Officers, honorary members, and...
 The ancient Russian posts by Maria...
 Yassy - local Zemstvo post by Boris...
 Additional data on the Russian...
 The first recorded Talienwan cancellation...
 Early postmarks of the Trans-Siberian...
 Philatelic meanderings by Kurt...
 Some notes on used abroads. cont....
 Russian finance ministry war charity...
 Post cards and envelopes of the...
 Kwan-Tung territory by V....
 The Zemstvo posts by D. Frants
 Mount Athos or Starii Afon by Dr....
 The Russian postal service in Mongolia,...
 Notes in regards to arms types...
 Manned spaced flight commemorative...
 Varieties of stamped envelopes...
 American auction prices of USSR...
 The 1963 schedule for special cancellations...
 Short notes on the Bulgarians in...
 Letter to the editor on "Budzhak"...
 Offices in China, display by Messrs....
 Phantasies and their forgeries...
 Zemstvo of Simbirsk by Emile...
 Book reviews
 Notes from collectors


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00006
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1963
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00006

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Officers, honorary members, and representatives of the society
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The ancient Russian posts by Maria Nikolaevna Vitashevskaya
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Yassy - local Zemstvo post by Boris Shishkin
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Additional data on the Russian post in China 1910-1916 by V. Popov
        Page 14
    The first recorded Talienwan cancellation by C. P. Bulak
        Page 15-18
    Early postmarks of the Trans-Siberian railway by Dr. A. H. Wortman
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Philatelic meanderings by Kurt Adler
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Some notes on used abroads. cont. from no. 64 by G.H. Torrey
        Page 27
    Russian finance ministry war charity labels of 1915-16 by Fred Speers
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Post cards and envelopes of the Address Bureau by Emile Marcovitch
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Kwan-Tung territory by V. Kurbas
        Page 34
        Page 35
    The Zemstvo posts by D. Frants
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Mount Athos or Starii Afon by Dr. G.B. Salisbury
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    The Russian postal service in Mongolia, reprinted from Russian "Pochtovo-Telegrafny Zhurnal" for 1898
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Notes in regards to arms types check list of Dr. Stackelberg by J. Lloyd
        Page 46
    Manned spaced flight commemorative and special cancellations and cachets of Soviet Union by J. Lloyd
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Varieties of stamped envelopes of USSR by V. Popov
        Page 49
    American auction prices of USSR stamps (first half of 1963) by V. Popov
        Page 50
        Page 51
    The 1963 schedule for special cancellations by A. Cronin
        Page 52
    Short notes on the Bulgarians in the Budzak Steppe by D. N. Minchev
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Letter to the editor on "Budzhak" by V. Kurbas
        Page 58
    Offices in China, display by Messrs. A. Pritt, E. G. Peel, and Dr. A. H. Wortman
        Page 59
    Phantasies and their forgeries by R. Polchaninoff, translated from Russian by A. Katkowsky
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Zemstvo of Simbirsk by Emile Marcovitch
        Page 62
    Book reviews
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Notes from collectors
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
Full Text
of the

Silver Medals at Belgrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937"and
the International Exhibition, Koenifsberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronse Medals at the International Exhibition "Prag 1935"and
Vienna International Exhibition "WIPA 1933"
Recent International Awards:
Silver Medals at Berlin,"Bephila 1957", Parana."Eficon 1958"
a--nd Buenos Aires,"Temex 1958"
Hamburg Interposta 1959 Palermo Sicilia 1959 Barcelona 1960 "

No.5 POc HKa 1963


Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.


Hon. Memb. Dr. G. B. Bondarenko-Saliabury


Hon. Memb. R. A. Sklarevski Hon. Memb. V. A. Kurbas


Hon. Memb. A. N. Lavrov


K. Adler Hon. Memb. E. Marcovitch Hon. Memb. K. Jansson 0. A. Faberge

2 Officers of the Society, Hon. Members and Representatives of the Society
3-4 Editorial
5-11 The Ancient Russian Posts. by Maria Nikolaevna Vitashevskaya
12-13 Yassy Local Zemstvo Post. by Boris Shishkin
14 Additional Data on the Russian Post in China 1910-1916. by V. Popov
15-17 The First Recorded Talienwan Cancellation, by C. P. Bulak
O 18-23 Early Postmarks of the Trans-Sibe:iaT t..i\lay. by Dr. A. H. Wortman
24-26 Philatelic Meanderings. by Kurt jAt-Iu
27-28 Some Notes on Used Abroads. Cont.. fro! To. 64. by G. H. Torrey
28-31 Russian Finance Ministry War Chari.ty. L._o;Ls of 1915-16. by Fred Speers
31-34 Post Cards and Envelopes of Addrc.- Bcureau. by Emile Marcovitch
34-35 Kwan-Tung Territdry. by V. Kurbas
36-37 The Zemstvo Posts. by D. Frants
38-42 Mount Athos or Starii Afon. by Er. G. B. Salisbury
43-46 The Russian Postal Service in Mongolia. Reprinted from Russian "Pochtovo-
"Telegafny Zhurnal' for 1898.
46 Notes in Regards to Arms Check List of Dr. Stackelberg. by J. Lloyd
47-49 Manned Space Flight Commemorative and Special Cancellations and Cachets
of Soviet Union. by J. Lloyd
49 Varieties of'Starped Envelopes of USSR. by V. Popov
50-51 American Auction Prices of USSR Stamps (First Half of 1963). by V.Popov
52-53 The 1963 Schedule for Special Cancellations. by A. Cronin
53-58 Short Notes on the Bulgarians in the Budzak Steppe. by D. N. Minchev
58-59 Letter to the Editor on wBudzhak". by V. Kurbas
59-60 Offices in China. Display by Messrs. A. Pritt, E.g. Peel and Dr. A. H.
60-62 Phantasies and their Forgeries. by R. Polchaninoff
62 Zemstvo of Simbirsk. by Emile Marcovitch
63-64 Book Reviews.
65-70 Notes from Collectors.



President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chahiman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson


A. Kotlar K. Jansson V. Kurbas
N. I. Kardakoff 'A. N. Lavrov E. I. Marcovitch
G. B. Salisbury R. A. Sklarevski


New York Group 'J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, N.Y.
San Francisco K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Western U S A L. S. Glass 1533 So La Cionga Blvd., Los Angeles, California

Argentina B. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth St. Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Hlignot, Dolstanche, Uxelles, Brussels
Brazil A. Vansovich c/o Livraria Freitas Bastes, Caixa. (Rio Region)
Brazil P. Bolofff Rua Podrozo:238, Caixa Post 2960 (Sn Paulo Region)
Toronto G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking Ct.., Downsi4ow, Ontario, Canada
Canada AnatolGar, 395 larkham St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Great Britain J. Barry 77A St. James Road, Sutton Surrey, Englandu
"Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba artzot 25, .Tel Aviv, Israel
Germany E. P. Fomin Munich 54, Rudinstr., 9, West Germany

Views expressed by the authors are their own and the editors disclaim respon-
m *.1 4 . . . . .
Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries of the world.
Application, forms which Iust be fill'd out are available upon reque.-t.
Membership lists, codes, bulletin and supplements to membership lists will be
sent out annually. Kindly make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov, the Soci3ty

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The
rates are as follows: Full page add is $30.00, half page $15.00, quarter
page $7.50 and 5 lines $2.50. Members of the Rossica Society pay only
half or 50% of the aforementioned rates. Therefore the net cost of advertise-
ments to a member is 25 cents per line. We have for sale back numbers of some
issues of the journal, both of English and Russian Editions.

Page 2 No. 65 5


Ten years ago when the late President Alexander Chebctkevich asked me to
revive the old Rossica Journal, I accepted upon one condition, that the publi-
cation be of interest to all of our members. This goal has been the reason
for the varied scope of each issue, and for the phenomenal success in winning
international awards, and many now members.

Lately, the trond among the authors who contribute to our journal as well
as to the others in various specialist fields has been to ignore the stamp, in
favor of all else. This is contrary to the interest of many of our readers,
who collect stamps only, and whose interest in cancellations, covers, and post-
al history is mild and cursory.

We welcome articles on postmarks, transit marks, offices abroad, unusual
usages of mail, postal history, etc., etc., but we raise our voice in protest,
at the dearth of material sent in the field of stamp issues, their preparation,
essays, proofs, varieties, corly and late usages, mixed frarnlinr's, overprints
and forgeries. The fundamental center of interest in our hobly is still the
stamp itself. Why ignore it'.

Lets have articles on Imperials, early Soviets, Zemstvos, revenues, tele-
graph, semi-postals, air post, and the like. We have initiated a series of
articles to start with the next issue, exactly along these lines. Abraham
Cohan of New York will discuss stamps of the Empire, beginning with NO. 1.,
Rinmma Sklarevski is starting a series based on the early Soviets, from No. 1
on. We plan to have Oleg Faber7o's articles on Zemstvos and the "P Y B "
provisionals, and Emile Marcovitch's articles on studies of the revenues. We
welcome all contributions but plead against "fly speck" research. We need
plain, easily read articlesunudultorated by symbols, mathematical furmulas,
hair splitting, confusing charts that will be read and understood by few.

A word of advice please remember that our society is international in
scope, so include in your listings the Scott's, Gibbons, Yvert, Uichel and
Zumstein catalogue numbers, so as to be understood by all of our readers.


As the journal goes to press, plans are completed for the Annual Meeting
during the A.S.D.A. Show in New York. Hundreds of invitations have been sent
out via the N.Y. Chit Chat to those in New York Area, and by the bilingual
invitations.sent by Mr. Lavrcv and Dr. Salisbury to those who may possibly
attend from the surrounding states. The two day event is highlighted by
meetings, dinner, a buffet-bar party, bourse, a program and a drawing of a
door prize consisting of No. 1 Russia superbly cancelled, offered by Dr.
Salisbury. Details will be published in No. 66.

On December 16, 1963, Linn's We-kly Stamp News will be edited by Dr.
Salisbury in a special Rossica Edition. This is the largest philatelic news-
paper, and the honor will boost our society everywhere. Not too long ago we
edited Rossica edition of "S T A F S* and we increased our numburchip

The New York Section of Rossica headed so ably by Jos. F. Chudoba has been
meeting regularly and successfully every last Sunday of the month at 1:30 pm
at the Sloane House YMCA, 356 W. 34th Street, New York. Members and guests
are always welcome.
Io. 65 Page 3

Our West coast representative, Hon, Member K. Jansson is to be comple-
mented for holding regular meetings of Rossica Society in San Francisco, and
for reprinting our articles in the Russian newspaper "Russian Life" in a
regular stamp column.
x x *

We are sorry to hear of the passing of our member No. 312, Elena T.
Fillipova, and of the friend of our society Dr. Leonid Snogireff. Our
deepest sympathy goes to their bereaved families.


On January 9, 1964 our British member and Fellow of the Royal Philatelic
Society, London, Dr. A. H. Wortman, will present at the Royal "Russia,
Covers and Cancellations of 1773-19230.


Member Vsevolod Popov of 89 First Ave., Nyack, New York, informs us
that he has ten copies for sale of Russian Levant No. 41, 2 kop. green with
the background shifted 50%. S.D. Tchilinghirian states in his book on ABROADM
that the variety is worthy of a catalogue rank (page 554).


We thank "STAMPS", S.P.A. Journal, American Philatelist, BSRP, Special-
ist of the German Philatelic Society and others for their kind reviews, and
the Philatelic Literature Review for its coming index of the Rossica Journals
and our articles.

Our member, Arnold Engol of 7350 Rugby St., Philadelphia 19138, is or-
ganizing a Latvia Philatelic Study Group. Collectors are invited to join.


Alexander Nuksa, No. 14 of 2509 Ocean View Ave., Los Angeles 57, Cal.
seeks stamps of Latvia 2Ni-2Nii with a guarantee, for trade or sale.

All members of the Society will receive a membership card upon cash
payment of dues, and a notation of their financial standing in.the society.
Kindly send in your dues and receive the new membership card.

*K *

The Society has a few back numbers of the English Edition for sale,
starting with No. 52/53. Kindly order the copies that you want N 0 W
because the supplies will be exhausted and copies of ROSSICA journals will
be collectors items, and command high prices.

Page 4 No. 65 5


by Maria Nikolaevna Vitashevskaya

Published by "Svyazizdat" of Moscow in 1962 for the Ministry of
Communications in a limited edition of 4500 copies.



The Kievan Rus was a great and powerful state. This "Empire of the
Rurikovites" as it was called, united under the rule of Kiev a large area,
in the formation of which the principalities of Novgorod, Suzdal and
Rostov-Yaroslavsky took part.

The cities of the Kievan Rus were rich and noisy. All types of people
were to be found within its walls; the Varangian prince Simon, arriving
from beyond the Baltic Sea, Byzantine and Western merchants, Greek artists,
Hungarians from the banks of the Danube, Germans,Polovtsians from the step-
pes and numerous tradesmen. At that time ancient Russia traded with practi-
cally the whole world. Russian merchants were encountered among the Bulgars
on the Volga, on the slopes of the Caucasus, at Bagdad, Byzantium and in
Western Europe. Lively correspondence was conducted in the Kievan Rus. Al-
though little literature has come down to us from these times, we know about
them, however, from a range of diplomatic letters, from the interfamilial
correspondence of the princes (e.g. from the letters of Yanka, daughter of
Yaroslav, to her brothers) and also from ecclesiastic epistles.

In the Russian manuscript of 984 A.D. there is a reference to the na-
tives of Radim: "they pay tribute and the Russians conduct povozy' up to
the present day" ("Complete Collection of Russian Manuscripts", Vol. I, SPB,
1841, p. 36). The word "povoz" might well be defined as the normal obliga-
tion of the vanquished tribes to convey people and freight for the Kievan
prince. However, a more exact definition of the word might be the specific
method of paying the levy whereby the vanquished tribes were obligated to
deliver it to a stipulated place, in distinction from the actual act of pay-
ing the tribute. We come across another meaning of the word "povoz" 150
years later. In the Ipatiev manuscript of 1151 A.D., it is related that Yuri
Dolgoruki of Goiodets (the founder of Moscow) set out for Suzdal and on the
way, called upon the prince Svyatoslav Ol'govich Chernigovsky and "that he
graciously and with great respect gave him povozy". From this, it can be
surmised that the "povoz" was some kind of a:system of transporting the
princes themselves as well as their envoys and messengers.

In the Novgorod manuscript of 1209 A.D., it is stated that the citizens
of Novgorod, dissatisfied with their mayor Dmitry and his cronies, called a
council meeting together and remembering all the faults of the mayor, cried
out that he had ordered 'povozy" to be brought in. Here the word "povoz"
was already referring to the normal obligations of the population. The
"povoz" is referred to also in many agreements which were evoked between the
citizens of Novgorod and their princes and it was stated that the people were
obligated to give horses for the envoys and courtiers of the prince.

Later on, in North-Eastern Rus, the word "povoz" was interchangeable
with word Upodvoda". It is interesting yo note that the word "povoz" was
preserved but with a somewhat different meaning; it is now referred to the
No. 65 Page 5

inherent duties of the serfs. However, as before, the population had to
bring out horses "with ten ploughs for each podvoda or horse-and-cart from
halting-place to halting-place" for the princely couriers and his servants.

The cartage duties were very onerous for the population. Exemption from
them was regarded as a great favor. But this concession was not often exer-
cised; only rarely were victims of fire damage and new settlers freed from
the cartage duties, the new settlers for a term of from two to ten years and
very occasionally for a period of 20 years.

The princes attempted to draw up rules for the application of the cart-
age duties; the messengers were enjoined to proceed only along specific
routes and a great distinction was drawn between the 'couriers and the prince-
ly officials traveling on state business. If a courier did not have the pro-
per credentials, he could be refused horses.

The organised system of communications, i.e. the "yam" or the relay
route service sprang up relatively later. Proceeding now to the derivation
of the word "yam", we see that the majority of the investigators think that
it is derived from the Mongolian word "dzyam", meaning a road. We find the
first mention of the "yam" in the edict of then Mengli-Timur. He gave this
edict to the Orthodox clergy in the 70s of the 13th century and in all their
churches which received the concession, the immunity and exemption from the
yam is quoted. In our opinion, the "yam" was a kind of impost. In support
of this supposition is the fact that special collectors called "yamniki" were
sent out to exact it.

In the documents dating from the 14th century we note that the "yam* was
being collected for the benefit of the princess. For example, to free some-
one from the "podvoda" and "yam" duties, the prince drew up a special provi-
so, in which he granted exemption from the cartage obligations and did not
levy the "yam" for his needs.

Thua there existed the necessary preliminary conditions for the organ-
ization of regular communications by means of the cartage duties and the
collection of special taxes.

By the second half of the 15th century, the state of Muscovy was cuite
powerful and under Ivan III (1462-1505) this was culminated with tne politi-
oal unification of ancient Russia; whereas the principality of the first
Muscovite prince Danila was only 2500 sq. km. (964 sq. mi.) in area, by the
beginning of the reign of Ivan III, it had already grown to 750,000 sq. km.
(194,000 sq. mi.) and to his offspring he left behind a state of 2 million
sq. *an. (770,00 sq, mi.) .. The expansion of:thecountry required new methods
of administration,-'especially in bringing communications. up to date.

There are concrete grounds for thinking that the organizer of the relay
route service in Russia was Ivan III.' In his finalwill and testament he
directs that; his son Vasily "in his Great..Princedom maintain the relay and
cartage services on the roads in those places .where-.there are relays along
the roads belonging to me; and my children Yuri and his brother as their
patrimony will carry on relay and cartage services in those places where
"there are-relays and cartage services belonging to me". ("Collection of state
edicts and agreements". Vol. I #144, Moscow,. 1813, p 398).

The expression "belonging to me* could almost have served as an argu-
ment that it was through him the relay services were organized, had there not

Page 6 No. 65

also been in the will the term "as of yorew, i.e. that they had existed in
some form also before his time. It is possible that the relays were estab-
lished on several routes prior to the reign of Ivan III but he was the first
ruler to give the relay services administrative meaning and it was only
during his times that they began to be set up systematically.

The relay services were created only for the needs of the state adminis-
tration. The direction of the relay routes corroborates this. At that time,
many of the most important routes were not established and did not have relay
services, whereas roads along which diplomatic relations were conducted, i.e.
from the city of Novgorod to the Livonian border and running through deserted
or dften sparsely settled localities had well-established services.

The Muscovite government tried to organize relay services not only in
its native lands but also in its newly acquired territories. For example,
upon conquering the Smolensk area, Ivan III (1505-1533) quickly set up relay
services there, while Ivan IV (1533-1584) established relay services in the
subdued Khanate of Kazan and in Siberia. The extension of the relay routes
did not do away with the cartage duties and the latter were continued right
up to the 17th century, supplementing the relays.

Naturally, in the years of the reign of Ivan III, a central administra-
tion of the relay routes was set up. Ar first, it was concentrated in the
hands of the treasurers of the Great Prince. These important princely digni-
taries ordinarily entrusted the administration of the relays in those times
to one or two secretaries who were later on called "relay secretaries". At
the beginning, the relay services were on par with ambassadorial, archival
and purely governmental affairs, all of which were included in the jurisdic-
tion of these secretaries.

Little by little the relay service grew apart and in 1550 a mention
appeared regarding the relay route huts. However, even then the treasurer
dealt with the relay service huts although the government was coming around
to the view that a special institution should deal with the relay service: .
This.recuired the extension of the relay routes and the added attention vbi;h
the Muscovite government devoted to it. In the 70s of the 16th century the
relay services were withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the treasurer and a
special Relay Services Ordinance was proclaimed to cover them.

In 1604 the Relay Services Ordinance was mentioned as a completely se-
parate institution within the jurisdiction of a special judge and secretaries.
This we know from the charter of Boris.Godunov in which he orders the cour-
tier Saltykov and the secretary Shestakov to expand all the relay services so
that they be prepared for the envoy Logau, with 200 cartage services on each
relay route.

But that was not.the only decree that dealt with the relay services. In
the provinces which were administered with special ordinances, such as the
Novgorod decree, the ordinance of the Kazan palace, the Siberian ordinance,
etc, the entire relay system lay under their administration. Juging from
the range of documents known, all forage and pasture books, i.e. all records
were to be kept in the Relay Services Office. A listing of all edicts rela-
ting to the relay services was also drawn up there. Hence, upon the estab-
lishment and supervision of the relay routes other edicts were dealt with in
the Relay Service Ordinance. From the letters patent of the 16th century, it
is known that the Relay Services Ordinance in general regulated judicial
matters between the "yamshchiks" or postmasters of the relay stations on the
one hand and the secretaries on the other.
No. 65 Page 7

At times, there were two judges. In addition to the judge, two secre-
taries wore specified in the ordinance. The numbers of the clerks, inspec-
tores and guards noted in the decree was comparatively small: e.g. the number
of clerks amounted 20 men only. The clerks were divided into "equal" and
"unequal". categories. The "unequal" clerks did not receive wages as they were
regarded as apprentices, living on the "goodwill offerings of well-disposed
clients". The "equal" clerks were paid at the rate of from 1 to 24 rubles
per annum depending -on the importance of the work and the number of years of
service. The inspectors and guards each received 8 rubles per annum. In
general, the maintenance of the decree was not expensive. Thus, in 1687, the
entire pay-roll amounted to 273 rubles 13 altyns (1 altyn was 3 kopeks). In
addition, 75 rubles was spent on ink, paper, heating anf lighting.

This Relay Services Ordinance referred to above was deposited in the



At the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries, the relay
services were established along many routes. From Moscow, the relay routes
went to Novgorod, to the Teutonic border at Rugodiv (Narva), to the
Lithuanian frontier via Mozhaisk and Novgord-Severeky, to Kazan via Murom and
finally well into the areas lying in South-East RTissia. There was also
another route having great political meaning, running to the Crimea to the
friend and ally of Ivan III, the Khan Megli-Girei and a lively correspondence
was always kept up between them.

In general, the relay stations were at a distance of from 30 to 40 versts
(20-27 miles) from each other. They woro set up near inhabited localities.
If between villages there was a distance of greater than 40 versts (27 miles)
then an intermediate relay station was established. This relay station was
not independent but was incorporated in the base station operating nearby.

At the head of the relay station stood the "Yamshchiki", generally two or
three and rarely more. The word "yamshchik* resembles the Turkish term
"yamchi" which originally denoted a man directly concerned with horses. The
word is even more similar to the Persian "yamdzhik" which means messenger.
At that time, the relay routes were maintained by the public; the "yamshchik"
was in a way the station superintendent and not a driver-. Under Ivan III and
his successors, the yamshchiks saw to it that there was always a sufficient
number of horses and requisite fodder for them, and they also kept all
accounts. The Government regarded .them in the same way as its officials.

The relay stations consisted of two or three huts with extensive stables
and large sheds for hay and sheep. Ordinarily a ploughed meadow and hayfields
wore incorporated in the relay station under the control. of the yamshchiks.
Even entire villages were included in a large relay station and their income
went to the yamshohiks.

With the increase of traffic en the relay routes, secretaries wore
brought in with books for recording data and a yard-man who was in charge of
the yard and stables. Judging from documents dating from 1548 and addressed
to Tottma, which have come down to us, the urban and,rural population of an
entire district elected the.yamshchiks-and their assistants. After election
and confirmation of this by the local governor, the yamshchiks were sent to

Page 8 No. 65

Moscow to the treasurer of the Great Prince. The secretaries of the treas-
urer conducted the chosen men in taking the oath which stated that "to steal
from the tsar and great prince should not be and their service must be con-
ducted honestly and vigorously". After that, money was given to the- yam-
shchiks for expenses and they set out for the-relay stations.

The neighboring population delivered ahead of time a specific number of
carts with horses and fodder to the relay stations. In cases of especial
necessity, a large number of horses was brought in. If the relay route stood
on a navigable river, the messengers and envoys wont by water; they were
given a boat with oarsmen and a heolsman.

In contrast to the general duties, the government paid for the delivery
of carts and boats and also for the guides. It also paid the population for
the usage of roads leading to pastures. From data preserved from the begin-
nig of the 16th century it appears that books were introduced at that time
for recording money expenses and such books were called pasture or enclosure
books. The secretaries of the treasurer examined the expenses listed in
those books annually. By a special decree, the governor was also allowed to
check the books.

Judging from the letter to Tot'ma dating from 1548, the peasants deliv-
ering carts and horses to the relay station were paid at the rate of 3 dengas
(1 donga was I kopek) per cart and horse for every 10 versts (7 miles) and
the guide at the rate of 1/20 denga per vorst. For those times, that was not
poor payment; the Muscovite ruble at the beginning of the 15th century was
equivalent to 130 gold rubles at the beginning of the 20th century, and in
the first half of the 16th century to 73.83 gold rubles. There were 200 don-
gas in the Muscovite ruble and thus each denga was equal to 50 gold kopeks.
Consequently, for each cart and horse, the population received 15 kopeks per
vorst from the yamshchiks and the guide 2- kopeks per verst. Hence each cart
(generally a troika) on which the messenger went for 30 versts to the next
relay station was paid for at the rate of 4 rubles and 50 kopeks, and the
guide was paid 50 kopeks. From material which has come down to us, we know
that a "ohotvortm of rye, i.e. li quintals or 8 bushels then cost 6 kopeks.
Honco for a driving stretch of 30 versts, 112.5 kilograms of rye was paid for
each cart and troika and 18.5 kilograms for the guide.

However, in spite of such high payment, the population felt the burden
of the relay services. The yamshchiks provided for emergency calls on the
relay services by requisitioning more horses where possible and keeping them
at the relay stations for many days. Hence it was costly to keep the horses
idle and moreover the animals were taken from a household, thus depleting its
stock of beasts of burden. At times, the government was forced to send out
special inspectors with a view to picking out the superfluous horses held by
the yamshchiks and returning them to the population.

The relay station lands wore exempt from all taxes and.imposts. In the
old rate-book of Novgorod, it is stated that on the grounds of the relay
station at Nasya "of the old income there came in money in the amount of 5
grivnas (30 kopeks), a ram, hens, 10 lokots of linen about 20 feet of length,
even a saddle-cloth, five pieces of flax, three bundles of hay, and of broad
li quintals (roughly 150 pounds) and for the steward 24 bushels of rye and 24
bushels of barley. And nowadays the yamshchiks'keep ready no hay at all, nor
do they wait for a grivna of money for them".

The yamshchik was chosen from the public by men, but he was not answer-
able to the public. He was subordinate only to Moscow, from where he received
No. 65 Page 9

instructions. Sometimes the duties of the yamshchiks were passed on from
father to son and from son to grandson. From the way that scribes refer to
the land, we can see that it was not rogardodas the basis for the relay
station; the land,became identified with the hereditary property of the yam-
shchik family.

The only persons who could use the relay route horses wore those who had
special documents in the -form of an order for post-horses, which certified
that the man was not proceeding on his own personal affairs, but was sent on
state business. For instance, the prince Yuri Dmitriovich sent out an edict
in 1470, which permitted the use of cartage, fodder and guides only to a per-
son "who is proceeding with my order for post horses". At first, the text of
the order was not uniform, but by the end of the second half of the 16th
century, a special style for the requisition was worked out. On the requisi-
tion form, the title was given, together with the exact specification of the
route to be followed, instructions on the observance of the order to all yam-
shchiks and for places where there were no relay stations, the order was
addressed to the public, giving the name and calling of the bearer of the
order for post horses, the type of business upon which he was being sent, the
amount of cartage, guidc courts, oarsmen and helmsmen for which the messen-
ger had the right to request and finally the date and signature were noted
and a black wax seal affixed.

The text has been preserved of the first order for-post horses which has
come down to us; it was delivered in 1489 to the clerk Kulpa Oksentiev, who
accompanied the envoy. Here is the translation of the text (see. 11. #1).
"From the Great Prince Ivan Vasiliovich of all Russia, from Moscow along the
road across our lands, through the Moscow land and the territory of Tver, to
Torzhok to the village elders from Torzhok through the land of Novgorod to
the great city of Novgorod by the relay route and postillion services, also
and back from Novgorod to Moscow. We have sent Kulpa Oksontiev and you should
give him two cartage services to the next cartage point, from relay station
to relay station, according to this my edict. The year ninety seventh."
("Memorials of diplomatic relations of ancient Russia with foreign powers",
Vol. I, SPB, 1851, p. 23).

Later examples of the text for orders for post horses became more speci-
fic. Thus in the requisition delivered in 1493 to the clerk Yolka, it is
stipulated that it was obligatory to give him horses and two carts at the
relay station and also "fodder was to be given himat the relay station". In
an order dated 1504, we find a stipulation that carts be given immediately
"not wasting a moment". From that time, this direction came .into the text as
a-necessary part of it. Upon the delivery of the order for post horses it
was stated therein that one messenger should go out and pay for driving but
that the other should be given cartage without payment.

In the"Records for Muscovite affairs* by the Austrian diplomat Sigismund
Gerberstein, the relay service at :the beginning of the 16th century is refer-
red to as follows: .-The messenger is allowed to select a horse"according to
his desire. When I hastened.from Novgorod-Veliky to Moscow, the postmaster
who is called a 'yamshchik' in their language, wont to groat trouble to bring
up to me early in-the morning thirty, sometimes even forty or fifty horses,
even though at that time I never needed more than twelve. Thus each of us
took a horse which seemed suitable to him; the tired horses we immediately
exchanged on arrival at tho.noxt relay station, .which they call & 'yamt and
the saddle and bridle remained with us from the previous horses".

Page 10 No. 65

"*Anyone can drive off with as many horses as he thinks fit and if the
horse falls or cannot continue on its way, then it is permissablo to lead off
another completely without fear of consequence from the nearest house, or
take one from the first passer-by that one meets, with the exception of the
princely messenger. The 'yamshchik' generally seeks out a horse which is
exhausted and abandoned on the road; he also returns the horse to the person
from whom it was originally taken and pays money for the journey according to
his reckoning. For the most part, 6 dengas are paid for 10 or 20 versts
(7 or 14 miles). On such post horses my servitor went from Novgorod to
Moscow in 72 hours for a distance of 600 versts or 120 German miles. This is
all the more astonishing since their horses are small and they attend to them
much more carelessly than we do, but yet they can endure such burdens".
("Postal-Telegraph Journal 1900, SPB, August. pp. 960-961).

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No. 65 Page 11

by Boris Shislkin

In Issue No. 64 of ROSSICA (p. 56), Mr. Vsovolod Kurbas writes that he
had a 2 kopek stamp of OZemstvo Post of Yassy Uyezd (County)." According to
his description, this stamp is "light brown" in colbr. Mr. Kurbas writes that
the city of Yassy---the capital of Rumanian province of Moldavia---has been,
occasionally, under Russian military occupation, but never under Russian
sovoreignityf. He, therefore expresses doubt, "that it was ever possible to
have a Russian Zemstvo self-government there."

The Yassy Uyezd (county) in the Government (Provinco) of Bessarabia, was
located, of course, in Bessarabia, not in Moldavia. The county seat, of this
uyezd was the town of.Bioltsy.

Yassy is one of the three uyezds in the Bessarabia which has issued
zemstvolocal stamps of their own. The other two are Orgeyev and Soroki.

The Yassy local issue was undertaken by the Yassy Zemstvo Council at its
meeting hold on October 20, 1878. The stamps were issued on February 1, 1879.
The.Yassy Zemstvo Post was closed on-October 1 of the same year, 1879.

The Yassy Zemstvo issue consist of the following.stamps:

Size 212-26- and 22x26|mm. Imporforate Dsign Horse's head in
profile, inside a double circle. Between the two circles is inscript-
ion 'Zemskoy pochty'two six-ray stars and "Yassk.Uyozd".. At the top
of the stamp"Pochtovaya marka". At the bottom "tseria 2 kop.". There
are two types of the design--sharp-3ared and blunt-eared.

1. 2 kop. red 3. 5 kop. light blue
2 kop. brownish-red
4. 5 kop. greenish blue
2. 5 kop. red
5 kop. light red


Article by H. Lubkort in the French journal "Timbre Poste", No. 209,
May, 188D. Also cited in the classic work.

C. Schmidt & A. Faberge, "Die Postwertzoichon der Russischen Landschaft-
.-saemterU, Issue No. 14, pp. 155-156. Dresden, Jan., 1914.

",ZemskiyeP Pochtovye Marki" (a catalogue), Edited by F. G. Chuchin.
Moscow, -925'.

"Local Postage Stamps of the World" (tart III of catalogue). Stanley
SGibbons,. Ltd. London, 1899.

My own Zemstvo collection.

Here is a bit of additional material which may be of special interest to
the students of zemstvo postal history and of general interest to all collec-
tors of zemstvo stamps. This information has been previously published only

Page 12 No. 65

in French and German and has never been given general publication either in
Russian or English.

In his description of zemstvo local stamps, appearing in the issue of
the French stamp journal Timbre-Poste for May, 1880 (No. 209), H. Lubkert
cites the following official regulation:

N o t e: The French text available to me is, of course a translation from
the Russian. Not having the Russian original at hand, I must
point out that my translation from a translation may not strictly
conform to the original in minor details. It does, without doubt,
however, convey the sense of the original document, (B.S.)

Regulation of the Yassy Zemstvo

The Yassy local council (in the town of Bieltsy)at its meeting on 20
October 1878, organized, pursuant to the regulation of the 10th Zemstvo
Assembly, the rural post, making use of the rural postage stamps of the 2 and
5 kopek value, to transport letters and newspapers in this district to the
points where are located the state post offices and, especially, the Volost
(district) post offices."

"The postal administration of the Yassy district consists of the follow-
ing persons, who will be found at the offices of the Zemstvo: the assistant
postmaster, whose salary shall be 300 rubles per year, and four postmen with
salaries of 180 rubles each."

"OFor the u=koep of the section of the Zemstvo office entrusted with the
administration of the postal service, the administration finds it necessary
to supplement the sum of 1020 rubles, already indicated, with additional
amount of 380 rubles for office expenses.,

"Packages or letters which are to be sent by the rural post, must be paid
for with a 5 kop. stamp, while newspapers and magazines with a 2 kop. stamp."

So u r c : uDo Postwertzeichen dor Russischen Landschaftsaomter', by C.
Schmidt & A. Faberge, Vol. 14, January 1914. Published by the
St..Petersburg Section .of the International Philatelic Society
"Drezdon t.

Ed i t or ial C om.m nts

1. Editor 0. A. Faberge states that the regularly postmarked copies of
these stamps can be considered as rarities.

2. Another Zemstvo .specialist,.Fred W. Speers writes Othe stamps were
handstamped and imperforato although in February, 1884, a reprint,
perforated 11 appeared."

3. Mr. A.C. Cronin presented a photostat to the editors of page 257 of
the Encyclopaedia of Brockhaus-Efron, St. Petersburg, 1891, in which
it is shown that Bieltsy Uyozd was called Yassy, from 1818 to March
6, 1887. This explains that the text concerning the zemstvo stamps
of this uyozd. The Editors are grateful to all who have given this
valuable data on a most interesting question.

No. 65 Page 13

by Vsevolod Popov

One ruble (Scott No. 87b), perforated 12f overprinted "K I T A I".
The Peott's number for the normal perforation 13- variety is Russian
Offices in China No. 45. __

In the Rossica Journal No. 57 (Nov. 1959) I appealed to the collectors
with the advice to examine carefully the stamps of the Russian Post in China,
of the ruble value, issue 1910-16 (Scott No. 45) with the uKITAI" overprint
on the stamps of Russia, issue 1909-12 on paper with the so called "chalk

I did this because there exists a very rare variety of this stamp with
12i perforation instead of the normal 13i. One such example was discovered
accidentally by me, cancelled "Shanghai Zagranichn. P. Kont. a 4.10.16'
among duplicates, and when I informed Mr. S.D. Tchilinghirian, a noted
authority on the Russian stamps used abroad (co-author of the series of the
Russian Empire Used Abroad), he informed me with congratulations on the find,
and stated that so far, it is the only known to him example of this stamp

Now, it has become known to me than an additional example cancelled with
the same postmarkTchilinghirian Type 8a) but with the date 10.5.16 is in the
collection of E. E. Vernin in Moscow.. I was also informed that in the
Journal'Soviet Collectioner" No. 10-12 of 1929, pp ,43-44,; there is an
article about the First North-Western District Philatelic Exhibition
(Leningrad) hold on 30 XII 28 April 1929. The a3it.or'of the article 'N.N.",
(it is supposed that these initials were of the weil known collector Nikolai
Ivanovich Nesilov, who headed the bureau of expezization of the North Western-
Leningrad Society of Philatelists) in describing the exhibition, mentions rare
examples shown by J.F. Jessan, among which a stamp of the Russian Post in
China according to Yvert with perforation 12t- instead of 13i-.

Likewise, several years ago in Leningrad a collection of a well known
philatelist Gruznov was sold which contained a stamp of the same kind. It is
difficult to say whether it was the same stamp as shown, by Jessen in 1928, or
another. However, one can definitely conclude that it does edxst in the col-
lections of E.E. Vernin and B. A. Popov, i.e in two known copies and that
there is a third one in one of the collections in Leningrad.

Thus I enclose an enlarged photo of two stamps, one with the normal per-
foration of 13' (on the right side of the illustration) and one on the left
perforated 12f-, placed side by side. Kindly note that at first glance these
stamps do not seem to differ in perforations. Thus, in order that one may
discover the rare variety, a superficial study is insufficient. Even an
export philatelist may be mistaken. I recommend an examination with the
perforation gauge and I wish you good luck'. I shall be glad to learn from
the pages of the future Rossica journals that these examinations were crowned
with success

Page 14 No. 65


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Going eastwards from Lake Baykal 0 N 0 K H 0 Y is reached soon after
crossing the river Uda. The postcard with the ONCKHOY STN. cancellation was
going in the opposite direction and as the railway round the southern shore
of the lake was not completed until a year later, it had to be conveyed across
the lake by a ferry steamer. This remarkable ship, the Baykal, was nearly
300 foot long and over 50 foot wide and could carry 25 railway carriages and
150 passengers as well as the mail. Built in Britain by the firm of Armstrong
Whitworth it was sent to Russia in parts and assembled on the shore of Lake


Still further cancellations in the types described above come from towns
Samara-Zlatoust Railway, which although it actually runs entirely within the
boundaries of European Russia, is nevertheless included in the Trans-Siberian
Railway in the Official Guide of 1900. It is one of the two approach lines
to the Trans-Siberian and from Zlatoust runs 150 versts to Chelyabinsk.

K I N Y E L STN. The earliest station cancellation of this railway to be
described is of KINYEL in 1903. It is in violet and has the serial number "1"
on either side of the split data. It reads ST. KDIYEL 29. VII. 1903 SAMARO-
ZLATOUST. ZH. D. It occurs on an interesting postcard from Belgrade, Serbia,
addressed to "Rossiya. Samaro-Zlatoust. Zhelyeznaya Doroga, St. Turgenyevka",
franked with a used 10 para stamp. This was noticed by theopostal officials
who ringed it in pencil and put on .n encircled "T". An oval DOPLATIT mark
for 8 kop. was put on at GRANITSA on the Russian frontier.

At KINYEL there is branch line to ORENBURG where the train carrying this
postcard-was probably going, but TURGENMEVKA STN. to which it was addressed
is on the other line, actually only a few versts away. When it was taken off
the train at KINYEL, it received the KINYEL STN. mark.

T U R GE N YE V K A STN. Two other postcards have Turgonyevka Station
postmarks. These are double circles like fig. 1 and read ST. TURGENYEVKA
(date) SAM.-ZL. ZH. D. One is addressed to St. Petersburg and is correctly
stamped with 3 k. The cancellation is in gray-black 30.10.08 and there is a
machine-stamped arrival.mark of St. Petersburg Town Post, 3.11.08.

The other has a picture of the Steamer Goncharov of the Samolot Company,
but was not posted on board. It is franked with only a 1 k. cancelled in blue
18. 6. 08 but there is no postage due mark. The message written in French on
the card says "Wo arrived atSamara after an enjoyable four days? journey on
the Volga. At Samara we took troiki and wont as far as Bogdanovka on voiture.
At Smyshlovka and at Stuntsy also we rested and changed horses." This brings
a whiff of bygone days. Smishlayovka is the station on the railway before
Kinyol. Turgenyevka is not far away and maybe the"writer of the card rode in
by troika and posted the card in the railway station, thinking that 1 k. was
enough for local postage.

B U G U R U S L A N STN. An example of a cancellation of this station is in
type fig. 1 and of 1917. It reads ST. BUGURUSLAN 11. 6. 17 SAM. ZLAT. ZH. D.
and is struck on the return half -of a reply card from a prisoner of war in
Germany. It was censored in Samara.

No. 65 Page 19


The other approach to the Trans-Siberian Railway was from Perm Railway
via'Yekaterinburg to Choliabinsk.

B 0 G D A N V I H STN.. This cancellation is in violet-black in the
type of fig. 3 reading-ST. BOGDANOVICH 5. III. 1905 PERMSK. ZH. D. Bogdano-
vich is situated between Yokaternburg & Tyumen, in Siberia.

This station has changed to type fig. 2 by 1917, the cancellation now
reading ST. BOGDANOVICH 2. 6. 17 OMSK. ZH. D. with a change from Pormsk to
Omsk railway. Three months later, on 20. 9. 17, and oval type BOGDANOVICH
VOKZAL letter "a" was in use.

B I L IM B A Y STN. A cancellation in blue on a reply card to a prisoner
of war in Germany reads ST. BILIMBAY 5. 8. 17 PERM. ZH. D. in-type fig. 2.
*The card was censored at Perm but I have not been able to traco the position
of this station.

The type of postmark we have been discussing with the name of the rail-
way at the foot was, of course, in usq for other railway lines in European
Russia. For example there is ST. PINYUG 26. 3. 17 PERM. KOTL. ZH. D. in
violet in type fig. 2, but with narrower space between circles. The Perm -
Kotlas Railway ran in a north-easterly direction up, and Pinyug is near
Kotlas. It does seem however that this type of cancellation was used for
small and unimportant stations.


The tormini of the sections of the Trans-Siborian Railway were; Chely-
abinsk, Omsk, Novonikolayevsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Chita, Manchuriya and,
not including Chinese Eastern Railway, Khabarovsk and Vladivostok.

It.is probable that all those had cancellations in the well-known type
in a single circle with the name at the top and ZHELYEZNODOR. P. 0. at the
foot, with split date.

They seem to be rather scarce, however, and I have only the following:

I R K UT S K 1902 Largq single line circle, serial No. 1
C HI T A 1904 Large single line circle, serial No. 1
K RA S N OY AR S K 1904 Large single line -circle, serial No. 1
0 S MSK 1904 Small single line circle, serial No. 2

0 V A L 'V 0 K Z'. A L S : -

These are more common and began to appear in 1904.. My.oarliest is
Irkutsk 16. 8. 04, serial letter "a" and this is the earliest oval Vokzal I
have seen, even for European Russia. Ther9 can be no mistake about the date
as it.is.given in MS as:15 (27) .,Aut 19i4W. It i strange that the' earliest
Vokzals should not have been used on some line nearer the heart of Russia
such as the Nikolai Railway, and it ,seems almost incredible that this new type
of postmark should have been allotted first to a station in the muddle of
Siberia, albeit an important one; but if this is not so, where are all the
other examples of 1904 Vokzals' It would be most interesting to have a record
of any that may oeist in readers collections,for this Journal.

"Page 20 No. 65

I have the following V 0 K Z. canc'.llations, all with serial "a":

O MSK 1911 IRKUTSK 1904

Vladivostok and a later type of Nikolsk Ussuriysk, but still with serial
letter "aW, both have the space above and below the date tablet filled on
with dots.


Before leaving the subject of the railway stations, mention must be made
of the Samara postmark in the type well-known for European Russia with the
town name at the top followed by "P.O." for "Postal Division" and the two
termini of the railway at the foot. Prigara illustrates this type, Table XII,
No. 6, and Kethro and Barry, ROSSICA No. 46/47, fig. 6, both for St. Peters-
burg P.O., St. Petersburg-Warsaw Railway. Mine reads S A M A R S K 0 Y P.
0. S M AR S K. C H E L I AB. ZH. D. serial No. 1, split date 22.IV.
1899, which is fairly early, but of course, Samara is not inside Siberia.


Another unusual cancellation is ZLATOUST PRIVOKZ. a, 11.12.20 on a pair
of 10 r.-arms type. One can only assume that this was a post office "within
the precincts of Zlatoust Station. My Russian-speaking friends tell me that
this is what "PRIVOKZ.W means.


The T.P.O.'s were in the usual style of numbered routes, with the numbers
in consecutive pairs, one number for going, and the other for returning on the
same route. The earliest types for these routes were the single circles,
P O C H T O V Y I V A G 0 N No. and mostly with split date.

(Cheliabinsk Samara)

ROUTE No. 124 Five postcards have this T.P.O., with different serial numbers.
Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 5 with split date from 18.IX.1900 to 3.VII.1903, and No. 5
with three-line date 5 AUG. 1901.

ROUTE No. 198 (Irkutsk -Krasnoyarsk)

ROUTE No. 188(Krasnoyarsk Novonikolayevsk)

ROUTE No. 186 (Novonikolayevsk Omsk)

Those cancellations from 1903 to 1904 all have split dates, and some-
times more than one appears on a postcard. The highest serial number on No.
188 is 6, and Nos. 8 and 9 on.T.P.O. No. 198.

ROUTE No. 241/2 (Irkutsk Chita and Chita Irkutsk)

Cancellations all have split dates from 1902 to 1904, serial No. 5 on
241, and Nos. 1,2 and 5 on 242. One postcard was franked during the Russo-
Japanese War by a cachet in violet with double-headed eagle reading

No. 65 Page 21

Eastern'bank of the Lake Baikal. The cancellation is POCHTOVII VAGON No.
242. 29.XII.1904, serial No. 5.

OVAL T. P. 0. 's

These are easier to get and may be divided into groups according to
whether the space between the ovals is narrow or wider, and whether there is
a serial letter or number. The only one I have with a serial number is:

CHELYABINSK 124 SAMARA, narrow, serial No. 7, 21.7.16

The following ones are with serial letters:

IRKUTSK 198 KRASNOYARSK letter "e" 12.10.15
IRKUTSK 198 KRASNOYARSK letter "g" 4. 6.17
KHABAROVSK 153 NIKOLSK USSUR letter We" 26. 3.21

The last is franked with stamps overprinted D V R for the Far Eastern

Those without serial letters or serial numbers are:

IRKUTSK 241 CHITA 29. 4.10

The oval T.P.O. I like best is however without route number. It is
struck very clearly on a neat small cover addressed to Scotland and reads:


The cover was posted on the branch line, 55 versts long, connecting the
Trans-Siberian with Tomsk.

It is hoped that readers will send particulars of the covers they have,
to add to this account.

Stations and T.P.O.'s of the Chinese Eastern Railway are a separate
story and are not dealt with hero.


1. 1B I L IMB AY S T A TI N The towns of Perm and Yokatorinburg
were cLnnected by two lines of the Perm Railraod: the Northern, longer and
older one, going through the junctions of K A L I N 0, C H US O-V S K A Y A,
G OR OB L A G OD AT SK AYAandSAN D ONAT 0 (the ndrthorn
station of N I Z H N I T A G I L), and the southern, shorter and the newer
one (built short; 7 before World War I, going through the town of K U N G U R
and the junction .f K U Z IN O. B IL I M A Y is situated on this second
line, about 70 vorst west of Y E K A T E R I N B UR G

2. "S T.A T I 0 N1 and 'V 0 K Z AL Those two words are not full
synonyms in Russian language, because the second word has a norrowor sense.

Pr: 22 F 65

"uV 0 K Z A L" (derived from English *V A-U X H AL L" the alternate name of
London's VICTORIA STATION) is normally used for the larger cities' stations,
although exceptions are possible.

3. I RK U T S K :15(27) Aout 1904. It is interesting that the employee
making this French hand cancellation was not aware that in our XX century the
difference between and old and the new style calender was 13, and not 12 days.

oooocoo000000000000000000000oooooo OOOC O o000000.00o00OOOOOCOCococoeooooooo0oo
0 C
o U K R A I N E c
o o
o I have at all times the World's largest stock of Ukrainian stamps, o
c ontires, covers, money transfer cards, and other material. o
o o
o Likewise, I also want the same type of material and also Ukrainian o
o paper money, officials and local issues. o
o o
o o
o 141E 1 m Str eet o
o Y 0 N K E R S, New Yorko

0000OOCC000000000000000000000000300000000000000000 0000000000OOC0C00"O00000

o 0
o War invalides in France printed and issued for sale 4 series of o
o Charity stamps-labels. Each series is enclosed in an artistic cover. o
o Each series consists of 6 stamps, or a total of 24 stamps, 65x65mm. in o
o size, all perforated, a
o o
o The aforementioned labels are reproduced from the cr'.wings made byo
o V. P. Vereshagin and depicts tho history of the Runsi.n pirn. They o
o show rulers from Prince Oleg (879-912) to Emperor Alo:.ndor III, the c
o peace-maker (1881-1894), and have an explanatory text. o
o o
o The Price of the set is 92 cents or $1.00 postpaid. o
o o
o The Union dos Invalides Russes 4, rue Casablanca, Paris 15, France 0
Oo00COOOOOoo00000o000oo 000o000oo0ooc000ooooo0000o ooooooo000eooe0 coooCooeo0ooo
0ocCooo oooooo00000 cooo00oo0000 00coo0ooo.00000o00oooo000000oo 0ooooo coo0oooooo
o 0 o
o I buy for cash -'Stamps of Czarist Russia and Civil War, the cheapest inc
o bulk and in sheets mint. '
o 0
o Stamps of U N Mint and on FDC. Will trade for stamps of Brazil and o
o USSR. o
oo Stamps of any lands on themes (Topicals) Cosmos, Fauna, Flora will c
o give in exchange stamps of USSR on same topica. c
o 0
o Snr. Alexander Vansovich Rua Sonador Dantos 117, Sobre loja 206, Rio deo
o Janeiro, Brazil c
o 0

. 000000000 00000000000 000000
}b 65" P .... 23

by Kurt Adler

During my recent professional trip to Europe (summer 1963) which took me
to some Eastern countries I did not forget our hobby. It was pleasant to find
out that our"Rossica" Society and our Journal is well known to Eastern col-
lectors, at least by reputation. Although the journal is only rarely avail-
able in the East it is looked upon as a serious philatelic publication and is
eagerly sought after. When I got in touch with philatelists and philatelic
societies of Rumania, Bulgaria and USSR I was received with complete friendli-
ness. The leading philatelists of these countries willingly shared with me
philatelic information. I was able to arrange for an exchange of articles
about Russian philately in all its aspects. Our journal, as well as their
publications can not fail to profit from this cooperation.

In Bucharest, in,the spacious and beautifully decorated meeting place of
the Rumanian Collectors Association-I was met by their.'president, retired gen-
eral C. Smirnov, as well as by some leading member philatelists, interested
in the Russian sphere of Rumanian philately. Among them was Dr. Nicilae Trip-
covici who speaks many languages fluently and showed some beautiful covers of
Russian Imperial offices in the Danube countries, and professor S. Rasheyev
who collects Russia and USSR and has an almost complete collection with varie-
ties. The atmosphere was very informal and friendly. Gen. Smirnov expressed
the wish for closer ties between our Societies which should find its expres-
sion in the exchange of our journals. He asked me and the other members of
"Rossica* to write articles for their monthly appearing journal "Filatelia"
that would touch upon the Russian Offices in Rumania during the 19th century,
and also articles about any aspect of Russian postal history in the Danube

I was able to swap some of the better Soviet imperforate varieties for
two beautiful prephilatelic covers with clear strikes from the Russian post
office in Galatz, one of 1846 in red ,(Tchilinghirian and Stephens Handbook I,
Fig. 45), and one of 1859 in black (Handbook I, Fig. 48).

The members of the Rumanian Collectors Association who were present were
tremendously impressed by our Rossica journal, the ten last issues of which I
was able to show them. They admired the formidable work of our Editor in
Chief and wished to exchange letters with him. They also were highly iLpres-
sed by the book which formed the foundation for our philatelic research, the
work of our late hon. member S. V. Prigara.. A great impression also made the
above mentioned handbook the first volume of which I presented to them. I
also left with them the Rumania-Russia part of the Minkus catalogue in order
to show them:how seriously USA philately treats their country's stamps and post-
al history. I was given a presentation stock book with the latest Rumanian
issues, a beautiful book in French about the Rumanian.,classical -ox head issues
and their society pin. We said do svidania and decided t6okedp in touch.

In Sofia where I had many philatelic friends .from'before,I was shocked to
learn that one of Bulgaria's foremost philatelists, Dr. Vassili Zankov had
suddenly passed away only one week prior to my arrival. I had met him in
Sofia and renewed our.friendship in Prague during'Praga 1962. He will be mis-
sed by all Bulgarian philatelists. The Sofia Collectors Society also has its
own club facilities, open every day. On Sunday mornings, the main post office
in Sofia turns one of its big halls over to the philatelists for a jam session
of swaping. There must have been close to 150 members animatedly exchanging
stamps. The serious Bulgarian philatelists are mostly interested in the

Page 24 No. 65

Russian post in Bulgaria during their war of liberation 1877/78. But no ap-
preciable philatelic material of these times are left in Bulgaria anymore.
There is however, one collector, the knowledgeable Luben Kochev who owns
some beautiful covers and postmarks from the Turkish period before liberation.
One of the most erudite philatelists, Mr. Dimiter Minchev, who contributed
some superb articles to "Rossica )1nows more than anybody else about the
Russian post offices in Bulgaria. He works at the National Library and has a
chance to see a lot of old source material. He and his charming wife came to
see me and we had some most interesting philatelic talks. The Bulgarians were
also deeply impressed by the seriousness and the high quality with which our
president and editor in chief edits our journal. The Prigara book again cre-
ated an almost sensational impression. Nobody had any idea that already in
1941 the late Sergei Vassilievich laid such a wonderful foundation for the
serious pursuit of our hobby. I was able to make the acquaintance of the for-
mer Bulgarian representative of the old "RossicaO, V.V. Boyarev who still col-
lects all aspects of Russian philately. He got very excited about the last
issues of WRossicae which I showed him and he must have sat up nights to
study them. Mr. Kochev brought me together with the two leading editors of
the excellent Bulgarian monthly philatelic journal, the "Philatelen Pregled".
In a very friendly session with rakia and zakusski it was decided to exchange
pertinent articles for republication in our journals. The Bulgarians were
very much interested in articles about Russian stamps and postal history since
they have 2000 subscribers in USSR. The leading collector of space items,
Lubon Naumov showed me his beautiful collection of stamps, covers, and auto-
graphs, already mounted for the forthcoming philatelic exhibition in Budapest.
He presented me with a curiosum: an official Mercury project from Cape Cana-
veral with the autograph of German Titov--a wonderful example of East-West
coexistence. I was already received by the assistant minister of Communica-
tions, in charge of philatelic now issues, Peter Baikushov who after extremely
interesting talk presented mo with a stock book full with the most beautiful
mod-rn Bulgarian stamps among them the imperforate Malaria set and the Chilean
Soccer World Series issue, ?lso imporforate. I feel that the future will
bring us increased cooperation between the Rumanian, Bulgarian and American
philatelic Societies which can not fail to elevate the level of our publica-

The philatelic atmosphere in Moscow is somewhat subdued by the fact that
stamp exchanges with foreign countries reo prohibited at the moment due to
some unscrupulous speculators. Thdo "prohibition" takes away much of the
stimulus of stamp hunting. The Russian collectors are mostly interested in
stamps of the new African and Asian states, as well in United Nations issues.
They were very glad to give me information about new Soviet varieties of which
there are not many. I also heard that Mongolian stamps in the future will be
printed in Ulan Bator and not anymore in Budapest which will be welcome news
for the collectors of Mongolian stamps. Due to the fact that no All-Soviet
Collectors Society exists, no journal can yet be published but the Moscow
City Collectors Society will issue a Sbornik (collection of articles) once or
twice a year. It will contain interesting articles, the first issue will have
boon published by the time this article appears in print. The foremost spe-
cialist in Tannu Tuva and Mongolian philately, as well as the most advanced
collector of Soviet stamps, varieties and proofs is S.M. Blekhman. I was
invited to his house for dinner and both he and his young and charming wife
gave me a most pleasant evening of hospitality and philatelic talk. I was
viewing some of his treasures which are absolutely of the first order and got
some valuable philatelic information from him. In return, I left with him the
10 last issues of *Rossica", ---our friend's Andrew Cronin's articles about
Tuvan philately and Mongolian postal history must have cost Mr. Blekhman a

No. 65 Page 25

few sleepless nights during which he studied the articles---, furhtermore I
presented him with all six volumes of the Handbook and some other philatelic
literature, among it Prigarats book which is the only copy in USSR. Mr.
Blekhman was full of praise about the fine work that our president and editor
in chief is doing and is looking forward to meeting some other "Rossica"
members. I also talked to our contributor M. Vladinetz who had some nice
modern varieties and space covers waiting for me.

All in all, my trip was very successful and will leave with me long
lasting and most pleasant memories. Oh, and by the way: my conducting of
operas and symphonic concerts in the Eastern countries was likewise very

0 -
o W A N T E D o
o o
o Russo-Japanese material of the War, and any Russia used in Manchuria.o
o I am also interested in anything Manchurian and philatelic. Also o
o want Russia used in Alexandretta and Tannu Touva. o
o 0
o Raymond S. Ehrman 468 Woodland Road Pittsburgh 37, Pa. o
o o
0 0
0 o
o For sale philatelic literature and over 1000 photostats and many o
o important articles on stamps. Kindly attach reply coupons to all o
o inquiries. I also have some complete sets of Russia, Ukraine o
oo Tridents, and other material. oo
o 0
o B U IL D Y 0 UR WR I T E F O R o
o 0
o P H I L A TE L I C PR I C E o
o 0
o L I B R A R Y L I. S T o
o Alb. A. Kronenberg "Clematis", 39 Kirchweg, Linnington, Switzerland c
o O

o. o
o I buy and exchange paper money. Kindly.contact o
o o
o K. J AN S 0 N .. o
O 0
o 624 1 A v e. o
0 o



Page 26 No. 65

by G. H. Torrey

After leaving Beirut, Acre was the next port with a ROPiT Post Office,
but this mail town of 5,000 in the osovonties" was not a regular port of call
by vessels of the "mail line'. It was left to the smaller ships of the
"Uslow line".

Haifa, 8 miles further on, was a town of about 3,000 souls when its
Russian post office first opened in 1859. Haifa's postal history is murky,
and the office may have been closed for a period of years, judging from the
scarcity of postal material up to the opening of the 20th century.

My collection lacks Haifa material up to 1909 and begins with stamps of
the 1909 and 1913 issues. Cancellations include Tchilinghirian typos 2 and 3.

At this point it is pertinent to advert to the Russian interest in the
Holy Land. Part and parcel of Russian political interests in the Middle East
during the 19th century was Russian ecclesiastical policy. During the 1840's
developments in the Levant created the opportunity to use the Russian Orthodox
Church to fortify Russian diplomacy there. By the early forties Russia's
privileged position in the Ottoman Empire, acquired under the terms of the
Treaty of Unkyar-Iskolesi in 1833, had been seriously undermined by the British
and French. Britain had established a Protestant Bishopric in Jerusalem in
1841 and France a Latin Patriarchate there in 1847. Thus, Palestine became
the arena of a struggle for predominance of religious and political influence.

Under the initiative of the newly established Russian Consulate General
in Beirut (established in 1839), a hostel for Russian pilgrims was opened in
Haifa during early 1841. The first Ecclesiastical Mission followed in 1848
and lasted until 1854 when it was dissolved with the opening of the Crimean
War. A second Mission was sent in March 1857. It would sepm likoly that mail
from this period was sent through the consular establishmentt in Boirut.

Our nexb stop is Yaffa (Jaffa), the most important port in Palestine des-
pite its small population of 5,000 in mid-seventies. It was the main landing
place for pilgrims to the Holy Land and contained the consulates of most Euro-
pean countries, as well as several capitulatory offices. Up to 1869 Russia
simultaneously had two post offices here--a consular office opened possibly as
early as 1840, and a ROPiT agency which began in. 1857. Cancellations arc rare
until 1872 and gradually become more numerous after this data. It is probable
that this office handled a considerable volume of mail, since pilgrim letters
.wore brought here for cancellation. By the late 19th century 25,000 Russian
pilgrims wore.visiting the Holy Land annually. However, the scarcity of postal
material from Jaffa almost seems to belie this fact. Perhaps, the explanation
lies in the fact..that so many letters were sont to relatives and friends in
Russia and were destroyed during thoRussian revolutionary years...

Examples of Jaffa ccneollations in my collection start with a type 2
(lozenge 784) on 7 kop. of the 1879 issue, a rare item. This is followed by
a 1 kop. of 1884 cancelled with the Type 4 double oval reading "ROPiT" at the
top and "A G E N T Y A FF A" at the bottom. This is in blue and dated 1890.
Type 5, the first double circle cancel, is represented by examples of the 2
kop. 1879 in blue and violet, the 1 kop. and 2 kop. of 1884, a 10 kop. 1872,
and a 4 para 1900 stamp. Types 6 and 7 include the 1900, 1910 and 1913 issues.

.No. 65 Page 27

Landing here we now proceed overland to Jerusalem. Leaving the suburbs
of Jaffa we ride over the plains of Sharon to Remleh, or Ramallah, the first
rest station and where the party is put up at the Latin Convent. The next
morning we ride toward Jerusalem, lunching at Kirjath-Jearim, celebrated in
the Old Testament as the resting place of the ark for twenty years. From
here we go on the Holy City, entering by the Jaffa Gate.

to be continued

by Fred W. Speers

Early in 1915 with World War I loss than a year old and with memories
of the disastrous battles of Tannenborg and the Masurian Lakes still painfully
sharp, Imperial Russia's Ministry of Finance set about floating a huge war
loan. This meant propagandizing by all means possible the sale of government
bonds pledging interest payments at the rate of 50 per cent per annum.

Following announcement of the bonds in the press and the usual financial
channels efforts to publicize them were made through colorful patriotic post-
ers. These consisted of scenes on the front lines, in the factories and the
home sector. On each poster patriotic sayings and exhortations to buy the
bonds were inscribed.

To provide an additional spur, the posters were reproduced in multi-
colored labels. The initial series, containing 26, is touched on in Trachten-
berg's special catalogue of 1919 covering the field of labels and vignettes.
(That catalogue was reprinted in 1962 by R.C. Mcsbaugh). Additional informa-
tion is given in the comprehensive compilation of labels prepared by Emile
Marcovitch, Dr. Gregory Salisbury and others.

However, illustrations of only three of the series of 26 labels are avail-
able in these catalogues. It is the purpose of this article to supply illu-
strations of the other 23 and the additional labels issued in 1916 by the
Finance Ministry.

It should be noted at this point that later in 1915 the Finance Ministry
issued a second edition of the labels but utilized only ten of the designs.
They were of somewhat larger size (37x55 or 55x37mm.) than the first series.
All ten were printed in sheets of 2 by 5 and the reproduction is less sharp
than in the first issue, according to the notes by Marcovitch, Salisbury, et

Returning to the first series, which is the subject of this article, it
should be noted that the artists who prepared the posters were concerned with
the effects of their efforts as posters rather than in the much smaller con-
fines of a stamp-sized label. The overall measurement--from thoedgos of the
paper--is for 22 of them 34 by 45mm. and for the remaining four it is 45 by
34mm. The sizes of the designs themselves are, respectively, 32-40 and 40
by 32-mm. The reduction to label size in some instances resulted in making
the inscriptions, legible on posters, illegible on the labels even under high
magnification. (For example see Fig. 21).

The entire series is lithographed on heavy white wove paper with clear
gum. All but two bear in their inscriptions the figure "52". The labels
are perforated 11T. (Although some of the photographs give the appearance

Page 28 No. 65

of the labels being imperforato or at least one side all are perforated on
all four sides.). In several instances the %"h sign has been so drawn into
the design that it appears that the fraction "a" reads as 10 over 20.

Since each of the labels is a faithful reproduction of a War Loan poster
there is no indication of price for the labels either separately or for the
entire series. Revenues from their sale presumably went to the Rod Cross
or an associated war charity organization. Their intended use, of course,
was for extra sealing of envelopes or for adding decorative effects on postal

A careful examination of each of the labels has failed to disclose any
indication of an artist's signature or initials. It is possible, of course,
that there might have been such identification on the original posters and
that it might have been lost in the reduction to miniature size. With the
exception of one or two of the designs thero is sufficient uniformity of
execution to suggest strongly all were the work of the same individual.

In 1916 the Finance Ministry issued one additional label in the form of
a miniature reproduction of a proclamation poster. This label, unmentioned
in TrachtenbergIs catalogue, measures 58x89mm. and is perforated 11. It is
lithographed in black on grayish white paper and the gum is slightly yellow-
ish. It is illustrated in Fig. A-27.

Following are brief descriptions of each label's designs together with
the colors employed:

Fig. A-1 Blue fighting eagles against white clouds with brown background.
A-2 Ancient groonish black Russian helmet and sword handle surmounting
stylized .hiold with field of red.
A-3 Black double-headed eagle with rod ribbons in claws atop green
A-4 Gray brown horse carrying lumber against background of Russian
flag with eagle. (Lettering does not include the figures 'ji- $).
A-5 Seated machine gunner in green uniform against snowy background.
Lettering in green, black and blue.
A-6( Cavalrymen in brown with lance. Red lettering.
A-7 Railraod box car in rod and field gun on flat car. Lettering in
red and black.
A-8 At top, four riflemen in olive uniforms shooting over snow-covered
wall. Lettering in blue and olivo. At bottom, machine gun and
three stacked rifles.
A-9 Olive-clad riflemoi in snow-covered trench against blue sky.
Lettering is orange and dark blue.
A-10 Artillery gun crew in grayish blue against yellow orange sky.
Yellowish orange lettering against black background.
SA-11 Officer with up-raised sabre loading foot soldiers in attack. They
are in grayish green uniforms. Red flames in background. Olive
green attop and bottcn. Lcttorinr is black n nd rod.
A-12 Two sailors in white loading large naval gun in gray. Blue cross
dominates lower portion. Lettering in yellow and black.
fA-1 Cavalrymen in yellow drab charging with lances. Yellow dust. Gray
blue skies. Lettering in red and blue.
A-I Infantryman in khaki and with khaki-colored rifle charging into
opening between two solid plum-colored walls. Background seen
through opening in red orange. Lettering is white on blue.

No. 65 Page 29

A 15 Machinegun crew in greenish yellow against blue sky. Lettering in blue
with lower left background grayish pink.

A 16 Horsedrawn caisson and field piece in black against blue and white sky.
Lettering in black and red against blue background of lower half.

A 17 White winged monoplane with green fuselage and machine gunner seated
atop it. Lettering is red and white against green.

A 18 Woman factory worker in bluish uniform against dark red background.
Machinery in black. Lettering is white and red.

A 19 Male munitions worker in white shirt and red apron against light brown
background. Shells in red. Lettering in black and red.

A 20 Tio allegorical figures, one standing and one seated, against yellow
background with faintly seen eagle. Lower portion shows white letter-
ing against light ultramarine background. (Lettering does not include

A 21 Stylized figure of St. George in green with pale red cape mounted on
white horse against red background. Dragon is dark green. Large white
and small black lettering against green background.

A 22 Large artillery shell in gray standing against black factory in back-
ground. Red windows. Lettering is black, blue and red against white

A 23 Double-headed eagle in black with red and yellow shield and yellow
ribbons and crown. Draped flags at lower left and small cannon at low-
er right. Lettering in red and black. All on white background without

A 24 Four riflemen in light brown climbing grayish mound against yellowish
sky. White lettering against the g-ayish mound.

A 25 Two man searchlight crew in dark red directing yellow beam across black
barbed wire toward village burning with red flames against blue sky.
Lettering is white on black.

A 26 Six infantrymen charging. They are in black against red sky and black
ground effect.

A 27 1916 issue of the Finance Ministry, Large format. Reproduction of
proclamation. Black on white.

While the preceding portion of this article has been confined to remarks
on the only Finance Ministry labels in the Trachtenberg catalogue, it would be
inadequate to drop the subject at this point. Thanks largely to exhaustive
work by Emile Marcovitch, Jacques Posell, Dr. Gregory Salisbury and others,
additional information on other Finance Ministry labels of this period has
been mdde available.

Later in 1915, the Rossica members team engaged in this work reports,
a second edition of the labels appeared under Finance Ministry authority.
However, only ten of the 26 designs were reproduced in this series. Those,
their information indicates, wero printed in sheets, 2 by 5, in one color

Page 30 No. 65



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1I. I]i: o'n!i i':oitolti [] o }] nrpcocn 1r o nntOicTc(n nIn rto ,'pyrnro nn<*iHTlo.
L. I'-', rI nToniT( 0 'aIlnii.Rn.'Tle tI i i'rcl, }l;illl o n ci.Oima niO oTIl'qao'n',.

OTBetT C.-neTep6yprcxaro AApecHara CTona
r- ,,,s't^ ,. ^ e ^.i-.. ,.^^ ^
f i .. _. t ,.'..- 'i ';,. t-- '< :.

s- C .-ITe-epiypr ....... ..--.... .Tc. .,: .c."................. tC
.........Ly l'acT Ka nIO .......... ................ ..... ..... ............... ... .. HTI ,, C -. + ., T
; 0 3r ..... ............. K B .............. ..1..... r .
CnpaBny iianom un :..^.L ,.^...., ... .... }...^. ^ 188^.. rosa.

on different colored papers. Size was given as 37 by 55mm or 55 by 37mm.
Dark blue on light blue paper is an example cited, both perforated 11 and
imperforate. Three color trials are also mentioned: black on orange-yellow
paper, dark blue on light green paper and dark blue on emerald green paper.
The color trials are described as all being imperforate.

On the authority of information given by Mr. Marcovitch to Mr. Posell,
it also appears that there wore trial printings of the original (the one dos-
cribed earlier in detail) series of 27. These are described as having appear-
ed on 10 different colored papers. To quote Mr. Marcovitch: "These are very
rare." This writer cannot escape making the additional comment that they must
be about as rare as a Tiflis stamp of 1857.

by E. Marcovitch

Not in one country, except Russia, there existed such an establishment
as the Address Bureau, where any one could obtain an address of a person,
who was known to live in the city where the address bureau was located.

To obtain the address of an individual one onl- had to know his last
name and both first and patronymic names, -.s wall -.s the estate or profession.

To explain the possibility of obtaining such information, in a short
time, it is necessar- to explain some peculiarities of the passport system
which existed in pro-revolutionary Russia.

In the aforementioned times, each individual becoming of age, be it a man
or a woman, was required to have a passport which was issued by the local
police. The children and the individuals who have not reached the legal ago
weri written-in in the passport of parents. In instance whore an underage
individual had to reside outside of the home of parents, he was issu:da tempo-
rary document, known as "vood na zhoetolstvo" (chrngo of address), good for
a specified time, ordinarily for six months or a yoSr. After expiration,
the "vccd na zheetelstvc' wes exchanged for a ncw cn3. The aforementioned
regulations continued until a person -cc:Ki3 of c.,go i.e. when he reached
21: at that time he was given r permcarnt passport.

Without passport one was not allowodtckivc his city or a village, and
oven to change his residence in his own city. In fact, the Ministry of Home
Affairs had a decroo that each individual had to be registered in the Police
Station located in the district of other his permanent or temporary home.

In case when one had to move to another city or change his addros in the
same city, the individual was required, within twenty four hours, to give up
his passport for registration ,t the Police Station.

In that way each inhabitant was in the eye of the police, who always
know where the aforesaid individual lived at any time. For the classification
of this onourmous mass of material (one must n't forgot that at that time
Russia had one hundred and fity million inhabitants), in the large cities of
Russian Empire wore established Address Bureaus, whore one could find the
address of an individual living in that city.

No. 65 Page 31

For covering the expenses of the personnel staffing the Address Bureaus
the Ministry of Home Affairs resorted to the following measures. A special
address fee was created, which was collected from the individuals arriving
to a city for a six month or an yar period of residence. For this purpose
special stamps.wore issued in St. Petersburg, which were affixed to the pass-
ports of the newly arrived individuals.

I have written an article regarding the stamps of the Address Bureau
in No. 63 issuo-of the Rossica Journal.

Besides that, any one desiring in obtaining the address of a person
they were interested in, were able to obtain the address at a nominal fee.
For that purpose it was unnecessary to appear personally in the Address
Bureau. It was only necessary to buy at any of the postal branches an
address bureau post card with a pro-printed text and with the address of the
Address Bureau, and fill in the proper places the last name, both first and
patronymic names, and the estate and the profession of the person whom you
are seeking. Likewise to was necessary to include your own name and address,
and place the post card in any mail box. Ordinarily a reply was received by
return mail, giving the necessary address or a statement that the person
whose address you were seeking did not reside in this city.

These pos cards, as I explained before were sold in post office branches
and cost either 3 or 4 kopeks over the face value. This surcharge was used
by the Address Bureaus for their operation. The aforementioned post cards
were in use for three years beginning in 1880 in St. Petersburg and Moscow
and from 1890 in Warsaw.

Beginning in 1915, the pre-printed addrossof St. Petersburg Address
Bureau was changed to Petrograd Address Bureau.

Post cards for the Address Bureau, at the same time, were issued both
caking and reply texts.

I. Address side of the post card had "To St. Petersburg, Moscow or
Warsaw Address Bureau", depending where it was to be sent.

Obversa side of the post card had the text pertaining to the person
whose address the writer was socking.

Those post cards wore sold to public in post office branches.

II. Address side of the post card had the address of the person, seeking
the information.

Obverse side of the post card had "Answer from St. Petersburg,
Moscow or Warsaw Address Bureau with a formula with headings for a

The aforementioned post cards could only be found in thp
AddressBureaus and wore not sold in post office branches, but
each individual sending an inquiry, and buying 3 kopek address card,
in the post office also paid 3 kopeks for the reply and an additional
3.kopeks for the benefit of the "Addross Bureau1" for the inquiry, or
a total of 9 kopeks

Page 32 No. 65

(11.: 'AtlE I i ,l ,,l' ,lh T)Mh ENVELOPES sF -

S B' C.-IETEPBYPrCEIA fl E AMrc rev r Tc
(co t we d )

AAPECHbIH COU TOJI .. T"v'ht ri.rcv
r- re ente rn. ry ,I s- y

r A 7hf. V B e T -b.

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OT4ecTBO. W -ne 'AV
"-he Z eve.St.
aIn HaBnceniS cnpanBH Heo6xoaiim1b citayolmuig CBtatHig: a) HMH, oT'eCTBO H
4)aMH.1i5i OTNCKHBacMaro nHiia; 6) o IHHOBHH Kax1 H pa3HOIHHUlaXb-iqHHMb H 3BaPie
HXt, MtcTa caymCHii I ..H 6blTHOCT Bb OTCTaBKt; B) O Kynuax-b-KyneqecKoe
HXbh ioCTOIICTBO 1.111 rimnbhai, a TaKme ropoia, B-h KOHXb COCTORTh B'b KVle-
qccTBt; r) o Mtillnainlb HnH uexoBlx'b peMeCCJtHHHKax-b-MtCTa, rrt 3annHCaPbl
Ba MtInIaCTBO o .IHn uc-b; ) o KpeCTI.dHaxb KaKofK ry6epHiH, yt3aa, BO.OCTH,
HAH qHC.1lTCH Ha C.1iyit, ii 6C3cpoqHIo .1H yHO.ieIM H.IH BpeMeHHO, I )K) 06,-
IHocTpaiuaxh npoMuce.T H.1 H HauioHahbHOCTb.
SuiTa Toro 6z=aHE 10 zon., nB ETopL aaEJnoaeTCa naaTa sa
S cnpai y i oTBa C.-IIeTep6yprcsaro AgpecHaro CTona.

1- rII "Y Qorv Rep, y Cner.
., 1il TO Al b A IKA )T LIIA I e

AApeC'b OTBiTb C.-leTep6yprcKaro AApecHaro CTOJa.
K H B eT 6:

b C.-In erep6yprt ..... ......................................... ............................ qaCTE ,
............. y qacTK a n o ............ ........ .. .................................. ...... y aHi lt ,
o b M ..........................., .............................
CnpaBKy HaBOxaHxi : ..................... ............... ..............................19 ......... ro a.
oC, -t x.t:. ---

These types of post cards were in use until 1890. In 1891 double type of
past cards were issued, with pro-paid return portions of the card with add-
ress and formulaywhich wore sold for 1 kopek more or kO kopoks.

In 1905 St. Petersburg Address Bureau issued letter cards (sokrotki) of
two types, i.e. those asking for information and those giving information
(reply). They were issued in two typos 5 kop. for local use and 7 kop.
for other city information.

Apparently letter cards were not popular, because they wore in use only
a short time. At this time those cards are quite rare.

I will now give a listing of known to no post cards and letter cards of
the Address Bureaus. I am urging collectors to carefully check their col-
lections with my listing and advise me if they have any other types which I
I have not listed.


Inquiry, cards (Selling price 9 kopeks)

1880 3 kop. black Text black Aschor No. 5
1881 3 kop. black Text rod Aschor No. 5
1884 3 kop. rod Text red Ascher No. 6
1886 3 kop. red Text rod Aschor No. 7
1889 3 kop. red Text rod Ascher No. 9
1890 3 kop. rod Text rod Aschor No. 13

Reply cards (Solling price 10 kcpoks)

1880 3 kop. black Text black Aschor No. 5
1884 3 kop. red Text black Aschor No. 6
1886 3 kop. red Text black Aschor No. 7
1889. 3 kop. red Text black Asch-r Iro. 9
1900 3 kop. rod Text black Asch3r No. 13

Doublo post cards with reply (Selling price 10 kopcks)

1891 3 plus 3 kop. red Inquiry text rod, reply black. Aschor No. 15a
1907 3 plus 3 kop. rod Inquiry text rod. repy black. Aschor No. 19
1909 3 plus 3 kop. rod Inquiry toxt rod, rcply black. Aschor No. 23 I
1909 3 plus 3 kop. rod Inquiry text red, reply black. Ascher No. 23 III
*1913 3 plus 3 kop. rod Inquiry text rod, reply black. Aschcr No. 27

* Romanov type


Selling Price 9 kop. Same listing as for the St. Petersburg Address Bureau,
but with inscription: To Moscow Address Bureau. Same toxt on the obvurso
side but instead of St. Petersburg Moscow.

No. 65 Page 33


Inquiry Cards

1890 3 kop. red Text in Russian and Polish Ascher No. 6
1891 3 kop. red Text in Russian and Polish Ascher No. 9
1892 3 kop. red Text in Russian only Ascher No. 13

Reply cards

1890 3 kop. red Text Russian and Polish Ascher No. 6
1891 3 kop. red Text Russian and Polish Ascher No. 9
1892 3 kop. red Text in Russian only Ascher No. 13

Double post cards with reply (prepaid)

1900 3 plus 3 kop. red

Letter cards for the Address Bureau of S t. P E T E R S B U R G

1905 5 kop. violet Inquiry Text in red Ascher No. 5
1905 5 kop. violet Reply Text in Black Ascher No. 5
1905 7 kop. blue Inquiry Text in red Ascher No. 6
1905 7 kop. blue Reply Text in black Ascher No. 6


by B. Kurbas

With the purpose of clearing some points in the article of Mr. Bulak, in
this journal,I have consulted bibliography pertaining to the subject under
discussion and have taken out from various sources the following information:

On March 27, 1898 in Peking authorized representatives of Russia and
China signed an agreement, by which Russia received southern portion of the
Lyao Tung peninsula and adjacent waters for a term of 25 years.

The new territory became part of the Russian Empire as a separate ter-
ritory, ander the name of Kwan Tung territory, and was divided into five
districts or gubernias:

Vitscvo (Vitzuwo-) Port Arthur
Ta Lien Wan Elliot group of Islands
Chin-Chow (Chinchow)

Gubernias were divided into 18 volosts ( a volost is a small rural
district Editor), consisting of 60 village communities. The latter were
divided into 1487 tsunchans (villages) or groups of farms. Each gubernia
had its chief officer. These officers were responsible to the head of
the civilian government of the territory.

With taking over of the territory it was decided to establish a military
port in Port-Arthur and trading port in Ta Lien Wan (northern portion of the
Talienwan Bay). The place for this new city was found and the city and the
port were completed in five years and the waters were dredgedged to 31 foot

Page 34 No. 65

Slul andyan ITZYVU

L YA O D U N Sanshilipu o
atash M
S! .. Railroad a Station
nchendzy .
Sfz - Boundary ot Russian
DA lease

R A T 10 5 0 10 20,Versts
Gancheshty T lWAS-
o Rezen; OL
-W aQrpinenl BEN
GuragalbanA. o une

0.ovka o6(. lizvetavka
--.o 'p<'' / f -0---- a O l -
S- "----M o Nlku tsa

s- r hBrtse oSasin Ir 8 tovl a
7- o Cho hon Maniyr

V: .UR S Z Cs Murins

1A1 *Wa tvnh ; I Ch o ihno

tVe VErerf hn(A Iri o
;A4I L Novotroman vanovk-a epri Fo
Tar akl oan a ta
Bs < Pcm UPZ unamev1 a oSp

o t _) I,

t 'Vieu of BoicwrAd f.Cen. Cdyh L o i f u.

_ishm Varfita IIYA il
S 1'E.PP -p A bel Z L
by L MAP
Yo m4 Rml e'qin Cofonies
D N.MINCHEV rin Sou .ern s'sani

Scale- Mile.s

depth. The city of Dalny was made a self administrative unit.

At the time of the transfer of the territory to Russia its population
was approximately 280,000, of which 15,000 lived on the islands. The census
of 1904 indicated that the population was 372,000. The population of the
following cities were as follows:

Port-Arthur 51,958 (incl. 36,570 military)
Dalny -20,000
Ta-Lien-Wan 4,000
Chin-Chow 15,000
Vitsevo 12,000

Military action of Japanese against the territory began on May 4, 1904
with concentration of military vessels and transports at Elliot Islands.
Next day first group landed in 'itsevo, and already on the following day the
front lines reached the railroad at St. Puliandian and proceeded to destroy
the tracks. After committing the act of destruction they retreated. The tracks
were repaired, allowing several trains to move, but already on the 12th the
station was retaken by a stronger detachment of JapaneseQ in that way finally
cutting the railroad communications of the territory with the main Russian

First serious obstacle on the path of Japanese to improve their position
was the strengthened position at Chin-Chow on the isthmus approximately 5 km.
in width. Its weakness was, that it was on the path of the fire from the
Japanese military vessels, and the fleet advantage was always in the hands of
Japanese. After stubborn resistance this position was.given up by the Russians
on May 27th.

With the purpose of weakening the pressure on the stronghold Russian
troops of the 1st Sibericn Corps under General Stackelberg started to
attack from the north, but after a battle at station Wafango the- wore
forced to retreat. The garrison, during a period of two and a half months,
was able by stubborn fighting on the front position tc hold Japanese in check,
who continued to attack regardless of terrific loses.

-Main assault, of which thor3 were four, lasted for several days, and
after each one the ring around the fortication was getting smaller and smal-
ler. Finally on December 20, 1904 General Stessel was forced to give up the
fortress to General Noga who commanded the 3rd Japanese Army.

Through mediation of the American-President Theodore Roosovolt Russo-
Japanese Peace was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire on August 23, 1905.
By this Treaty all of the Russian lease rights passed without indemnity to

From the illustration one may see- that the old port Talienwan and the
newly built Dalny were not one and the same, although they wore located on
bank of the same Bay. From the main line of the Harbin Port-Arthur Chinese
Eastern Railway branched out to railroad branches into the territory: from
station Tafachen to Talienwan and from station Nangalin to Dalny.

Sources of Information 1. Russian Encyclaepodic Dictionary of Brockhtus and
Effron. 2. Great Soviet Encyclaepedia. 3. Two volume, very thorough work of
Alexis von Schwarz and Uri Romanovsky, titled 0 Defence of Port-Arthur ".

No. 65 Page 35

by D. Frants

Translated from the "Encyclopaedic Dictionary" by Brockhaus and Ephron, SPB,
1894, Vol. 12a, pp. 491-2._____

The Zemstvo Posts were established in 1837 and attached to the Zemstvo
courts for the maintenance of regular communications with the commissaries of
rural police. The Zemstvo mail was sent out from the district centers once
weekly by special messengers. At the present time (1894) this mailing func-
tion of the district courts has been replaced by that of the district police
administrations; from here official packets are sent cut to the commissaries
of rural police, who, in their turn, forward then through village commission-
ers to the addressees living within the limits of their police districts.

The messenger working for the Zemstvo Posts was sent a distance of up to
30 versts (20 miles) from the district center, or to the first stop where he
could got a change of horses from the keepers attached to district police ad-
ministrations, who, in turn, had horses, or a pair-horse and cart for the
transit of the officials. In addition, on going around the district, horses
and carts were given to the messenger by the residents without payment of any
driving fees.

With the introduction of the Zemstvo establishments, the question arose
of developing postal administrations in localities which the governmental
posts did not servo. In 1870 the Zemstvo administrations were permitted to
set up their own posts for the following purposes:

a. to forward ordinary correspondence from the government post offices and
deliver registered sending on notice.

b. to forward mail of all kinds from the outermost points in the district
to the nearest government post office.

c. to transmit all types of mail between places in the district which lacked
governmental postal services.

The movement of the zomstvo posts was only allowed on those routes
which were not being used for transmission of the government mails. For the
prepayment of correspondence handed in to the Zemstvo offices, the Zemstvos
wore allowed to have their own postage stamps, with the stipulation that the
designs should not show any similarities to those of the government posts.
To define the operations of the Zemstvo administration, the agreement on the
S"establishment and scope of the Zemstvo Posts'" was drawn up on July 12, 1890
and deposited among the number of contracts in the central administration of
Zemstvo establishments.

In the majority of districts, the Zemstvo posts attained remarkable
development, while in some districts they were abolished as a result of the
growth of the network of government post offices, thus making the former su-
perfluous. According to the date for 1892, the Zemstvo posts existed in 150
districts of 24 gubernias (provinces). The mails were sent out from the
district centers once to thrice weekly; in some districts letter boxes were
installed on the mail run to receive letters franked with the stamps of the
Zemstvo posts. Many Zemstvos deliver correspondence free of charge, which is
contrary to governemntal postal regulations; the reason for this is that the
income obtained for delivery is far too little and only complicates accounts. W

Page 36 oo. 65

Others charged from 1 to 5 kopeks for the delivery of an ordinary letter and
4 to 5 kopeks per pound for packets. Valuable packets and money sondings
are not accepted by the postal service of all Zemstvos and oven if allow-
ablo for transmission there are many restrictions (e.g. not more than 1, 10
or 50 rubles per person) while some Zemstvos accept insured packages only up
to a very insignificant value and othersdisclaim any responsibility.

Generally speaking, however, money is lost in the Zemstvo mails only on
very rare occasions and at the present time (1894) the transmission of money
and valuable correspondence under insured procedures is undertaken almost
everywhere in quite large amounts (up to 100-300 rubles). For insurance,
from 1% to 2% 6f the value is charged. The rate for the delivery of news-
papers and magazines varies from 50 kopeks to 3 rubles per annum, or 10% of
the subscription price. In some districts, annual subscription vouchers
are distributed for the receipt of mail through the Zemstvo posts, with a
charge of rouble per voucher.

According to official statistics, the following amounts of mail have
boon sent through the Zemstvo posts:

For 1889, in 125 For 1892, ir 133
districts of 21 districts of 22
gubernias gubornias

Ordinary letters prepaid 1,155,600 1,793,800
Ordinary letters unpaid 3,060,000 2,783,000
Newspapers and magazines 2,087,300 2,192,700
Notices for receipt of mail 365,700 468,700
Packages uninsured 38.200 47,200

TO TALS 6,706,900 7,285,400

oocooocooo occooccoooccocccocoococc ococcoooccocccocooooooo ccocococoooco

N 0 T I C E T 0 T H E AUTHORS:' Those writing for this journal
must realize that in order to stencil between 60 or 70 stencils for each
issue of the journal requires tremendous amount of work. The person stencil-
ing should be able to copy without too much effort and much strain on
the eyes. Therefore we beg you again to follow the following sinplc

1). Use standard 8-jxl white paper.

2). Type, if possible double spacing the lines.

3). Use one side of the paper only.

4). Whereover possible send a translation from Russian into English
or from English into Russian. Also send carbon duplicates of artic-

No. 65 Pge 37

by Dr. G. B. Salisbury

This year,-Mt. Athos celebrated its 1,000 years of existence as an auto-
nomous center of monasteries, famed for their religious life, historical study
and culture. It has been widely reported in the press, and among the assem-
bled guests were King Paul of Greece, the patriarchs of Constantinople,
Jerusalem, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, and over 100 prelates representing
Russia (Metropolitan Nikodim), Czechoslovrkia,the U.S., Cyprus, Poland, Fin-
land and all the Near East as well as representatives of various faiths.
The event occurred at the Great Lavra at the foot of a 500 ft. promontory of
the 6500 ft.mountain of Starii.Afon.

Actually, St. Athanasios, a learned monk settled here in 959. In 963
he founded the monastery, and eighty monks completed the Great Lavra a little
later to establish it as a holy point on the Aegean Sea. It contains now
twenty main monasteries, filled with priceless illuminated manuscripts, rare
icons, the finger of St. John and the girdle of the Virgin Mary. To-day
many of the monasteries are dying out. St. Panteleimon monastery, once had
2,000 monks, now only 35, St. Andrew only 5, the same number in St. Ilya
monastery. These are the main Russian monasteries.

ROPiT ships called at Starii Afon, at the port of landing called Darhone,
and according to Prigara a ROPiT Agency was functioning there in 1870 (or
earlier as intimated by Messrs. Tchilinghirian & Stephen in Part II of the
Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad who state that it was perhaps sup-
plied with canceller "786"', if this actually was brought into use). There
is no record of stamploss covers or early letters in collections from Starii
Afon. The letters in collections generally date between 1890 and 1914, the
latter being the date of probable closing of the postal Agency.

In 1909 a commemorative set was issued for Russian Levant, and it in-
cluded a typographed overprint in black as "Mont-Athcs" with letters in two
sizes on three highest values. There is also a variation in letter "A".
Values were 5 pa/1 kop. to 70 pi/7 rub. In 1910 there was issued an over-
print of 5 pa/l kop. in light or deep blue. Tchilinghirian and Stephen
record inverted overprints on 5, 10 and 20 pa., also thefollowing varieties:

Missing "s" in "Mont Atho_" on 5 pa to 7 pi.
Missing "o" in "M nt Athos" on 5ppa to 7 pi.
"a" with serifs (as in "A" variety above), appearing on 5 pa to 7 pi. stamps
4 times in settings of 10.

In 1910 a typographed overprint was made in black on 5 pa/l kop.,
10 pa./2 kop., 20 pa/4 kop., 1 pi/lO kop., 5 pi/50 kop., 7 pi/70 kop. and
10 pi/l ruble or a total of 7 stamps. The overprint read "St. Afon" in cyril-
lic, old style. There exist two sizes of overprint.

Before describing'some of the covers in my possession I would like to
present outstanding holdings in the collection of Kurt Adler, John Barry,
Dr. A. H. Wortman and M. Liphschutz. The number description given for post-
marks, cachets and registry labels in the Adler collection are based on page
141, Part II of "Used Abroads".

Covers fr om Kurt Adler colle action

1. Registered cover from Athos dated 24 Apr. 1899 (Fig. 183) to Petergof with

Page 38 No. 65

cachet Fig. 793 and reg. label Fig. '92. Stamps block of L of 10 kop.
of Eastern Correspondence type on horizontally laid paper. The cachet
reads "Skhimomonakh Parfenii Sv. G. Afon 1883" with a cross standing on
a crescent.

2. Cover from Rostov(14-9-1899) via Odessa (18-9-99) and Constantinople
(20-9-99 and 2-10-99) to Mt. Athos with an arrival postmark in purple,
d-ted 3-19-99, type Fig. 181. Addressed to Andreov Skit (monastery)
Arkhimandrit 0. Yosiph, to be handed to a certain monk. The letter is
prepaid with a 10 kcp. Russian stamp on horizontally laid paper.

3. Similar letter fro7 Kharkov dated 28-6-1900 to Et. Athos 9-July 1900,
franked with 1, 2 and 7 kop. stamps on horizontally laid paper.

4. Cover from Tikhvin, Novgorod Gubernia dated 12-7-99, erroneously sent to
Novy Afon, Kutais Gubornia with an arrival postmark 21-7-99. From there
it travelled to its proper destination via Novorosiisk (19-7-99), Odessa
(25-7-99), Constantinople (28-7-99) and Athos (9-8-88). Novy Afon put on
a T (postage due) marking and on the 7 kop. horizontally laid cover,
postage due of 4 kop. (two 2 kop. horizontally laid paper stamps), which
was raken at Athos.

5. Cover similar to covers 2 and 3 from Samara (29-4-07) via Constantinople
(7-5-07) to Athos (11-5-07) franked with 3 and 7 kop. stamps on vertically
laid paper.

6. Registered cover from Nakhichcvan, Oblast DonsW. Voiska (Don Military
Region), dated 19-10-06 to Athos (7-10-06). Money was sent in this 7
kop. stamped envelope with additional 7 and 20 kop. stamps on vertically
laid paper. Five wax seals wore affixed to the aforementioned cover at

7. Cover from Starii Afon (5-12-1912)(Fig. 791) to Athens, Greece (13-12-12).
Because of Balkan War this cover bore no stamps (free franking).

8. Cover from Potrograd (9-8-17) via Odessa (16-8-17 and 19-8-17) to Starii
Afon (20-12-17). This cover was franked with a 3 kop. 1909-18 stamp, and
bore a "4 kop. oval 'Doplatit'" marking from SK'zii Afon. A censorship
strip roclosod this cover. Inscription: "Coct:'olo Postal Militairc".
There are also two circular censorship markings in black, reading "Armee
d'Orient, censure militaire 17" and a crescent with a star-probably the
marking of Turkish or French Occupation Army censorship.

8. Money letter from Atchinsk (28-F-69) to Odessa (26-9-69) for delivery to
the Androev Skit in Afon. The cover is neither prepaid with stamps nor
does it have any Afon markings. The only marking found on this cover is
a double lined rectangle with initials "P. A. C." and "O"(letter) and
"PO4: (numeral in blac- ink. I think this is a recoipt(filing) marking of
the R(ussian) L(ndrocvsky) S(kit).

John Barry Collection

The outstanding cover in the John Barry collection qualifies the cover
not only as a "Used Abroad" letter of Starii Afon but also as a T.P.O. cover.

The 20 kopek registered cover from Mariinsk, Tomsh Gubernia (Siberia)

No. 65 Page 39

dated Septr. 11, 1900. From Mariinsk it travelled by the T.P.O route
"187" "Nikolaovsk -Krasnoyarsk" (12th), arriving at Odessa (17th) and
then continuing by ROPiT steamer to Constantinople (25th). On 30th it
continued by ROPiT steamer to Mount Athos where it arrived on October 1.
It is addressed to Monastery of Mount Athos, then under Turkish rule.

Covers from collection of Dr. Wortman

1. Postcard from Mount Athos to Salonika readdrossed to Athens, Greece.
"ROPiT Afon" double circle cancellation in blue, on a pair of 2kop.
numeral Levant stamps, cancelled "4 Apr. 1899" (correct rate). On arrival
at Salonika an arrival marking reading *ROPiT Salonika 5 Apr. 9" was
placed on the cover. The cover was then readdressed to Athens and a 5
para Turkish stamp affixed to cover postage to Athens (Turkish 5 cinq 5
Paras overprint, in red). Since postage of 5 paras was insufficient to
pay postage to Athens a postage duo marking T (in a circle) was placed
on the cover. The 5 paras stamp is cancelled "25 Apr." in gray (one
week after ROPiT Salonica cancellation of April 5th (17th) April 5
plus 12 days is 17th April). Two (2) lepta imperforate Greek stamp was
affixd to the envelope for postage due, and cancelled "Athens 2", as
the Greeks refused to recognize the Turkish stamp.

Mr. Beurikdjan, to whom this card was addressed had apparently re-
turned to Salonika, so this card was returned there. A 10 lepta Greek
stamp was put there to pay the additional postage. At Salonika the
postage due marking was seen and a 20 para stamp was affixed, in an
attempt to collect the due postage again (cancelled 12 June). The can-
collation is more than two months after the card left Mount i.thos. The
message on the picture postcard (a view of the Island of Mount Athos)
roads "You will receive the caviar to-day".

The question is Did the Salonika P.O. get the 20 paras postage
Did Mr. Bourikdjan ever get his postcard' or more
important, the caviar'.

2. Insured money letter from Pokrovskaya, Samara Gubernia to Simon Peter
Monastery, Mount Athos

10 rubles
Money order for ten -----
4U fran.

Tia Odessa, Turkey to Constantinopol to Mount Athos to the Superior Archi-
Eandrito I.Neofit and brothers of Simon-Peter Monastery.

Marking No. 1 Marking No.2
(described below) (described below)

From Andrew Ivanovich Drosdov
the priest of Pokrovskaya village

Marking No. 3 Marking No. 4
(described below) (described below)
in the corner in the center

Rev. A Drozdov is sending his contributions to archimandrite and brothers

Page 40 No. 65

Cancellation 1. Double circle. At top, between circles R.O.P.iT. At the
bottom Afon. In center (3 lines) (12), (Sept.) and (1897).
Cancellation 2. Single lined circle. At top "Pokrovskaya, Samar. G. At the
bottom "Pocht. Tel. Kon." At the sides, numeral "1".
In the center, in two lines (27) and (18----97).
Cancellation 3. Double lined octagon. At the top "Reverend". In the
(soal) center "Andrew". At the bottom "Drozdov".
Cancellation 4. Circular. Top center Imperial arms and post horns with
(seal) thunder bolts. Loft top Str.-Ins(ured)". Right top -
"Kop. Cor(rospondence)". Sides numeral "I". From the
center down, in 4 lines (Pokrovskoye), (Samar. G.), (Post.
Tologr.) and (Kont.).

Sclf-Addros.covers from the collection of M. Liphschutz

Michael Liphschutz will describe his covers under "Iotos from Collectors'
when they will return from the International Show at Istanbul, Turkey.

We are describing below solf-addros.ccvers from Mount Athos, which at
evidently at one time wore prepared for distribution throughout Russia so
that they could be used for sending donations to the Monis of Mount Athos.

Cover 1. Printed on grayish papor blanks, having engine work on the inrrr
side of the onvolcpo. Th3 odges of the envelope are blank. When
the top flap is held down in front of a linet one may see a double
lined horizontal oval, inside of which, in one line is a follow-
ing inscription: "Sv. Gora Afon (Holy Mount Athos)".

The six line inscription in the upper portion of the envelope, which
is in Russian, separates by two.horizontal dotted lines an equivalent
inscription in French, which reads as follows: NVia Odessa Mont-Athos
(Macodoine). Au Reverend Pere Makary ot confrerie".

Cover 2. Printed on light green paper with obverse side of the envelope
blank. The French inscription differs from cover No. 1 by having
(Turquie) instead of (Macedoine).

Covers from the collection of Dr. G. B. Salisbury

1. A stampless, registered, insured letter from Tsarevosanchursk, 16 May,
1867 to Odessa agents of S T A R I I A F 0 N, for forwarding to Starii
Afon via Constantinople. The money which was forwarded was destined for
St. Andrew Monastery from a priest Benevolensky of Tsarevosanchursk,
Viatka Gubernia. There are five seals on the obverse side of the cover,
the largest one showing Imperial Arms and having inscription reading
u D E N E Z H. V L 0 Z H S.Y (money enclosed abbreviated), notations
by the postal clerk and Tsarevosanchursk postmark. The postmark on the
face of the cover is illegible.

2. A registered and insured cover to Starii Afon bearing a registry label
of Velikokniazhesk, Military Don Region, two insured mail seals, a 7 kop.
stamp and a pair of 15 kop. stamps of 1902-05, cancelled V E L I K 0 -
K N I A Z H E SK AY A D 0 N S K.. 0 B L. 5-12-07" in a double lined
circle. The arrival marking of Starii Afon is a double line circle
(Fig. 181 Used Abroads), ROPiT AFON. 26 Dec. 1907. The letter was
sent via Odessa to Starii Afon, Turtsia (Turkey) via Odessa agents to
St. Andrew Monastery.

No. 65 Page 4L

4. A letter to the Odessa P.O. for forwarding the Archimandrite Foodorit of
the Russian St. Andrew Monastery, Starii Afon, from St. Petersburg, show-
ing a Town Post "3" cancellation of Scott #27 of 1879 with postmark dated
23 Apr. 1982 and received Sept. 8, 1882, yet the letter was written on
July 21st.

The enclosed message is from a man in Pavlovsk, Russia who thanks his
correspondent for the cross sent to him, which contained segments of the
holy Cross of the Lord, also of apostle St. Andrew and martyred Paraskea.
He voices however doubt as to authenticity of the cross sent him from
Starii Afon as the design which was promised did not look like the design
of the cross sent. He also did not like the workmanship of the oo and
is upset because he did not receive reply to his earlier complaint. Never-
theless he ends his letter with a request for prayers for his soul.

Inasmuch as my other holdings are similar to those previously des-
cribed, I would like to end this article with a request for other in-
teresting philatelic material of Starii Afon or Mount (Mont) Athos.

0 0
o 0
o Large Selection -- Accumulation of 35 years Russia, Border States, o
o Latvia, Lithuania and many other countries. o
o o
"o Also a specialized stock of AIRMAILS nad TOPICALS, U.N., ROTARY, UPU,o
"o REFUGEE, EUROPA, OLYMPICS, etc., etc. o
o o
o Kindly write for details and/or approvals. o
o 0
o S. Serebrakian P. 0. Box 448 Monroe, New Yorko
o o

0 0
o c
o Stamps and Cove rs of the World. c
:O O
o Also all philatelic Supplies. o
o 0
o 0
o 1 0 9 W. 43 rd Str o t, N.Y. 3 6,. NEW Y ORK o
o o

Page 42 Page 65


Conclusion of the article from pp. 1256-59 of the Pcchtcvc-Tolografny
Zhurnal for 1898, published by the General Administration of Posts and
Telegraphs at St. Petersburg, and notified by our member Kurt Adler.

The situation regarding the Russian Posts changed somewhat in 1869. In
August of that year, the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia put before the
Ministry of Internal Affairs a proposal comprising several suggestions for the
improvement of the postal service through Mongolia in comparison with the
situation previously existing, but these details wore mainly concerned only
with the technical aspect of the matter. This plan was looked into at the
State Council and sanctioned by His Imperial Majesty on March 23, 1870. The
Russian postal service through Mongolia was publicized by a private commercial
enterprise, which itself was under the protection of the Russian Government.
The annual sum of 17,600 rubles was assigned as a subsudy for the expenses in
maintaining this postal service and out of this amount 7,1100 rubles wore ex-
pended by the civil service for the payment of their personnel and the remain-
ing 10,500 rubles were intended for the payment to the postal contractors.
For those times the sum assigned to the postal contractors was both sufficient
and flattering to the Mongols. At that period, the nomadic state of the Mongols
was being noticeably disrupted; the repeated incursions into Khalka-Mongolia by
the Dungan insurgents (Tungans from Sinkiang province) brought about desolation
in many hoshuns (districts), trade slumped, the Mongols earned no money and
repossessions among them rose noticeably; in such cases the amount of 10,500
rubles went to the Mongols and even to the well-to-do not a little assistance
had to be given. We found that we could give them as many orders and instruct-
ions that we lil-ed, with the full assurance that they would be carried out.
Unfortunately, however, our relations with the department of the postal service
remained as before and the result of all this was that in April 1870, the
Governor-General of Eastern Siberia found it necessary to mako an arrangement
whereby private capital could only be sent uninsured while registered corres-
pondence fees would not cover any specific value. Hence among some sections
of our public there was a fooling that our postal service was useless. The late
Russian vice-consul at Hankow, Ponomarev, relayed to Prof. Pozdneyev the comp-
laint of the Russian merchants in Hankow that to the complete detriment of
trade interests, especially in the case of urgent tea orders, the Irkutsk post
office had sent the ensuing crrcspondence around the world through the English
and French postal systems. here were instances where tea orders from Irkutsk
wore received in Hankow 85 days or even 3 months later'. Of course it was not
true to say that our postal administration was not concerned about the state
of the Mongolian Posts; the fact is, however, that the measures it took were
not directed in tno necessary manner. It proposed, for instance, that the
activity of the Mongolian Bests b, developed by concluding an agreement with
foreign post offices functioning in China and also by establishing Russian
post offices at Hankow and other Chinese ports, etc. But its main concern
should have been exclusively in the field of accelerating postal connections
through Mongolia and on the stretch between Kiakhta and Tientsin since the ex-
tension of our postal system operations beyond Tientsin would not yield either
advantages for our Postal Administration or convenience for the public. With
regard to this same matter, the requirements of foreigners residing in Peking
and Tiontsin in connection with the despatch of mail to Shanghai during the
summer wore being fully met at the time, and moreover there wore private
steamers which maintained postal communications between Tientsin and Shanghai
free of charge in summertime. lohen navigation was interrupted along the Bai-

ho river, the mails were sent gratis between Tientsin, Peking and Shanghai by
couriers of the Chinese Customs Administration. With regards to postal services

No. 65 Page 43

between the Chinese ports and Europe maintained by the steamers of English and
French companies, they were so frequent, regular and fast that not only for'-
eigners living in Shanghai and other ports but even the natives of Tientsin
and Peking found it advantegaous to themselves to utilize the Russian posts
for sending letters to Europe. Hence only the acceleration of the service
through Mongolia would have been worthwhile for our administration, but since
there wap little concern about the matter at first, it became more difficult
later on to bring our operations up to the required level. With regard to
this, custom and usage played a major p-%rt. Things were allowed to slide so
that the mails took 14 to 15 days and nights, where the formerly took only 11
to 12 and the result was that if the transit time was to be brought down again,
the contractors would have wanted more money and to pay such increases would
have been out of question. Moreover, beginning with middle of 1870s, the
natural calamities which came about in Mongolia severe droughts in the sum-
mers and deep snows in the winters increased from year to year the burden on
transmission facilities since there was a decrease in means of transportation.
To this was added, in this case, the great losses sustained by the Mongols
themselves, which best can be described by the following example. In the
spring of 1,70 during his first journey through Mongolia, Professor Pozdneyev
lived for an entire month in the Mergen-Van hoshun at the dwelling of our
postal contractor Gancho and became thoroughly acquainted with his household,
in the inventory of which, he (Pozdneyov) estimated that there wore around
3000 camels. In 1883 there remained only 700 camels at Gancho's and of 1000
head of horned cattle, only 120 were left. It is.known that in the same year
(1883), the late explorer Przhevalsky had to pay 135 rubles each for camels to
Urga, while in former times it had been easy to buy them at 60-65 rubles.
The Mongols themselves had to pay those same prices for animals. The ensuing
years brought with them oven more misfortune and at the present time (1890)
they say that at the homestead of the above-mentioned Gancho he does not have
even a single camel left while only 4 horses remain and 30 head of horned
cattle. In general, it can be said that in the period of the past two decades,
to those among the Mongolian householders who previously had 300-500 camels
each, there have barely remained 50-70 head each and among many others, small
cattle have died out by the head. Naturally, even an elementary regularity
for the postal service was difficult enough to re-establish and so our postal
operations went along in the old way. The distance between Kiakhta and Kalgan
was alccated as before between two contractors although their transport re-
sources were barely equal to one third of that which the old contractors Galsan
and Gancho had available when the latter maintained our postal service at the
beginning of.the 70s. Quite apart from all this, it must be said that our
present contractors are relatively well-to-do, and indeed for the regularity
of the .transit of our posts, it is not so much a matter of the increase in the
number of their beasts of burden as the curtailment, for these and other
reasons, of the present toleration of their malpractices. In the first place,
the contractors, as well as the drivers hired by them were even accustomed to
use our mails for the conveyance of their own things and regarded those acts
as their legal right. When Professor Pozdneyev pointed out the illegality of
such types of activity, they generally replied: The camels are ours, we can
carry on them everything that we want to". Apparently it never dawned on them
that the Russian Government paid them money not only for the delivery of the
mails but also for the punctuality of delivery and that the overburdening of
the mails with irrelevant articles naturally hinders the execution by them of
the last and most important clause of the contract.

When the contractors themselves think and behave in such a manner, then
of course the way is also open for many misusages by the drivers; the latter
are not satisfied that they are hired to carry irrelevant loads together with

Page 44 No. 65

the mails but they even try to grow rich by other means also. The contractors,
for instance, give money to the drivers for the feeding of the camels at
Kiakhta, Urga and at Gakharov's, but the latter keep the money for themselves
with the result that the camels carry the mails in a hungry state, therefore
proceeding slowly and quickly becoming weary. All these circumstances are
seemingly petty, but without their rectification, the attainment of regularity
for our postal services is absolutely impossible.

At the present time (1898), the Russian postal service on Chinese Terri-
tory is maintained between the points of Kiakhta and Tientsin. At this stretch
four post offices are in service: at Urga, Kalgan, Peking and Tientsin. At
these offices, all types of mail are accepted and forwarded to all parts of
Russia and abroad. Our mails total eight in number per month (excluding ex-
press sending) going through Chinese territory; i.e. three so-called "light"
mails and one "heavy* from Kiakhta to Tientsin and as many again from Tientsin
to Kiakhta. The light mails are delivered between Kiakhta, Urga and Kalgan on
two saddle horses by one Mongolian postillion, while from Kalgan to Peking and
Tientsin they are delivered by Chinese on mules or donkeys. Only registered
and ordinary correspondence, ordinary Government packages and state corres-
pondence are sent with the light mails, while allkind of correspondence and
parcels go by the heavy mails. The heavy mails are sent through Mongolia in
sacks on camels, and through Chine in either sacks or packs and on mules or
telegas (four-wheeled waggons). Upon the opening of navigation (from Tung-
chow) the heavy mails are delivered between Peking and Tientsin on boats
along Bai-he river. For the maintenance of the greatest security, the heavy
mails are accompanied on all routes-by7 two Cossacks, in addition to postil-
lions. In so far as the contract now in force is concerned, the term of de-
livery of the light mails between Kiakhta and Kalgan can be reckoned at 8
days and nights in summertime and at 92 days and nights during the winter.
For the heavy mails, this runs to 21 days and nights in the summer and 23
days and nights in the winter. Between Kalgan and Peking, the light mails are
eqected to be delivered within two days and nights both in summer and winter
and the heavy mails in four days and nights, while between Peking and Tientsin,
the light mails take 24 hours and the heavy mails take 48 hours. The monthly
payment for the delivery of mails through Mongolia is 750 silver roubles and
through China 156 silver roubles. In general, the passage of mails through
China goes on quite punctually at the present time, excluding during times
of flooding, but across Mongolia the mails are often delayed, sometimes up a
length of 5 days and nights.

E D IT 0 RIAL C 0 MMENT S: The publication of these two instal-
-Iments from the Rugsian "Pochtovo-Tolegrafny Zhurnal" for 1898 brings up at
least a couple of points which we would like to bring to the attention of our
members. With regard to the first installment, published in "Rossica" No. 64
in which mention is made of a Mr. Grant, a British subject then living in
China, our member Mr. G. S. Russell of Auckland, New Zealand, who is an avid
specialist in Mongolian philately, sent us the following interesting news.
He points out that in the book "Larson, Duke of Mongolia", an autobiography
by Frr.ns August Larson, published by Little, Brown and Co., Boston, 1930,
ther3 is a reference on pp. 226-227 to the Mongolian revolt against the
Chinese in 1913 in which a certain Muronga, a Mongolian lama turned guorilla
leader, was instrumental in killing a Mr. Grant, the latter being an English
employee of the Chinese Telegraph Service. He was travelling frcm Pang King,
the southernmost Chinese telegraph station in Mongolia, to Kalgan with
several Chinese entrusted to his care, when they were all seized by Muronga's
band. Although told by the Mongols that they had nothing against him and that

No. 65 Page 45

he could love, he very bravely refused to abondon his Chinese companions
and was shot with them. Mr. Larson was allowed to take Mr. Grant's remains
to Peking and Muronga was put to death by the Mongols for his atrocity. Mr.
Russell points out the coincidence in both the name and occupation of both Mr.
Grants, but since the first names of both men are unknown and a period of at
least 42 years separates both references, more information is required and we
would like our other Mongolian specialists to ponder on this.

Another interesting topic for research would be the location of delayed
covers from Irkutsk, sent around the world through the English and French
postal systems to Hankow in 1870s0 as referred to in this present installment.
Perhaps our members who formerly lived in China could search their collections
and come up with some of this material.

Finally, we would like to inform our members who specialize in Mongolia,
that we will be soon publishing another fine article taken from these wonder-
ful "Postal-Telegraf Journals) for the year 1892, entitled "The Posts in
China" which will include interesting reference to the postal service in

by John Lloyd

Plate flr.ws on 35 kop. (Rossica Journal No. 60, page 20)

Liphschutst imperforate sheet with the numeral "3" broken on stamp 13
on three panes; this I can also confirm on the perforated sheet of the period
III printing (Watermarked on RH margin, whore the yellowish gum does not cover
the entire sheet, with Pl. No. 5 at the RL corner and with vertical chalk

The sheet with broken numeral "3" on stamp No. 13 and 15, with the
retouch on No. 2 on L.R. pane I can also confirm on the imperforato sheet as
well as the perforated one.

One Rouble Imperforate

I have a double size imperforato sheet of two panes of 50 stamps of the
above value. I note that the watermark is not down the center of the central
gutter between the panes of stamps as is often thought, but down the edge of
each outside margin. There is no gum on the outside margins. A peculiarity
to this double sheet as also one other sheet perforate and throe sheets im-
perforate is that the dark "V" is 2mm shorter than the light colored inverted
"V". I have two sheets of the earlier printings perforated,with a double,
one inverted (normal) "V" both of same height. The double shoot measures
52 cms. across and the center gutter between the two panes of 50 is 6.lcms.
The measurement between the vertical chalk nets is 2.75 to 3 cms. There is
no plate number and the variety is the orange, dark brown with light brown

Twenty Five (25) kop. of Period III.

A flaw on stamp No. 24 of the top left hand pane. In value tablet, the
"p" of "kop" is not separated from the two periods as illustrated. This is a
constant flaw and is present on both imperforate sheets of PL. 6 & perforated
sheets of FP. 3 in my collection. The imperforate sheet is on much thicker
and stiffer paper.

Page 46 No. 65

by John LLoyd

First Manned Space Flight For this occasion Moscow Pochtampt used a special
cancellation in rod & black dated 12/1V/61. I have one of these cancels in
vivid scarlet on a cover bearing the portrait of Gagarin with Vostok I in
flight. I have these cancellations in rod brown & dull black on official
postal stationery illustrating the dogs Belka and Strolka. I think the last
two cancels were most likely applied on the afternoon of April 12 and it is
doubtful that the covers bearing theyortraits of cosmonauts could have been
produced in time to have the special cancel applied on that day.

Cheliabinsk used their normal circular date cancel (12.4.61) for the same
occasion and applied in addition one of two special cachets in purple. The
first of those cachets illustrates the Vostok being launched, while the other
shows Vostok I &8 Gagarin in scaphandre. Both of the cachets wore applied
at the bottom of the cover.

Krasnodar issued two covers, sponsored by the Krasnodar Collectors Society
and both bearing a newspaper type of portrait; the first is in blue and has
a normal type of date stamp to tie stamps to the cover (this is a black cir-
cular obliterator). At the bottom of the cover is a special cachet in red,
showing a head & shoulder portrait of a cosmonaut. The second cover is the
same as the first except of color changes. On this cover the normal date
stamps tying the stamps is in rod and the cachet is in blue. The date stamps
and the cachets are dated 12.4.61.

Frunze produced a special cover showing a cosmonaut looking through a porthole
of the space cabin at the earth and the inscription underneath the space
cabin reading "Frunze G.O.K." (Frunze Collectors Society). The 6 kop. stamp
is tied to the cover by the usual circular date obliteration, reading "Frunze
Pochtamp Kirg. C.C.C.P. 12.4.61" and near the stamp a cachet in black showing
Vostok in flight and date 12 April 1961.

The first Official Postal Stationery to commemorate Gagarin's flight was
printed by the Soviet Ministry of Communications on May 16, 1961 and imprinted
I presume with the usual 4 kop. stamp. I know the cover has an imprinted
stamp but I can not describe it because that space is covered by a full set
of imperforate stamps. On the left side. of the cover is a multicolored port-
rait of Gagarin:and the Vostok circling the Globe, laurel leaves & modal with
usual inscription below it, reading OSlaval Pervomy'. Lotchiky-cosmcnaty CCCP,
Goroi Sovotskovo Souza U. A. Gagarinw.

Another semi-official cover was produced-and used: at Ord.onikidze in
Caucasus and has,a multicolored portrait of Gagarin on the left. In this
cover I received a personally signed photo of Gagarin, which wai obtained
for me by the Chairman of the Local'Institute of Modecine and Public Health.

Second Manned Space Flight by Major Titov

lajor Titov's OVostok II' 17 orbits of Earth called for a commemorative
cancellation (in red) from Moscow Pochtampt. The special cover, dated 6 C 7
VIII/61 has a portrait of Titov and Vostok II in flight. The second cover,
specially produced by the Uoscow Collectors' Society, limited to 1,000 covers,
bears the same cancel in red. The Soviet International Book & Stnmp Export

No. 65 Page 47

Co. issued a special first day cover on which the stamps are tied with a same
cancellation in black. The aforementioned cover for sure did not see the P.O.
but was cancelled to order most likely by the firm, for export.

igAa Collectors' Society produced a special cover illustrating Vostok,II
over the Globe and the Spasski Tower and with an inscription below, reading
"R.G.O.K. Riga 26/AVIII/1961". A space stamp is tied to the cover with a nor-
mal circular date cancellation dated 26.8.61.,.in black. At the bottom
of this cover is a commemorative purple cachet with dates 6-7 August 61 and
date of special issue 26-27 August 61.

Cosmonauts Day was inaugurated on 12/IV/62 and is to be an annual event for
commemoration. For the first occasion the Moscow Collectors' Society produced
a special cover and the Moscow Pochtampt used a special cancellation in red
dated April 12.

First Anniversary of the First Space Flight was celebrated by aPhilatelic Ex-
hibition sponsored by the Moscow Collectors' Society. It was named "Towards
the Stars" and hold at the Central Army Headquarters in Moscow on 23/IV/S2.
A special Post Office branch was open at the exhibition (Moscow 1-157) using
a special cancellation in black on that day.

The Anniversary of Major Titov's Flight was commemorated by issuance of
special stamps and covers. A special cancellation in black was used in
capitals.cf -.11 Ropublics & other large towns. The three that I have are
from Moscow, Leningrad and Erivan, all on differently illustrated covers.
A very different cancellation, however, was used on this occasion at Rayakoski-
Murmansk, where Titov lived. It is purple in color with red Vostok II and
very similar to an English machine type slogan cancellation, i.e. a circular
date cancellation and an extended boxed inscription suitable for the occasion.

The "Twin" or "Team" Manned Flight of Nikclaev.and Popovitch was commemorated
by a special issue of stamps and a special cancellation which was used at the
Moscow Pochtampt with date 15.9.62. The cancellation is in rod and shows
Vostoks III and IV in flight.

On the day of launching of the first "T W IN S" a special cancellation
was used by the Kiev P. 0. Kiev is the district from which Nikolaev originated.

First Soviets Cosmonauts (Four). On November 27, 1962 two huge stamps of
1 ruble each, in lbue and black colors were issued perforated and imperforate.
On the First Day of Issue the:stamps were cancelled in black with a special
cancellation suitably inscribed, at Moscow Pcchtampt and dated 27.X1.62.

.Cosmonauts'Day was celebrated-on April 12, 1963 by a special issue of stamps,
-and specially printed -covers with various illustrations. A special cancel-
lation was used inmost of tho large towns of the Soviet Union. All of the
post offices used the same cancellation. in black, except the International
P.O. which used a red cancellation. Kazan, however, did not have this can-
collation, and used a special cachet in black, sponsored by the Local col-
lectors' Society, which was used or the 12th along with the normal..circular
date stamp on all mail of that day.

Tiflis, in addition to the special cancellation used in most towns applied
a small blue cachet at the bottom of covers. The aforementioned cachet was
sponsored by the local Collectors' Society.

Page 48 No. 65

Kazan A special cover printed for the Kazan Collectors' Society for the
anniversary of Gagarin's Flight in Space. The cover has the following ill-
ustration: Gagarin's portrait, globe and space craft on a background of news-
paper headings. A stamp is tied to a cover with the Kazan circular date can-
cellation of 12.IV.62. It also bears a special cachet to 1st man in space,
dated 12.IV.61/12.IV.62, with *Vostok' above and below, in black.

Moscow To Teamed Space Flight by Bykovski and Toreshkova. A special cancel-
laticn was used on June 22, 1963, while the city was giving cosmonauts a
welcome. This cancellation shows profiles of B. and T. over Vostoks 5 & 6,
two stars with suitable wording for the occasion, and the dates 14/19, 16/19
June 1963. The color of the cancellations was red for the International P.O.
and black for the rest of the P.O. A cover in my possession printed 21/VI/63
in ioscow by the Production Society ORise" has the portrait of Bykovski on
the left. and bears the Moscow Pochtampt special cancellation in black, tying
the perforated Vostok 5 stamp to the cover.

by V. Popov

Among the stamped envelopes of USSR in my possession, mostly from corres-
pondence from Baltica, I see the following varieties:

1. Air Mail. Issue previous to 1/1/61. 1 r. 60 kop. blue, picturing
a scientist with a microscope.

a. Blue-gray paper, watermarked crossed lines, fcrning squares,
b. Blie-rose paper, watormarexod same.
c. Blue-gra- paper, watormarked hexagons.

2. Regular Issue. After 1/1/61. 4 kop. red, similar to the definitive
issue of the same period.

a. Blue-gray paper. Distance between the coat of arms (left top
corner) and the stamp ( right top corner) is 91mm. Inscription
"Address of sender".
b. The distance is 101mm. After the wording "Address of sender"
is thick 51 (mnn) vertical line.

3. Air Mail. Issue after 1/1/61. 16 kop. red, picturing'samolet"
over a dam. "Samolet" is a plane.

a. Blue-rose paper. Wat"rmarkod crossed lines forming squares
and circles.
b. Blue-gray paper, Watormarkod hexagons.

From the numerous variations found in my small volume of correspondence
I am led to assume that there more varieties in existence. Therefore I am
recommending to other collectors to examine all of the stamped envelopes that
they see. Careful examination, undoubtedly will bring to light other varieties.

No. 65 Page 49

by V. Popcy

Knowing, that I am filling out.my collection and likewise gathering
material for exchange, by means of purchases from the auctions, Dr. Salisbury
asked me to write about prices realized on stamps which are interesting to
other collectors. -I must say, that I am not in position to give information
on all of the auctions. In most of the oases the prices realized were furnish-
ed me by the auctioneers, at my request. I have intentionally entitled my
my report "Prices of USSR stamps, since the scarce Imperial Russian stamps
have completely disappeared from the market, with the exception of No. 1 which
is occasionally offered in auctions by J. H. Stolow. The aforementioned firm
does not furnish prices realized by mail.

Even the 49th sale of mCorinphilia* of Zurich, Switzerland, which had
5,4.77 lots, and lasted for a week (from April 1 to 6), only 3 rare Russian
stamps were offered 14 kop. of 1902-05 on vertically laid paper with
inverted center, cancelled (Scott No. 61a. Yvert 45b) estim. at 1500 Swiss.
franks 15 kop. of the same issue with inverted center and cancelled
"Kolomna Mosk. G. 25.9.07 (Scott No. 62b, Yvert 46a) estim. at 1300 Swiss.
franks, and finally a mint copy of an extremely rare first telegraph stamp
(e-prtised, by "Diena"). This stamp unlisted by Scott was estim. at 2500
Swiss. franks. Besides the three rarities mentioned above 33 cancelled No.
l's were offered for sale. The reliability of this company is stressed by
the fact that they do not offer a single mint copy of'Russia No. 1. The
supposedly "mint" stamps in actuality, as explained from regulations, in
actuality are cleaned pen cancelled examples, with faked gum. Among the
33 copies of Russia No. 1, six were on covers and 7 on cut outs. The highest
estimate was 1500 Swiss franks for a first lower corner stamp, on piece,
with red "REVAL' and additional pen cancellation. The estimate for the afor-
mentioned example of No. 1 was the same as for.the undoubtedly rare 14 kop.
of 1902-05 issue with inverted center, which is priced in 1964 Scott at
$500. One must take into consideration the fact, that most of. the serious
collectors have a great interest in scarce cancellations and are always on
lookout for them, and since we are talking about cancellations, we must not
forget Lot No. 3174, in this auction. Under this number the firm offers
a cancelled horizontal pair of extremely rare 50 kop. gray-bluo "Airship-
building" stamp of 1930; the normal color of this. stamp is black-brown.
Sanabria catalogue lists a pair of this No. 40 at $700. The illustration
of this pair in the auction catalogue stood out by the fact, that the cancel-
lation used on the pair was put in use by the postal department of USSR not
Earlier than:.1940-41.. The date of cancellation (20.4) may be.deciphored
from the photograph, although the year and the hour is undecipherable, as
well as the place where the cancellation was applied. Theoretically these
stamps were valid until 1/4/61, but it is hardly understandable, why anyone
would affix such a rarity on a cover. Here we have either a cancellation
by request or a counterfeit cancellation. -It is not.very unusual to find
cancelled to order stamps with dates much later than the actual date of
issue of the stamp, and with a type of cancellation that does not give the
place where the stamp was cancelled. .I heard that a similar pair, although
uncancelled,was sold in one of the New York auctions for $67.50, but when
the new owner tried to have it expertized, it was returned to him with a
statement that due to lack of material it could not be expertized. 1956
Edition of Romeko catalogue list this stamp as an essay, with a question
mark after it. Since,such an authority as Romeko questions the authenticity
of this stamp, I likewise am reluctant to make up my mind regarding either
.the pair or the cancellation.

Page 50 No. 65

Another lot in the same auction consisted of a complete set of 16 of the 1923
"3Vladivostok Air Mail*, listed in Sanabria as Nos. 501-16 and priced at $1950.
Estimated value was 4,000 Swiss. franks. Another lot consisted of three
"inverts" of the same set, with an estimate of 750 Swiss. franks. Both of
the aforementioned lots were mint.

I-ext resume will cover stamps of USSR, sold in auctions in USA. All
numbers given, except where noted, are those of Scott's catalogue. The follow-
ing notations are also used mint, o cancelled.

1). Pos. 282-5, 288A-B, 291-3. 1924-25 definitive issue, imperforate,
unwetermarked and in blocks of four. ..... ................ $28.00
(The aforementioned set is listed in Gibbons at L9, Michel at
300,20i'arks. In Stampazine auction this set had a minimum of
2). Nos. 304-15, 317-25. 1925-26 def., watermarked, imperforate......$20.00
3). Nos. 361a, 365a & 369a. 1927. Inverted overprint *............$22.00
4). ios. 456-67. 1931-32, new def. 1 kop. to 1 rub., imperf-
orate in blocks of four. *..................................... $52.00
5). Nos, 529a-530a. 1934. First printer Fedorov. Imperf. -* ......$21.00
6). Nos. 559-568. 1935 "Spartakiada" *...........from $31.00 to $34.00
7). No. 628 (Variety) Sanabria No. 96a. 1938 Flight to the Norch
Pole. 80 kop. imperforate vertical pair. $12.00
8). Same as lot 6, except o .......................from $12.00 to $12.50
9). Same as lot 7, except horizontal pair was sold in March 1962 in
Amsterdam, Holland for an equivalent..............................$43.00
10). No. 641 (variety) Sanabria Nio. 102a. 1938. Moscow-California
Flight. 20 kop. Horizontal, imp. pair. *.......... .. .........$21.00
11). Nos. 718-720 varietiess) Sanabria Nos. 113a-115a. 1939.
Aviatris. Imperforate nint (*) ................. from $44.00 to $47.00
12). No. C7a. 1924. 10 kop./5 rub. Wide numeral "5". Creases on
the back. Mint (*) .................. .......... ............$28.00
13). Same as lot 12, eocopt in perfect condition ......................$36.00
14). Nos. C12b, C13b. 1930.' 40 & 80 kop. 'Zeppelin". Imperforate
40 kop. with creases on the back....................................$62.50
15). Same as lot 14. Slight thinning from hinges ....... ..............$35.00
16). Nos. C34 & 35. 1932.. 50 kop. &lruble. Second Polar Year
Cancelled (o) on postcard and envelope...........................$10.00
17). No. C25 (variety). 1932. 15 kop. grayish-black.
(Engraved). Imperforate................. *.............$36.00 and $52.50
18).. Nos. C40-49. 1933. 10th Anniv. of Civil Aviation.
"Both series one with and one without watermark.......- .......$17.00
19). Nos. C45-49. 1933. 10th Anniv. of Civil Aviation.
Unwatermarked. Listed as counterfeit in the auction..............$10.50
20). No. 068. 1935. Levanovsky's Flight. Mint (*). This stamp is
on the rise................................ from $14.00(Feb.) to $19.00

.I have listed prices on most popular (for example "Spartakiada*,
Lovanevsky) stamps, as well as.the uncatalogued stamps. To others who are
interested in obtaining market prices on other Russian stamps I am willing to
help at any time, provided a self adCrossed stamp envelope is enclosed with
each query. My address is Vsevolod Popov, 89 First Avenue, Nyack, N.Y.,10960.

No. 65 Page 51

by A. Cronin

Taken from-the #2 issue for 1963 of the Bulgarian magazine "Philatelen
Preglod", to whom thanks are due for this very useful addition to .the notes
by Kurt Adler on recent Sputnik markings.

The collection of special cancels has never been as popular in the USSR
as since the launching of Sputnik I and later space ships and the flights of
cosmonauts. It is remarkable that many Soviet philatelists who had never
before collected special postmarks could not resist the temptation to begin
collecting covers with markings devoted to the subjection of outer space.

The special cosmonautic cancels achieved great popularity among collect-
ors after they began appearing in various cities of the USSR, On account of
this, the Ministry of Posts in USSR, in conjunction with official and cultural
organizations, has been-working for the past few years on a special yearly
schedule for arranging the issuance of special cancellations throughout the

In the schedule for 1963, the Ministry has slated 32 special covers and
postmarks, as well as 20 additional cancels which have not yet been specified.
The plan, showing the dates of issue, subject matter and cities of application,
is as follows:

Jan. 11. 'Happy New Year 1963", Moscow International P.O., Kiev, Minsk and
Jan. 17. "Centenary of the birth of K.S. Stanislavskyt. Moscow I.P.O.
Jan. 19. '"Centenary of the birth of A.S. Serafimovich". Leningrad I.P.O.,
Moscow, Serafimovich.
Jan. 19.- 30. "Fur Auctions". Leningrad.
Jan. 29. "'45th Anniversary of armed uprising of workers. in Kiev". Kiev
Feb. 3. "125th Anniversary of the birth of the noted Belorussian revolution-
ary democrat K.S. Kalinovsky". Minsk
Feb. 9. "a4th Anniversary of tho Civilian Air Fleet (G.V.F.)". Moscow.
Feb. 21. "75th, Anniversary of the birth of the Soviet instructor and radio-
techniciah 1.A. Bonch-Bruyvich". Gorky, Leningrad.
Feb. 23. *45th Anniversary of the Soviet Armed forces". Leningrad, Moscow
I.P.O., Odessa and special covers sponsored by clubs at Kiev,
Sevastopol and Volgograd.
March 13. "65th Anniversary of the first congress of the RSDRP". Minsk
"March13; 75th Anniversary of the birth of the noted Soviet educator A.S.
Makarenko". Moscow, I.P.O., Poltava.
March 15. "Final match in the world singles chess championship for men".
Moscow I.P.O.
March (Day not specified) "International competition for weight-lifting".
April 7. "International Health Protection Day". Moscow I.P.O.
April 12. "Cosmonautic Day". Kaluga, Leningrad, Moscow I.P.O. and the
capitals of the union republics.
April 19. "4th Centenary of typography and book-printing in Russia". Moscow
May 17. "Day of Collector". Leningrad, Minsk and Moscow.
May 26. "European Boxing Championship*. Moscow.
ayv 30. "4Oth Anniversary of the Buriat ASSR". Ulan Ude.
June 2_ "100th Anniversary of the foundation of Smolensk". Smolensk
June 7. "4Oth Anniversary of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region".

Page 52 No. 65

June 28. '45th Anniversary of the Navy". Kaliningrad, Leningrad.
Aug. 6. "European academic rowing championship for women". Moscow.
Aug. 10-18, "Third summer spartakiad of the people of the USSR". Moscow.
Aug. 11-15. "Anniversary of the group flight of the space ships Vostok-3
and Vostok-4. Kaluga, Leningrad, Moscow I.P.O., and capitals of
the union republics.
Sept. 1. "New school year". Kiev.
Sept. 1. "Centenary of the International Red Cross". Moscow I.P.O.
Oct. (Day not specified). "European Exhibition-Gymnastics Championships".
Oct. 15. "150th Anniversary of the birth of M.Y. Lermontov". Leningrad,
Nov. 7. "46th Anniversary of the October Revolution". Leningrad, Moscow
Nov. 14. "175th Anniversary of the birth of M.P. Lazarev, noted Russian
navigator and investigator of the Antarctic regions. Leningrad,
Sevastopol. The Antarctic bases at Mirny and Novolazarevskaya
will also supply specials cancels to note the anniversary.
Nov. 27. "Centenary of the birth of the Ukrainian authoress 0. U.
Kobilyanska Kiev.

From thw foregoing list, it will be noted that there are many cancels
which will be of interest to collectors of outer space material, sports,
Antarctic bases, etc.

by D, N. Minchev

EDIT 0 RIA L C 0 M E T With the article hereunder, we are com-
mencing a series on the postal history of the Bulgarian enclave in the Budzhak
Steppe, between the Yalpukh and Kunduk rivers of Southern Bessarabia. Our
Bulgarian collaborator, Mr. D. N. Minchev, is an authority on the history of
this area, having visited there before 1.W.2 and issued a book in Roumanian
on his researches, entitled "Bulgarii din Besarabia de SudO published by "Din
Trewtul Nustru", Bucharest 1938. The following notes, which he has taken
from his book, are essential as a valuable background to the postal history
potential of the territory and will be followed in future issues of the Jour-
nal by a series of articles on the cancellations, coordinated by Mr. A.
Cronin and describing the important holdings of "Rossica" members as well as
specialists in Bulgaria and Roumania.

-PART 1:

The word "Budzhak", is the old Tartar name for the southern part of the
historic province of Bessarabia, enclosed by the river Pruth on the west, by
the Danube and Black Sea to the -outh and on the east by the Dniester river.
The northern boundary can be delineated by a line running parallel to the
upper Trajan Rampart, which begins at the town of Leova and ends below the
town of Tighina (Bendery) at the point whore the river Botna empties into the
Dniester. In its turn, the Budzhak is itself divided into two parts, the
lower portion bordering on the Black Sea, and the upper section lying to the
north, crisscrossed by a small number of rivers in the steppe. The overall
area is 16,223 sq. km. (6,260 sq. mi.).

In olden times, this territory was known under the name of "Ongos" or
"Onglu", derived from the Slav word "ugol", meaning corner. The Bulgarians

No. 65 Page 53

called in "Ugul "and the Hungarians "Atelkoz", i.e. the district between two
rivers. The Bulgarians under Khan Asparukh halted here for a short time
during the 7th century A.D. During 1503 A.D., Bessarabia, which at that time
formed part of Moldavia, fell under the rule of the Turks. *As a result of
this, the southern portion of the province was settled exclusively by Tartars
and Nogais and the name given to it by the former has survived up to the pre-
sent day. The Tartars lived here for almost three centuries, but the vic-
torious Russian wars against the Turks made the latter retreat. The whole of
Bessarabia passed into Russian hands in 1812 and the Tartar inhabitants were
required to leave. They had, however, begun to depart from the area a few
years earlier during 1806-1807. The Russian government was now obliged to
colonize this unpopulated land. Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians and Gagauzi
(a Turki race) -mainly came and after them, Germans in 1814 'and 1816, and a
small number of Swiss, Jews and Gypsies. Even the surviving Moldavians in the
northern part of Bessarabia were attracted to the Budzhak and as a result a
mosaic of nationalities was formed, referred to by some historians as the
"Bessarabian Americans". Of all the colonists who settled here, the most
numerous were Bulgarians.


The first Bulgarian colonists came to the'Budzhak beginning with the
middle of the 18th century. Obligated to leave the hearths of their fathers
on account of Turkish restrictions and atrocities, they forsook their nat-iv
villages and properties and, crossing the Danube, received a fraternal wol-
come in the two Rumanian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. Towards
the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, the Russians, as
blood brothers of the Bulgarians, brought in the Bulgarian refugees to settle
on Russian soil. For this purpose, land was promised to them, as well as
equipment and a range of many other facilities. During the reign of Catherine
II, the conditions for the settlement of foreign nationalities in the newly 0
acquired and largely unpopulated provinces of Russia were regularized in the
ukase of December 29, 1752 and the manifestos of December 4, 1762 and July 29,
1763. The Bulgarians gladly accepted all this. On the basis of the last
manifesto, they began to go in larger numbers to the Budzhak. Here thoy found
an endless and deserted steppe, barren, devoid of hills with fierce and in-
cessant roaring winds and a very uncertain climate.

The first settlement took place during 1752-1754 when 70 Bulgarian
families settled down in the deserted Tartar village of Chislnekoy. Periodic
waves of migration followed in 1769-1774, 1787-1792 1792-1802 (as a result
of the outrages at K'rdzhali in South-East Bulgaria), 1806-1812, 1828-1829,
the last being one of the largest, induced by the Russo-Turkish wars. Of the
former barren and wild Budzhak,- the Bulgarians succeed in making a real gar-
den. This was the opinion of the travellers who visited Southern Bessarabia.
Upon their arrival in these localities, the Bulgarians ignited the vast ex-
panses of weeds and thorns, since only with fire was it possible to'clean out
the'terrain for future arable land. The flames of fire were so great that
the inhabitants of Moldavia and the Dobrufja looked up at the brightened sky,
saying that the"Budzhak is burning up"'.

The incoming Bulgarians gradually set up a total of 70 villages and co-
lonies and two towns. Three of the 70 villages, namely B'lgariika (Novi
Bolgrad), Kairakliya II and'Kalchevo were-founded later on, around 1861. More-
over, Bulgarians settled in other Bossarabian towns outside the territory.
The Bulgarians who came in, started their new life with great difficulty and
in a short time, the Budzhak acquired a purely Bfulgarian aspect. The Russian

Page 54 No. 65

historiographer and great authority on the southern areas of Russia, Apollon
Sk-_kovsky (1808-1900). In his work "The Bulgarian Colonies" published in
Odessa in 1848, called this territory "New Bulgaria' The Bulgarians arrived
in the Budzhak, established themselves either in the old abandoned Turko-
Tartar villages, or in deserted or thinly-populated Moldavian villages or
even founded completely now establishments. Typical Turko-Tartar villages
were Tartar-Kopchak, Tarakliya, Chiishli, Kuboi, Komrat, Kongaz, Avdarma, -
Hasan-Batyr, Yenikoy, etc. Among Moldavian place-names were Cismeaua, Varu-
-ita, Imputita, Satul Nou, Valeni, Colibasi, Fantana Zinolor, Valoa Perji, etc.
Among settlements founded by the Bulgarians were Bolgrad reminding the inha-
bitants of their former homeland: Zadunaovka in memory of those who had come
from Bulgaria beyond the Danube; Ivanovka for the first name of General
Inzov, the benefactor of the Bulgarian colonists; Banova named after Uncle
Bane, first settler and founder of the village; Dimitrovka from the first
name of D. Vatikioti, the first trustee of the Bulgarian colonists, etc. Some
of the newly established villages bore the names of places in Bulgaria from
which the settlers originated, i.e. Vaisal, Tv'rditsa, Pandakli, Solioglu,
Iserli, Bashkoy, Kamchik, Novi Karagach, Burgudzhi, etc.

The Russians manifested especially great pains for the improvement of the
situation of their new subjects. With this aim in view, they appointed trust-
ees who were to administer the public affairs of immigrants. The first trust-
ee was Cavalry-Captain D. Vatikioti, mentioned above who died in 1829, a form-
er commander of the Bulgarian volunteers who took part in the Russo-Turkish
War of 1806-1813. But the most important trustee for the Bulgarians was Ge-
neral I.N. Inzov (1768-1845), appointed as chief trustee in 1818 and who held
this office until the day of his death. General Inzov displayed great ability,
kindness and tact in the execution of his duties and the happy results were
his greatest payment. As the Bulgarians made up 80% of all the colonists set-
tled in the Budzhak, the attention of the General was concentrated especially
on them. They regarded him as their "father" and close friend. As a result
of the report of General Inzov dated May 19, 1819, a series of great privileges
were granted to the Bulgarians in a special ukase dated December 29, 1819.
The colonists also had the advantage of having their own autonomous administra-
tion. This ukase was preserved as a sacred relic in the altar of the great
cathedral church at Bolgrad. Another benefactor was Count M. Vorontsov, ap-
pointed on May 7, 1823 as Governor-General of the Novorossia Territory and
Bessarabia, who obtained further privileges for them. A great contribution to
the prosperity of the Bulgarians was made by Ivan S. Ivanov, who died in 1902.
Himself a Bulgarian, he was appointed as trustee for the Bulgarian colonies and
villages in Komrat district. Among other things, he was warden of the high
school at Komrat and proposed the idea for the establishment of a central
Bulgarian high school at Bolgrad. The granting of the abovementioned provi-
leges resulted in a great stimulus for the quick economic advancement of the

It should be emphasized in passing that the Bulgarians lived and worked
in peaceful companionship with the Moldavians, Russians, Ukrainians and other
nationalities inhabiting this territory, sharing with them their joys and
sorrows. Upon the cession of the southern part of Bessarabia to Rumanian ad-
ministration in 1856, the latter in their turn honored the concessions granted
earlier to the Bulgarians by the Russians.

In the Budzhak, the Bulgarians hadtwo main towns, Bolgrad and Komrat.
The larger was Bolgrad (from the Russian "Bolgar-Gorod" or Bulgarian town)
situated by Lake Yalpukh and founded in 1820. It developed into a kind of
capital for the many-sided life of the Bulgarian colonists in this area.

No. 65 Page 55

The newly founded city soon began to grow with increased tempo. After the
mass settlement of 1828-1829, the number of its inhabitants increased remark-
ably. As a result, two large quarters sprang up bearing the names of two
towns from which the newly arrived settlers had come the uSliven" neighbor-
hood and the "Yambol" neighborhood. The other sections of the city were call-
ed the "Thracian', "Sofia" and "Varna3 quarters respectively. Bolgrad had
9,616 inhabitants in 1870, 12,338 in 1897, 13,700 in 1902 and 12,821 in 1937.
When we visited Bolgrad on several occasions more than 20 years ago, it was
during a sweltering summer time. The sun on these afternoons shon'
the little city was sunk in complete stillness. Often from the streets there
arose clouds of dust. Acacia trees which lined the sidewalks, held back the
scorching sunbeams to a certain extent and gave a little shade. Bolgrad,
"the city of the acacias", as we can with reason call it, remembering its old
and glorious past, was now living through these tired and monotonous days.
From time to time, Bulgarian speech came floating up to our ears. The same
monotonous tempo we noticed also at Reni, while Izmail throbbed with greater
life .

The other urban center, Komrat, a former Tartar village, was founded
in 1829 and for a short time assumed second place after Bolgrad. This came
about when, in accordance with the Treaty of Paris (1856), the southern part
of Bessarabia was incorporated in Rumania and thus Komrat became the center
for the Bulgarian settlements remaining under Russian administration. Sta-
tistics tell us that it had 4,644 inhabitants in 1864, 6,070 in 1892 and
13,300 in 1936. In the middle of April 1937 a great fire devastated it to
a large extent.


The following statistics for the Bulgarians'inhabiting towns and villages
in the Budzhak have been drawn up by us according to the data compiled by V.
Dyakovich and I. Titorov competent authorities on the subject. This list is
important for the postal history that will follow. The names are given in
Rumanion alphabetical order where necessary, the phonetic Russian place names
ar3 listed as the last equivalent names for each town and village:
N A M E Date Of Russian 1864 Russian 1910
Founding Rumr.nian 1870 Census
1. Anadolca (Anadolka) .. 705 1446
2. Avdarma 785 1813
3. Bolgrad 1820 9616 15,000
.4. Babele (') (). 1500
5. Bolboca (Bolboka) 1814 665 2608
6. Bes Alma.. (Besh Alma) 1814 1199 2730
7. Baurci (Baurchi) 1812 1290 2707
8. Bes Chioz (Besh Gyoz or Kupkui) 1811 809 1829
-9. Bas calia (Bashkaliya) 1830 510 1000
10. Batir (Batyr) (') (,) 1860
11. Banovca a(Banovka)l. 1821 365 980
12. Burgugi (Burgudzhi) 1830 1051 1500 (1)
13. Bulgariica(Novi Bolgrad, Bolgarika) 1861 530 1756
14. Cubei (Kubei) 1809 1647 4817
15. Cairaclia I (Radulovka, 'Kairakliya) 1822 1115 1074
16. Cismeaua Varuita (Cheshmeliya) 1813 920 3351
17. Caracurt (Karakurt) 1818-1811 810 1200 (1)
18. Curci (Kurchi) 1818 1055 2601
19. Caragaci (Karagach) () 665 2220

Page 56 No. 65

Date Of Russian 1864 Russian
N A E E Founding Rumanian 1870 1910
Census Census
20. Cisme Chioi (Chishmekyoi) (.) 1080 2990
21. Comrat (Komrat) 1829 4644 8396
22. Chirsov (Khyrsovo, Bashkyoi) 1830 2039 3212
23. Congaz (Kongaz) .1811 1365 40
24. Cazaiaclia (Kazayakliya) 1812 1577 3782
25. Corten (Kiryutne) 1830 1278 3259
26. C.iadar Lunga (Chadyr Lunga) 1819 1507 4467
27. Chiriet Lunga (Kiriyet Lunga) (') 703 1768
28. Cioc Maidan (Chok Maiden) (.) 870 2340
29. Cod Chitai (Kod Kitai) 1822 948 2569
35. Ciunle Chioi (Chumlekoyi) 1830 1221 3837
31. Cuparani (Kuparani) 1830 858 2304
32. Culevcea (Kulevcha) 1830 991 4683
33. Camcik (Kamchik) 1830 893 3117
34. Cairaclia II (Kairakliya II) 1861 416 1375
35. Calcevo (Kalchevo) 1861 591 2278
36. Dolu Chioi (Dolukyoi) 1806 750 2522
37. Dermendre (Derminderi) 1830 445 4183
38. Dioltai (DZholtai) (M) 522 1051
39. Dosghinge (Dozgindzhe) 1812 1523 3110
* 40. Dumitrovka Bulgareasca 1821 1290 3544
41. Diulomen (Dyulemon) 1?30 974 2714
42. Devlet Agaci (Dovlot Agach) 1830 1233 3052
43. Dolgilor (Deldzhiler) 1830 1207 2807
44. Etulia (Etuliya) 1812 505 1396
45. Eni Chioi (Yenikyoi) 1I19 535 1972
46. Fantana Zinelor (Krinichka) 1830 435 1549
47. Gradina (Chiisi) 1813 1519 5136
48. GiurFiulesti (Dzhurdzhuleshti) 1806 (1) 1000 ('.)
49. Gaidar 1P20 716 1681-.
50. Glavan 1830 873 2405
51. Golita (Yaramarin, Golitsa) 1`30 798 2444
52. Hasan Batir (Karapcha) 1830 1168 3044
53. Imputita (Imputrita) (') 355 1154
54. Ivanovca Bulgareasca 1822 1369 3205
(Ivanovka Bolgarskaya)
55. Iserli (Iserlii) 1830 1131 2191
56. Pandacli(Pandekli) 1830 1369 3205
57. Satul Nou (Novo Solo) (.) 655 1000
58. Satalic Hogea (Aleksandrovka) 1822 806 2508
59. Selioglu 1830 1124 3123
60. Sichirli Chitai .1819 910 2932
(Shikirli Kitai, Kitai)
61. Traianul Nou (Novo-Troyan) 1829 1254 3569
62. Traianul Vechi (Staro Troyan) 1819 490 1626
63. Tabac (Tabak) 1819 440 1276
64. Tatar-Copciak (Tatar-Kopchak) 1812 1745 4973
65. Taraclia (Tarakliya) 1813 2561 6404
66. Tasbunar (Tashbunar) 1814 765 1650
67. Tvardita (Tvarditsa) 1830 1726 4269
68. Tomai (') 1274 2676
69. Vaisal 1830 705 2365
70. Vulcanesti (Vulkaneshti) (.) 1840 1525
71. Valea Perji (Valya Porzhi) 1830 1343 3512
72. Zadunaevka (Zadunaevka) 1822 766 2047
(Dmitrovka Bolgarskaya) T 0 T A L S 81,269 200,316

No. 65 Page 57

In 1860-1861, the Bulgarians from the villages Novo-Pokrovka, Novi-
Karagach and Tropoklu emigrated to the Crimea.


The Bulgarians were greatly devoted to the idea of liberating their home-
land. Bolgrad was visited by G. Rakovsky (Scotts 215, Gibbons 289), Phillip
Totyu, Lyuben Karavelov (Scotts 219, Gibbons 293) leading figures in the
Bulgarian movement for liberation from the Turkish yoke. The great poet and
revolutionary, Christo Botev (Scotts ##'204-6, 386-8, 638-44, 900, Gibbons
##270-2, 476-8, 732-9, 988) lived for a time in this territory; he was a
teacher at Zadunaevka and Ismail.

During the time of the Russo-Turkish War of Liberation of 1877-78, a
large number of Bulgarians from the Budzhak enrolled in the militia units,
writing glorious pages of history in the battles of Shipka, Stara Zagora and
many other places.

A special factor in economic growth of the Budzhak was the contribution
of the postal and telegraphic network. It was gradually extended and improved,
thus facilitating private and commercial communications between the various
villages and urban centers. This was especially important after the first
half of the last century when the postal service began to expand the scope of
its activities more widely. Postal documents, both in Russian and Rumanian,
preserved from this time, give the best picture of postaldevelopment. Such
material, surviving to some extent in the collections of many philatelists,
represents by the same token a valuable postal history survey of the Budzhak.

E d i t o r: Postal History installment will follow.

by V. Kurbas

I would like to add some additional information and ask some questions
regarding the interesting article by D. N. Minchev on Bulgarians in Budzhak

1). I must state here that "Budzhak" is the exact translation of the
ancient Slavic name of "Oogol" for the aforementioned territory. According
to the testimony of chronicler Nestor, the territory between Dniester, South-
ern Bug and the Black Sea in the ancient time was settled by Slavic tribes of
Tivertsy and Uglitchy. The latter, apparently lived in "Oogol (Corner)" or
Budzhak. The same chronicle tells us, that the Ooglichi conducted a stubborn
struggle for independence with the Kievan princos, and that the principal city
of Peretchen was for three years under a siege by Kievan voevcda (commander
of an army in ancient Russia) Svenoldy (approximately 940). Finally the
Ooglitcy were subdued and became a part of:the -nciont Russian princedom.
The territory was often exposed to invasions of nomadic tribes (Pechernoi,
Kumani, Polovtsy, and finally in 13th century by Mongols). Because of these
constant pressures both of the tribes Tivertsy and Ooglitchy (Uglitchy) were
forced to move to the north.

2). The name of Genornl Inzov and Count Vorontzov must be marked with
that of A. S. Pushkin, who served under than from 1820 to 1824, and who under
protection of Gen. Inzov. On the other hand Count Vorontzov did not like
Pushkin, and at his request was relieved from duty and banished to his estate
Mikhailovskoe in Pskov Gubernia (Government).

-Page 58 No. 65

3). Catherine II ruled from 1762 to 1796, and for that reason the Ukaz
of 29/12/1752 could not have been initiated by her. If the date given is
accurate, the author of the Ukaz was Empress Elizaveta Petrovna (Elizabeth)

4). I am not clear on the fate of some places mentioned in the text of
the article, but not included in the list of *Budzhak" towns, villages, etc.
The localities which I hope the author will clear up are Valeni, Kolibash and
Upper Vashkinoi.


Display by Messrs. A. Pritt, E. G. Peel and Dr. A. H. Wortman.

Recently members of Rossica Society and of the British Society of Russian
Philately gave a showing of material from the Russian Post Offices in China,
Manchuria and Mongolia. The most outstanding items shown are described be-
low. The showing was before the China Philatelic Society and it was written
up in their journal.

Mr. A. Pritt

The earliest recorded postal marking of the Russian P.O. in SHANGHAI.
Struck in violet on a 7 kop. and 14 kop. stamps and making a virtually comp-
lete strike, December 1896.

Postmark of the Russian Field P.O. in LIAOYANG on a 70 kop. stamp of the
"no thunderbolts" series and unrecorded on this stamp.

Mr. E. G. Peel

Russian 1 rub. (hor. laid paper) cancelled with TIENTSIN Type 4 in red
on piece. Single circle "Tien Tsin 1 Pochtov. Kontora 1 and split date.

.Cover from HARBIN to VLADIVOSTOK franked with 50 copies of the imperf.
Russian 2 kop. arms type with lozenges of varnish on face (Type 4 1J).

CLAVNAYA KVARTIRA POL. POCH. KON. (G.H.O. of Field Post Offices). Can-
cellations 19.11.04 and 30.11.04 on separate copies of the 1 rub. w. 1. when
the G.H.Q. was at MUKDEN and the same cancellation on a block of four of 1 kop.
12.L.05 (G.H.C. at KUOKIATIET) with serials 2, b and a respectively.

ST. FULYAERDI on lOc/10k/7k. of the Harbin series, one of the only two
recorded copies of this cancellation.

KASHGAR (Type 2b) cancollinp a pair of 10 kop., dated 6.4.17 on a cover

PORT ARTHUR. ZHELIEZNODOR. P. 0. 1 (Port Arthur Rly. Stn.) on a 1 rub.
It is dated 12.7.02 (The only known example).

KALGAN oval postmark in red on 2 kop. black & red stamp (1875 H.L.)

HARBIN 262 MANCHULI (T.P.O pnk.) cancelling 4 kop. Romanov 17.11.13
affixed to a postcard. The cancellation has serial e.

No. 65 Page 59

HARBTI 263 VLADIVOSTOK (T.P.O.) cancelling 4 kop. v.1. of Type c, dated
19.8.19 on piece.

POCITOVII VAGON No. 265 (T.P.O.) cancelling a.pair of 2 kop. v.1. with
serial 3, dated 11.1.04 on a picture p.c. written to MUKDEN.

PARCKHOD 12 ODESSA-VLADIVOSTOK 12 steamship cancellation on 50 kop. arms
type stamp, dated 14.2.99 (189 issue H.L.).

GENSAN I.J.P.O. dated 8.11.01 on a pair of 10 kop. H.L. arms type stamps
and a 5 kop. H.L. stamp on cover from VLADIVOSTOK to SHANGHAI with transit
marks of NAGASAKI I.J.P.O. and SHANGHAI I.J.P.O.

Dr. A. H. Wortman

TIEN-TSIN Type 1, dated 3 August 79 on 2 kop. black and red stamp.

Dalni, the only existing recorded example of the civilian P.O. 26.VIII
1903 on a pair and a single of the 2 kop. KITAI stamps.

A copy of the 14 kop. Russian 1883 series used on front from the Chinese
P.O. at HANKOW and cancelled SHANGHAI 16.VI.1903 and the only recorded ex-
ample of this stamp used thus.

PEKIN oval cancelling 7 kop. black and red 14.X. .1881 on cover to
St. Petersburg.

PEKIN temporary rectangular cancellation on a pair of 10 kop. KITAI
stamps. Boixr period, date in MS 29.XII.1900 on cover to HONG KONG and re-
addressed to Manila, showing cancellations of the Russian P.O's in TIENTSIN
in red, CHEFOO in violet, SHANTHAI in grey and HONG KONG in black, together
with U.S. F.P.O. MILY. STN. No. 1, Feb. 5,-1901 in violet.

Kalgan oval cancelling 7 kop. blue 10.I.1.86 on cover to ODESSA.

Six combination covers, including one of 1900 with Russian KITAI 7 kop.
and Japanese 5 sen pair and 10 sen; a PORT EDWARD, NEI-HAI-WEI 7 Apr.03 and
CHEFOO Russian; another CHEFOO with Chinese stamps cancelled with Chinese
WEN TENG; a CHEFOO with transit of Russian T.P.O. 262, 1903; and a TIENTSIN
with a pair of Russian KITAI 2 kop. cancelled Russian F.P.O. No. 13.

A postcard with large CHINESE and English T.P.O. of Train No. 3 PEKIN-
SHANHAIWAN line cancelling a 1 cent and 4 cent Chinese stamps with Chinese
bilingual transit marks of TIENTSIN, TANKU and NTEWHWANG,- the pair of Russian
2 kop. KITAI stamps being cancelled with Russian F.P.O. No. 13 and also T.P.O.
No. 262, Sept. 1983.

"by R. Polhaninoff
translated from Russian by A. Katkowsky

Mr. H. F. Rook, a noted specialist in the field of Phantasies sent me
sets of forged phantasies called "Odessa Famine and a set of so called
"*Azerbaidjan" the original phantasies of which were produced in Italy.

Page 60 No. 65

After a careful examination of the previously mentioned sets, and com-
paring them with those in my collection, as well as those in the collection
of Baron Stackelberg and Mr. H. Brekis I arrived at the following conclusion,
that part of the "Azerbaidjans stamps sent by Mr. Rook were actually faked.
Regarding the "Odessa Famine" stamps a shade difference exists between the
first and second issues, but I did not discern any difference in the design.

Odessa Famine (Ref. Rossica #55)

Probably the demand for these labels depleted the supply and the same
""publisher" released a second issue. A vertical strip of 10 stamps of this
second issue in my possession shows shade differences from dark to light.
There have been also imperforato stamps in evidence belonging to the first

The determination of which set belongs to which issue is complicated
by the use of different color shades for each individual issue of phantasies
and by similarity of colors utilized in both issues. The only very obvious
difference exists in 2500 value. The first issue is chocolate in color, the
second issue in violet. The best method to use when making comparisons is to
use sets already signed by a specialist.

According to the "Soviet Philatelist" (1924) these stamps were produced
and put on sale by the firm M AR C 0 F 0 N T A N E in Venice, Italy.

Azerbaidjan (Ref. Rossica #56)

In Emile Marcovitch's article regarding phantasies he mentions both
imporforate and perforated 11- stamps without mentioning any varieties. As
in "Odessa Famino" and in the 'Azerbaidjan" it is evident that we are dealing
with two different issues.

The "Azerbaidjan" designs of the 2nd issue, gives us a basis to assume
that we have to deal with forgeries. Thin lines on the fake stamps appear
blurred and in places blend into spots. The 2500 values are in a completely
different green hue, which is immediately apparent to the eye, other donomi-
nations differ by shade differences. "Azerbaidjan" phantasies first appeared
in 1923.

1st Issue genuinee)

1. White paper, imperf. 500, 1000, 2500, 5000, 10000, 25000.
2. White paper, porf. 11 500, 50CC, 10000, 25000.
3. White paper, porf. 11-500, 10CC, 2500, 5000, 10000
4. Yellow "" imperf. 500, 10CC, 2500, 5000, 10000, 25000.
5. Yellow "" perf. 11500, 10CC, 2500, 5000, 10000, 25000.

2nd Issue (fake)

1. White paper, imperf. 500 2500
2. White paper, perf. 11 2500 10000
3. White paper, perr. ll 1000, 2500, 5000, 10000

I purposely omitted space in the above tables because I did not include
stamps that I personally had not seen or of which I had no knowledge.

No. 65 Page 61

Turkestan (Ref. Rossica #57)

Mr. Marcovitch's article mentions only that there exists only imperforate
and perforated stamps. I have the following in my collection:

1. Imperforate 1, 2, 5, 15, 25, 50 kop.
2. Perforated 11 1, 5, 15, 25, 50 kop.
3. Perforated 14, 2

I would greatly appreciate if the readers of the "Rossica" journal check
all oQ the material described in this article, that they posses and communi-
cate with me if they find phantasies not listed in my article.

Likewise, I would be delighted to expertise any of the above or any other
phantasies, provided a self-addressed stamped envelope is included along with
stamps to be expertized.


by E. Marcovitch

The stamps described in this article were issued for the purpose of pay-
ing a fee for travelling by horses belonging to the Zemstvo Administration.

Issued in 1890. On the face: Arms of the town of Simbirsk and an inscript-
ion, reading "Zomstvo of Simbirsk" dnd the value.
On the back: "Stamps for parymnt for Zemstvo horses".
Stamps are perforated 12 and are vertical rectangles 22x31mm.

1. 1 kop. dark brown, gray and blue.
la. 1 kop. imperforate. Smno
2. 3 kop. dark brown, green and blue.
3. 5 kop. dark brown, rose and blue.
3a. 5 kop. imperforate. Same
4. 10 kop. gray brown and gray blue.
4a. 10 kop. imporforate. Same
5. 30 kop. dark brown, yellow and -lue.
6. 50 kop. dark brown, rose and blue.

Vertical rectangles 29xZ2nm., perforated 12

7. 1 ruble. Dark brown, rose and blue.
8. 2 rubles. Dark brown, gray and blue.
9. 3 rubles. Dark brown, green and blue.

New value written in by hand in red or black ink

10. 10 rubles on 1 ruble No. 7.

The aforementioned stamps were in use from 1890 to 1916. They were
cancelled with rubber seals, in different colors. The colors used for
cancelling depended on the period of use.


Page 62 r Mo. 65



Editor P. T. Ashford of the British Journal of Russian Philately is to
be congratulated for the No. 32 issue of March 1963. The contents are varied,
interesting and well edited. The illustrations are a far cry from the smudged
efforts of a couple of years ago.

Among the articles we note one about the intriguing basic stamps of
Azerbaijan "the First and Second Printing of the '?ussawat' Issue", by P. T.
Ashford and I. Baillie. There are also R. Knighton's "Postcard from Poland
under German occupation", Dr. Wortman's "Dot Postmarks", Major Prado's "A
Keronsky Sheetlet", A. Wauph's "A Photogravure Variety", I. Baillie's "1909-17
Arms Type; Size of Printing Plrtes", J. Barry's "Outstanding Covers", 0.
Seagor's and J, Lloyd's "Outstanding Items", Dr. Wortman's "Scarce Censor
Covers of the First World War*, A. Waugh's tMIodern Soviet Perforation Varie-
ties" and "A Special 1934 Congress Cancellation", Dr. Salisbury's "The American
Samovar" and P. Ashfords's "A Collector's Callendar" both being chatty and
and newsy columns about the philatelic activities in the U.S.A. and in Great
Britain, in our field. William Stephen presents "Auction Notes", F. Julius
Fohs has a "Revised Summary of the Printings and Plates of the Russian Arms
Issues 1908-22 (Part Four)" and Fred W. Speers continues with the "Zemstvo

We congratulate our British brothers of the BSRP, especially "Pete"
Ashford and many of the writers who are also members of Rossica.

of the Nongolian People's Republic, 1924-1958 by G. Chuluungombo. State
Printing Office, Ulan Bator, 1959.

This is the first, and so far, the only native publication on the postage
stamps of Mongolie. It originally appeared around June 1959, and our member
in London, England, Er. J. Negus has pince published a description of the
stamps catalogued, in the English philatelic press. Printed entirely in I7on-
golian, this 64-page book begins with a survey of Mongolian postal history by
the author, goin- back over 7 centuries and illustrating some pre-stamp mark-
ings. All the stamp designs are then pictured and the bulk of the book is
then taken up with technical data (numbers printed, etc.), all being quaintly
arranged in typical oriental style. The last 17 pages are devoted to a des-
cription of the background for specific stamps or issues and a bibliography
given on the last page quotes various sources including the State Archives
for 1923 and the Postal Archives for 1924. Scno of the stamps listed and
information given have never been heard in the West and the most unusual item
is a one-tuhrik design with inscriptions in Classical Mongolian and the Unified
Latin Turki Alphabet, incorporating the word "Unen" (seeillustration). This
word means "Truth" and nothing is known. of the usage of this stamp; it was
prepared in 1932 in a printing of 500 copies, possibly by the local newspaper
of the same name and it may be a proof or an essay,

Although printed in the Mongolian Cyrillic script used in the country
since 1941, the book is still of great interest to collectors who are ignorant
of the language; for readers linguistically inclined, a good idea of the con-
tents can be obtained by consulting the monumental "Mongolian-English Dic-
tionary", -,dited by Ferdinand G. Lossing et alii and published by the Univer-
sity of California Press in 1960. If sufficient interest is expressed by

No. 65 Page 63

by Mongolian enthusiasts among our members, interesting sections of the book
may be translated for our journal at a future date.

The most unusual feature of the book, which is printed on fine chalk-
surfaced paper, is that it is really a catalog-albuji., vith p,ci:L'ic ;-alces
for all the stamps listed; for this reason it was snapped up hy Wha icfels
and quickly sold out. It is now a bibliographic rarity as only 500( copies
were printed.

J. Maksimchuk's Catalogue of Foreign Stamps with Ukrainian Themes.

Consists of 49 pages of text with 635 illust:atieon on 39 pages. Printed
in Chicago in 1962 and issued in an edition of 300 copies. Price 43.00.

With the appearance of the catalogue being reviewed, J. Maksimchuk has
completed a colossal task of cataloguing vignettes, revenues, emissions of
private organizations, commemorative envelopes and labels for sealing j.ct-:evs
which were issued by various Ukrainian organizations either Ukrainian or nc .-
Ukrainian on Ukrainian themes.

The aforementioned catalogue is the last volume of a well-planned project.
Rossica numbers E Marcovitch and R. Polchaninoff helped with writing the

The first catalogue of unofficial Ukrainian issues was edited in Ulm
(Germany) in 1950. Additional catalogues; Supplement No. 1 was published
in Chicago in 1957 and Supplement No. 2, in the same city in 1960. Both of
the supplements could not be compared, in size, with the original catalogue.

Although my own investi- tic:-; coverall phases of Ukrainian philately,
including some which are only remotely related to Ukrainia, Maksimchuk only
covered Ukrainia, but at the present time his work takes a first place in
works pertaining to Russian Erinnophilia.

The catalogue is of no lesser interest to the collectors of tbl revenue
stamps, since it includes various newly discovered stamps of Ukraina (106
stamps 53 illustrations), Nansen issue (5 stamps 2 illustrations) and
likewise USSR stamps having Ukrainian inscriptions of the 1925-1935 period
(72 stamps with 21 illustrations),

A small number of commemorative envelopes and special cancellations are
included by the author in the general list of vignettes. I feel that it would
have been better to include the aforementioned material with the listing of
the commem-raeivo envelopes of the Red Cross, under a separate heading. Out
of the gr-at, cierntity of the Soviet special cancellations, the author for soom
reason incluce3d o,.1y one; .that of Kiev 1928 (illustration 220), which is
not a special cancellation but an ordinary one of the advertising type (slogan
Special cancellation of Western Ukraina likewise are not covered completely.

A section that deserves.attention is the one listing labels for sealing
letters, which includes 391 items with 245 illustrations. In general, the
abundance of illustrations helps foreigners, unfamiliar with the language to
usa the catalogue. The catalogue may be obtained from the author J..!aksim-
ch&k, 1622 N. Monitor Ave., Chicago, Ill. or from R. Polchaninoff, 411
Montauk Avenue, Brooklyn 8, N.Y.

Page 64 No. 65 S


i r



Kurt Adler, Now York

An interesting philatelic item of the often confused Civil War era in
Russia has recently come into my hands. It is a registered parcel post accom-
panying form, obligatory when mailing a parcel in Russia. Postage stamps had
to be affixed not to the parcel but to the accompanying form. This particular
one went from Moscow, December 3, 1920 to Balanda, Gouv, Saratov, and was back-
stamped there December 10, 1920. The parcel was mailed at the Post Office of
the Commissariat for Post and Telegraph (N.K.P.T.). The color of the postmark
is blue. The parcel was insured for 700 rubles and the fee plus the registra-
tion fee was 39 rubles. This being the first re-valuation period of Russian
stamps----in March 1920 it was decided to use the kopek values of the arms
type up to 20 kop. value at 100 times their face value. The sendor used a 15
and a 20 kop. stamps to make up a 35 ruble rate. The Post Offic3 must have
run out of the low kopok denomination stamps and could not furnish enough stanpr
to make up the additional 4 ruble fee which was necessary. Bat chore was a
way out. Either the sender must have returned recently from the Couth of
Russia or South Russian stamps had been recalled by the Central Postal Authori-
ties in Moscow in the connection with the establishment by this time of the
Soviet Government in the South. Anyway, the sender affixed four South Russian
lr./3kop. perforated overprints (thick "1I) on the reverse side of the form
thus making up the necessary 39 ruble fee. Although unsurcharged Russian
stamps at the 100 to 1 revaluation rate were frequently used along with Kuban
stamps in that part of the South Russia, the mixed franking, of the aforement-
ioned type, is the first one to be described as having emanated from Moscow.
One could argue about the legality of this mixture but, after all, it occurred
right at the source, the Commissariat for Post and Telegraph, thus making it
at least official. ED IT 0 R: Kindly see the illustration.

Dr. C. do Stackelborr. Washington, D. C.

I have road with interest Mr. R. Sklarovski's article in #64 of the
Rossica (page 18/19) concerning the two sizes of the 15 kop. stamp of the Arms
type Issue of 1909-1923. I am sorry that Mr. Sklarovski did not refer to pre-
viously printed material on this subject as he could have indicated, when
the "largoU stamps were actually issuou.

In my introduction to the Check List of the Arms Typo Issues in per.'.Ip
24, on page 32, of Rossica :58, I mentioned that the "larger" 15 kop. s- :-.s
first appeared in 1922 or earlier. They were from sheets with P.N. 6 a-id 7,
meaning of course the sheets of 4th printing period of 1922/23, which period
may perhaps started as early as the last months of 1921. The characteristics
of this printing period are described in paragraph 17, on page 19 of Rossica
#57. At that time the plates wore finally cleaned and repaired, and some new
dies wore inserted or even whole panels substituted with the now so called
"largo" 15 kop. dies. The shoots of 15 kop. with P.N. 6 are very rare (it
took me years to obtain one), but the sheets with P.N. 7 1 have never seen
myself, as most of the sheets with the aforementioned plate markings must have
been overprinted in 1922/23 with the Soviet Star and the now values to produce.
Scott Nos. 221, 222, 227 to' 229.

Mr. J. Fohs in his excellent research on the "PLATE NUMBERS" of this
issue, lists on page 30 of B.J.R.P. #31, the P.N. 6 as belonging to VIII B
printing, after P.N. 3 sheets of 1917, but without india+ting any date (year),
i.e. that the P.N. 6 sheets belong to a printing of the year 1922.

No. 65 Page 65

On my sheet of 15 kop. with P.N. 6 marking, all of the stamps are of the
so-called "large" size. But I aloo have in my collection a Top Right Panel
of Scott #229 (imperforate), overprinted with star and "200 R.", where stamps
Nos. 1-4, 6-10, 21, 24 and 25, of this panel, are of Olarge" size, while the
rest of the stamps in the panel are of normal size. Thus I am assuming that
my sheet with P.N. 6 must be of a later printing, than the above Top Zight
Panel, the P.N.-of which is not known.

By the way, Mr. Fohs indicated in the above mentioned listing of the 15
kop. Plate Numbers, that P.N. 5 is missing. I have a bottom h'lf of such a
sheet (perforated). The "5" is of Type E 1., and is located at the B.R. of
the sheet which is similar to format A8, but with a thin brown horizontal line
below the lower panels and a thick blue vertical line only along the left
border of the sheet.

Also I would like to point out here that his copy of Armenia, Scott #38
of 1920, which he mentions on page 19 cf Fossica #64 can only have a faked
Armenian overprint, as it appears on a a"lr= 15 kop. stamp, which, as ex-
plained above, was only issued two years lator, i.e. in 1920.

Finally I would like to remind our readers that the "larger" 70 kop.
stamps of this issue also exist. Thoy are of 1922 printing, and are described
in paragraph 24 on page 32 of Rossica #58.

Dr. A. H. Wortman, London, England

ROSSICA No. 62. page 5 (ENGTISH EDITION). When I said, in my article of the
first KITAI stamps, that I had never seen a forged overprint, I know that scnmo-
thing would turn up to refute this, and sure enough this is what happened. A
3 kop. with a very good imitation of the overprint and a forged postmark
appeared in an change packet and is now in my collection. The color of the
overprint is very good but the angle is a degree or two more acute, which drew
my attention to it. The letters are also very good, but the serifs are long
and almost touch in the "A" and the 'I's". The top of the "T" is too thick
and the sign over the final letter is a little too big and open. Otherwise
this overprint would deceive anyone who does not specialize in these stamps.

The most remarkable thing about this forged stamp however, is the.postmark.
It is very similar to the SHAWMHAI POCHTOVAYA KONTORA, but with a circle which
is a little too small and the stcp betwo.er th- "'SH' of "SHANfKHlI"' -n.D
the "P" of "POCHTOVAYA" is too near the "SH". It is extraordinary that someone
so knowledgable about the postmark and clover enough to imitate the overprint
so closely should stoop to forgo so cheap a stamp.

Mr. K. Froyman of Cape Town also very-kindly sent me a 1 kop. stamp with
a rather obviously forged KITAI overprint in.black-. The postmark on this stamp
is "POCHT. VAGON No. 25".

BIELOSTOK Rossica No. 62, page 11, paragraph 3. The postmark on this re-
markable piece with the two impressions of the 8 kop., cut toshape, envelope
can be seen from the very good illustration to be BIELOS(TCK).

Rossica No. 62. P,. 36/37. The British Army Postal Service in North Russia
1918-1919 has been very thoroughly dealt with by Major Adrian Hopkins in
Bulletins Nos. 113/114 May-August 1961 of the Postal History Society. He
also exhibited.covers from all the T.P.O's..at the 1060 International Stamp
Exhibition. All the locations of P.O'.s. are now known.. The one hitherto

Page 66 No. 65



S10"SCCW G .P., *WN ..1"


T-IFLiS P.O 72

C ov ER)

P.or it SfLTa cN~ he rond .o ew er CuM a. -s .f b y JOMn, LLopi


a, .C NN.

Wallace Selligman S
6,.. ,/ Kentucky TE otel
...-.. Louisville, Kentucky,
United States of America
Louisville, Kentucky,

unidentified referred to Col. Prince is P.B. 14. It was a cover in my col-
lection with this postmark and also the date-stamp of the 45th Battalion Roy-
al Fusiliers which enabled us to place the location of this P.O. with the aid
of War Office records as being Y AK 0 V L E VSK 0 E. I believe that re-
prints of this article are still available. Send $1.00 to Major A.E. Hopkins,
M.C., Ormonde House, Sion Hill, Bath, Somerset, England.

Rossica No. 63. page 61. Major Prado's query cancellation is most probably
MARIANOPOL in Ukraine.

POLISH FRAMED BI-LINGUAL TOWN STAMPS 1860-1870. Prigara illustrates in PLATE
XVI one for NOWE MIASTO in this type. The town name is focll.d by letters
N/P (N over P). I have just acquired a similar marking on cr,-3 for DOBRZYN.
This is followed by N/W (N over W). Bojanowicz tolls me th% cily these two
towns are known thus, and the postmarks read in full: NOWE -:.; --"0 NAD PILICA
or NOWE MIASTO on the PILICA (river) and DOBRZYN N. WISLA c: .-.,?RZYN on the
Vistula. This was to distinguish them from towns of -i h sarr- na;me. For ex-
ample there is another town NOME MIASTO not far from DOBRZYN as it happens.


In Rossica No. 64 Kurt Adler and 0.A. Faberge give additional data. I
can add one more to the list, No. 37 Saratov used from Samara on 17.5.99.


It was interesting to read Rimma Sklarevskits account of his advertisement
post card (Rossika No. 64, pago 2P). I have a similar item but never been
able to find another. Mine is a 3 kop. Romanov postcard and the inscription
on the lefthand side "Central Office" etc. is exactly the same as on Sklarev-
ski's card in the illustration facing page 25. On the back of the postcard
there is the heading in Russian and Polish of the hat manufacturing firm of
Herman Schlee in Lodz, together with an illustration of an enormous factory.
This heading and the inscription on the front are both printed in green and
thus there is no doubt that it was all done officially by the Central Office
in St. Petersburg.

The printed stamp is cancelled with the double circular dated LCDZ,
17.4.13. The card is addressed to RADOM, and there is an arrival mark of that
town the next day.

Those cards must have been printed in thousands and I expect other
members will be writing to you describing similar items in their possession.

Mr. Bojanowicz tells me that the MINSK referred to in his note about the
faked cover with forged Poland No. 1 is in Poland, although I forgot which
district, and not the MINSK in Russia. It is about 30 miles from Warsaw.

Among my new acquisitions are some combination items of Chinese with
KITAI, one of which has a Chinese T.P.O. PEKIN-SNHANHIKWAN Train No. 3 which
is apparently the first whole example to come to light, although parts are
known on loose stamps. The Russian marks on this postcard are No. 13 F.P.O.
1908 have been added but the one I have real affection for is SALRKAND
ZERAVSH. KR. on cover, probably the first type for this town.

No. 65 Page 67

Raymond S. Ehrman, Pittsburrh, Pennsylvania

Further to the description by Messrs. Cronin and Stephen in their series
on Tannou Touva and all their comment in the Journal of -my cover bearing a ma-
nuscript surcharge from Kizil, I now enclose a photograph'of the cover so that
follow members may see what it looks like. Mailed as a registered, cover under
#102 from Kizil on February 22, 1938, it is addressed to Louisville, Ky., and
franked with two values of the 1936 Jubilee set. In this particular case, the
two stamps are the 6 and 20 kop. values, the first of which has a manuscript
"12", written in violet ink over the figure "6", thus giving the cover a total
franking of 32 kop. This cover did not reach Louisville until.July 6, 1938 a
good 4- months after the letter was originally mailed; this alone is enough tc
cast considerable doubt on the many philatelic covers addressed to U.S. in 1?'`'
which appear to have taken only about 26 days on the average to make a similar
lengthy journey.

A. Cronin, Windsor, Ontario, Canada

The postmark inscribed "Port Imperatora Aleksandra III was first seen by
me about five years ago with subscript "b" dated 1909 on a copies of the 1
ruble Arms type. A search in atlases and gazeteers yielded no results and
when an unquiry was addressed to Dr. Seichter, the noted Ukraine specialist in
Germany and the possessor of a Russian postal guide of 1914, he was able to
tell me that it was in the Libava (Libau) postal district. There the matter
rested until a short time ago when I was consulting the monumental Russian
Brockhaus and Ephron Encyclopaedia and the heading "Libavsky Port" caught my
eye on page 630 of Volume XVIIa. Reading further, the article under this
heading stated in the very first -sentence that the Port of Libava (Liepaja in
Latvian) was the general name for two separate establishments: the commercial
port and the naval base, the latter being given the name of "Port Icpor.tcrn
Alexandra III"(Port of Emperor Alexander III) by Imperial decree dated Dec. 6,
1894. The sources credited at the end of the article include a book by Zharin-
tsov entitled "About the arming of the P.rt Emperor Alexander III at Libavat',
published at St. Petersburg in 1895. .A p'.card, written by a doctor at the
base and cancelled with tho cancel, sh'zing the "a" subscript dated Nov. 24,
1911 is shown herewith.

Belmont Faries, Annandale. Virginia., Editor of S.P.A. Journal

I am amazed at the amount of specialized material you manage to crowd
into each issue of the Rossica Journal.

Joshua Hodgson, ScarborouEh, Ontario. Canada

I have heard several collectors as well as a local dealer (I might add our
most learned and respected dealer in'Toronto) mention the fact that many modern
issues of the Soviet period are still possibly being printed, evidence in one
instance being shown as different papers on the Tchelyuskin issue of 1935, one
type of paper being used on a set bought in Europe in -1935, and another type
on a set from a recent order received from a U.S. wholesaler. Also, a foot
note in the Michel Katalog following #1709-90 (the 1955 North Pole overprints)
indicate that special printings were made for collectors. I would appreciate
hearing from our specialists on this matter.

Stamp Collectors, London, England (February 2/62)
When Russia introduced its now currency on January 1st, 1961, weather
conditions have prevented delivery of the new stamps to Aktyubinsk in Khazakh-
stan in time for release on that day.

Page 68 No. 65

Instructions were received from the Central Post Office to re-value the
outgoing 40 kopecs stamps with a surcharge reading (in Russian): "The valua
is 4 kop. from 1.1.61". This provisional was li:-itcd to the estimated re-
quirements for one day, thought to be no more than 1,000 copies. Few examples
appear to have survived but 12 are known to be in possession of the Irkutsk
Stamp Club.

William Stephen, Aberlour. Banffshire, Scotland

I had intended to be writing you regarding two points raised in the last
number of Rossica, namely No. 64, page 38 (English Edition). Rimma Sklnvki
discusses several of his outstanding covers, which incidentally are vo:. f..:
mao-:rial on which he is to be congratulated. The queries No. 2, the Ch:;.-
jui Transcaspian Oblast, Leutonant Volinetz. This type of post card has '-.:n
roperted to us from E. G. Pool, BSRP President, only difference being his
nu.rar in oval is given as C.C.C.4598, whereas Rimma gives his as C.C.C.4 5I,
a s7all matter probably being caused by either Rimma or Eric giving wrong
last digit. This is a personal hand stamp, and the C.C.C. 4598 in center
may be Lt. Vcliuetz membership number in some international exchange club.
(Say something like Corclo Colloctionnours de Cartes-Postales). The high
number is qujio possible, such high membership numbers were not unusual in
the early 9l0/-1.920s. It did not moan there were really 5000 active members
of the partic-lar club, the total being probably being nearer to 1000 mark,
but members allotted to earlier numbers dropping out were not re-allocated,
and newcomers received constantly higher numbers. The Volinetz address spe-
cifies Tchardjoui-Bookhara confirming the town was part of the Emirate.
(There has boon some who querriod this).

The fact that this correspondence has been preserved points to its being
philatelic in some manner, the double oval marking taking the eye of collect-

Another query by J. F. Chudoba on page 59. He raise the matter of the
spelling of TIREBOLI or as he states TERIBOLI. The Tireboli inscription is
the Western mode of spelling as will be found on all maps. The Russian ins-
cription on all cancollers soon by us is TEREBOLI. Incidentally I am the
possessor of the only copy of this particular cancellation in black on the
7 kop. 1884 issue of Lovant. See Fig. 744, page 517, which is one of my
proudest possessions, picked up for a few coppers from a BSRP Exchange Packet.
You will note all our illustrations of Tireboli are inscribed TEREBOLI.

John Llovd, Aldham. Cllchostoer, England

Seing your little piece in Journal "64" announcing the latest Soviet Ca-
talogue on hand I would like to bring to your notice that since this 1957
number, this same Office has published further supplements.

A'1958-59 catalogue was printed 19/IX/1960, 30,000 copies in the same
size and style.

On August 22, 1962 a further supplement was p"irted for 1960-61, 40,000
copies. Tr.is last edition is of .slihtly larger ':z -.rnd the "Size of the
Shots" table has bcc c: ite-. :i-her are the rdr ,.ci.s cf varieties arc
giver. t -ery interestlr -ir -i:-' + r;to about th-.r,. catalogues, is that oech
new publication has boon ie.o-.,e i: numbers printed, i.e. : 1959 25,000
copies, 1960 30,000 and 1962 40,000.

No. 65 Page 69

My correspondents over there in the.U.S.S.R. have always said that they
were in short supply and often difficult to come by. With so many people
collecting Soviet stamps over there I can understand there not being any
surplus. Of course stamps from the Republics of the Communist Block are, too,
available and are automatically collected and for this purpose the Main
Philatelic Office of the Ministry of Culture of the R.S.F.S.R. print catalogue,
of stamps of those countries. I have at hand the latest catalogue of
Cloohoslovakia printed in the same style but only 15,000 copies.

Since the publication of the booklet "A Hundred Years of Russian Postage
Stamp" of 1958 described I believe by Kurt Adler in-a previous number of
Rossica.I have received from.the Soviet Union, the following Philatelic Pub-

1). KAK SOBIRAT POCHTOVIE MARKI (How to collect postage stamps) by I.
Daiichos. Apart from a hundred pages of reading matter it contains 24
colored plates illustrating stamps of the Whole World. On an early page
of this publication there are illustrated in black a copy of the First
Penny Black and a Mulready envelope. I cannot imagine how the average
Soviet citizen is going to acquire this last item. This book was printed
in January 1958 -40,000 copies published by the young Guards" Moscow.

2). 0 CHEM RASSAZIVAUT MAKI Published in September 1959 by the Philatelic
Office of the Ministry of Culture in a stiff boards. The book, written
by Bershadsky is very humorously illustrated by A. Itkina and G. MakEi-
mova. This book I feel would be well worth reviewing by someone more
qualified in the Russian language than myself.

3). Talking Stamps by V. Alo3sev. This interesting stiff covered booklet,
of 125 pages was published by the Ministry of Culture in Kharkov in -.v
1961 30,000 copies. It describes, other than modern Soviet stamps,
the first 10 kop., Romanovs, .lp:eraal Charity stamps, Zemstvos, Chineso
and Levant overprints, Georgia and Far East Soviet overprints and is

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