Officers, honorary members, and...
 Falsification of Zemstvo proofs...
 The Russian administration in Bulgaria,...
 The Rumanian state and the Russian...
 15 kop. large die stamps of arms...
 Some notes on used abroads by G....
 Zemstvo notes by C. C. Handfor...
 A historic-philatelic document...
 Some additional data on post cards...
 Some more data on stamped envelopes...
 Additional post card varieties...
 Russian consular stamps of 1913...
 More About The USSR Airpost Issue...
 The 1935 Soviet price list by A....
 Notes on modern Russian stamps...
 Addendum to check list by Dr. C....
 The Kyzyl Postmaster and his "Spravkas"...
 The development of the post & communication...
 The Castle of Wenden by Fred...
 Interesting Convers
 A study of postal rates of Russia,...
 Stamps of Latvian Legion - 1944...
 The Russian Postal Service in Mongolia,...
 A new method of cancelling postage...
 Letters And cancellations of the...
 Stampless covers of Russia 1845...
 Letters of French soldiers of the...
 Notes from collectors
 Correction to Faberge's articles...


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00007
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1963
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00007

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Officers, honorary members, and representatives of the society
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Falsification of Zemstvo proofs in USSR by O. A. Faberge
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The Russian administration in Bulgaria, 1877-1879 by Col. N. R. Ovsyanny
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The Rumanian state and the Russian military posts in the war of 1877-78 by D. N. Minchev
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    15 kop. large die stamps of arms type by R. A. Sklarevski
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Some notes on used abroads by G. H. Torrey (continued)
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Zemstvo notes by C. C. Handford
        Page 22
    A historic-philatelic document from the civil war in the Seven River District of Middle Asia by K. Adler
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Some additional data on post cards and letter cards of the Russian empire by O. A. Faberge
        Page 25
    Some more data on stamped envelopes with advertisements by O. A. Faberge
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Additional post card varieties by R. A. Sklarovski
        Page 28
    Russian consular stamps of 1913 by J. Posell
        Page 29
    More About The USSR Airpost Issue of 1924 Scott 06-9 by Vscvolod Papov
        Page 29
    The 1935 Soviet price list by A. Prado
        Page 30
    Notes on modern Russian stamps by A. Prado
        Page 31
    Addendum to check list by Dr. C. de Stackelberg
        Page 32
    The Kyzyl Postmaster and his "Spravkas" by A. Cronin
        Page 33
    The development of the post & communication services of the Mongolian National Republic and the postage stamps of Mongolia (translated from the original Russian by A. Cronin)
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The Castle of Wenden by Fred Speers
        Page 37
    Interesting Convers
        Page 37
    A study of postal rates of Russia, a preliminary report by M. Kessler
        Page 38
    Stamps of Latvian Legion - 1944 by R. Polchaninov
        Page 39
        Page 40
    The Russian Postal Service in Mongolia, translated by A. Cronin
        Page 41
        Page 42
    A new method of cancelling postage stamps, translated by A. Cronin
        Page 43
    Letters And cancellations of the Belgian armored division in Russia. During World War I. by E. Mercovitch
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Stampless covers of Russia 1845 to 1873 by F. Julius Fohs
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Letters of French soldiers of the War of 1812 by M. Liphschutz
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Notes from collectors
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Correction to Faberge's articles which were published in Rossica Journals nos. 62 and 63
        Page 64
Full Text
of the

Silver Medals at Belgrade National Exhibition "Zefil 1937"and
the International Exhibition, Koenigsberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronze Medals at the International Exhibition "Prata 1935"and
Vienna International Exhibition "WIPA1933"
Recent Internat;onal Awards:
Silver Medals at Berlin,"Bephila 1957", Parana,"Eficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires,"Temex 1958"
Hamburg "Interposta 1959" Palermo "Sicilia 1959" "Barcelona 1960"
Johannesburg, S. A. "Unipex" 1960 Warsaw "Polska" 1960

Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.


Hon. Momb. Dr. G. B. Bondarenko-Salisbury


Hon. Memb. R. A. Sklarovski Hon. Memb. A. N. Lavrov


Hon. Memb. A. N. Lavrov


K. Adler Hon. Memb. E. Marcovitch Hon. Memb. V. Kurbas

2 Officers of the Society, Hon. Members and Representatives of the Society
3 4 Editorial
5 8 Falsification of Zemstvo Proofs in USSR by 0. A. Faberge. (Correction P.4)
9 -12 The Russian Administration in Bulgaria 1877-1879 by Col. N. R. Ovsyanny
13-16 The Rumanian State and the Russian Military Posts in the War of 1877-
78 by D. N. Minchev
17-19 15 Kop. Large Die Stamps of Arms Type by R. A. Sklarevski
20-21 Some Notes on Used Abroads by G. H. Torrey
2 2 Zemstvo Notes by C. C. Handford
23-24 A Historic-Philatelic Document from the Civil War in the Seven River
0 District of Middle Asia by K. Adler
25-26 Some Additional Data on Post Cards and Letter Cards of the Russian
Empire by 0. A. Faberge
26-27 Some More Data on Stamped Envelopes with Advertisements by 0. A. Faberge
2 8 Additional Post Card Varieties by R. A. Sklarovski
2 9 Russian Consular Stamps of 1913 by J. Posell
29-30 More About the USSR Air Post Issue of 1924 Scott C6-9 by V. Popov
30-31 The 1935 Soviet Price List by L. Prado
3 1 Notes on Modern Russian Stamps by A. Prado
3 2 Addendum to Check List by Dr. C. de Stackelberg
33-34 The Kyzyl Postmaster and His "Spravk.su by A. Crcnin
34-36 The Development of the Post & Communication Services of the Mongolian
National Republic and the Postage Stamps of Mongolia by L. Cronin
.3 7 The Castle of Wondon by Fred Spe3rs
37-38 -Interesting Covers by R. A. Sklarovski
38-39 Study.of Postal Rates of Russia, a Preliminary Report by M. Kessler
39-40 Stamps of Latvian Legicn 1944 by R. Polchaninov
41-42 The Russian Postal Service in Mongolia Translated by 1. Cronin..
4 3 A New Method of Cancelling Postage Stamps Translated by A. Cronin
43-48 Letters.and Cancellations of the Belgian Armored Division in Russia
Luring World War I by E. Marcovitch
49-51 Stampless Covers of Russia 1845 to 1873 by F. Julius Fohs
51-54 Letters of French Soldiers of the War of 1812 by M. Liphschutz
55-63 Notes from Collectors
6 4- Correction to Faberge's articless which were published in Rossica
Journals Nos. 62 and 63

No. 64 Page 1


President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section '-A. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle Kr Jansson


A. Kotlar K. Jansson V. Kurbas
N. I. Kordakoff A. N. Lavrov E. I. Marcovitch
G. B. Salisbury R. A. Sklarevski


New York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern. Parkway, Brooklyn 25, New York
San Francisco K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Western U S A L. S. Glass 1533 So La Cionga Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif.
................................... ..................

Argentina B. Riasnianski, Lerrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Australia V. Tvolkmoyor 21 Elizabeth St. Paddington, 'Sydney, NSW .
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Dolstancho, Uxollas, Brussels
Brazil A. Vansovich c/o Livraria Freitas Bastes, .Cpaia (Rio -egion)
Brazil P. Boloff Rua Podrozo 238 Caixa Post 2960 (San Paulo Reg.)
Toronto G. Roazd.y Woda 65 Dorking Ct., Downsview, Ontario, Canada
Canada Anatol Gar, 395 Markham S,. Toronto, Ontario, Canada
France A. Lisheonko 1 Rue du Bocago, Paris 15, France
Great Britain J. Barry 77A St. James Road, Sutton Surrey, England
Israel A. Triupoldor Arba artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Isra6l

Views expressed by the authors are their own and the editors disclaim respon-

Membership dues are $3.00.por annum for all countries of the world. Appli-
cation forms which must be filled out are available upon request. Membership
lists, codes, bulletin and supplements to membership lists will be sent out
annually. Kindly make chocks, payable to A. N. Lavrov, the Society Treasurer.

SWe welcome advqrtisempnts from members, non-members and dealers. -The
rates areas follows': 1 page, add is $30.00, half page $15.00, quaptor
page $7.50 and 5 illns $2.5Q. Mimbors bf the Rossica'Society pay only-.half
-or 50% of thQ. aforenmnt'oned .rates. Therefore the net cost of advertisements
to a member isls 5 'ofets per line. We have for sale back numbers of some.
issues of the journal,' both of English and Russian Editions:

Pago 2 No. 64


We have just boon informed that our journal received the silver on
bronze medal at M E L U S I N A 63, Luxembourg, our tenth consecutive inter-
national exhibition award, and fourteenth in all, counting the pro-war issues.
Our deepest thanks to all who have made this success possible'.

When our medals and diplomas were shown last year at the annual meeting
several members noted that some wore awarded to the editor, some to the jour-
nal and the editor, while others were given to the society. Inasmuch as the
International Philatelic Federation supervises all Internationals, sets the
rules, the standard forms that have to be filled out by the editors, on the
entry blanks, the variations in awards seemed perplexing. A letter was sent
to the U. S. Commissioner and member of most of the juries, requesting rn ex-
planation. His reply was, "As far I know, there no rules or regulations per-
taining to the question you pose". Thus, the matter rests at the discretion
of the jury.

This journal is a labor of love. Actually, only four editors do the
immenos amount of editing, translating, proofreading, stencilling, the last
chore by Messrs. Lavrov and Sklarovski. Correspondence with the authors,
readers, mailing of the journal, etc, etc. add to the many hours spent after
a hard day's work at our offices. Production costs have risen, postage rates
have gone up. We urge our members to ease our burden by complying to the
following suggestions Please inform us of the change of address, do not
wait until we mail the journals, receive them back, pay for the postage due,
and for another postage. Send in your duesat the beginning of the year, do
not wait for a special billing, or for dunning notice. Those who have not
paid for 1963 will not got the next journal. Authors who know both the
Russian and the English language (we know who they are) must send us articles
in both languages. Those who know only one language, must send a typed dupli-
cate, or at least another long hand legible copy. The articles must be in
a correct, FINAL form. Wo shall no longer tolerate endless corrections, re-
visions, deletions and additions, which breed errata, or come after the orig-
inal text has boon edited, translated and stencilled. All articles with long
lists will be submitted to the authors, after stencilling, for proofreading,
to double check errors.

We proudly announce the publication in the next issue the first two
chapters of a book, "The Ancient Russian Post" by M. N. Vitashovskaya, filled
with valuable data, research and illustrations. The serial on the postal his-
tory of Mongolia will be continued, likewise the series on Tanna Touva, and the
Russian Post in the Balkans. There will be articles on the post in the
Southern Bossarabia, Finnish Invasion of Karelia in 1922, War Charities of
World War I, Bulgarian Colonies in Tavricheskaya Gubernia, Stary Afon (Mount
Athos) and countless other fascinating :articles.


We extend our deepest sympathy to Editor R. A. Sklarevski ipon the death
of his beloved father, famous pianist, professor of the piano and former
director of the Imperial Conservatory of Music in Saratov,Russia, Ale wonder
Sklarovski. In spite of his terrible loss, our editor continued to stencil
so as not to delay this issue of the journal.

Members of the N. Y. Branch who held their meeting at the Interpox will

No. 64 Page 3

never forget the amazing display and lecture by M. A. Bojanowicz of London,
on Poland No. 1, He likewise exhibited at the Collectors Club.

Hon. Member K. Jansson, our San Francisco's Group Representative, reports
regular meetings, and a reprinting of choice articles from our journal in
the San Francisco Russian newspaper. Reprints were mailed to the editor.

Our Representative in Groat Britain, John Barry, after conquering
pneumonia, is now well at homo.

Kurt Adler is on tour with the Metropolitan-Opera, and will fly to
Europe on May 29th. He will conduct in Bucharest (1st American conductor
there) then in Sofia, and in Jugoslavia. Stamp dealers there should reple-
nish. their stocks.

The Los Angeles group met at the home of Art Shields in Santa Barbara.
Soymour Gibrick showed Far East covers with the transit marks of Yokohama,
Tsuruga cancels, Yokohama and Nagasaki transit with the square Paquebot
markings, and many other interesting postmarkq. ,

The Southern California group of nine met at, the home of Sam Robbins
to discuss participation in th@ coming,SESCAL, as a unit of Rossica. After-
wards Hal Cobb showed his fabulous Zemstvo covers. Mr. Bailey reported
on his visit to the N. Y. Branch meeting at..the INTERPEX, while Art Shields
discussed V. Popov's query about Scott C6 to -.C9 He reported a 24-5-24
date while S. Robbins showed an early date of 19-5-24, proving that the 1924
edition of the catalogue is incorrect. Sam Robbins likewise showed two
copies of Scott 1527, one of which had the letters of CCCP of a different
aizeo printed on a different paper.

We salute Martin L. Harow of Brontwood, Long Island, N.Y. for aiding
the Now York Group with envelopes, gratis, likewise free printing of hundreds
of membership forms and the proposed'printing, free of charge, of membership
cards, badly needed by the Society. Our deepest thanks, Mr. Harowl
-------------- -------------

On April 19, 1963 0. A. Faborge of Helsinki, Finland wrote to the editor,
You are right, the Russian original of the article 'Falsification of Zemstvo
SProofs in USSR, 'appearing on pages 5 to 8 of Rossica Journal No. 64' is well
translated, excopt in two places where I feel th -correetions should be made."

"Page 5 .Replace paragraph 8 with-the following version:

The photo-falsified proofo" 'of B U G U L M A, shows in the coat pf arms
two somewhat contrasting shades of black because the photo:has registered
the rod and green color of the original stamp as two intensifications of black.
In Fig. 1 one can distinguish the afore-mentioned difference on the right
is the original. .

Pago 6. line $35. The now sentence beginning on this line should' read:

Tho wor "0 B R A:Z E T S" has N O hard :sigh (Tverdy-Znak)..a the end....
--- '--------- -------
It is unfortunate that corrections have to be made occasionally,, but only
.tho person or persons who have to stencil some 60 pages of the journal, plus
do some translating, editing, etc. can understand what a tromandous job it is.

Page 4 No. 64

by O. A. Fabrgo

In the spring of 1962, one of my friends, a collector of Zomstvo stamps
informed me that he was able to acquire from the Soviet Union a fairly largo
collection of zemstvo proofs. Ho likewise informed me that the collection
contained many duplicates which he later returned.

All of the Zemstvo collectors know that such proofs, with certain ex-
ceptions, are scarce and some of them are oven great rarities. Because of
this fact, the information given by my friend surprised me considerably.

During that time 1 had developed a now cataloguing system of ossays, die-
proofs and plate-proofs of zemstvo stamps and I lacked certain black proofs
of the Pskov District (Yozd). I asked my colleague if he could obtain those
black proofs for me, from the group that was returned. After a while he was
ablo to procure for me the needed items.

The acquired proofs were from various districts, wore all imporforato,
ungummcd, and all wore in black. Not one of the aforementioned proofs was
previously known to exist, and they, at first glance seemed very question-
able. My suspicion aroused, I began to study them in detail under magnifi-
cation, and this is what I found.

The so called "black proofs" turned out to be P H 0 T 0 F A L C I-
F I C A T I 0 N S prepared by someone at some time from the photographs of
genuine stamps of various issues of Zomstvo stamps. Almost all of the fore-
going items had the following characteristics:

1. Black color, not smooth but grainy
2. Delineation of inscriptions and details of designs wore not sharp
but quite indefinite or spread out.

The proof that they should be irrevocably placed into the category of
photo-falsifications was found in the proofs1 of Bugulma Yezd (K. Schmidt
stamp No. 16) and in Dankov Yozd (K.S. stamp No. 11).

On the genuine "proof" of Bugulma the rod and groon colors of the
coat of arms found on the stamp, barely show two intensifications of black
color, while the photo-falsifiod essay registered the two colors of the coat
of arms in two different shades. In Fig. 1 qne can distinguish the afore-
mentioned difference on the right is the original.

On the fake proof of Dankov the right side is cut closely to hide the
traces of perforation, which touch the inner frame on th original stamp from
which fake photo-reproduction was made. This revealing feature was not
completely destroyed by cutting, for the traces of perforations are easily
visible on the fake photo-reproduction. (Soo Figure 2).

The two examples, just given, seem to me to be sufficient to prove
that those "proofs" are photo-reproductions. Now we will turn the Uproofs"
over and shall o-amine the reverse side.

It seems that in order to give the aforementioned proofs a genuine
appearance, and thus inflionce th3 buyer, various overprints wore placod on
reverse side'."The copies which I received for analysis contained the

No. 64 Pago5

following markings:

In sub-paragraphs 1. to 9. English equivalents for Russian letters
and words are given when necessary Editor.

1. Largo "P' (5.5x8mm.) in black. The left leg of "P" is often not
clearly printed.
2. Large "P" (3.25x4mm.) inside of a green oval (8.5x9mm.). The dimen-
sions of the oval indicate that it is almost round.
3. Largo letter "P" (4x5.5mm.) in 9mm. sqaaro, in black.
4. Letters "Pr" (I have never seen them, but was advised regarding
5. Word "Proba (trial)" in large letters (17x4mmi.), in a rectangle,
20.5x9mm. in size, in black.
6. Word "Proba" in small letters (17.5x3mm.), in a rectangle (20.5x9mm.),
in black.
7. Word "OB RA ZETS" in large letters applied vertically, letters are
12mm., in a vertical rectangle 5.5x10.75mm., in blue,.violot and
8. Word "obrazots" is in small letters (13.5x2mm.), in blue.
9. Word "OBRAZETS" in largo letters (ll.x2.5mm.), in rectangle
(13.5x5mm.) upper portion of which often is faint or invisible, in

Besides the aforementioned markings, some items hamo additional markings
in letters of smaller format. The following markings are known to met

I. A symbol resembling Russian letter "X (Kh)" in a 4.76mm. square, in
blue, violet or lilac. The aforementioned marking is known to me
with marking No. 7.
II. Name "Vo b oR" in large letters, in which "V"1 and "R" are larger
than the rest of the letters (9.5x3mm.), in blue. The aforementioned
marking is known to me only with marking No. 8. The English equiva-
lent of the aforementioned name is "Weber" Editor.
III. Large Latin "1' (3mm.) in a circle (5mm. dia.) in carmine. The afore-
mentioned marking is known to me only with marking No. 9.

Position of the overprints (markings) on the black "proofs" varies,
and may be found either vertical, horizontal or diagonal. They are often
incompletely applied or not clear. The word "OBRAZETS" has a hard sign
(Tverdy znak) at the end. (See Figure 3).

After my exposure of the so-called "proofs", my colleague found numerous
examples of such fabrications in his collection of Zemstvos. Judging by all
*available data there are pp-o'imatoly 500-600 various photo-falsifications
in existence, not counting the varieties on various colored papers.

At myrequest my colleague made inquiries in the USSR with his corres-
pondent, who in due time acquired for him a collection of the aforementioned

The information received from USSR helped but little to clear up this
miserable situation. We found the folloowigg

a. It was found that the source of the collections of the fake photo-
proofs of Zemstvos was a person, whose name my correspondent did not

Page 6 No. 64

n no

i- t
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i1j 2m'c. m

F 2" *


0. FAB6R k&

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divulge, and whom I will call Mr. X.
b. The address of Mr. X remained unknown, as .tho lottors .sent to him posto
rostanto" or generall dilovory", i.o. le.tterd to be called for.
c. Mr. X had a number of such collections, no loss than 6 or 7, somo of which
he sold in Moscow.
d. I was advised that-allogodly Mr. X was no longer alive, and that the last
time anyone heard of him, he "lived in the far North, did not answer his
correspondence, and no longer carried his 'business'". Figure this as
you will'

Luckily those forgeries, because of their primitive character, not very
dangerous. Only in the instances whore the genuine proof was made in black
on white paper, that -one could be mistaken at first glance, but in such in-
stances the markings "P, PROBA, etc." on the reverse side of the proof re-
vealed the forgery.

It is clear that the person who prepared those 'photo-proofs" was not
too philatolically wise becauso"proofs" of districts, far apart from each
other wore printed on on the same paper. Likewise, it is difficult to se-
riously consider the thought that the typographies of various district towns,
very far apart from one another, used colored paper of the same quality and
shades for preparation of colored "proofs". The fact that the forger did not
hesitate to prepare his "proofs" on same quality of paper, oven though some
of the issues wore prepared no loss than 15 years apart, seems to me most

It is probable that my offorts to learn something regarding the prepara-
tion of the aforementioned counterfeits would have been ended with the given
data, but my colleague sent mo in the autumn some items from his collection
for photoroproduction in our journal. Arong them was a "proof" of FATEJ,
which threw a now light on this subject and sensationally exposed the "photo-
proofs" from an entirely now angle.

In the beginning I assumed that the counterfeiter or countorfeitors
photographed everything from which holator printed on various papers and
then sold as "proofs", but the counterfeit of FATEJ turned my thought into
a different possibility.

I discovered that for preparation of FATEJ "proof", i.e. the photographic
reproduction of the handstamp found on the envelope of FATEJ yozd, whore as
it is known to all no stamps wore used, the counterfeiter used for reproduct-
ion rare stamped envelope of the first issue.


The aforementioned envolopo, prior to revolution, was a part of
collection of my late father, Agathon Karlovich Faberge, and from that time
until present time did not r3posc in strange hands.

There is no possible doubt that the aforementioned example of the stamp-
ed envelope was used for photo reproduction of counterfeit "proof". Not
only the individual details of the stamped envelope impression are distin-
guishable on the counterfeit, but also the infinitesimal improfoctions in
the paper of the envelope. The countorfoitor did not oven try to hide the
outlines cf the upper flap of the envelope. Those lines can be clearly seen
on the "proofs", which have the aforementioned handstamp on th; roverse aide,

No. 64 Pago 7

Figure 4 illustrates the forgery found on the aforementioned envelope
(Aschor No. la, KS No. 1), which was used for reproduction. As one can see
the imperfection in the paper mass of the envelope can be soon more clearly
on the photo-reproduction than on the original envelope.

The aforementioned chance and for this business very important discover-
ies, opened for me further paths for investigation which I have already be-
gan in a definite direction. I have asked my colleague again several quest-
ions and his replies, I think, cleared up my doubts.

I have come to the following conclusions:

1. The pounterfoitors did not photograph any stamps.
2. In some way, during the revolution, or perhaps later, those responsible
for counterfeit photo-proofs obtained the cliches which wore used for
photo reproduction of the large, unfinished catalogue "Schmidt & Faborgo:
Die Postwortzoichon dor Russischon Landschaftsamter".

Below I am listing the facts, which I used for my conclusions.

1. From the "proofs" of several Yezds, which are illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2,
we can readily see, that they are photographic reproductions.
2. All of the "proofs" are known to exist only in singles pairs, strips or
blocks are unknown.
3. The "proof" of FATEJ is reproduced from the hand stamp found on the onve-
lope in former collection of A. K. Faborgo. It was impossible to use
the aforementioned envolopo for illicit reproduction, at least for the
last 35 years. (Unfortunately as yet I do not own the "Schmidt & Faberge"
catalogue, but hope that those df the readers who possess the catalogue,
can in Volume II, on the illustration page IV, under No. 1 can find the
reproduction of this envelope or at least the handstamp. I will be very
glad to hear that my statements are confirmed. With the help of a photo-
graph the aforementioned comparisons with the reproductions in the catalo-
gue was unanimously confirmed by Messrs. Liphschuts and Rockling of Paris.
4. On the "proof"of KRAPIVNA one may see reproduction of handwritten number
""5556". I hope that the aforementioned reproduction may be soon in the
catalogue of "Schmidt & Faborgo", in Volume II, on illustration page
10=VI, under No. 16.
5. My colleague possesses over 600 examples of the aforementioned "proofs"
from 57 different yozds. All of those yozds begin with letters (Latin)
A K. The work on largo Schmidt & Faborgo catalogue was interrupted by
war in 1916, and reached only Luga Yezd. (See Fig. 5).

Some of the questions pertaining to this business are still ununswored,
aid perhaps it is well for them to remain umanswered. Who was responsible
for the counterfeit "proofs"l' How did the counterfeiter acquire the cliches
of the rare catalogue'. In what quantities were the counterfeits put in cir-
culation'. How many of those counterfeits wore distributed abroad.

I am' glad that-a-chance pushed me into this sordid affair and that with
the help bf my colleague and his material I was able to investigate those
"proofs". I am hoping that my article served its purpose and that Zomstvo
collectors will be very careful in acquiring strange "proofs" from more or
less unreliable sources.

Page 8 No. 64

by Colonel Nikolai Romanovich Ovsyanny

Original published by the Military History Commission of the General Staff,
St. Petersburg, 1906. This book was discovered by our member Kurt:Adler.


Postal communications set up by the Civilian Administration between
the Danube River and T'rnovo, and further extension to Yeni Zagra; transfer
of H. Q. to Bohot; onset of Prince Cherkassky's indisposition; his clash
with the Commander of the Field Staff._

With the transit of the Russian armies across the Danube and the quick
seizure of the Balkan passes by our advancement detachments, great difficult-
ies arose because of the absence of postal and telegraph facilities on every
side between the Danube and the Balkan Mountains. Under Turkish rule, pri-
vate. letters were sent only as the occasion arose and partly with the help
of the Austrian Post, the latter existing here to protect the interests of
Austrian trade. In the meantime, the Turkish network of telegraphs had de-
teriorated into utter confusion and could not function correctly. The
Military Department of Posts and Telegraphs was not yet able to commence its
activities since it lacked a sufficient amount of resources; according to
regulations, this department was obliged to organise and maintain postal and
telegraphic services on railroads only.

In view of this, the Field Staff entered into talks with the Superinten-
dent of Civilian Affairs about the possibility of setting up, as far as
existing conditions would permit, postal services in the theatre of war. But
Prince Cherassky broke off these meetings and intended to establish civilian
post4-.services between Danube and T'rnovo, and especially with H. Q., where-
ever t :would be situated. On this route all private and governmental cor-
respondence proceeding from the Empire for the H. 0. and where-possible to
surrounding locations would be delivered, and despatched on the return trips.

As a consequence, only communications of the H. Q. with the corps and
detachments would remain as the responsibility of the fieldpost service. Of
course, such an arrangement of the duties of the postal service facilitated
the work :of .the Military Administration but would not satisfy the Military
Command, because the establishment of civilian posts required quite some
time, and in waiting for their installation, some kind of military postal
service would have to take up the slack. Moreover, Prince Cherkassky, be-
cause of his own suspicious nature, saw in the proposal to establish a post-
al service pooling the resources of the military and civilian administrations,
a desire to go behind his back and foist upon him the responsibility for the
poor organisation of the postal service in the active army. All this, of
course, increased even more the already existing differences between the
Chief of the Field Staff (Gen. Nepokoichitsky) and the Superintendent of
Civilian Affairs (Prince Cherkassky).

Prince Cherkassky wanted to set up the civilian mails on the same model
as the Russian Posts, with the following additional conditions:

1 The horses and eqiippent of the postal stations to be procured by
contractural means.
2. Two officials, experienced in the running the postal affairs in the

No. 64 Page 9

Russian provinces were to be requested from Russia to establish and
administer the postal service in Bulgaria.

With this in view, negotiations were entered into with the Russian Post-
al Administration, and soon afterwards, the directors of postal affairs in
Smolensk gubernia, Mr. Trubacheev, and from Kovno gubernia, Mr. Radchenko,
were asked to be placed at the disposal of the Civilian Administration
attached to the active army. They both arrived at Gorna Studena on August
30, 1877 and the first was appointed acting supervisor of postal stations on
Bulgarian territory, while the second was assigned to the civilian office
for resolving problems of the postal administration.

For the functioning of the posts by contractural means, Prince Cherkasky
intendend to call in German colonists from the Odessa area. These people,
equipped with their fine covered waggons, harnessed with stalwart and strong
horses, had proved themselves to be very handy in the Civilian Office and
the Red Cross at the beginning of the campaign. Thanks to the assistance of
the Mayor of Odessa, Count Levashov, from whom Prince Cherkassky had asked
for Mr. Trubacheev, a contract was concluded on September 3, 1877, with
three householders of the village of Alexandershilf, in the Odessa district,
for a term of six months on the following conditions:

1. The contractors are obliged to maintain the postal service from
Zimnicea on the Rumanian bank of the Danube, to Svishtov, Gabrovo
and up to T8rnovo, as well as along other routes in Bulgaria when
required to do so by the Director of Posts; also crossing from one
route to another was forbidden before a lapse of 10 days in the
forward direction.
2. For every pair of horses, delivered with waggons and all their equip-
ment (tarpaulins to cover the mails, hand lanterns, small bells,
etc..), the Treasury would pay 200 rubles each month; moreover the
routes were under the complete control of the Government.
3. The distance between stations must not exceed 25 versts.
4. The mails and express messengers, couriers, state messengers and
personnel proceeding on governmental and private business were to be
conveyed by the horses under contract.
5. The speed of transmission to be fixed as follows: 10 versts per
hour on highways, 8 versts per hour on unpaved roads and 6 versts
per hour on mountain roads; couriers obliged to travel post and
change horses at every stage were expected toproceed at a rate of two
versts per hour faster.
6. The resting of horses used by the postal service and their transmis-
sion must be carried out in conformance with the regulations laid
down for the Caucasus and Transcaucasian areas.
7. The renting and contents of the postal stations and the payment of
the supervisors or clerks are at the charge of he Government.
8. Postillions, horses and carriages with all equipment entitled to del-
ivery from Odessa to Bucharest on the railroad under the category of
military freight, will be forwarded at the expense of the Government,
and this also applied to their repatriation to Odessa on the termina-
tion of the contract.

After these conditions had been laid down, the colonists delivered to
Zimnicea at the beginning of November 320 horses with waggons and all neces-
sary equipment. ?ourtees station rwre than opened at points where adequate

?age 10 No. 64

premises had been prepared, and the distances measured off on both sides to
the next stations. From the main postal route Svishtov-Bola-Gabrovo, two
lines branched off: one from Tsarevets to Gorna Studena, Btlgarene, Pordim
and Bohot and the other from T'rnovo to Lovech. Thus the postal network of
the Civilian Administration linked Rumania with the Empire and H. Q. and also
the most important points where the troops were located. At the same time,
it also served for the communications between all departments of the civilian
administration in the sandjaks (districts) of Svishtov, Rushchuk (Ruse) and
T'rnovo. Postal officials were requested in good time from Russia and they
arranged all necessary rules and instructions. The opening of the postal
service followed on November 10.

The Department of the Postal Section of the Civilian Administration was
organised in the following way: there were postal establishments at Svishtov
and T'rnovo and a post office at Gabrovo. Apart from various books, 15,000
stamped envelopes, 6,000 postcards and 34,000 postage stamps were requisition-
ed from St. Petersburg. They wore des-ined for the local population since
all ranks of the army had the right to send their correspondence free of

On December 3, 1877, His Majesty the Emperor passed through on the
Pordim-Brestovots postal line, wishing to call on the Crown Prince before
departing for Russia. His Majesty remained fully satisfied with the oper-
ation of the Bulgarian Posts.

With the transit of our armies across the Balkan Mountains and the
seizure of Plovdiv and Adrianople, the postal network was extended to Yeni
Zagra (Nova Zagora, on the Yar.bol-Constantinople rairoad) and the number of
stations rose to 21. At the same time, postal routes were set up on the
following three lines:

1. Svishtov-Rushchuk-T'rnovo-Yoni Zagra (In Bulgaria Nova Zagora).
2. From Svishtov to Fleven.
3. From Pleven to Gabrovo.

During his stay in Gorna Studcna and later at Bohot, Prince Cherkassky,
quite apart from the affairs of the Civilian Administration which were linked
mainly with the activities of the armies, was obliged to devoto much time to
problems concerning the Rod Cross.

His rel-.tions with the central administration of this doparment were far
from satisfactory. This arose, in all probability, in consecucnco of the
appointment of Prince Cherkassky to the duties of Main Suporintendeont at the
side of, but not by the wish of the same administration. The lack of flex-
ibility in the character of the Prince was also a factor hroe and it often
spoilt his relations with people. Whatever the case, it is without doubt
that antagonism between him and the Director of the Rod Cross (which was
headed by Adjutant-General Baumgarten) actually existed and this greatly
harmed the smooth flow of things in the active army. Thus, for o::ample,
Prince Cherkassky informed the Central Administration from Kishonov that with
the transit of the armies across the Panube, it would be necessary, starting
from August, to busy themselves with the despatch of warm clothing. But
even with the onset of cold nights in November, nothing was forthcoming from
the Rod Cross. After fruitless correspondence on this matter with the
Central Administration, Prince Cherkassky decided to appeal through the Press

Nc. 64 Page 11

to the entire Russian public. And indeed on September 10, 1877, a telegram
signed by Prince Cherkassky appeared in the newspaper "Golos" (the Voice)
and thereupon reprinted in other papers, with the following contents:
"Through the columns of 'Golost, I turn to the Russian public with an urgent
appeal for aid to our sick and wounded brothers. With the onset of the
autumn cold, there is a pressing necessity for warm clothing of all kinds.
Especially required is the quickest possible despatch of fur cloaks, woolen
hosiery, felt boots, cloth and fustian trousers, undershirts, woolen jackets,
blankets and also full white shifts. The aid needed is urgent and wanted in
large quantities. The resources of the Red Cross Society across the Danube
are not in a state to satisfy such requirements. It is necessary that the
Russian public know how groat the requirements are, so as to come to our
help. I urgently appeal to the patriotic side of the Russian Public".

This telegram aroused a lively controversy in the newspapers (some con-
demned Prince Cherkassky, others defended him) and it caused great displeasure
in the Red Cross Administration. Prince Cherksssky conducted correspondence
on this matter with many people. This telegram had its effects, notwith-
standing; donations increased, especially in warm clothing for sick and
wounded soldiers and even the Central Administration quickly sent 2,000 fur
cloaks and 1,000 blankets to the active army.

On August 10, the Prince was present with His Majesty at the H. Q. at
Radonitsa, where he spent throe days and then set off for the position by the
village of Grivitsa where His Majesty also arrived to inspect the field
hospital. On August 29 the Prince wont to the left flank under the command
of General Skobelev II, and on the battle-day of August 30, he sot off
accompanied by doctors and sisters of charity in carriages to the field of
battle for the wounded who were bandaged and then transported to the hospital.
The Prince stayed 8 days with Skobelev, sent the wounded and sick on to
Svishtov and then returned to Gorna Studena. Here he remained until the end
of September. The weather at this time was very vicious; it often rained
and a cold wind blew.

On October 16, 1877, the H. Q. was transferred to the village of Bohot,
lying near Plevon. The Prince and his staff arrived here also. He did not
wish to occupy the quite neat hut assigned to him until he had established
the Rod Cross hospital and bandaging point and so to it that the sisters of
charity were comfortably lodged. During all this time, he, in spite of the
onset of frost, lived in a tent and remained there using a cloak and warm
boots. An indisposition came on but he paid no attention to it although he
suffered both physically and mentally. At the same time his irritability and
bitterness increased; especially noticeable was his painful impatience with
his subordinates when they did not carry out his orders to the letter. With
the Chief of the Field Staff, his relations were aggravated more and more
and terminated in complete rupture; after one heated declaration, General
Nepokoichitsky broke off all personal relations with Prince Cherkassky.

At Bohot, the H. Q. was in operation for 73 days.

Page 12 No. 6z

"by D. Y. Minchev

Translated from the Rumanian by A. Cronin, from the Bucharest journal
"Filatelia" for May-June 1962.

On April 12/24, 1877, Russia declared war on Turkey. A direct result of
this war, in which the young Rumanian Army also took part, was the advent of
the proclamation of independence of the Rumanian State, and the liberation of
Bulgaria. Thus the feudal Ottoman State received a death blow in the Balkans,
which had been under its subjugation for many generations.

As a consequence of the treaties pertaining thereto, a Convention was
concluded between Russia and Rumania, with respect to the passage of Russian
troops. across Rumania on their way towards Bulgaria. In another special
agreement signed at the same time, broad conditions were laid down to imple-
ment the execution of the article III of the first Convention. By Article I
of this latter document, the Rumanian Government gave the Russians the right
to make use of the existing postal and telegraphic services in the country.
In Article XVII, the telegraphic and postal services were especially mentioned
in connection with their working together with the Russians. In another art-
icle, there is word of setting up Russian halting centers, dealing with the
transit and movements of the troops.

Well into the month of May, there was concluded at Bucharest on May 2/14,
1877 the following "Convention" for t'-e acceptance and fo.rarding of corres-
pondence and couriers to Rumanian offices from Russian fieldpost establish-
ments, and vice-versa, during the length of the war between Turkey and Russia.

The undersigned, the Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs, and the
Second in-Command of the Fieldposts on active service have agreed:

1. All Imperial Russian correspondence, official and private, as wel as the
couriers, will be subjected to the postal rates in accordance with the
postal union agreements and the laws of the country.
2. Correspondence of all t'pes is admitted for transmission in sealed
packages, sacks, sadlo ba-:s and valises.
3. All ordinary, official an:I registered mail, and tThe couriers will be des-
patched by the Rumanian offices, accompanied by a card (forn, bulletin,-
---D.:2.:.), form A, on which the weight of the correspondence will be
noted, excluding the weight of the outer receptacle or other objects in
which the mail is being transmitted.
4. The postal official accepting the mail, shall note its receipt in a
special ledger.
5. The Rumanian offices shall note the Rumanian weight on postal forms, as
well as the Russian weight (in 1877, the usage of the system of grams and
kilogram. had not yet been introduced into Russia----D.N.FI.).
6. In localities where there are no Russian oncampements, a Russian function-
ary or courier nay, in case of necessity, be set to work in liaison with
the Rumanian post offices, in untying, sorting and delivering mail on
arrival at its destination.

The Director-General of the Rumanian Posts and Telegraphs.

C. Pilat

No. 64 Page 13

The Second in-Command of the Fieldpost Service.

Signature is illegible

# 6197 May2/14, 1877"

On the basis of this agreement, the Russian fieldpost services were
set up on Rumanian territory.

Upon crossing into Bulgaria, the Russian established postal services,
there, the transit of mail being maintained through the medium of the Russian
offices operating in Rumania and the close cooperation of the Rumanian Postal

On May 13, 1877, the Director-General of PT, C. Pilat, informed the
Minister of the Interior of the manner in which the Russo-Rumanian collabora-
tion was being carried in the telegraphic and postal domain. In this letter,
it was noticed, among other things, that "... ..in all our post and tele-
graph offices, Russian functionaries in the service of the Russian Army are
allowed to transmit telegrams in the telegraph offices, in the Russian lang-
uage and even in Cyrillic letters; moreover, there are post offices accept-
ing from our offices and despatches which arrive for the Russian Army and
forwarding them to the destination, and our offices accept the despatches of
the army which are to be sent by us to the destination."

In a letter dated Bucharest, June 12, 1877, it was noted that Russian
telegraphists were encountered attached to the Rumanian telegraph and post
offices at Islaz and Corabia.

In Braila, the Russian established their postal service on June 1, 1877.
in the beginning, this was installed in the horse of Cleopatra Lemani. From
here, the Russian Post transferred its activities, as related in letter #'5102
of July 8, 1877, from the Prefect of Braila Piovince and addressed to the
city hall at the Rosu Inn. However, it was also removed from here a little
later, since the Rosu Inn did not offer complete security".

On the other hand, the Prefect of the Province of Buzau reported to the
Minister of the Interior that Schonberg, the attache-secretary stationed at
the Russian Administration of Posts and Telegraphs, asked that he be given
cooperation in the opening of Russian post and telegraph offices at Buzau,
Movila Banului and Kasota. In the same way, a Russian post office functioned
also at Birlad, being set up in a local compound of four rooms, the property
of G. Vasiliu and situated along the main street.

In a letter, sub /9367 of December 11, 1P77 from B. M. Missir, the Pre-
fect of Braila Province, and addressed to the City Hall, we find the exist-
ence of a Russian postal relay between Cernavoda and Braila. This relay had
intermediate stations at Stelnica, Vladeni, Luciu-Vechi and Tufesti. The
relay service had at its disposal postilions, gendarmes, post-boys, and its
own horses. At Braila, the relay had available gendarmes, two post-boys,
two postilions and six horses.

On the morning of June 15/27, 1877, the Russians forced the Danube,
crossing Zimnicea and Svishtov. Nearby, in every liberated locality, the
Russian established fieldpost services, at 15km. intervals between each other.

Page 14 No. 6/

#7: Please address letters to Bucharest, to the Russian field post
office, post restante (General Delivery). We will be there on Dec. 17. A
letter takes approximately 7 days. On this basis we can get our bearings.
We will get into Bucharest for one or two days. The following letters to the
first address. I am well. We have just now set for Jassy.

I. Bogdanovich."

From this, we can surmise that F.P.O. '5 operated somewhere in the
Jassy area of Moldavia.

For those who wish to collect collateral material in this field, we can
do no better than quote from an interseting article on Rumano-Bulgarian re-
lations, published in the August 1962 issue of the Bulgarian magazine "Phila-
tolon Preglod" of Sofia. Thus on June 10, 1952, Rumania issued a set of two
stamps (Scott :'-884,-5; Gibbons f-1284-5) commemorating the 75th anniversary
of complete independence; the higher value of 1.10 lei shows soldiers of
1877 and 1952, while the lower value of 50 bani features a painting by the
famous Rumanian artist Nicolas Grigorescu, entitled "Attack near Sm'rdan".
This village is in the Vidin district of North West Bulgaria, where the
Rumanian Army battled with a strong Turkish garrison in 1877. Grigorescu's
paintings are all authentic as he was himself a volunteer in the Rumanian
Army on active service during 1877-78 and personally witnessed the scenes he
painted. The same picture appears on a 1.75 lei value issued July 29, 1957
(Scott's T1171; Gibbons '1542) on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of
Grigorescu's death.

On August 31, 1957, a stamp appeared, commemorating the 80th anniversary
of the Russo-Turkish War and showing another picture by the same painter, en-
titled the "Trumpeter" (Scott's #1177; Gibbons #1548), and 56 years ago in
1906, The Rumanians issued the well-known set which included scones from the
same war, such as the Rumanian battery pounding the Turkish positions at
Calafat, the meeting of Carol I with the Turkish commander Osman Pasha, the
transit of the Rumanian Army across the Danube, the advance of the Rumanian
Army and the victory march in Bucharest in 1878.

In addition to the items noted by "Philatelic Fraglod", Rumania issued a
sot on May 10, 1931, commemorating the centenary of its army. Most catalogues
state that the 50 bani (Scott's i39C; Gibbons j770) shows a soldier of 1870,
but a comparison with our trumpeter friend issued in 1957 seems to indicate
that the 1931 design .was an adaptation of Grigoresku'r painting from 1877-78
war. The 3 loi value in the same set features the firs; philatelic appearance
of the "Attack on Sm'rdan?", while 2 plus 7 lei of the 1938 series honoring
the centenary of the painter's birth, shows his picture from the war "Escort-
ing (Turkish) prisoners" (Scott's #B95; Gibbons #C145).

On their part, the Bulgarians issued a set of three stamps on November 1,
1948 to celebrate the signing of a treaty of friendship, cooperation and
assistance between the two countries. The lowest value of 20 lova (Scott's
#626; Gibbons '729) shows the Rumanian Army storming the Turkish redoubt at
Grivitsa in Pleven district (North Bulgaria) in 1877. This village is also
mentioned by Col. N.R. Ovsyanny in Chapter 8 of his work on the "Russian Admi-
nistration in Bulgaria in 1877-79" (St. Petersburg, 1906)_ as the spot where a
field hospital was subsequently installed by the Russians and visited by His
Majesty the Emperor.

No. 64 Pago 15

The Russian post offices at Zimnicea and Svishtov were transferred to
Giurgiu and Rustchuk. A route post office remained working at Svishtov. The
most important center of Russian postal communications in Bulgaria, connect-
ing with Rumania, was henceforth at Rustchuk-Giurgiu.

In documents which we have been able to study, it is noted that a very
close collaboration took place between the Rumanian and Russian postal servi-
ces during the course of the campaign. Thus, in a letter dated Pordim Sept-
ember 13, 1877 and signed by Lt. Col. Pilat, sub-chief of the main office
(Director General of the FT ), it is requested of General Cernat, the command-
er of the Rumanian Army on active service, that the Rumanian postal relays
take measures towards transporting all the Russian military correspondence
from or to Nikopol. In another letter, again from Pordim and dated 9.Xl1.
1877, Lt. Col. Pilat asked General Cornat to arrange for postal connections
between V'rbitsa (near Pleven) and the Russian army corps under the deputy
command of General Arnoldy, to be made through General Haralambi at Rahovo.
In a report from Lom-Palanka (now Lom), dated 9.X11.1877, it is related that
the Third Squadron at Rusovo carried out the postal service "between our
troops and those of the Russian Empire". The same task we find referred to
also in a report dated December 10, 1877. In an order, originated from
Lom-Palanka (14.X11.1877), the commander of the First Rumanian Division
ordered the colonel commanding the Cavalry Brigade, among other things, that
"...in the village of Rusovo, 10 cavalrymen and a corporal, members of the
squadron at Lom-Palanka, should stay behind to maintain a postal service bet-
ween the quarters of the division and General Arnoldy".

In their turn also, the Russian Fieldposts collaborated closely with the
Rumanian Military Post established in Bulgaria. In a letter from the General
commanding the Fourth Russian Cavalry Bivision in Dalgodeltsi, dated November
24, 1877 and addressed to General Cernat, we find information regarding the
organization of the Russian fieldpost service, and proposing the establishment
of two postal relays to connect with the Rumanian Military Post.

Thus it can be seen that the Russian Fieldpost Service carried out its
activities in the campaign of 1877-78, enjoying the complete cooperation of
the Rumanian civil and military authorities.

This fact represents the fine page of Rumano-Russian relations in the
past. It is, at the same time, the bright page of unshakeable friendship
between the Russian, Rumanian and Bulgarian peoples.



As a supplement to Mr. Minchev's highly informative article, we can st-tes
that Rossica members are able to fill out the picture. Thus our member Dr,
C. de Stackelberg has a fine pair of Rumania 5 bani of the 1876 printing
(Scott's :/61; Gibbons #166) with a fine strike of Polevoe Pochtovoee Otdele-
nie #3, dated 1 Dec. 1877. This pair also shows part of another cancellation
which is unreadable but may be a Rumanian transit marking. Furthermore, ulv
member MR. A. V. Kotlar has a beautiful Russian 4 kopek intercity postcard
cancelled Polevoe Pochtovoe Otdolenie #5, dated 27 Nov. 1877 and apparently
addressed to the sender's wife in St. Petersburg where it was received at 11
a.m. on December 2, 1877. The message is very interesting and we hereby
quote it in full:

Page 16 Page 64

byR. Sklarevski

Recently, brief notes in Rossica under "Notes from Collectors" by
Vincent Link and Major A. Prado, prodded me to chock my small accumulation of
the Largo Die stamps of the 15 kopek value of the Arms Type.

The knowledge of the existence of two dies of the 15 Kopek of Arms Type
is not new. As far back as 1q33, the 4th Edition of the Soviet Catalogue,
released in that year, mentioned the existence of two dies. Quoting fron the
catalogue, the "Czarist stamps of 15 kop. value, both perfcratcd and imporfo-
rate are known to exist in two typos: Size of design 22.5:16.5mm. (normal)
and 23.0x16.8mm. (re-engraved). Therefore the specings between the stamps
of the second type serve as a distinct method of separating one type from the
other. The lower half of the sheet of larger stamps has in the lower left
hand corner the number of the printing press (plate number) 6 or 7 which
was used to indicate from which machine these stamps were printed. Overprints
of 40, 100 and 200 rubles exist in both types". The catalogue does not men-
tion th- existence of large die stamps of 20 rubles on 15 kop. stamp.

The 2nd (1924) edition of the same catalogue lists the quantities of the
15 hop. stamps overprinted with a star and a new value in rubles. The total
of 90,991,00C thus overprinted is broken down as follows:

Scott's Nos. 217 and 224 49.,_00 Scott's Nos. 221 and 22F" 25,775,0C0
220 and 227 24,2C0,CCC 222 and 229 40,:22,7CC

Basic 35 kop. stamps were likewise overprinted in various ways for use
in Armoni7., Batum, Far Eastern Republic, Georgia, Estonis, Latvia, Russian
Offices in China, Russian Cfficos in Turkey, for uso of Genoral Irangel,
South Russia, Siberia and TAkraine, but so far one does not kncw whether ex-
amples of largo dio 15 kcp. were used for overprinting for any of the afore-
mentioned uses.

Since the 15 kop. value of the Arms Type was printed in largo oua-tities
it is safe to assume that numrircus plates were used in printing of that stamp,

Si Jze of Dies

Small Di_ Varies from l 1.0 to 1 .5mm. in width by 22.00 to 22.75mm.
in height.
Largo Die 17x23mm.

It is interesting to note that the earlier printing (lc09) was the
smallest in size and as the plates started to wor out the size of the small
die increased slightly in both directions. (See the variation in size of
of th? small die).

The plates having large die subjects had a shorter lifo, theorfore the
variations in sizes are infinitesimal and may be disregarded.

S acting B tw o n S t a m p s

Flatos of 15 kop. stamps were made of 100 subjects, ccnsistinc of four
panes of 25 stamr,'s each. The overall sizes of the plates cf both 2arge and
small die stars did. not vary throughout all of +I- ,nt.nfis, nUr did the

No. 64 Page 17

size of panes. This may be proven by measuring the overall sizes of panes of
shoots contain stamps of both dies, and the horizontal and vertical spacings
between the stamps of the center block of four in a sheet of 100 stamps.
(See Fig. 1) .

The horizontal and vertical spacings in the aforementioned blocks of
four in my collection are as follows:

Small Die 11.0xll.5mm. Large Die 10.5x11.Omm.

"The 0.5mm. variations in both directions may be attributed to wear and
tear of the plates or to the method of printing. Therefore, since the over-
all dimensions of panes of 25 stamps of both dies is the same, the spacings
between stamps of large die is smaller than the spacings in the sheets of
stamps with small die.

Measurements of spacings in blocks and sheets of small die stamps in-
dicated that both horizontal and vertical spacings varied from 1.75 to 2.0mm.
Examination of the aforementioned pieces also revealed that both horizontal
and vertical alignments of stamps in each row was in a straight line and
that none of the stamps were out of alignomont.

Examination of blocks of large die stamps revealed that the stamps in
both horizontal and vertical rows were often out of straight line alignment,
thus making the spacings between stamps quite variable. For that reason the
spacing between stamps of large die may be the same as the spacings between
stamps of small die, or larger or smaller.

P1 a t e s :o f L a r g D i e St amps P

Soviet catalogue for 1933 states that the stamps from Plates 6 and 7 may
be found both in small and large dies.

I do not have a complete sheet of 100 stamps of large die, but the
center block of four (Illustrated in Fig. 1), which has a New York registry
cancellation, and is dated 6.2.1923 may give us an indirect proof that the
stamps of large die were printed in shoots of 100 subjects. Of course one
can not tell for sure from this block what the other stamps in the sheet
of 100 wore.

Since the stamps of small die exist in various shades, it proves that
there were numerous printings. Likewise, the impressions on these stamps
vary from very clear to blurred and worn out. On the other hand all of my
largo die stamps have clear impressions, indicating later usage and a shorter
period of use.

The above leads us to beleive that since the 15 kop. stamps were printed
in huge quantities and had a considerable use, numerous plates were used
throughout the lifo of the stamp Of course some of the plates wore used more
than the others, and the stamps of the later printings from these plates show
considerable wear, broken frame lines, etc. As the small die plates became
worn out, they were discarded and replaced by plates with large die subjects.
This is confirmed by the Soviet Catalogue of 1933 which states that the Platoe
6 and 7 were used for printing stamps both with small and large die subjects.
Since none of the large die stamps that I have seen have a worn out appearance
and are likewise found in various shades, it makes me believe that they were
used towards the end of life of the 15 kop. stamp and that more than one
printing was made. .
Pago 18 No 6

Of course, it is impossible at this time to tell exactly when the large
die stamps were placed in use, but the examination of the sheets of stamps
with the same plato markings, but of different shades may answer the question.

Likewise, it is also quite possible that individual cliches in plates
made of small die stamps wore replaced by cliches of large die, but we have
no proof of that. Therefore, since I have only one complete shoot of stamps
(Scott's No. 125) of small die, I shall leave the subject of single replace-
ment of small die cliches by largo die cliches in shots of small die stamps
to some one else who has more material.

Var ie tie s of Lar ge D ie Stamps Kno w n to

Scott's Nos. 81, 125, 220, 221, 222, 227, 228 and 229.

Armenia 38

The latter stamp may have a counterfeit overprint and until it is
authenticated, we may assume that the 15 kop. stamps of large die were only
used for overprinting with the star and and a now value in rubles.

Cooooooooo---------- oooo000000o0 x1 Y xoooooooooo----------000000000o------
o o
o o
o STAMPS Singles (mint and used) front 71 to #2400, pairs, blocks o
o of all sizes to 25, and numerous covers. o
o STATES Batun, Transcaucasian Republics, Far Eastern Republic, o
o Siberia and others. o
o OCCUPATIONS Latvia, Lithu.nia,.Finland, Creto, Mountain Republic, etc. o
c FOREIGN OFF. China, Turkey, and etc. o
c SPECIALTIES Airs, including Consulars Postal Stationery (early) o
o Covers, including stamploss Numerous duplicates Also 0
o Philatelic Literature. c
o o
o .Will sell, above 26 volumes outright if reasonable offer o
o is made. Telephone FU 9 3227 o
o 0
o Dr. Louis S 0 R 0 K I N #2600 So. Franklin St. Philadelphia S4, Pa. o
o a
oooo00000ooo000ocoooooooo00ooo000oo 000000000000000000OO0000000000
OcOO000OCC 3OOOCCOCCCc000C OOC0 000000o00000 co0000000C00000000C00000O00000000000
0 0
o Li q ui da t i on of my C o l c t i o n o
o o
"o Stamps, vignettes, paper money, coins, medals, decorations, postcards o
"o of Russia, War of 1905, 1914, military uniforms, views of different o
"o towns of Russia, cancellations on covers and postcards, first day o
"o cancellations and match bo:: covers, o
o o
o In replying, enclose a stamp of your country. o
0 o
o G. Wroublcwsky 1, Aloe dos Maisonottcs, prol., Gagny, S at 0, France o

No. 64 Page 19

BY G. H. Torrey

Moving on down the Syrian coast the next ROPiT stop was Latakia, famous
for the tobacco grown in its surrounding area and today Syria's principal
port. Overshadowed by Alexandrotta and Tripoli, Latakia remained a small
city throughout the nineteenth century, its export business being loss than
half that of Tripoli's and a seventh of Alexandrettats at the turn of the
century. This factor probably accounts for the rarity of all material emana-
ting from Latakia.

My examples from this interesting port begin with a cover to Beirut in
June 1868, postpaid by an 1866 two kopek stamp cancelled with a diamond of
64 dots (Tchilinghirian Type 8) accompanied by the Type 5 date stamp. Next
in chronological order is a front to Alexandria, Egypt postpaid by three 7
kopek stamps of the 1884 Levant issue. These are cancelled with a Type 6
Latakia date stamp, which has no year date. This is particularly unfortunate
in this case, since the back of the cover is gone and, hence, there is no
receiving mark at Alexandria to date it. A recently acquired treasure is a
10 kopek stamp of the 1872 Levant issue cancelled with the "P.P." handstamp
enclosed within a double line frame (Tchilinghirian Type 2). In this hand-
stamp the letters are 9mm. high, instead of 8mm. as in the case of Smyrna.

Overlooked when discussing Alexandretta items was a stampless cover to
Aleppo in 1866. Sent by the firm of Belfante and Catoni (the Catoni family
acted as British and Dutch vice-consuls in Alexandretta for many years), the
letter was addressed to the old Aleppo firm of Marcopoli & Co. The handstamp
used wag a blue single lined circle "Port Alexandretta" (Tchilinghirian Type
3), but with no year date. One must presume that it was delivered by the
Russian Post Office at Aleppo, since there is no Turkish arrival marking on
the back.

Five hours sail (56 miles) up the coast from Beirut lies Tripoli, a town
of about 26,000 population in 1900. Its busy port saw 660 steamers and near-
ly 2,000 sailing ships during 1910. These carried away grain, raw silk, or-
anges and lemons, and olive oil. Despite the fact that a ROPiT Agency began
operating in the mid-1869's Russian material originating from here is scarce,
Covers are of great rarity. Perhaps, the competition of the French, Austrian,
and even Egyptian post offices, in the city account for this. In any caso.
my examples are confined to cancellations on loose stamps. These begin with
a serifed "Port Tripoli" with the date in three lines on a 4 para stamp of
1900 Levant issue. Next are a 10 kopek 1872 and a 7 kopek 1879, both with
the large double oval with "ROPiTIT at the top and "Agent Tripoli" at the bot-
tom with the date in the center. My remaining examples are a 1 para of the
1903 issue cancelled in red with the last type used at Tripoli---that with
the cross typed date, and a 20 para Romanov cancelled in black.

Beirut, the third most important port in nineteenth century Tukey, had a
population of about 120,000 in 1900, two thirds being non-Muslim. It was the
main port for Syria, the center of education for the area with its American
Coll3ae, the French Jesuit University of St. Joseph, and the seat for a rum-
ber of church dignitaries---the Papal Delegate, a Maronite archbishop, the
Unit-,( Greek Patriarch and a Greek Orthodox bishop as well as several foreign
miS'.ins. Aside from the Russian Post Office, there were the establishmlent.
of france, Great Britain, Germany, and in the seventiesEgypt. All wore

Page 20 No. 64

located in the same building---Khan Antun Bey---near the port and across from
the Imperial Ottoman Post Office. The building still stands, but has been
transformed into commercial quarters for merchants and lawyers.

Beirut cancellations are among the commonest of Russian Used Abroads and
covers only moderately scarce. Ky array of Beirut material begins with a
beautiful pair of the 2 kopek stamps of 1866 cancelled with the "Port Beirut"
date stamp, a scarce item. We then skip to the 1890's where I have stamps of
the 1872 and 18P4 issues cancelled with the single line circle "ROPiT Beirut".
with tho date in a straight line. These are on the 1, 2 and 5 kopek values
of the 1884 issue. The 1872 stamp is a 10 kopek. There are 3 copies of the
very scarce "ROPiT AGFNT BEIRU"T oval cancellation on the 1, 5 and 7 kopek
stamps of 1884 issue, all cancelled in blue. Beirut ends with examples of the
common double line circle cancels on the 1909 and Romanov issues. Only one
cover graces my collection, a late one bearing a 20 para Romanov with a 20
para of the 1910 issue. Postal stationary includes two 4 kopek post cards,
one a return card, of the type of the 1884 issue of stamps, and a letter card
of the type of the 1872 stamp issue, all cancelled with the single line circle
"Beirut" in violet.

000ocOCCCO---------- 00000000 00----------0000000C----------0000000000------
o 0
0 0
o For COVERS, POSTCARD, E'TIRES, stamps, seals, revenues, vignettes, a
o reply coupons, money orders, bank notes, just everything from the Baltic o
o Area, especially L A T VI A. All time starless to recent. o
c o
c Andrew P E T R E V I C S 67 Borden Avenue, ? R R Y, New Yorlk
c o

e---------o0000000C c----------000000000----------oooooooo ----------0000000
C 0
c U K R A I N E o
c I have at all times the World's largest stock of Ukrainian stamps, o
c entire, covers, money transfer cards, and other material. o
o o
0 Likewise, I also want the same type of material and also Ukrainian o
o paper money, officials and local issues. o
o o
o o
o J 0 HE BUL A T o
c -------------------- 14 E m Stre et o
o ------.--.------- ----- Y 0 N E R S, New York c
COOC0000OCCC0000COCCCOOoCC CO:CcCOCC00000000000000000000 CooO ooCOcOOOCooCCOO

No. 64 Page 21

by C C. Handford

In his "Zemstvo Gazetteer" which appears in the B.S.R.P. Journal, Vol.4,
No. 25 of Juno 1959, Fred W. Speers says, nChistopol (Kazan Government) emit-
ted THREE issues of stamps"; Chuchin lists four and Schmidt SIX. The items
in my collection details of which are given below agree with Schmidt

All stamps are of 2 Kop. value

1906 No. 1. January 1, 1906. Black, green & yellowish rose. Medium
paper. Perf. ll-. Sheet lOx1O. Last two stamps of
vertical rows 2 to 7 are tote beche.
1907 No. 2. Colors changed to black yellow green & brownish yellow.
Thinner paper. Thin frame line bordering design. I have
one of the seven (7) copies known.
1907 No. 3. Typographed at the St. P. State Printing Works. Perf. 13.
Dark brown. Sheet 5x5 with large top and bottom margins.
Small hole perforations.
1911 No. 4. Black brown. Printing as No. 3. Perf. 13. Small hole
perforations. Sheet 10xlO in 4 panes. Gutter 10-mm.
horizontal and llmm. vetical.
1915 No. 5. Dark browm. Printing as No. 3 & 4 but with perforations
of large holes. (I have a pair & a single mint & 3 used
copies). Sheet was lOxLO.
1911 No. 6. Gray brown/yellow brown. Perf. 11 Local printing with
small corner figures & without "catch on outer rim of the
pail. This was an emergency printing caused by non-deli-
very of No. 4, the stock of No.3 having been exhausted.
Size of sheet unknown. I have one of the nine copies
known. ex Melikov & Stibbe collections.

I cannot neglect this opportunity to congratulate Fred W. Speers on his
excellent series "The Zemstvo Gazetteer" at present appearing in B.S.R.P.
Journal. The idea of presenting such an invaluable mass of data for the use
of collectors ws inspired, and has placed Zemstvo devotees deeply in his debt.
The information supplied(in addition to the production of the exquisite
map), has earned for him the gratitude and thanks of all of us.


The money order form from Irbit (Perm Zemstvo) mentioned by George
Russell of Auckland, New Zealamd, in f63, P. 61, is similar to those in my
collection from the same town in 1909.

The Irbit Zemstvo issued a 1 kop. stamp in 1906 which was in short supply.
in 1909, & the 2 kop. was authorized to be bisected & put into use.

I have the following cards:- (The followin- cards have also Imperial stampo)..
SIrbit to St, Petersburg..... 2 k, & bisect loval starLps.
2 I-bit (Iocsa delivery) ...... 4 kop, (pair of 2 k.) stamps,
3. ':-ir tf: Pelek (Vladimir)... 4 hop. 'parer of 2 kop.) plus bisect :L. 3
4, A.'it t Io ['Nlii'. (Viatka)... Seven copies of 2 kop. stamps.
Alex. Dr'ar., one of our members has a similar lot from the same sou'.i'r.

Page 22 No. 64

by Kurt Adler

An interesting documentation of the changing fortunes in the Civil War
in a far-away corner of Middle Asia has come into my hands recently in.the
form of a postal money order (Illustrated). It emanates from the Seven River
District (Semirechenskaya Oblast or Semirechie), to day part of the Soviet
Republic of Kazakhstan, where the district borders on Chinese Sinkiang. Soon
after the 1917 October Revolution the Civil War flared up in this region and
the possession of the region fluctuated between Whites and Reds for a long
time. Red units were organised in Verny (present Alma-Ata) and some near-by
villages and stanitsas. Here are a few interesting dates in the history of
this interesting region. On June 6, 1918 the Whites took the rather import-
ant town of Dzharkent but were thrown out by a Red detachment under Zatylnikov
on June 13, 1918. Towards the end of June of the same year the United Red
Army Detachment of Verny wa' formed from the former Verny Red group, augment-
ed by volunteers from the poorer part of the population of the village of
Gavrilovskoe and the stanitsa Karabulakskaya. This groop sped towards Kopal
and took it on August 2, 1918. The Reds had to fight against a definite dis-
advantage: the White detachments, in the case of a defeat would cross the
border into Sinkiang, and with the help of the last Tsarist consuls in Chugu-
chak and Kuldzh, Messrs. Bolbyezhev and Lyuby, respectively reform there and
attack Reds from the rear. The Whites counterattacked shortly after the fall
of Kopal and although the 2nd Infantry regiment of Verny was sent to Dzharkent
in September 1918 to help the Reds, cornand-d by Petrenko, he had to give up
Cherkassk under pressure and retreat to-ard Gavrilovkoye on llth September
1918. Petrenko reached Gavrilovskoye c:. 17-:h. Shortly afterwards he was dis-
missed and Zatylnikov assumed command, in order to finish the job, the Whites
sent General Annenkov to the Semirechny f::;l-. His Army group was in the
vicinity of Dzharkent in December 191 Hi: plan consisted of using Chinese
territory and to attack the Reds in Dzharklent frmc there.

We are now approaching the time the money order was mailed in Gavrilov-
skoye on January 27, 1919. The sender identifies himself as Commander of the
First Escadron of Comrade Zatylnikov fighting group from Verny. It was sent
to certain Aleksoi Nikolenko in Dzharkent. The money order amounting to 1C41
rubles arrived in Dzharkent on February 2, 1919, but the addressee could not
be found. He must have left with his detachment for the Sinkiang border to
fight the Whites, because the next postmark reads Dzharkent Febr. 19, the
money order arriving in Khorgos the same day. The money could not be deliver-
ed at Khorgos either, so it was returned to Gavrilovskoye on April 30, 1919.
A postal clerk in Khoegos wrote: Returned to Dzharkent (crossed out) Gavrilov-
ka because of termination.of holding time and because of incomplete address.
For some reason the money order did-not receive an arrival postmark at
Gavrilovskoye. It was forwarded again, this time to Kopal where it arrived on
May 2., 1919. Finally, the addressee must have gotten his money because the
money order boars the handwritten remark: "delivered on June 6, 1919". The
Civil War in meantime was nearing its climax with the long battle for Chcrkas&.
the capture of which by the Reds finally decided the outcome of the War in the
Semirechie Eistrict and secured it for the Reds.

Philatelically, this money order is also highly informative. It shows,
first of all, that the amount of 17& rubles is approximately 1-% of the money
order of 101 ruble.s. Furthermore, it proves that Gavrilovskoyo must have
been short of stamps smaller than the 31, ruble denomination.

No. 64 Page 23

The postage on the cover consists of one 3- rubles imperforate, 5 rubles
imperforate both of 1917 and a strip of 3 of 4 rubles Control stamps, or a
total of 17-g rubles. The eminent expert of the C4vil War philatelic period,
Dr. Paul Krynine wrote in #22 of the Russian-American Philatelist: "The
higher value control stamps were used for postage at face only in Turkestan,
in 1919, 1920 and 1921 Only the 10 and cthe 100 ruble values are known
used thus and they are considered as first class rarities".

Although the Seven River District may be considered as a part of
Turkestan, the use at face value of the 3 ruble Cont-rol stamp has not been
recorded as yet,, and may well constitute a hitherto unrecorded local provi-
sional use at Gavrilovskoye.

Thus, a simple money order serves as an important document for the
political and postal history of the Seven River District in Russia.

00000-----00000-----00000---- 000000----000 00-----000 00----00000----00000
0 O
"o War invalids in France printed and issued for sale 4 series of CharltyT
"o stamps-labels. Each series is enclosed in an artistic cover. Each so"- o
"o ries consists of 6 stamps, or a total of 24 stamps, 65x55mm. in size ando
"o perforated. c
o0 f
o The aforementioned labels are reproduced from the drawings made by V- -
o P. Vereshagin and depict the history of the Russian Empire. They show o
o rulers from Prince Olog (879-912) to Emperor Alexander III, the Peace- o
o maker (1881-1894), and have an explanatory text. o
o o
o The price of the set is 92 cents or $1.00 postpaid. o
o 0
oUn i o n d e s I nva 1 i d o s R u se 4, rue Casablanca, o
o Paris 15, France. u

00ooanooooooecoocoooooo oooooo ceoooooooooooooooooooocoooooooo o

0 0
o I buy for cash stamps of Czarist Russia and Civil War, the cheapest o
o in bulk and in sheets mint. c
o 0
o Stamps of U N Mint and on FDC. Will trade for stamps of Brazil and o
o USSR. o
o o
o Stamps of any Land on Themes (Tpicals) Cosmos, Fauna, Flora will o
o give in exchange stamps of USSR on same topics. o
o o
o Snr. Alexander Vansovich Rua Senador Dantos 117, Sobre loja 206, Rio o
o de Janeiro, Brazil r
0o o

First issue of Rossica journal appeared on April 1, 1930 and consisted
only of 20 pages. It was printed in Russian only. The only articles on
Russia were "The Overprints of 8 KOP on Postage Due Stamps" and "The
Cancellations on Stamps of Latvia During its First Day of Independence".
The rest of the articles were on Jugoslavia and Lithuania.

Page 24 No 6:

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( 7 '%e e i O aAP6 n TaYIR PA

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CaVU ES"bll ~OT LTtCK-

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Car& hI NomTt 0

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~3HC cyA HuA4C:Cr~O~ mc* 0

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by 0. A. Faberge

(See R. Sklarevski's new lifting of P 0 S T C A R D S in ROSSICA JOURNAL
No. 54 and 55. Also same authors' listing of L E T T E R C A.R D S in
No. 52/53. Likewise kindly insert Sklarevski's post card numbers on Page
50 of !'55.)

In his listing of Imperial Russian post cards Mr. Sklarevski leaves
space open for varieties which he has not seen, but which are listed by
Ascher or/and Prigara.

The author asks for information about those items in order to clear up
the question whether they oxist or not.

Below are listed and described some of those postcards which I have in
my collection and some others too:

(Humbers are those of Sklarevski/Ascher/Prigara)

P O S T CA RDS (Page 50 of Rossica No. 55)

a. 28a/24II/24b 4 kop plus 4 kop., Size C, EC, C3. 31 dots/2cm. MINT
b. 2qb/----/24c 4 kop plus 4 kop., Size C, EC, C3. mixed dots. 1MIT
c. 4/ 4 /4a This cards secrs to have been issued somewhat earlier
than Er. Sklarovski states (June 1876). I have a used
copy clearl-: postm.arle. 1..4.1876 with the C.D.S. of
Riga, and another cc.y postmarked 1.6.1876 at St.
Petersburg I LX. 2.

LE TT ER C A RD S (Fagc 52 of RcvIc- No._ 52/53).

d. The card I am describing is a kind of an error of Ascher No. 6 (Sklarevski
No. 11) in my collection. A complete additional: imprint on the INER
SIDE of this letter card. This impression, ic lauding the embossed stamp,
is found on the lower portion of the crJ.. whi:n has boon regularly used
from Potorhof (23.4.1903) to St. Petersburg (:-ame date). (Soe Figs. 2 & 3)

N T E This will be Sklarcvski's #lla, first ti-.e reported and no doubt a
groat rarity. The author illustrates both sides of the card.

'lla 7 kop. blue printed on both sides.

e. There are two major varieties of the overprinted letter card of 1916 in
my collection, namely I:. 10. K. on 7 kop. (Ascher :17, Sklarevski
/'22). I do not know which of the two varieties are included in Mr.
Sklarovski's listing, so hero they are.

Aschor 17 (I) 23 dots/2cm. (Same as Sklarevski ,22)
Asch. 17 (III) Mixed dots: - dots/2cm.

N C T E Sklarevski did not list variations because of possible numerous
varieties of the two cards that he has one of which is 23 dots/
2cm. and the other is -E D IT OR

No. 64 Page 25

f. The DO UBLE LE T.T ER CARD10 kop. plus 10 kop. (Ascher
17D), which was issued (date unknown) but never used, evidently does
not belong to 1918 issue. There are good reasons for such a statement:

I The coat of arms is of the early type it appears for the last
time on the overprinted letter card of 1909 ( the 5 kop. card
itself was issued in 1890).
II The top center inscription reads "CLOSED LETTER". This was altered
to "LETTER" already in the 1909 issue.
III The copy in my collection has a red overprint reading "FROJECT"
on both portions of the card nd a p.nc-.led note, reading "Victor
Victorovich Bilibin, and the dato 189o6,/II". This copy thus may
be classified as an essay of March 1696. These do-ill.o better cards
certainly can exist without the red overprint, although I personally
have nevor seen a copy. (See Fig. 4 which shows only one part of
this card. An equal part projects beneath the photo).

N 0 T E We agree that the letter car described by the author is an ESSAY
of 1896. One can not determine from 3nsher's description what
his #171 letter card is. Therefore we neither agioo noro disagree
with the author's statement until there is a proof that #171 is
not a double card with a later coat of arms in lindon leaf frame.


BY 0. A. Faberge

See K. Adler and K. Schmidt listings in NOs. 61 and 62.

Following the request of Mr. Adler in the ROSSICA Journal No. 61 I
started "digging" in my collection of postal stationery for additional datL
on these scarce items. Here is the result of my digging.

In order to simplify the listing I added the mark "N E W' to the item'
listed herewith and not listed in Mr. Adler's original tables, and the mark
"A D D" for the additional information on items already listed such as the
earliest date of postmark and other data. The numbers (in connection with
A and B) are those of Mr. Adler in his listing, likewise are the reference
letters to the columns.

1. ADD A 2 I 4.12.1898
2. ADD A 4 I 9.11.1898
3. ADD A18 I 9. 1.1899 C 9.12.1898
4. ADD A21 I 26. 5.1899
5. ADD A30 I 5. 7.1900
'*6. ADD A24 I 7. 1.1899 (Added by K.A.)
7. ADD A46 I 17. 3.1899
*8. NEW A52 I -13. 6.1999 (Canc. Wesenborg) C 20. 1. 1899 D -Kiev
E 7 kop. blue. (Added by K. A.)
9. NEW A68 I 10.11.1900 0 3. 3.1899 D, Rostov on Don E 7 kop.
F Blue
10, NEW A73 I 25. 3.1899 C 10. 4.1899 D Kiev E 7 kop. F Blue

* Items marked with the asterisk are those added by Mr. dle& discovered
by him after his art'1; :i published in #62.

Page 26 No. 64

11. NE' A74 I 17. 7.1899 C 1 3.1899 D Odessa E 7 k. F Blue
12. ADD A89 I 12. 9.1899
S *13. NEW A94 I 12. 9.1899 C 9. 4.1899 D-Astrakhan E 7k. F Red
Police permit Tambov. (Added by K. A.)
14. ADD B113 I 9.10.1900
15. ADD Al22/B84 I 3. 3.1901.

N 0 T E I am very grateful for Mr. Faborge's addenda and hope other readers
will also start "digging". I was lucky to acquire two now additions
(see above) to the list printed in Rossica #62 and to partially
correct one earliest known date. Readers should fill in the new
numbers in the oepty spaces of the TABLE and likewise add the above
given information.
Kurt Adler

00000.. ...XXX.....o00000 ....000oooo...00000 .. .ooo000oo.....XXXXX.... .00000.
0 0
o 0
o Russo-Japanese War Material, or any Russia used in Manchuria. I o
o am also interested in anything Ianchurian and philatelic. Also want o
o Russia used in Alexandrotta and Tarnu Touva. o
o o
o Raymond S. Ehrman 468 Woodland Road Pittsburgh 37, Pa. o
o o
ooco oooococcoccooococcoooccocoococOooc coo cOOOC O OOCC OCCOOOOOOC CoooOOOOOO

o For sale philatelic literature and over 1000 photostats and many o
o important articles on stamps. Kindly attach reply coupons to all o
c inquiries. I also have some complete sets of Russia, Ukraine o
o Tridents, and other material. o
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4;:Y'::)3(XXX x" Xy-V "yXY::: :X':' X c ,x.'.XXX:-X;;;: -.:-,:.;:`; 'XXX
x x
Y I buy and exchange paper money. Kindly contact x
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X-:N.;:>xP7ex:2XY.xxxxxXyxx.;x:' x3' .7Yj x' yxxxxxx- yxxx :: -xxxxx

No. 64 Page 27

by R. Sklarevski


Looking over my accumulation of post cards I just rediscovered an un-
usual item, Sklarevski #25 3 Kop. post card of 1909 with advertisements in
blue in the left hand portion of the front of the post card (See Ill. 1) and
a different advertisement on'the same side of the message portion of the card,
likewise in blue (See Ill. 2).

As far as I know the aforementioned type of the post card was never listed
or described anywhere else. The post card in question is probably official
in character, since on the face of the card, on the left border reading up is
an inscription, reading "Central Office for Advertisements on Postal (Abbrevi-
ated) Cards (abbreviated), SPB. Value 1 Kop." The card is addressed to
Germany and evidently was mailed from Irkutsk on November 13, 1913.

It would be interesting to know of other Imperial post cards with

L E TTE R C AR D S (Additional Data)

In my earlier article in #52/53 I did not list the 23 and 31 dot vari-
ations of the letter cards.

I have the following varieties in my collection, starting with Sklarevoki

No. 14 7 kop. (Top flap gummed) all 23
7 kop. (Bottom flap gummed)
No. 15 3 kop. (Bottom flap gummed) all 23
No. 20 7 kop. (Bottom flap gummed) 23.23.31..31 31.23
7 kop. (Top flap gummed) all 23
No. 21 -10 kop. (Top flap gummed) all 23
No. 22 -10/7 k. (Top flap gummed) -all 23
10/7 k. (Bottom flap gummed)


0000000000 ........ .oo0000000000 o ....... 0000000000 .... ..0000000000.....
0 0
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o New York 25, N.Y. o
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o Want lists for collectors and dealers are filled by return mail. Better
o grade approvals by country are also available.. Many rarities and odd- o
o ities for specialists. o
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Oooo000000000oooo0000oo00000000ooo0000ooooo ooooooooooOOOCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOo OOOO

Page 28 No. 64

by J. Poscll

The consular stamps of 1913 as listed in Forbints Catalogue of Revenue
Stamps (1915) have long posed a problem to collectors of Russian revenues.
Not all values as listed by Forbin are known to exist and some values ex-
ist which are not listed in Forbin. Some authorities suspect that these
missing stamps may have been announced by officials of the time but were
never printed, and the purpose of this paper is to try to locate the missing
values if at all possible. As listed in the Forbin catalogue, the values
and the sizes of these stamps for consular use is as follows:

40x31mm. 1. 10k. 4. 1 r. 7. 2 r. 25 k. 10. 5 r.
2. 50 k. 5. 1 r. 50 k. 8. 3 r. 11. 7 r. 50 k.
3. 75 k. 6. 2 r. 9. 4 r. 50 k.

80x60mm. 12. 10 r. .13. 30 r. 14. 50 r. 15. 100 r.

The values not listed in Forbin are 1 k., 2 k., 5 k. and 25 k.

The last four stamps, and the first three stamps of the first list, or
in other words all the kopek values, are a slightly smaller size than the
ruble values. These stamps measure 37x29mm. and have also a different bor-
der design than the ruble values. If the 10 k., 50 k. and 75 k. stamps in
size 40x31mm. exist, they have as yet, never been seen. We can therefore
assume that this is an error in Forbin's listing. Another error is the size
given of the high ruble values. These are not 80x60mm. but measure 56x43-mmm.

Neither I nor such veteran revenue collectors as Emile Marcovitch, 0.
Faberge, or E. E. Stefanowsky of Kharkov have ever seen copies of the 1 r.,
2 r. or 30 r. stamps. None.of these collectors have copies of the 100 r.
stamp either, and had always assumed that this stamp also did not exist. As
recently as June 1961 in an article entitled "Fiscal Stamps of the Soviet
Government", which appeared in the American Revenuer, Stefanowsky wrote, "The
existence of the 30 and 100 r. values is doubtful"'. However, the 100 r.
value does exist in my own collection and it is therefore possible that the
other missing values long assumed to be non-existent or never printed, might
also be found on the neglected pages of some one's revenue collection.
Readers are therefore urged to look through their copies of Russin consular
stamps and if by chance the missing values of 1 r., 2 r. and 30 r. are found,
or other discrepancies in measurements noted, to kindly communicate with me
or with Mr, Emile Marcovitch so that appropriate steps for recording these
discoveries can be made.

b! vs v ool= o0 0pov

In my letter in Rossica Journal No. 62 I brought out the fadt that many
catalogues gave the date of issue of these stamps as June 1924, although
covers exist prepaid with these stamp cancelled May, 1924. On Page 143 of
the Catalogue of the Former Russian Empire, RSFSR and USSR. 2nd Edition,
Moscow 1924, we read the following statement "February 1924. Fifth Union
Issue", followed by description of Scott Nos. C6-9 prepared for sale at
the post office in sheets of 25", followed by the quantities issued -
"S5k./3r. and lCk./5r. (Scott C6 and C7) 450,000 each; 15k./lr.(Soott C8)

No. 64 Page 29

by J. Poscll

The consular stamps of 1913 as listed in Forbints Catalogue of Revenue
Stamps (1915) have long posed a problem to collectors of Russian revenues.
Not all values as listed by Forbin are known to exist and some values ex-
ist which are not listed in Forbin. Some authorities suspect that these
missing stamps may have been announced by officials of the time but were
never printed, and the purpose of this paper is to try to locate the missing
values if at all possible. As listed in the Forbin catalogue, the values
and the sizes of these stamps for consular use is as follows:

40x31mm. 1. 10k. 4. 1 r. 7. 2 r. 25 k. 10. 5 r.
2. 50 k. 5. 1 r. 50 k. 8. 3 r. 11. 7 r. 50 k.
3. 75 k. 6. 2 r. 9. 4 r. 50 k.

80x60mm. 12. 10 r. .13. 30 r. 14. 50 r. 15. 100 r.

The values not listed in Forbin are 1 k., 2 k., 5 k. and 25 k.

The last four stamps, and the first three stamps of the first list, or
in other words all the kopek values, are a slightly smaller size than the
ruble values. These stamps measure 37x29mm. and have also a different bor-
der design than the ruble values. If the 10 k., 50 k. and 75 k. stamps in
size 40x31mm. exist, they have as yet, never been seen. We can therefore
assume that this is an error in Forbin's listing. Another error is the size
given of the high ruble values. These are not 80x60mm. but measure 56x43-mmm.

Neither I nor such veteran revenue collectors as Emile Marcovitch, 0.
Faberge, or E. E. Stefanowsky of Kharkov have ever seen copies of the 1 r.,
2 r. or 30 r. stamps. None.of these collectors have copies of the 100 r.
stamp either, and had always assumed that this stamp also did not exist. As
recently as June 1961 in an article entitled "Fiscal Stamps of the Soviet
Government", which appeared in the American Revenuer, Stefanowsky wrote, "The
existence of the 30 and 100 r. values is doubtful"'. However, the 100 r.
value does exist in my own collection and it is therefore possible that the
other missing values long assumed to be non-existent or never printed, might
also be found on the neglected pages of some one's revenue collection.
Readers are therefore urged to look through their copies of Russin consular
stamps and if by chance the missing values of 1 r., 2 r. and 30 r. are found,
or other discrepancies in measurements noted, to kindly communicate with me
or with Mr, Emile Marcovitch so that appropriate steps for recording these
discoveries can be made.

b! vs v ool= o0 0pov

In my letter in Rossica Journal No. 62 I brought out the fadt that many
catalogues gave the date of issue of these stamps as June 1924, although
covers exist prepaid with these stamp cancelled May, 1924. On Page 143 of
the Catalogue of the Former Russian Empire, RSFSR and USSR. 2nd Edition,
Moscow 1924, we read the following statement "February 1924. Fifth Union
Issue", followed by description of Scott Nos. C6-9 prepared for sale at
the post office in sheets of 25", followed by the quantities issued -
"S5k./3r. and lCk./5r. (Scott C6 and C7) 450,000 each; 15k./lr.(Soott C8)

No. 64 Page 29

950,000 and 20 k./10 r. (Scott C9) 1,450,000. Therefore, using the quanti-
ties issued as basis we arrive at the following degrees or factors of scarcity.

20 k. -1. 15 k. 2. 5 and 10 k. 3

I have basis for believing the quantities issued figures given in the catalo-
gue. I can still remember, as a school boy collecting stamps, that the most
often found value in the commercial correspondence of the bank where my father
worked, between 1924 and 1928 was the 20 k./10 r. stamp (Scott 09) and that
not once, did I find the 5 k./3 r. (Scott C6) or 10 k./5 r. (Scott 07). Now,
most of the catalogues (I have checked five different ones on hand) place the
highest value on 15 k./lr. (Scott 08). This is another "riddle" of the com-
pilers of the catalogues.

New York auction firm of Irwin Heiman in one of their stamp auctions had
a lot described as a philatelic air mail cover from Moscow to Paris, dated
16.5.24 and prepaid with a complete series of perforated Lenin mourning
stamps [Scott 269-72) and only three of the air mail series 10 k./5 r.,
15 k./lr. and 20 k./10 r.! (Often on philatelic mail postage was either an
exact amount 80k. for ordinary air mail letter or over if one wanted to
use complete series for a friend collector in this case it was 83 kop.),
Since writing my first letter to Rossica (Journal No. 62) I have
seen several covers prepaid with air mail stamps Scott Nos. 06 to 9 cancelled
on different days of M A Y 1924. Kurt Adler has in his collection a cover
cancelled UMoscow26.5.24". Up to present time the earliest date is 16.5.24.

All of the aforementioned data allows us to conclude, that the date of
issue of the stamps in question is not June as listed in many of the catalo-
gues. Evidently these stamp were placed on sale early in May 1924. I am
very sceptical in finding out the exact date of issue of this series,
unless I can obtain accurate official information.

by A. Prado

Recently browsing around the bookshelves of a friendly dealer I found
-a sopy of a 1935 Soviet Price list ij .AcL by U' S-oviet Philatelic Associat-
ion. The booklet in small horizontal i'ca b:re 7 pages and that 600 copies
were printed under the supervision of N. A. dollarar. The prices in the list
are in Gold Rubles and at the day rate of exchange (1935) 100 GR equals 1333
French francs, 17.17.2 Sterling pounds or 220 Reich marks. Stamps sold were
mint, used and on covers (some airmail sets).

The 1st part deals with the Airmail stamps of Russia. The #18a (San.)
is priced at 125 GR each and the #,'27 and 28 at 30GR per set. Nos. 41/44 on
covers and postcards flown on three different routes were sold at 50 GR per 10
sets. The same set perforated, also on covers, is listed at 92 GR per 10 sets.
(Almost all covers and postcards that-I have. seen indealerls hands and col-
lections eminates from the same source.). The Consular. Airmail sets were sold
in sets of 5 or 7 satamps at 250 GR per 10 sets in the first case and "price
on demand" for the second, and did not include.#6. The Vladivostok Airmail
set received the same treatment and the short set of 7 stamps was sold at
180 GR.

The second part deals with the stamps of RSFSR. In this section the

Page 30 No.64

";'Philately for Children" is priced at 25 GR per set. Scott #B30/33 at 10
GR per 10 sets (At least until 1935 these stamps had official sanction).
The Soviet catalogue for 1955 does not list this set.

The third part encompasses the USSR, Civil War, Caucasus, Tannu Tuva
and Mongolia. The feature of this section is the repetition of the airmail
sets. The Civil War issues of Elagoveshensk is offered cancelled in complete
shoots. Tannu Tuva is offered mint and used until 1932 and Mongolia has only
the mint and used set of 1932 current stamps.

The fourth sections deals with stamps of Russian Empire and Russian PO
in China. Of the Empire only a few sets are offered Scott #69/70 at 11 GR
per 10, Romanov set (less 1, 2 and 3R.) sold by the thousands and the 5R.
sold at 11 GR per 10. The currency stamps were sold at 17.50 GR. per 1000.
The 1911 Court Mail stamp of 15 kop. is listed at 15 GR per 10. Of the PO
in China only the following Scott numbers are listed: #20 at 7.50 GR per 10,
#56a at 23 GR per 10 and /'63/66 at 35 GR. per 10.

The fifth part lists and prices the "Rarities, errors, proofs and C."
Some prices per set are as follows: Scott #'149a 10 GR., 191a at 250 GR.,
#195 (period after "1" of "lOO1Op" is 20 GR., 210a 25 GR., 224 75 GR.
and 302/303 (imperforate) is 40 GR. per set.

The last section prices packet collections, 13 in all with quantities
varying from 25 for Russian Empire at 3.50 GR. per 100 packets to 150 of
Soviet Russia at 200 GR. perlCO packets.

by A. Prado

Although modern Russian stamps are caroa.lly prepared one finds here
and there some misprints, color changes, missing perforations, etc. Here
for the record I am listing some varieties not listed in catalogues. All
of the numbers are those from Scott catalogue.

1939/19L3 #735 Imp. at left 1955 #1763 The work on the wall
1945/1946 #992D Imp. at left is missing and the chandeliers
1947 #'1087 Imp. at bottom are more white spots.
1947 #1090 Imp. horizontally 1957 #190Q With two perforations:
1948 #1201 Imp. at top l12xl2 and 12r.
1948 #C 84 Imp. at left 1958 #1928 This stamp exists not
1948 #1217 Imp. at bottom only with a double frame of
1954 #1710 Imp. vertically value (See Lloyd in BJRP
1955 #1761 Two colors of the #29) but also with a frame
suit: one is black and the with thick and thin lines.
other is gray.

The last issue of the Soviet Catalogue which your Secretary has on hand
is one dated 1958 and entitled "Postage Stamps of USSR". The compilers were
f. T. Milkin, A. A. Shirokov, A. S. Chumakov and A. Y. Zezin. It was issued
under the direction of the Main Philatelic Office of the Einistry of Culture
of RSFSR, Moscow G-69, Khlebny Per., 8. Editors were Milkin and Zezin. The
printing consisted of 25,000 copies. Price in leather binding was 21 r. 20 k.

No. 64 Page 31

.by de Stackelberg

To Page 25 of #60
25 kop. stamp. Add (4) Perf. misplaced "'" in column III, Perf.

To Page 26 of #60
35 kop. stamp. Add (6) Perforation VARIETY a. Perforation mis-
placed "X" in Column III, Perf.

To Page 42 of #61
1 Rub. stamp. Add (2) ff. Only one stamp of a horizontal pair has
frame offset. "X" in Column III, horizontal chalk
lines, Perforated 132.
Add (2) j. Center intaglio, "X' Column III, horizon-
tal chalk lines, perforated.

To Page 57 of #62 Add 5 R stamp (4) late Flaws) a & c are Pool flaws.
c. (Lloyd Flaws), See for description and illustra-
tions Journal BSRP No. 32 of March 1963.
(a) Stamp No, 33 in a sheet: Two dates in left
value circle to loft of numeral "5".
(b) Stamp No. 40 in a sheet: Stroke at left of
Fig. "5" and elongated dot at right of numeral "5"
in left value circle.
"X" to be added in both cases in Col. III, Perf.

These flaws were found on stamp used on registered letters from Moscow,
dated between July 22 and 28, 1922.

To Page 57 of #63 Add 7 R. Stamp. (2)d. Frame offset only. Add "XI'
only to Collumn "HCC., Perf., I, II.".
Add (2) c.b. Chalk lines on both sides of the stamp.
Add "X" in Collunn'HCC, Perf., I, II.".
Add 10 R. (4) Flaws of plate. See detailed article
by Newman in Rossica Nos. 61, 62 and 63.

odooo.... 6ooo00... ..00ooo..o..ooooo.....ooooo.....ooooo....ooooo... .oo000
o P RI C E L I S T OF ....... o
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o General, by Countries and Specialized, Forerunners, Airmails, Rovenus, o
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000Co0000oo000OO000o000o00o000oooo00oo000000000000oooo oooooeoooooooooo0ooo

Page 32 No. 64

by A. Cronin

Reference has been made previously in the series "Tannu Tuva a general
survey" to a part certificate, dated 25.3.33 and signed by the Postmaster at
Kyzyl. It purports to show that KTCE surcharges on the fiscal constituted
a postal issue (Fig.'l). The existence of this item had been communicated
by Mr. G. S. Russell of Auckland, Now Zoaland, and the text, written in ink,
reads as follows:

....for postal purposes, and they were issued in the Tuvan National
Republic in 1932, and the Republican Office of Communications herby certi-

It was signed by the Postmaster, who also added the official KYZYL post
and telegraph office seal, as well as a pair of the 5k./6k. and a strip of 3
of lk./15k. KTOE surcharges in the bottom.left corner, These latter items
are cancelled with the normal postal marking of the period, dated 25.3.33,
as shown.

Dr. Marcollo Mochi was kind enough to have a photostat copy of the above
shown to Mr. Samuel Blekhman of Moscow, the loading Russian collector of Tuvan
issues. The latter expressed the opinion that the document had been delibe-
rately mutilated to give the impression that the adhesives appearing on the
paper were postage stamps. Hoevovr, so far as he was concerned, those sv-
charges were Army Welfare Labels and the proceeds from sale of which wore
turned over to a fund for the Tuvan Armed Forces. They were sold at the Post
Office, and when added to a cover (in addition to the regular postal tarif ),
gave the sender the right to prompt service, jumping ahead of any one else
standing in line. The meaninP of the initials KTCE was uncertain; "KT" pro-
bably meant "Kontora Tuva" (T-Van Office) while E" possibly stood for
"Army Welfare" or something of the kind in the Tuvan language.

The present writer has a pair of comprehensive dictionaries on Tuvan
but careful consultation has not resulted in confirming.the abovo. However,
the fact that these surcharges (lk-./15k. and 5k./6k.) are known on covers
already bearing sufficient postage, seems to bear out Mr. Blokhman's con-
tention. A further value, z2./2k. blue, has only been seen unused.

Continued exchange of philatelic material with 1r. Russell has brought
to light a further and complete "spravka" or cetrificate, of the same date,
but with a slightly different text (Fig.. 2):


"The stamps stuck on this sheet with surcharge "Posta 15" definitely
represent stamps of postal prepayment and were issued in Tuvar National
Republic in 1932 for the prepayment of postal sendings, which th. Republican
Office of Communications horby certifies". followed by Signature and
post office seal as for i-tom in fig. 1.

There are some interesting features to this document. First, there is
only one copy of the "PosLa 15" surcharge stuck on the shot, the other two
items being the lk./15k. nad 5k./6k. labels. Still, these latter KTCE sur-
charges are not referred to in the certificate. Secon while the signature
is in ink, the text is a carbon copy impression. In other words, an original

No. 64 Page 33

"spravka" with the'same text should also exist, written in ink, unless it
has boon tampered with.

From the foregoing, it seems certain that Mr. Blekhman's opinion, and
the suspicions of foreign collectors have been confirmed. Whatever these
KTOE surcharges are, they are not postage stamps.

(translated from the original Russian by A. Cronin)

C H A P T E R III T he "Bukhia Elch" System.

In Mongolia in ancient times, the "bukhia elch" (special messenger) sys-
tem was used for the delivery of urgent despatches. In bygone days messen-
gers were widely used for this purpose and already by the 13th century special
messengers were despatched to forward definite news about hostile attacks or
any other kind of unexpected danger. In those times, riders carrying urgent
messages were provided with special credentials bearing a representation of
a falcon, or a small flag showing a hawk. They announced their journeys with
blasts from pipes, or at night by carrying torches. Special couriers went by
day and night and in 24 hour periods, excluding night journeys, they traver-
sed 200-250 miles, i.e. about 300-375 km. During the 15th to 18th centuries,
special insignia were affixed to the saddle of the special messenger.


The ancient Mongolian regulations and traditional rules for the
creation of the relay systems and the transit of messengers were observed in
relation to the despatches of special messengers during the times of the
Manchu Tai-Tsin Empire. The. very word l"bukhia"' can be translated as "special
message"...The decrees of the Manchu Emperor and the reports of the Emperor's
governors were called "bukhia bichig (special messages)" and the messengers
carrying them "bukhia elch (special messengers)". In the times of the Manchu
Tai-Tsin Empire, the special messengerm- widely used the horse relay systems.


The receipt of decrees of the Manchu Emperor, or the despatch to him of
sending by the Manchu governors were noted by solemn proceedings. The des-
patches sent by the governors.to the Manchu Emperor were placed in yellow
iron caskets with secret locks. The keys for these locks were held by the
Manchu Emperor and governors.

Upon the departure of the special messenger from the governor, the Manchu
and Mongolian officials and official personages wore dress uniform. The box
with the secret lock, in which the despatch was placed, stood on a special
mound and- was covered with a yellow silk veil. in front of a mound, a carpet
of snow-white felt was extended and at its head the officials and the gover-
nor were drawn up. The official directing the ceremonial departure of the
governor's despatch, stood alongside the mound on which the message was
placed and when he gave the order in a loud voice to kneel, the wholo company
genuflected, to honor the important despatch. At the same time, a salute was
was fired from the cannons arranged along the courtyard where the ceremony
was being carried out. Thereupon, on the command of the master of ceremon-
ies, all the official bowed three times. After each bow, a blast from the
Page 34 No. 64

pipes was sounded. After this ceremony, the director ordered.the officials
attending the occasion to arrange themselves according to rank. The governor
took up the sending, lying in the box on the mound and wrapped it in a spe-
cially prepared silk veil. At the same time, the messenger approached and
stooped before the governor with his face turned to the south. The governor
placed the despatch in the box covered in yellow silk veil on the back of the
messenger. The governor's officials tied the ends of the yellow veil with
the box inside around the chest of the messenger and the governor gave the
order to send off the courier.

The horse selected for the messenger awaited him beside the doors of
the governors residence and was adorned with long red trinkets and small
bells. When the rider came out through the main door of the governor's
residence, a special personage led to him the selected horse and the messen-
ger seated himself in the saddle. A three-fold salute was then given forth.
The messenger carrying the special despatch did not have the right to look
back and therefore moved off at top speed.


The special messenger was entrusted in delivering the despatch within
a strictly'designated time. Therefore the employees of the overland service
were obligated to guarantee the uninterrupted progress of the riders. The
special messengers covered the distance from URGA to CHUULALT KHALGA, i.e.
more than 1200 km. (750 miles) with almost 40 relay stations, in 4 sutki
(96 hours A.C.).

The horse relay stations were advised in advance of the impendingarrival
of the special messengers. In order to assure him of unrestricted passage,
the horse overland stations specially prepared provisions, the best postil-
lions and their best horses. When the rider rode up, the relay officials met
him with bows besides a specially adorned tent, with a white felt carped
spread out at the entrance. The relay scribe carefully registered the time
of arrival and departure of the messenger, the name of the postillion who
accompanied him to the station and also the name of the postillion who was
chosen to see him to the next station. The best horses wore loft for the
rider and his accompanying postillion. Everything was done to ensure his
swift departure. On his return, the postillion who aw_ the messenger to
the next station, recounted in detail to the scribe that the messenger had
arrived without interruption at the next station. Even if the special mes-
senger was held up for the slightest delay, the persons responsible suffered
severe punishment. In several cases, the special despatches were forwarded
from relay station to relay station without special messengers. In-these
instances, the ceremonial sending off of the despatches and its transmission
took places as noted above.

Since the messengers delivering special despatches suffered hardships
and privations on the way, they were given a reward of 10 lans of silver
and also a month's wages when they arrived at their destinations..

The sending of despatches by special messengers promoted the quick
delivery of various documents.

C H A P T E R IV Mongolian Postage Stamps

For 39 years in the center of Asia, a free and independent state, the
Mongolian National Republic, has existed. It has an almost thousand year
No. 64 Page 35

long history of rule, an independent culture and is successfully developing
its national economy.

Already by the 13th century, this country had paper currency and a won-
derfully organized postal system, which, on the authority of the well known
Polish Mongolise Kotwicz, enriched the vocabulary of many nations with the
terminology of the Mongolian postal service.

In the "Mongolian Secret Narrative", a historical chronicle written in
1240, Ugedei-Khan, setting down his four precepts, of which he was very proud,
applied one of them to the organisation of the postal services on all territo-
ries of the Mongolian Empire at that time.

Quite a few accounts have been recorded about the Mongolian postal service
by the people of that period. But a more detailed and clearer description was
given by the famous Venetian, Marco Polo. Quite a few data are also included
in sources of a much later period the codex of laws of the Yan Dynasty
(13th-14th centuries) and the work by P. Olbricht "The Post in China under the
rule of the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries", etc.

In Old Mongolia, a special "temdeg (seal or chop)" was placed on official
letters and this usage, as Professor B. Rinchen points out, is completely
identical with the term postage stamp. For more urgent letters, he writes,
the shape of a hoof was drawn on 4 corners of the envelope and the word
"gallop" was also incribed to indicate the .urgency of the letter. Hence there
were no postage stamps in use in Old Mongolia.

However, special postage stamps were.isoued for the first time only in
1924, on the basis of a resolution taken on llovcmber 23, 1923 by the National
Government, on the institution of postage stamps These first 7 stamps,
printed in Shanghai, were issued showing the symbolic insignia "eldeb ochir"
(There has always beon doubt as to.where these first stamps were actually
printed, but as all vesles exist in str.ps, of 5 with the Russian word
"O0BRAZETSI, meaning "spociien" perforatlu thre.on, and all perforations tally
with those known to have been applied in IIo.z0'.' it would appear that this
issue was actually lithographed by "Gcbjiak"., t-he State Printing Office in
Moscow A. C.). This insignia is te-s K:.ol of crossed thunderbolts and is
the emblem of the Mongolian postal 'c ric'.. Tha stamps were issued in values
from 1 cent to 1 dollar since at that pcdld the republic did not have its
own national currency.

In the following year, a new series of 9 stamps were placed in use,
designed by the national artist Mardzan Sharab. The "soyomba", emblem of the
liberty and independence of the Mongolian people was pictured on the monoco-
lored stamps in blue, yellow, violet and green, and on the bicolored stamps
in green and brown, yellow and rod, and rose arid brown. This set and the
following series 15 stamps with the "soyomba" emblem were devoted to a his-
toric event in the life of the Mongolian people, the proclamation of the
Mongolian National Republic. These two sets were by now printed in Ulan
Bator. From these two sets, 8 stamps of the first set were utilised with
overprints in the old Mongolian script reading "Ulan Bator Post Office" and
in Latin characters "Postage". Three stamps from this set and three from the
following series were also issued with special overprints in the Old Mongol-
ian and Latin alphabets.

All Mongolian stamps of 1924-1925 immediately became very rare and can
only be seen in the collections of a few philatelists. Only a few people in
Mongolia have complete collections of these stamps.
Page 3S to be continued No. 64

by Fred W. Speers

Because of a special interest I have in the stamps of Wenden (New
Csesis or Cesis), I was attracted to the castle which forms the central
portion of the design of Wenden's 2 kopek stamps (1901 until the post was
closed April 23, 1903).

The castle is generally recognized as that of the Grandmaster of the
Teutonic Knights which it became in 1237. It had been constructed some
years previously by the Brethern of the Sword. It was blown up in 1577 in
an effort to prevent its falling into the hands of Ivan the Terrible. It
was later rebuilt only to be reduced to ruins once again by a fire in 1748.

The problem that intrigued me was to obtain a photograph of the castle
as it now appears. although I had made casual (and futile) efforts to obtain
such a picture in both 1954 and 1956 when I visited Warsaw, Vilna and Moscow,
as well as other cities, it did not become a serious project until a couple
of years ago.

An effort to obtain such a picture from a journalistic acquaintance
(nor did a request to the Polish Embassy in Washington) in Warsaw brought
no response. So I enlisted the assistance of a longtime friend--Thomas R.
Curran, vice president for Europe of United Press International. Curran's
headquarters are in London and he is touch, of course, with many UPI corres-
pondents. Even so, it took Tom a year and a half to obtain a photograph.
In the course of his efforts he would supply me with occasional progress

One such report included his rather frustrated comment to the effect
that apparently this place must be the "secret headquarters of the Russian
equivalent of our Atomic Energy Commission" because it is so hard to obtain
its photograph. Finally, however, Tom did obtain an 8 by 10 photograph
from TASS with the attached caption saying it was a photograph of' t old
castle of the Teutonic Knights at Csesis. A reproduction appears in this
issue of Rossica while the original hangs framed in my stamproom study.

by R. Sklarovski

Finaly after throwing covers, post cards, etc. into a shoe box for
years I decided to examine the contents. Th.3 results may be of interest
to the readers of this journal.

1. Brest Litovsk Camp

A 7 kopek stamped envelope addressed to the Artillery Officers School ,
Tsarskoe Selo (back stamped Tsarskoe Selo, August 21, 1900). This cover
originated from the Brest-Litovsk Lager (Camp), Grodno Gubernia. The
envelope has a circular cancellation reading clockwise, "Brest-Litovsky
Lager, Grodno G. ". At the bottom, between numerals "1" is "P.T.O."
(Postal Telegraph Office). In the center is the date l10.VIII.19-00'.
Evidently this is a military camp cancellation. On the reverse side of
the cover is also "2 Poezd (2 Train)" in a single lined circle, in black.

No. 64 Page 37

by Fred W. Speers

Because of a special interest I have in the stamps of Wenden (New
Csesis or Cesis), I was attracted to the castle which forms the central
portion of the design of Wenden's 2 kopek stamps (1901 until the post was
closed April 23, 1903).

The castle is generally recognized as that of the Grandmaster of the
Teutonic Knights which it became in 1237. It had been constructed some
years previously by the Brethern of the Sword. It was blown up in 1577 in
an effort to prevent its falling into the hands of Ivan the Terrible. It
was later rebuilt only to be reduced to ruins once again by a fire in 1748.

The problem that intrigued me was to obtain a photograph of the castle
as it now appears. although I had made casual (and futile) efforts to obtain
such a picture in both 1954 and 1956 when I visited Warsaw, Vilna and Moscow,
as well as other cities, it did not become a serious project until a couple
of years ago.

An effort to obtain such a picture from a journalistic acquaintance
(nor did a request to the Polish Embassy in Washington) in Warsaw brought
no response. So I enlisted the assistance of a longtime friend--Thomas R.
Curran, vice president for Europe of United Press International. Curran's
headquarters are in London and he is touch, of course, with many UPI corres-
pondents. Even so, it took Tom a year and a half to obtain a photograph.
In the course of his efforts he would supply me with occasional progress

One such report included his rather frustrated comment to the effect
that apparently this place must be the "secret headquarters of the Russian
equivalent of our Atomic Energy Commission" because it is so hard to obtain
its photograph. Finally, however, Tom did obtain an 8 by 10 photograph
from TASS with the attached caption saying it was a photograph of' t old
castle of the Teutonic Knights at Csesis. A reproduction appears in this
issue of Rossica while the original hangs framed in my stamproom study.

by R. Sklarovski

Finaly after throwing covers, post cards, etc. into a shoe box for
years I decided to examine the contents. Th.3 results may be of interest
to the readers of this journal.

1. Brest Litovsk Camp

A 7 kopek stamped envelope addressed to the Artillery Officers School ,
Tsarskoe Selo (back stamped Tsarskoe Selo, August 21, 1900). This cover
originated from the Brest-Litovsk Lager (Camp), Grodno Gubernia. The
envelope has a circular cancellation reading clockwise, "Brest-Litovsky
Lager, Grodno G. ". At the bottom, between numerals "1" is "P.T.O."
(Postal Telegraph Office). In the center is the date l10.VIII.19-00'.
Evidently this is a military camp cancellation. On the reverse side of
the cover is also "2 Poezd (2 Train)" in a single lined circle, in black.

No. 64 Page 37

2. Chardjui, Transcaspian Oblast

A picture post card Chardjui, Transcaspian Region to Williamsport, Penn-
sylvania. On the address side of the card is a circular cancellation of the
Tchilinghiran-Stephens Type 4 (Illustration 366, incomplete). The serial
letter at the bottom is "a" and two stars to the left of it, as in illustration
377. Likewise, there is a double oval cancellation at the top of which
between the two ovals is an inscription, reading Leutenant Volinets"; at the
bottom is, "Russie Tchardjoui Boukhara" both inscriptions being in
French. In the center of the oval is "C.C.C. 4593". The significance of the
oval cancellation is puzzling to me. On the front of the card is a pair of
1 kop. stamps on vertically laid paper with Chardjui cancellation, dated
31.1.09. Incidentally the aforementioned cancellation gives data to complete
cancellation 366 of Tchilinghirian-Stephens, listed as incomplete, since the
authors of the Used Abroad handbook did not have complete information on
this very scarce cancellation.

3. Russian Occupation of Trebizond (Rated RRR)-"Polevaya Zapasnaya P. _195"

A letter addressed to Boston, Mass. has a 10k./7k. Arms type stamp,
cancelled with Tchilinghirian-Stophens Type 14 (Figure 105) and dated 10-4-
1917. The cover has regular Petrograd censor seal strips. On the reverse
side of the cover is Petrograd Transit marking, dated 6-5-17, and also a
single lined oval censor handstamp, reading "Military Committee-Trebizond"
in Russian and Armenian.

4. Military Stampless Cover

A military stampless cover addressed to "19th Western Battalion,
5th Training Company. Soldiers letter". The flap ..of the envelope is sealed
by a double circle cancellation in purple, reading between circles,"From
Active Army". In the center is a:coat of arms (can't be clearly distinguished)

5. Morsina, Syria

This cover is Marco Miceli in Mersina, Syria.and is backstamped
Constantinople. It has a Scott No. 11 Offices in Turkey (Perforated lA)
stamp cancelled in blue with the numeral "181" in a truncated dotted
triangle (Tchilinghirian-Stephens Figure 191).

a preliminary report by M. Kessler

It was contemplated to have the first installment of a series of articles
dealing with Russian internal and external ratings .in this-issue. Unfortuna-
tely, the beginning of the series will have to be postponed until the next
-issue. The author had hoped to have sufficient data:by now, on rates from
the Imperial source materials. It is'hoped that, because of the delay, the
actual source searches.may be supplemented'by the information from our mem-
bers' holdings, which may bring to light unusual indications of rates and
other markings associated with rates, postage due, etc. Another task before
*us is to define the periods of use of rates and changes that. occurred because
of distance and routings.

it is a propose then to mention here what the scope of the rate study

Page 38 No. 64

envisioned will be, its success depending, of course, upon availability of
information and covers. Official documents of the Main Administration of the
Posts and Telegraph or the "Russian Postal and Telegraph Zhurnal"-Pochtovo-
telegrafnyi zhurnal postal regulations, etc., will be consulted as they
deal with unusual rating provisions of internal and external mail and notices
on incoming mails to Russia of rate adjustments should be brought to the
attention of the author.

In the study it is intended to over the following:

A. Russian rates on mail during the 18th and 19th Centuries. Examina-
tion of the internal rates, their periods of use, and rate changes
because of distance.
B. Rates of Russian mails leaving Russia. What treaty provisions were
made with foreign countries regarding exchange and transit of mail
before Russia joined the United Postal Union. Changes that occurred
in the treaty provisions and reasons for changes. Associated with
this are the rates for mail from foreign countries to Russia. What
were the notations put on incoming mails as to postage due, rerouting,
and transiting Russia to other countries.
C. What were the bases of postal rates in the various Civil War govern-
monts throughout Russia following the collapse of the Imperial regime
(i.e., Siberia, the Far Eastern Republic, South Russia, the Ukraine).
The rates seem to have been inconsistent.

Responses from members are earnestly solicited who have data on items
mentioned above including source materials. This would be most helpful to
make the study a thorough one. There is no need to examine covers personally.
A detailed written description of the cover is sufficient for the time being,
unless a notation or markings are unusual. Perhaps later at the end of the
series, some illustrations can be made to show some of the more unusual items.

by R. Polchaninov

To the unknown anti-communist legion stamps, besides the Vlasov Post
belong the trial prints of the Latvian Legion. Since the issuance of thcse
stamps was never consumated, Michel, naturally, does not list them. OCmnL
Alfred Clement in his catalogue "Kleines Hanbuch dor Deutschen Foldpost 1937-
19451 Graz, 1952, gives brief and incomplete information on these stamp. In
Nos. 2 and 3 of 1956 issues of the journal '!UIlr.'TXLi? is given more complete
information (unfortunately I haven never seen th-ts journal). The basis of
this article is the information given in No. 5 (September 1962)issue of the
"Baltikum Sammler", printed by Stalbow, WVst Germany.

Much of the information regarding the issuance of these trial proofs is
still not clear, as may be seen from the data given in the aforementioned
journal "Baltikum Samnler". Up to present time no official documents regarding
this issue arc known to exist.

No. 64 Page 39

The trial proofs were printed on glossy semi-carton 17x22cm. in size.
Fifty (50) copies of each color were printed, thus making a total printing
of 200 sheets.

The Swedish Postal Museum has 14 out of 15 examples of those trial
proofs (not in sheets). In United States these trial proofs were found only
in hands of dealers in cut up form (We suppose 'the author means in singles-
Editor). Incidentally the dealers used their own judgement in forming sets,
the result was that their sets consisted of one stamp of each design, each
design being represented in one color only.

"BALTIfUM1 SAMMLER"WE'states that the author of the article was able to
confirm the position of 4 stamps, i.e. 3 stamps in the 4th row and the Ist
stamp in the 5th row.

The following artists are responsible, for the design of these stamps:

Niklavs Strunke 4 stamps, three in the first row and 2nd in the 2nd row.
A. Apinis 5 stamps, three in the fifth row and 1st & 3rd in 3rd row.
R. Kasparsons 6 stamps, 3rd and 4th rows.

The author of these statements will grateful to anyone for any informa-
tion at all pertaining to this issue, so that a complete story of this last
issue of the "Legion Stamps", planned already when the agony of the Third
Reich was commencing, can be completed.
00000 .... .00000 ... .00000 ... *.00000. 00OOO ... Ooooo... *OOO. ..000 .. 00
O 0
o 0
o Large Selection -- Accumulation of 35 years Russia, Border States, 0
0 Latvia, Lithuania and many other countries. o
o 0
o Also a specialized stock of AIRMAfrJSand TOPICALS, UN, ROTARY, UPU, O
0 o
o Kindly write for details and or appwovnas. o
o 0
o S. Sorebrakian P. 0. Box /4/.8 Monroe, New Yorko
00000C0000000COOCo CoooOOOOooc000000ocCO CC000C00CC00 00000oOOO00000000000000
om .......... o ........... ..e o e e e. 0 0ee


New issue service, covers, Vairiotios and errors.
Want Lists are filled. Russian Empire, Soviets. .
Zbmstvos, Poland and United Nations.

All of the above are in stock and.are sent gladly
on approval.


Boxfl G rand L e d Michigan
, ... ............. .............. .. ......... ... ..... S

Page 40 No. 64


(FYdm "Pochtovo-Telegrafny Zhurnal" for 1898, pp.1105 et seq. Published by
the General Administration of Posts and Telegraphs, St. Petersburg. Printed
by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and discovered by our member, K. Adler.)

Beginning with the opening up of our regular trade with China and our
unimpeded transit through Mongolia (i.e. from 1861), our merchants, being
interested in easier and cheaper despatch of commercial information, were
constantly aware of the necessity of organising a regular postal service bet-
ween Tientsin and Kiakhta. During the first few years, however, when the
terms of our trade in China had still not yet been completely settled, the
agents of Russian traders living in Tientsin and Kalgan organised the trans-
mission of their correspondence from Tientsin to Peking and onwards by the
medium of the Russian Consul at the time, who included their sending in the
monthly official mail sent by our diplomatic mission. With regard to Kalgan,
which was the central point of Chinese trade with Russia, the Russians there
together with the Shansing merchants who dealt with Kiakhta, generally sent
their letters once or twice a month, hiring special Mongol couriers and pay-
ing them at the rate of 5 tsins of silver (i.e. one silver rouble) for each
letter not weighing more than 2 lots (about 1 oz.). Following upon this,
when the agents of Russian commerce established themselves in Tientsin,
Shanghai, Hankow and other places along the Yangtse River, serious attention
had to be paid to the question of land trade. With a view of obtaining a
quicker service, the Kiakhta merchants set a regular postal route in June
1863 for the transmission of their mail and at the same time, they readily
and conscientiously deliveredgovernment correspondence without charge. Their
mail service was scheduled to go twice a month between Kiakhta and Kalgan,
carrying newspapers, magazines and letters in a pack weighing not more than
1 pood (36 pounds). The proprietors of the postal service reserved the right
to charge persons who do not belong to the Kiakhta merchantry, as well as
the Chinese living in Kiakhta, Urga and Kalgan at the rate of 30 kopeks for
each lot weight (avout oz.) of mail handed in by them. With regard to
mail proceeding to Peking and Tientsin, this was always sent with specially
hired Chinese couriers, who were paid from 10 to 15 rubles for each toe2 of
2 to 3 days and nights. This mail run went between Kalgan and Kiekhta in 12
days and nights during the summer and autumn, and in 14 or even 15 days and
nights during winter and spring. For the maintenance of the above-mentioned
mail route, the merchants paid their contractors 4,000 rubles in the first
year and 5,000 rubles in the second year in bank notes (currency bills). The
delivery bf this mail in the stretch from Urga to Kalgan was carried out
mainly by hired Mongols, and between Kiakhta and Urga, the contractors utili-
sod their own people, horses and camels.-

At the end of 1863, several English firms in Shanghai asked their envoy
in Peking that he use the good offices of our ambassador to suggest to the
Siberian corporation of merchants if they would be willing to take it upon
themselves to set up a regular courier route, with the proviso that despatches
received from Europe by telegraph at Kiakhta be delivered regularly in
Tientsin 8 times a month in either direction in a term of 9 to 10 days and
nights. The English firms expressed their willingness to pay 35,000 to
40,000 rubles annually for the establishment of such a service. The proposal
was forwarded for the consideration of the Kiakhta merchantry; they declared
themselves willing to set up this service and one of them, Mr. Sabashnikov,
even drew up the detailed conditions wnder which he would carry out this
proposal. At the same time, the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, upon

No. 64 Page 41

orders from the Central Government, also asked the Kiakhta merchantry if
there was any possibility of establishing, at the latter's expense a more
regular postal service, instead of the commercial route then existing. To
this request the merchants replied in. the negative, claiming that they lacked
the resources and that their needs were being fully met by the current postal
service. However, after the Govemnor-General received this reply, he did not
drop the idea and at the beginning of 1864 he placed his suggestion for the
need of establishing a postal service between Kiakhta and Tientsin before the
Ministry of Internal Affairs, pointing out that the expense of installation
could be met by the postal rates. In July 1855, this project was sanctioned
by His Imperial Majesty for a trial period of 3 years and a subsidy of 19,300
rubles was issued from the Treasury. This service was founded with the aim
of meeting the pressing needs of the merchants carrying on trade with China.
After the regulations had been drawn up, the mail between Kiakhta and Tien-
tsin was sent four times a' month in both directions; the "light" mail weighed
not more than 1 pood (36 pounds) and the "heavy" mail 25 poods (900 pounds).
With the heavy mail, which left once a month, the merchants could send from
Kiakhta specie and other packages, and from Tientsin samples of Chinese
goods, etc. The transmission of such heavy mails made up not a small part
of the expenses in the total sum paid to the contractor.

In October 1865, the new postal service was opened along the entire
route, but from the beginning, it made an unfavorable impression on many
correspondents and especially on foreigners. The main reason for this was
the extremely slow and irregular transmission of the mails as well as the
careless performance of their duties by some employees in the conveyance of
correspondence. All this could very likely have been overcome if the person-
nel had been sufficiently experienced and properly managed in the conduction
of this service in Siberia and Mongolia: the light mails could have been
transported between Kiakhta and Tientsin without difficulty in 11 days and
nights, yet they were actually on the road for 16 days and nights or more.
The rapidity of mail transmission was especially required in the period from
April to December; during this time a steamer service ran between Tientsin
and other Chinese ports.

"The foreign merchants in Shanghai, convinced by the end of the first year
that our postal service could not satisfy their requirements concerning the
rapidity of telegram delivery, suggested to a Mr. Grant, a British subject
living in China, that he'set up a special courier service at the firms' ex-
pense. Mr. Grant undertook this project, and in spite of many difficulties
*he encountered, succeeded by the following year to train the mail contractor
of his route in the regular mail delivery between Kiakhta and Tientsin in the
space of 11-12 days. Mr. Grant's service was opened annually on March 1 and
continued through to the-end of November. .Telegrams-were sent from 4 to 6
times per month in-both directions,: while postal parcels could not exceed 3
Ibs. in weight. The.expense of maintaining this route cost Mr. Grant 5,000
to 6,000 rubles during the season in the first.few years; later on, when the
telegrams along this'route were being delivered in still shorter time, i.e. in
9 days and nights during 1870. and when the trips made by the couriers increased
tp 10 or more times per month the expenses of the route rose to 20,000 rubles
during. the season. The service-was terminated on May 1, 1871, when the tele-
graph was laidfrom.India to the Chinese ports; indeed it is believed that
-Mr. Grant's service was supplied with more than 50,000 rubles of outright
subsudy during its operation.
S.to.be continued

Page 42 No. 64

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From page 1108 of the "Pochtovo-Telegrafny Zhurnal" for 1898. Published by
the General Administration of Posts and Telegraphs, St. Petersburg. Printed
by the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

The current method now being practiced in the cancellation of postage
stamps printed with typographic dyes can no longer be relied upon for the
purpose intended, especially since some manufacturers have found a way of
removing all traces of ink or cancelling dye with a special washing off pro-
cess and thus restoring the stamps to their original uncancelled state so as
to allow their reuse. The prescribed penalties for the usage of previously
obliterated postage stamps cannot always be put into practice because of the
lack of evidence and hence for a long time, attempts have been made to find
methods of applying obliterations which cannot be washed off, for the cancel-
lation of stamps.

With this aim in view, an original method was recently suggested; it
consists of cancelling the stamps with a red-hot metal postmarker, the impres-
sion of which would always be noticeable on the charred surface of the paper
upon which the postage stamp is affixed.

E D I T 0 R I A L C 0 M M E N T: As we know, this suggestion was not car-
ried out, but it was not quite as far-fetched as it seems at first sight. In
fact, Mr. A. Cronin recalls that such a type of cancellation is known from at
least one small post office in Holland during the 19th century. In this
latter case, however, the reason for application was somewhat different; the
particular office run out of cancelling ink and the postmaster hit on the
idea of placing his cancelling device in the fire for a short time and then
applied it on his mail to give a slightly charred but very clear brownish
cancellation. Such efforts are aptly known among Dutch collectors as
"brandstempels" or "fire" or "brand" cancellations.


by E. Yarcovitch

My interest was greatly aroused when I saw for the first time military
letters of the Belgian Armored Division, which fought in the ranks of the
Russian Army during World War I.

Until then I never saw such letters, nor I ever heard of the Belgian
detachment. My inquiries from the former participants in the World War I
elicited no information, as a matter of fact none of them neither heard of nor
rommembored this detachment.

Forty years have passed since the end of this war and only a few of its
participants are still alive. The existence of this detachment would have
been finally forgotten, if it wasn't for the recently found soldiers' letters.

I decided to find out the details of its origin, its despatch to Russia
and its military activity and at the same time give onr readers brief history
of its actlvlty by reproIduing those rare letlhers.

No. 64 Page 43


From page 1108 of the "Pochtovo-Telegrafny Zhurnal" for 1898. Published by
the General Administration of Posts and Telegraphs, St. Petersburg. Printed
by the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

The current method now being practiced in the cancellation of postage
stamps printed with typographic dyes can no longer be relied upon for the
purpose intended, especially since some manufacturers have found a way of
removing all traces of ink or cancelling dye with a special washing off pro-
cess and thus restoring the stamps to their original uncancelled state so as
to allow their reuse. The prescribed penalties for the usage of previously
obliterated postage stamps cannot always be put into practice because of the
lack of evidence and hence for a long time, attempts have been made to find
methods of applying obliterations which cannot be washed off, for the cancel-
lation of stamps.

With this aim in view, an original method was recently suggested; it
consists of cancelling the stamps with a red-hot metal postmarker, the impres-
sion of which would always be noticeable on the charred surface of the paper
upon which the postage stamp is affixed.

E D I T 0 R I A L C 0 M M E N T: As we know, this suggestion was not car-
ried out, but it was not quite as far-fetched as it seems at first sight. In
fact, Mr. A. Cronin recalls that such a type of cancellation is known from at
least one small post office in Holland during the 19th century. In this
latter case, however, the reason for application was somewhat different; the
particular office run out of cancelling ink and the postmaster hit on the
idea of placing his cancelling device in the fire for a short time and then
applied it on his mail to give a slightly charred but very clear brownish
cancellation. Such efforts are aptly known among Dutch collectors as
"brandstempels" or "fire" or "brand" cancellations.


by E. Yarcovitch

My interest was greatly aroused when I saw for the first time military
letters of the Belgian Armored Division, which fought in the ranks of the
Russian Army during World War I.

Until then I never saw such letters, nor I ever heard of the Belgian
detachment. My inquiries from the former participants in the World War I
elicited no information, as a matter of fact none of them neither heard of nor
rommembored this detachment.

Forty years have passed since the end of this war and only a few of its
participants are still alive. The existence of this detachment would have
been finally forgotten, if it wasn't for the recently found soldiers' letters.

I decided to find out the details of its origin, its despatch to Russia
and its military activity and at the same time give onr readers brief history
of its actlvlty by reproIduing those rare letlhers.

No. 64 Page 43

I found out that Russian philateliat Colonel Prejbiano, living in the
vicinity of Paris, during the war in1914' was a military attache in
Belgium. I was successful in finding and meeting him. This wasn't very
easy, for because of his age and his ailing condition he never saw anyone.

He met me very cordially, and told me that he would obtain for me all
of the details regarding the beginning of this detachment,.-since he was the
initiator of despatching a Belgian division to the Russian front.

In 1915 military despatches appeared more than onee in the French and
Belgian press, describing how the Russian armored divisions stopped the
advances of the German and Austrian armies. Because of his post as military
attache, Colonel Prejbiano knew that the number of armored cars in Russia
was very small. He likewise knew, that in Belgium, on the French border, in
the front of the active army; in the small town of Lermoeres was stationed a
well organized armored division consisting of automatic cannons and machine-
guns, stationed there in case of German attack; and since such an attack was
not forseen for 1916, the Colonel decided to investigatein great detail this
inactive division and to discuss with King Albert I, with whom he was on
friendly terms, the despatch of this division to the Russian front

When first chance presented itself the Colonel cxprossed his private
thoughts to the king. The King was very receptive to this idea and the
results could be seen immediately, for in few days the Colonel was summoned
before the General Staff and was told that the King stated that it was his
duty to -offer to the Russian Army all that would be useful in military action
against the common enemy. Thr aforementioned happenings were transmitted by
the Colonel to Count Ignatieff, who was at that time military attache in
France. Immediately both ofthom telegraphed Petrograd regarding the offer
from the Belgian government to furnish a complete armored division.

During one of the following meeting with the King, the Colonel mentioned
that a shortage of engineers-specialists in the Russian military plants, held
up the production.

"We may be of help to you", said the King, "because in our trenches we
have many of these specialists. They.will be more useful working in you
plants than at the front. I will take care of this matter myself."

On August 10, 1915 the King personally notified the Colonel that a com-
plete division of automatic cannons and machine guns, complete with materiel
and presonnel was at disposal of the Russian Military Mission in.France.

Early in September all of preparations for dispatching the division were
completed, and finally on September 21, 1915, the .armored division with
workers and military specialists was embarked on a French transportand
sailed for Arckhangelsk.

Belgians were met with great enthusiasm. Crowds of people, with music
and singing gave the division a: great send-off to Petrograd, as.they boarded
'the6 train.

The division remained in Petrograd for several months, and it wasn't until
Sthe end of December that it was sent to Galicia, on the South Western Front.

Page No. 6
Page 44 No. 64

With the above end the recollections of Colonel Prejbiano. Of the sub-
sequent fate of the division he knew very little, and was unable to give me
any advice regarding its arrival and action on the Russo-Austrian Front.

In my future investigations for the second time luck was with me. One
of my friends and a follow-erinnophilist was planning a short visit to
Belgium. Before his departure I told him about the letters of the Belgian
Division and the information that I had obtained from Colonel Prejbiano. Of
course, I asked him while he was in Brussels to interest himself in the
history of this division, with a hope that he would obtain for me the neces-
sary material, of which incidentally I had very little. Therefore, I was
pleasantly surprised when my friend returned from Belgium, and reported to
me that he obtined from a bibliophile in Belgium, now very rare book, in
which two members of the oforementioned division dosribed the complete
campaign of the group on Russian front. military action on the Austrian
Front in Galicia, their existence during the first years of the revolution
and their almost incredible return during the war from Austrian Front to
Belgium, by the way of Vladivostok, San Francisco, New York and Havre.

I road this book with great interest, since it included historical
material necessary for this article.

Before continuing with the history of this division in Russia, I think
it is my duty to acquaint the readers with the sad news.

Several weeks after gy visit toColonel Projbiano I saw in Russian
language newspaper in Paris that he has passed away.

I must say, that the sad news affected me a great deal. If I didn't
succeed in meeting the Colonel in November 1962, I would not have boon able
to tell our readers of the beginnings and embarkment of the Belgian Division
to the Russian Front.

It wasn't until the beginning of June 1916 that the Belgian division
received its battle baptism in Galicia, near a small village of Zborov,
in the vicinity of Tarnopol. The armored division for many weeks held
up the advance of Austrian troops, andforcing the enemy deep into its own

After the encounters at Zborovo, which continued until September 1916,
division entered Tarnopol, and took a number of hamlets and villages, among
which were Buchach, Nosov, Yablonovka, and others.

The division was forced to spend tho winter at Eserna, because due to
snow-drifts the armored division was incapable of any military action.

March Revolution and fall of the Czarist regime found the division
in the same place.,

The author of the book, which I obtained in Belgium, was a member of
the Belgian Division and gives many interesting details regarding this
period. At first the fall of the Czarist regime was received enthusiastic-
ally by the Russian troops, but later the situation at the front became worse
and worse. Numerous German spies appeared in the rear lines. On the front
Russian troops fraternized with the enemy. In other words the authors relate

No. 64 Page45

all happening as they saw them, i.e as a part of this period of Russian
revolution.. Some Russian Divisionswero affected very little by propaganda
and continued to fight with the enemy. The Belgian Division continued to
take part in numerous skirmishes on the same front.

To improve the fighting spirit of the troops Keronsky, at that time,
visited the front lines of numerous fronts, including the Galician. The
author was present at one of the meetings, where'Kerensky with the presence
of General Brusilov gave one of his never to be forgotten speeches.

Then the author describes gradual disintegration of the Russian Army.
During that period the Belgian Division, was situated not too far from the
front lines, waiting for the Austre-German advance. During the two months
of waiting the division was inactive. Then began Brest-Litovsk talks of
separate peace. Finally, in November 1917, Belgians received orders to
return to France.

With great hardship Belgians were able to load armored cannons, auto-
matic machine guns, repair shops and hat was left of the contingent in 50
railroad cars and to reach Kiev by Christmas of 1917.

In Kiev the Belgians were witnesses of the beginning of the Russian
Revolution, establishment of Ukrainian Republic, the occupation of Ukraine
by the Red Army, and the undescribable happening of this terrible war.

It wasn't very easy for the Belgians to obtain a permit to return to
France. Commander of the Division with interpreter Gornostaiposlky travelled
in a special train to the General Staff to carry on negotiation with Commander
of Red army Krylenko, who after lengthy talks gave permission for evacuation
of the Division. But Muraviov, who was subordinate to Krylenko, refused to
furnish railway transportation until the armored division gave all of its
arms to the Red Army. He also oferred to pay for the arms, even double its
original cost, which was refused by the commander of the division.

Finally Muraviev agreed to give Belgians the necessary movable trans-
portation. Unfortunately two days later new difficulties were encountered:
Peoples Commisar of Ukrainian Soviet Republic, in charge of Military Affairs,
refused to honor Muraviev's order, and expressed his intention of confiscating
all of the arms and automatic equipment of the Belgian Division...The Belgians
reminded him that they fought side by side for two years with the Russian
Army and suffered with them theo'trials of the war. Likewise they brought
up the question of the International Law, to which Kotsubinsky replied laugh-
ingly, that he was the International Law, and that the only existing to him
law, was the well-being of the revolution.

The Commander of the Division refused to have: further negotiations,
because he thought,they were useless.

Under no circumstances ho wanted to leave to bolshevics the arms and the
equipment, which in the future could be used against friendly troops and
therefore he gave order to blow up armored cannons and machine guns. This
S order was fulfilled on the night of February 16, 1918. The'destroyed arms
were loft to the mercy of fate. However, several ration trucks and motor-
Scylcos were handed over to the bolshevics in return for permission to
evacuate the remains of the division.

Page 46 No. 64

The Belgians were able to disassomble three cannons of 37 caliber and a few
smaller ones of Hotchkis type, besides a number of good rifles, which wore
hidden in the boxes containing their clothes.

Therefore, for several ration trucks and motorcycles bolshovic authori-
ties furnished Belgians with 54 railroad cars to transport what was loft of
the division to the western front in France.

The train arrived in Moscow at the end of February, where it remained
for few days. The Belgians were able to see the city, and wore able to
write interesting impressions of the revolutionary Moscow.

Commander of the division at first intended to take his division to
Murmansk and there to board a ship for France. Next to their train wPs the
train containing prisoners of the Chinese Embassy. From the Chinese Anbas-
sador Belgians found that the conditions in the vicinity of Petrograd were
serious and that it was dangerous to travel to Murmansk. Therefore, the
commander of division decided to take the train to Vladivostok. Therefore,
on March 4 the train left in the direction of Siberia. First stage of the
trip was through Viatka, Perm and Ekaterinburg and was fairly uneventful,
exopt everywhere the local authorities asked' Who are you. What uniforms
are you wearing, and why your soldiers are dressed better than ours'. What
is your destination'.

First difficulties were encontered in Omsk, where the local authorities
refused to lot the train proceed, unless the Belgians surrendered their
remaining arms. Again there were long negotiations. Finally, bolshevics
gave a permission to proceed to the next place, provided each Belgian gave
a signed note stating that at no condition they would fight against the
bolshovic government.

At this time Ataman Semonov was organizing on the Manchurian border
counter-revolutionary divisions, with the goal of conquering the whole of
Siberia. Therefore, as the Belgians wore going. closer and closer to the
Manchurian border, more and more obstacles were placed at them by the local

In Krasnoyarsk-new delay, search, tidoous negotiations an dificultly
obtained permission to travel to the next place. Likewise, difficulties,
but not as great arose in other cities, specially in Chita and on Station
01 ovyana.

Finally, after incredible adventures reminiscent of Jules Verno, the
Belgians wore able to cross Chinese border. The most difficult and danger-
ous times were left behind.

The most striking fact. bservedby the Belgians was the great difference
in living conditions between revolutionary Russia and China, where the life
was moving in the normal manner. it the first Chinese station,Belgians
literally throw themselves into the restaurant, where after many months of
hungering they were able to consume hot chocolate with freshly baked buns.
: In ecstasy they admired in the windows of the local shops pastry with cream
and other and long not seen delicacies and English cigarettes.

Next trip was the travel of the train from Kharbin to Vfadivostok, which
was in the hands of bolshevics. Here the Belgians encountered more troubles
No. 64 Pago47

with local authorities, fortunately several Japanesegnglish and American
military vessels were tied in the harbor. -Allied sailors gave Belgians
heart-warming reception and helped them to -mbark their division aboard the
American military transport "Sheridan".

The trip'of'Belgian Division from Moscow to Vladivostok was full of
adventures and rich experiences and covered a period of 64 days.

Belgians spent two years in Russia, fighting along side the soldiers
of Russian Army. They lost'many of their brothers in battles and were wit-
nesses of Russian Rovblution and the Civil War.

They almost lost hope of returning home, to the-civilized world, and it
wasn't until they wero aboard the American transport that they regained their
hope of bvor seeing their home. This was brought on by the normal life aboard
the transport, greatly contrasting the terrible privations and hunger which
they encountered during the few previous years.

After 18 days of ocean travel, Belgians arrived in San Francisco, where
they were heartily greeted by the Americans, and were made heroes of the day.

The railroad trip to New York was a perfect triumph for the Belgians
and was concluded without incidents.

Finally, the Belgians boarded a French military transport, and after a
week's voyage, landed in Havre in June 1918.

I am not going to describe individually each letter of the Belgian
Armored Division in Russia, but will give a general description of all of
them as a unit, as well as the cancellations that were used.

All of the letters, naturally, were opened by the military censor, and
have the necessary rectangular censor markings, which road "Opened by the
Military Censor, Petrograd. Military Censor No...." or they were sealed
with a censor label, reading "Petrograd Military Censor". Occasionally
letters may be foundhaving both censorship marking and the censor label seal.

The earliest letter mailed from Potrograd was in November 1915. It is
franked with round, violet cancellation. The inscription between two con-
centric circles rads in Russian "AftomobilnyaArtilereisky i Pulemetny Polk
(Motorized Artillery and Machine Gun Regiment). The inscription in the center
read "Belgiiskaya Armia v Rossii (Belgian Army in Russia)".

Last letter is dated in December 1916 and has the same cancellation
format, except the inscription is as follows: between two concentric circles
we now find "Belgi.an Army in Russian and in the center "Belgian Motorized
Division". The aforementionOed letter was the only one found that was addros-
sed to London. Thd rost of the letters have Belgian addresses, besides
twelve of these letters wcro addressed to a central distributing agency in
Baarlo-Duc, Belgique and were inscribed,0ovr- du "Mot du soldat" or Soldier's
Letter. 'Some letters, besides the marking of the Belgian Division, also had
an oval cancellation (large). The inscription in the center read-"Oeuvre du
'mot du soldat'" while the inscription between two concentric-ovals read
"Soldats la patriot est fiere do vous. Service gratuit". (Soldiers the home-
land is proud of you. Free; franking). Evidently the latter marking was
placed at Baarlo-Duc.

Page 48 No. 64

by F. Julius Fohs

In a forthcoming issue of the British Journal of Russian Philately, an
article by Fohs and Adler covering stampless covers for the prestamp period
1766-18L5-1847 will shortly appear.

Although stamped envelopes for Moscow and St. Petersburg appeared in
1845, and stamped envelopes for general Russian use in 1848, as well as ad-
hesive stamps in 1857, stampless envelopes continued in Russian use until

This article commences after stamped envelopes and adhesive stamps were
used, and gives representative stampless cover cancellations for this later
period. For some of those given herewith, we are indebted to Mr. Kurt Adler
(A). most of the rest are from the Fohs' collection (F) except credit is
also due Dr. Wortman (W) for a few cancels. Mr. Walter Larke prepared the

These two articles cover the field of stampless covers, except some used
abroad. Practically the whole usage of cancellations except railroad car is
covered. There are single line, double line, boxed, oval, diamond, double
circle, double oval, and bilingual cancellations.

St, Petersbur g

1. F Boxed single framo (see 4) Jan. 1849, black
2. F Single frame boxed, 1853, black
3. F trouble line top, framed 1853, red
4. F Double circle, Aug. 1859, black
5. F Single frame diamond, 1859, black
6. F Single frame diamond, 1854, black, like 1859
7. F Single frame diamond, 1855, black like 1859
8. A Otdyolenie, two line, boxed, 1855
9. A St. Petersburg, (city post), 1848 (oval)
64. W S. P. Burg, single box, 1856, March
65. W Polucheno, single circle, 1857, November
66. F Large Box, Del. 9-May, 1846
67. F Large box, Del. 7-February, 1848
68. F Poluchono, short box, like Prigara Fl. IX-3, 1854
69. A Circle, S. P. Burg (in Russian), 1847
70. A Circle, S. P. Burg (in Russian)
71. F Double circle, like Prigara Fl. XII-i, 1856
72. F Red, short box, 1856
73. F Diamond to Vienna, 1856

Mo s c ow

F Moscow, single circle, 26nm. 1858
10. F Double oval, red, April, 1850 (see 1858, black)
11. F Double oval, rod, Aug., 1852 (see 1858, black)
12. F Double oval, red, Nov., 1853 (see 1858, black)
13. F Double oval, rod, April, 1856 (see 1858, black)
14. F Moscow, double oval, July, 1858
15. F Double circle, black, 1873

No. 64 Page 49

16. F Small, two lines (also P D) 1850
17. FY Double lined frame, NOV. 1856
18. F Boxed, single frame, Sept. 1858

de s s a

19. F Small, double oval, 1856, black
20. F Heavy boxed frame, Aug. 1857, black
21. F Rounded diamond, 1858, black
22. F Rounded diamond, 1863, blue
23. F Rounded diamond, 1864
24. F Single circle, fleuron, 1867, black
25. F Rouned diamond, 1865, black
26. F Single circle, fleurDn, 1868, black:

o 1 a n d, Wa rsa w

27. F Small circle, 1864, red
28. F Large circle
29. F Single circle, two line inscription, 1870
30. F Garwolin
31. F Iwanowice, August
32. F Kalisz, double line, July 185-
33. F Myslowitz-Kandrzin, 1856, black (Austrian)-
34. F Szczakowa, 1854, black


35. F Two lines, large, 1852, black
36. F Two lines, smaller, 1864, black

B er d ia n sk

37. F. Single circle, fleuron, 1865, July, black
38. F Single circle, fleuron, 1860, black

F i n 1 an d,__H e 1 s i n g f o r s

39. F Large single circle, 1857, black (Dist..) 2.
40. F Small single circle, 1868, black

Wib o r

41. F Single small oblong frame Wiborg and date, 1857, black
42. F Same, 1858, black

Single e Line can el s

43. A Irbit, 1853

B 1 in gual Circ 1 e c a n c e 1 1 at ons

44. A Derpt, 1850
45. A Mitau, 1852, red

Page 50 No. 64

S PETE RSBURG C rrlrpv nr 22e
SIO h 1APR. 1^53. L30 :*" '^ A^ f\ (^

18G9 0 6Syab 185%
11 o & lArvycTAlSb

S 1873 -8mrgnapa so 4 HO E: i85I

12 =ABNY 18671 6 IULitL

1863 1864 1o
16r 18,5

/^* 0*

II Iip | (^ ^ 0l 5

8 ,, 0 OPAVtH5AVMb

ij ,-I F"' ,
* f / *r; 1!.fr

-.4 t .- _- ,

e .- 0-
6,} Hu ., .. .

p "'* ,, -"

46. A Arensburg, 1852
47. A Yakobstadt, flouriated, 1859
48. A Kiev, 1852
49. A Buguruslan, oval, red, 1853
50. A Port Engelhardshof, 1849, oval
51. A Moisekill, 1852
52. A Lutsk, 1857, single line
53. A Oranienbaum, 1857, single line

Two line cancellations

"54. A Kronstadt, boxed, 1856
55. A Reval, boxed, 1856
57. A Talsen Polucheno, 1850
58. A Yeve, 1849
59. A Baisk, 1852
60. A Otpr. Lida, 1854
61. A Mozyr, 1854

Circular cancellations

62. A Schrunden, day and year manuscript, 1859
63. A Goldingen, 1849
X''T ":-7x-T r' Y." 'X:'XYyxXXxYX

by I,. Liphschutz

The letters of the French soldiers during the Napoleonic Invasion of
Russia are not rare. Every specialist of military mail of France has several
examples of these letters with the postmark "GRADfE ARfEE", i. e. the Great
Army gathered by Napoleon for the war with Russia. Majority of these letters
however are dated prior to August 20, 1812, i.e. before the battle of Smolensk.

Beginning with September 1812, with the approach to Moscow, letters
become more and more rare, and are extremely rare coming from Moscow itself.
All of this is easily explained by the broekdown of the French Army with the
approach of winter.
Very few returned to France after the Russian campaign. It is quite
understandable that with the destruction of nearly the entire army and its
equipment, the bulk of the mail was lost.

I was able not so long ago to acquire several letters of this epoch,
and among them were two letters from Moscow itself. Text of both letters
are included, as the readers of our journals may be interested in the impres-
sions of Frenchmen, participating in the Battle of Borodino, and the specta-
"tors of the Moscow Fire.

Photographs shown in the illustrations

B. Plonkava in Poland March 11, 1812
C. near Grodno June 19, 1812
3. near Smolensk August 23, 1812
A. Moscow (text No. 1) October 3, 1812

No. 64 Page 51

L e t t e r N o. 1 Photo A

-, MOscow, October 3, 1812
Dear aunt:

I already had the pleasure-of writing to you from Vilna.,with
the aim of informing you of my promotion in rank. In the -same letter I told
you of receiving your letter in which you asked me to sepd you the affidavit
which I enclose with my letter, not having had a chance to send it to you
sooner, because our rare stops rondedered receipt of mail difficult, likewise
because of serious illness tormenting me two weeks, leaving me with only skin
and bones (diarrhea which nothing could stop). However, I feel considerably
better and hope that in the near future I will regain all that I have lost.
In spite of illness I did not leave the corps for one minute, and participated
in its actions. In the Battle of Smolensk I met 0. Flokur you,can imagine
with what joy and pleasure we kissed; he was in a very good conditions some-
thing that I could not say for myself at that time,.but we spent several hours
together in conversation of our family affairs, and he gave me certain me-
dicines to help my recovery. We could not remain together anylongor and we
parted with bitter sorrow. Since then we did not meet again, as his corps
all of the time was in vanguard.

It is now two weeks that wleve been in this capital in which the fire
destroyed a considerable part of the supplies upon which we have depended.
As in other places which we passed, all inhabitants ran away, abandoning
their belongings, not having time to carry anything with them. This city
was of unusual beauty, rich and of surprising dimensions, one can say it is
an entire little world. It is, at any rate, twice as largo as Paris. Such
lost treasures, and so many families deserving pity. It is rare to find city
blocks which remained unscathed, even four or five homes. I believe that we
will spend here the greater part of the winter; frosts allow themselves to
be felt in the strongest fashion, ever since we have been here. It must have
been more pleasant for you to learn of my promotion, and it was pleasant for
me to inform you of it, accept my gratitude for this. In this instance I
do not consider myself fortunate, as my captain is a real bear, I would get
away from him even to hell, at any moment; he is an exceptional boor. From
the time that I have known him I have not seen him once satisfied or laughing,
but I perform my service as well as possible and I arm myself with patience.

I do not know of any political news. There is a rumor that the Russian
emperor has been killed. The Russian themselves set fire to the city.

Remember ''mo to Mr. D., Mr. G., Mr. L. and all of 'th6se who have-the
courtesy of being interested in me,

I send my greetings 'to all of my-"family. I kiss my sisters and brothers
and you.

"From all my heart


Horse Grenadiers
Imperial Guard

Page 52 No. 64

Letter No. 2 From Moscow, former capital of Russia

17th September 1812

I This is my second letter my dear mother, which I am writing to you; in
the frost, of 25th of August. I informed you of my promotion to a sub-lieu-
tenant, a rank which His Majesty presented me on the field of honor at
Smolensk, on August the 20th.

This battle, more fierce than the previous one, occurred only on 7th
of Sept., but started yet on the 5th in the evening; I was slightly touched
by a shot on the evening of the 5th, but it was only a contusion which during
the stretch of two or three hours interfering with my breathing. But this
was not serious and on the next day, the 6th of the same month I rejoined my
unit. This day was devoted to inspections of regrouping of positions of the
Russian Army, the situation was, without doubt, in their favor; at this
moment we were located 30 liuuofrom the capital, i.e. Moscow.

General battle began in the morning of the 7th, but I knew nothing of
its outcome, as at 8 am, when our regiment with other units of division ad-
vanced to occupy our positions. I was slightly wounded in the right thigh
by a piece of a shot, causing great difficulties to our unit, but be calm,
my wound was not dangerous, it was more of a contusion; I can say that I am
definitely recovered, although I still feel a little pain in this place;
wound was superficial and did not affect muscles or nerves. You can be re-
laxed, at this moment as I write, I feel as well and as fresh as on the day
of departure from our home.

Thus you can see that I honestly hold to my promise. I told you that
I shall regularly let you know about myself, as soon as the battle ends. If
I hold back with the letter several days, this is because I wanted to defini-
tely recover, and that you should have no worry on this account. I did not
stop expressing in my soul my gratitude to the Supreme Being for His fatherly
kindness, as I am very fortunate that I got away so cheaply. I always depend
on Providence which always does things for the best.

The battle was fierce; the entire field of battle was strewn with the
bodies of Russian.dead and wounded; by comparison with them, the number of
French fallen was small; this I can state with assurance. There were, at
least six or eight Russians for every one killed Frenchman. You may say
that this is hardly believable, but I can assure you that I've observed this
more than once and you may believe me.

After this battle, our forward units continued to battle; thus 33 regi-
ments of our light cavalry followed the enemy to Moscow itself, which we en-
tered on 16th of September. The Russian Emperor himself ordered the fire of
this city. For this purpose he released all prisoners and these blackguards
burned down this immense city. However, it is told to the Russian people
that the French burned the city; but this is merely crude politics of the
Russian Emperor so as to give about us a monstrous image to the population,
and to set them up against us. The city is being pillaged. I dent know how
many days, and although it is still burning, robbery still goes on.

Some soldiers found silver and gold. Flour and wine cellars have been
found and if all this had not boon robbed, we would have had supplies to feed
the army for a considerable time.

No. 64 Page 53

Even before our entrance into Moscow the need of provisions has been
very considerable, so much that so that the Imperial Guard and our unit were
forced to feed on horsemeat; our 31b soldier's bread could could have-been
sold for 12 francs. We find with great difficulty a little of potatoes for
our sustinence. The time of cold night has arrived which tired us out to a
great degree. Sometimes, after great summer heat, followed very cold nights
which did not give us a chance to sleep. Such sharp changes of temperature,
and poor quality of food which we were forced to eat caused many illnesses.

Our regiment was located since yesterday in quarters near the city. We
foel well, especially after the supply problems which we were forced to ex-
perience. According to all signs we wont have to remain here long, then again
our condition will worsen, as there is no sign of any treaty. 'Likewise, the
fire of Moscow cannot speed up a peace treaty. We will endure, sometime it
will be accomplished, we have to hope for this.

I believe it is enough about this damned war with Russia'.

As to my elevation in rank. I do not feel any changes, as officers and
soldiers are in same conditions. But at the given moment we, all officers of
our battalion live together, and even have separate small rooms for two or

At the present moment we are enjoying abundance; we have foreign wine
and liquors; as much as we desire, but I feel that this will'be paid for
dearly. This cannot continue for long in such a huge army as the French.

How are you living'. What are you doingg. Is the work progressing satis-
factorily' Is my brother continuing to work't Do not forgot to write me about
this in your reply, which as always must be detailed. I am fulfilling my
promise, given in my letter of 25th of August, and informing you of my insig-
nificant wounds and good health at the present time.

I end this letter and beg you to do as I do, i.e. upon receiving my let-
ter, answer by return post, since we are situated far from each other and I
thirst ro receive news of you and my brother. I surmise that this letter
should be in transit more than a month. I never thought that I'd be in such
a far off land'.

I beg you to give my regards to relatives and friends, collectively, and
separately to Messrs. B and J. and their families. I think that all of them
will be touched by the generosity of His Majesty, with whom I had tho honor
to converse, and who gave me several questions about the service.

Goodbye mother, I wish you health. :Labor pleae. I beg you again to
write me immediately about all :of you.

Your- Son

Second lieutenant., 2nd Company, 1st Battalion,
"7th Regiment, Light Infantry, 3rd Division, 1st
Corps, Grand Army of France. ...

Page 54. -- No. 64


D. N. Minchev. Sofia, Bulgaria

0 In our article devoted to postmarks of Bulgaria during 1879, published
in the September, 1962 issue of the Sofia magazine "Philatelen Preglod", we
wrote that the Berkovitsa post office was among the other postal stations
transferred by the Russians to Bulgarian administration on May 1, 1879.
Indeed, according to the official data until now, it appeared that the post
office at the town of Berkovitsa was opened on April 1, 1879. What was our
surprise, therefore, when a short time ago, wo found a regular document of
the Berkovitsa post office with an 1878 postmark. The document is in the
form of a receipt issued by the above office for the transfer of an amount of
money to St. Petersburg; a subscription to the magazine "Niva". The receipt
is appropriately tied with the station's own canceller, dated December 28,
1878. As is clearly apparent from the illustration of the receipt herewith,
this marking unknown until now, is very interesting. It is composed of two
concentric circles, between the upper parts of which the name "BERKOVATS", as
the town was then known, being inscribed, and at the bottom "BERKOVTSA", which
latter is surely derived from the Turkish version, Berkovcha. The torm"re-
ceipt of the Berkovats postal station" is clearly written on the document.

In other words, it is thus demonstrated in the most indisputable manner
that the post office at Berkovitsa was opened by the Russians during 1878 at
the very least, and not on April 1, 1879, as was officially known so far.

It should also be noted that the post office at Berkovitsa is not listed
in the fine work by Tchilinghirian and Stephen on Russian Used Abroads. Un-
Sfortunately, it seems that so far, no letters or other similar material of
this period have been found originating from Berkovitsa, in order to give the
authors of the above-mentioned work the opportunity of recording the existence
of the Borkovitsa post office during 1878.

Fr. Franz See, Vionna, Austria

I can report the discovery of an early letter with Bulgarian postage of
the first centimess" issue and showing the continued usage of a Russian can-
cellation carried over from the Russian Military Postal Service in Bulgaria
during the Russo-Turkish War. This is a cover sent from BELA, north of Tir-
novo, and addressed to a Mr. K. Rusovich at Sistov. The 10 centimes stamp
is cancelled on arrival at Sistov with the bilingual "Sistovskaya P. K. 1.
Svishtovska Poshtenska Kont." single circle cancel dated 24 May 1879. The
postal rate for an internal letter at the time was 25 centimes, but the other
two stamps have been taken off the cover. Unfortunately the cancellation is
too light for a photograph to be taken, but this is the only example I have
over soon of this marking in the post-loberation period.

I also have another letter from Sistov (Svishtov), with 50 centimes
postage cancelled with the bilingual "Sistov-Svishtov" double-circle type
dated June 12, 1879.

A. Cronin, Windsor, Ontario, Canada

Further to Mr. See's interesting news on the usage of Russian cancellers
in Bulgaria in the post-liberation period, I can now notify the application
of the Russo-Bulgarian bilingual SOFIA-SREDETS double circle marking, dated

No. 64 Page 55

19.XI.80 on -then current 10 centime Bulgarian postcard. This marking
was illustrated by Stephen and Tchilinghirian in their Russian Used Abroads
series and communicated by Mr. See as existing on stampless covers during
the operation of the Russian Posts in Bulgaria. The example pictured by
the above authors is dated 29.IV.79, which was three days before the Rus-
,sians handed over all offices and equipment to the Bulgarians on May 1 of
that year.

All dates quoted are in the Old Style and this also apparent from the
card pictured herewith. It is addressed to a firm of lithographic and art-
ists' supplies in Leipzig,"Gormany and sent by Emril Stubel, an "artist-
painter", then resident in Sofia.

The Bulgarian word "SHREDETS" at bottom, meaning "central place",.is
an old name for the city and was first recorded in history in the year 1378,
four years before being taken by the Turks.

Vsevolod Kurbas, New York, New York

I have two kopek Yassy Uozd Zemstvo postage stamp in light brick-red
color with a primitive design of a profile of a horse's head. As far as I
know, these stamps are listed in the catalogue of Zemstvo stamps, although
its origin is doubtful and not clear to mbT. -.

The city of Yassy (lasi in Rumanian) is the principal city of Rumanian
Moldavia, which was formerly under Russian military occupation, but was
never under Russian sovereignty. Therefore I can not see how it is possible
how Russian zomstvo self: rule existed there.

All of my efforts to find out with aid of encyclopaedias and diction-
aries the truth have been nil.

Perhaps the specialists in Zemstvo stamps can settle for me the
question which puzzles me.

Kurt Adler, Now York City

SJust received a letter from Mr. Fraunlob with further addenda to Ros-
.sika 62 (Tablos of Adler-Schmidt article) If my addenda to this article
-has; riot yet ybao. stenciled, perhaps you can incorporate Mr. Frauenlob's
data. The add 'da concerns ory Column I (last column).

A I.ll .98' W.F. (thus delete Fbdigeo's. da:t)--
A 3 9 .1.98 .F ...
A 24 -4. '1.99 W.F. (thus" alelto my data) -
A 120 B 84 6.3.01 W.F.'- ; ":: ..

Editor This hote came too 1'te and- he readers. are urged to refer to the
original article in i62,' and-to the 0. Faberge's article in #64.

Vsevolod Popov, Nyackj N. Y.

First a few words regarding the prices of USSR stamps appearing in
German philatelic journal "DBZ", #2 (bi-weckly) for 19634- Dealers are
offering "Cheluskin" set, mint (Scotts ##58-67) for DM180.00 ($45.00).

Page 56 No. 64

The flight of Lovanovsky (Scott No. C68) mint is offered for DM135.00
($33.75)'. In USA those stamps can be purchased for considerably less. In
Hoiman's auction in N.Y. Levanovsky stamp was sold for $14.00, and the
same stamp with a variety of small "f" was sold for 21:.00 (I bid $20.00).
Those collectors who do not have Scott's ##C59-68 must hurry and buy them
or it will be too late. Since the first thing .B. asked me is to buy for
him two"Lovanovsky' su.

K. B. likewise, describes to me some USSR varieties.

1. "Vostok 3 and 4" 6kop. (issued in 1962). Next to the last stamp
in the second row from the top in the sheet (counting from loft to
the right) has on some shoots a period between letters "last S" and
"F" in word USSR.

2. Overprint "Zemlia Mars I.XI" on 10 kop. stamp. East in blue
color, instead of lilac, i.e. the same as the color of the background
of the stamp. I have both of the varieties (from my point of view,
the view of a person working with printing presses I do not know
why these varieties were prepared). The overprint in blue is undoubt-
edly interesting. Unfortunately, since I do not have Vol. II, 1963
of Scott's catalogue I can give the readers the numbers of the two
stamps in question.

The well known firm of "Maison Romoko" of Paris, France, specializing
in selling stamps of Russia, USSR, Far East, Caucasus, Baltics, etc. and
stamps of the Civil War period in Russia, has issued 1963 edition of the
catalogue and price list (previous catalogue appeared in 1961). In this
catalogue are listed not only the regular issues of stamps but numerous
varieties which do not appear in the standard catalogues of the world, such
as Scott, Gibbons, etc., which are interesting to the specialist. To help
the collectors who want to use this catalogue, and those who dent have Yvort
Catalogue, I like to mention that Romoko catalogue has the same numbers as
the Yvert and the data why the stamps were issued. The prices for stamps are
not and the French currency equivalents aro 5fr. to $1.00 USA.

Being interested in stamps of USSR, I mado comparisons between 1963 and
1961 editions of the Romeko catalogue, and found that two USSR stamps issued
between 1957 and 1960 wore unpriced in tho'latest edition. These stamps are
the 40 kop. gray and gray brown (Scott No. 1906), issued in 1957 honoring
50th Annivorsary of death of Mendoloev and 10 rubles (Scott No. 1654a) dull
Serd, issued in 1960. The reason why.thoy are unpriced is easily understood.
The reason for interest in stamp of Mcndoloev is that'bocause it is collected
not only by collectors of stamps of USSR, of which there are many, but also
those who collect "themes" in this cas the subjects being great scientists,
chemists, and famous Jews. Likewise, try to get mint or cancelled set of
stamps issued for Mondeleev in 1934 (Scott Nos. 536-59).issued to commemorate
100th Anniversary of his birth.

The 10 ruble stamp, in new shade, issued the day before currency reform
in USSR, belongs to the standard issue and we assume that because of its high
face value was not issued in groat quantity and did not have wide distribution,
and evidently did not pay any attoticn to it until lately. Therefore I urge
all of the collectors to obtain those stamps now, i.e. before the supply in
hands of the dealers dries up.

No. 64 Page 57

Seymour Gibrick'- Los Angeles. California .

I found recently a Alexandorstadt, 1941-42 German-Occupation of Ukraine
local, Michel-1963, p. 330, No. 1, with the invested swas ika on cover, of
which only:25 were issued and which catiaogues at 350 marks. 'This great
rarity on a cover is worth at least 700 marks.

Dr. A. H. Wortman, London. England

I had stuck my neck out when I said that I have never soon stamps of
the 1st issue of KITAI: have just found one, complete with forged postmark.
I will write it up soon.

Jacques Posoll, Cloveland.Heights, Ohio

I receivod'a letter from Stofanovsky-today and ho writes as follows:
Last month I have been on business in Kiev whore I visited a collector of
fiscal and he showed me a copy of the 100 ruble Consular stamp which he
recently-found in a collection he bought at a auction in Tashkent. This is
then the second copy of this stamp known to me. As regards the 1, 2 and 30
ruble values, nothing is known about them to him too.

Editor: -Kindly see Mr. Posell's article in this issue. Both he and Mr.
Stofanovsky have the only known copies of the 100 ruble Consular

J. F. Chudobat Brooklyn. New York

Recently while browsing around among various dealers, I acquired two
Post Cards, which although not my specialty, captivated my curiosity. They
are as follows: 0

1. A picture post card showing the Russian Post Office in Chefoo' China.

This post -card had been sent through the French Post Office in Chofoo to
Arlington, Now York. It is franked with a 4 cent Chinese Imperial Postage
stamp (Scott No. 113) which had been cancelled by Chinese Chefoo cancellation,
and'.is dated 4 Aug. 1909. It has an additional circular cancellation in
SFrench: reading "Chefoo Posts Francaise 4 AOUT 09" This may be interesting,
-but the picture :cn the card-interested me more. It shows the main entrance
to the Russian Post Office' in Chefoo, with a couple of rickshaw boys waiting
.for customers. The thing-that interested me was the sign on the right-hand
side of the gate, .which read "Imperial Russian Post Office" in English; with
Some, Chines3 writingbeolow} and still further blow a pdst box with Russian
inscriptions, which probably was used as a'mail box. However, that is not
all. Alongside of these notices is d'blick-board which has the' following
written on it in English.


For North Manchuria :.(Time ineligible) For Tientsin (Time ineligible)
For Siboria f(Time ineligible)- For Shanghai '(Time inelogiblo)
For Vladivostock (Time Inoligible) For Corea, Japan (Time inolegible)
To Europe (Time Ineligible)'
This is a most unusual card, but it does prove that Russia'had a
Post Office in Chefoo, China in 1909.

Page 58 No. 64

2. l Russian reply post card(senders original part) sent from Odessa to the
Imperial Ottoman Bank in Toriboli, Turkey (then Ottoman Empire), dated Odessa
8/21 Juin-1911. This card has a 4 kop. Russian stamp affixed (Scott #76).
It is cancelled by a double circle"!.O.P.iT. Constantinople 10 Jun 11" and a
large oval purple cancellation of "R.O.P i T.", the bottom part of which is
illegible. It had been sent by the firm of Jul. Engel of Odessa, Russia. It
has a boxed rubber stamp (presumably of the Ottoman Bank) indicating the num-
ber, the date and the initial of the person who received the card.

It should be noted that the spelling of the town to which it was sent is
T E R I B LI and not T I RE B 0 L I as it has been reported in Part II of
the Messrs. Tchilinghirian and Stephen's famous book of Stamps of the Russian
Empire, Used Abroad. This seems to be a very rare card since there is no
mention of the use of the large oval purple cancellation of R .0.P.i T. at
Toriboli (which I presume it is since the last legible letter on the bottom
of the oval cancellation is the Russian letter "I"). It is my belief that
this is the first card reported among Russian philatolists, dominating from
Russia and destined to Toriboli in the early part of the 20th century. (See
Stamps of the Russian Empire, Used Abroad by S. D. Tchilinghirian & W.S .
Stephen Part II, pages 111 and 112).

Arthur Shields, Santa Barbara, California

Regarding. the date of issue of Air Post stamps Scott C6-9

I have a used copy of C8 cancolled,"Moscow 26-5-24. I Ekspoditsia No 4.1
Also a coploto set of C6-9 on cover cancelled "Moscow 25-5-24. I Ekspoditsia
- No. 3". It is registered letter addressed tc Berlin, Germany. The cover
also has a red, double line .boxed "Mit Luftpost befordort Konigsborg (Pr.)
I" inscription. The box is 65x16mm. in size. It also has inscription
"Samolotom" in a single lined roctange 53xl2mm. in size all in violet.
The two line address in violet is very indistinct. A portion of the address
is reproduced below in English equivalents -

Upolnomochcn-----------------i sonam v U.S.S.R.
Moscva--------------ya ul, D. No. 3

On the reverse side of the cover is another copy of C7 and a Berlin
receiving cancellation of 26-5-26. So I beat Mr. Culver by one day.

The aforementioned set of stamps is listed as follows in the Russian
catalogues that I have.

Sov. Cat. 1924 February 1924 .-Sov. Cat. 1l55 June 1924
1933 1924 (no month) 1958 June 1924
1948 1924 (no month)

Mr. H. L. Aronson in his very informative articles on uAerophilatoly"
published by the Russian-Ameriean Philatelic Society, states in No. 6 of that
publication that the sot was issued on May 5, 1924.

Dr. Gordon Torrey. Washington, D.C.

In reading Cronin's translation of the Bulgarian article I notice that
Idrisi is referred to as a Turkish geographer. Abdullah Muhammod ibn Muhammed
al-Idrisi (born in Conta in 1100 died 1166) wasof Hispano Arab parents.

No. 64 Page 59

"Ho performed his life work at the court of ;the: Norman Roger II of Sicily
.' (Palero) 'i&er Rgeor'ts patronage. His tratise "Nuzhat aa.Mushtaq fi
S'khtirq .al4Aflaqu the recreation of .hi- who yearns to traverse the'lands.
He also constructed a celestial sphere' dnd a aisc-qhaped. ap;,e:f the .-world -
"both in silver. : .. :

R. Polchaninoff, Brooklyn. New York

Kindly note that the BLLTIKUM SAMMLER mentioned in my article in this
number (No. 64) is published by Mr..Edgar Stalbow, Stuttgart I-, Postfach
629, W. Germany. Mr. Stalbow checked my article and did not raise any object-
ions or critisisms.

Before last paragraph of my article kindly:include the followings

Each trial sheet had the following inscription at the top, in Latvian -
"P R J E K T U A T D A R I N A J.U M E" (see illustration), which was
translated by our member Mr. L. TontuOlto to road "trial printing".

John Lloyd, Aldham, Colchester, England

The 1st Gagarin Flight cancellation is already being forged,. It can be
distinguished in the following way: In the genuine print the small planet
under the Soviet star is.slightly to left of the lower point of this star.

"On the forgery this planet is in dead.conter, under the same point. In
France the Tsiolkovsky '(1st Sputnik overprint) has also been found forged.

List of Sputnik cancellations and' cachetsi -

2nd Sputnik 2000th Revolution dated Moscow 21/3/58
3rd Sputnik 3000th Revolution datod Moscow 15/v-19/XII/1958
4th Sputnik in OrbiT around the Sun datos on this. are 2/I, 4/1 and 8/1/59
I have two of these, Moscow Pochtampt and Moscow K-9. The first has
two lines from tail of the rocket & flag on rocket is colorless. On
the second the flag is inked-in and there- are four lines from the tail
of the rocket.
3rd Sputnik 5000 Revolution from Moscow K-Q. 8/V/59
3rd Sputnik 8000th Revolution from -Petrozavcdsk 27/V1/59
Lunik II (moon landing) from Moscow Pochtamp dated September 1959.
This appears to be a black cachet as it does not touch the stamp. The
stamp is tied to a cover with a circular .date stamp Pochtampt Ir Ekcd
Ist Sputnik 2nd Anniv. of Launching. Special cancellation in the shape of
a. planetarium from Moscow G-242 dfte .4/10/59. (This.is, according to
the Cercle France-URSS is the:rarest of; all Sputnik cancellations).
Moon Rocket in Orbit Ist Anniv. From Moscow Poohtampt 2/1/60
Ist Cosmic Rocket Oval shaped cancellation from Kalinin
dated 2/1/60 ,. ;
Lutk III (Satolite photographing moon) from Leningrad, Minsk. and.Moscow
Pochtampt all dated 7/X/60
Sputnik III 10,000 Revolution from Moscow Pochtampt dated /IV/60 and
from Moscow K-9, same date. as 4abovd'. In the first cancellation the
,.'ord Moscow is over the Pochtampt and is followed by the dat'6. In
the second the whole cancellation is in a straight line. In this
cancellation I have confirmed the following, i.e. that tho-pa.ncellor
'sed at'the Moscow Pochtampt of C.T.O,. covers is not the same as that

Page 60 No. 64

used at the Moscow Pochtampt Office.
Sputnik III again to the 10,000 Revolution from Leningrad but a difference
in the design; same date as the previous-two.
Sputnik III Last Revolution from Moscow Pochtampt 6/IV/60
L unk II (Moon Landing) 1st Anniv. from Moscow Pochtampt 14/IX/60
Tziokovsky Commemoration to the father of space science from Kaluga
Sputnik II 3rd Anniv. of this Dog VLaika' Carrying Sputnik from Moscow
Pochtampt 3/XI/60
Sputnik IV (7th Satellite) launched 15/5/60. Cancellation commemorating
the 1000th revolution dated Minsk 18/VII/60 in blue.
q Moon Rocket (In orbit) 2nd Anniv. from Taganrog 2/1/61
Sputnik I 4th Anniv, from Khabarovsk 4/10/61
Mozhaiskv Commemoration An illustrated and informative cover designed and
produced by the Vinnitza Collectors Society in honor of the scientist
A.F. Mozhaisky 1825-1890 who was granted a patent for his invention
of "Aero-flying-machine-missile" on 15/XI/1881. This cover bears a
special cancellation as also the normal circular cancel both of
Vinnitza 15/X1/61.
Sputnik I 5th Anniv. from Moscow Pochtampt in black and from Moscow
International in red (there is an additional cachet to this last).

R. Sklarevski, Towson. Maryland

At this time I would like to comment on A. Prado's article 'NOTES ON

First of all, numerous modern Russianstamps exist in various perfora-
tions. Perforations used were Comb t2x12- and 12-x12 and line 12--. The 1958
edition of the "Postage Stamp Catalogue of USSR", printed and compiled in
USSR lists numerous perforation varieties as well as other major and minor

It may be well to.say that in U.S. a stamp perforated on two sides only,
i.e. perforated vertically or horizontally when the normal stamp of the issue
is perforated on all four sides, is considered as an error and commands good
prices. On the other hand, stamps with fan tails or imperforate on one side
for some reason are considered as oddities and are not prized as highly as
part perforates. This probably stems from the old days when all of the mar-
ginal copies of the US stamps had straight edges. One may find fan tails on
good many Soviet stamps.

Comments on A. Prado's "The 1935 Soviet Price List .

The aforementioned price list was not the 1st one, nor the last. At
this time I cant locate tha earliest price list, but I can state that the
1939-1941 "Price List' was issued by the "Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga", Philatelic
Department, Kuznetski Most, 18, Moscow, USSR. The book is of vertical format,
the same size as the 1935 price list, but consists only of 50 pages.

One interesting note in the price list, reads as follows "Mezhdunarodnaya
Kniga is the sale corporation in the USSR, dealing in the export of postage
stamps for collectors".

It is interesting to note that many of now scarce stamps were still on
hand in 1941. Likewise, of great interest is the fact that certain issues
No. 64 Page 61

of the Russian States were on sale at the Agency and that some of them are
quoted in quantities up to 1,000 each, in complete sets..

This indicates that such sets as the Denikin imperfs, 3, 5, and 10 r.
perforated of the same issue, Siberian, Far Eastern Republic and other stamps
ended at the Agency in mint condition and were widely distributed from there
abroad. Many of the aforementioned stamps are uncommon genuinely used and
some of them are downright scarce. The list is divided into six sections and
the prices are,in USA dollars.

RSFSR and Soviets Caucasian Stamps
Postage Dues and Officials Tsarist Russia
Civil War Stamps Packets

Popo v s artic 1 e

Chronologically I am listing the dates of issue of Scott's Nos. C6 to C9
as listed in various editions of the Soviet Catalogues.

1924 February 1924 1948 no date 1958 -.June 1924
1933 1924 1956 June 1924

Examening Soviet Philatelist for 1924, edited by F. G. Chuchin we find
that the February issue of that year does not mention the aforesaid issue.
The April 1924 issue of the same journal has an article by B. Rozoff, which
states that this set was issued, but gives no date (20 kop. value is illustra-
ted). The July issue is the most interesting to us, because it has a repro-
duction of an official document (announcement)'which reads as follows:

Air Mail Stamps
(Circular of N KP &T, April 30, 1924 No. 67/456)

Because of the resumption of air mail service abroad from May 1, 1924,
simultaneously, special airpost stamps have been issued, for the purpose of
additional franking of correspondence. These picture an aeroplane with the
value in gold currency: 5 kop. with black overprint on blue stamp of 3 rubles
of 1923 issue; 10 kop, with black overprint on green stamp of 5 rubles, same
issue; 15 kop. with black overprint Qn.,brown stamp of 1 ruble, same issue;
20 kop. with black overprint on red stamp 6f 10 rubles, same issue.

Member Peoples Committee of Posts and Telegraph


This circular confirms that the February day given-in 1924 catalogue is
An error and that the stamps in iuostion.did not appear until after April 30,
1924. I feel that Juno date given in .he latest Soviet Catalogues is likewise
wrong. I think the, stamps appeared sometime early in May 1924.

My earliest cover is a registered one'with blocks of 4 of 10, tI and 20
kop., mailed from Moscow to Paris on a regular flight via Konigsborg The
cover has the following air mail marking in red rectangle, reading in two
lines "Mit Luftpost befordart." -' "Konigsberg (Pr) 1". It Has a receiving
(illegible) marking of Paris, dated May 13, 1924e.

G. M. White in his,"Philatelic Magazinen Handbook #7, entitled the

Page 62 No. 64

"Postage Stamps of the Soviet Republics 1917-25" states that the August,
1923 unsurcharged issue, owing to the rapid decline of the 1923 currency and
owing to the fact that the flying season was nearing the close of the year,
was surcharged in gold currency and issued in May, 1924. He likewise des-
cribes the air-mail markings (his Type 3 one of the 3 types used and the
earliest) which he states was applied in Konigsborg and that it was used
evidently in May and June of 1924.

0000000000000000000 00 c OOCOO000000000000
o o
o o
o Stamps and Covers of the World o
o o
o All Philatelic Supplies o
o o
o o
o 10 9 W. 4 3 rd. St r oo t, N. Y. 36, N w Y o r k o
o 0


New Issue Service, covers, varieties and errors.
Want Lists are filled. Russian Empire, Soviets and Zemstvos.
All of the above are in stock and are sent on approval.


Box# 1 Grand L dodge Michigan .

0 O
o o
0 0
o o
o Large Selection -- Accumulation of 35 years Russia, Border States, o
o Latvia, Lithuania and. many othar countries. o
o o
o Also specialized stock of AIRMAILS and TOPICALS, U. N., Rotary, U.P.U., o
o Refugee, Europa, Olympics, etc., etc. o
o o
o Kindly writo for details and/or approvals. o
o o
o S. Serebrakian P.O. Box 448 Monroe, New York o
o o
o 0

No. 64 Page 63


Page 25, line 30 should be as follows:
......paper trade. Their paper' as without :watermark and the opening flap
ungummed. Later on the envelopes were producedby the main post office it-
self, and because of this.....

Page 26, line 33 should be as follows
.....impressions. However, as the colored embossing is also very sharp,
i& may deduce...... ____
E R R 0 R S IN THE ENGLISH TEfYT OF C. A. Faberge's article, the STAMPED
ENVELOPES of IMPERIAL RUSSIA. Ist PERIOD 1848-1863". Rossica Nos. 62 & 63.

Rossica No. 62 Page 18, lines 12 and 13 should be as follows:
Position 3 Inverted Watermark Position 4 Reversed Inverted Watermark

Page 18, last line should-be as follows:
watermark inverted (position 3 or 4)

Page 19. last line of the TABLE should be as follows:
11F 20 Kop......

Rossica No. 63 Page 19. text beginning with line 39 should be:
....four months of 1869, while the envelopes of the City Post of St. Peters-
bourg with the embossing in the same ultramarine shade were used during a
period not shorter than 4 years (1864-1868).

Page 19, last two inos should be as follows:
....comparatively scarce, while the St. Petorsbburg envelopes of the ultra-
marine shade have about the same degree of scarcity as the blue ones.

Page 20, Lines 18 & 19 should be.as follows
Figures 12 and 13 illustrate two of the original cliches copper electros -
which were used.........

Page 21. line 2 should be as follows:
.......Ascher 1 II g.....

Page 22. line 2 should be as follows: Page 22, line I should be as follows:
9, 10a, 11, 11F, 7F and 8F .......4c, 7b, 7d, and 10b

Page 22, line 13 should be as follows:
........is not my problem, nor my intention to prepare a definitive table of

Page 22, line 25 should-be as follows: i
........that it would bo futile and senseless to accept these as re'al(and
.intended) variations in size.

Page 23, line 5 should be as follows:
E.......Especially, since all afore-mentioned sizes certainly were intended
to be used for an equal postal purpose.

Pg 23 line 19 should be as follows: Page 23 line 36 should be.:
133-36 x 109mm. Size b 141-145 x 113..116-m.
Size e 113-123 x 70-80mm.
Page 24, line 12 should be as follows:
....is cancelled with a false Warsaw,.....

No. 64 Page 64