian consulate or vice-c6nsulate at T'rnovo,
Stoyanovich writes: "...the Russian Post which passes through our City, is
in need of' some Christian house at which to stay. If there is any probability
of accoptence, I beg you to recommend me to the Russian Embassy at Constantin-
ople, in order that I-might assign a Tartar (servant) at n house for the
Russian Post when it passes through the city, and if there are any letters
to deliver and accept, I will make arrangements for thed." The representat-
ions of Ilia Stoyanrvioh the Hatter, Bo called be.ca e be. was the first
native of Ttrnovo who wore a hat o nhis head, were crowied with success He
wias appointed Russian Vice-Consul for the City. His house* at #9 Eugene
Kisimov St. served as the' office of the vice-consulate (see photograph). Here
the Russian postal courier put up whild passing through T'rnovo .ind hare
also the forwarding and acceptance of letters of the city toc- pL'co.

The establishment of the RusIian vioe-consulate at T'rnovo, v:horo there
also French and Austrian con6sulates, made a fgeat. impression on the citizens.
It appea's that the opening of the;Russian vice-consulate and the appointment
of Iliya Stoyanovich as original Vice-Coniul were semi-official, as it was
only during 1862'that this wias I-ivested with a public display, the raising of
the Russifan flag at'the vice-'onsulate, to the great Joy of the T'RnQvites.
On this occasion, a titular Vice-Consul was appointed by St. Petersburg. The
first official Russian Vice-Consul at T'rnovo was Vasili Pedorovitch Kozhev-
nikov, 'former Cbnsu at Flume He arrive at his new post in T'rnovo during
"the month' of August o' September 1862. By nw,: the building .of the vice-
consulate, newly renovated, was situated "below the Preobrazhensky Monastery".
-Foar o'r five years later, when the Vice-Consul left T'rnovo, he sold "this
Remarkable and'dear :old place beoi6 'the monastery" to the Metropolitan Gregory
Sof Ruse, who again- ii his turn resold it "to the Preobrazhensky Monastery.
With' regard to the Bssitan vice-consulate at Plovdiv, it maintained
special postal' couriers -inne the Russiian Post went through Stara Zagora and
"not via Plovdiv.,- When the 6ecasion arose, the Ploydiv couriers were sent to
L Stara .Zagora, Adrianiople ;or'Ruse, in order to forward or receive the appropri-
:ate correspondence, In-cori hnndtion' with"this, 'we were able to find out the
sanames of two Bulgaiians who were ussian onsuiLar-'ouriers: Rashko "Gavazinit"
..- (Rafco, "the :consular .'guard": derived from the Tuirkfik hord "kdaas" A. C.),
Sand Ivancho Kotonkciv. -In some of his letters to Naiden Gerov, the interpreter
at the Russian vice-consulate at Plovdiv, Nikolai V, Chaliki, referred to these
Stwo couriers. 'In his lt14i of September: 4 '86',' i t otes that the .courier
Rashbo, upon his g*ing .'o *Stara Zagora and after he :ras about .to return with
-the mail "Whi'h thb ripeial courier had handed" over to him", was disarmed and
a.. arrested by the 'Tirk& without reason. In another oIe of his letters dated
-une 9, 1867b Cheliki'-refezs t6 the second courier-Ivancho Kotonkov, In this
secondd letter we lbund again something interesting and we will quote, a part of
it word for word- "Your letter -of May 24, from hstchhk, which the courier
S Yovanoho brought me-, I' received. He, as he wa':passing through T'lnovo, Mitha('
P&sha :iwas there -and he'hanged people; He ranted to see Yovancho'.and as he was
brought before him and he ake'ded him for -Where he .was going and he replied to
him- that he was going for to Plovdiv-with letters for the consult te and he
asked- for "ZaptiyeS (Turkish gendarmes A. C.) to escort him and the Pasha

No. 63 ':Page 31









replied to him "Sen git,' orilar seni. tur Yiar.4 (Toh g on your way, they will
not harm you)". It appears 'from the',letter :that just then the T'rnovo- tragedy,
involving the ,(guerilla) band of -Phillip Totyu -was takih place, while"the cou-
rier Yovancho", Ivaincho Kotonkovr was on the Ruse-Plovdiv mail route.
We found in the rich Naiden'"Gerov archival'.correspondence a great amount
of data regarding the wotk of their Russian Consular Post, whose services, our
cultural and social leaders utilized repeatedly. In this postal ser-vce, the
Bulgarians found se6irity. In a letter from Zachary Kniazheski datacd.Stara
Zagora March 2, '1861.*and addressed''to Naiden Gerov, the-fbllow.ng i-a -notedw ,
"among other things' n "-the letter 'and parcel I am sending via Edrine vacationon
of Edirne, the TurhiSh hamet :for Adrianople -A. C.).by the RussiJan Po t,, i.-c
only quite rarel'y:re eth:ee occasions td go from Zahra (Zagdra) to P.L.LiN.v "
The well known Bulgarian'mefrhant at'Bucharest, Christo Georgiev, in cne of
"his letters to Naiden Gerov, dated August 21, 1866, refers to letters aqlnt
and received through the Russian Consular Post. In another of -his lette-'s
dated Bucharest March '14, 1868, he notes that he sent Gerov a letter b-y i-the
Russian courier via Constantinople". On September 17, 1868, Christo Geogiev
informed Naiden Gerov that he sent the newspaper "Narodnost" by the Russian
courier as the Austrian Post :did not accept. this newspaper for transmtac.on.
The same Naiden Gerbov ecei-ed textbooks and literature through the Russian
.Post for the schoil- library in .Povdiv. The'teacher in Stara,-Zagorg, T. N.
Shishkov, .correspolded' on national affairs with Gerov-again through- the
SRussian courier.

Apart from:-this, the' employees at the Russian bonsulates in Ruse, Adriano-
pie anid onstaitinopl'es uch af-Zachary Kniazheski and Dimittr Karamih ilov
iere for .the most A ar- :Builgarians. and ;-ero ever i'in the; service of the. BulgadasaA
.revoluti-nary :and cultural movement, Tb, their addresses, many letters, matarias
and literatire- concerning the revolutionary movement were- sent. Even Christo
Botev (Bulgarian poet and revolutionary A. O.) utilized the services of the
employee s of lim. Karamihail ov, the' interpreter at the Russian consulate in
Ruse. We have found described an incident which took place on the premises
of the' Ruisiarfi consulate at, as-, nientuhe dispatch of a sending 1 -Botev and
rhich-s arrived' throuWh' thh" Russian Post, We quote it word for, vcu : He contact
"ed us'tihrO:ug&the interpreter Karamihailov, whom:we. infored that we were
':expecting- a letter 'hdtd:pbeis fromt Botey' and which we had tp receive through
Sthi interpreter. After."we. had stabl'ishe our: identity: satisfacorily, he
S'gave us te l^tier'fyio tteV, to-ether with 100.copies..of the poems which we
i mme-diately n6opw'us and handed ovor to tramndmotho-iToT*fca who h.id: them".
''.... he rates on' the airifroy .Turkey :to RudAsia-:'wre,.prepaid by the sender.
'-. The postmark ias atiuct l .o:.ci!,. black, ti-j.. blac?P Q2 l-ter also in
. ,blu "Inda',nik. onthe lters,. It appearzsa tha thd: Ruaian Consular Postal
Se .: r vices did- not arrange for- osT.a iIarkings.-in Blgaria', siai'be 'only postmarks
of ,. oftjantinople :tid the igeciies in maniani-aeknon uos. Sometimes the
.. markngs were a.ccompahi .ed ,y e'achath-ith- the insription- "Franco". The
.":letters aeint from Russia to Tuikey 'were franked with' stamps of 10, 20 and 30
I'P. (1858 s i i without :ratermark) and 'tanmps of '20; and 30 kot., :of the 1865
i:' :ssue u^atermaakod'' .Froti Jan, 1> 1*863, the Rusaian Postal Adminiattratd.on
sued 6seai stamps for ewsapepers eent :in Turkdy: -they were square in
,shape, with 'r4cea luod of- 6 kop. and having .as a: design the national coat
S-of ..rns i.the' either fhid undd' it theo inscription !!Postal Wrappopr dispatch
"in the 'Eal ," kopo peir hlt, "Suc'1tSeri 4i:,r th.& r:.:ithout stamps
constitute great rarities noeadays.

Page 32 No. 63










The postal connections by sea between Russia and Turkey date mainly after
the signing of the Peace Treaty of Adrianople, when the freedom of navigation
on the Black Sea for ships under the Russian flag w-s fuJlly -uaranteed.

These maritime communications were strengthened with the signing of fur-
ther treaties which assigned more acquired rights to Russia. Our harbors of
Varna and Burgas were visited alco by a preat number of Rus-i:n trading ves-
sel.. Because of this reasrcn, a Russian vice-consulate was also opened at
Varna. In 1847, the Vice-Consul was Lutk Svilarich, a native of Dubrcvai2.
Whether there wss a postal service attached to the Rutsian vice-consulate at
Varna, we cannot.-at present say. since we have found no data at all on the sub-
ject. Around 1840, the trips of. the Russian ships took place once weekly.
Towards 1848, there were services from Constantinople to'Odessa on .the .4th,
14th and 24th of the month.and returning on.the 10th, 20th and 30th. Later
the postal services were maintained by the 'sips of the Russian Company for
Steam Shipping and Trade, abbreviated F.. 0. P. i T., which was founded in
Odessa. In 1864, the Russian Government allowed the Company to establish re-
gular services with the ports of Turkey -and the Aegean Islands, etc. Around
1865, the R.-0. P. i T, set up postal services at its agencies along the
Asiatic seabord of the Black and Mediterranean Seas, at Jerusalem; Salonica,
.t. Athos and the Aegean Islands of Chios and Mylilene. It is possible that
the ships of this Russian steamship company eventually m aintr.ined a postal
-orvice while on their visits to the Black Sea ports on the Bulgarian Coast.

For the prepayment of mai1 carried.by sea, letters were franked with
special stamps of 10 paras and 2 piastres, issued by the company for this
purpose. On these stamps the face values were not indicated and they were
only identifiable from the colors. The first set was issued during 1865 and
the following two series during 1866 and 1868. The stamps were irperforate,
with the -same design: a ship, the national coat of arms and the.-initials of
the company R. 0..-P. i T.. Up till May 1868, this Odessa steamship company
had the exclusive privelege of carrying the mail by sea between Russia and
Turkey. After this year, the Government Posts took iver the above mentioned
postal services of the c.omp.ny.

With the as:rpti.o.ea of this obligation'of carrying the mail'by sea, the
Russian Postal Admirnistration improved the original postal services of The
steamship company agencies and consulates. The Russian Government Post., de-
voted greater attention and meaning to the postal communications with Tuvakey
and the Middle East. In connection with this, 'a special set of stamps was
issued for the prepayment of correspondence with Turkey, the values being 1,
3, 5, and 10 kop. with the same design: on center:the appropriate figure in-
dicating the face value and an enclosing inscription reading "Eastern Corres-
pondence". The stamps were perforated. Only during A!ugst 1900, in concert
with the other foreign posts in the Ottoman Empire did Russia place in use
its regular current stamps wJith surcharges of the new values in Turkish
money paras and piastres.

The Russian Government Posts operating within the boundaries of Turkey
ei sted up until October 1, 1914, the beginning of the World War I (i.e. for
Turkey A. C.).

SThe Russo-Turkih War of 1877-78, thanks to which Bulgarian State was
revived again, wrote finis to the Russian Consular Posts .in our country.
No Page 33
No.-63











-However, this war opened another page for the Russian Posts, the course of
the Russian Military Post during the war.. This is especially important for
Bulgarian philately as it laid down a strong foundation for the postal ser-
vices already set up in the libertated parts of balgaria.

-0-0-0-0-0--0-0-0-0-0--

EW II\IFRMATION ON THE RUSSIAN POST IN BLUGARIA BEFORE THE LIBERATION
by D. Nj Minchav
Translated from the Bulgarian journal "Philatelic .Pregled", i#3 of 1961, by
A. Cronin.

In ## 1 and 2 of "Philatelic Pregled" for 1960, our study was published
covering the Russian Posts in Bulgaria before the Liberation.

After publication of the above, we found new data on this subject: some
information translated into Bulgarian and intended for our countrymen in
Turkey. Although very short, they help to extend our notes.

In a notice of May, 1852, printed in one of our contoeporr:-, n:.zispEpers,
the schedules of the Turkish and Austrian Posts are given. At the foot, the
following is s tated, word for word: "For Russia via Wallachia, Moldavia and
Prussia, the Russian Post (sets out) every fortnight on Monday evenings."

Again during the same month, timetables are given of steamships (Turkish,
Austrian, Russian, Fiench and English) serving and linking the Turkish Black
Sea, Mediterranean and Danube seaports with abroad. Here is how a section
of the above timetable was published, in relation to the Russian mail packets
(ships): "For Odessa Russian ship, three times a month pn the 4th, 14th and
24th. In summer at. 4 o'clock, and in winter at 2 o'clock in the afternoon."

The same two schedules are also announced again at the beginning of
July 1852. Five years later, in the first days of April 1957, we find the
following report which we also give in full: !' A notice boa-xr s i hands before
the entrance of the Russian Office and it notes that the Russian Post begins
its trips every fortnight from April 1st."
Very interesting is the information, appearing at the beginning of 1876,
andwhich, although not related to the s.smoe ork of the Russian postal service,
will draw attention of our. readers. The smeject is :the printing of a special
postage stamp of international scale and meaning. We now set it down exactly
as we found.it published:. "Russia has lately made, a suggestion to all European
Powers for the adoption of a.universal (international postage stamp (pul)."
(The word "pul" is Turkish for an adhesive stamp A. C.).

In this proposal made 85 years ago, we see the germ of an idea for an
international postage stamp, to be affixed to the letter sending intended
for abroad. This idea has found partial application in the postage stamps
issued by the U. N. at the beginning of 1951.

"oooo000000000000000 o0000000000

Page 34 No. 63
No. 63










THE FIRST RUSSIAN SPECIAL CANCELLATION
by Kurt Adler

By special cancellation we understand the obliteration of stamps by an officially
issued canceller, affixed by a regular postoffice in order to mark a special
event, anniversary, exhibition, etc. Such an event, for instance, was the yearly
recurring Nizhny-Novgorod Fair for which postmarks are knor:n to h- vo boon used
from the time of Russia's No. 1 stamp, most probably even earlier.

But it is exactly this regular recurrence of the Fair which ran for a whole
month every year that makes me hesitate to give the palm of victory or at l"sat
of priority to the Nizhny Novgorod.Y-rmarka postmark of' Russia. In a simi]
fashion I could name quite a few summer resort places in Russia which had :9st-
offices operate only during the few summer months of each year. One of tn-,
for instance, is Pargolovo,- ear St. Petersburg. Such postmarks usually read
"Temporary Post Office of......" (name of town).

I believe that the first Russian special cancellation was born during the
Moscow Polytechnical Exhibition of 1872. This exhibition, according to old and
new Russian encyclopedias was organized by a group of friends of Natural Scieies,
Anthropology, 'Mnography with the financial backing of official and pria'^
sources, mostly business men who were interested in advertising their products and
*- manfactured goods, The idea behind this exhibition was to turn it into an all
year around show. .This goal was reached -hen a special Polytechnical Museur. was
buiJ2-t .:2z opened on the 200th anniversary date of Peter the Greats -birth and was
held in the Moscow Manege and the .Aexander Gardens adjoining the Kremlin walls.
The Museum was opened to public in 1877.
A special post office mu-t h've oportod at the exhibition. The postmarks
S bear-the inscription "Moscow, Post Office of Polytechnical Exhibition", -nd- dated
"12 August 1872". The postmark on the piece recently discovered is affixed to the
stamps in black but the Same postmark appears once more on the piece, this time in
blue green color. It goes without saying that this postmark on Russian stamps is
very rare. No other example has been recorded to date.

One of the next, if not vhe very next special cancellations of Russia was founc
to have been issued during the time of the FRench Exhibition in Moscow in 1891
(not 1881 as Dr. Bochmann wrongly lists in his book on the postage stamps of-the
Russian Empire).

Talking about "specials", one may well call the disinfection cachets of the
pre-stamp times the first special cachets. Such cachets stem mainly from the
early 1830ies when cholera was rampant all over Europe.

-My sincere thanks go to Mr. Andrew Cronin and to Mr. V. A- KuTbae or i- uiTab-
ing me with the research material for this article.

OooooooN. 63 Pe 5oo oooooooooooo







o Page 35
No. 63










WEKLD STA.P EEr AI. "R 9 l0<"
by Kurt Adlea

The World Stamp Exhibition'"Praga 1962" which took place in Prague,
Czechoslovakia from August 18..to September 2 was of highest interest to
philatelists from all over the world in general and to the members of our
society in particular. It offered the first occasion ever for a meeting
place in the heart of Europe whore Western and Eastern collectors could view
each other' treasures, compare notes and exchange philatelic information. It
was highly interesting to see that the collecting of Imperial Russian-and
USSR stamps was not ohly a prerogative of the Eastern countries but that excel-
lent collections came from all over the world. There were specialized collect-
ions from Norway, Great Britain. France, Finland, Holland, Western Germany,
Austria, USA, and Australia, in addition to the Soviet Union, Czechoblc.Qs i
Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania and Eastern Germany. The exhibition was
excelently organized by the hospitable Czechs, It took place in two very
large buildings in the Park of Culture and Rest, in Prague. Among the
visitors from the United States were our membereBernard Davis, Ernest A. Kehr,
Mrs. Sol Glass and our member, newly elected President of SPA Mr. Boughman with
"Mrs.. Ioughman and Mr..and Mrs. Fritz Billig and Kurt Adler.

It may be said right away that the Western cosuntr: s .-coru far ahmed in
Imperial Russia. whih e. th'E gE-.st vs geneor-.ly leading ini Sovictt e nd related
phil atolic. material. The Rugsian participants at the c:-hibtion-- about 60
-in ll-.!csyre lavish iL thir prz'iset of most of the Western exhibits of
Russian philately.
Turning now to some'collections in particular, by far the best one of:
Imperials was the showing .of, out nei.hcr Michel Liphschutz of Paris. His
amazing. ianassmont of aRu3ia No. 1 -tith different co:ncecl-tions wo described
and illustrated in oL of' Rossics recent issues. It was pr- snted in the
Court of Hcnor, (nod competitive). Liphschutz' showing of Russian Offices in
the Near and Middle East was full of the most astonishing items on cover arid
was worthy of one of the. top prizes (Gold Medal).

perhaps the second best collection' of Imperials was that of Petr LaVrod,.
a Russian who has been residing in Prague for many years. He had two mint
copies of number one, a single and the other almost a pair. The second stamp
of the latter item -wa cut approximately in the middle so that it looked 1.i.s
1- stamps. Mr. Lavrov assured me that his single and his l- number ones both
had original gum. His complete collection of Imperials consisted of a beauti-
ful selection, all mint.

Your correspondent would consider Mr. Lauri Ruuskanen of Tampere, Finland
an almost even competitor. From the point of view of postal history he was
actually far ahead of Lavrov. His dot cancellations on the early Imperials
was the most complete that I have ever seen. As far as I could ascertain he
missed only a couple of the circular dot cancellations, among them the elusive
S'58 (Chita). He also had a goodly number of the scarce hexagonal dot cancel-
lations of postal stations although none of them were on cover.

"Alexander Droar, member of our sister society BSRP from Englad, showed a
carefully selected group of Offices Abroad on cover, crowned by a very rare early
RCPiT Agency is Candia (Crete) postmark and a beautiful postcard with the Russiar
Volllneer Fleet cancellation (Silver Medal)

Page 36 No. 63








0. Forafantov of Moscow. exhibited some mute cancellatiQnse mainly on
pieces. Some were identified and unknown to me. An exchange .of tracings
and irndfication lists would be very desirable. Your reporter exhibited--
among other items--an arrayF of fieldpost., civil occupation, and railroad
cancellations of the Russo-Turkish-War of 1877/78 and the Russo-Japanese War
of 1904/05 on cover, connected by covers from the interim period, such as
Russian fieldpost on maneuver and the Boxer Rebellion period. The Soviet
exhibitors stated that they had never seen. any of these covers and that they
were non existent in any Russian collection.

Poland was represented by a beautiful exhibit of the Polish Postal
Museum of Wroclaw, showing 18th century pre-stamp covers of Warsaw, Lublin,
Krzemeniec and Bielsk (all with Polish crown), a very rare Pulawa Piecze
Kavaleria Narodny Militaria (Fieldpost), and many early documents of rare
postal history value.

The wonderful collection of Poland #1 of. our member, M.A. Bojpnowicz,
made a deep impression on all viewers, and received F.I.P. (Prix dthonneur).

The palm of victory in the field of Soviet stamps belongs easily to
S. M. Blekhman of Moscow. There were items in it that specialists from over
here could -only dream about. Complete sets of color proofs of all airmail
stamps were only one of its outstanding features. Another one was probably
unique item of the Moscow-San Francisco flight attempt (C 68) with inverted
surcharge used on the official postcard of the first, unsuccessful flight
attempt. The stamp, flown on the official flight can only exist on this type
of postcards as the flyers second attempt ended in disaster with no trace
ever being found of the plane and its mail. Blekhman also showed the in
itself rare -riirature sheet of Moscow Philatelic Exhibition of 1932 with the
added imprint "Lutchemy Udarniky" (to the most efficient worker). This
variety. exists in only 25 copies and was given to some of the employees who
worked hardest to prepare the exhibition. These, and other varieties, svakil-
fully annotated by Mr. Blekhman were an eye opener to many viewers. It must
be said however, that we over here have some varieties, sent here by the
Philatelic Bureau in hoscow during the World War II that our Russian colleagues
had never seen. Blskhman also had some very unusual pre-stamp covers.
Sore 18th century oncs fror St. Petersburg, some very nice arabesque (fleuron)
cancellation of Riazan (1840), Orenburg (1840), and Lyskovo (1848)..

Other excellent Soviet collections were shown by L. .. Chumakov (varie-
ties),.V. Ustinovsky (1957 International Youth Festival with all varieties),
N. S. Robster (Early Soviet special cancellations) and B. A. Rybalcherko
(same type of exhibit).

Of non-soviet exhibitors, one of the most interesting collections was
the one -of the Dutchman Jan Poulie. Among his most interesting varieties were
essays and proofs of the first USSR issue, like for instance an essay in black
3- Ruble in the design of 250 Rubles or a color proof in black of the red 1000
Ruble stamp. He also had double prints of the 1921 Fourth Anniversary commem-
orative issue. From his all encompassing philatelic holdings, Mr. Poulie..also
showed specialized selections of the first issue of Netherlands (Honor Class),
SDutch.olonies, Albania, Bulgaria, Latvia.and Old German States.

SYour corresptndent-exhibited a complete array of Soviet Charity stamp
issues 1921-1930 mint, used, in multiples, on cover and with varieties grouped
in the same manner. This part of the USSR philately was chosen because it

No. 63 Page 37
No, 63










forms an.in itself closed group,. No charity-stamps were issued by Russia
after 1930.

The.Caucasian- collections were not overly impressive but Ukraine gems
were shown beautifully by S. A. Parkhomovich of Moscow, -mostly on money
orders.

Our member Dr. Rudolf Seichter of Soltau, Western Germany, famous expert
and author of several handbooks on Ukraine philately displayed only few pages
but these were filled with the rarest of the rare stamps of the. Ukraine, often
unique stamps.

S. l. Blekhman's unique collection of Tannu Tuya had been-described
before" but it was a revelation to see it"in flesh". There were 2 money orderss
of 1925 postmarked Krasny Yenissei, the capitals name being changed to KiKiz
only -shortly thcro after. There were inverted and double ourscharges- of 1927
set. Also tw6 unregistered. and uncatalogued surcharges on the 1933 triangle
stamps. The reeernue stamp'(Scott #37).,ove:rprinted "Posta 15" was shown in-ert-
ed and with word "Posta" missing. The "Posta 35" (Scott #38), missing in Iri.,O
of the collections was seen on:-a: commercial cover from Kizil to Moscow. There
were the issues and the provisional surcharges, described by Cronin and Negus
butr never seen in the West-i leading up to 1943 local Kizil provisionals (See
'Rossica #61! for .illustrations), two of them even used. Blekhmangs monograph
catolug.ing the stamps cf TurV, Which will appear in print by the end of this
year, was entered for-competition in typescript.

There were four collections -of Mongolia. One of them, shown by W*.H.
Adgey-Edgar of GuildfoFrd'-Eniglan., beautifully selected, showed early post-
marks on cover starting with the. oval Urga .of Type I. The first issues of
Moengolian ',stamps .were 'well- represented on covers, including the surcharge
fiscal.,' but .'ot including their predecessors, the stampless covers of 1920-
.23 with the' poshbge paid ,in cash and added "0 p 1 a c h e n o0 (paid) in
Ri.ssian." The circular "'Murin -.cancellation on Mongolian stamps, described by
Sthe.exhibit.or 'as the ti"ey copy 1'nown'- is not tue, -since your reported has
another cover with the' ame caoncellation.,which --- of-course -- is a rare
S'-..-one :,he representati* of:-the postwar- onglis an covers was only a token one,
however his seletio .- ;s3 v:--y -; ..es. '.;..espacially to the Russian visitors
who had never aeen such an. 'rray of lass3..cal iicngolian covers.
It. :' is'to tie br'grtted'.that- our peabr.b Dr., Tolman, did not exhibit his
truly- unique collection -f classical, ongolian :o:rtJ.' history items.

The Mongolian Postal Administration and the o.i.ly private exhibitor from
Mongolia, Kh, Gu.ggazaaV showed almost no covers at all, and their showing of
Early. Mo6c1gol:in0 s'tam.ps ws-i more: than disappointing, since most of the early
S.surcharges, were fakes-.: The period from:. 1935-50. was elso badly represented.
.' : There were i only single stamf s,, tly in bad condition. -The extremely rare
-. Tugrik "truth sta' of: 2 o 1933, issued only in 500 copies was not
" : 'shown. The later' issues weiwe .comp.,lte. but they do not' represent a challenge
, to .the serious stud it of Morlgolian philately.

Harry Walli of tHelsinki, Finland showed a sideline of our specialty. His
'. ollecti.o of Estonia had a nice array of provisional postmarks on the first
Estonian issue of 1919, among them, stamps-postmarked with the old Fusian
": ancellers. Collection also included the Rakwere locals on cover and on piece.

Page 38 '
Page 63










Some of our "Rossica" jcxcnals, entered by our Editor in Chief Dr. G. B.
Salisbury, for our Society,'&culd be viewed under the'tight glass enclosure
very much to the chagrin df the Russian participants who would have loved to
study their contents, as our. colleagues -from tha East- are: hungry for any kind
of philatelic literature. Our Journal rece'.ved .its 9th consecutive internatio-
nal Philatelic Literature award in 9 tries, this t-ie "silver on bronze"
(International Philatelic Exhibitions 1957-62). Prior to. the aforementioned
period, the Rossica (Old Journal) received 4 awards under the editorship of E.
Archanguelsky, Jugoslavia (1935-37)..

Our members. Bernard Davis and Fritz Pillig, likewise, showed selected
.copies of their respective publications.

"All in all, "Praga 1962' was a great success, and it will take time to
digest the information learned from its displays and it will undoubtedly en-
rich our knowledge of our favorite hobby.

000000000000000000000000
oooooooooooooooooooooooooo

00000C0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0 .. 0
o. Li u id a t i on of my C o 1 1 ct ion o
o o
o Stamps, vignettes, paper money, coins, medals, decorations, postcards o
o of Russia, War of 1905, 1914, military uniforms, views of different o
o towns of Russia, cancella tions on covers and postcards, first day can- o
.o cellations)-match box covers. o
o
o In replying, enclose stamp of your country o
O 0
o Mr. G. Wroublowsky 1, Alee des laiscnettes, prol., Gagny, S et 0. o
o France. o
S. 0
0000OO000OO000COOC 00 OOCO C 0000000 0.0 0O"000 0 0C0000 COO 00OOC 0000C0000

X, Y. -' Y-:'7 _- "Y:.?Z .ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ

y War invalids in France printed and issued for sale 4 series of x
-, Charity.stamps-labels, each series in an artistic cover. Each xx
x series consists of 6 stamps, thus making all in all 24 stamps, 65x55mm. x
x in size and perforated. x
x x. x
x ThO cfoEomentioned labels are reproduced from the drawings of artist x
x V. P. Vereschagin and depict the history of the Russian Empire. They x
x show rulers from Prince Oleg (879-912) to Emperor Alexander III, the x
x Peacemaker (1881-lc94)t and have explanatory te::t. x
x x
x Price 82 cents or .1 .00 prepaid postage. x
"x .x
x Uni o n de s Inv a i d e uss uss e_ 4, rue Casablanca, x
x Paris 15, France. x
x

xxYxx ,CA YX:^ :: YX;T7-XC7X, vOC XYxXC'XY:XyxIx -:;:X:;- Y' xx yxxyxxx


"No. 63 Page 39
No. 63











COVER FROM LIVERPOOL VIA OSTENDE ATD ST. PETERSBURG TO FINLAND
by M. M. Kessler.

The cover is addressed to Uleaborg, Finland, and originating from
Liverpool, England. It is dated 3 My 71 (3 May 71) and has a 6 pence
Great Britain (Scott #51) tied with a black circular handstamp, 22mm. in
diameter and also with the Liverpool numeral "466". On the front of the
cover are the following markings: a small circular ED 13mm. in dia. and
a small unboxed serifed ':FRANCO" in red. The latter marking is different
from the usual FRANCO markings and measures 18mm. for overall length with
3mm. for height of letters. Across the top, in manuscript is "Via Ostende
and St. Petersburg". On the obverse side is a 18mm. (diao. red, circular
handstamp marking indicating that the letter was routed through London and
is dated My 4 71 (May 4, 1871)) Note the continental dating on the Liverpool
marking and the reverse on the London one, .There is no Ostende transit
marking.

Also on the obverse are two double-ringed St. Petersburg transit mark-
ings, 18 and 26mm. in diameter, respectively, with Eks(peditsya) VIII
(Station VIII). One, at the bottom between the double circles, dated in old
style is '25 Apr 1871 vecher (evening)" (New Style May 7), which is the re-
ceiving date and the period of the day. The other is similar to the above
and is dated in old style "26 Apr 1871 utro (morning)" (New.style May 8),
There are no Finnish receiving-marks, probably due to the fact that Finland
was pa-t of Russia at that time.

It should be noted that after the letter transited London, arrived in
St. Petersburg after three days and left on the fourth.
0000000000000000000000000000

oo 00oooooco oooooooooooooo 00oooooooooooooo ooo oo
ooooooooCoooooCooooooooC0.;OCC0D.o00006ooooQooo oooooooooooooooooooCoooOOoCOO
0 o
o I buy for csh stamrps of Czarist Russia and Civil War, the cheapest o
o in bulk' and ii sheets mint. o
0 o
o Stamps of U N Mint and on F.D.C. Will trade for stamps of Brazil o
o and USSR. o
o 0
0o AStam- -O iLand on Themes (Top. ai;:& Cosmos, Fauna, Flora:- will o
o give in exchange stamps of. USSR on as topics. o
S
o Snr. Alexander Vansovich Rua Senador'Dantos 117, Sobre loja 206 o
o Rio de Janeiro 'Brazil o
00000000000000000000C30COCCCOCCCOCllOCCOC353CQ2 5;.0000000 0000.00000000000
OOOOOOOOOOOo oooooo OOOC OOCCO-OCCOO OOOO.CCO. OOOOOO OOOOOOOO0
000O000000000000000 CoO0OOO.O 00c0 Ooooo0ooo0oooooooooooooooooooooooooo

o WA. N T.E-D
o o.
o i Russo-Japanese War Material, or any Russia used in Manchuria. I amo
o interested in anything Ianchurian arid philatelic. Also want Russia o
o0 used in Alexandretta and Tannu Touva.
0 O
o Raymond S. Ehrman 468 Woodland Road Pittsburgh 37,Pao
0 Pittsburgh 37,Pao
o00cC.00o000o0000000000000000000o 0000000000000000000o000000000000000000000000

Page 40
No. 63










THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE POST AND COL NICATION SERVICES OF THE
*MONGOLIAN NATIONAL F7TUBIJC 1AND THE POSTAGE STRIPS OF' MONGOLIA
translated from the original Russian by A. Cronin)

C H A P T E R II The overland Horse-Post System of the Manchu Tai-Tsin
Empire in Khalka-longolia (Outer 1Mongolia).

The Manchu Tai-Tsin Empire, with a view to maintaining continual communi-
cations with its western provinces in Inner Mongolia put numerous horse-post
relay routes into service between 1696 and 1760 on the territory of Southern
Land Inner Mongolia. In accordance with.decrees and edicts received from the
Manchu Emperor military and-special rcvnland routes were set up, being govern-
mental routes of the Tai-Tsin.Empire. They were called "Altai dzaryn tsergi-
in urto" (Altai overland militaryy route) and "bukhia urto" (special relay
route).

In accordance with the .anchu legi nation, .the following were stipulated;
the amo'ut of tribute to be .levied, the .number of employees, the extent cf
financial means to be set aside for the state horse-post relay routes, ihe
number of relay stations and their locations and.the number of comunr&i es
obliged to support them. Moreover, by-the.same lcgislaticn, the distance
between stations, the number of horses, and postillions, means.of transporta-
tion, the amount of yurts (tents) and provisions which the relay stations and
supporting communities had to set aside to ensure the normal work of the relay
system-were also laid down. In addition, the extent of tribute for the people
employed by the overland routes and the scale of wagbs for the work of the
relay employes, were specified. .

S1cre than 140 strtions, f,7- to 86 on each. of the routes, were set up
from the capital of the Manchu Tai-Tsin Empire at Peking to the western pro-
vinces of Mongolia Altal Urga, Kiakhit4 Tagna, Uriankhai and also to the
western provinces of Chi:i -- Guishen (Urumchi) and the city of Barkhul, toc.al-
ling almost 5,000km. (3 121mi.) in length. Official despatches were for-.waar-
along these routes, sent by the numerous ministries of the Tai-Tsin Empire c':i
the governornors or -he -ast-ern territories-of Khalka Mongolia andWestern
Mongolia, from th- : -L-rtrators and directors of aimaks (provinces A.C.)
and express mrssercis covered these routes when transmitting. the decrees
of the Manchu emporyr. Military and express relay services tere of militarised
character. The employees of such overland routes were regarded es being on
military service and each of them were .obliged in his capacity as a servicemen
to carry arms bow and arrows as well. as glue, a file, a cloak, an "ugjig"
(drinking utenil- made- from a.cow's horn A.C.), a "burchi" (whip) and one
camel and four horses per ien. In addition to. the above, special rs1.ey des-
patch centres were attached to the domains of Kobdo, Uliasutai and Urge, being
served by from 10 to 40 co,ri-itiss. These relay services, called "uyaa urto"
(hitching post relay system A.C.), "tsookhor urto" (varigated relay system -
A.C.) and "tumet urto" (mas relay system A.C.) were also counted in with the
state overland systems.

The Structure of the Horse Relay Systems

The stations of the military and express overland services were placed at
"distances of 30-40km. (19 to 25 miles) apart and depended upon local recourses
for good pastures and cisterns. The distance between overland stations aver-
aged out at around 35kn. (22 miles). The amount of tribute received from the
No. 63 Page 41
No. 63










in service at the stations and the preparation of animals varied in accordance
with the number of messengers forwarding despatches and the couriers that
followed them. Since the greatest amount of traffic was observed on the relay
system between Peking and Uliasutai, the greatest amount of tribute was also
tendered there and apart from the regular employees of these stations, there
were also guards and auxiliary employees contributed by the relevant communi-
ties and supplementary relay systems were also set up. While each relay
station on the other routes was served by 5-10 communities, during the same
period on the above.nentioned route each station was served by 24-25 communi-
ties. Each relay station had a.special provision service which was called
".Tai". This service received a yurt from each contributory community and thus
"each station had from 5 to 20colored yurts ready. The catering service also
prepared food, travelling means, postillions, cooks and scribes for the mes-
sengers.

SThe Tribute of the Relay Systems

The overland service was.an obligation which was carried out ona personal
basis and with the required means. According to the Manchu regulations for the
despatches of the overland service on the various routes, the corresponding
communities set aside the tribute depending on the,number of messages being
forwarded along the overland system. For example, communities serving relay
systems on the Peking-Uliasutai route were obliged to.contribute one tent,
60 horses, 10 camels and 100 sheep each. On the other routes, the amounts of
animals prepared for tribute varied. The aimaks, hoshuns (provincial subdivi-
sion literally a banner -A.C.) and somons (counties A.C .) answerable for
the relay routes appointed large and wealthy households for the maintenance of
the overland service:for an indefinite length of time. If the employees of the
overland:were' shown to be incapable of administrating the relay route, assist-
ance was to be tendered by them in the form of cattle' ,goodsand financial
means, or they were removed from their posts and other communities with the
necessary loboir and means were appointed. To help each family bearing the
overland'" obligations, :a special postillion :was set aside for their use.

With vieww to- supplementing the tribute of the state relay system, the
Srelevant- authority .of the Tai-Tsih Empire set aside 25 horses and 10 camels
for each of several overland .stations which were used for the transfer of troop:
and the transport of great quantities of arms and provisions. The. obligation,
of the state -over-land .system were borne by wealthy and heavily populated com-
munities;'

S .'The Administration of the RFelay System

The department administering the affairs of the overland military system
of the Altai-route coordinated its work with that of all other relay routes.
The Marichu governors in 'Uiasutaip Kobdo amd Urga also directed the numerous
overland routes located'in the territories under their control. The aimaks
and hoshuns appointed a high official for a term of 3 years to administer the
relay system. Each director managed from 5 to 10 overland stations and such
officials were called managers of the overland systems". The directors of t.-
relay systems were under the. direct supervision of the governors in Ulisu+ai,
SKobdo and Urga. 'From the employees of each overland station, a "dzangi" (chief
his deputy, a scribe and a courier were appointed and they conducted all pre-
parations and toff'icial activities of the relay system. Thcse officials were
directly subordinart to tho dirootqse of the pval.and system. The relay

Page 42 No. 63









"ddzangis" and scribes answered for the preparation of official lodgings,
provisions, horses, means of transportation, the postillions and for the unOb-
structed completion of official duties. Scribes were regularly allotted to
the "Tai" relay supply services, where they examined the credentials of the
messengers and postillions, registered their missions and destinations and drew
up accounts of -the proisionsi r.arns of transportation, number of yurts, and
of postillions set aside for the messengers on duty. Apart from all of this,
"the scribes struck-accounts quarterly or annually and read then out before the
director of the overland .system* The .relay "dzangis" and scribes had the
right and obligation to decide minor details and occurences on the spot. The
overland directors were obliged annually to examine the state of the tribute,
anid the: potential of the transmission facilities of the relay -systems under
their control. They were a so required to cure the manpower and resources of
communities not committed to the overland obligations, or replace them with
others; and answered for the smooth work of the relay systems in the aimaks
and hoshuns.

The Relay. Pasture Grounds

The horse relay systems played an important.part in the maintenance of
communications within the country. Therefore, to guarantee the carrying out
of the overland,system'duties of the'people with regard to pasture grounds, the
lEanchu governors in Uliasutai, Kobde and Urga selected special officials who
set aside pasture grounds with an area from to 15 to 20 sq. km. for each relay
station on various routes, delineating them according to special procedures
with confirmatory signs. These pasture grounds bore the name of "iltas nutag"
(distinct homeground A.C.). Persons who had no business with the overland
service had no right to use the pastures set aside for the relay services. In
other words4 only the employees of the overland system could use the pastures
to the designated extent.

Local Relay Systems

The overland systems were subdivided into state and local sections. Apart
from the governmental.relay services of the Manchu Tai-Tsin Empire noted above,
overland services of local character were also set upd being denoted by various
names. Among such local relay systems, those which were used for transmitting
endings between aimaks and hoshuns were also included. Between aimaks, hoshu-n
and shabinars (religious bureaus A.-C.), some overland routes were in ser.L::
and these in turn were subdivided into "salbair (branch --A.C.) relay services.
(.t least one such service was still in operation in 1961 in the Abdzaga area
of Bulgan Province A.C.). Such overland services between hoshuns bore the
names of "Naboch" (leaf A.C.), "dan" (passing from hand to hand A.C.),
"damjlaga" (transmission A.C.) and-"taigam" (constable A.C.) relay services.
The overland services'attached to the prov-incial managers of hoshun administra-
tions were called "uyachin" racehorseo trainer A.C.) or "tsahar" (tax collect-
or A.C.) relay systems. Such overland services were created by the provin-
cial officials and governors and by the s1habinar managements from groups of 10
to 20 communities. The soon, salbar, damjlaga, and nabch relay systems were
served by no less than 2 communities and used specially set aside resources and
pastures. For service on these overland systems, only communities were appoint.
ed that had sufficient labor, not less than 150 head of cattle and the necessary:
resources. Hence it may be seen that the horse relay systems of Mongolia server
the state and local postal services in the manner described above.
00000000O0000000000000000 00

INo. 63 Page 43










STAMPS OF THE WARSAW LOCAL POST 1915
S I. Braunstein
continuedd from #662)

Stamps with Overprints No. 2 and 4

The overprint of "6 groszy" without frame on 5gr, blue-black and 5gr.
olive-green was applied on all varieties of No. 1 and No. 3 and for this pur-
pose 2 rubber dies were made, which were more or less alike, except that the
rounded portion of "6" was of the same height as the rounded portion of the
letter "g", while on the other type the letter was smaller.

The overprint, because of its small size, was hard to see, and therefore or
September 30, 1915, a new one was made, likewise of "6 groszy", but with a fzame
Nevertheless, the overprint without frame remained in use until the middle of
October, 1915, together with the framed overprint. Let us note here, that the
continlnous use of the first overprint without frame (IId type) caused a crack
to appear in the letter "y:t and therefore overprints are found where the bot-
tom part of this letter is partly broken or is entirely missing.

Issue of September 30, 1915

No. 1 & 3 overprinted "6 groszy" (framed), size 27.5:13.5mm.

No. 6. 5gr. blue black or olive green (red overprint).
No. ba. 5gr. blue black or olive green (purple overprint).
No. 6b. 5gr. blue black or olive green (black overprint).

Forgeries exist in great quantities and we give in the illustrations the
comparison of the different letters and figures for the genuine and the count-
erfeit overprints Moreover the genuine overprints have a small sopt above
the letter "S", while the counterfiets do not. There also exist other false
overprints, with and without the framo, but they are very crude and very easy
to detect.

Colors -Both overprints are found in various shades, some of which are
very rare. The variations'in colors can be explained by the fact that the
postal clerks had two pe-;a with purple and r.7. ir.ks and as both colors were
continiously in use, the stamps were not completely dry and often gave prints
of tmixd colors of different shades. As an exception black stamps are found
as besides the colors indicated above writing ink or indian ink, were used.

Issue of October 20, 1915
This is the 5gr. blue black on brownish or greenish background with
typographic overprint "6"' of ro.nd shae (No, 7). The overprints described
above were made by hand arn were in use until October 30, 1915. Beginning
from that day, a new ove-VpPT4t was made by the typgraphical method on 5gr.
stamps with brownish backgzo-ud. The overprint was composed of figure "6"
in both lower corners.

The overprints were made at once on a whole 40 stamp sheet (8x5), but in
the last vertical row of 5 stamps the num erals "6" were wider. There were two
printings: for the first a dark blue ink with black gleam was used, for the
second the ink used was intensely black.

Page 44
No. 63










The total quantity of stamps printed-was approximately 100,000, and three
weeks later, on November 22, they iere completely sold out. As this numeral
was hard to-se? an the dark color of there .Stamp th Committee -decided to pre-
pare a new issue, but to change the color of the stamp.

Most often these stamps :are f-ound cancelled in blocks of.four with can-
Scellation requested by -collectors, with the date October 15, 1915.

No. 7 5gr. blue-black on greenish (blue overprint)
No. 7a 5gr. blue-black on greenish -(black overprint)
No. 7b Nos, 7 or 7a with wide "6" overprint

Issue of November 10, 1915(No. 8)

This was the. 10gt. (no. 5) with typographic overprint two numerals
"2", large size.

No. 8 10gr. dark red on buff (NQ. 5) (Black overprint "2 2")
No., 8a 10gr. dark red on buff on (No. 5a)
No.. 8b 10gr. dark red on buff on (No. 5d)
No. 8c Same, e:=ept imperforate (on Nos. 5a and 5b)
No. 8d Without vertical perforations On (No. 5i)

The total- urber of stamps with this overprint was 92,000 but only about
12,000 were used for letters; the rest were sold at the post-office to collect-
ors. .The -supplies were exhausted by December 18, 1915 and. in order to refill
them it-was decided to continue the overprinting of lOgr. stamps, but with a
change in the c-erprint using the sane type of figures as the small surcharge
"6 6" .(No.: 9). -We shall describe it later, under No. 10. It is noteworthy
that overprint No, 8 was carried out uniforily and 'without any variations
appearing on every sheet thus all ''varieties", which can be found on the
stamp market, are to be considered 'as falsifications or fantasies.

..ote:. We advise collectors to. avoid halves of 5gr. or.6gr. starCp: cnI
letters or envelope fragments, with a cancellation date later than November 10,
1915. It is hard t-.. ieve indeed that po.stl clerks enjoyed.cutting the:Ej
stamps in halyes as lt -l d bee-n dne before, at the time when a specialstamp
for printed matter already existed (No. 8).

SStamps printed, but not isnued without overorints

"C1 5gr. light green on grayish-yellow (Nov. 25, 1915), Perforated ll
C2 5gr. light green on grayich-yll ow, inperforate (Only one sheet of
40 stamp;is known)
Dl 5gr. light green on buff (Jan. 10, 1916), Perforated 112
D2 5gr. gzeen on-light buff, imperforatS

Although the stamps C and D were not officially issued without overprints,
nevertheless a few stamps were used and went through the mails. The total qaant
Sixty of s-t.amps C and D printed reached 720,000; 308C000 received the bverprint
"6. 6 in small nunerals (No, 9) and "6gr." with rosettes -(1o. 12). Let us
note that on 1arch22, 1916 40,000 which have not been sold, wore returned to
the Office of the Committee.
") "o 63 Page 45
11o. 63 ...










SIssue of November .22, 1915

No. 9 5gr. (C) with lithographic overprint "6 6" in small numerals

These stamps exist perforated 11- and imperforate. No varieties of the
overprints are encountered, therefore alldouble., inverted, etc. overprints
are to be considered as counterfeits or fantasies. Let us also note that the
counterfeits are often found with a revenue cancellation and not a postal one.

Issue of Decembr .18 1915

10gr. (No. 5) with a lithographic overprint "2 2" in small numerals

No. 10 10 gr. red on yellowish, buff or grayish-yellow, overprint
",2 2", perforated ll- overprintt on. No. 5, 5b and 5d).
No. l0a Same, but small sawtooth roulette instead of perforation

The committee could not give any particulars regarding the rouletted
stamps, although they were sold officially.at the post..office. It is thought
that they were perforated thus because of the breakdown of the perforating
machines.

Although the Local Post of Warsaw had been functioning for 7 months, the
lack of experience of its management was still felt. Stamp issues followed
one another and it was often found that they did not satisfy the needs of the
post office. This was the case of the last mentioned surcharges, which were
found to be unclear and because of difficulty of seeing the overprint on the
dark stamp more liaCle for errors. To avoid this and to make the overprints
more noticeable, it :as decided to issue lOgr. (No. 5) and 5gr. (D) with new
overprints of "2gro"- and "6gr." between two rosettes, which covered the former
value.
S. Issue of February 2, 1916

10 gr. (No. 5) with overprint "2gr,'1 between two rosettes, with 8 rays each.

No. 11 10gr. red with this ovorprir perforated 11-
No. lla lOgr. .; :.- but based Jfr ci:'c;: ...:i....g are Nos. 5a, b, c and d
No. l1b lOgr. red overprinted on in:F-.;:-orate Nos. 5b, c and d

It is quite possible that the imie:5fo:ate sba.os sold at the post office
were leftovers from the typographical stocks, which could not have been perf-
orated in time.

No. llc 1Ogr. red inverted overprint
No. lid lOgr. red., double overpirint
No. lie 10gr. red right rosette has only 6 rays
No. llf 10gr. red as No. lie but with corrected right rosette

Variety No. lie is located in the fourth horizontal row of the 40 stamp
sheet and is number 28 in the pane. The fct that this error is not found on
all ofthe heets of 40 (8x5), plus the typographical markings on the margins
of the sheets allow us to conclude that stamps NO. 11 and 12 were printed in
sheets of 320 starps composed of 8 panes (42)-of 40 stamps. .The error iis
found in the first pane. Its appearance led to speculation and the authori-
ties hurriedly corrected this error by touching up the irregular rosette&

Page 46 No. 63
No. 63










its rays are thinner and the spaces between them are more noticeable.

Forgeries: The stamps with. a 6-ray rosette led to many falsifications
which are not difficult to distinguish. Below I am lisbit;g
the differences between the forgeries a.d the genuine:

1. The interior circle is not round on the counterfeits.
2. The whole rosette is smaller and the rays vary in length.
3. On one cf the counterfeits the rosette is rather well made, but the
numeral "2" has a shorter base than on the genuine stamp.

Same Issue, February 2, 1916

Overprint "6gr." between two 8-ray rosettes on a 5gr. (D)

No. 12 5gr. green on light buff, with overprint, perforated 11
Io. 12a 5gr. g-.en on light buff, imper:corate
INo. 12b 5gr. g-,nr on light buff, dou;)I ov.p-rint
No. 12c 5gr, gxeen on light buff, with sco:_:y displaced background

Stamps Fo. 12 and especially No. 12a, vitio background, are the
res'i.t of the worn out plate. Sloped, displace, and other errors such as
doc-le prints, etc. are either typographical rejects or left over trial
prt tings.

StampsNo, 11 and 12 remained in use until October 20, 1916, after vhich "h
il3e The use of all stamp issues was prohibited and the sta'imps taken ouIL o'
c L.'caLation and placedd by seals with the indication of value.

Cancellin' of Stamps

Committee stamps were cancelled only with special cancellers created
?f btat purpose. Tr'ea different types used are listed below:

1. Circula:' 283mrm. dia. (Fig. 2). Bust of sioan in the center. :
the pe:Mjrot'e at top Committee nzam : -.revsat'ed, below "POCCJ
I.1IEJSKA:" iiuterfeit -- 2rmn. s.ca :.; ,',en .e head and owor.,
while orn en.c:, it is only imm., li.teij e the letters are thicker
and larger.
2. Circular 2'-9.m, dia. (Fig. 3). Double lined circle with' a space in
between for the date (day, month, year and hour) and around the
perimeter saie as Type 1 cancellation.
3. Oval 37yi^, Text same as above, except "WA4PSZAWA", added at the
top. The due, without the indication of "hours" is in the middle of
the frame (hig, 4). Ccunerfeits Smaller with smaller letters.

All cancellations on genuine stamps are in black, except Type I can-
cellation (siren) which may be found in purple or red.

By an order of the occupation authorities, on October 19, 1916 the *,
of all aforementioned stamps was prohibited and the stamps were withdrai-:.. :
sane order introduced, starting October 20, the use of special cancell.l -:l-
with value irdication, which replaced the postage stamps, and whereby tL3
pcstage fee was to be paid by the addressee. The description of these con-
cellations and the new postal regulations wil3 be given in later journal.

No. 63 Page 47










COVERS OF INTEREST TO RUSSIAN AND U.S. COLLECTORS
S^Conclusion from NA2 62
y2 by i.. Kessler

CHECKLIST OF COVER CATEGORIES

The following checklist of types, kinds, or groupings of covers is far
from complete. The check list is given to indicate some of the possible
categories one might collect. Some covers falling in the categories listed
below might not be known to exist, or existing. One example is Type 5b which
may occur only in other country combinations. I have an Austrian Offices in
Turkey cover, with an Austrian stamp sent by an American from the U.S. Con ..'.l-
ate in Jerusalem in 188O0s, with a seal handstamp. The stamp has the Austr'ian
Jerusalem bilingual cancellation, and transit and Boston Paid markings.
Kindly call to my attention any other categories known to you.

1. Out-of-Mail covers (18th and 19th Century).
2. Reflecting Letter Rates and Rate Changes (chronological order).
a. Ship Russia to U.S. and U.S. to Russia.:.
b. Treaty Changes.
c. Additional markings applied to indicate due payments.
3. Transmission and Exchange (Transfer) Office Markings.
a. U.S. to Russia American Packet, British Packet, Portland (Maine)
Packet, other packets (if any), other regulated routings.
European transfer and transiting routings.
b. Russia to U.S. Russian channeling via European points, transfer
points in Europe, transiting points of mail from Eastern Siberian
anl Rasian Offices in China.
4. Thran.ting of U.S. Mail through Russia for points beyond the
Russian Border. (This includes Russian receiving transiting marks).
5. IU.S. Mail using Russian Post Offices Abroad.
a. In China
b. In Turkey
c. Combination (Mixed) Franking: Russia-China-U.S. Postal Agency:
Russian Offices in Turkey channeling.
d. Russian .- U.S. Mail Combination. Russian mail (not franked with
Russian stamps) from China using American channels (probably very
rarely used, if ever).
6. Historical Covers (To be determined by the collector's interest).
a. U.S. to Russia b. Russia to U.S.
7. World War I Covers U.S. Military Covers from Russia (U.S. Occupat.).
a. Censored. Types of Censoring units U.S. intelligence; numeric-
al unit identification.
b. American Forces in Russia.
1. Postal Ezpress Service (MES) location by number (stationary
or mobile).
2 Earliest and latest date of known use.
c. Siberian American Expeditionary Forces (SAEF). Types of Markings
(censor, cancellation).
d. American North Russian Expeditionary Forces AMREF).
1. Different Britieh Postal Service (PB Post British) markings
indicating location (probably in virgin field for study on
agreements between the allies on postal exchanges).
2. Numeral censor and letter (PC) designations.

Page 48 No. 63











e. U.S. Navy Covers used from Russia.
f. Use of Russian Stamps and Postmarks used by U.S. Military
forces in Russia.
g. Corner Cards used in varying combinations with all the above.
1. Y-CA 2. Red Cross 3. Others
h. Use of Russian Civilian Mail and not UvS. Military Postal Service.
8. World War I and Post World War I (non-military).
a. Red Cross Covers
1. Red Cross "cancellations". 2. Free Franking. 3. Corner cards.
b. YMCA Covers different locations and corner cards.
c. U.S. Relief Administration
d. U.S. Service Suspended to Russia.
1. Labels; indicating suspensions
2. "'Intransmissible" markinr p-,tmarks and manuscript.
3. RoE:--'' Via Pacific and Yolcr.tma
e. Russi; : ared covers to U,S.
9. World :a- .;. /'-s (USSR to U.S.)
a. Censc:l- -- ,""3s -
1. Jol:: .: ;.1c-Scviot-Iranian in Iran (numerel designation of
corns..;) .
2. U.S. 'hay 3. U.S. Army. 4. U.S.Military attache makings.
b. U.S. Military using Russian civilian mail routing.
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SE R 0 RO S A D VA II T I S o
D O
0 Large Selection -- Accumulation of 35 years Russia, Border States, o
o Latvia, Lithuania and many other countries. o
o o
o Aso speciaUl3.id -ct.ock of AIRLP ILS nad TOFICALS, U.1., Rotary, U.rF.J o
o Refugee, Euro.p O..yrpics, etc., etc. o
o c
. Kindly write fo- do-tails and or/approvals.

c S SSerebrok.iEn P.O. Box 448 Lonroe, New York
0:'' ... Or 0030COOG.CC OOCOOO3COOOOCOOOOCO' OOCOCCCO'-""" OaOOO3OQO OC O?. C 1C 0)COO ICOOC:,?:;;
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o For sale philatelic literature and over 1000 phoo'-.rtats and many o
o important articles on stamps. Kindly attach reji.; coupons to all o
o inquiries. I also have some complete sets of "a. ia, Ukraina o
o Tridents, etc. o
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o P H I L A T E L I C o
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0
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Fo. 63 Pago 4.










NEW Y ORK, UK RAINA
by Kurt Adler

An item of unusual interest to the collector of Americana in Russian
Philately has come to me lately. It is a cover with 20 kop. Soviet entire
to Berlin, postmarked bilingually New York, Ukr. 1709,33 and the name spelled
in Ukrainian underneath (see illustration). It is fair to assume that this
village or a hamlet does not exist anymore. But it did exist in 1933 and its
existence is documented by the Soviet Postal Guide of 1931. According to tl.h
official source New York is to be located on the railroad line route 79,
Miriupol Wasinovataya Kramatorskaya Krasny Liman Khari.v. No further
e-zL-t location is given. Perhaps some of our Ukrainian members can shed sae
light on this unusual item.


SPECIAL SLUTIK CANCELLATIONS AND C;'.CTS
by Kurt Adler
(continued from #60)

Due to Soviet restrictions on philatelic exchange between Russia and
other countries complete data could not be assembled. Compiling data will
become increasingly more difficult. This ray be the time, however, to make
a distinction between special cancellations ordered by the Ministry of Com-
c'mlizcations and the special cashets put on envelopes by some active philatseic
societies in different cities of course with the sanction of the aurhorities,
such as Kiev, Linsk, Chellabinsk, etc.

A special cancellation must have either one or both of the following
markings:

1. It must contain the letters CCCP (USSR) plus a star and in addition
Pochtampt or Telegraph to the town name of its issue
2. The special cancellation may be and should be affixed to the postasg
stamp The special cachet may not touch the stamp. This is the rul,
although some exceptions have been noted.

Addition to the earlier list

1. Purple cachet of Cheliabinsk "10,000th circling of 3rd Sputnik,
Cheliabinsk 4.4.1960", depicting the trajectory of the sputnik above
a laurel wreath, on the background of a somi-globe.
2. Pu-rple cachet in form of a rhomboid r"Third Artificial Sputnik.
Last day in orbit, Cheliabinsk 6.4.1960C. Cachet depicts third
stage in flight on a background of Spasski Tower and Big Kremlin
building.
2a. Black cachet of Taganrog "12.2.61 Launching of AMS towards Vinus,
Taganrog 12.4.61.' Depicting a globe and anascending rocket.
3. Red Cachet "3rd Soviet Space Ship-Sputnik, Minsk 1.12.1960",
showing space ship in flight.
4. Red circular cancellations "Soviet Man in Space, Moscow Post Off-c
12.4.1961". This is the Gagarin special cancellation showing the
rocket in flight, surrounded by planets.
5. Black cachet "Soviet Man in Space, 12 April 1961, Fr'unae City
Philatelic Society", showing rocket in flight.


Page 50 No. 63
No. 63










NEW Y ORK, UK RAINA
by Kurt Adler

An item of unusual interest to the collector of Americana in Russian
Philately has come to me lately. It is a cover with 20 kop. Soviet entire
to Berlin, postmarked bilingually New York, Ukr. 1709,33 and the name spelled
in Ukrainian underneath (see illustration). It is fair to assume that this
village or a hamlet does not exist anymore. But it did exist in 1933 and its
existence is documented by the Soviet Postal Guide of 1931. According to tl.h
official source New York is to be located on the railroad line route 79,
Miriupol Wasinovataya Kramatorskaya Krasny Liman Khari.v. No further
e-zL-t location is given. Perhaps some of our Ukrainian members can shed sae
light on this unusual item.


SPECIAL SLUTIK CANCELLATIONS AND C;'.CTS
by Kurt Adler
(continued from #60)

Due to Soviet restrictions on philatelic exchange between Russia and
other countries complete data could not be assembled. Compiling data will
become increasingly more difficult. This ray be the time, however, to make
a distinction between special cancellations ordered by the Ministry of Com-
c'mlizcations and the special cashets put on envelopes by some active philatseic
societies in different cities of course with the sanction of the aurhorities,
such as Kiev, Linsk, Chellabinsk, etc.

A special cancellation must have either one or both of the following
markings:

1. It must contain the letters CCCP (USSR) plus a star and in addition
Pochtampt or Telegraph to the town name of its issue
2. The special cancellation may be and should be affixed to the postasg
stamp The special cachet may not touch the stamp. This is the rul,
although some exceptions have been noted.

Addition to the earlier list

1. Purple cachet of Cheliabinsk "10,000th circling of 3rd Sputnik,
Cheliabinsk 4.4.1960", depicting the trajectory of the sputnik above
a laurel wreath, on the background of a somi-globe.
2. Pu-rple cachet in form of a rhomboid r"Third Artificial Sputnik.
Last day in orbit, Cheliabinsk 6.4.1960C. Cachet depicts third
stage in flight on a background of Spasski Tower and Big Kremlin
building.
2a. Black cachet of Taganrog "12.2.61 Launching of AMS towards Vinus,
Taganrog 12.4.61.' Depicting a globe and anascending rocket.
3. Red Cachet "3rd Soviet Space Ship-Sputnik, Minsk 1.12.1960",
showing space ship in flight.
4. Red circular cancellations "Soviet Man in Space, Moscow Post Off-c
12.4.1961". This is the Gagarin special cancellation showing the
rocket in flight, surrounded by planets.
5. Black cachet "Soviet Man in Space, 12 April 1961, Fr'unae City
Philatelic Society", showing rocket in flight.


Page 50 No. 63
No. 63












6. Purple cachet -"Flight of the First Cosmonaut in the World, Y. A.
Gagarin, Cheliabinsk 12 April 1961", depicting the space ship Vostok
flying into a cloud.
"7. Red or Black cancellation "Space Ship-Sputnic Vostok 2, 6.-7.VIII.
1961, Loscow ?ost Offico".
This is the Titov flight. Cancellation
shows space ship circling the globe,
8. Black Special cancellation "Cosmic spaceship Vostok 3, 25 hours of
Cosmic flight". Rostov on Don 6 7,VIII. 1961. Showing trajectory
of sputnick.
9. P-rple or Red Violet oval cachet "G.S. Titov, 6.-7.VIII. 1961,
Cheliabinsk", showing space ship Vpstok 2 on background of elliptic
globe, surrounded by laurel wreaths.
10. Black cancellation "USSR Anniversary of First Flight of Man into
Cosmos. Kief Post Office 12-4-1962". Depicting rocket and globe.
11. Black cachot- "First group flight of spaceships Vostok 4 and Vostok
5 11.--15,8,62. Moscow Post Office 15.8.62". depicting twin rockets
and hammer and sickle leaving the top of the globe.

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o 0
o I buy and exchange paper money. Kindly contact o
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. Y'ol for specialists ----

E T R E 1I E L Y A C C URAT E

A S U I! G GAU GE

SF:, careful measurement of stamps, overprints, postmarIs, etc. This
". :.1brated gau&e is accurately marked with -mm. spaces, Can be used
,.Lh or without a magnifying glass) to measure even to tenth of mm
U. -ge is engraved on shrink and expansion proof permanent plexi-
glass.

P PR ICE '5.00 P ST PAID

. S A 1 U E L RA Y 350 Oakdale Avenue Chicago 14, Illinois .









FLA.S ON THE I R STMIPS OF_ Th 1906-1922 ISSUES
by E. F. Nowman
(Cont. from #62)

TIE 1917 PRINTINGS

Scott No., 109a: S. G. No. 147a
Sheet size 50 stamps (7x8, with crossed V's 3 each in the top and bottom
rows.)

Stamp No. 2 Flaw B.B and C.C Stamp No. 11 Flaw A.B
Stamp No. 4 Flaw B.E and V.B Stamp No. 12 Flaw V.D
Stamp No. 5 Flaw A.J Stamp No. 13 Flaw S.C and V.A
Stamp No. 6 Flaw B.H Stamp No. 14 Flaw A.A
Stamp No. 7 Flaw A.P Stamp No. 16 Flaw A.G and AJ.
Stamp No. 8 Flaw A.R and C.E Stamp No. 17 Flaw A.E and A.S
Stamp No.10 Flaw A.C, A.F, Stamp No. 18 Flaw A.M and B.C
A.L and AQ
Stamp No. 20 Flaw A.0 and D.A, also additional flaws as stamp No. 11 of the
1906 printings. Stamp No. 38 Flaw C.D (Top I-F-L badly
Stamp No. 21 Flaw C.D and D.D broken on the L .H side).
Stamp No. 22 Flaw B.G and D.B Stamp No. 42 Flaw '.A (The Huddy Flaw)
Stamp No. 23 Flaw A.D, A.I &B.A Stamp No. 43 Flaw B.D
Stamp No. 24 Flaw A.H Stamp No. 44 Flaw S.D (Top I-F-L badly broken
Stamp No. 25 Flaw B.F on the R.F. side)
Stamp No. 27 Flaw S D (Top I-F-L
badly broken on the left side).Stamp No. 46 Flaw D.C, V.E and V.F
Stamp No. 31 Flaw A.T, C.B &C.D Stamp No. 50 Flaw A.N (Top I-F-L badly
Stamp No. 35 Flew S.A (The broken
Huddy Flaw)

On late printings of this period, other flaws have been found but have
not yet been established as constant flaws. I have a single copy of stamp
No. 8 which shows a flaw similar to Flaw C.D as well as the listed flaws.

Mr. Liphschut. has block of nine consisting of stamps No. 41 to 45 and
47 to 50. No 42 shows the RODDY FLAW but No. 43 does not show Flaw B.D. On
No. 44, the bottom part of the oarl Scrolls at the base, -s, of the Base
I-F-L and part of the R.H I--F-L are missing. It also shows flaws similar to
C.B, C.C, C.D and C E and the tip of tho fifth leaf down on the R.H side is
also missing. S t;a No. 50 still shows Flaw A.N although the printing of all
the block is very weak and under inked in appearance.

Scott No. 70: S G. No. 67 1917 Printings 0P 10 DTOLLARS, China P.O.s.

I have the following copies, stamps No. 8, 24 and the HUDDY FLAW. (Note
on the HUDDY FLAW, I have not been able to find any other flaw on these two
cliches so that they can be identified separately). (See also B.J.R.P. No. 23,
page 125; and No. 27, page 13).

Scott No. 135: S.G. Nos. 169 end 169a 1917 Imperf Issues

I have every reason to believe that all the flaws that occur on the 1917
perfo'L-atad issues, occur also on the imperforate issues. I have not been
for.'vnate enough to examine a complete sheet but I have seen or been notified

Page 52 No. 63










of the following copies. Camp Nos. 2, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 23, 24, 35, 42
4 and 43.

I have also a copy of stamp No. 8 with the additional flaw as listed in
my remarks on the perforated issues, and a copy of stamp Uo. 18 with a large
flaw, approximately 2mm. wide and deep, on the R.H side of the Name Tablet,
obliterating flaw B.C.

THE 1918-19 FRI-TINGS

Scott No. 109; S.G. No. 147b Layout of the sheet is the same as the 1917

Stamp No. 1 Flaw B.G & DB Stamp No. 30 Flaw V.B
Stamp No. 8 Flaw D.C, VE &V.F Stamp No. 39 Flaw A.H (Not very
Stamp No. 14 Flaw B.A clear)
;tamp No. 15 Flaw D.A & additional flaws Stamp No. 40 Flaw S.C & V.A
as on stamp No. 11 of 1906. Stamp No. 47 Flaw C.C
Stamp No. 24 Flaw C E Stamp NO. 1,9 Flaw S.B (THE
Stamp No. 27 Flaw C.D & D.D Stackelberg Retouch)

See also Rossica Journal No. 55, p.ge 30; and "Varieties of the 5R and
10R. by E.C. Peel in B.J.R.P., N:o. 25, page 4."

These later printings range from good to very badly printed. Not enough
is yet known about them to be able to sort out all the inconstant flaws from
the constant. Solid corners of the I-F-L are common and not always constant.

Stamp No. 1 (Flaws E.C and D.B), M. Liphschutz reports the earliest
dated copy so far found to be 15-5-19 and the latest 23-11-20. This cllchs
does not show on the nent printings (1919-22). The Stackelberg Retouch, how-
ev3r, k-ces show on the 1919 22 printings and the earliest dated copy so far
known is 15-f-19 and plates+ 3-321. We should be pleased to hear from anyone
who has earlier or later postmarks.

TH 191 9.22 FF7 RI"TGS

Scott No. 109; S.G. No. 147b Layout of the sheet sane as on 1917 printing

Stamp No. 2 Flaw V.C (THE SKLARPEVV I Stamp No. 19 Flaw R (TiH LINK FLA.)
"TILAW) see also Rossica Lo. 55, page 31 Staimp No. 24 Flaw .E
S!amp No. 7 Flaw .A (The FML FLAW) Stamp No. 30 Flaw V.B
See also Rossica No. 58, page 67; and Stamp No. 40 Flaw S.C & V.A
S.J R.P. No. 25, page 4. Stamp Io. 47 Flaw C.C
S .r: No. 8 Flaw D.C, V.S & V.F Stamp No. 49 Flaw S (THE
L .::. No. 14 Blaw B.A STACKELEE-E FiLU)
.ip No. 15 Flaw D.A & additional
-Laws as on stamp No. 11 of the 1906.

The earliest copy of the SKLAR3V3SKI FLAW is in a pair with No. 1
-i'thout flaws B.G & D.B is 17-7-19. Latest copy, 29-10-20. The PEL FLAW,
orliest copy, 14-7-19 (All reported by 1. Liphschutz).

J7::TION TO FLAYS LIST Round Value Tablet Flaws

R. B (THE LINK FLA'). See ILLUSTPATION. A color dot at 11 o'clock o-ver

Yo. 63 Pazr rl











the "0" in the L.H. Round V-T. (Stamp No. 19 on the 1919-22 printings). This
flaw has been sent to me by Vincent V. Link of Ohio. The position on sheet
was found by M. Liphschutz of Paris.

Re identifying the various printings.

Dr. C. de Stackelberg's excellent articles on the "Arms Type Stamps" in
Nos. 57 to 62 of the Rossica Journal; as well as his article 'Notes on Sheet
Margins" in No. 61 should be referred to by those unable to distinguish bet-
ween the various printings. Many shades e:dst of some printings.
000000000000000000000000C000000000000000000
oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0 0
o ALE XAN ER BISK o
o 280 Riverside Drive o
o New York 25, N.Y o
o o
"o Want lists for collectors and dealers are filled by return mail. Better o
"o grade approvals by country also are available. Many rarities &oddities o
"o for specialists. Other countries are also on hand. o
o o
o RUSSIA BENELUX BALKANS CENTRAL-ESTTPN & EASTERN EUROPE SCANDINAVIAo
o o
o also CF's3S. o




R U S S IA P LAND UN I T E D NAT I O NS .

New issue Service, covers, varieties and errors.
Want Lists are filled. Russian Empire, Soviets and Zemstvos.
All of the above are in stock and are sent on approval.

T he L. & F. S T AMP S E R V I CE

Box # G r a nd L ed a e d i c h i an

........................................

0000000000000000000000O0000000000000OOOO00000000000000000000000000000000000
o 0
o We welcome advertisements from members, non members and dealers. o
o Full page add is $30.00, hahf_a-3 g. $15.00, auar:. a:Qe !'7.50 and o
o 5 lines $2.50. Members of Rossica pay only 50' .,. the aforementioned o
o rates. Net cost of advertisements to a member is therefore only 25 o
o cents per line. Why not take advantage of the very low rates arnd
o advertise for your wants* o
0
"o We have on sale a few back issues of the Journal which is getting 0
o scorer and scarcer, both in Russian and English languages. o
0 O
"qOC 0000 COO 00 000 OOOO 0000 O0000 00000 000000000000000

Pege 54 No. 63










JUGO SLAV POST IN SIBE IA
by R. Polchaninoff

"Probably no one among the Russian collectors knows of the existence of
stamps of the "Ist Jugoslav Regiment of Matia Tubotz;' which formed a part of
the Czochosl.ovkian armed forces in Siberia.

The basis of this statement is the catalogue "N. RUKAVINA, ITA SE ;A.'
BILJEZI I CjELITE, SAFAJEVO 1929" and certain data which I received porsonally
from the author, for which I offer my dcepcst gratitude.

These stamps were prepared by overprinting diagonally, in three lines,
the perforated and inperforate stamps of the Ceoch Logicn (Scott Nos. 31 to 33,
inclv!iv) :'"R V I JU GOSL A V ENSK I P UK U S I B IR IS I".
The Jugoslav regiment was a part of the Czech Legion.

Sincn N. Rukavina Cat. has long ago become a rarity, I present the
following translation from the Sorb-Croat text:

During World War 1, the Ist Jugoslavian regiment "l:atia Tubets" issued
100 3ets each of the perforated 1- and imperforate stamps. The basic Czech
Loe'.on charity stamps were overprinted "P r v i J u g o s 1 a v e n s k i
F u k u Si b i r i s i". Besides the aforementioned stamps small quanti-
ti3s of proofs were likewise made by overprinting the stamps in red.

All of the stamps mentioned above are rarities to-day, states A. Novotry.
the present Director of Posts in Prague, who was during World War I the head
"of military port in Harbin. and also worked in the Jugoslav regiment. He arso
states that ony 50 sets of each series were given to the regiment and that
none probably survive now.

These stamps were listed in the "KAFLA_K" catalogue. In the "Brief-
marken-sarler" is-ao of 22.VII.1928, I. Coller state;- ,h cJO stamps were
issued for the Jugcslav regiment, It seems that thare a:- -; serious opinions
on the subject.

On page 34 of the above mentioned catalogue is an illustration of a
corner of a letter of the "American YMCA Soldier's Mail" with a 5Ck. imp-
cr- crate stamp tied to the piece with a circular cancellation reading "Polni
Fr--a Poste !ilitaire ", and in the center in Lhree l_is "Cesco
c\L'vansko Voiskon and a post horn. According to descripticrt There is no date.
".a :;e upper left corner of the letter is an incomplete ru-b;- canceller
mipIking, in old Russian orthography reading, "C Z E C H 0 S O V A K
A 1 E Y".

ir* Fa.kavina, in his letter irfcrmcd me that the afore mentioned
stamps were issued by A. Novotny and the brother of H. Ruka-i-, tne publ!.s-r
cf the catalogue, A. RTkcavina, now deceased, who during the war was Major of
the Jugoslav Regiment, in V1adivostok. Regrettably the only oeamplos of th:-
series, in author's collection, were lost during the World War II, thus I --
unable to find out the method used in overprinting those stamps.

Thase series were described in detail in a brochure by A. Novotny, en-
S..tled "Polna Posta C, S Vojeka Na RuPi"., Brno 192?, also in "Frizucrik Fira-
e:(._istickog Saveza Hrevatske, Zagreb i95'7 on page 253.

ic. 63 Page 55










It is also mentioned in his manuscript "Razvitak Poste" which soon
will be published the Jugoslavian Academy of Sciences.
oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

RUSSIAI BOY SCOUT CACHETED COVERS
by R. Polchaninoff

During 1962 the Organization of Russian Young Scouts issued to commemo-
rative envelopes, which are described below.

On July 17, 1962 a centenary of elevation into the rank of general, the
hero of the American Civil War, John Turchin2 a Don Cossak Ivan V. Turchaninov;.
was celebrated by issuance of a commemorative envelope with the portrait of
the General of the NorthernArmy with text in English. The envelope was print-
ed in Brooklyn,New York, July 17, 1962. The price of the envelope is 15 cents,

The second envelope was issued to commemorate 150th anniversary of the
founding of Fort Ross. On the envelope isa reproduction of the fort from an
old engraving -nd text in English. On the envelope is also a 5 cent Scout
Post stamp, overprinted in English in four lines "1812 Fort Ross 1962
cents". Since there is no post office at Fort Ross, young scouts d-' i.ver
letters from the fort to the nearezt post office in Jenner, Califoriia. Tl .
the scout stamps serve as a payment for the delivery of a letter from Fc,;
Ross to a United States post office. This post can be compared to tha Z,;;:
Post of Russia. The price of each envelope is 20 cents plus postage an'i cu
be obtained from the author, whose address is 41 Montark Avenue, Brookly'i 6,
New York.

The envelopes were issued in quantities of 500 each and stamps in 600C0.

Editorial Notice; We are publishing the aforementioned article bocalu? o
consiJ.'e the Scout stamp of intorost to th3 colt. : f
vig:ites or labels (non-Scott material) and the envalonc.s
of inLe:st to topical collectors.
oooooooooooooooooooooooo


A NEW CHECK LIST OF TFF ARMS TYPE ISSUES OF 1909-1923
(Continued from #63)
b_ Dr.C. deo S+,ackelber

7 Ruble Stamp
Vert. Hor,?;,
Vertical Chalk Chalk Chackl
Lines Lines
.Perf..Imperf. Perf oratoe
1917 III
Type I Type. T
1. Colors
A. Perf. 13- (On horiz. chalk line stamps
perforation is 13J-ox32-
a. Deep blue green/pink F.P. 1917) X
b. Blue green/pink X
c. Myrtle greer/pink X X

Page 56 No. 63
No. 63










It is also mentioned in his manuscript "Razvitak Poste" which soon
will be published the Jugoslavian Academy of Sciences.
oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

RUSSIAI BOY SCOUT CACHETED COVERS
by R. Polchaninoff

During 1962 the Organization of Russian Young Scouts issued to commemo-
rative envelopes, which are described below.

On July 17, 1962 a centenary of elevation into the rank of general, the
hero of the American Civil War, John Turchin2 a Don Cossak Ivan V. Turchaninov;.
was celebrated by issuance of a commemorative envelope with the portrait of
the General of the NorthernArmy with text in English. The envelope was print-
ed in Brooklyn,New York, July 17, 1962. The price of the envelope is 15 cents,

The second envelope was issued to commemorate 150th anniversary of the
founding of Fort Ross. On the envelope isa reproduction of the fort from an
old engraving -nd text in English. On the envelope is also a 5 cent Scout
Post stamp, overprinted in English in four lines "1812 Fort Ross 1962
cents". Since there is no post office at Fort Ross, young scouts d-' i.ver
letters from the fort to the nearezt post office in Jenner, Califoriia. Tl .
the scout stamps serve as a payment for the delivery of a letter from Fc,;
Ross to a United States post office. This post can be compared to tha Z,;;:
Post of Russia. The price of each envelope is 20 cents plus postage an'i cu
be obtained from the author, whose address is 41 Montark Avenue, Brookly'i 6,
New York.

The envelopes were issued in quantities of 500 each and stamps in 600C0.

Editorial Notice; We are publishing the aforementioned article bocalu? o
consiJ.'e the Scout stamp of intorost to th3 colt. : f
vig:ites or labels (non-Scott material) and the envalonc.s
of inLe:st to topical collectors.
oooooooooooooooooooooooo


A NEW CHECK LIST OF TFF ARMS TYPE ISSUES OF 1909-1923
(Continued from #63)
b_ Dr.C. deo S+,ackelber

7 Ruble Stamp
Vert. Hor,?;,
Vertical Chalk Chalk Chackl
Lines Lines
.Perf..Imperf. Perf oratoe
1917 III
Type I Type. T
1. Colors
A. Perf. 13- (On horiz. chalk line stamps
perforation is 13J-ox32-
a. Deep blue green/pink F.P. 1917) X
b. Blue green/pink X
c. Myrtle greer/pink X X

Page 56 No. 63
No. 63










Vertical Chalk Vert. Horiz.
Lines Chalk lines
Perf.. .Imperf. Porf orated
1917 III
Ty pe I Type II
d. Myrtle green/roso pir-k X X
e. Myrtle green/flesh X
B. P e rf o r a t e d 2
a. Jeep blue green/pink. Typo I X
b. Myrtle green/pink. Type II X

?. Er r o r s
a. Chalk lines missing X x
b. Chalk lines diagonally on back of stamp (folded over) X
c. Offset of stamp X
d. Offset of frame X
e.. Intaglio of stamp X
f. Intaglio of frame X X
g. Frame missplaced to S X
h. Background and center missing X
i. Background and center missing (Perf. 12T) X
j. Background misplaced X
k. Background and center misplaced X X
1. Center inverted (imperfcrate stamp) X
m. center missplaced X
n. Center misplaced to '1, background misplaced. X
o. Center r:-placed to left horizontally X
p. Center ;.:'-aced down vertically X
q. Center I: Ilaced down vertically (Perf. 12-) X
r. Center misplaced down vertically (Imperforate stamp) X
s. Imperf orate between Iair of stamps X
t. 1Perforations missing at the bottom X
u. Perforations missing at the left X
v. Perforation double .t the top X

3. Perforation Varietie s
a. Perforated 12- X
h. Triperf orate X X X
c. Rough perforations X

L4. 0"utilated Crown" variety X X

10 Ruble St a E p

Var1il.'I :, r! Lines
forf. i :. I f.
II I TT
1. Co. 1 o r s
A. Ferf. 13t
a. Rose red/yellow/gray (F.P. 1915)
i. Scarlet/yell ow/ ray
c. Scarlet/yellow E'- -.ay ,
d. Scarlet/yael : y
e. 3aarnine/yelge:':.5K & '
Page 5;
ITo. 63










Vertical Chalk Lines
Perf. Imperf. Perf.
II II III
f. Brownish carmine/yellow/dark gray X

B. Pin Pe r f o r a t e d 13-
a. Carmine/yellow/dark gray X
b. Brownish carmine/yellow/dark gray X

Ct Perf o r ated 12T
a. Carmine/yellow/dark gray X

P. E r or s
a. Chalk lines omitted X
b. Chalk lines omitted and retouch (See under 5.) X
c. Offset inverted X
d. Intaglio of stamp X
e. Intaglio of background (misplaced) X
f. Intaglio of frame X
g. Intaglio of frame & background misplaced horizontally to the left X
1. Intaglio of center X
i. Double frame and imperforate at the left X
j. Double center X X
k. Double center, one of which is misplaced up vertically X
1. Printed on both sides (double) X or X
m. Printed double on the front, also background on back X
n. Background misplaced to the right, horizontally X X
o. Background misplaced to the left, horizontally X
p. Background rmi.placed to the left, horizontally & intaglio of frame X
q. Background xTlplaced to the SW X
r. Background misplaced down, vertically X
s. Background misplaced down, vertically & intaglio of background (Perf.T 'I
t. Background misplaced and printed also on the back X
u. Center missing X
v. Center misplaced X X
w. Center misplaced to the left, horizontally X
x. Center misplaced to the right, horizontally X X
y. Center misplaced to SE X
z. Center misplaced up, vertically X
aa. Imperforate at the top X
ab. Imperforate at the left X
ac. Perforation misplaced up X
ad. Perforation misplaced to the right X
ae. Perforation misplaced down X
af. Perforation misplaced to SW, on stamp with light
blue center (See 6 "The error of color) X

3. Per f orat on i o r tie
a. Imperforate X
b. Rough perforations X
c. Rough perforations, one stamp with retouch (See undgr 5.) X
d. Perforated 121
e. Pin perforated X



Page 58 No. 63








Vertical Chalk Lines
?erf. Imperf. Perf.
4. P 1 ate F 1 a w s II II III
For a detailed check list of plate flaws on the 10
j Ruble stamps of various issues, see articles by lr.
i E.F. Newman in Rossica '#s 61, 62 and 63. X X X

5. R e t touches
a. Stackolberg Retouch below center, see Rcssica
755, page 30. X X
b. Stackelberg retouch with chall lines missing X
c. Stackolberg retouch on stamps with rough perforations X

6. Error of Color
With light blue center of the 5 Ruble stamp, slightly
mispaced towards the top. (See Rossica #28 of 1937)
Rated as PR X

7. Fake
Blue gray center, to represent the error of color
listed under 6., except the center is not misplaced.
Probably the color of the center changed chemically X
00000000000000000000000000

........ .. ......... ......... ..0 .....O.... .. ..... ... ...................

P 7STA A7 i2T PHILATELIC CSTER

0
Stamps and C ove rs of the Worl d

S1. All P hi ate l ic Supp ie s


S10 9 W. 4 3 rd. S t r e e t, N. Y. 36, e w Y o r k




N 0 TES F R C O LLECT ORS

O. Fabnrge Helsiiki Tolo, Finl7n

Re arding an early envelope in collection of Arthur Shields, written
in Rossica No. 61.

1,r. Shield's note regarding his difficulties in classifying an early
Imperial envelope is very interesting as it proves once more thct some of
these early envelopes of Imperial Russia can not be properly classified
using the listings of Ascher and other available catalogues.

In my article on this subject I tried to correct some early catalogue
errors and to propose a new table for classification (See Rossica #62, p
18 and 19). Using these tables, the sizes as well as the knives, Mr. ^i-
envelope is very easily classified as No. 4c. This envelope is vury sca(r.
but as far as I understand it is neither odd nor extraordinary.

/ o. 63 Page










I do not know the exact year of printing of the aforementioned envelope,
but according to dates found on envelopes in my collection, it is probably not
later than 1863. My earliestdate is 15,2.1863 and the latest is 6.6.1866. I
believe that the year 1962 of printing, as listed by Ascher might be correct,
but not the size nor the knife, as listed by him.


Regarding r. A. M. Wortmants "K I T A II overprints First Issue

In his interesting article on the "Kitai" overprints, in Rossica No. 62,
Br. Wortman states that so far he has not seen any forged overprints on the
horizontally laid paper issue. I am sorry to report that this particular sort
of "artists" have practised their "profession" also on the stamps of this
issue. There is a forged overprint on a 3 kop. stamp of this issue in my
small forgery-collection. The color of this overprint is rather light blue
and there are small traces of some kind of frame or corner angles partly vi-
sible on the perforations of the four corners.

"1 6" or 9 ODESSA or T A U R 0 G GE N

As the dotted oval, numeral postmark "6" of Odessa is sometimes mistaken
for the similar "9" postmark of Tauroggen, and vice-vorsa (see illustration on
page 28 of Rossica No. 51), I give hero a reproduction of both and one way how
to recognize each one.

0 D E S S A No. 6 wit' a straight numeral "6", the length of the oval
approximately 22mm.
T A U R 0 G GE N No. 9 with a curved numeral 19'", the length of the oval
is somewhat smaller, being approximately 21.5mm.

Wa t e r m a rk on Po t a va Z em s tv ostam s

In No. 58 of the Rossica Journal Mr. Matishev asks about the watermark on
the 1912 issues of service-type stamps of the Poltaava Zeoctvo. This sheet-
watermark can be found on all of the stamps of this design. It is true that
neither the literature (known to me) nor the catalogues mention anything re-
garding the watermark on these issues.

It is a pleasure for me to present here a reproduction of the complete
watermark which I su';r. :'d in reconstructing from various blocks of four, pairs
and singles in my cA..l tion. According to Schmidt all of these stamps were
printed in sheet, cf 25 (5x5), but singles, pairs and even larger multiple
pieces can be found without any sign of even parts of the watermark. The reason
being that the paper apparently was much larger than 20x24cm. (the size neces-
sary for printing of a sheet of 25 stamps with margins). After a study of all
of the items in my collection which have any part of the watermark visible, I
came to conclusion that the stamps almost never were printed in the middle of
the sheet of wanom:narked paper, with the stamp No. 13 of the sheet in the middle
of the watermaxk thus placing the monogram "M T" correctly on one stamp.

You can find almost any part of the watermark on any and all stamps of the
sheet including marginal copies. This makes me believe that the paper was
placed for printing in all possibleo positions (normal, inverted, sideways, and
upside down). It would be indeed int-resting to know the position of the wate3
mark on a complete sheet of these .;mps if any of the readers happen to have
a complete sheet in their collection, -

Page 60
No, 63










John LLoyd, Colchester, Essex, England

Going through Journal No. 55 on the article "Retouch of LOR. Arms" by
rr. C. de Stackolborg, page 31, it is stated that illustration "F' the joined
"BL" could be on stamps No. 41 to 44L I have flaws on stamp No. 2 of a comple-
to sheet, which also has the "Stackolberg retouch", illustration C on stamr No.
49, this last, as already recorded. I have it again on stamp No. 2 of the top
half of the sheet. Both of these oyxmpls are carmino lake, perforated 131.
I can not find it on red variety,

Eduard Fomin, Munich, Germany

I note in #60, in the ""otcs From Collectors" a comment by Mr. Link, re-
garding his two stamps (10r. Scott #109) with an open right hand zero. A
photo is shown of same in the journal. Ho may be interested to learn that I
also have such a copy, with the upper part of the right "0I only partly
broken, and greatly damaged. It seems that as a consocuence the damaged part
gradually broke off producing the open "0" variety.

Maor A. Predo, Rio do Janeiro, Brazil

R e g a r d i n g t h e 1 5 k o r. Arm s I s su 0, LARGE IE

I have seen a mnction of two dies of the 15 kop. arms issue perforated
and imporforate. The Ist in the Imperial section of the Reynold's catalo.
on Russia and the 2nd in Rossica #62. Searching through the copies in my
collection 1 found 7 copies irperforate (one block of four, overprinted star
and 10Or.) and 2 copies perforated (one overprinted star and 40r.). Accux ,.c:
rmoasaroments give size of 17x23mn, and ths blue oval; with the same size
normal die, sooms to fluctuate in the white center. The perforated copy I,:
three sijdo t.onchmud by the 14- perforations. The imporforate block of I
'as ntl of the stamps with the large die, and the single imncfcato co-iov,
;,u of different shades (lato printing). It suggests to me that not o:'i
stamp in the sheet was reongrLved, but at least one pane. I have no lar E
pieces of the large die to confirm my assumptions, and therefore I urge -,:
collectors with more materiel to study ry problem so that it may be solvoc.


A cancellation which yuzzlos me is not 'l.'a.' yol" but "Maryapo..." (wh.-'h
is incomplete), two circles, 28 and 18mm. ,ro- :cti-Ceoly, a star, and dated
23.1.13. The cancellation on the 14 kop. Romanoi .is not complete. May be :t
is "'Yiryapol" or "N'iryapcvim". I have checked se:r-l lists of Russian tc;,.s
and posts and could not find any towns beginning with "'aryapo. .. I hope o
have more luck.

George Russell Auckland, rTow Znaland

I was delighted to receive Rossica 61 and to read all interesting "nrm "
in it, especially CRONIN'S stuff on Tannu-Touva (I have similar mint striT
of the "locals" illu-trated). I have never seen any of these locals on (;*
- guess they are very rrre. I also enjoyed reading the news "Covers c'
Interest" on pages 8 to 15. It is always nice to know what the next bijl::

I received yesterday a money-order form bearing a 15 kop. Russir '
Zcmstvo on it of two (2) kop., one bisected. They are 1RBIT locals, s-

!o. 63 Page t
S63











by illustrations in old Auction Catalogues that I have. The Russian postmarks
on the piece also show Irbit, the date being 1909.

The 1 ruble recent Soviet stamps printed on silver foil are a novelty.
I believe they had only a small printing, more of a test. Tnoro were two type.
one having a small circular overprint in rod, and one normal. I have the lattc
used on a letter to me from Moscow, and I am trying to get one with red over-
print.

J. V. Woolam House of Commons. London, England

I would like to mention a cover that I have in my collection, dated 1903
from the British cruise ;,R i.M.S. Argonautn (name embossed on the envelope).
The letter landed at Wei-Hai-Woi (Chinese cancel here), then sent on to
Chofoo, where a 10k. Rsesian Offices in China stamp was cancelled with Type I.
Also Chefoo Chinese .O. cancel.

James W. Culver, Lyhviooid California

In #62 Vsuvolod Popov wanted to know the earliest cancellation of Scott
C6-9. I have o copy of No. C6 cancelled Moskva. No.4, 26-5-24.

Lydia Callahan, Brooklyn. Now York

I am enclosing for your inspection an envelope for Imperial Russian
Correspondence, beige in color with a cover cachet in blue, of the Imperial
eagle post horns, and "Correspondence Imperial" mss,on the top "a Sa Majoste
1lImporatrice d'Allemagnoe, backstamped Berlin C. Cabinets P.A.17.4.90.

A. Cronin, Windsor, Ontario, Canada

Enclosed are two stamps of the Romanov Tercentenary Issue of 1913, can-
cJlGcd to order by the Soviets. The cancellations are "Ilinsky Pogost 12c -
C:-.i:hovo Zeovo P. V." and "Orokhovo Zuevo. 12b. Ilinsky Pogost P. V.". of
the Moscow Gubeo.n.i:, (Editor-those are railroad cancellations between abo-v
toi:ns trains 21 and 12c in English letters; P. V. means Pochtovy Vagon
F.ilway Postal Car

Freo dT. Speors. Escondido, Calif ornia

Do you know by any chance what were the years of issuance and use of the
S'aic:jrk horsj fc :-ampst As I got it, they were indicative of the tax
hj ,nAi been p:- .an ho foes for the use of horses. (I have two of them,
in'i-dentally, of different values.

Ja-cueos Posell. Cl ovl and Heights, Ohio

There is an a-ticle in the Soviet Collectioner Journals which you and
R!-mrn Sklarovk. . e on the revenue stQa!s c.f Simbitsk which I:or issued by
the local zemu;:,- :.- 1890 as a tax for roening horses for travel. Photos
enclosed. I a cr '.h3 opinion that articlr- on unusual subjects like this
should be trans,_laoud and reprinted in the modern Rossica Journal whether we
have anything to add to them or not, so as io make available to our members
data which otherwise is known .to only a few, who are lucky enough to know the
language and to have the scn.:.e jouicrnals.

Page 62 No.63










Dr. G. B. Salisbury, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Correspondents have sent covers with North Pole drifting stations 10 & 11
on postmarks. Those wero bogun in 1937-38. No. 9 was ovacaated recently when
it began to break up. he floe station No. 10 is still in operation. No. 11
began to drift in the Arctic Ocean, past North Pole to an area North of Green-
land. Your editor li-ewlso received a cover from Pamir Expodition, bearing a
circular cachet, inscribed "British Expedition to the Pamirs" and "1962" in a
double ring, in the center. The cover bears a Soviet stamp and a boxed
"Mozhdunarodnaya" maki:.ng.
oooo0000ooo0000ooooo00oooooo00000000000

L1T TERATURE REVIEW

The British Journal of Russian Philately No. 31, published by the British
Society of Russian Philately, and edited by Hon. Editor P. T. Ashford of 79a
Victoria Road, Warminstor, Wiltshire England.

Editor Ashford should be congratulated for the general excellence of the
Journal. The contents are varied and informative, and the editing is superb.
The illustrations show great improvement over the past, in clarity.

Among the articles in No. 31 we liked the Varieties of Flourons and Post-
horns on Imperial Russian Cancellations, by F. Julius Fohs, who also wrote
the "Revised Summary of the Printing and Plates of the Russian Arms Issues
1908-22". "Georgia: The 1918 60k. Provisional of Sotchi", and "Post Offices
on the Georgian Military Road" by P. T. Ashford. Other articles which appealJ
were: "Key and Flower Watermarks" by H. Irmann-Jacobscn, "Outstanding Covers'
by I.L.G. Baillio and Dr. A.H. Wortman, "Odessa Cancellations: The Interrupted
Double Circle or Bridge Type" by I.L.G.Baillie and members of the Ukraine
S-tdy Group, Cliff Handford on Zemstvos, a further note on "Octagonal T.P.O'F
by Kurt Adler, "Finland: The printt of the 1856 Issue" by R.P. Knighton, a
"S,:-riot Perforation Variety", and "Notes on Soviet Ship Marks" by A.S. Waugh
+-' 'Dot Postmarks: Further Information" by Dr. A.H. Wortman, the "Zemstvo
LuazCttoor" by Fred W. Spoers, also society notes "The American Samovar" by T.
C Salisbury, and "A Collectors Calendar" by P.T. Ashford, and "Used Abrocci
CrL.oniclo IV" by S.D. Tchilinghirian.

FISCAL STAMPS OF THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT. RSFSR A:D USSR
by E.E. Stofanovsky, Kharkov 2, USR

J. Posell sont us the American Rovcnucr, June 1961 & April, 1962 which
"ortained oxcoi. t articles on the Russian fiscal stamps. rirst part covers
the :Imperial arn'.c ovisional Government issues up to 1917, ii<1 4sive, adding
trnco which are not in the Forbin Catalogue or are incorrectly listed. The
S-,j nd Part covers RSFSR and USSR issues. The Third Part doscr:ies the rover-
s-;..s issued by the N.W. Army, North Rogion, Ukraine, Crimoa: -ogional Gov...
r::t, Governments of Gocns. Lor.iL-in and Wrangol, Terek Ropublic, Azerbaijan.
A.- :?iia, Georgia, Batum, Trc.nzeaucasian S.F.S.R., Bukhara, Khc:e.- : Somiro-
T. i:caspia, Turkestan, Siberia, Far East, and Tannu-Touva. Th Tecroemont
a.: -lo is very useful.


No. 63 I'g










Dr. G. B. Salisbury, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Correspondents have sent covers with North Pole drifting stations 10 & 11
on postmarks. Those wero bogun in 1937-38. No. 9 was ovacaated recently when
it began to break up. he floe station No. 10 is still in operation. No. 11
began to drift in the Arctic Ocean, past North Pole to an area North of Green-
land. Your editor li-ewlso received a cover from Pamir Expodition, bearing a
circular cachet, inscribed "British Expedition to the Pamirs" and "1962" in a
double ring, in the center. The cover bears a Soviet stamp and a boxed
"Mozhdunarodnaya" maki:.ng.
oooo0000ooo0000ooooo00oooooo00000000000

L1T TERATURE REVIEW

The British Journal of Russian Philately No. 31, published by the British
Society of Russian Philately, and edited by Hon. Editor P. T. Ashford of 79a
Victoria Road, Warminstor, Wiltshire England.

Editor Ashford should be congratulated for the general excellence of the
Journal. The contents are varied and informative, and the editing is superb.
The illustrations show great improvement over the past, in clarity.

Among the articles in No. 31 we liked the Varieties of Flourons and Post-
horns on Imperial Russian Cancellations, by F. Julius Fohs, who also wrote
the "Revised Summary of the Printing and Plates of the Russian Arms Issues
1908-22". "Georgia: The 1918 60k. Provisional of Sotchi", and "Post Offices
on the Georgian Military Road" by P. T. Ashford. Other articles which appealJ
were: "Key and Flower Watermarks" by H. Irmann-Jacobscn, "Outstanding Covers'
by I.L.G. Baillio and Dr. A.H. Wortman, "Odessa Cancellations: The Interrupted
Double Circle or Bridge Type" by I.L.G.Baillie and members of the Ukraine
S-tdy Group, Cliff Handford on Zemstvos, a further note on "Octagonal T.P.O'F
by Kurt Adler, "Finland: The printt of the 1856 Issue" by R.P. Knighton, a
"S,:-riot Perforation Variety", and "Notes on Soviet Ship Marks" by A.S. Waugh
+-' 'Dot Postmarks: Further Information" by Dr. A.H. Wortman, the "Zemstvo
LuazCttoor" by Fred W. Spoers, also society notes "The American Samovar" by T.
C Salisbury, and "A Collectors Calendar" by P.T. Ashford, and "Used Abrocci
CrL.oniclo IV" by S.D. Tchilinghirian.

FISCAL STAMPS OF THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT. RSFSR A:D USSR
by E.E. Stofanovsky, Kharkov 2, USR

J. Posell sont us the American Rovcnucr, June 1961 & April, 1962 which
"ortained oxcoi. t articles on the Russian fiscal stamps. rirst part covers
the :Imperial arn'.c ovisional Government issues up to 1917, ii<1 4sive, adding
trnco which are not in the Forbin Catalogue or are incorrectly listed. The
S-,j nd Part covers RSFSR and USSR issues. The Third Part doscr:ies the rover-
s-;..s issued by the N.W. Army, North Rogion, Ukraine, Crimoa: -ogional Gov...
r::t, Governments of Gocns. Lor.iL-in and Wrangol, Terek Ropublic, Azerbaijan.
A.- :?iia, Georgia, Batum, Trc.nzeaucasian S.F.S.R., Bukhara, Khc:e.- : Somiro-
T. i:caspia, Turkestan, Siberia, Far East, and Tannu-Touva. Th Tecroemont
a.: -lo is very useful.


No. 63 I'g