<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Index
 Officers of the society
 Representatives of the society
 Editorial
 Life of the society
 The transmission of mails on steamships...
 Imperforate by O. A. Faberge
 Kitai overprints of 1899-1908 under...
 Some notes on used abroad by G....
 My exhibition sheets of the imperial...
 The small current stamps by A....
 The story behind Podbelsky commemorative...
 The ancient Russian posts by Maria...
 The stamps of the Russian Socialistic...
 Russian postal rates by M....
 Some additional cancellations on...
 The Finnish raid into East Karelia...
 Mongolia and Mongols, translated...
 A multiple Russian, Chinese, and...
 An early Russian meter by...
 Stamps of the western army and...
 Tannou-Touva: A general survey...
 What is your answer!
 Notes from collectors
 Reviews


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00005
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1964
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00005

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Index
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
    Life of the society
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The transmission of mails on steamships in Russia by N. I. Sokolov
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Imperforate by O. A. Faberge
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 14a
        Page 15
    Kitai overprints of 1899-1908 under ultra violet light by Fred W. Speers
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Some notes on used abroad by G. H. Torrey
        Page 20
    My exhibition sheets of the imperial issues previously used during the revolutionary and inflationary period of RSFSR 1917-1923 by John Lloyd
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
    The small current stamps by A. Prado
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    The story behind Podbelsky commemorative by A. Cronin
        Page 31
    The ancient Russian posts by Maria Nikolaevna Vitashovskeya
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    The stamps of the Russian Socialistic Soviet Republic by R. Sklarovski
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Russian postal rates by M. M. Kessler
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 46a
        Page 46b
    Some additional cancellations on Russia no. 1 by O. A. Faberge
        Page 47
    The Finnish raid into East Karelia 1921-1922 by A. Cronin
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Mongolia and Mongols, translated from Russian by C. P. Bulak
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    A multiple Russian, Chinese, and Japanese cancelled post card by Melvin M. Kessler
        Page 56
        Page 56a
        Page 56b
    An early Russian meter by A. Cronin
        Page 57
    Stamps of the western army and of Asobny Astrad and their counterfeits by R. Polchaninoff
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Tannou-Touva: A general survey by A. Cronin and W. S. E. Stephen
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 64b
    What is your answer!
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Notes from collectors
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Reviews
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
Full Text

THE JOURNAL
of the
* ROSSICA SOCIETY
of

RUSSIAN PHILATELY
Silver Medals at Belrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937"and
the International exhibition, Koenifsberr "Ostropa 1935"
Bronse Medals at the International Exhibition "P-ag 195"and
Vienna International Exhibition"WIPA1933"
recent t International Awards:
Silver Medals at Berlin,Bephila 1957" Parana."Eficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires,"Temex 1958"
Hamburg "Interposta 1959" Palermo "Sicilia 1959" "Barcelona 1960" -
Johannesburg "Unipex 1960" Warsaw "Polska 1960" Prague "Praga 1962"
and Luxembourg "Melusina '63"













o66 P OCCHa 19



PYCIKOFO 3APYEllHOFO *4IJATFJIlCI ECKiOFI
O UI EC TB A,
Editor
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.









EDITOR IN CHIEF

Hon. Memb. Dr. G. B. Bondarenko-Salisbury


PUBLISHER AND EDITOR EDITOR
OF ENGLISH EDITION OF RUSSIAN EDITION

Hon. Memb. R. A. Sklarevski Hon. Memb. V. A. Kurbas


PUBLISHER OF RUSSIAN EDITION AND BUSINESS MANAGER

Hon. Memb. A. N. Lavrov
P. 0. Box 406 Englewood, N. J., 07631

EDITORIAL BOARD

1. Cronin Hon. Membes; K. Adler 0. A. Faberge K. Jansson E. Marcovitch


I N D E X
Pages
2 Officers of the Society, Hon. Members and Representatives of the Society
3-4 Editorial. Life of the Society.
5-11 The Transmission of Mails on Steamships in Russia. N. I. Sokolov
12-15 Imporforate. 0. A. Faberge
16-18 Kitai Overprints of 1899-1908 Under Ultra Violet Light. Fred W. Speers
20 Some Notes on Used Abroad. G. H. Torrey
21-26 My Exhibition Sheets of the Imperial Issues Previously Used During the
Revolutionary and Inflationary Period of RSFSR 1917-1923. J. Lloyd- Part 1
27-30 The Small Current Stamps. A. Prado
31-32 The Story Behind Podbolsky Commemorative. A. Cronin
32-40 The Ancient Russian Posts. Maria Nikolaevna Vitashevskaya
40-44 The Stamps of the Russian Socialistic Soviet Republic. R. Sklarevski
45-47 Russian Postal Rates. M. M. Kessler Part I
47 Some Additional Cancellations on Russia No. 1. 0. A. Faberge
48-50 The Finnish Raid Into East Karelia 1921-1922. A. Cronin
S50-51. Documents Concerning the Russian Posts Abroad During the 18th Century. -
D. N. Minchev
51-56 Mongolia and Mongols. translated from Russian by C. P. Bulak
56-57 A Multiple Russian, Chinese and Japanese Cancelled Post Card. M. M. Kessler
57-58 An Early Russian Meter. A. Cronin
58-61 Stamps of the Western Army and of Asoby Atrad and Their Counterfeits. -
R. Polchaninoff
61-65 Tannou-Touva L General Survey. A. Cronin and W. S. E. Stephen
65-66 What is Your Answer
67-73 Notes from Collectors.
73-76 Reviews.








OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson

HONORARY ME MBERS

K. Adler K. Jansson V. Kurbas G. B. Salisbury
J. F. Chudoba N. I. Kardakoff A. N. Lavrov R. A. Sklarevski
O. A. Faberge A. Kotlar E. I. Marcovitch


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

New York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, New York
San Francisco K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Western U S A L. S. Glass 1533 So La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif.


Argentina B. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth St. Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxalles, Brussels
Brazil A. Vansovich c/o Livraria Freitas Bastes, Caixa
(Rio Region)
Brazil P. Beloff Rua Martiniano de Carvalho 197, Sao Paulo
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Germany E. P. Fomin Munich 54, Rudinstr. 9, West Germany
Great Britain J. Barry 77A St. James Road, Sutton Surrey, England
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel
Toronto, Canada G. Rodsay Woda 65 Dorking St., Downsview, Ontario, Canada


The views expressed by the authors are their own and the editors disclaim
responsibility.

Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries of the world. **
Application forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request.
Membership L$sts, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists
will,be sent out annually. Kindly make chocks payable to A. N. Lavrow, the
Societyts Treasurer P. 0. Box 406, Englevood, New Jersey, 07631.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The
rates are as follows: Full page.add is $30.00. Half page is $15.00.
Quarter page is $7.50. Five (5) lines is $2.50. Members of the Rossioa
Society pay only one half or 50% of the above rates for the A D.D S, .
Therefore the net cost of advertisements to members is 25.cents per line.
We have for sale back numbers of some issues of the journal, both in English
and Russian language Editions.

* UN I T ED STATES D U E S are $4.00 per annum.



Page 2 No. 66








OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson

HONORARY ME MBERS

K. Adler K. Jansson V. Kurbas G. B. Salisbury
J. F. Chudoba N. I. Kardakoff A. N. Lavrov R. A. Sklarevski
O. A. Faberge A. Kotlar E. I. Marcovitch


REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

New York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, New York
San Francisco K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Western U S A L. S. Glass 1533 So La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif.


Argentina B. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth St. Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxalles, Brussels
Brazil A. Vansovich c/o Livraria Freitas Bastes, Caixa
(Rio Region)
Brazil P. Beloff Rua Martiniano de Carvalho 197, Sao Paulo
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Germany E. P. Fomin Munich 54, Rudinstr. 9, West Germany
Great Britain J. Barry 77A St. James Road, Sutton Surrey, England
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel
Toronto, Canada G. Rodsay Woda 65 Dorking St., Downsview, Ontario, Canada


The views expressed by the authors are their own and the editors disclaim
responsibility.

Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries of the world. **
Application forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request.
Membership L$sts, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists
will,be sent out annually. Kindly make chocks payable to A. N. Lavrow, the
Societyts Treasurer P. 0. Box 406, Englevood, New Jersey, 07631.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The
rates are as follows: Full page.add is $30.00. Half page is $15.00.
Quarter page is $7.50. Five (5) lines is $2.50. Members of the Rossioa
Society pay only one half or 50% of the above rates for the A D.D S, .
Therefore the net cost of advertisements to members is 25.cents per line.
We have for sale back numbers of some issues of the journal, both in English
and Russian language Editions.

* UN I T ED STATES D U E S are $4.00 per annum.



Page 2 No. 66







EDITORIAL

We take this opportunity to thank most of our members for their kind
words of praise about the 1963 journals. We promise to continue the progress
and jo improve in 1964.

Andrew Cronin, internationally known specialist in Russian philately and
a prolific contributor in the past has been appointed to the editorial board.
He brings to us a vast knowledge of Russia in the Balkans and in the Far East.

The Editors welcome three new honorary members of the society: Kurt
Adler, noted specialist in Russian philately in all of its fields, and active
in the society affairs and the journal, Oleg A. Faberge, another specialist
of international stature and a prolific author in philatelic research, and
Joseph F. Chudoba who besides his philatelic achievements has served Rossica
Society nobly as the Chairman of the N. Y. Section and as the Chairman of the
Constitution and Election Committoos. Congratulations&

Our journal is being exhibited at the Paris Philatelic Exhibition in June
and at the World's Fair in New York. We have edited the special Rcssica Issue
of Linn's, we have been reviewed by STAMPS, SPA Journal, reprinted in"Covers"
magazine, Polonus Bulletin and others. This valuable publicity has added
many now members and has furthered Russian philately. We must move ahead


LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

Our treasurer A. Lavrov reports the following contributors who have help-
ed the society beyond paying their dues in 1963. Dr. G. B. Salisbury donated
$191.25, besides paying the Annual beating expenses. J. Fohs donated $10.00,
F. Spoers $15.00, B. Shishkin $5.00, 0. M. Tishlarich $7.00, Dr. Gordon Torrey
$10.00, Mrs. C. Downs $7.00, Dr. Kozakewicz $10.00, J. F. Chudoba $5.00, K. A.
Jannson $30.00 and C. P. Bulak $6.00.

The Annual Joint Meeting of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately and
the British Society of Russian Philately took place Nov. 23-24 at the Manger-
Vanderbilt Hotel, with a record breaking attendance, despite the tragic assas-
sination of President Kennedy. Members met at Dr. Salisbury's suite on Satur-
day afternoon, then dined, later held a meeting in the suite. After the meet-
ing refreshments were served to nearly forty members and their wives.

On Sunday, the annual bourse was held at noon, followed by a drawing for
a door prize donated by Dr. Salisbury. The prize, a superbly cancelled copy
of Russia No. 1 was won by Lydia Callahan. The joint meeting was opened by
Dr. Salisbury who read letters and telegrams from all over the world congratu-
lating us and wishing us well. Ho stressed afterwards the great growth of
interest in Russian philately, prizes won by our members and by the Rossica
Journals at the internationals. The principal speaker on the program that
followed was Dr. Kozekewicz who displayed an album of outstanding rarities
of Polish philately, one of the world's greatest collections. Among the
scarce items shown were all of the cancels used in Poland from 1762 to date
stampless covers such as 1555 Poland and Venice, amazing display of Poland 'l,
including a stamp with a broken K in the K 0 P E C K, not yet written up.

Rossica Society hold a series of meetings during the INTERPEX E dhibition
on Sunday March 8, 1964. The morning sessions were held by the officers at
Dr. Salisbury's suite at the Americana Hotel. The new Constitution was

No. 66 Page 3







EDITORIAL

We take this opportunity to thank most of our members for their kind
words of praise about the 1963 journals. We promise to continue the progress
and jo improve in 1964.

Andrew Cronin, internationally known specialist in Russian philately and
a prolific contributor in the past has been appointed to the editorial board.
He brings to us a vast knowledge of Russia in the Balkans and in the Far East.

The Editors welcome three new honorary members of the society: Kurt
Adler, noted specialist in Russian philately in all of its fields, and active
in the society affairs and the journal, Oleg A. Faberge, another specialist
of international stature and a prolific author in philatelic research, and
Joseph F. Chudoba who besides his philatelic achievements has served Rossica
Society nobly as the Chairman of the N. Y. Section and as the Chairman of the
Constitution and Election Committoos. Congratulations&

Our journal is being exhibited at the Paris Philatelic Exhibition in June
and at the World's Fair in New York. We have edited the special Rcssica Issue
of Linn's, we have been reviewed by STAMPS, SPA Journal, reprinted in"Covers"
magazine, Polonus Bulletin and others. This valuable publicity has added
many now members and has furthered Russian philately. We must move ahead


LIFE OF THE SOCIETY

Our treasurer A. Lavrov reports the following contributors who have help-
ed the society beyond paying their dues in 1963. Dr. G. B. Salisbury donated
$191.25, besides paying the Annual beating expenses. J. Fohs donated $10.00,
F. Spoers $15.00, B. Shishkin $5.00, 0. M. Tishlarich $7.00, Dr. Gordon Torrey
$10.00, Mrs. C. Downs $7.00, Dr. Kozakewicz $10.00, J. F. Chudoba $5.00, K. A.
Jannson $30.00 and C. P. Bulak $6.00.

The Annual Joint Meeting of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately and
the British Society of Russian Philately took place Nov. 23-24 at the Manger-
Vanderbilt Hotel, with a record breaking attendance, despite the tragic assas-
sination of President Kennedy. Members met at Dr. Salisbury's suite on Satur-
day afternoon, then dined, later held a meeting in the suite. After the meet-
ing refreshments were served to nearly forty members and their wives.

On Sunday, the annual bourse was held at noon, followed by a drawing for
a door prize donated by Dr. Salisbury. The prize, a superbly cancelled copy
of Russia No. 1 was won by Lydia Callahan. The joint meeting was opened by
Dr. Salisbury who read letters and telegrams from all over the world congratu-
lating us and wishing us well. Ho stressed afterwards the great growth of
interest in Russian philately, prizes won by our members and by the Rossica
Journals at the internationals. The principal speaker on the program that
followed was Dr. Kozekewicz who displayed an album of outstanding rarities
of Polish philately, one of the world's greatest collections. Among the
scarce items shown were all of the cancels used in Poland from 1762 to date
stampless covers such as 1555 Poland and Venice, amazing display of Poland 'l,
including a stamp with a broken K in the K 0 P E C K, not yet written up.

Rossica Society hold a series of meetings during the INTERPEX E dhibition
on Sunday March 8, 1964. The morning sessions were held by the officers at
Dr. Salisbury's suite at the Americana Hotel. The new Constitution was

No. 66 Page 3









discussed and Chairman Chudoba promised printed copies soon, to be submitted
to the members for approval. Plans were drawn up for the general.elections
to be hold this summer. Afterwards all those present were guests of Dr. G.
B. Salisbury at a luncheon. At 2pm. a general meeting was held preceded by a
lecture "Russian America" presented by Dr. Salisbury, along with ancient
Russian maps, documents and books. Over forty members filled the room, and
several new members joined during the session. The highlight of the meeting
was Vincent W. Alones, President of Lithuanian Philatelic Society who invited
us to participate in the philatelic exhibition at the World's Fair this summer.

The secretariat acknowledged the receipt of nominating petitions signed
by the chairmen and members of the New York branch, the Los Angeles, the San
Francisco and the London Groups of Rossica, nominating all of the present
officers for another three year term. The Now York group also nominated Kurt
Adler and Vsevclod Kurbas as directors under the new constitution. Ballots
will be sent out this summer accordingly.

New membership list will be sent out soon. Our old list is obsolete be-
cause many members have moved, some dropped out, many new ones joined up.

We congratulate our member James Negus on assuming the editorship of the
STAMP LOVER the Journal of the Junior Philatelic Society of Great Britain.
Good luck

Congratulations to Fred W. Speors for winning a Gold Medal at Sescal for
his outstanding "Russian Offices in China" and to Mr. Liphschutz of Paris for
winning a Gold Medal at ISTANBUL, the only Frenchman winning such a high prize
at the exhibition.

Congratulations to M. A. Bojanowiz of England for being awarded the Col-
lectors Club Medal for the best program of 1963 for "Kingdom of Poland" pre-
sented March 20, 1963. The medal was presented at the annual dinner held on
Mey 13, 1964.

The Baltimore Sun, Baltimore's top newspaper gave our editor-publisher
Rimma A. Sklarevski a fine write up about his philatelic activities, especial-
ly for editing the "Baltimore Philatelist".

Kurt Adler recently had an excellent article published in the Bulgarian
"Philatelic Pregled" dealing with ROPiT in Bulgaria.

Our new member Edith M. Faulstich showed her amazing collection "American
Expeditionary Forces in Siberia" at the Collectors Club in New York. It was
recently written up in the American Philatelic Congress book.

Our member Dr. A. H. Wortman gave a most unusual display of Russia,
Covers and Cancellations 1773-1923 before the Royal Philatelic Society,
London, of which he is a fellow.

Nikolai I. Kardakoff announces that he trades mint stamps of Germany for
U. S., France, Austria, Switzerland. Correspondence in Russian or German.
His address is Berlin-Lichterfelde-Sud, Schwelmeastr. 18.





Page 4 No. 66









THE TRANSMISSION OF MAILS ON STEAMSHIPS IN RUSSIA
by N. I. Sokolov

Compiled by the author from official sources for the Postal-Telegraph
Journal of 1896, page 301 ot seq. Published by the Contral Administration
of Posts and Telegraphs and printed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs
in St. Petersburg. Discovered by our member Hurt Adler.


I. THE TRANSMISSION N OF : AI LS BY SEA

(a). Along the Baltic Sea

The conveyance of Russian postal correspondence by steamer along the
Baltic began in 1827. In the month of May of that year, the steamer "George
IV" belonging to the English merchant Joliffo arrived in St. Petersburg from
London. Since Joliffo wanted to establish regular steamship connections bet-
ween Russia and England, he was required to send his vessel to St. Potorsborg
as often as five times on each voyage. The transmission of mail on Joliffo's
steamers was brought about by an agreement, and the following regulations,
sanctioned by the Director-General of the Postal Department in August 1827,
wore drawn:

(1). Upon arrival of the steamer, a special Customs official was sent
to the ship and it was his duty, together with the captain, to seal
all ordinary letters and deliver them to the Post Office. The bulky
sondings wore delivered by the aforementioned Customs official to
the Customs House for inspection. After listing the letters which
had arrived in the ledgers set aside for this purpose and noting
that they wore received aboard ship, the St. Petersburg Post Office
delivered them to the addressees and the ensuing fees collected
became a portion of the postal revenue.

(2). If the ship's commander, his first mate or any of the passengers
departing from St. Potersturg on the steamer were desirous of
taking with them any letters with a view of delivering thom either
in England or any other country, it was obligatory that all such
letters bo first proscnted at the Post Office whore they were list-
ed in a lodger with a comment that they would be going by the steam-
or and noting the feo paid. ThQ foe paid became a part of the post-
al revenue. After the letters wore postmarked they wore handed
back to the bearers. Moreover, the Customs officials woro obligated
to see that no one aboard the ship had.any letters without a post-
mark.

(3). The postage and harbor fees for the receipt and despatch of letters
by steamer wore collected on the same bcsis as that in force for
transmission by land routes at the ordinary external rate (Regu-
lations 2 & 3 woro eventually incorporated in the Postal Statute of
1857, under articles 506 and 507, in Chapter 8, Section III.

(4). Quite apart from private letters, there wore also packages sent by
steamer under the escort of messengers, officials and other persons,
addressed to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or to the foreign
ambassadors and ministers established in St. Potorsburg, all boar-
ing an inscription in French, reading expeditionn officiollo"
(official sending). The prompt delivery of such items to the

No. 66 Page 5








proper parties was entrusted to the Custons Houso without being prcsonted to
the Post Office, upon the grounds that urgent papers might be enclosed therein
( z. :746FI).

Thc mister of the ship did not have the rioht, either for hinmslf or in
the naJn of the pa-sjsrgers, to accept letters aboard ship for delivery from
St. Petersburg to London or vice versa, or to distribute them according to
address without the knowledge of the (Russian) Postal Administration. In a
case whore anyone of tho passengers received or returned letters without
announcing the matter to the ship's master, the latter was not rendered
liable for punishment, as he was not in the least answerable for the passen-
gers, except whore he took them aboard without the required passports (Para-
graph #4, Memorandum of the Ministry of Finances, sanctioned by Imperial con-
sent on Juno 3, 1827 and relating to the establishment of connections between
St. Petersburg and London by moans of steamers. P.S.Z. #1148).

Two years later, in the month of May 1829, Captain Blake of .the steamer
"Goorge IV" and Schmuckort, the Prussian Postal Councillor, concluded with
Imperial Consent, a special agrooment regarding the transmission of postal
correspondence between Russia and Prussia. Since Blake proved himself to be
a negligent conveyor and tolerated various irrogularitis .in the transmission
of correspondence, the Postmaster-General of the Prussian Posts, Naglor, soon
proposed to our Government that steamers be organized at the expense of the
Prussian Postal Administration for postal communications between Russia,
Prussia, Holland and England, with the proviso that those ships be assigned
the designation of "postal steamers" and that special privologos be granted
by our Government in view of the removal of possible competition between those
ships and other private vessels. Upon examination of this proposal, the State
Council rejected the idea of handing over special concessions to the Prussian
Postal Administration for the establishment of postal steamers and at the same
time it proposed that the income derived from the transmission of postal
correspondence be placed to its own credit. Naglor then suggested that postal
steamers be organized at the general oxponse of both governments, with the
following conditions applying:

(1)'. Thoso stoamors to be free from all general tolls at the ports,
polico-ship dues, etc.

(2). That the steamers not be detained at any port.

(3). .All passengers having sufficient moans to be admitted into Russia
without the observance of further formalities.

(4). The dispatch of steamors by both parties was'to be arranged from
specific ports of mailing, and in addition.the transmission of
goods and money sent through mails was reserved exclusively to of-
ficial steamers to which they would bo forwarded by mail coaches
together with bills of lading (Report of the. Director-General of
the Postal Dopartment, sanctioned by Imperial Consent of April 20,
1830. P.S.Z. #3614).

However, ,tho negotiation initiated by Naglor did not moot with success
at that timo, as a consoquonco of which the transmission of postal corrospon'
donee between Russia and Prussia remained in 1830 with Joliffo's stoanship.

In the meantime, the gradual development of steamer communications in 5
Europe resulting in the floating of esvoral compuni.ns with the aim of linking

Page 6 No. 66








tho most important trading points in Russia with foreign states by moans of
regular steamer routes. Upon tho foundation of such steamship companies,
articles woro generally included in thoir charters about their relations with
the (Russian) Postal Administration in regard to the transmission of mails.
In the connection with the conveyance of correspondence on ordinary ships
in 1830, special regulations wore formulated and eventually incorporated in
the Postal Statute of 1857 (Chapter 8, Section III, pp. 495-505 and 508).

In 1830, our Government permitted the Riga Co, Ltd. to establish regular
steamer connections between Riga, Libava and Lubock. Several special rights
wore reserved for this company, which received the concession for a period of
five years with the stipulation that its steamers should complete at least 18
sailings during the navigable season. It was also allowed to transport postal
sorrospondonco "with the proviso that letters delivered to the ship be pre-
sented to the post offices and that they have a postmark when brought to
Lubeck" (Paragraph #3 Stipulation of the Committee of Ministers about the
granting to the Riga Co., Ltd. of the five-year concession for the establish-
ment of steamer connection between Lubock, Riga and Libava; sanctioned by
Imperial Consent on August 16, 1832. P.S.Z. #5564). Some time later, upon
the initiative of the Landrichter (rural judge) Baron Ungern-Stornborg and
the local merchants Worman and Milno, a second steamship limited company was
formed in Riga, to which the original company handed over its rights for the
establishment of steamer connections between Riga, Lubock and Swinomundo.
Regarding the transmission of postal correspondence, the now concern retained
the rights of the former company (#12, sanctioned by Imperial Consent on No-
vember 9, 1837, Charter of the Riga-Lubeck Steamship Co. P.S.Z. #10694).
Since the founders of the Riga-Lubock Stoamship Co., Ltd. did not commence
operations with the opening of navigations in 1838, they infringed their
charter and so the Government transferred the rights conferred upon them to
the Riga merchant house of Carpontior (Sanctionod by Imperial Consent on Sept.
10, 1840. Stipulation of the Committee of Ministers, P.S.Z. #13778).

The St. Potorsburg-Lubock Steamship Co., Ltd. was formed at the same
time as the Riga-Lubeck Company in 1830. This former company was allowed to
organize two steamers for regular communications betwoon St. Potorsburg and
Lubock, in addition to which it received an oxclusivo concession, initially
for a period of 12 years and subsequently for a furthcr period of four years
to convoy passengers and goods between those ports on the Baltic Sea lying
south of the 55th Parallel. In accordance with paragraph #16 sanctioned by
Imperial Consent on August 5, 1330, the St. Potorsburg-Lubock Co. was obli-
gated by the regulations to "corE to an agreement with the Russian as well as
well as the Prussian post offices so that letters to and from Russia be re-
coived aboard ship on each voyage and promptly delivered to the post offices
at the lowest possible cost" (P.S.Z. #-337).

Upon the completion of the term of the concession granted to the St.
Potorsburg-Lubock Co., the maritime connection between St. Petersburg and
Stettin was maintained by Russo-Prussian postal steamers after the conclusion
of a special agreement, drwn up betwoon Russia and Prussia on Juno 19/July 1,
1843. In addition to the improvement of postal communications, the Postal
Steamship Authority had a duty to promote Russian trade with foreign count-
rios, in consequence of which it was put on a commercial basis. The capital
for the establishing this government-commorcial enterprise was borrowed by
our Government from the funds of the Department of Mail Coaches.

By virtue of the agreement concluded between Russia and Prussia, pas-
songers, lottors, parcels money, goods and other objects "transportable by
steamers" (Article #1) were convoyed on postal steamers. There was no special

No. 66 Pago 7









tariff determined for the transmission of letters between the Russian and
Prussian postal adminisroaticns; the calculation.and collection'of harbor
duos for such correspondence was regulated witho'signing of the Russo-Prussian
Convention of May 21/June 2, 1884. The rates for the transport of passengers,
goods and other cargo were determined in a.reciprocal agreement between the
Russian and Prussian postal administrations andin addition, it was proposed
to the former to"boar in mind that in this enterprise, undertaken for mutual
benefit, the idea was not one of the possible monetary advantage, but above
all the mutual sharing of expenses" (Article #10). The levying of duties
receivable upon each arrival of the steamer, excluding the charges for letters,
was calculated by the postal authorities at the port of departure, without
any discrimination shown by the latter against either the Russian or Prussian
governments.

Each year, upon the cessation of navigation, the entire income received
by each of the participating governments was pooled and tho total amount was
divided into two equal portions between both postal administrations. The
settling of accounts and the computations wore performed by the St. Petersburg
and Tilsit post offices (Article #11).

The following rights wore reserved for the postal steamers maintaining
communications between St. Petersburg and Stettin:

(1) Tho steamers wore not liable for the payment of harbor duties (in
Russia, the lighter-ship dues).

(2). If it were ever necessary to.make repairs to the ship's engines
whilst in a port of the foreign country, the shints captain had the
right to avail himself of the services existing in the harbor in
the way of state workmen, yards and tools.

Quite apart from these rights, which were available to the postal steamer;
"the Russian and Prussian postal administrations obtsined for themselves and
their governments still further amenities by the agreement of 1843 with re-
gard to exemption from general customs and police regulations. The principal
exemptions consisted of the followings:

(1). In P R U S S IA .

S (a). The'commanders of postal steamers were freed from the necessity of
appearing personally at the Navigation.Commission at Swinemundo for
the presentation of shipping documents; instead, they showed them
to an official of this Commission who went aboard the ship and coup-
lotod all proceedings while the.vessel was in transit between
Swinemundo and Stottin.

(b) .The commanders of postal; steamers were not required to take on a
pilot for the voyage between Swinmiundo and Stottin.

.(2) .In R U S S IA

(a). The postal steamers wore required to drop anchor not far away from
the police-ship, and..on approaching the latter, a penant had to be
hoisted and the s teamer was toproceed to the minor roadstoad.

"(b). Upon disembarkmont of the passengers, the postal steamers wore
permitted to load coal immediately thereafter.

Pag 8 No. 66








(c). Moreover, in accordance with the agreement reached with the
Ministry of Finances, the Superintendent of the Corps of Gendarmes
and the Military Governor-General of St. Petersburg, certain faci-
lities wore arranged for postal steamers upon the establishment of
the Postal Steamship Authority with regard to the examination of
passagerial belongings, the issuance of shipping passports, visas
for the passengers' passports, etc.

In accordance with the 1843 agreement, the Russian and Prussian postal
steamers were built in England. The Russian ship received the name "Vladimir"
and the Prussian "Nikolaus I". By Imperial decree, the steamer "Vladimir" was
directed to fly the flag of the St. Petersburg and Kronstadt Transport Courts,
with the addition, in the upper right portion of the design, of a posthorn
done in yellow; at the bow of this same vessel, there was to appear the figure
of the Russian double-headed eagle (Edict of the Sovereign, Feb. 13, 1845.
P.S.Z. #18728).

For the administration of the affairs of the Postal Steamship Authority
in accordance with the above-mentioned edict (which passed into the Postal
Statute of 1857 under chapter 5, section III, pp. 325-327), the Department
of the Postal Steamship Authority was set up under the jurisdiction of the
Director-General of the Postal Department and under the direct guidance of
the Postmaster of the St. Petersburg Post Office. The activities of the
Postal Steamship Authority wore not regarded as a government service; in con-
sequence of this, it was left to the St. Petersburg Postmaster- with the per-
mission of the Director-General, to determine the necessary amount of person-
nel of various callings required for this department, and including oven civil
servants in government positions, if their normal duties did not take up their
full time. The not income of the steamer, over and above all expenses, was
paid into one of the state credit institutions, and by Imperial Consent, this
amount was used for the expansion of the activities of the Postal Steamship
Authority (P.S.Z. #18728).

At first, the postal steamers ran routes between Kronstadt and Swino-
mundo and later between Kronstadt and Stottin via Swinomunde. In 1851, the
postal communications between these ports wore maintained by means of the
Prussian steamer "Der Proussischo Adler" (The Prussian Eagle), and the acti-
vities of the Postal Steamship Authority were tcrminated in 1863.

Postal connection with Finland along the Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Fin-
land) were at first maintained by the Abo Steam Navigation Co. which ran ser-
vices between Reval and Helsingfors. The transmission of correspondence on
these steamers was carried out on the basis of the following regulations, sot
out in the Edict of the Sovereign, dated July 29, 1839:

(1). It was permissable to send letters by steamer upon the payment of
postage at the established rate and this applied also to newspapers
sent to foreign and inland destinations. Any letter or package sent
in this manner had to bear thereon the notation S parokhodom "
(by steamer).

(2). It was permissable to send to internal destinations, upon the pVy-
ment of the designated postage and insurance, any package with
articles weighing up to a "Lis" pound, which could be conveniently
packed in the postal trunks and not containing therein any objects
capable of damaging the bundles of letters, or goods which wore
forbidden to be imported into Russia.

No. 66 Page9








(3). Letters and parcels from Finland to Rovsl had to be handed over in
the latter port to the main post office "each and very one of them
in the presence of witnesses". Moreover, parcels were delivered
to the Roval Customs House for inspection.

(4). It was pormissablo to send only ordinary letters from Roval to Fin-
land through the mails.

(5). It was forbidden to send Russian bank notes (currency bills) through
the mails from Finland to Russia.

(6). The skippers, crow and passengers were forbidden to bring aboard
ship any money or articles in soled packages and also to convey
letters and newspapers except through the mails, upon pain of a
fine (P.S.Z. #12583).

In the 1860s, postal correspondence addressed to Finland was carried by
the Dolphin Navigation and Steamship Co., whose steamer, the "Victoria", main-
tained routes between St. Petersburg, Vyborg, Fredrikshamn, Lovisa and Hel-
singfors. The Dolphin Co. voluntarily assumed the responsibility of trans-
porting ordinary and valuable correspondence free of charge, in addition to
which it arranged for fireproof boxes to safeguard the latter. Moreover, a
special cabin was set aside for the postal official accompanying the mails,
without any fee being charged by the company/ For the granting of such
facilities to the postal administration, the Dolphin Co. received permission
in 1866 to fly the postal flag of the transport courts at the masts of tha
"Victoria".

During 1860s and 1870s, the transmission of postal correspondence along
the Baltic Sea was also carried out between the following ports:

(1). Between Riga and Pornov by moans ;of steamers "Pornov-and-Riga",
"Fellin", "Olga" and "Livonia".

(2). Between Riga, Vindava and Libava by means of steamers "Dagmar" and
"Kurland".

(3). Between Riga, Arensburg, Monzundt (also spelled Moonzund, being
the sound between the Estonian mainland and the islands of Dago,
Osel and Moon, the latter being known to the Estonians as Hiiumaa
Saaromaa and Muhu respectively), Hapsal, Roval and St. Petersburg
by means of the steamers "Admiral", "Leander" and "Ale3mnder II".

(4.) Between Riga Aronsburg and Hapsal by means of steamer "Constan-
tine".

(5). Between Riga, Dubbeln and Schlock by means of steamer "Omnibus".

On all those steamers, *ordinary corrospondence was convoyed free of
charge, either in satchels delivered to the captains and their mates, thus
inconveniencing them, or by moans of letter boxes placed on steamers. For
the transmission of insured mail which was accompanied by officials, an in-
significant compensation was paid to several ship owners.

Postal connections with the,islands in the Baltic Sea are being main-
tained by steamers right up to the present ti-m (1 896).

Page 10 No. 66










In 1870, an attempt was made to establish regular postal connections
between the (Russian) Baltic Ports and Stockholm during wintertime by means
of the Swedish postal steamer "Sofia", but this effort was not crcwned with
success as the ship could not proceed through the ice.

(to be continued)

00000000000000000000
ooooooooooooooCooooo

E D I T 0 R I A L C 0 M M E N T: The interesting information given in the
above section of Mr. Sokolov s fascinating study will enable many of the spe-
cialists to correlate any letters and covers they may have relating to this
sphere and period, and we would be very happy to publish their comments and
discoveries in our "Notes from Collectors" section. We especially feel that
examination of covers and letters carried by steamers to and from Estonian
islands of Dago, Osel and Moon (Hiiumaa Saaroma and Muhu) would yold some
very interesting discoveries and make a fine study for our Journal. How
about it, spocialistst.

The next installment of !Mr. Sokolov's work will deal with the Russian
Posts in Turkey, including the activities of the ROPiT, and we promise that
it will be as big an eye-opener as the present section we have printed hero.

Last, but not by any moans least, our thanks go to our Hon. member Kurt
Adler, through whose porsovoranco and her- work, this and other wonderful
articles from the Postal-Telegraph Journals have been brought to light.

oooooooooooooooooooo

OOoo000000000000000000000000. OCooo0oooooooo000000ooo o. ooeeoooooooO ooooooooO
o 0
o ERRORS AND VARIETIES o
o o
o Large Selection -- Accumulation of 35 years Russia, Border States, o
o o
o Latvia, Lithuania and many other countries. o
o 0
o o
o Also a specialized stock of AIRMAILS and TOPICALS, U. N., ROTARY, UPU, o
o o
o REFUGEE, EUROPA, OLYMPICS, etc. and etc. o
o o
o c
o Kindly write for details and/or approvals o
o o
o S. Serebrakian P. 0. Box 448 Monroe, New York o
o o
o oo00 cooCOCCOC OOOCCooooooooooooCOCoOCCCoeooooooooooooooooooo0000o oooCooo

W A N T L I S T -- I need the following Russia for my collection: Scott
Nos. Cancelled 177, 178, 17 180, 180a and 187. On Covers From
177 to 200.
R. S k 1 a r e v s k i 640 Charles Street Avenue Towson, Maryland, 21204

Adds like above are very cheap and may help you to fill your collection, so
take advantage of it. You never know what the other collect has or wants.

No. 66 Page 11








IMPERFORATE
by 0. A. Faberge

Among the classical stamps of Imperial Russia there is a number of imper-
forate varieties of stamps originally issued as perforated. Without except-
ion all these imperforate varieties are rare and their prices are consider-
ably higher than the modest figures for corresponding perforated copies.

Such circumstances could not but attract a special sort of "artists",
who always will be ready to "do something about it" in a case like this -
in order to make an easy profit -. Anyhow, imperforate varieties are ex-
pensive, scissors are not so that's the point.

We can be happy that most of the Imperial issues are so exactly perfo-
rated, that there is not much to de "done about them" for the aforementioned
"artists". Thus none of the stamps which received at one time perforations
for the entire sheet served as a suitable object for-the man with a pair of
scissors. All such stamps are usually too well centered and the distance
between the both perforation-rows horizontally "or vertically has no
variations.

But there is another group of stamps and I mean. especially the line-
perforated which is good source of raw material for the forger:in his
lucrative business.

The intention of this article is not to list all the fake varieties in
the group of imporforates. This would be almost impossible. Iy intention
is simply to pick out some examples to show our readers what we can expect
in this "branch".

Imperforate varieties can be produced by the forger from some of the
following kinds of -stamps:

aw Normal. perforated copies. The wider the margins, the better is the
appearance of the ready, forged, imperforate variety.

b. Marginal copies from sheets (fan tails), where the outer or marginal
perforation has been omitted.

c. Stamps from the line perforated sheets, where on o or more rows of
perforations have been omitted (usually next to the margin).

Stamps of the sort mentioned in b) and c) are very rare and their value
cannot be increased by clipping off their perforation. Fine and rare items
have been ruined by attempts to altor their appearance inordor to create
,other varieties. Perhaps catalogues should list part-perforated varieties
higher thna imperforates in order' to make the clipping non-profitable.

And now let us take a look at the following two examples:

A. In the H. C. Goss sale No. I (Robson Lowe February 1958) there was an
interesting item Lot NO. 591 was describedas. follows: -

"1906 HIGH VALUES"

591 "Imperforate 5 R pale blue and deep blue on green, a find example of
this rare variety with Kiev c.d.s.and largo margins.but a faint crease.
Very rare and stated to be ex. Houtzamer (See Photo)."

Page 12 No. 66








The valuation was L 20 and the lot was soldTat L 14.10. The same item was
reofferod at the H.C. Goss Sale No. II (November 1958) as lot No. 351 with the
same valuation and was finally sold at L 21.

Our illustration (Fig. 1) shows this item as it was reproduced in both
auction catalogues. On Fign 2 youtl find the reproduction of a related item
from the author's collection. The similarity between the two items is really
striking. Both are centered in the same way, with the same c.d.s. of Kiev
and the same date 1. X. 1908'. Both copies are obviously from the same shoot.

Not look at Fig. 3. It illustratosa duplicate copy of one shown in Fig.
2 converted into an imporforato variety by painting over the perforations on
the previous reproduction. The"rcsult" is even better, with respect to the
margins than the "impcrforate rarity", reproduced in Fig 1.

Finally Fig. L shows a mint corner copy of a part-perforated variety
similar to one shown on Fig. 2, and Fig. 5 the very same item (Soe Fig. 4)
converted into an imperforate copy by the same trick. Beautiful isn't it '.

B. In the same auction (Goss To. I) there was another interesting item -
Lot No. 575 which is described as follows:

"1902-0L VERTICALLY LAID PAPER"

575 (7 R yellow and black) "Variety irporforate, a very fine mint pair "Soo
Photo on page 53)."

The valuation was L 18 and the pair was sold'at L12.10. This item was
roofforod at the second sale as lot no. 340 and was sold for L 21.10.

This pair is shown in Fig. 6 (reproduced from the auction-catalogue), and
Fig. 7 shows a part of a largo part-perforated block of (2x5) from the author'E
collection.

Now look at Fig. 8. Once again you can admire a superb imporforate pair
with large margins created by painting over the perforations of the best
suitable pair in the part-perforated block of 10.

One could find still more examples of such "imperforate" varieties, but I
guess that the description of the two examples above, is sufficient to get an
idea of what we can expect.


Now lot us turn our attention to some line-perforated roublo-donominaticna
and try to list the perforation-varieties assumed to exist. Some of them are
listed in various cataloguos, some are mentioned only, and some are totally
omitted as far as known to tho author.

(The catalogue numbers rofor to the following catalogues if they list the
variety: S Scott, G Gibbcns, M- Michol, Y Yvort, R Romoko (roclop
Philat. Fr. URSS), P Prigara Handbook).

Only perforation varieties are included:

1889 1 Rouble on horizontally laid paper

(S-45. G-61, M-55x, Y-52A, R-52, P-42)
A I Horizontal pair, imporforate between
(S-45a, R-52a, P-02f)
No. 66 Page 13








A II Vertical pair imperforate between
(S-45bG-61d, R-52b)

A III Imperforate at the top only
(not listed strip of 5 with sheet margins in author's collection)

1902 3 R 50 kop. on vortically laid paper

(S-69, C--77, M-49y. Y-53B, R53I, P-60)

B I Imporforate at the top dnly
(R-53Ia)

B II Imporforate (Questionable)
(R-53Ic)

1902 7 Rubles on vertically laid paper

(S-70. G-78, M-50y. Y-54B, R-54I. P-61)

C I Horizontal pair, imporforate between
(S-70b, R-64Ib, P-61e)

C II Vertical pair, imperforate between
(G-78a possibly erroneously listed mnd refers to variety C 1)

C III Horizontal marginal or corner pair, i:aperforate between stamps and
imperforato on right side next to margin
(not listed block of 10 with sheet margins in author's
collection See Fig. 7 for a part of this item)

C IV Imporforate at the top only
(not listed a strip of 5 with sheet margins in author's
collection)

C V Imperforate (Questionable)
(G-78c, P-61d) .

1904 .1 Ruble on vertically laid paper

(S-68, G-76, M-55y. Y-52B, R-52I. P,-66)

D I Vertical pair, imperforato between
(G-76e, R-52Ic,.P-66o).

D II :Vertical, marginal Or corner pair, imperforato between stamps' and
imperforate at the bottom next to margin-
(not listed a corner block of 4 described by Mr. Chudoba in
Rossica Journal No. 63, p.11. Another block df ,10 with sheet
margins is in authors collectionn)

D III Imperforato at the bottom only
(not listed a marginal single in authors collection)

D IV Imporforate (Questionable)
(P-66f)

Page 14 No. 66





IMPER FORATE?
O.A0A FAERGE



*1 .














F n c.
i oo 7co
moml _.

~iricjN /








1906 5 Rubles on vertically laid paper

(S-71. G-90, M-62, Y-59, R-59, P-72)

E I Vertical pair, imperforato between
(F-72c)

E II Imporforate (Questionable)
(R-59b)

E III Imperforato at the bottom only (Sce Fig, 4)
(not listed corner copy in author s collection)

E IV Bottom perforation 21.mm. down on sheet margin (See Fig. 2)
(not listed marginal copy in author's collection)

It is not impossible that E III and E IV are both and the same variety,
but at the time of writing the author is not yet able to settle the question
finally.

Whore a variety in this listing is marked (Questionable) it means that
the author is not yet convinced about its authenticity.

The above listed are the perforation varieties of the earlier line-perf-
orated ruble denominations known to me at the time of writing, but I believe
that other varieties possibly exist or likely have existed. Perhaps in the
future such unknown varieties still can be found by some lucky fellow, but
some unique items might have been ruined b- attempts to alter their original
appearance with the aid of scissors. Such itoms I assume if ever existed -
are now, and will for over remain out of the roach to collectors. They will
never be recorded simply because some rascal profored to make an easy profit
out of them by altering them.

Well, what is then to be considered as really an original true impor-
forate'. The answer to this question is by no means simple, and I an afraid
you can almost never have a 100% guaranteed answer. An imperforate block of
four (4) or larger is usually all right, but a pair is no guarantee of aathon-
ticity at all. Imperforate singles should always be approached with anutmo.t
suspicion, especially when belonging to an ordinary line-perforated issue.

Even shoot perforated stamps have frequently been converted to ir.porf-?r-'
ate varieties using badly centered copies as raw material. Examples of s.ch
"imporforates" have close margins on some sides while on the other sides tho
margins are strikingly wide and attractive. Other fake copies have even and
fair margins all around. Do not lot these margins fool your common sense.
Take an ordinary perforated copy of the same stamp and place the "imporforato"
on the top of it. If you can sec the perforation holes of the lower (normal)
stamp protrude outside the margins of the "imperforate" reject itt.

I had two singles of the 7 kop. Romanov stamp tied to a wrapper and
described as imporforato,sont to me for inspection some time ago. That
item was really interesting, but lot's call it another story to be related
at some other tioe.

N. oo66oooooooooooooo

No. 66 Page 15









KITAI OVERPRINTS OF 1899-1908
UNDER ULTRA VIOLET LIGHT
by Fred W. Speers

Students of Russian philately always will be indebted to such writers
as A. M. Rossolovitch and E. Wisewoll, Jr. for their thorough articles in
the Rossica Journal, the Journal of the British Society of Russian Philately
and in other publications on the stamps of Russian Offices in China. Save for
their contributions (and those of some other students) little is really
known about this field in which forgers of the KITAI overprints have run
rampant.

Most of the writings have been concerned with methods of distinguishing
between genuine and forged overprints. These methods, of course, have been
widely accepted ones of comparison of overprints with drawings, references
to angles of the diagonal of the overprints and to appearances of the inks.
All these methods, it must be emphasized, are of prime value in detecting
frauds.

There remains at least one other method. In its present stste it pro-
bably should be regarded as supplementary and yet it may be definitive. This
is the utilization of ultra violet light and its effects on the appearance
of the overprints. As with the other methods, establishing genuine overprints
is important initially so frauds can be recognized by comparison. Yet, once
that has been done, ultra violet light readings can stand for themselves.

Just as forgers did not have access to type used in KITAI settings so,
too, they did lack access to inks used in genuine overprints. It follows,
thorofore, that inks used by forgers were of different chemical composition
and hence must be expected to display different colorations under ultra
violet light.

However, none of the inks used--either at St. Petersburg or in the shops
of forgers--was markedly fluorescent in the accepted sense of the word. For
the. most ,part, both legitimate and the illegitimate inks do respond to ex-
posure under ultra violet light by showing colors different from the:r day-
light ones of bluo, rod or black. It is with these differences that th.is
article is concerned. To provide a reasonably broad base for comparison
stamps under consideration (Scott Nos. 1-23) were subjected to exposure unlor
three bands of ultra violet light. Two of those were "long wave" (one cf
about 3250. angstrom units, the other about 2300 ang) and the third exposure
was in the "short wave" bracket.

Early in this inquiry it became apparent it would be desirable (1) to
group stamps according. to blue or rod overprints and (2) with reference to
sequence of their chronological appearance. The published soauonco of
Scott numbers is, of course, unsuited for this arrangement. By groupings
mentioned similarities in ink formulas used by the St. Petersburg Govorrment
Printing Works would be more apparent. And so, too, would changes in the
formulas of the inks.

Groupings:.docided upon ( and which are followed in the table accompany-
ing this article) may be summarized in Scott numbers as followS:

Group I 1899 Blue: 1, 3, 4. Red: 2, 5, 6.
Group II 1904 -Blue: 14, 7, 8. Red: 11
Group III 1907 Blue: 9, 18, 19, 22, 23. Rod: 10, 12, 16, 20 and 21
Group IV 1908 -Blue: 13, 17, Red: 15,

Page 16 No. 66









In addition to genuine exmplos and a number of counterfeits two ex-
amples of postal stationery (no counterfeits known) woro exposed. The two
examples wore a 10 kopock blue envelope of the 1889-90 series in Russia sur-
charged in red for China use in 1905 and a 3 kopock postcard of 1909 sur-
charged in blue for China use in 1912. Their appearance under exposure
appear in the table.

In treating this subject through the medium of the written word one en-
counters the great unresolved problem of writers on philatelic subjects (or
almost any other subject, for that matter), namely, how to communicate through
words the concepts of colors and their shades. Here, as in basic indontifi-
cations by comparisons of illustrations the terminology can best be intrep-
rotod in relation to others given. This is facilitated by the fact that re-
actions under the throe typos of exposures are described in the accompanying
table.

Color differences between genuine and counterfeit overprints examined
under ultra violet light in this inqu-iry are sufficiently varied to overcome
the obvious inadequacy of more words. Differences are accentuated, of course,
by the fact exposures were made under three types of ultra violet light re-
sulting in the great majority of cases in different "readings".

Examination of the table provides a basis for some interesting specula-
tions. For example, the color readings on Ncs. 7 and 8 (both issued in 1)04)
are identical. It is reasonable to infer the same mixture of blue irk was
used in overprinting both values. This table is the case with Nos. 19 ar-.d
22, both issued in 1907. The similarities of Nos. 8 and 7 and of *2:3.
22 and 19 can be advanced as arguments in support of the arbitrarily cstcb-
lishod sa-uenco for the presentation of this incuiry.

TABLE SHOWING EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO IT7TRB VICLET LIGHT
ON 199-190g KITAI OVERPdRNTS ON RUSSIAN ST.-.:PS

Group I ------1899
Scott Color Under Under Short
No. in
Dayli-t 3250 anE. 2?00. _ng. *Wavo

1 Blue Deep Blue Deep Blue Dark Blue
3 Blue Dark Eluo Black Black
4 Blue Doep blue Da.rk Blue Black
2 Rod Black Dark Reddish Purple Darkish Red Purple
5 Red Very Dark Rod Eark Rod Very Dark Rod
6 Red Dark Rod V'rv Dark Rod Very Dark Rod


Ground IIT------ 1904
14 Blue Black Very Dark Blue Black
7 Blue Very Dk, Blue Dark tluo Black
8 Blue Very Dk. Blue Dark Flue Black
11-G Rod Rod Dark Orange Rod Light Orange Red
11-F Rod Brownish Red Bright Light Rod Dark Blood Rod


11-G Genuine 11-F Forgod

No. 66 Page 17










Group III-----1907
9 Blue Very Dark Blue Very Dark Blue Brownish Black
18 Blue Black Dark Blue Black
19 Blue Dark Blue Blackish Blue Brownish Black
22 Blue Dark Blue Blackish Blue Brownish Black
23 Blue Blue Dark Blue Brownish Black
10-G Rod Orange Dark Orange Rod Dark Orango Rod
10-F Rod Dark Rod Orange Rod Cr.ngo Vary Dark Red
12 Rod Dark Red Orange Dark Blood Rod Very Dark Red
16-G Rod Dark Brownish Red Dark Reddish Black Reddish Black
16-F Rod Brownish Rod Dark Brick Rod Dark Red
20-G Red Brownish Rod Reddish Black Very DCrk Orange Rod
20-F Rod Dark Brownish Red Black Reddish Black
21 Rod Brownish Rod Very Dark Rod Reddish Black


Group IV-----1908
13-G Blue Blue Blue Black
13-F Blue Dark Blue Very Dark Blue Black
17 Blue Darkish Blue Vary dark Blue Black
15-G Red Dark Red.Orango Cer.Black Roddish Black
15-F Rod Dull Rod.Orango Cr .Roddish Black Very Dark Rod
E-1905 Rod Dark Rod Orange Dark Orange Rod Dark Rod Orange
P-1912 Blue Blue Blue Black


Abbreviations used G Genuine F Forged E Envelope P Postcard
Red. Reddish Cor. Cerise


000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
o 0
o For Dealers Only o
o o
o R U S S I A **Around the World with Stamps**o
o at o
SW H 0 L E S A LE o
o o
0 Is my Spe cial ty o
0 o
o S o
o SETS, Mint and Used. PACKETS. o
o A D A -
o Inquiries & offers welcome. o
0 0
o S o
o T I R V I N G L A P I N E R o
o P 39-23 4th St.
o Lone Island CitvAI Y. 11104 o
o0
o Tel. Area Code 212 HA 9 3325 Cables: LAPINSTAMP, NEW YORK o
0ooooooooooooooo0o000000oooooooooooooo00000.oooooooooo0 0ooooooooooooo

Page 18 No.66










0000.0o00.000000. .0000.0000,0000o.000.00Q oo0o.000.0000ooo000.000.0000o0000.
o 0
0 0
O 0
o DR. L. S. S N E G IREFF S o
o o
o o
o RUSSIAN COLLECTION o
o o
o 0
o o
o We are pleased to announce the purchase of this highly o
o o
o advanced collection of R U S S I A. We are offering it for sale o
o o
o as specialized units and/or single pieces. Here are two examples: o
o o
O 0
o o
o o
o Postal Stationery of Russia --- 4 mounted volumes, plus o
o o
o some loose items $1500.00 o
o o
o o
o o
o 0
o Transcaucasian Region --- a one volume collection of o
o o
o covers from A R M E NI A, A Z E R B A I J AN, o
o o
o BAT U M, GEORGIA, T R ANSCAUC A S I A, o
o o
o RU S S I A used in the above, and R U S SIA used o
o o
o in P E R S I A. $1000.00 o
o o
o 0
o 0
o Sub4ct to prior sale. o
o o
0 0
o o
o 0
o o
O 0
o NEW ENGLAND STA'.P CO. o
o 0
o Established 1895 o
o o
o 45 Br omfisld Street o
o o
o o
o Boston, Mass. 02108 o
0 0
o o
C O
c o
00CO 0000000000000000.0000o0..0000.o000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.


No. 66 Page 19








SOME NOTES 0ON USE ABR ADS
by G. H. Torrey
(continued)

While many pilgrims to Jerusalem walked or rodo horses and donkeys from
Jaffa, the more affluent could go by rail--at least after 1892. This metro
gauge line ran between Jaffa and Jerusalem and was operated by a private French
company. There were two trains daily in each direction and tho trip lasted
about four hours. At the turn of the century Jerusalem had a population of
about 60,000 people. Upon arrival in Jerusalem the pilgrims had the choice of
several Western style hotels--the Hotel Fast, Grand New Hotel, Hotel Hughos,
and Hotel Kaminitz--several pensions, and if Russian, the Hospice of the Rus-
sian Palestine Society, next to the Greek Monastery and almost opposite the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This Hospice had an old gateway and remains of
old walls which formed a part of Constantino's Basilica.

Also available for pilgrims were four other Russian hospices--two for men,
one for women, and a special one for pilgrims. These were located near the
Russian Cathedral on the Jaffa Road some distance out from the walled city, and
wero commonly called the "Russian Buildings." The Russian consulate was lo-at-
ed in the Cathedral Hospice area, while the Russian post office was down the
Jaffa Road a short distance--toward the Old City. In 1911 tir. Raphael was the
Russian consul and Dr. Sevcrin, physician at the Russian Hospital.

Other Russian religious institutions were Saint Mary Magdalene Church at
the foot of the Mount of Olives--and the Russian Church on the Mount itsolf--
a handsome church, with onion cupolas, and surrounded by a high wall. A !.tone
hero marks the scene of the Ascension, according to Russian Orthodox tradition.

Although it is believed that a Russian Consular post office was in opora-
tion prior to the Crimean War, no evidence in the form of postal material has
boon recorded.

There was no ROPiT Post Office in Jerusalem until 5 September 1901. Its
postmaster was Abraham Solomaic, who continued in the position until the
office was closed on 1 October 1914.

My Russian material from Jerusalem includes examples of all types with
the exception of the registration handstamp. The stamps, as usual, are the
lower values--the 4 and 10 paras of the 1900 issue; the 10 and 20 paras of
1903, the 1909 commemorative sot, and the 5, 10, 15 and 20 paras of the 1913
Romanovs. Covers arc confined to several with the 10 piastres of 1903. Also,
I have oxamples of the forged cancellations of the 1909 commemorative set.
X7-:::; :XX-XXX:xXxx. .XXXXX:XXXXXXXXxx

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

The 1924 Soviet catalogue is the only one that gives the quantities
issued of the Soviet stamps. Alrcady,the 1933 catalogue had omitted this im-
portant feature. Do any of the members know where the information on quaitit-
ties issued may be obtained.

Another puzzling feature of the Soviet catalogues is that most of the
varieties are priced the samo as the normal stamp.

Pa----- 20 N---o--. --------66---------------------

Page 20 No. 66









MY EXHIBITION SHEETS OF THE IMPERIAL ISSUES PREVIOUSLY USED
DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY AND INFLATIONARy PERIOD
OF THE R. S. F. S. R. 1917--1923
by. John Lloyd


I have been asked by your Editor for an article on the above. So here-
with my effort to explain, write up, and justify this most interesting period
of postal history/

Members of both the Rossica Society and B.S.R.P. have in past, contri-
buted many articles on the various issues and uses of those Irmperial stamps,
to these members I give grateful thanks and must admit to adding only a small
proportion of original research. Those six years of Russian history, 1917-
1923, provide the very fascinating subjects for research and studios of the
various printings, with or without surcharges, and the postal history of the
various issues and uses, during the depreciation of the ruble.

This collection is therefore in two parts. The first is made up of the
Arms typos reprinted and re-issued by the Soviet Postal authorities to supple-
ment their own regular issues. It is a mint collection of sheets, panes,
blocks, pairs and singles, classified somewhat on the lines of Dr. C. do
Stackelborgs' check list of those printings, Period III and IV. The second
part of this collection comprises all the Imporial stamps used, bearing read-
able cancellations & dates, i.e. I=rcrilr Arms typos, Savings BarZc and Con-
trol (Fiscal) stamps, classified and written up in chronological order and
according to their value at the tinm of use. I purposely exclude the stamps
printed to serve as coinage and the prc^-aanada overprinted Romanovs from this
collection, mainly because of the lack of genuinely postally used material.
So now, to the reasonn d'etro" of these opening paragraphs.

Part I

The first few album sheets comprise the singles and pairs of the various
printings of the kopeck and ruble values, both perforated and imperforate
printed and issued from November 1917, to the last Arms types overprinted and
surcharged issues of arch 1923. All material in this Part I is in mint
condition.

Among these, of course, you have the stamps with vertical or horizontal
chalk net, perforated and inpcrforato, etc. One item here that usually draws
a second glance, is a marginal copy of 1 R. imporforate, only partly covered
with its chalk net and having both the center and the background displaced.
There are also numerous shades and varieties to most of those issues. Then
follow 43 complete shoots of the Arms types, including a double sheet of the
1 R. imperforato with vertical chalk net. Here we have also the imperforato
and perforated shoots of the various Soviet printings of these stamps, some
with watermark to the odge of the sheets, some without, various varieties .f
sheet numbers or without any at all, many different thicknesses & colors of
paper, etc. There are too, a number of the well known flaws described in
Dr. Stackolbergst chock list and also a few flaws that I have recently dis-
covered and passed on to our Editor. Hero I think I can mention a few of
those interesting varieties in my possession.

A complete shoot of the 20 kop. value imporforate with the background
misplaced very much to the right at the top of sheet, far more than at the
bottom, due to the sheet being put through the machine skewiso. At the top

No. 66 Pago 21









left hand side the first stamp has the white center of background showing
halfway beyond the design at the right hand top corner. Stamp No. 10 has
this white center showing a millimeter or two beyond the right hand edge and
dead center of design. On stamp No. 91 this center shows itself dead center
above the top edge of design and finally on stamp No. 100 the white center is
only fractionally out to the left this time. S.N. 4 on lower margin. I also
have a perforated pane of this same denomination with, the background again
misplaced to the right leaving half the stamps on the left hand edge of the
sheet without their blue background. With those two items I have one single
stamp of this same variety cancelled, unfortunately not clear enough to name
or date, therefore can not be included in Part II of this collection.

Of the 25 kop. value thoro is a complete sheet imperforate, S. M. 6 and
two perforated shots, S.N. 2 and 3, all showing flaw on stamp No. 44 (stamp
24 on U. L. pane), this flaw being:

Instead of two periods after (Russian)
"P" of "kop." in value tablet, it has a white blob attached to the down stroke
of this letter "p". All three sheets are of a very different shade of green,
but the center of sheet No. 3 if of a very dark purple, almost black.


The 35 kop. denomination is represented by an imperforate and perforated
sheet without S. N., both showing the flaws on stamps No. 57 (Cronin's retouch)
78 and 80 (broken threes to top right hand figure). With those there is also
a perforated sheet with S. N. 5 which has flaws (broken throe to top right
hand figure) to stamps No. 23, 73 and 78 (this is the stamp No. 13 to each of
the following three panes: U.L., L.L. and L.R.) All throo shoots having those
flaws as per Stackelbergts check list in Rossica Journal No. 60, page 26. I
have however a L.R. pane of this same valuc with the breckln "3" variety, on
stamp No. 5, this would be No. 60 in the shoot. Thil penuo is also from a
sheet bearing the S. N. 5 on the bottom margin at rght hand corner. This
figure "5", however is quite different from the "5" of the previous sheet,
being thicker, squatter and smaller.

Of the 50 kop. denomination there are several sheets of various shades
of purple, plum or copper and green. There are no particular noticeable flaws
or varieties other than different sheet numbers and, of course, the usual
difference in the texture and color of the paper.

To the 70 kop. stamp the same applies as to the 50 kop., i.e. no particu-
lar flaws or varieties other than in the paper, color or number of the sheet.

The rouble value is represented first by a double imperforato sheet, as
mentioned above. This has no S. N., only three pips at the top of each pane.
A single sheet of 50- of this same combination, imperforate, has the same three
pips at the top and bottom, and in addition it has numeral "2" on the bottom
margin at the right, in the color of the background. AA third piece of the
same, a marginal block of five, complete with the first and center "V s" of
the bottom row, from the loft-hand corner of the sheet, has a "2" in the color
of the background, and a numeral "1" in the dark brown color.of the design,
and again with the central pips at the bottom. These last throe items, all
imperforate and with vertical chalk net, all show some letters in the word
"RUB" joined together. This seems to be due to running of the ink in the
printing process, as there seems to be no constant pattern of this. However
there is one slight difference which I think is worthy of note, one I recently
mentioned to our Editor, this bning a difforoqc in ho.lht of tho "V's".

Page 22 No. 66










On the double sheet and on the single sheet the "V's" are 2mm. shorter than
on the light colored ones, whereas the corner block of five, both dark and
light "Vt.s" are of the same height.

I have in my possession one completo shoot of the 1 R. perforated 13i,
and a strip of the two rows from another sheet, again perforated 131. Those
two pieces have the same differeco as my imperforate sheets, i.e. one has
the "t1s" of the same height, whereas the other hzs the dark "V's" that are
the same 2mm. shorter. I would point out here, that I have not yet made up
my mind to which period these two perforated sheets belong to. Following
those 1 ruble sheets with the vertical C. I. is an example of the now and
last layout of this same denomination with stamps in five rows of ten hcri-
Bontally with the horizontal C.N. rnd perforated 13-. There are no other
distinguishing marks about this item.

Next come two imperforate shoots, one of the 5 R. denomination, and the
other of the 7 R., neither have any shet numbers, but throe pips at the top
and bottom and with vertical chalk not. Both also have the Murmansk double
circle date stamp at the top of the loft hand margin, partly covering the
first set of "V's", being applied I should think on arrival from the head
office, date 14.5.19.

After these there follows a number of sheets overprinted with star,
hammer andsicklo and surcharge. of the now currency. There seems to be no
variety of printings. The only variety of this overprint is on a sheet of
the 15 kop. perforated, surcharged "p. 200 p." where, along the bottom row,
the stop is missing after tho second"p." on the fourth stamp of each lower
pane, in other words, stamps No. 94 and 99. I have no complete shoots of
those stamps imperforato with the overprint, only a few odd panes and these
do not show any varieties.

Then this completes the Part I of these Imperials, unused.


Part II

This consists of the used stamps of the Imperial Arms typos, Savings
Bank and Control (FISC'J) types in singles, pairs, blocks, panes and even
complete sheets, on pieces, covers or part covers. These are mounted and
written up in chronological order, giving the vrlue at which they wore sold
and used, at various dates, beginning in 1919, when the depreciation of the
ruble began, and continuing on its downward plunge, until 1923 when it was
finally stabilized. Through all the revolutionary years of 1918-1923 inclu-
sive, stamps and covers of the :ecar 1919 are definitely the scarcest. This
includes all Imperial re-issues, Festal Savings Bank and Control stamps, and
is the sparcost section of my collection. Items of the 1918 period are
scarce enough, but the year 1919 is worse, due no doubt to the fact that the
country was then in its most unsettled state, with no correspondence going
abroad. Free franking for ordinary Inland letters was introduced and made law
from 1st of January 1919, but covers and postcards used during that period
are rarely soon due to the shortage of paper, this being salvaged and pulpod.
Therefore with the very rapid dorTrciation of the ruble and the an increase in
all postal charges, it must be understood that a stamp sold for oni rble in
1920, is of separate issue from the same stars sold in 1917 for 1 kcp.
Again the same stamp representing 100, 1000C, 10,000, 100,000 or one
mil3i-in rublon at difc:unit tLlm.Qu is of another icuu -rom thi kupock of

No. 66 Page 23








1909 or 1917. To collect these stamps under one heading, merely adding that
they continued in use until 1923 is not sufficient. I have therefore attempt-
ed to mount and exhibit these as I consider necessary to explain their true
and correct record of issue, and their value at that time. The collection
starts with the years 1917-1919 when all Imperial Arms types both kopeck and
ruble values together with Savings Bank and Control stamps were used at their
face value, from the time of the fall of the Provisional Government on the
7th November 1917 to the first of March 1920. Of these, the '25 and 50 kop.
Savings Bank type together with all Control stamps are considered the scar-
cest, although all are scarce, particularly of the year 1918. Of this period
however I am fortunate in having quite a number of the Arms type, mostly
ruble values, a very interesting piece bearing a block of 6 of 5R. impofora-
tes with a25 kop. perforated on a registration rocoipt from Petrograd date
cancelled 15.6.19, at the back of which is stated that the sum of 30 R. 25
kop. was paid for registration of mail that was declared of no value. With
this piece is a cover from Petrograd registered to Ipswich, England bearing
a block of 4 of 15 kop. imperforatos tied to the envelope with the small
Petrograd date cancellation 9.12.17. From among other stamps and pieces I
list a few, 5R. imperforate from Odessa 18.11.17, Moscow 4.12.17, a 10R.
imperforate from Proskurov, Pod. 24.12.17, 5R. perforated frcoTm Morshansk
20.5.18, an early printed pair of the 5R. perforated 13- from Dolzhssi, Vi-
teb. 27.10.19, a perforated pair of the 7R. (horizontal C.N.) with the double
frame line cancelled Zarutsk, Tver 7.3.20. These then are a few selected
from a not very large number, but beleive me, they have taken quite some
patience and perseverance to find, and bears out the fact that this material
of those years is indeed scarce.

As the Arms types, so the Savings Bank stamps were used at face value
until the first of March 1920. The 1, 5 and 10 kop. one sees fairly frequent-
ly as used singles and blocks, not however so easy to find on cover. The *
25 and 50 kop. with printed date 18..., are not at all common and comparate-
vely rare on cover, myself having only one copy of each postally used. The
1, 5 and 10 kop. I have with watermarks both vertical and horizontal, the 25
and 50 kop. vertical only. Of the stamps of this period, I have on registered
letter from Voronezh dated 11.5.18 to Petrograd a strip of 5 of 1 kop. Savings
Bank and a pair of imperforato 50 kop. Arms type purple and green.

Control (fiscal) stamps were also used at their face value, but for a
longer poriodin fact until early 1921. I have all those denominations used
in singles or pairs, the outstanding item being, a Money Order for transfer
of 5000 rubles from Tashkent bearing a single 100R. blue and red Control
stamp tied to the card with the double circle Tashkent postmark, dated 17.9.20,
the money being paid out on the 4.10.20. Tashkont was reputed to be the
first town to have used these fiscal stamps for postal purposes, although
presumably without authority from the head postal department.

Of the free franking period commencing 1st January 1919, later rescinded
by the decree of the 15th August 1921, I have only one example, a post card
of the printed postal stationery type, without of course the imprinted stamp,
but bearing the Imperirl Eagle at the top left hand corner. It is not frank-
ed with any stamp, but was date cancelled as Ustye, Tambov province on the
9th February 1910, was machine cancelled on arrival at Moscow on the 14th
February and also handstamped with the normal niroutcun dato cancre] rn on,
again on the 14th.

The First of March 1920 saw the first change in values. The Arms type
kopeck denominations, including the 10/7 kop. and 20/14 kop., with the Savings

Page 24 No. 66








Bank stamps of 1, 5 and 10 kop., were put on sale at one hundred times face
value (F times 100). On this order, a number of postmasters at Post Offices
in the provincial towns surcharged existing stocks in their possession. In
most cases the surcharge was the letter P or the word PYb ", all being
handstamped. The first of the "Pib" overprinted type was made in 1920 at the
town of Kharkov, hence the name "Kharkov Provisionals". Other than a few
single items, the most interesting is a Emcny Transfer Order for 3000 rubles
franked with three (3), 20 kop. Arms typo perforated and surcharged "RYb" of
Type II (for the study of these prcvicionals I have referred to the article by
1. W. Graves in B.S.R.P. Journal No. 3, page 35). These stamps are tied to
their card by a Kharkov No. 6, P. & T. Kcntora circular cancellation. This
money order was sent to Nostorcvo, Tver, arriving on November 4 and was paid
out on December 25 to Evdokia Nokrasova. Among the singles is a mint "RYb"
Type I on Ukraine Kiev trident Type II of the 5 handstamp. All of these sur-
charges are considered rare, particularly on cover or Money Order.

Other overprints of interest of course, those often spoken of but rarely
seen, are the stamps overprinted in manuscript. I have o cover addressed to
Vienna, franked with five 2 kop., perforated, Arms type stamps overprinted
on each, in manuscript,is "250 P.n, with an inscription under the numerals,
w which I think (Russian) for "Ves" (weight) and could therefore moan perhaps
"250 rubles for ordinary postal weight". These stamps are tied to cover with
circular cancellation "Minsk Gub. 18.8.21". The letter also bears Moscow
transit postmarks: curcular, dated 20.8.21 and an oval, forwarding 23.8.21.
This overprint is in red ink and this particular cover is si interesting be-
cause it gives us the town of origin of those particular provisionals. Mr.
0. Faborgo has this same overprint on singles but owing to illegible post-
marks did not know their origin until this cover turned up.

I have also, the two Uinsk circular handst-mped overprints of Types I
and II. Typo I is on a block of 8, 2 kop. perforated Arms types cancelled
Minsk Gub. 1.2.22. It is bluish violet and reads: "Soviet Government of
Workers and Poasants"(Outor circle) and "Proletaries of All Countries Unite"
( Inner circle). This typo of overprint is only found in bluish violet on
the 2 kop. or in black on the 3 and 5 kop. perforated denominations of these
Arms types.

Type II overprint is also a circular handstamp in black and differs
slightly in the wording of that of Type I: It reads, "Socialist Soviet
Republic of Lithuania and White Russia, Cormissar extraordinary of Minsk
Junction Post and Telegraph, Prolotaries of .1I Countries Unite". I have
this overprint on a vertical pair of 5 kcp. perforated Arms type stamps
franking a Money Order, cancelled "Volosevitch lin. 12.10.21". Curiously
enough, Mr. Faborgo has an identical card bearing an horizontal pair of
these 5 kop.,overprints being the same, and further more it is written by the
same hand, for the same sun, from the same OFFICE, to the same destination,
on the same day.

Only a comparatoveley small number of the kopock values of the Arms type,
Savings Bank and Control stamps were surcharged, in general most Post Officos
sold those at face times 100 and affixed them to letters, parcels or Monoy
Orders, these last seem to be most easily obtainable of this period, due no
doubt to those cards being kept for record purposes, whereas envelopes and
post cards were collected for salvage. Of this period 1.3.20 to 14.8.21 the
following stamps are scarce to rare: All Postal Savings Bank stamps and Arms
types of 10/T7., 20/14k. with the 4, 10 and 20 kop. imperforates. Remaining
values seem to be fairly plentiful. Of the scarcer tyrps, I havu boon able

No. 66 Page 25








to find the following few: a block of 6 of 4 kop. imperforate postmarked
"Koi, Tver 25.10.20. Another piece has this same single with other values
perforated, and all being cancelled "Babasova, Tver 11.2.21". Of the 20 kop.
imperforate there is a strip of 4, postmarked "Timino, Yarosl. 16.9.20". A
strip of three from "Smolonsk 19.10.20" and another piece postmarked "Vyatskoe,9
Yarosl. 30.8.20". Also a block of four from "Sychevka, Smol. 23.10.20". Of
the 10/7 and 20/14 kop. there are quite a number in blocks of 6, 4, pairs,
etc. postmarked Irboiskoo, Yeniseisk 5.10.20, Klementyevo, Mosk. Gub.. 15.s.21
and others. An interesting item is a part of Money Transfer Order with various
perforated and imperforate denominations, the whole being cancelled with a
provisional handstamp in violet ink, in the village of Domashi, Novg. and
dated 23.9.20, but in plain handwriting across the center of the cancellation.

During this period the ruble denominations were still sold at their face
value, the imporforates all being very scarce and the 10 ruble rare. Of the
perforated varieties of the earlier printings other than 1 ruble are difficult
to find used at this particular date. I have most printings- and values here
in this section, being as follows a few I have selected: a strip of 3 of 10
ruble perforated, the middle stamp of the strip having a broken "0" flaw. The
piece is cancelled Kosova Gora, Tver 29.9.20. A pair of the 7 rubles perfo-
rated with vertical C. N. with double frame line, cancelled Borisoglyobsk
Slob., Yarosl. 9.4.21 and a 5 ruble with local perforation of 12-!- from
Ivanov Dyer, Tver 25.5.21 and many other varieties, both with horizontal and
vertical C.Nts., all of course dated and cancelled during this period.

The follwoing, is an interesting item of this period: A cover from
Petrograd to Baku, an Imperial postal stationery envelope imprinted with the
Imperial Arms and 3 kop. in red, along side of whish is a block of four of
5 kop. imperforate stamps from the center of a sheet of 100, having cross
gutters. The block and the imprinted stamp are tied to the cover with a very
clear cancellation, reading "Petrograd 14.1.2l", this,of course, is an error
and should read 14.1.21, apart from the fact that these were never used as
late as 1931, this cover is backstampod on arrival with date "15.1.21".

to be continued


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Page 26 No. 66






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THE SMALL CURRENT STAMPS
by A. Prado

Among the stamps of USSR, the small current ones are not fully studied.
Several printings, due to large consumption along the years, escaped detect-
ion and study by collectors. The notes presented here do not constitute a
definitive listing. My stamps, collectors' data and catalogue consultation
are put together to help others find out sideline printings or varieties,
perhaps dormant in their albums.

Stamps are those listed by Scott Catalogue as 734/737, 1214/1221, 1260,
1306, 1343/1347 and 1689. All stamps are on white paper without watermarked
unless otherwise stated.

For ease of reference and when necessary the following abbreviations
are used:

( S ) Scott ( M ) Iirnkus ( C ) Corcle ( S55 ) Soviet 1955

( A ) Stamps from my collection which are not listed in any catalogue

( CP ) Comb perforation ( LP ) Line perforation

1st. Group "Sott 734/737

Stamp design by V. Sodolnikov. Size: T-nogr-phed/Lithographcd 14.75mm. to
15mr.. by 22.25mm. to 22.50mm. Offset Iltm. by 21.50mm. Shoots of 100
(10x10) stamps.

5kop. Typor-raphed, August 1939 30kop. Typographed, August 1939

a. Red CP 12x124I d. Blue CP 12a2- thick
b. Palo red CP 12x12- paper (S55)
c. Dark red CP 12x12-2 o. 3ark blue CP 12xL2- yellowish
d. Dark rod CP 12xl2- (yellowish p.)i paper (A)
e. Rod LP 12 f. Blue LP 12
g. lark blue Imporforate
l5kro. Typographod. August 1939 h. Blue Impcrforato at left

a. Green CP 12x12- 30kop. Lithograhoed, September 1946
b. Dark groon CP 12x12-
c. Olive green CP 12x12'- a. Blue CP 1221 (S55)
d. Pale groon CP F2y12- (A) b. Ultramarine CP 12x122 (S55)
e. Dark green Imporfor. (C) c. Blue CP 12x12- Flaw
f. Dark green Imp. at loft (A) OCCP (C)
g. Lark greeoon LP 12-
30kor. Offset. September 1917
15kop. Offset, Soptor-bor 1947

a. Gray green CP 12x12-2- b. Blue CP 1_2x2--
b. Yellow green CP 12L2 C c. Blue LP 12 (S55)
d. Blue Imporforate (S55)
30Cop. T7pogrea.hed. August 1939 e. Blue Imporforate at left
If. Blue Imperforate at right
a. Blue CP 12712-1 g. Blue Imperforate at top
b. Dark blue CP 12x12 h. Blue Impurforato at bottom
c. Gray blue CP 12xl2- (S55)

No. 66 Page 27








60kop. Typographed. March 1943 -

a. Brick red CP 12x12- b. Dark rose CP 12x122

N 0 TES

1.. A careful measure of my stamps gives sizes from 14.75mm to 15mm. by
22.25mm to 22.50mm. (largo sizo) and 14mm. by 21.50mm. (small size).

2. Archanguolsky, in his.article about the small size stamps, gives
measurements of 15mm. by 22mm. howover,he does not explain whether
this size is for typographod or lithographed/offset. Catalogues give
14mm. by 21.50mm for the small size.

3. The small size stamps of 5 kop. denomination show a small white "0"
near the 4th finger of the worker's hand. Perhaps this variety is
a peculiar one of the reduced size (offset 1) I have one mint,
one used and a pair on cover postmarked MOSKVA-8, 8 JUNE 1957.

4. A. S. Waugh presents in B.S.R.P. Journal #32 the 30kop. offset with
left side imperforate in some extent because the vertical perfo-
ration is displaced to the left of the three vertical line imprint.

5. Aside the measure the 30kop. offset has the following marks white
line around the plano's nose, the "3" and "0" of "30" are joined
and the bottom letters are thick.

6. For the reference purpose 1 give details of marginal imprints of
the sheets that I have.

5 kop, -Solid rod stripe, measuring 3.5mm. on three sides: top, right and
bottom. Inscription MAST. Nr. 52, Mach. Nr. 3, Fichor. Nr. 6 7768
on the loft top/

15 kop. Stripes in the same position as on the 5 kop. Inscription MAST.
Nr. 52, Mach. Nr. 3, Fichor. Nr. 6 Zak. Nr. 14 (illegible) and
Nr. 1960 inverted. Also on the top left.

30 kop. 1. Solid blue stripe with 3.5mm. to Amm. on throe sides top, right
and bottom. Inscription MAST. (the rest is illegible) Nr. "?.
All on top right.
2. The same as abcvo in addition the letter "Z" between the 40th
and 50th stamps.

2nd Group Scott 1214/1221 and 1260

Stamp design by V. Zavialov. Size 15mm. b. 22.50mm. Photogravure. Sheet
of 200 (20x10) stamps.

Photogravuro. May/September 1948

5 kop. Sopia LP 122i 20 kop. Brown Imp. at bot. (A)
10 kop. Violet LP 12- 30 kop. Henna brown LP 12
10 kop. Dark Violet LP 12w 45 kop. Brown Violet -LP 12
15 kop. Bright Blue LP 12 45 kop. Bk. Br. Violet- LP 12 S
20 kop. Brown -LP 12 50 kop. Bright blue LP 12

Page 28 No. 66









50 kop. Bright blue Imp. at right (C) 60 kop. Bright green LP 12-

Remark- Perhaps due to the type of perforation other "Imperforate at the
side" varieties may exist.

Ir. Offset

Size: 15mm. by 22.50mm. Sheets of 1CO (10xlO) stamps

a. Brown red CP 12x12-2 b. Pale red.- 12xl2i c. Brown red CP 12xl2-
Thin papor(S55)

Ir. Offset. 1953/1956

Size: 14mm. by 21.50mm.

a. Brown red CP 12xl2i-. Thick paper (S55)

NOTES

1. Soviet catalogue does not mention any size differences in the 1 ruble
stamps contrary to Cerclo and Minkus, which give the size as 14.60 by
21.6C0a.

2. The larger stamp has a coarse printing, while the smaller one has
fine lines and larger shadows.

3. In my collection 1 have one ruble on cover. The stamp varies
slightly in size, being 14.75mm. by 21.50mm. If we disregard the
factor of sizes we still have variation in printing. Dark shades,
clean contour and heavy lines are the main features. This gives a
different aspect to the clouds. My copy is cancelled "Moskva 171
OTD. SVIAZI 28 8 56".

3rd Group Scott 1343/1347

Stamps are designed by V. Zavialov. Offset. Comb perforatedl2xl2. Sheets
of 100 (10x10) stamps.

15 kop. April 19A9 Size: 15mm by 22nm. a. Black

15 kop. Year Unknown Size: 14.50mm by 21.50mm. a. Black b. Gray (A)

20 kop. April 1949 Size: 15rm. by 22.50rn. a. Green

20 kop. July 1950 Size: l.50mm. by 21.50mm. a. Olive green b. Green
c. Dark green

25 kop. April 1949 Size: 14.75mm. by 21.75mm. a. Blue

25 kop. July 1950 Size 14.50mm. by 21.25mm. a. Gray blue b. Blue, fine
printing. c. Blue, coarse
printing.

25 kop. July 1950 Size 15mm. by 22.50mm. Typographed. a. Blue (S55)

25 kop. August 1953 Size: 14.50mm. by 21.75mm. a. Dark blue

No. 66 Pag 29








30 kop. April 1949 Size: 15mm. by 22mm. a. Brown

30 kop. 1953 (not certain) Size 14.50mm. by 21.25mm. a. Brown b.Pale
brown,

50 kop. April 1949 Size: 15mm. bu 22.50mm. a. Deep blue


4th. Group Scott 1306 and 1689

Stamps designed by V. Zavialov. Offset. Comb perforated 12x12. Sheets
100 (lOx1O) stamps.

40 kop. October 19A8 a. Red, Size 14.50 by 21.50mm.
b. Dark red, Size 15 by 22mm.

40 kop. July 1950 a. Orange red, Size 15 by 22mm.
b. Orange rod, Size 14.25 by 21mm.

40 kop. July 1950 Typo. a. Red, Size, 15 by 22.50mm.

40 kop. 1957 Litho, a. Light red, Size, 15 by 22mm. (S)
b. Red, Size, 14.50 by 21.50mm. (S)

NOTES

1. Besides the difference in size (some very small variations are per-
haps due to paper shrinkage during printing) the 40 kop. of 1957
shows on the left side of the wreath 7 turns of the ribbon instead
of 8.

2. According to Cercle and Soviet catalogues the 40 kop. typographed
has a rounded hammer instead of a square one which is present on
the offsets.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

To build up this article in addition to Scott, Minkus and Cercle the
following literature was useful: Dr. Gagarin's article on the 40 kop.
(Scott 1306 and 1689) and Archanguolsky's article on the current small size
stamps, both published in Rossica #48 (1956). Soviet Catalogue, 1955 with
useful tables giving sizes of shoots, perforations and printing processes.
oooooooooooooo00000000000000000000000

Scott No. 20d 3 kop. black and green with the background of Roman numeral
"TV" instead of "3" and "III" was printed in sheets of 100. It is very scarce
mint. I am curious to know what is the size of the largest piece known.

Examening my collection I notice an interesting mint minor variety,
which is a bent inwardly. outer framd.. It is located in the middle of the
left hand frame.

I also have a copy cancelled "C.P.B." in an oval, which is considered
as one of the scarcer cancellations.

Page 30 No. 66









THE STORY BEHDID THE PODBELSKY COMMEMORATIVE
by A. Cronin

A summary, based mainly on extracts from the Bulgarian magazine "Philatelen
Pregled" of Sofia, #2 of 1962 and #1 of 1963.


A 4 kop. stamp, honoring the 75th anniversary of the birth of Vadim
Nikolaevich Podbelsky was issued on November 27, 1962 (Scott #2678). He was
appointed Commissar of Posts and Telegraphs for Moscow in October 1917, and
for the entire RSFSR in May 1919. He was born in 1877 in Siberia and died
at an early age of 43 in 1920.

An interesting article by P. F. Mazur of Moscow, published in the Bulga-
rian magazine under the title "No. 1 in the Soviet Catalogx'", states that
during September 1917, when the Provisional Government hear-ed by Korensky was
still in power in Russia, the artist Richard Sarrinsch executed designs for
the stamps symbolizing the liberation of the peoples of the Russian Empire
(Scott ##149-150, Gibbons ##187-188). However, it turned out that this Gcvern
ment was not able to issue these stamps as the Soviets took over the admini-
stration in October of the same year. In the first days, and indeed for
months of its existence, the Soviet republic did not have the opportunity to
concern itself with postage stamps and for some time subsequently, staxq of
pre-revolutionary Russia, as well as various fiscal, savings bank and other
types of adhesives continued in use.

It was not until October 13, 1918 that a decree of the National Conmmis-
sariat of Posts and Telegraphs referring to the "now revolutionary postage
stamps" was published, and its contents were as follows:

"New revolutionary stamps in the face value of 35k. and 70k. with a
design showing a hand holding a sword and cutting chains will be placed on
sale from the 15th of this month. The colors are blue for the 35 kop. value
and brown for the 70 kop. From this date, the above-mentioned sta.ips will
serve for the prepayment of postal sendings. The decree is signed by the
National Commissar of Posts and Telegraphs, Podbelsky. It was published in
the manual of Government decrees, under #73, PartI and also in #222 of the
Proceedings of the V Ta. I. K. ("All-Union Cental Executive Committeeo) of
the Soviets, on October 13, 1918. Moreover, the text of a circulatory
telegram #Ts. 4012 dated October 7, 191 is preserved in the archives; it
bears the following contents:

"On October 15, now revolutionary stamps with the face values of 35 kop.
and 70 kop. will be placed in use. These stamps will be valid from the
above date for the prepayment of postal sendings.

Podbo 1 sky

A description of the subsequent usages and overprints appearing on these
stamps, all familiar to our readers is then given and the following points
made. In the first editions of the Soviet stamp catalogue, it was stated
that the stamps wore prepared by Kerensky Government, but were printed after
the Soviets took over. Unfortunately, most of the world-wide catalogues make
inaccurate statements on the status of those stamps, thus creating confusio-i.
The "Yvert" catalogue says that these stamps were issued by Korensky in 1918,
which is not correct as the Provisional Government had been overthrown the
previous October. In the "Zumstein" catalogue, it is stated that these

No. 66 Page 31









stamps were issued by the Kerensky Government in 1917. Scott merely gives
the year of issue 1918. The "Gibbons" catalogue informs us that the stamps
were prepared in 1917, and issued by the Soviet Government in 1918, but it
does not give the exact date. In the "Michel" catalogue, there are further
details: issued on the occasion of the first anniversary of the October
Revolution, while the "Lipsia" catalogue even gives the name of the designer.
It is evident that the inaccurate data reproduced in the above-mentioned cata-
logues are due in part to the incomplete information originally given in the
Soviet catalogues.

It may be seen from the text of the decree reproduced above that these
were in fact the first Soviet postage stamps, while later editions of the
Soviet catalogue had given the impression that the first Soviet stamps were
those issued in August, 1921. In view of the documentary evidence which now
has been uncovered, this distinction will now be given to the stamps placed
on sale in 1918 and in the new.edition of the Soviet stamp catalogue now being
prepared, the 35 kop. value printed in blue, will now figure as No. 1 in the
catalogue.

EDITORIAL COMMENT:

With regard to the above commemorative stamp, Mr. A. Cronin advises us
that he has found a apparently constant white gash on Podbelsky's temple,
above his right eye, i.e. on the left side of the stamp. This variety can
easily be noticed without the aid of magnifying glass (see illustration) and
appears to be a result of damage to the photo-lithographic plate which applied
the bluish-black part of the design. The sheet position of the stamp has not
yet been determined and we would therefore like our members to examine careful-
ly any copies they have in their possession, particularly if they have blocks
which may help to pinpoint the exact location of the variety on the sheet.
there is also a possibility that the technicians at Gosznak in Moscow may have
noticed the variety soon after its appearance and retouched it by hand to re-
move the offending white scar. This type of repair would also be noticeable
but care must be taken to ensure that any such retouch, if it exists, matches
the position of the original scar, which extends through to the hairline,
since occasional ink blotches also occur on these stamps and may give rise to
false conclusions.
oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo


THE ANCIENT RUSSIAN P STS
by Maria Nikolaevna Vitashovskaya

Part III

THE RELAY VOLUNTEERS AND THE RELAY SETTLEMENTS

In the second half of the 16th century, the organizational structure of
the relay system was changed. By this time, the public did not present horssa
at the relay station and the peasant ploughman did not himself guide the mes-
sengers as before. For this latter purpose, people were utilized who had
horses, harness, a vehicle and other equipment necessary for the relay system.
The peasants who fulfilled the normal relay obligations for the entire commu-
nity were called "yamskio okhotniki" or "relay volunteers". The volunteers
were appointed for a long term and sometimes foran unlimited time. However,
this reform was not introduced at one stroke. For the relay routes, a group
of people gradually emerged, who hired themselves oub to go in turns as

Page 32 YNo. 66









messengers. They wore peasants and townsmen who chose the relay service as
a profession. Often the relay volunteers were brothers and sons of the yam-
shchik (postmaster) and they lived at the relay station without specified
duties. They received wages set aside for the guide, at the rate of l- den-
gas for 30 versts (20 miles) and even took payment from the alternate messen-
ger who hired them.

The public grew accustomed to the fact that there were people who were
always ready to go out as substitute messengers, both in bad weather and on
impassable roads. The relay volunteers wore also advantageous for the Govern-
ment. They were on hand at all times at the relay station and were always
ready to be sent wherever required. Thus it was no longer necessary for the
postmaster to choose peasants for conveying the messenger or envoy.

The public jumped to the conclusion that the relay volunteers would
always be on hand at the relay station. Hence, it was necessary to define the
status of the relay volunteers and to regulate their relationship with the
public. As a result, relay "slobodas" or settlements began to spring up
around the stations in the second half of the 16th century and special lands
were set aside for them.

The relay volunteers appeared at varying times. Thus, in letters patent
of the 16th century, granting amenities to the relay system mention was made
up to the 60s of that century about exemption of obligations due to the relay
station, including horses-with-carts, while after 70s, statements were made
about giving the relay obligations to the volunteers. In the Yaroslavl,
Rostov (Yaroslavsky) and Romanov districts, the volunteers and relay settle-
ments appeared between 1565 and 1580; at Novgorod and Pskov in 1560, while
for Moscow we know about the building of the Tvorskaya-Yamskaya settlement
in 1566, etc.

The Government sent "stroishchiki" (builders) whose duty it was to select
the relay volunteers and construct relay stations and settlements -. it gave
them appropriate orders. Those builders were generally drawn from the local
civil servants, but they built relay stations only on orders from Toscow.
Thus, for instance, an "osadny golova" (seigo official) and a "prikazchik"
(clerk) built the Mikhailov station, while Rakov, a native of Uglich, built
the station in that town, ctc.

At first, the builders were sent dirontly from Moscow. Ordinarily, they
were secretaries or the offspring of boyaxrs (noblemen). For especially imp-
ortant stations more influential poovlo wore sent out, such as Prince Ivan
Petrovich Pozharsky, who built the relay station at Tula in 1601.

Upon receiving his orders, the builder supplied himself with a list of
all people in a district who were registered with a particular relay station.
If the relay station was reorganized, the builder had to apportion the work
first of all among the people registered with the relay station.

We must now explain here how much land and how many parts of a "sokha",
the volunteer could have selected for himself from the lands belonging to the
public. In the second half of the 16th century, a "sokha" was that amount of
land upon which eight bushels of rye could be sown. This amount was dependent
on the type of land, the latter being classified as monastery land, court or
country squire property, good land, medium land, "khuda" (land of poor yield),
or dobraa khuda" (land of a slightly better yield). In general, 16 bushels
of rye could be sown on a dosyatina of land (2.7 acres), in consequence of

No. 66 Page 33










which eight bushels of rye were were made comparable to half a desyatina of
land later on in the 17th century.

Thereupon, all the land.was divided into sections, according to the
number of volunteers which had been chosen and it was left up to the popula-
tion of each portion of land to choose a volunteer. Some property generally
came with the share of land. Any disputes that sprang up wore decided by
the builder.

Upon orders from Moscow to the relay volunteers, they had to select
people who were "good, the best, householders, fathers of families and re-
sourceful". Preference had to be denied those who were already volunteers
or who had fathers and brothers "already conducting the relay service".

In such a way, the Government hastened the transition of the relay sys-
tem from the occasional exercise of a profession passing from generation to
generation. However, when these professional people first appeared, they
were in short supply and as a result all people "who had the desire" were
invited to become relay volunteers. When the necessary number of volunteers
was chosen, they were listed in the "building construction bcoks" under "how
each is called, whose son he is and his nickname and where they live". The
type of land portion chosen by the volunteer as well as how c.zany horses he
had and what kind were also noted here; e.g. "and this voluTtuer had a horse,
a chestnut gelding with a star, a ripped nose, mane on the left, 10 years
old; also a gray-brown gelding, a star on the forehead, a ripped nose, mane
on both sides, 8 years old".

In the "construction book", a stipulation was also added to the effect
that the volunteer "shall live in the relay settlement, conduct the relay
service, shall not steal or commit larceny with anyone, shall not set up a
den of thieves for evil people and stolen property", etc.

Presenting itself to the volunteers at the relay station, the public was
obligated to give the latter assistance on the spot and annual. The immedi-
ate assistance was given for the provision of necessary items the purchase
of horses, harness, a telega (four-wheeled peasant cart), sleighs and trans-
portation "from the old spot", i.e. from the point of departure to the relay
settlement where it was required to build a hut and yard.

The extent of the immediate aid was specified by the Government. The
assistance ordinarily came to the amount of.20 or 25 rubles. It was required
of the volunteers to whom 25 rubles were..given to maintain a team of four
horses, instead of the normal troika.

The annual tribute fluctuated, being dependent upon the price of products
and fodder. Hence the yearly assistance varied greatly from 5 to 17 rubles.
If the public was not agreeable to the stipulated conditions and resisted the
payment of the tribute, the volunteers complained to Moscow, and the Govern-
ment backing up the relay service, ordered the public to come to an agreement
with the volunteers.

At the same time as the relay dues, two further levies appeared during
the second half of the 16th century: "to render assistance to the relay
volunteers" and "for the ready volunteers to proceed to the relay stations
and along the routes". As is known, the relay service was organized not only
in the populated places but also along roads which passed through, sparsely

Page 34 No. 66









populated areas. In order to build relay stations in the latter, it was ne-
cessary to utilize state funds, which were collected by means of an impost
from the peasants. Moreover, the salaries of the relay secretaries, clerks
and "dvorniki" (yardmen) were paid from the relay funds.

The builder apportioned the lands to the chosen volunteers. The relay
lands consisted of several sections: the land of the relay yard and settle-
ment, the ploughed fields, hayfields, forest grounds and villages paying poll
tax. Half to one hectare of land was allotted to the yard, dependent on its
importance. Ordinarily, the yard was situated in the relay settlement, es-
tablished on the outskirts of a village or town. The land was allotted de-
endent on the number of volunteers. In general, the volunteer received from
2 to 5/6 hectare near his living quarters, as well as a kitchen-garden and
a farmstead. The clerks ordinarily received up to two hectares each.

For his share of land, the volunteer was obligated "by day and by night,
whenever it is required, to conduct the relay service, to meet the envoys of
the sovereign and the ambassadors and messengers and lead the way in winter
and summer on horses-with-carts and on sleighs". If the relay station was
situated by a river the volunteers had to have boats on hand; they were
staffed with oarsmen and coxwains.

In general, the "vacant crown land was allotted to the volunteers, but
if there was none available, then "somoono elso's land" would do. If there
were peasant yards on the allocated land, they were incorporated in the relay
station. The income from the villages wont to all the volunteers and they
divided it amongst themselves together.

In apportioning the land to the relay settlement, the builder was obli-
gated to survey the property so that no disputes would arise between the re-
lay stations. The ploughed land and hayfields still formed part of the entire
relay settlement even though divided between each volunteer. The yard and
yard buildings were counted as the property of the volunteer, but if the
volunteer "did something wrong" and ho was discharged, or he ran away, the
yard came under the direction of the relay settlement.

In very rare circumstances, the volunteers owned the apportioned land in
common, as was the case, for oxaaplo, in the Pskov and Zagorsk settlements
at the beginning of the 17th century. This generally came about when the
volunteers were not occupied with farming work; they collected and divided
among themselves the income they received from the pooled lands.

At the head of the settlement stood the "prikazchik" (clerk) and the
"starosta" (headman). The clerk, as representative of the state in the settle
month, was appointed by the Government and the headman was chosen by the vo-
lunteers. It is difficult to specify exactly the functions of the headman
and clerk. The headman sent off the carts and horses and he also looked
after the pasture books, but the clerk put his signature to the journey books
Thus the headman conducted the internal direction of the relay service, whilc
the lerk was the official agent of the settlement. The clerk, together with
the headman, judged the relay volunteers, their children and the "yardmen"
and received judicial fees from them.

The clerk generally handled petitions regarding abuses on the part of
the local governors and officials, although the headman, and oven the ordinary
volunteer could attend to a complaint from the entire relay settlement. The
clerk of a largo relay station was sometimes the builder of small relay

No. 66 Page 35









stations, situated at crossroads. Ordinarily, there was a clerk attached to
each relay settlement, but there wore slobodas where he did not dwell. Thus,
there is noted in one of the construction books of 1606 "and the yard was
bare of the clerk and there was no clerk, and they divided the clerk's land
among themselves".
The relay settlement could get along without the clerk, but not without
the headman. The latter was the heart of the relay settlement system and as
its man, he influenced the lives of the volunteers much more strongly than
the clerk.

As members of the relay settlement, the volunteers enjoyed a series of
privileges. Not even the all-powerful local governor, or the "volostel"
(director of a 'volost' or district comprising several villages) or their
"tiuny" (judges of the lowest rank, roughly equivalent to a magistrate) could
ask for fodder from relay volunteers, and also, they did not even dare to
arrive on a holiday with uninvited guests.

The relay volunteers did not pay the normal taxes, while the dues liable
for the sale and purchase of horses did not form part of their normal obliga-
tions. Even when they did not have to pay taxes to anyone, as, for instance,
at a wedding "for a strapping man who had a marriage license", it was only
half as much as an ordinary citizen paid.

The relay volunteer could be tried by the clerk and headman, even in
murder cases. If a certain relay volunteer committed an offense in another
city, the local governor, or the volost director or their magistrates still
could not put him on trial and hence they had to present him at the court in
the relay settlement. Only if he wore seized with stolen goods in his posses-
sion could the relay volunteer be tried by a local "starosta" (representative
of the local authorities). And even at such trial the relay clerk and
headman had to be present "as a protective measure".

The complaints of the public to the governor in Moscow counted for
little, even if a crying injustice had been done. However, the complaints
of the relay volunteers were another matter. Upon unfavorable reports from
the relay settlements, the all powerful local governor received strict orders
from Moscow to rectify the complaints immediately.

Thanks to these privileges, a boisterous licentiousness sprang up in
relay service. In one of the edicts of that time, it is related that the
relay volunteers stirred up the population of Archangel against the voevode
(local governor) Milyukov. In another chronicle, a contemporary scribe
writes with anguish that the relay volunteers, together with some Lithuanians
and Russian "pilferers" had ransacked the Zheltikovsky monastery at Tver.

However, all these amenities did not promote the growth of the relay
settlements; the relay stations "got worse" and the postillions "fled one
by one" from the service. Let us therefore investigate the life of the relay
volunteer. After giving him the required facilities, he equipped the horses,
stocked the relay stores with necessary items and built a hut and other
buildings in the yard of the settlement. Then work started; it was a rare
day when the relay volunteer was not on the road. The Government sent one
messenger after another, while envoys, voevodes, governors, magistrates,
secretaries with various errands came through, all needing horses "without
getting confused". The harness snapped, telegas and sleighs were smashed
and even good horses fell down. It was up to the relay volunteer to supply

Page 36 No. 66









a new team of horses, vehicles and buy fresh horses. And with what rasour-
cost. On the land assigned to him, he worked in his spare time. This was all
very well if he moved hay for his horses and reaped for them oats and barley.
And in addition, he had to feed and clothe his family.

Moreover, going from one relay station to another brought in little in-
come. For a troika, 3 dengas for every 10 versts milese) was paid as before,
but the payment to the relay volunteer was increased; for a stretch of 30
versts (20 miles), not li dengas but two were now being paid and the postillion
now received 11 dongas for the trip. But the actual value of money has now
dropped to almost half that amount. The ruble at the end of 16th and the be-
ginning of the 17th centuries was already equal to 43 gold rubles (of the bo-
ginning of the 20th century). Whereas the relay volunteer could formerly buy
about 130 kg. of rye (293 Ibs) with the money he earned by going from one
station to another, he could barely get 37 kg. (831bs).

A third source of income remained; the annual tribute of the public.
But it was difficult for the population to lond a helping hand to the over-
burdened volunteer by means of various taxes. Moreover, these contributions
did not exomp the public from their normal obligations; the arrival of anyone
of ambassadorial rank and the transportation of heavy loads, arms and specie
required the usage of extra carts-with-horses (requisitioned from the popula-
tion.

As a result, the public tried all kinds of pretexts to evade presenting
the annual tribute to the volunteers. The volunteers, in their turn, began
"to get tough". In order to stock the stores and buy horses, the volunteer
called in a friond to help him and they ran the relay service together. There
wore instances where not two but oven three or more volunteers lived off one
portion of the land.

However, such "fellowship" did not spare the volunteers from their duties
for any length of time. In spite of their privileged position, in comparison
with the peasants, who had no rights, many of them went back to the village
"to work as before", other went into the trades and still others wandered
about "idle amidst the yards", while a few disappeared complatoly and no one
knew where they were. The relay stations began to decay and it was necessary
to build them anew.


PART IV

THE RELAY SERVICE AFTER THE POLISH-SWEDISH INTERVENTION

Practically no information about the relay service from 1605 to 1612 has
come down to us. It is possible that under the Pretender Dmitri I and Tsar
Vasaly Shuisky (1606-1610) relay stations still existed on several roads.

It is known that in the autumn of 1611, when the Russian people rose up
against the Polish invaders, a lively interurban correspondence began. But
in none of the documents which have come down to us is it stated whether
these letters and the subsequent arrangements for the activity of the national
reserve militia, raised under the leadership of Minin and Pozharsky (see Scott
#1066, B2; Gibbons #82, 1212) for the liberation of Moscow, were delivorod
by the relay volunteers; everywhere only special messengers are mentioned.

The "likholetye", or "evil years", as the Muscovite chronicles call the

No. 66 Page 37









the Polish Intervention, also drastically cut back any construction on the
relay stations. The relay service was discontinued. If relay volunteers
remained at the relay stations, they were not ablo to conduct the relay service
inasmuch as the neighboring relay stations wore not working.

After the-expulsion of the Polish invaders at the beginning of the reign
of Tsar Mikhail Romanov (1613-1645), information was received from various
parts of the country about the lack of construction of relay stations.
Judging from the orders to the builders, preserved from these times, the re-
lay stations were built and renovated "as of yore". However, in the reorgani-
zation of the relay service, something new cropped up. In the order for the
renovation of the relay station at Pskov in 1624, it was stated that the sta-
tion be rebuilt in the same style as before; however, in it another method
of collecting the poll tax for assistance was suggested, in addition to nor-
mal obligation of the public to maintain the postillions. In other words,
the tax was not exacted by the "yamshchiks" but by the Treasury; the choice
between those two methods of rendering assistance was left to the public. It
should be pointed out here, that starting from the 20s of the 17th century,
the relay station volunteers ("okhotniki") were referred to in official acts
as "yamshchiki", even though this latter designation did not have the same
meaning that was the case in the 15th century, when the "yamshchik" (i.e. the
postmaster) supervised the relay station.

For the maintenance of the relay volunteers, the Treasury imposed a
special tax on the public and this tax included all previous contributions
for the relay service; i.e the immediate and annual tribute to the relay
station volunteers. From the amount collected, the wages of the volunteers
were paid and the balance was sent to the elay Service Office (in Moscow).
It was in this way that the increased poll-tax was distributed.

Later on, the Government arranged that all collected monies be first sent
to the Relay Service Office, and from there the wages were paid to the post-
illions, but finally, the former method of collecting was resorted to. The
delay which resulted is brought out in the resolution to a petition which
bears witness that "and according .to our great Master, the ukaze to Kozmode-
myansk postillions, Samoshka Degtyarev and his comrades from the great LMaster
to give an order to them for our monetary pay for the past year according to
the allowanon, and henceforth through the entire year to give without delay
'fro Moscow".

The payment of wages to the postillions changed the relay volunteer at
one stroke from a hired person taken from society, into a servant of the so-
vereign. Upon going over to the relay settlement, the relay volunteer was
then completely dependent on the sloboda and he could not enter into any re-
lations at all with the public. Ho became a member of a special class of
society "a royal postillion". And so, although the service was still one-
rous, the relay settlements began to grow.

Formerly, if the postillion died, or ran away, it was necessary for the
public to choose a new volunteer in his place. But under the new conditions,
the position changed. When the postillion died, the relay settlement
went to the trouble of finding another man to take his place; if he ran
away, it was still not the Government but the sloboda which conducted an in-
quiry about him and the Government helped the relay settlement in every way
in regard to this matter. They inquired after the fugitive postillions on
all possible sides and returned them to the relay settlement from whore they
have fled. The relay operation was regarded as such an essential undertaking

Page 38 No. 66








that they returned the fugitive postillions even from the ranks of the archers

The relay settlement began to bestow its rights not only on the postil-
lion, but also on his family. If after his death, he loft a young son behind,
the sloboda saw to it that his nearest relative conducted the relay service
until the boy grew up. If anyone married the postillion's widow, the inhabit-
ants of the relay settlement tried to make room in their quarters for her new
husband.

Little by little, the public was freed from the necessity of choosing
the postillions and thenceforth, the Government itself called them in.

The expansion of the state frontiers required the establishment of relay
routes at those points where there was a density of 10 people per 100 kilo-
meters (62.5 miles). Postillions were transferred to such places from other
relay eottlements. In that way, for instance, living quarters were orga-
nized in the new cities on the borderlands and in Siberia. The practise was
gradually extended even to densely populated ares.

In those times, the relay taxes increased many times. This came about
for a variety of reasons and in general because of the development of relay
route service. The principal relay tax was called the "great relay monies",
or, more correctly, "the royal relay monies to the Muscovite relay volunteers
and of various towns for wages and for going from one station to another".
A parallel ten-ruble tax was called the "small relay tax" or the "relay monies
for the relay volunteers for assistance and for going from one station to
another".

The Government only granted exemptions from the payment of the relay
taxes very unwillingly. Ordinarily, a special postscript was placed on the
preferential edicts saying "not including the relay monies". There was only
one concession granted about the payment of relay moneys; this was the right
to pay them directly to the Relay Service Office (in Moscow) and not to the
local tax collectors. The public had earnestly sought this concession as it
was already badly off because of taxmen collecting on the spot. When exacting
the relay taxes, the tax-collectors sometimes drove the peasants to complete
ruin. Cases were known where the inhabitants of entire village ran away be-
cause of abuses in exacting the relay service taxes. In general, when the
Government received complaints from the public, it issued an announcement to
the effect that the relay service taxes be paid only in accordance with a
fixed assessment and that it was not obligatory to promise anything to the
tax-gatherers.

Reminders were sent to Moscow to the tax-collectors that they require the
public to pay all taxes within a certain time and net even an hour later. In
the case of non-payment, it was decreed that "they be beaten with rods and
place them in a dungeon, and take them from the dungeon to beat them without
mercy to force the recovery of the debt until they pay the royal relay taxes".

It is difficult to find out how much the collected relay taxes amounted
to. It is known that in 1680, the money at the Relay Service Office was re-
ckoned at 20,815 rubles and it transpired that more than 35,000 rubles were
paid out to the postillions. It appears that the Government got around to
introducing a now method of paying the relay service by borrowing funds from
other sources.

Although it introduced the "great relay tax", the Government still did

No. 66 Page 39








not exempt the public from the horse-with-cart tribute. If there was a short-
age of horses at the relay station, such as in cases of transporting military
freight, the population was obligated to give horses-with-carts. But now,
not only the tribute of horses-with-carts was required but there was also,
first of all, stipulations as to how many horses-with-carts wore to be taken,
and from where. .

(to be continued)
000000000000000000000000000

ED I T O RIAL C O.M M E N T S Several more installments will be ro-
quired to complete serialization in our Journal and we can assure our readers
that Mme. Vitashevskaya' s masterly work will remain the standard reference
for many years to come. With the concluding chapters, we will be adding a
a comprehensive Russian-English glossary of all technical terms referred to
in the text, so as to help our postal history enthusiasts in the recognition
of materiel from this period. That is, if ever they are lucky enough to find
any .
00000000C00000000000000000


THE STAMPS OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIALISTIC FEDERATED SOVIET REPUBLIC
by R. Sklarevski

I have attempted a tremendous task of correlating all of the material
available to me on stamps of the Russian Socialistic Federated Soviet Repub-
lic and U.S.S.R. Besides studying the material on hand I have freely used
the following publications:

1. Soviet Collector and Philatelist (Philatelic Journals published in Russia,
in Russian, between 1922 and 1932.

2. Price lists of the Soviet Philatelic Association and its successors pub-
lished in English.

3. Soviet Catalogues for 1924, 1933, 1955 and 1958, published by various
agencies of the Soviet Government in Russian.

4. The Sta Stamps of the Soviet Republics 1917-1925 by G. M. White,
published by the Harris Publications, Ltd. in London, in English (1925).
This interesting and informative handbook is based on the Soviet Catalo-
gue of 1924 and has much additional research, obtained from all of the
existing catalogues known at that time.:

5. All of the Standard catalogues.available at this time, and which are men-
tioned in the text of the series of articles which are to follow.

The author wishes to state that all of the collectors are welcome at any
time to submit additional data, corrections, etc. Specially welcome will be
data on plato flaws, interesting cancellations, unusual usages, proofs,
essays, counterfeits, etc., etc.

Besides all of the information availableon each of the issues, the author
will give a catalogue listing of all of the varieties known. The colors given
will be those of the Scott Catalogue. No shades will be catalogued, but they
will be mentioned after each listing. The reason why all of the colors known
are not listed is because it is impossible to match the color nomenclatures

PaoO io. 66








used by various cataloguers.

Following abbreviations are used: (S) Shades. A numeral in parentheo'
sis, as for example (35) will moan that a certain catalogue prices the variety
at 35 times the normal stamp.

Since in this listing and the articles which will follow we are not in-
terested in anything but the stamps issued by either R.S.F.S.R. and U.S.S.R.
we shall not discuss at all or perhaps very briefly the types of stamps used
prior to the appearance of the first issue of RS.F.S.R.

From January 1, 1919 to August 15, 1921 ordinary letters were sent free.
Before and after that period postal rates for various type of mail changed
numerous times. For example in August, 1921 the following postal rates were
in effect:

Inland Post Cards 100 rubles
Letters 250 rubles (20gr.)
Foreign Letters 100 rubles (20cr.)
Registered Double rates

Inflation was the main reason for changes in postal rates, and at times
it was very rapid. For example, the rates for letter mailed abroad in 1922,
changed as follows:

January 10,000 rubles March 30,000 rubles IMay 100,000 rubles
February 20,000 rubles April 60,000 rubles June 200,000 rubles

It would be very interesting as the series of those articles are pub-
lished to check the postal rates on mail used between January and June 1922.

------------------a------------------

The first series of stamps issued under R.S.F.S.R., consisted of five
stamps, which werG issued on August 10, 1921 in the following denominations:
1, 2, 5, 20 and 40 rubles. They were printed on unwatormarkod paper, except
the 40 rubles which was printed on paper watermarked lozenges, and issued
imperforate. The first four values were lithographed, while the last one 'v-
engraved. Russians call the lozenge watermark "tonevya kvadraty" or "corn':..:
with shadows". The designer first the first four values was V. Kuprianov.
The last value of the sot was designed by P. Ksidias.

It is said (RS.F.S.R. Catalogue) that these stamps were sold only in
the post offices of Mosccw, Petrograd an5 Kharkov, and for a very short time,
namely only two or throo days, and because of their low face value and bocaa.'
of the high postal rates they were withdrawn from circulation. White states
that they wore available for postage at any place within the regime and that
they wore not romoneoized until March 1, 1923. Evidently a large part of
the issue landed in the stock of the Soviet Philatelic Agoncy, where they re-
mained on sale for a long time. Price list of the Agency, dated 1939-1941,
i.e. twenty years after their appearance still listed those stamps. The priv-'
was $P.00 per 100 sets. The journal, Soviet Philatelist, states th!iL as nilrn
as 2,500 stamps, in complete sheets, are known pasted on letters.

It is interesting to note that the 1933 Soviet Catalogue gives Leningrad
as one of the cities where these stamps were sold. Potrograd is correct, as
listed in the 1924 catalogue, since the nanm cnhrnge did not occur until 1924,

No. 66 Page41








after the death of Lenin.

QUANTITIES PRINTED AND ISSUED

Assuming that the quantities issued of the first R. S. F. S. R. stamps,
both unoverprinted and later overprinted in red and black with new values,
as listed in 1924 catalogue, as correct, we come up with the following total
printings of the 1 to 40 ruble values.

Total quantities printed Total quantities issued, unoverprinted

Ir. 1,593,900 20r. 1,390,160 Ir. 399,400 20r. 289,760
2r. 1,582,300 40r. 3,344,930 2r. 398,450 40r. 174,980
5r. 1,708,330 5r. 543,330

Evidently because of low face value only a small quantities of the stamps
printed were released. You will also notice that the quantities issued of
the 5, 20 and 40 rubles are not divisible by 50, which we hope signifies
that some waste was destroyed.

SIZES OF SHEETS

The 1924 catalogue states that the 1, 2 and 5 ruble values were printed
in sheets of 300 (12 panes of 25) and issued for sale in sheets of 25, 50 and
100 stamps. The 20 rubles were sold in sheets of 40 (two panes of 20 stamps
each), and the 40 rubles in sheets of 50 (a single pane).

The catalogue for 1958 states that the stamps of 20 rubles were issued
in sheets of 50 (5xl0), which contradicts the statement of the previous
catalogue, and of course may be a misprint.

CANCELLATI 0 NS

Cancelled copies of this issue are not common, and since I do not have
any covers nor cancelled copies in my collection I am unable to discuss this
phase of the issue. I do have counterfeit cancellations, which are as
follows: arcs of a circle, complete circles, circles with parallel bars
inside, etc.

PAPE R.

Ordinary, unwatermarked white paper was used for printing 1, 2 and 5
ruble values. Both ordinary and pelure papers were used for printing 20
rubles. Watermarked paper was used for printing the 40 ruble value.

S Pc...IG __B _E T WE EN P S T A PR TR IAL PR 00 F S. E T C.

The spacings between stamps are not constant, both vertically and hori-
zontally. Both types of the 40 ruble, ungummed, and in black violet shade,
are trial proofs. There is no reason to be misled by the Scottts catalogue
because they lump values from 1 to 1000 rubles in the same set. The policy
of this catalogue is to list stamps of the same design in one set and since
both the low and the high values appeared in August, there is actually no
reason for Scott to separate them. It is quite true that the high values
were not placed for sale at the same time as the low values.


Page 42 No. 66









40 RUBLE VALUE

The 40 ruble value of this sot is the most interesting stamp of this
issue, first of ell because it was the first Soviet stamp to be printed on
watermarked paper and secondly because of varieties. Most of the catalogues
list two types. To me these types must be considered as minor varieties,
because there is no variation in stamp design. Considering that the paper
with watermark "lozenges" was useo for printing Scott's Nos. 302 and 303
and other stamps, why dent the CAT 1.OGUSbS break them down into types'. I
happen to know that Nos. 302 and 303 appear in various sizes. The variation
in size was definitely caused by the shrinkage of paper whne the stamps were
printed. The watermark which weakens certain sections of the paper is not the
only reason for shrinkago, the method of printing is also very important, i.e.
whether it is a dry process or whether it is a wet process, and with the
latter the amount of moisture is important. This reminds me of a study I
mado a few years back on the Eartyr Issue of China, where I measured thousands
of stamps, and where I found that both unwatermarked and watermarked stamps
appeared in different sizes,

The catalogues list the following:

Tye I 37y- x 23* mm. a watormark up. b watermark down.
Type II 38i x 23t mm. a watermark to the right.b watermark to loft

Of course, breaking down to four positions af the watermark is going
a bit too far, because on many other watermarked issues we may find the
watermark in various positions. It is interesting to state here that it is
unnocossary to measure the stamps to detormine the Type, because the stamps
where the point of the largo shaded corner is up or down the type must be I,
S and when to the right or loft the type must be II. In other words when the
shoots were placed with bhe points of the large shaded corners facing up or
down the paper had a great shrinkage horizontally, while when the paper was
placed with the points of the largo shaded corner to the loft or right the
shrinkage was slight and it was in vertical direction. Likewise, these vari-
ations may be found on paper with yellowish crackly gum or on ungummed paper.

August 10. 1921

Lithographed on unwatormarked paper and issued imperforato. All values have
(S) variations.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

V A L U E 1964 1953 1958 1958 \ 1927 1945
Scott So-iet Mi-ks Gibbons Romoko Yvert
1. lr. orange 177 1 158 208 139 139
2. 2r. light brown 178 2 159 209 140 140
3. 5r. dull ultramarine 179 3 160 210 141 141
4. 2Cr. blue 180 4 161 211 142-I 142
5. 20r. ultramarine 180a 4a 161p 213 .. 14'-11-listod .
V L U E 1938
SMichel. Illustration ichol states that Nos.l
1. Ir. orange 135 1 to 3 exist cft. variation in
2. 2r. light brown 136 height (Markonhohe). 4a -
3. 5r. dull ultramarine 137 cft.
4. 20r. blue 138 2
5. 20r. ultramarine 138a .(-elure por). Billi in his booklet No. 38
(Lieforun- No. 38) illustrates and describes the four counterfeits. The first

No. 66 Page 43








three are smaller, i.e. 24 x 29mm. instead of 25 x 30mm. The 20 rubles is
likewise smaller, being 38 x 22 mm. in size. Notes: The author will des-
cribe the differences between the genuine and the counterfeits if the readers
send in examples of the counterfeits.

Now we must go a little ahead of ourselves in listing a counterfeit in
blue color, overprinted 5,00C rubles in red, because it is of the same manu-
facture as the one on thin (pelure) paper, and is on thin paper but in the
color of the stamp which appears only on ordinary paper. The reason we men-
tion it here, is because we are interested to know whether it exists without
an overprint.

40 ruble slate. Engraved on paper watermarked lozenges and issued imperforate.
Gummed and ungummed. Type I 37r x 23imm. Type II 38- x 23.25mm.

V 1A L U 1964 1958 1958 1958 1927 1945i 1938i
VA L U Scott Soviet Minkus Gibbons Romekoi Yvert Michel.1 Illustration
5 gummed T. I 187a 5 212 162w 143 143 139 3
5a ungum. T... .
5b gummed T.II 187 5-1 212a 162 143x mentioned
5c unsum. TI,. I*

Notes: Nos. Nos. 5 to 5c each exists in two positions, of the watermark

Shacd variations listed in other than Scott's catalogue

Soviet Minkus

la. yellow orange 4b. ultramarine 159a drab brown($2.75)
2a. rod brown 4c. light ultramarine 162a slate purple ($0.50)
2b. gray brown 4 A. dark blue Thin p.
3a. gray blue !Aa. ultramarine Gibbons
4 dark blue A4b. light ultra.- 209a grey brown (45 times normal)
4a. blue 211a light blue (3-o times normal)
211b indigo ( 5 times normal)

Soviet 1933 States that the stamps of this issue are found with various
defects, such as double.and triple impressions, offsets on the back,
printed on gummed side, partly printed, etc.

We are ending Part I of these articles with a note that we are glad to
hear from collectors and will include additional information which is sent
to us before Part II, which will include Scott Nos. 181 to 185. Likowiso,
dend us the ulistod information on the stamps which will be covered in the
next installment, i.e. for Part II. Be sure not to forget to send in copies
of counterfeits of Nos. 1 to 5.
(TO BE CONTINUED)
00000000000000000000.0000000000000000

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
From the EDITORS
Dent waste any time in ordering your back copies of the English Edition of
the Rossica Journal. We have only a few of the early copies of the JOURNAL
left, and at the rate the new members are ordering back issue it wont be
long that some of the early issues will be collectors items. They may be
purchased,from Dr. G. B. Salisbury 49th and Locust StrTts, Philadelphia
392 ag e alni No.

,Page 44 No. 66








RUSSIAN POSTAL RATES
by M. Kessler

INTRODUCTION

A chronological examination of the Imperial Russian postal rates was
authors original intention for serial presentation. Unfortunately at this
time, it is not feasible to carry out that plan because of restrictions in
using the sources. Although minor difficulties wore encountered in that res-
pect, it is gratifying, on the other hand, to note that works are available
on Imperial Russian postal developments and that some of them are of a calibre
worthy of being translated into English. Some of those works are noted at the
end of this article.

It may be mentioned that S. V. Prigara in his Russkaya Pochta v Imporii..
......, New York, 1941, pages 9-17, refers occasionally to ratings, but he
does not cover the subject in detail. Throughout the Rossica Journal and the
BSRP Journal many articles have references to ratings. I venture to say that
if these data were integrated and collated by a philatelic resorcher a single
comprehensive study on ratings would be the result. A concentrated study
effort on ratings by the serious student of Russian philately and Russian
postal history would certainly be a contribution of great value and would
add en-oyment to the collecting of early covers. It is hoped that a positive
start nay be made with this very modest first article, which deals briefly
with the reasons behind somc of the postal rate changes in the late eight-
eenth and early nineteenth centuries.



Previous to 1783 postal rate charges throughout the empire where the post
existed wore made according to the local conditions and the costs incurred
locllyfor maintaiinn'p-tho postal-facilitios 'i.h stations. One of the most
important decrees in an attempt to improve the post conditions was that of
November 14, 1783 which established a uniform postal rate for the entire
empire. This measure was implemented sc as to mitigate inconvenience to the
government for obtaining payment for delivery and posting of letters via the
postal facilities and to simplify the accounting for the prevalent weight
charges. Letters weighing one lot (about half an ounce) or throo zolctnika
(12.5 grams; a zolotnik was equivalent to 4,25 ::-: :is) were subject to a two
kopek charge per 100 versts for distances frc -'.00 versts to 1,500 versts
and a one kopok chargo per 100 versts for dista-n-r ,u to 3;100 vorsts. One
kopek fas charged for distances lose than 100 vorats aftcr the first 100
vursts. Eolcw 100 versts the charges wore six kopeks; and above 3,100 versts
they were fifty kcpeks. By this decree no less than 31 charges for sending
mailed dispatches in the empire wore established. The reasoning behind this
elaborate rate pattern was to mako rating charges more equitable based on
distance. 1hy the reduction in charges after 1,500 verst is not known.

In the beginning of the nineteenth century postal operation costs gene-
rally increased and a corresponding increase in charges for weight was also
introduced. In 1806 the greatest postal costs came about when payments were
renewed to stations for their expenses for carrying the post. Another factor
for increasing postal costs or revenues was due to increased costs for main-
taining administration of the government. These increased expenditures re-
sulted from the costly military campaigns which wore so prevalent at that
j time. Lt the same time, a reserve sun of 1,500,000 rubles cash remaining
from earlier appropriated expenses was taken away from the post administra-
tion budgeting. The law also stipulated that in the future all postal gains

No. 66 Page 45








or profits would be contributed to the stnto treasury for the state itself to
use.

By 183M postal rates had progressively increased because of the increased
operating expenses. In 1830 the following were the rates based on distances
per lot;:
Distance Rate Distance Rate Distance Rate
(versts) kopekss) (versts) (kooeks) (versts) kopekss)
100 300 20 1,300 1,600 70 2,600 2,800 98
300 600 30 1,600 1,800 80 2,800 and over 100
600 800 40 1,800 2,100 90
800 1,100 50 2,100 2,300 94
1,100 1,300 60 2,300 2,600 96


S 0 U R C E -Konstantin Vasiltovich Easlvich ich Pochta v Rossi v XIX veke
or "Post in Russia in Nineteenth Century", Moscow, NKPT (Narodnyi Kommisariat
Pocht i Telegrafov) or "The Peoples' Commissariat of the Post and Telgraph",
1927.

OTHER REFERENCES ON RUSSIAN P STAL- DE
VELOPMENTS :

1. Ivan Petrovich Khrushchov Ocherk Yamski!h i Pochtovykh Uchrezhediy ot
Drevnikh Vremen do Tsarstovanartia Ekateriny II or "Outline of the Coach
and Postal Establishments from Ancient Times to the Reign of Catherine
II", St. Petersburg, 1884. 87 pages.

This work is a comprehensivestuidy containing portraits of individuals,
photographs, and maps (missing in the volume I consulted). The maps,
according to textual description, contain the post roads during the reign
of Aleksei Mikhailovich, Peter the Great, and his successors to Catherine
the Great. The work has excellent source references and even gives
foreign sources on postal operations in foreign countries. It is evident
that there had been interest in the history of the foreign post in Tsarist
times.

2. Vladivir Dmitrievich Lovinsky Ukazatel Materialov po Istorii Pocht v
Rossii. Sostavlenv V. D Levinskim i I. F. Tdokmkov or "Index to
Sources on the History of the Russian Post, Compiled by V. D. Levinsky
and I. F. Tokmakov", Moscow, 1881, 53 pages.

Part I of this short work contains lists of documents pertaining to
the post in Moscow Main Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In
the archives may be found the records, manuscripts, printed books and
maps (from 1852) relating to the coach and post establishments in Russia.
Documents contain postal taxrs, collection of postal monies. In the archi-
ves there is a postal map of 1793 and even the route from Gaiti to Baku
and other Caucasian towns.

Part II contains an index of material relating to the Moscow Post
Office from the periods 1649-1801, 1801-1832 and 1832-1850 which are in
the Moscow Post Office and the Postal Museum of the Moscow Polytechnical
Museum.

Part III contains references on the Russian nost in the Moscow Archi-
ves of the Ministry of Justice (Tsarist), Coach Office (1734-1771), the

Page 46 No. 66






SOCyAlapcrlAmb B rDoamIb HS 1
HanpaCne m p yAapoe cosercu 0 i? ,
"* ooAc c 24.1 no 17 2.1992 r.

6 eenountcuCe orPaP A


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St. Petersburg Senate Archives for 1704-62. Sources listed also contain data
on the historical description of Russian commerce to all ports and borders
from early times to the present (1881).

This work as a basic bibliographic source is most invaluable to the
postal resercher and undoubtedly could give leads on works that might have
found their way into large western libraries.

to be continued



SOME ADDITIONAL CANCELLATIONS ON RUSSIA No. 1
by O. A. Faberge

During the recent years some of our members have published lists of
cancellations known to thom to exist of the first stamp of the Russian Em-
pire. Thus have Mr. V. Rachmanow and Mr. P. M. Davidson described a consi-
derable number of such cancellations in Rossica Journal No. 51. Later on,
in Rossica Journal No. 61, Mr. Liphschutz had published additional data based
on his own collection, as well as on some other collections. He also inclu-
ded a copy of Dr. Wortman's list frem the journal of B.S.R.P.

The other day, when comparing the cancellations of my own copies of
No. 1 with the aforementioned lists, I found a number of numeral obliterat-
ions not yet mentioned.

Here is my modest contribution to the list of cancellations to be found
on Russia No. 1:

SNUMERLL TYPE OBLITERATIONS

Hoxacon Typq pointed to the loft and right

This type of numeral obliteration has, as far as known to the author,
not yet been recorded at all.

75 -K L I N Z Y

Truncated Triahle' TyTo

129 -R A T N 0

Rectangular Type

13-B GO RO DSK 273 V AS IL S U R S K (in blue)
120 -SLA VYAN SERPSK 361 GRADISHSK
182 -R O S S I Y A N I 389 VA LK
252 P I N S K 566 -K L I M 0 V


C 0 NCENTRIC RIN G TY PE (Pqland)

192 C E K 0 W



No. 66 Page 47








THE FINNISH RAID L\TTO EAST KARELIA 1921-1922
by A. Cronin

I. HISTORIC OUTLINE

This was the second attempt to incorporate East Karelia into Finland,
the first occurring two years earlier during the "Aunus" episode of 1919. A
historical background to this second campaign is important, since by drawing
on both Finnish and Soviet sources, the personalities and units involved may
be noted and this will make it possible to pin-point fieldpost material,
should it ever turn up in the future. It will also be shown that this back-
ground will help to clear up some points relating to the postal history of
this raid. Place names in this article are quoted in the Russian versions,
with Finnish equivalents added in brackets.

There were two main reasons for the 1921-1922 attempt to seize East Ka-
relia, the first being the distracted state of affairs in Russia as a result
of the Civil War, and secondly, the onset of famine in the Volga region during
the summer of 1921 (see Scotts ##B14-23; Gibbons 230-233, 244-249; Zumstein
149-154). The effects of the famine had spread up into East Karelia, parti-
cularly in the Kern district where it was very bad, and it generally weakened
the Soviet positions in the area.

The first attacks in earnest were staged at the end of September 1921 by
a band of Finns and Karelians, many of whom wore the uniforms of the Finnish
Civil Guards. The leaders were a Finnish army officer, Major Tokkinen, who
used the pseudonym of "Ilmarinon", and V. Sidorov, an East Karelian who went
by the name of "Vainamoinen". These assumed names were taken from the nation-
al epic poem "Kalovala", published in 1835 and based on tunes collected by
Elias Lonnrot in the Ukhta (Uhtua) district of East Karelia (see Scotts ##
180, 207-209; Gibbons 285, 306-308; Zumstein 163, 190-192).

At the onset of the raid, the Soviet frontier of 1200 miles in East Ka-
relia was being lightly guarded by 400 men of the 379th Rifle Regimont of the
127th Detached Rifle Brigade and 300 troops of Cheka. The original ponetr.a-
tion by the invaders was in the Kom and Tunguda (Tungus) districts of Viena
(upper half of East Karelia), where 15 villages were seized in October. The
band now became the "Karelian Forest Partisan Petechmnt" and was being acti-
vely supported by organizations in Finland, such as the Karelian Union, the
Jager Bureau and the Protective Corps.

Activity increased during November with Rugozero (Rukajarvi) falling on
the 6th, and the Murman Railway was cut for three weeks when a bridge was
blown up on the 14th. By the 20th, the village Ukhta (Uhtua) was taken and
the White Karelia Government, which had functioned during the "Aunun" episode,
established itself there. On the 24th, Kokosalma (Kokkosalmi) was captured
and by the end of the month the invaders stood on a line ranging through
Olanga Kokosalma Maslozero Tunguda Rugozoro Segozero Porosozoro
(Oulanka Kokkosalmi Paanajarvi Tungus Rukajarvi Seesjarvi -
Porajarvi). The Detachment was now renamed the "Detached Karelian Brigade"
and numbered about 4000 men whose mobility was greatly enhanced by their usage
of skis as snow fell. The Brigade was divided into a Northern Detachment,
under a Finnish army lieutenant, which in turn was subdivided into the 11o-
jarvi Unit, the Ularka Unit, and the Viena Regiment. The Southern Detachment,
under Major Tokkinen ("Ilmarinen") included the Repola Battalion and also the
Plekhanov Battalion, formed originally in Vyborg (Viipuri) from fugitive Rus-
sian aoilor who had taken part in the Kronshtadt revolt in March, 1921.

Page 48 No. 66








For their part, the Soviets formed a United East Karelia Command on Novem-
ber 17, and three days later, their forces were joined by a further 450 troops
sent up from Petrograd. The front was divided into throe sectors, the upper-
most of which extended along the line Kandalaksh (Kandalakhti) Ken -Voinitsa
The central sector covered the line Medvezhaya Gora Kudoma Cuba and the
southern'- actor ran from Petrozavodsk to the Finnish border.

By now, the Soviets had protested repeatedly to the Finnish authorities
about the raid, but the latter Gocvrnnmnt claimed that they were not officially
involved and could do nothing about the matter. In the meantime, a "Karelian
Week" was organized in Finland during December 1 7, 1921 and recruiting
centers for the White Karolian Lrny uore set up at Helsinki, Sortavala, Turku,
Vaasa and Viipuri. Supplies were also collected for its support, and the
brigade grew to about 5000 men.

Soviet reverses continued tooccur during the month of December, since
the Commandant of the Potrograd Mlilitary District did not at first realize
the nature of the campaign which was being fought under frightful winter ccnh
editions at an average temperature of 35 degrees Celsius below zero (31 deg-
roes Fahrenheit below zero) and frostbite casualties wore high. The "flying
column" technique, which had proved of value in controlling the steppes, was
useless in remote East Karelia, where there were very few roads. In the
northern sector, an attempt to retake Kokosalma (Kokkosalmi) was repulsed on
December 9 .th rand fightifi toosawca T arounu. PEuozorc t(Ru jrvi) ih the
central. oytcr from December 11th, V ilc Londory (Lentiena) was lost on the
15th and Lubasalma (Luposalmi) soon afterwards. By now the situation was se-
rious and all East Karelia north of Svir River (Syvari) was declared in a
state of soige on the 18th. A further reverse was the loss of Porosoro (Pcra-
jarvi) on the 23rd, thus menacing Petrozavodsk.

The Soviets now sent up the 90th Brigade, 90th Rifle Regiment and llth
and 56th Cadet Brigades together with cavalry and 17 aircraft as reinforce-
ments. while East Karolians were also enlisted for the fight. It is now be-
came obvious that if the war wore to be won before the spring, the Soviet
forces would have to take to skis as the aircraft and cavalry wore immobilized
by bad weather. A quick check throughout the Arm stores revealed that a
total of 7200 pairs of skis were available and thus insufficient for the
forces in the field (8600 men plus 5000 in reserve).

The first volunteer ski detachments were formed in January 1922 and trans-
portation problems werfc solved bY bringing 4000 horse-drawn carts. Eleven
advanced radio stations, three new telegraph lines and three special military
roads from Loukhi to Kostenga (Louhi Kioskonki), Scroka to Saposalma
(Scrokka Saposalmi) and :1edvezhaya Gora to Pcrosozero (Karhumaki Poraiarvi)
were established in the sane ncnth. By now, the tide was be-inning to tun
as the Soviets abondonod the flying column technique and utilized reinforced
long columns instead. In the southern sector, the 90th Riflo Regiment moved
towards Percsozero on December 26 but had to retreat to Sovdozero (Soutjarvi);
however, Prosozero fell 3 days later to a column moving up from Petrozavodsk.
Both units then combined forces and took Syamozoro (Saamakarvi) on January 10,
1922 with Londery (Lontiena) following two days later. Reboly (Ropola) fell
to units of 11th Petrograd Division on January 16th, a major part in this oper-
ation being played by veterans of the 6th Red Finnish Regiment of 1918, led by
two Finns, Toivo 'itikainen and Inno. Ski patrols led by Antikainon also
played havoc with the invaders at Masolskaya (taken on Janury 7th), Padany
(Pasteno) and at Kimasozero (Kiinasjarvi), the latter village being in the
central sector and falling on January 20th. By an ironic twist of history,

No. 66 Page 49








Antikainen was to fall in battle almost 20 years later on October 4, 1941
during the third invasion of East Karolia.

On the central sector, Rugozero (Rukajarvi) fell on January 1 and the
final campaign was launched in the north on January 23rd after the arrival of
the 86th, 87th, and 90th Rifle Regiments together with a ski detachment from
the Moscow Military District. Kokosalma (Kokkosalmi) was taken on January
25th after a heavy three-day battle and Tikhtozoro (Tiiksjarvi) on February 5t1
Two days later on February 7th, the White Karelian "capital" of Ukhta (Uhtua)
was conquered after a violent struggle during which the village was completely
destroyed and abandoned by its inhabitants. The invaders now fled on skis
towards Suomussalmi in Finland and all fighting on East Karekian soil ceased
on February 17th when the Soviets reached the border at all points. The state
of siege was lifted on March 6th and the map illustrated herewith should
help members to got a general idea of the campaign.

As an outcome of this raid, a special Finnish-Soviet frontier agreement
was signed on June 1, 1922 to prevent further incidents, with special zones
being maintained by contingents of regular troops and frontier guards. This
effectively stopped further incursions, but that was not the end of the matter.
Three survivors of the campaign, Elias Simijoki, Reino Vahekallion and Erh-ki
Paikkonen decided on February 22, 1922 to form a society known as the "Akateo-
minen Karjala-seura" ("icadomic Karolia League"). This organization, known
as the AKS in short, was composed of university students and graduates, dedi-
cated to the concept of "Suur-Suomi"- or "Greater Finland", this included th.
eventual winning backof East Karelia. The activities of this society were
among the main causes of friction between Finland and Soviets. between the
two World Wars and in connection with this, there was a letter of complaint
published in the columns of the "Soviet Philatelist" of around 1930, in which
the writer stated that he had received a letter from Finland, upon the back of
which there was affixed a propaganda label relating to the Finnish claims on
East Karolia. Perhaps our vignette enthusiasts, Messrs. E. Marcovitch and J.
Posell, could help us out here and do some research on such items. In 1934,
the KS published a book in English in Helsinki, entitled "East Carelia"; its
main merit was the inclusion of a very useful and detailed map of East Kareli
as well as a fine reproduction of the Karelian coat of arms in natural colors.
This design was utilized for the stamps issued in 1922 and these latter will
be treated in the next installment,

to be continued


DOCUTETTS CONCERNING THE RUSSIAN POSTS ABROA DURING THE 18TH CENTURY
by D. N. Minchev

The Russian external postal communications with Turkey date back to just
after the peace treaty of Kuchuk Kainardzhi which had been concluded in 1774.
Thereafter, the postal privileges of the victors were consolidated to a greatox
degree with the clauses referring to navigation and trade between Russia and
Turkey in the treaty of 1783.

The land route for the Russian postal service in Turkey, which will be
the subject of this article, passed through the two Rumanion principalities
of Modavia and Wallachia (present-day Rumania), and then acroos Dulgaria which
was then under Turkish rule and finally led to Constantinople.



Page 50 No. 66






On the basis of the promulgation of the treaty of Kuchuk Kainardzhi, as
early as 1774 Russia set up its own central postal service at its embassy in
the capital of the Ottoman Empire. And since the route from St. Potersburg to
6onstantincple went through the above-mentioned Rumanian principalities, Russia
opened its postal services as early as 1781 at its consulates in Jassy, the
capital of Moldavia, as well as Bucharest, the capital of Wallachia and also at
Giurgiu on the Danube, facing Ruse (Rustchuk) in Bulgaria. Two years later in
1783, two more offices wore opened at the consulates in the Rumanian cities of
Galati and Braila near the Danube.

From two documents that I have recently been able to discover, it is evi-
dent that the Russian postal service played an important role at that time in
the maintenance of communications between Russia and the Ottoman Empire and
also in the political and public life of Moldavia and Wallachia. Those docu-
ments are in the form of reports dating from this early period and refer to
the work of the Russian consular posts in the two principalities. This gives
them special historical and postal value and they also have great documental
merit.

Let us now look at the contents of the first document. In 1782, the GoE-
podar (Lord) of Wallachia, Nikola Karadzha (1782-1783), forbade the despatch
of letters to Constantinople through the Russian postal service, as one of the
restrictive measures which he had imposed because of current internal strife.
I should like to point out hero that this happened a bare year after the REu-
sian post offices had been opened in Bucharest and Gituriu. However, a li-tle
later, this restriction was lifted. All this is set down in the report of
Sergoi Lazarevich Lashkarev, the Russian Consul-General for Wallachia. The
report is dated at Bucharest, June 22/July 3, 1782.

The second document is from 1786, at which time the Gospcdar of Wallachia,
Nikola Mavrogoni (1786-1790), while still in his first year of administration,
forbade his noblemen, upon pain of hanging, to send lettersthrough the Russian
postal service. This document is in the form of a letter from Ivan Ivanovich
Sevorin, the Russian consul for Wallachia from 1783 to 1799. The letter is
dated at Bucharest on July 22/31, 1786 and was sent to I. I. Bulgakov, the
Russian ambassador then at Constantinople, informing him of the above-mentioned
prohibition.

Those documents which are preserved in the Soviet Archives for External
Affairs, in Moscow point clearly to (1) the existence and lively activity of
the Russian consular posts, from their very inception, (2) the existence of
the Russian consular posts in the two Rumanian principalitiDs mentioned above,
and (3) the special and interesting role that those postal services played :n
the public and political life of Wallachia. The two documents also demonstia:
in the most irrefutable fashion that the Russian consular postal services act-
ually carried out their activities after the conclusion of the peace treaty of
Kuchuk K-.inardzhai in 1774.
XXoXX 0oxX3c xxxxxxcoorxxx

MONGOLIA AND MONGOLS
(translated from Russian by C. P. Bulak)

PFsults of the trip made in 1892-1893 by Prof. A. Pozdneov, who was an uncle
of our member C. P. Bulak. Edition of the Russian Imperial Geographic Ovei-
oty, St. Potoroburg. (Typograrhy of the Imperial Academy uo ScieQnce) -
Volume I, Pages 591-598. Dicry and Route


No. 66 Page51







November 14 1892. Saturday

Temp. 7:00 AM 25 degrees; 1 PM (Minus) 16 degrees; 9:00 PM 20 degrees

We have stopped to camp for the night. Close to our campsite, a Mongol
and his camel were camped. He had a small fire burning and was brewing his
tea. While our camels were being unloaded I started toward him to ask for a
burning pieco of wood in order to start our fire. But I was stopped by our
guide who told me that it was a bad omen to take the fire from a strange man
of the road; just as you are not supposed to ask the name of the place since
the pronouncing of the name offends the genie that takes care of that place,
approaching the sitting Mongol, I learned from hism that he was a mail courier
carrying Russian light mail. The Choria road is a permanent route for the
Russian postal service.

Hero I find it proper to toll all that I know of this institution --the
Russian Postal Service in Mongolia. From the beginning of our permanent com-
merce in China and the free movement of Russian caravans (that is to say from
1861), our merchants who were interested in the cheaper and easier transport"
ation of commercial information felt the necessity of establishing a regular
postal service, at least between Tiontsin and Kyakhta. However, during the
early years, when the conditions of our commerce in China wore not clear, the
representatives of Russian merchants who lived in Tientsin limited thomselvis
to sending their correspondence from Tientsin through the Russian Consulate to
Peking, and from there with the monthly official mail that was sent from o,
diplomatic mission. As far as Kalgan was concerned, here the Russian naorU:::'t-:
together with Shan-Si merchants who had business in Kyakhta, usually sent i: :
letters once or twice a month, hiring special Mongolian couriers and payixl:
them 5 silver "tsins" (equal to one silver rouble) for each letter weir:hirng ..c
over two ounces. Following this, when agents of Russian merchants settled -n
Tientsin, Hankow, Shanghai and other points on the Yangtze River, this matter
of inland commerce was given much more serious attention. To achieve much
faster communication the Kyakhta merchants, starting in June 1863, organized
a regular postal transportation system to move their correcpondonce, and at
the same time handled readily and free of charge the official mails. Thoir
mail moved twice a month between Kyakhta and Kalgan, transporting newspapers,
magazines and letters in a package not heavier than one "pood" (40 lbs.). As
a premium to the postal service operators they were granted the right to charge
30 kop, per ounce for mail from persons that were not Kyakhta Merchants, as
welleas from Chinese residents of Kyakhta, Urga and Kalgan. As far as the r-'
to Poking and Tientsin was concerned, it was forwarded each time with spociaiil
hirud Chinoes courl rs, paid 10 to 15 roubles each nas with the time limit of
two to four days. This mail service trip betwcon Kalgan and Kyakhta took
about 12 days in the summer and autumn, and 14 to 15 days in winter and spring.
For this postal communication the merchants paid to the mail agents 4,000
roubles the first year, and 5,000 roubles the second year. The transportation
of the above mail on the stretch between Urga and Kalgan was done mostly by
hired Mongols, and between Kyakhta and Urga the contractors had their own men,
horses and camels.

At the of 1863 some British commercial firms in Shanghai requested that
the British Ambassador in Peking, with the aicd of the Russian ambassador, ask
the Siberian merchants to organize a regular courier service. One condition
was that the telegraph messages from Europe to Kyakhta wore to be delivered
regularly to Tientsin and back to Kyakhta eight times per month, the delivery
to be made in 9 to 10 days. For the organization of such a communication line
the British (G. Br.) firms stated their readiness to pay 35,000 to 40,000

Pago 52 No.66







roubles per year. This matter was brought up for study before the Kyakhta
merchants at beginning of 1864. Among them there were sevo ral that wanted
to take a part in the organization of such a service; one of them, 1r. Sabash-
nikov, presented a detailed plan and conditions on which he would li to under-
take this service. At the same time, the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia,
acting on the instructions of the central government, asked the Kyakhta mer-
chants whether they would find it possible to reorganize their existing; mer-
chants' mail service into a more regular postal .servico. The merchants' rep-
ly was negative; the reasons stated was lack of funds and the fact that their
service was satisfactory for their needs. Even with such an answer the Gover-
nor-General did not drop this matter. At the end of 1864, he presented a pro-
ject to the Mcnister of the Interior about the possibility and the need of es-
tablishing postal service between Kyakhta and Tientsin, pointing out that the
exponco would be covered by the postage collections. This project was approved
by His Majesty in July of 1865, as a three years' experiment. The Treasury
was to aid this project with 19,300 roubles for the upkeep of the postal ser-
vice. This postal service, as stated in the document, was inaugurated to give
service to the merchants in China. According to the established regulations
the mails between Kyakhta and Tientsin wore to be carried 4 times a month each
way; light packages were not to exceed 4Clbs., and heavy shipments were not to
exceed 1000 Ibs. The merchants, using heavy mail service, once a month could
send hard cash and other items, and got in return from Tientsin samples of
dhineso merchandise, etc. This transportation of heavy items consumed a large
part of the sums paid to the postal service contractors.

Starting in October 1965 this now postal service was opened over the whole
line. Howevor, from the very boninring it created a bad impression for numer-
ous correspondence, mainly foreigners. The main reason was thy. extremely slow
and irregular service, as well as the carelessness of some employees in their
functions. ill of this, in all probability, could have been corrected by the
honesty, efficiency and experience of the persons in charge of this service in
both Siberia and Mongolia. The light mails formerly moved between Kyakhta and
Tientsin in 11 to 12 days on the road. Rapid mail transportation was especial-
ly essential from April to December. During these months regular steamship
tr?.zportation existed between Tientsin and other Chinese ports and of course
we could do what the Europeans were looking for from us. The Ncn'ols could
havo boon trained to move the mails faster and more regularly. This cculd have
been done by persons familiar with conditions of the lifo of the country, es-
pecially considering the large funds granted for this postal service. As was
mentioned, those subsidies extended to 19,300 roubles and only about one fourth
of the above sum was returned by the postal fon charges.

The foreign Shanghai firms were convinced from the first year of the
operation that our postal communications .wor net satisfactory as far as the
speed of delivery of the mail was concerned. In 1866 Mr. Grant, a citizen of
Great Britain, and a resident of Kydchtay was asked to organize a special cour-
ier service on their account. fr. Grant took up this matter and notwithstand-
ing the nunercus obstacles ho mct, by the next year managed to accustom the
contractors of his line to the regular delivery of mail between Kyakhta and
Kalgan in 11 to 12 days. Mr. Grant's service started yearly on March 1st and
terminated by the end of November. The messages between the montionod -cints
wore sent 4 to 6 times per month each way, with the weight of the packages
limited to three lbs. This service cost Mr. Grant 4 to 5 thousand rcublcs gold
in the first year of operation; later, when the delivery of the messages on
this line was speeded up, for example in 1870, it was made in nine days, and
when the despatching of the couriers was increased to 10 and more times per
month, the cost of service had rTvwi to 2C,000 roubles a season. On May 1, 1877

No. 66 Pago 53







this service was abolished because of the completion of the telegraph line from
India to Chinese ports. It is said, this operation profited Mr. Grant over
50,000 roubles.

As far as the Russian postal service was concerned, its condition changed
somewhat during this period. In August 1869 the Governor-General of Eastern
Siberia presented the Secretary of the Interior with a new plan which included
some modifications to the organization of the Mongolian mail service. How-
ever, this modification referred to the technical parts of the project only.
This proposed plan was studied by the State Council and was approved by His
Majesty on March 23, 1870. From that date the Russian Postal Service in Mon-
golia was declared to be a private commercial enterprise, which had the pro-
tection of the Russian Government.

To offset the expense of the postal service a grant was authorized in the
amount of 17,600 roubles per year, of which 7,000 roubles were wages for the
employees, and 10,500 roubles were to pay the postal contractors. This pay-
ment to the contractors, considering the conditions of these days, was suffi-
cient, even attractive for the Mongols. During those years the nomadic form
of life of the Mongols was rapidly deteriorating. Numerous invasions of Khal-
ka by the Dungan insurgents had emptied numerous settlements, commerce dimini-
shed, the Mongols had no income, and at the same time taxes were growing.
Under such conditions a 10,500 rouble business would be a large help even to
well off Mongols. We could have instituted any rules with the assurance tnat
they would be complied with. But it is to be regretted that our attitude ce-
wards the handling of the mail service remained unchanged. As a result, th('
Governor-Genral of Eastern Siberia was forced to issue an order statiAg th:
private capital could be sent by uninsured mail only and that private corrr.-
pondonce was not guaranteed any delivery time. In some parts of our sociolty
there was the fooling that such postal service was completely useless. The
late Russian vice council in Hankrow, Tr. Pcnomarev, was tolling us about th6
complaint of Russian merchants in Hankow that the Irkutsk post office, contra- W
ry to their commercial interests, and especially to the urgent tea orders, was
sending the next mail to Hankow around the world together with the French and
English mails. There were times when it took 85 days to three months to got a
tea order from Irkutsk to Hankow. One cannot say that our postal author-ies
did not care about longolian postal service. One can say that its intorcst
was misdirected. For example, it wanted to make reciprocal agreements with
the foreign post offices that existed in China, to open its post offices in
Hankow, etc., etc., so as to aid the Mongolian postal service. But, its main
preoccupation should have been directed exclusively towards the matter of
splouing up the postal communications between Kyakhta and Tientsin, particular-
ly within Mongolia. The extension of our postal operations beyond Tientsin
would bring benefit neither to the postal department, nor to the public. The
needs of foreign residents in Peking and Tientsin were taken care of during
the summer by the private steamers that were operated between Shanghai and
Tientsin; in the winter time, when the navigation on the Bay-Ho River was
suspended, the mails between Tientsin, Poking, and Shanghai were handled, free
of charge, by couriers of the Chinese Customs. As far as the mail service
between the Chinese ports and Europe was concerned, it was handled by British
and French steamships. The sailings wore so frequent, and fast, and the sche-
dules so well maintained, that not only the persons that lived in Shanghai
and other ports, but also the inhabitants of Poking and Tientsin did not find
it convenient to use the Russian postal service mails to Europe. Only the
speeding up of the transportation in Mongolia could have been profitable for
our business, but in the beginning this was not taken care of, and later it
was still more difficult to remedy this. Once it was pIrmitted that the mails K

Page 54 No. 66







tako 14-15 days to got through instead of 11-12 days, any speeding up of the
service would have demanded larger payments by the contractors, and there wore
no funds for such an increase.

From the other point of view, the disasters Mongolia experienced since
the middle of the seventies, long droughts in the summer and heavy snows in
the winters, resulting in the diminished number of transport animals yearly
increased the difficulties of the postal runs. To indicate the size of those
loses I quote the following. In the spring of 1878 I spent a month in Mergcn-
Van settlement, with our mail contractor Gancho and became acquainted with his
stock which had over 3,000 camels. The same Gancho wrote me in 1883 in St.
Petersburg that he had only 700 camels left, and out of 1,000 head of cattle
only 120 remained. I know that the late Mr. Przeovlsky in 1883 had to pay
136 roubles for a camel, that could have boon bought previously for 60 or 65
roubles. The following years were oevn more disastrous and I have been told
that Gancho has not a single camel left but only 4 horses and about 30 head
of cattle. One may say in general that within the last twenty years persons
who had 300-500 camels may have about 5V-70 left, while many persons have lost
their stock completely. One may understand that under these conditions it is
rather difficult to improve the postal service and thus it remains the same.
The distance between Kyakhta and Kalcan is divided, as before, between two
contractors, although their transportation means are not even one third that
possessed by the previous contractors Galsan and Gancho who served the postal
system at the end of the seventies.

I may add that the present contractors are fairly rich persons, but that
to have regular service it is not as important to increase the number of horses
and camels, as it is to cut cut the abuses. To start with, the contractors
as well as their men are accustomed to using the postal animals to carry their
own things and consider this to be their privilege. When I have pointed out
this illegality the customary answer is: "The camels are ours and we can
transport all that we want". It would socm that no one has over told them
that the Russian Government is paying them not only for the delivery of mail,
but also delivery within a limit an' that the overloading of the animals pro-
vents them from complying with this 1st and most important clause of the con-
tract. The couriers not only carry strange loads but make money in other ways.
For example, the contractors furnish feed money with the result the hungry
camels move very slowly and tire easily. ;ll these things, seemingly, tro not
important, but it is impossible to regulate our mail service without olimina-
ting them.

To give the readers information about the present status of our postal
communications I have to say right now that it is the same, as it was botwcon
Tientsin and Kyakhta. We have on this stretch four post offices: in Urga,
Kalgan, Poking: and Tientsin. These post offices h.av" ll kinds of services
for mails to Russia and abroad. We have eight trips per month through China,
i.e. three, so callo, light mails and one hoavy mail from Kyakhta to Tiontsin
and the same number from Tientsin to Kyakhta. The light mail is carried bet-
woen Kyakhta, Urga and Kalgan on two sadlo horses with one Mongolian courier.
From Kalgan to Peking and Tientsin the mail is carried by Chinese on mules or
donkeys. The light ma carries rc-istored and first class mail, official
mail and newspapers. he heavy mail can carry any kind of correspondence
plus packages. The heavy mail goes through Mongolia on camel packs, through
China on mules, packs or carts. Between Peking and Tientsin during the navi-
gation season (from Tungchcw) the heavy mails the heavy mrils go by bot on
the Ey-(ho eRi-or. For protection th he bay ails' rnd t oh couriers, arc c.c-
K\_ cora.nic by two cossacks. According to the present dcy contracts the light

No. 66 Par- 55








mail between Kyakhta and Kalgan is to be carried within eight days time in
the summer, and 9* days in the winter; The heavy mail 21 days in the summer
and 23 days in the winter. From Kalgan to Peking the light mail is to cover
the distance in two days and the heavy mail in four days; Peking to Tientsin
-light mail one day, heavy mail two days. The payment for the deliveries
per month is: Through Mongolia 750 silver roubles, and through China 156
silver roubles.

In general, the mail service through China, except for the flood season,
is quite good, however, the mails through Mongolia are frequently late, often
as much as five days late.....

Useful compilations from the book will follow in Rossica Journal No. 67.
000000000000.00000000000

A MULTIPLE RUSSIAN, CHINESE, AND JAPANESE CANCELLED POST CARD
by Melvin M. Kessler

Recently I acquired a Russian four kopec postal card originating from
Port Arthur, dated January 26, 1901 (during the Boxer Rebellion), addressed
to the United States. The card was postally mailed from the Russian Chefoo
Post Office (PO) and successively routed through the Chinese Chefoo PO, Chi-
nese Shanghai PO, and the Russian Shanghai PO, then carried via ship to Ni'ta-
saki and arrived in the United States through the Tacoma, Washington post
office. A description of the devious routing of the card should add to our
knowledge of Russian mail routing in China during the Boxer Rebellion.
----_--*---^--w----------

According to S. Tchilinghirian (Stamps of the R'nsinn Empire Used Abroad.
London, 1959, Vol. IV, page 374), foreign a_3 val -:-ings before the Box':"
Rebellion at times were applied to stamped let.-_-cr the receiving post
office at destination. These foreign arrival oan-l:ilations on Russian mail
from China are scarcer than those from Persia or J-ipan because most RuFvian
ships had ambulant post offices and regulari.y cancelled their own mail. This
explains the occasional appearance of Chinese foreign arrival postma".-s on
Russian franked letters. During the Boxer Rebellion, ships of all nationali-
ties supplied the Expeditionary Forces and carried mail for the foreign post
offices in China from port to other ports. Many of the ships were Japanes-
and delivered mail entrusted to them to their own post offices in Chines partsC,

The first explanations about the condition prevailing before the Boxs-
Rebellion seems partially applicable to the routing and markings on the c'r- .
There is no reference, however, to successive transfer of mail inside Chia
as was in this case, even though it occurred during the Boxer Rebellion. '-h-
card is illustrated in this Journal. The numbers on the card in the illusra-
tion are keyed to the cancellations whose descriptions in chronological orclor
are given below. The cancellations are the types, with their figure numbers,
assigned by Tchilinghirian in his study. The cancellations in the illustration
numbered 1-4 are described in Vol. IV and those numbered 5-6 in Vol. VI.

IL lustration Number

1. Russian Chefoo (Type 1, Fig. 503), in magenta, dated 30 I 1901 (30
Jan 1901). Only one postcard recorded previously with this postmark.

2. Chinese Chefoo Foreirn Arrival Marking (Type C6, Fig. 534), in black,
dated 30 Jan 01 (30 Jan 1901). Rated ERR.

Page 56 No. 66





"TANN/O U- TOUVA, a genera/ survey ". Svrcharqge Provisionals etc. Iqc, -/lqI



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--(un-e).


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/ r. "'1 Jss "(undated -Jb. l eed ..
< O I '



















"Issue" I s ue
II












-. Vi


/990 / 3 /942 'I8I M
















Teb A .._ ----.,- '
/c 7_
"/7 TMF isue E ,.AL

II~~iE Eu ;4





99 -. _____ ____ _____ ____ _____ ___







L ^ BCEMIItl'tii IO'qTOBIlll COI03'1,. POCCI "
NV UNIONN POSTAL UN IV Y ILE. USSIE. OZ
"OT'IRPI'OE IIICbMO. E.----
^^~?0a r r RusSr cmNi e





.j i f' ...

^ ^. . ,t'.^ }e
< ~ 2A
Nil AWD APAN0;








C -
c' -... -. -- -l ',%,l. -K- -
H. ",. W.sg .. ,





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.:_ ( .


o .
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Type I Type II TypeIII Type IV Type V ,
;fi Vr v
.y- j












ONNV rtD ASO6V eATCI '
P. POL C H f N i W 4 r
Type I IyeI yell Tp V Tp



/I -








3. Chinese Shanghai ForePn Arrival Marking (Type C4, Fig. 532) in gray
black, dated 2 Feb C0 (2 Feb 1901). Again one postcard previously
known (collection of C. F. Gordon). Rated RRR

4. Russian Shanghai (Type 1, Fig. 493), in gray black, dated 6 II 1991
(6 Feb 1901). Covers are rated RR to RRR. No postal stationery noted
for 1900. The date of this postmark is in the New Style. It would
seem that the Chefoo Russian F0 also used the New Style of dating
(see above) since only seven days transpired since the Chefoo mark-
ing was applied.

5. Nagasaki. Japanese Arrival Marking. (Type J. 1, Fig. 692), in gray
black, dated 11 Feb, no year. It is assumed that the card was trans-
ported on a Japanese Ship. The cancellation is a variation of Type
J. I since that cancellation has a 3-line dating with year,

6. easaki. PAUJEP0T Japanese Arrival Marlin?. (Type 8, Fig. 699),
in magenta. This type is the PAQUEBOT marking used at Tsuruga during
The 1910s. The marking on the postal card is a little different than
the one in Fig. 699: the tail of the "C" starts inside the oval and
does not extend in a curve or wavy line from one side to the other
of the oval; the middle horizontal bar of the "E" is even with the
other horizontal bars, whereas the Tsuruga type has a shorter middle
bar; and the "T" has serifs where-s the Tsuruga type does not.

7. Trcoma, Wshington, PID ALL Peceiving Mark, date indistinct, in black,
This was the last marking applied at the beginning of March. On the
message side there is a magenta oval receiving handstamp reading
"Received/MAR 8 1901/3. EFT."

A possible explanation for the routing is this. Japanese or other ships
might not have been available at Chefoo to transport mail at the time the card
was mailed and routing was more practical via Shanghai. Since the letter was
to be routed internally in China, then it should be sent via the Chinese post-
al facilities to be put on ship at Shanghai. When the card arrived at the
Chinese Shanghai PO, the clerk there may have felt that since it was originally
s3nt via the Russian Post in China, the Russian Shanghai PO should complete
the job and see that it be put on a ship for Japan.

Some of the cancellations are individually rare, but to have them all on
one card is unusual. The dual routing used to transmit the postal card from
a Russian office through Chinese ones and then to a Russian one again may not
have been previously recorded.
XXXX3CX 'XXc3XCX xXXXXXXXX ',X'-:yXXXXXI:X


AN EARLY RUSSIAN METER
by A. Cronin

The writer recently caue across an unusual registered cover from Moscow,
addressed to Prague and bearing on the back the impression of a meter mark in
red reading in Russian Z / MOSKVA / 731 / LIR. 11. 13 (See ill. #1).

Turning to the front of the cover, we find affixed at bottom a roughly
perforated label, handstamped with a boxed rectangular cachet in red reading
"Ei.OS30U / R / No. 731", being in French for international transmission. In
the center of the cover above the label is a Russian handstamp in black.

No. 66 Page 57







reading PRINYATO AVTOMATOM ("Received by automat" seo ill. #2) and at
the left are the requisite postage stamps, 20k. and 10k. arms, cancelled
" Moscow No. 3, 11.3.13. 1st Despatch Office". This same cancel is confirmed
at right and there are no arrival markings.

In other words, it appears that we have hero a case of the sondor mailing
a registorod letter -after hours by dropping his coins in an automat to receive
the registry marking in rod on the back and then placing it in the proper
letter slot. The sorting clerk apparently added the black cachet, franked and
cancelled the cover, added the makeshift roughly perforated registry label
handstampod in rod at bottom with confirmatory number and oven conscientiously
crossed out the German word "Rocommandirt" at top right to write the Russian
equivalent "Zakaznco" directly underneath.

The unusual thing about the meter is the disposition of the date: MAR.
ll.13, thus pointing to North Amorican manufacture. Further comments and
notes on other such discoveries would be much appreciated and lot us hope
that by now our member Molvin Kessler has pricked up his ears and is hot on
the scent'
00000OOOOoOOO0000000C000000000000000

STAMPS OF THE WESTERN ARMY ATD OF ASOBNY ASTRAD AND THEIR COUNTERFEITS
by R. Polchaninoff

In 1919 Courland was occupied by the Western Army of Col. Bormondt-
Avalov, and for its postal uses prepared in Mitava a number of overprints on
Latvian and Tsarist stamps of Russia (See Latvia Scott Nos. 2N1 to 2N36).
These stamps are included in all of the World's catalogues,and these are not
the stamps under discussion. The Westorn Army likewise, ordered in Berlin
its own distinctive series of stamps, with the Imperial double oaglo and an
inscription reading "Russian Post". This series, likowiso was for a long time
included in all of the catalogues. In current standard catalogues now it is
only mentioned as being issued, but not used (without numbers and prices),
but not in a category of fantasies---a point about which catalogues clearly
warn the collectors. Therefore, it is absolutely wrong to rarn this series
with fantasies or to consider it as "not recognized" or as Amoricans call it
"non-Scott".

Series "Russian Post", consisting of 8 stamps (imperforate and perforated
11) was ready after liquidation of the Western Army, and as roportcJd by Dr.
C. Stackolborg it was never takon out of the Typography. To cover the cost
of printing the stamps woro sold to dealers and appeared on the market at
very low prices. Dr. Stackolborg considers the supplementary printing of
T. I prepared by the same Typography that made the original printing as
oriumburfoits, because they were printed after the original order was already
sold. It is very possible that what Dr. Stackelborg states really happened,
but according to my thinking the supplementary printing must be considered on
par with the legitemally ordered stanps, although from the information givon
me they must be absolutely excluded. In my collection I have examples of
imporforate 10 and 60 kop. values, which are varieties of original stamps.
It is quite possible that the two afore-mentioned stamps are "supplementary"
but since they are printed on same paper as the originals, now, after 44 years
one must not guess any further.

As stated previously, those stamps wore not placed in use, but in colloct-
ion of Dr. Stackolborg there is a series of genuine stamps (imperforate) with
a fantastic cancellation (see ill.). Clearly visible bottom portion of the

Page 58 No. 66







"EOCHT. TEL. KONT.", while a portion at the top is not clear, and reads
"B...YCK". The date on one type of cancellation is 10,X.19 (yoar indicated
by two figures), while on the other the year is 1919 (four figures), bu t the
day and the month are invisible.

The genuine "Russian Post" series were printed on white paper. On the
right and loft sides of the c.rlo is a continued toothed vertical line. ,li
others differong from the ones just described are counterfeits.

I have divided all of the countorfoits into 5 types and each type into
subtypes "A. "and "B" for paper variation.

A hito and white-grayish paper, and in one case glossy yellowish
paper. In the light this paper shows fine diamond not.

B Coarse gray or dark brown-grayish paper.

Evidently some of the counterfeits were printed on ungu-nmod paper, al-
though it is quite possible that after 40 years some of the gum was lost. I
have purposely tried to simplify the description of the counterfeits and to
reduce the number of types and sub-types. Generally speaking, it is harder
to fine two identical counterfeits than varieties of paper or color. It is
quite possible that the counterfeiters purposely used various typos of papers
and from each cliche printed stamps in various shades, to obtain mere varieties
with a minimum of expense.

Lilewise, it is also possible that some of the counterfeiters produced
incomplete series, and for that reason in my listing I have only included the
stamps that I have personally oxaminod. The number of varieties in each sub-
type is indicate! in a table by a number enclosed in parenthesis.

a indicates imporforatos b indicates stamps perforated 11

"TfY P I Design same as of the original but printed on paper "A" and
in some cases in shades sharply contrasting from the originals.

2 Y P E II Stemps have the s-mo vertical toothed lines on each sifo of the
eaglo. The easL: is not as sharp as on the originals and has
white spots in place of coats of arms. The ribbon under the
crown is invisible in places. The bottom frame line is broken
in many places.

TY P E III The shape of letters "Y", "C" and "Ch" is different from the
originals and easily distinguished with a nakod eye. The vertical
lines on each side of the carlos are made by distinct points.

T Y P E IV Design same as in.TYPE III, except the letters are spreading,
the frame lines in corners form a spot and the dotted vertical
lines are not clear.

T Y P V Design in many respects corroeponds to that of Typo III, cxcyc t
the eocloc hav7 istead of coats of arm elongated spots.




No. 66 Pato 59








List of Countorfoits by types and sub-typos

I Aa 5 10 15(2) 20 30 60(2) 75(2)
I Ab 5 20(2) 30 64 75
I Ba 5 20 75
II Aa 50
II Ab 50
III Aa 1502) 30 50 60
III Ab 5 10 15 20 30 50 60 75
III Ba 10 20(2) 30
IV Aa 60
V Aa 50

---------------------

Fantastic Overprint Edinstvo and Svoboda "

The following varieties overprinted "Edinstvo and Svoboda" are known to
me:

On Originals imperforate 15 kop. and 50 on 15 kop.
On Counterfeits I Aa imp 15, 20 kop. and 50 on 15 kop.

In writing this article I have used for study not only the stamps in my
own collection but the stamps in collections of Dr. C. Stackelborg and J.
Posell. At this time I wish to thank them for loan of material from their
collections.
------------------------------------

ASOBNY ATRAD OF BULAK-BALAKHOVICH

Bulak-Balakhovich was a Csarist.officer who was forced to serve in the
red Army. In 1918, at a favorable time, he arrested the communist commisars
and after executing them by a firing squad, went over with his full detach-
mont (atrad or otryad) to the Whites. ( In the Small Soviet Encyclopaedia
it is stated that B-B organized a 'band' made of Kulaks and deserters from
the Red Army). Further it is stated that "In 1920 considerable bands
of B-B, received subsistence from the Polish General Staff, and in White
Russia (Polosie) supported the struggles of olish i Army against the Red
Army. At the of 1920, during the truce with Poland, his bands together with
the bands of Savinkov, with the support of Polish General Staff, attacked
Soviet White Russia (Soviet Bolorussia), and after defeat retreated into
Poland". From Dr. Stackolborg I obtained some details, namely, that Bulak-
Balakhovich after Soviet-Polish truce was actively continuing a struggle with
communistss in Belorussia, operating from Mozyr. At this time he proclaimed
himself as the head of the Belorussian Peoples Republic (being recornizned
by his supporters-- Poland "R.P.'). Probably, at this time an order was
placed in the Latvian Government Printing Office for a' series of stamps
consisting of 5, 10, 15, 50 kop. and 1 ruble (perforated and imperforate)
with inscription "A S 0 B N Y A T R A D" and initials of B. N. R. (Bolo-
russian Peoples Republic). These stamps were prepared from sketches made by
R. arrin, who was the artist for numerous stamps of Imperial Russia and
Latvia. At the end of November 1920, before the stamps could be delivered to
Mozyr for postal uses, Asobny Atrad, under pressure of bolsheviks was forced
to retreat into Poland, where after giving up its arms it was forced to
disband.

Page 60 No. 66







Michel catalogue considers these stamps as "unofficially issued", while
Scott has the following footnote in the catalogue: "Stamps of this design were
not put in use and were probably propaganda labels".

I think that the "Asobny Atrad" and the "Russian Post" of the Western
Army stamps must be considered as "issued but not used for postage".

I have in nm collection a perforated, with gum, set with a fantastic can-
cellation, which reads "Palevaya Kantora & Asobn. Belarusk, Atrad.", with "17
4 20" date in the center. Dr. Stackelberg informs me that the stamps were not
printed as late as November 1920. The person who prepared and applied the
fantastic cancellation probably did not know of the historic background of
"Asobny Atrad" and chose April 1920 as the probably period of use of these
stamps. It would be interesting to find out when these stamps were ordered
in Riga.

Although in the twenties the stamps of "Asobny Atrad" and the "Russian
Post" of the Western Army were rated as some of the cheapest stamps in the
philatelic market, they readily came to the attention of the forgers. Neither
the Michel nor Scotts mention the existence of counterfeits, and it was only
recently that I have learned from the well known English specialist H. F. Rook
that they existed. He sent me sets of perforated and imperforate counterfeits
which may be easily distinguished from the genuine at a first glance. They
are printed in shades different from original, on ungammod paper of poor quality:
and they have dull and foggy appearance. On perforated stamps one can see
more clearly than on imperforate stamps thin lines which are obtained when
sheets are reproduced by photo-copying. The forger followed the following
system in his reproduction: A photograph of the stamp was first made (nega-
tive), and then as many positives as there are stamps in the sheet were print-
ed. In that way a complete sheet was built-up from individual positives.
The paper used for photographing was rather heavy and with further re-photo-
graphing produced a clearly visible border around the stamp design.

As far as I know the counterfeits of "Asobny Atrad" are not often en-
countered. Most probably, because of their poor workmanship, they were hard
to sell,
000000000000000000000000000000000000


TANNOU TOUVA A GENERAL SURVEY
by A. Cronin and W. S. E. Stephen

The continuity of this series was postponed as we were awaiting the pu-
blication of his study by the leading Soviet expert on Touva, Mr. S. M. Blekh-
man of Moscow. His article now has appeared in the 1963 manual "Sovietskii
Kollektsionner", issued by the Moscow City Collector's Society and we are now
taking the liberty of recording herewith the items new to us, as well as fresh
discoveries made in the West since the publication of the last installment in
#62 of our Journal.

All the following varieties were recorded by Mr. Blekhman, unless other-
wise stated:

1926. First Issue (##l 10)

The 5 ruble value (#10), is known imperf, and also with fantail margin
at top.

No. 66 Page 61







1927 LOCAL SURCHARGES (#11-14)

These exist astride pairs of stamps; also ##ll and 12 are known with
inverted surcharges and ##12-14 with surcharges doubled.

127 PICTORIALS (##15-28)

The first of this set (#15) exists in two types: figure "I" is 1.2mm.
wide and 1.5mm. wide respectively.

The interesting 18k. value (#23) is now known perf. 10 all around: This
variety is completely unknown to us and we would like members to inform us if
they have found such copies.

The 40k. of the same set (#25) provides two further surprises: perf. 10
and lOx10-, neither of which we have ever seen. Again we would like confirm-
ation from our members,

1931 LATIN-TURKI SURCHARGES (##29-34)

In conjunction with the foregoing, the lk/40k. (#29) is listed perf. lOx
101-, while the next value 2k. on 50k. perf. 10- is known with black surcharge
which was never issued.

1932 NUEERATOR SURCHARGES

The"10". surcharge over the figures of value of the 8k. pictorial (#21)
was already well known in the West, as it even exists on a cover to M. F.
Schulyak, as noted in #57 of our journal. Now Mr. Blekhman adds a further
surcharge "15" over the figures of value of the 14k. pictorial (#23), illus-
trated with a faint cancel which appears to be that of KIZIL / TOUVA (fig. #4)

1932: THE 35 STRCHARGES (N#35-36)

Here again, the 35/18k. (#35) is listed perf. 10 all around, while both
stamps exist in pairs, one without surcharge. The basic stamps are also known
with MSS. surcharge "35" in indelible pencil, being only on value on postal
sending.

1932 "GKCE" SURCHARGES ON FISCAIS

Mr. Blekhman states that those controversial labels were charity stamps i:
aid of the Society of Organizing the Defence of the Country.

1934: THE "REGISTERED" SET (Yvert 39-461

The 4k. value (Yvert 42) is known perf. 11- and stuck on gray card, with
overprint "Prookt 21 yunua 1933g." The 10k value (Yvort 44) has been found
with perf. 11 bringing to three the number of values known with this puzzling
variety, which may be bogus as it is not a known Russian gauge (Cronin).

1934: THE FIRST AIRMAILS (Yvert 1-9)

Known as proofs, printed in blue, yellow-green, dark green and orange,
all values imperforate in one color on a sheet. These values are also found
perforated 11-.


Page 62 No. 66







1935 LANDSCAPES (Yvort 47-53)

Exist in other colors, perf. 14 and being proofs thus.

1935 ANIMALS SET (Yvert 54-63)
The 10k. fox (Yvort 57) is known imporf. between. All values in other
colors perf. 9- or 14,are proofs.

The 3k. squirrel has been found with fantail margin at top, and with
double porfs. in the second last vertical row (Cronin).

1936 JUBIE (Yvert 64-85. airs 10-18)

Mr. Blokhman omits the 2k. porf. 11 (Yvort 65) and thus it is probable
that all copies of this variety were sold abroad. He notes the 20k. perf. 14
(Yvert 74) with fantail at right, the 35k. perf. 11 (Yvert 77) with fantail at
bottom loft and the 2 akaha air perf. 14 (Yvert Air 17) with fantail at
bottom right.

The great value of Mr. Blekhman's wVork is that he now illustrates his
famous copies of the rare surcharge provisionals and we are picturing them
herewith.

1938. AUGUST. THE 14TH ISSUE

According to advice from the Lnistr: of Conmmications of Touva, these
stamps wore surcharged in the following quantities:

5/2 aksha postage (Yvert #83) 10/1 tug air (Yvert Air #8) 1000 copies of
5/2 aksha air (Yvort Air #17) 20/50 k. horseman (Yvert #53) each of those
four values.
30/2 eksha air (Yvert Air #17) 845 copies
30/3 aksha air (Yvert Air #18) 800 copies

The stamps wero in circulation until the end of 1938, when the four values
of the undated Jubilees were issued. However Mr. Blekhmants copies of the
5/2 aksha postage and 30/3 aksha air are both postmarked "KbZbL a, 12..+40".

1938. DECEER, THE "15TH ISSUE"

The four values in altered colors and erased dates illustrated herewith
are on unwatermarked paper, perf. 12- and printed in USSR. They are as follows

10 k. blue-black, fisherman 20 k. orange-rod, bear hunting
15 k. red-brown, transport 30 k. lilac, horseman

The used copies shown of the 10 and 30 k. bear the arrival marking of
Saragash, Krasnoyarsk Region 1.2.44 and a new type "KbZbL TbBA..11.44"
cancellation respectively (Cronin). Saragash is 75 miles NNW of Abakan,
and on Yonosoi.

1939. THE "16TH ISSUE"

10/1 tug air (Yvort Air #8) black surcharge
10/1 tug air (Yvert Air #8-) violet curchargo
20/50 k. horseman (Yvert #53) dated KbZbL a, 30.9.40

No. 66 Page 63







1940-1941. THE"17TH ISSUE". Surcharges in violet

10/1 tug air (Yvert Air #8) dated KbZbL a, 30.9.40
20/50k. Horseman (Yvert #53)
20/50k. lynx (Yvort #59)
20/50k. horse-racing (Yvert #79)
20/50k. air (Yvert Air #1), dated KbZbL a, 5.8.41
20/75k. air (Yvert Air #15), dated KbZbL a,...2.42
20/80k. horseman, perf. 14 (Yvert 81)

1942. THE "lgTH ISSUE"

25/3 aksha (Yvert #84) 25/5 aksha (Yvert #85) From Negus Collection

N. B The reason for repeating a lot of foregoing information hero is that
since the original listing of Mr. Blekhmants holdings was kindly made by Dr.
M. Mochi at the 1957 Youth Festival Exhibition in Moscow, Mr. Blekhman has
made new additions in this field, while Mr. Negus has also found an addition
to the 18th issue. It is therefore seems obvious to us that the last word
has not been written on these rare provisionals and other values may still
turn up.

1942 The 19th issue, in commemoration of the 21st anniversary of the procla-
mation of the republic. Primitive typographic print on unwatermarkod paper.
Printed at Kyzyl from designs by V. Dyomin from single cliches. Stamps of
different designs are known, printed together on one sheet. Imperforate.

Blekhman No. 130 25 k. grey-blue, Touvan woman. A used copy with illegible
cancel also in Negus collection.
Blekhman No. 131 25 k. grey-blue. Building of the Agricultural Exhibition.
Blekhman yo. 132 25 k. grey-blue. Government Building.

The anniversary dates are given only on the last two stamps. The follow-
ing unseparated pairs are known: #130 plus I#132, #132 plus #131. Informa-
tion exists on two further values of this series:

25 kop. grey-blue, Touvan man. 50 kop. grey-blue, soldier with a horse.

The first stamp was not issued. Although postal officials have testified
that the second stamp actually went on issue, no copies of it had been found.
Both of these are known as reprints from the original cliches, struck in so-
voral copies by the artist in 1946.

A forgery is known of #131, printed on thin paper. The forged stamp has
finer shading of the sky and clouds and a different outline of the figure
"2". The forged stamps are ungummd while the genuine items have yellowish-
brown gum roughly applied thereon.

Mr. Blekhman then deals with the 1943 issue, which has already been fully
described in our Journal. His finest item in this group is magnificent unse-
vered pair of the 25k.and 50k. green, from the bottom half of the sheet and
probably unique thus. The setting of the 25k. in this pair is Type B.

000000000000o0000000000o0



Page 64 No. 66





"TA" ^U TtO4v ((n_ r'4^ TMEI C OM .f

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P;en kIdaWn turar ceri polga td- Slr /9AY A2A

*i..- ,,,-..--.-- ---- "fl 3



WHAT s YOUR ANS VE R ?






















T lION POSTAL UNIVERSELLE. BULGARIE

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t>-'Ii' fTS CT XIna cfI I ;it .it[i l't.I a l u ;l)t yro Jlu l i I ReeI.fl.


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Fi^ 1. Fcp ,3 B -(-4ev "Pok d (",,

TAUTAS KOMISARIATS
^' A^ ^^^ -- J "/ 3'J







POSTAL STATIONERY

1935 June Envelope of white paper with blue lining inside. Size 160x127mm.
Same design as for the 5 k. "registered" stamp (Yvert #43), but smaller size.

1. 20 k. with fron t printed in blue. 2. 20 k. with front printed in black.

As pointed out previously, the animal pictured thereon looks more like a
cow than a yak and this may be due to the different method of printing now
used. At top loft is the Touvan coat of arms which is also pictured on the
1 kop. of the Jubilee issue (Yvort F#'64).

Below this, the directions in the Latin Turki alphabet read as follows:

"To where
district or town
county or street
arban (subdivision), encampment or house, room number
To whom
Writing man s dwelling place and name"

The word "arban" is now obsolete and denoted a territorial subdivision
during the existence of the Touvan Autonomous Republic.

193229 Envelope on white paper with blue lining inside. Size 160lx27mm.
Same design as for the 5k. ermine stamp (Yvort #56), but of smaller size.

3. 20k. with front printed in blue. 4. 20k. with front printed in violet.

The directions on the envelope are in Latin Turki alphabet and are the
same as on 1935 issue.

192 Envelope of white paper, size 160x127mm. The stamp impressions were
produced by utilizing cliches of the 19th issue.

5. 25k. with cliche of stamp #131 blue
6. 25k. with cliche of stamp #'132 blue

Note the modified coat of arms at top left. The inscriptions are now
entirely in Cyrillic and the slogan at the top roads "For our victory, for-
ward'." The directions on the envelope are the same as on the previous issues.

(to be continued)

EDIT RIAL C 0 i 1 EN T: The balance of Mr. Blekhman's comments
are in the sphere of postal history and will be incorporated in the following
installments which deal with this phase of of Touvan postal matters.
000000000000o.00000000000


WHAT IS YOUR ANSWER .

Editors Note Beginning with this issue Rossica Journal is inaugurating
a new feature which is hoped will be of service as well as interest to its
readers. This is the posing of problems of identification in philatelic and
allied fields. Most collectors run across items about which many questions
remain unanswered. We invite them to submit such items, together with

No. 66 Page 65








suitable photographs and all known data, for publication in this feature. It
is hoped that answers to the problems will be supplied by other readers. For
convenience in answering and in reference each problem will be assigned a number
Readers submitting queries are asked to follow this style in the examples
below.

PROBLEM NO. 1 (Illustrated)

This is a large war charity label, presumably of Polish origin and most
likely produced in Warsaw. It is of large format (122.5x138mm.),-lithographed
and printed in rose red on thin transparent white paper. As may be seen in
the illustration, its four corners boar the notation "8 Maja--1915--5--Kop."
Immediately beneath the lower curved bottom portion of the design is small
lettering which roads: "PUGET. JERZYNA i SjA." It is desired to ascertain what
organization produced this label, what the funds received went for, whether
there are any other values and, if so, in what colors. Any other information
will, of course, will be welcome.


PROBLEM NO. 2 (Illustrated)

Three adhesives, apparently of Egyptian origin, are illustrated. Each
bears in a panel at the lower part the legend "Russian Office". They are
lithographed on fine-grained white paper with clear white gum on reverse. All
are perforated 13. x 13. They measure 23x39.5mm. The value and colors are
5 piastro chestnut, 15 piastre cobalt blue and 25 piastre henna brown. It is
desired to know just what those stamps, fiscal or otherwise actually are
and whether any are known with cancellations. If so, what are the cancellations
and the dates. The date of issuance likewise is unknown. They may be essays
or adhesives printed but never issued. Any other information will, of course,
be welcome. Inscription "Russian Office" is in English.
0000000000000.0000000000o0000

00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000oo
0 0
o NEW ISSUES S E RVI C E AT L 0 E S T RATES o
o 0
0 0
o Complete price list of Russia mint o
o space material o
o f.d.c. o
o o
o free upon request o
o o
0 0
o W- AN TED to buy Russia, only mint o
0 0
o Special Scott Sets and Air Post o
0 0
o Your offer welcome '. o
o o
0o 0o
o S. d e M g e v e 7 --0 3 1 5 0 th St r o o. o
0 0
o Wh i t o s t o a e 5 7, L. I. N. Y. o
0.0 o
00000oooo00 00oooooo0 oooooooo0oooooooo0ooooooooooo00booooooooo00oo0oooo0oooooo

Page 66 No. 66







NOT ES FROM COLLECTORS

Dr. A. H. Wortman London. England

Reading Fohst article in B.J.R.P. No. 31 reminded me that I have two ex-
amples of post-horn cancellations without serial numbers at the sides:
SERPUKHOV 1884, larger circle and larger post-horns, KHAROV, with stars at
the sides, 1897. I am wondering if our readers have others.

Hans Irmann-Jacoboen Oslo, Norway

In the Rossica No. 48/1956 you had a very interesting collection of art-
icles on the inverted backgrounds. Some l1 year ago I had the luck to find a
hitherto unknown variety of this kind. Picking some Russian stamps with read-
able year-dates in one of the few stamp dealers at Oslo, I found to my astonish-
ment when I examined them at home, that I had paid some cents for a perfect 4
kop. with inverted background.

The most interesting point is that it is a copy on horizontally laid
paper. In "Rossica" no mention is made of any 4 or 10 kopeks on horizontally
laid paper, only on vertically laid paper. Mr. Archanguelsky says on page 17
that he examined 80,000 copies of the 4 kop. (probably mixed horizontally and
vertically) without finding any inverted backgrounds, and that Mr. Hanson,
shortly before his death "Accidentally found a copy with inverted background
in solleetion of his friend in Riga." Now, was this a horizontally or a ver-
tically laid one". I am inclined to think it was a vertically laid one, since
this is what he speaks about earlier in his article.

However, I am very proud of being able to report this "very rare" variety.
My copy is a very nice stamp with no faults. It is cancelled with pieces of
two light cancellations, the one showing the letters "S PETERBU--" and the
othershowing a section of the cancellation about 3- oclock to 5 o'clock where
it is possible to road "---0 95" and a big "2". I am inclined to road it as
"October 1895", but it also may be June, August or September.

SS_. Rusanll Aiukland. New Zealand

I note the editorial comment on the two mysterious Mr. Grants at the end
of Kurtts article on the Russian Postal Service in Mongolia. I find that in
the book "With the Russians in Mongolia" (published in London in 1913) the
authors on page 293 confirm what was said by Larson that Grant had met with
a sad and"rocently". It gives the further information that this Grant had
accompanied the Scientific Expidition to Sianfu in Shansi Province, promoted
by a Mr. Clarke, so if information can be found on the above Scientific Expi-
dition it may give at least Grant s initials, which will be useful to compare
with the other Mr. Grant mentioned on p. 42 of Rossica 64. Obviously they are
two different men. Il11 try to dig up information at our Public Library and
will advise you further on the result.

I have tried to find you some news regarding covers, for a future Rossica
and now enclose a photostat of a cover of 5th January 1906, from Urga to
Kal-an, bearing a fine strip of seven of the 3k value. The 2c Chinese Impe-
rials were added at Kalgan, whore a red Russian indicator was put on. I have
several covers from Urga with a postage rate of 21 kop., and none of them
appear to be registered letters. Have other covers bearing 10k and 11k rates
instead of the normal 7k, so it would seem that the higher rates wore due to
the weight of the letter. I have one registered letter from Urga of 1910,

No. 66 Page 67








and it bears 35k postage.

Referring to Andy Cronin's article in Rossica 64, on pages 33-4j on the
Kyzyl Postmasterts "Spravkas", you may be interested to hear of 2 other oerti-
ficatos that I have, and which I describe below:

1. A complete Certificate, written in pencil, with the signature of the same
Postmaster and his purple office seal, bearing a pair of the fiscal "POSTA
15" overprints (Scott 37) in lower left corner, with Kizil postmark of
25/3/33. Translation of the Certificate shows that the pair of 6k fis-
cals were overprinted "POSTA 15" to convert them into POSTAGE stamps.

2. A Complete Certificate, with text written in ink, signed by same Postmaster
and bearing the usual purple seal, over the signature. There are 7 stamps
on this Certificate, namely the 1932 set of six overprints (Scott 29 to
34) and also a 1933 overprint(Scott 35). The 7 lines of text have been
translated to read: "The stamps attached are actual Post Office stamps
of the Peoplets Republic of Tuva and are issued overprinted because of the
change in postage rates, which fact is hereby certified by the Communica-
tions Office of the Republic". In this case also the Kizil postmark is
dated 25/3/33.

I have a cover from Kizil addressed to a one-time dealer in Harbin, boar-
ing a pair of POSTA 15 overprint (Scott 37) and a pair of the Ik on 15k fiscal
and a single marginal 5k on 6k fiscal; these fiscal having the K T E 0
overprints, the status of which is still not finally established. All the
stamps are tied with a Kizil postmark of 25/3/33 (which seems to be the only
date so far found on the Postmaster's Certificates, and here we have the same
date on a cover). The point may boar some investigation. The cover is back-
stamped at Harbin. Probably the pair of 15k overprints on this letter were
sufficient to defray the postage from Kizil to Harbin, and the overprinted
fiscal totalling 7k, may have been added for good measure or to show that
they wore recognized by the P.O. at Kizil, or to get a Kizil cancellation on
them. It is possible that the Harbin dealer himself affixed the stamps to
the cover and sent them to Kizil to be returned to him through the mail. (He
adopted the same procedure in regard to Mongolia too).

Edward Tolman, N. Y., U.S.A.

I have a translation of 1892 Russian Post & Telegraph Journal on China.
I guess the 192 and '98 articles wore the sources of Prigarats article. There
still is a gap of information as to when the Russian Government took over the
mail service between KIACHTA and KALGAN, maybe as late as t76 or 177 (from
the information in the t92 article). I feel sure additional information may
exist on this somewhere, perhaps in Russia.

Fred W. S-pors -Escondido. California. U.S.A.

In going over my rather numerous examples of Russian Offices in China
No. 1 (the yellow orange 1 kopock), I ran across a distinct plate flaw--throe
pronounced indentations in the outer frame. I have checked over all my other
holdings of the 1 kopeck basic stamp (without overprints or with others, such
as ROPiT) and have not found another example. It is conceivable, incidentally,
that the flaw exists ONLY on the KITAI overprinted stamp, but this is only sur-
mise and it would depend on the time of the accident which caused the flaw and
whether or not the plates were used again for printing the basic stamps or
were destroyed or withdrawn.

Page 68 No. 66







A. Cronin, Windsor. Ontario, Canada

This is by way of directing attention to border mail exchange offices;
in this case to Unoni, on the Bossarabian border with Rumania and only 12
miles nort-east of the largo city of Jassy.

It appears that during the latter half of last century, this Bossarabian
office was an important exchange point for mail to and from Balkan States.
The Bulgarian postcard shown herewith (illustration #1) is a good example of
this; It was written on Jan. 2 1882 by a certain "Yu.", apparently a Russian
officer at the Military School in Sofia, and mailed from there a day later.
On Jan. 6, it was in Rustchuk and it received the marking of Ungoni #9 at bot-
tom right a day later. The card passed through St. Petersburg on Jan. 12 and
a day later it received the local rectangular receipt marking of Holsingfors
(Jan. 25, new style). The fact that Ungeni had at least nine date stamps
gives us some indication of the volume of mail handled.

In confirmation of this, our member Kurt Adler has a highly interesting
cover going in the opposite direction from Bolgrad, the capital of Bulgarian
colonies in Southern Bossarabia, to Sofia, which we will be illustrating in
the "Budzhak" series and which boars in transit the same Ungoni #9 cancel,
dated Oct. 15, 1885.

A further cover hold by the present writer, left Moscow on Sept. 18, 1886
on its way to Plovdiv, Bulgaria and on crossing the border, it received a now
typo of backstamp, reading 1 UIGC-I BESSAR. G 1 / POCHTOVO TELEGR. KONT. /
23 SEN. 1886 (see illustration #2). It was received at its destination on
Oct. 1, 1886.

No doubt our members will be able to some up with further examples and
now types on examining their collections and it would be greatly appreciated
if they would forward their observations for publication in this section.

ADDITIONAL NOTE TO THE ARTICLE "YASSY LOCAL ZEMSTVO POST" by Boris Shishkin,
Published with comments in #65 of our Journal.

Upon consulting an informative work entitled "Putoshestvie po I1oldavii"
(Journey across Moldavia), by E. Zlatova and V. Kolosnikov, Loscow, 1959, our
member iMr. Cronin has now boon able to find the reason for Bolta being refer-
rod to as the "Yassy District". The book, in describing the town, states the
following facts:

"The word 'belts' in Moldavian means marshes. VJhon Bossarabia became
part of Russia (on May 16, 1812), the name 'Balti' was transcribed as 'Boltsy'
in official documents, and has remained so to this day.

In 1818, Tsar Aloxander I made a stop at Boltsy in passing and to commemo-
rate the event, ordered the district administration to be transferred to
Beltsy, which henceforth was to be called a town. By force of habit, however,
people went on calling it the tYassy District', although Yassy was beyond the
Pruth river, on the 'Turkish sido' as it was then called".

The reason for the term "Turkish side" was that the Rumanian Principa-
lities of Moldavia and Wallachia, across the Pruth river, wore then still under
the suzerainty of Turkey and this latter power had the right to appoint
"hospodars" or "lords" to rule each principality for a term of three years.

No. 66 Page 69







D. N, Minchev, Sofia, Bulgaria

(A). I thank Mr. V. Kurbas for his kind remarks in Rossica #65 regarding
the summary of my book in Rumania, with reference to the Bulgarian settlements
in the Budzhak stopped. Indeed, he has exhibited considerable attention and
interest in this subject. For my part, I am taking the liberty of giving the
following explanations, in reply to his expressed desire. The comments on his
for questions are as follows:

1. In my original book, the meaning of the word "Budzhak" is explained on pp.
5-6, stating that it is, th6 oact translation of the Slav "ugol". More-
over, on page 5, reference is made, among other things, to some Slav
settlements in this district.
2. On page 22 of the same work, I noted that Pushkin was placed under the
orders of General Inzov during his compulsory stay at Kishinev.
3. On page 19 of my book, the data published are acknowledged under footnote
#2 as having been extracted from the work by Al. P. Arbore, written in
Rumanian and entitled '1tnographic information and population movements
for Southern Bossarabia and the Dobrudja in the 18th and 19th centuries,
with special reference to the Bulgarian colonies in these regions" (from
"Annals of the Dobrudja", year X, 1929).

Since I do not have the above-mentioned source still at my disposal,
I am not in a position to give the roauired clarification. Mr. Kurbast
contention may therefore be regarded as correct.

4. With regard to the Moldavian villages of Valoni and Colibasi, near the
Pruth River and south of Cahul (Kagul), they served only as temporary
accommodations for the Bulgarian refugees. From there, they proceeded
further into the Budzhak steppe to sot up their native centers. However,
the village of Bashkyoi is noted in the list given in Rossica #65 under
the name of Khirsovo (#22). Strictly speaking, it is mentioned there
under its two known names, Kirsovo-Bashkyoi.

Thus, the reason that gave cause for further details and questions
from Mr. Kurbas may be explained by the necessarily very condensed form
of the summary published in Rossica. The original work in Rumanian con-
tailed much new data and illustrations, published for the first time.

(B). Much interesting and valuable material has been published quite
often in part or fully in "Rossica", with the source being quoted as the
"Postal-Telegraphic Journal". However, it should be added that the above-
mentioned monthly publication, issued many years ago in St. Petersburg (now
Leningrad), was actually printed in two editions, quite separate and distinct
in contents. In the first, under the subtitle of "Otdel Ofitsial'ny" or
"Official Section", only official postal documents, circulars, orders, instruc-
tions, regulations and theolike wore published. In the second edition, sub-
titled "Otdol Neofitsial'ny" or "unofficial Section", only articles and mator-
ial wero carried that referred to postal and telographic affairs.

The materials reproduced in "Rossica" have been taken from the second
edition (Unofficial, Section). In such..a situation, it would be correct and
necessary that on citing the "Postal-Telegraphic Journal", the appropriate sub-
title should by all moans be added. Otherwise, unforseen difficulties would
arise when making enquiries because of inaccurate bibliographic data.

EDIT 0 RIAL C OMMEN T: Mr. Minchov is an official of the

Page 70 No. 66







Bulgarian National Library in Sofia and his suggestion is noteworthy since our
journal is regarded by libraries around the world as a serious work of phila.
tolic reference; any improvement cannot fail to raise our reputation. Mr.
Minchov has also given us the exact reference for a fine article on the postal
service at the annual Nizhny Novgorod Fairs, published in the "Unofficial Sec-
tion" of the Postal-Telegraphic Journal for 1893 and we will be reproducing
this soon, together with additional comments on this subject, which should
prove of great interest to our members.

Dr. C. do Stackolborg, Washington, D. C.

In addition to the flaws of the 25 and 35 kop. stamps of the Arms Issue of
1909-1923 described by Mr. John Lloyd on page 46 of Rossica #65, to supplement
my chock list, I can now also list the following now flaws in my collection:

25 Kop. Plate Flaws

PL. No. 6 (on 1. 1 corner), sheet of period III, perforated. Stamp #24
of upper right Pane: the two periods, on right of "KOP:" are joined together
and with the "P", as illustrated and described by Mr. Lloyd.

35 Kopp Plato Flaws

1. PL. No. "KRED. TIP. 1910" (on lower loft corner). Sheet of Period I,
perforated. Stamp #24 in lower loft pane: broken "3" flaw.
2. PL. No. 5 (on 1. 1. corner) sheet of III Printing, perforated. Stamp
#1 in 1. 1. pane and stamp #5 in 1. r. pane have the broken "3" flaw*

3. No PL. No. Sheet of III printing, perforated. Stamp #16 in upper left
pane: "3" and "5" are joined in u. r. circle.
4. No. PL. No. sheet of III printing (but later than 3) of above).
Imperforate.
a. Stamp #6 in u. 1. pane "5" brockon in u. r. circle.
b. Stamp #7 in u. 1. pane "3" and "5"1 are joined in u. r. circle.
c. Stamps ##13 and 15 in 1. r. pane have broken "3" flaw.

In my introduction to the "Now Chock List of the Arms Typo Issues of
1909-1923" on page 35 of Rossica #58 speaking about perforations, I wrote
as follows:

38. Perforations in Vibort's Oheck List of 1927

Vibert in his Check List of 1927 erroneously mentions that the 1 ruble
stamps in the color of the F. P. (chocolate/orange) were perforated 12-. The
1 ruble stamp perforated 12j of the so called Perm Issue, as mentioned above
(para.36) is well known and is of much later printing.

Now with the confirmation of the actual existanco of 1 ruble stamps of
1909, perforated 12., and overprinted in 1910 with KITAI (Scott #47) for the
use by Russian P. 0. in China, as described by Mr. V. Popov in #65, pago 14
of the Rossica, I am glad to rectify what I said about Col Vibertts Chock
List of 1927. He was completely right to list them.

It is unfortunately not known whether he referred to the"KITAI" over-
printed stamp or to a stamp without any overprint. I do not know whether the

No. 66 Pago 71







(few) 1 R. shoots perforated 12 were all used at the Government Printing
Office to bo overprinted '11TAI" or whether some surplus. shoots wore issued
to the P.O. for postal use without any overprinting, as in the case of the
"10 Piastros" overprint of 1910 for the IEVANT (See para 12, page 20,
Rossica #57). I would like therefore to suggest to our readers to examine
carefully their Perm Issue 1 R. stamps of 1919, perforated 121 as to cancol-
lation dates and especially as to characteristics of the I R. stamps of the
First Printing: fair and clear impression and soft and delicate chocolate
orange colors. They might perhaps find a 1910 stamp among them.

George G. Uorbizky, Vostal, N. Y., U. S. A.

I am enclosing a photograph of USSR #911 (Scott). I feel that the rod
color, which is out of register, happened at the same time since the flag
and the inscription wore printed at the same time. This is clearly soon
when the normal stamp is examined. Although I bought this stamp several years
ago, I did not notice the fact until later. The misplacement is up and to
the right. The misplacement is not shorter ( center of the stamp) the same
red color. The inscription "Staligrad", likewise is misplaced. The rest of
the stamp otherwise is normal. It is interesting to know if other similar
examples of this stamp exist. The stamp is one of the set, which I obtained
from Frasok Co., Whito Plains, N. Y. approximately 5 years ago.

E D I T 0 R: There is also a vertical shift of inscription on lower part of
the stamp "POCHTA CCCP 30 KOP."

R. Polchaninoff, Brooklyn, N. Y.

It is very important to ,mention, regarding the "Russian Provisional of
1961" mentioned in Rossica #65, that after the monetary reform of January 1,
1961, that the stamps of the aforo-mentioned issues had lawful circulation
until the end of arch 1961. It fooling is, that the "provisional" wore not
needed and that they wore not stocked in post offices. Likewise, to my think-
ing there was no "official order from the central office", because the over-
printing was unnecessary. *

Regarding "Now York Ukr." -'I am furnishing all of the information known
to me on the Note of Kurt Adler in Rossica #63. In the Soviet Yearbook,
"USSR, Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Republics of the Union*"
Moscow, 1958, at the end is a list of places with old and now names. Now
York, Stalinskaya Oblast (Region) in 1958 was known as "Novgorodskoe". Stalin-
skaya Oblast in 196L is known as Donotskaya.

Unknown Revenue stamps in my collection

1. Doutacho Verwaltung Mohilow am Dnjepr German Occupation (last two
words in Russian). In my collection a 5 kop. stamp (with Tsarist
crown). A hand overprint in black is up and down. The variation
in the direction of the overprint is because the Imperial revenue
stamps wore printed tete-boche in each sheet. Both of the stamps
are on a piece of a document and are,'dated'1918 I do not know
whether other denomination wore overprinted thus..

2. Stamps of Gorodskogo Upravlonia Of Pskov ( Municipal stamps of Pskov)
(1941-44). The stamps have the coat of arms of Pskov (same as the
postage stamps of the city of Pskov of that period). Probably the
work of the same artist and produced by the same printing works.
Page 72 No. 66









The series consists of 5 stamps, which are lr. chocolate, 3r. gray green, Sr.
blue, 10r. brick red and 50r..dark blue. I have heard that these stamps were
used in Luga and probably in other cities occupied by Germans (see illustr.).

3. Cigarette band, instead of American tobacco revenue band, a special one for
DP camps of IRO (probably in 1948-49). The band was used only on cigarettes
obtained on the special order of IRO "Turkish". (See ill.).

Michael Rayhack Little Falls. New Jersey, USA

Rimma Sklarevski has examined my censor cover, dated 18 5, 1918 -
Petrograd, containing two copies of 15 kopeck LARGE DIE, and says it is to
date the earliest known. Also "actually, as yet we do not know the earliest
date, when the Large Die was used, but your usage seems to me Quety Early,
only the time will tell". As my cover pushes up the time also 2 years from
previous guesses, we may be closing in on another Russian Philatelic Puzzle.
My guess it will end in 1917, with an imperforated block, after the rioting
took place in the printing plant, and this large die, replaced normal dies
or cliches damaged in the rioting.
00000000000000.000000000000


REVIEWS

The British Journal of Russian Philately. Mo. 33

Editor P. T. Ashford continues to produce an outstanding journal both in
appearance and in content. Among the intorosting articles we must single out
F. Julius Fohs' and Kurt Adler' s "Pre Stamp Markings of Imperial Russia", C.
W. Roberts' "Outstanding Covers", E. G. Peel s "Constantinople Surcharges on
Vertically Laid Paper", Dr. A. H. Wortman's "Scarce Censor Markings of the
First World War", .. Droar s the "ROPiT Floating Exhibition", I. L. G. Baillie
and Ukraine Study Group's "The Odessa Cancellations: the Continuous Double
Circle Types", E. G. Peel's "Unusual Cancellations from the Baltic Provinces",
P. T. Ashford s and I. L. G. Bailliots "The Basic Stamps of Azerbaijan", A. S.
Waughts "Soviet Screen Varieties" and F. W. Speers's "The Zemstvo Gazeteer."

Ukraine: the Shagiv Issues by Ian L. G. Baillie

This is a comprehensive, excellently produced and well illustrated study
of the Shagiv issues. It is the first attempt, and a good one, to publish a
complete survey of the printing of these basic five stamps. The book covers
the printing from 400-plates, 100-plates, 60-plates, also the currency stamps,
forgeries of the shagiv issues, use of the shagiv stamps and a most useful
price and a check list.

Price $2.50 or May be obtained from the author 8, Cote Park,
1 8 shillings Westbury on Trym, Bristol, England

The Trident Issues of the Ukraine Part I K I E V, and Part V Special Issues
by C. W. Roberts Shepton House, Shepton Beauchamp, minster, Somerset,
England. Part V (196) Price 12/6d. Part I (Sec. Ed. 1961 Price 15

Thanks to the kindness of the author we have been able to finally secure
the entire monumental set of books which cover the vast and challenging field
of the trident issues. Part I has been completely rewritten and the Ukraine
specialists are urged to obtain this second edition. It is lavishly

No. 66 Page 73







illustrated with drawings, charts, maps and photographs. Various types of
tridents of Kiev are clearly defined, likewise the forgeries, which plague
and puzzle the neophyte.

Part V covers the Special Issues from all districts, those found in the
Soviet Catalogue, and those which are not included in it, also those issues
with scanty information, and those with overprints of philatelic nature.

Both of those catalogues, as well as the entire set should be acquired by
the collectors of Ukraine.

Catalogue of Soviet Special Postal Cancellations. .1922-1961. Moscow 1963.

All postmarks are clearly illustrated. Extremely useful for space col-
lectors, postal historians and general collectors as well as specialists of
USSR.

Lollini Catalogue 70Dp Price $3.00. P.O. Box 2296 Huntington. West Va,

A book of space cancellations including those of USSR.

Eesti Illustrated Specialized Catalogue of Estonia by Villem Eichenthal.
Publshed by the Philatelic Specialist Society of Canada, in separate English
and German Editions during 1962.

This magnificent book, finely lithographed with many clear illustrations
and a detailed map of the country, is the result of many years accumulate re-
search, set down on over 200 pages and is the definitive work on the subject
by the leading specialist in the field.

Of special interest to us in the Russian sphere are the detailed data
for the 1918 Dorpat surcharges on the Arms type, the provisional cancellations W
of the.1919-1921 period which include continued usages of Russian types, and
the local overprints on Soviet stamps during 1941. Among the more striking
items in the postal history field are the unusual boxd "Venemaalt" markings
of 1920-1921, applied to collect delivery fees on mail from Russia; this
latter group should make a very interesting study for specialization.

Right throughout the book there is information of use to our members and
the work is a bargain at the prepaid price of $4.95 postpaid. It may be
ordered, specifying the language required (English or German), from P.S.S.C.,
Box #94, Terminal A, Toronto 1, Canada.

PADOMI FILATELISTIEM (Advice to Philatelists) by Janis Alberts Ozolins.
Latvian State Publishing House, Riga 1962. Eighty pages of text plus 24 roto-
gravure pages of illustrations, exclusive of those in.the body of the text.

This well-printed booklet .is entirely in Latvian and an idea of its con-
tents may be gleaned from the various headings in the text; Preface From
the History of the Postage Stamp Sorting and Classification of the Postage
Stamp The Equipment of Philatelist and How to work on the Postage Stamp -
Ways of Collecting Philately formerly and now Stamps of the Soviet Union
and finally a section on Philatelic Literature.

In other words, a typical handbook for the beginner. At least, that
would be the case, were it not for some of the surprising items the author
uses to illustrate his points. Thus, under the sub-eoading "Specialized
Collection", he shows a gorgeous pre-stamp marking from Riga (see Fig. #1),

Page 74 No. 66








dating from 1702'. This is the earliest pre-stamp marking known in the ter-
ritory which later in 1710 entered into the Russian Empire Again on page
57, he mentions a pre-stamp cancel reading "Sankt-Peterburg, 1786 goda aprelya"
which is also a choice piece. Referring to No. 1 of Russia in the rotogra-
vure section, he shows us a glorious cover from Riga to Jelgava (Mitava),
dated April 3, 1858 (Fig. #2).

For those interested in the Soviet Administration in Latvia, an illustra-
tion is given in the rotogravure section of a bilingual meter mark #8182 used
on Juno 13, 1941 in Riga by the National Commissariat of Agriculture (Fig. 3).

There are omissions in this work, but it is quite evident that collectors
in Latvia today possess some real treasures relating to our sphere of interest,
and the fact that the booklet had a printing of 10,000 copies reflects very
well on the vitality of philately in a country of only about two million
inhabitants
oooooooooooooooooo0oooooooo

THE EW ISSUE OF TI: SOVIET COLT.CTOR
REVlEBnD by Xurt Adler

ocre thar 30 yeors have pacssd since the last issue of the "Scvict Ccs.-
lectcr" (in 1932) had been published. Tho serious collector of Russian phila-
tely had always regretted this interruption. The "Soviet Collector" and its
predecessor, the "Soviet Philatelist" had always been a rich source of infor-
mation and research, and some of its articles such as the catalogization of
the Civil War issues, the Caucasian States, and the papers about longolian and
Tannu-Tuvan issues served as the basis of knowledge for many of us and were
copied by many foreign catalogues and handbooks. During these 30 years our
knowledge of Russian philately, thanks to "Rossica" and the "BJRP" has grown
considerably and some issues of our journals are finding its way back into
Russia and serve to enliven the Russian's interest in their own postal history.
The new "Soviet Collector" ---for the time being at least---will not
appear as a monthly journal but it is planned to have two large issues a year.
It is called a "sbornik", a collection of articles. This first issue contains
175 pages and is, on the whole, extremely interesting, giving us a lot of new
information.

Apart from the usual ideological articles there are especially six
studies of interest to us.

1. Space--philately's theme. This topical article is divided into three
main prints:

a. the ori-in of space travel scionco ('. E. Tsiolkovsky).
b. rocket and space ship launching since October 1957.
c. man in space

Each section contains the topical stamps, entire and official special
cancellations of Russia, China and their satellite countries. The article is
written by E. Sashenkov. It closes with the 1962 flights of Vostok 3 and
Vostok 4.

The next item consists of actually two articles by K. Berngard and A.
Kachinsky, dealing with the 1962 Philatelic Exhibition in Prague,
No. 66 Page 75









the "Praga 1962". The authors write about the exhibition in general and the
Russian frames in particular. They also try to draw the necessary conclus-
ions for future exhibitions by constructive criticism.

Maybe the most important contribution is S. Blekhman's research and cata- 0
logization of Tannu-Tuvan stamps. Profusely illustrated, the author lists 20
different issues with all their varieties, many of them existing today in 1-5
copies only. Negus and Cronin did familiarize us with a great number of these
issues but nobody yet has written them up in greater detail than Blekhman.
This article will become a classic for Tannu-Tuvan collectors. The earlier
articles by Ismail-Bey and Golovkin in the 1927 issues of "Soviet Philatelist"
are thus rendered obsolete.

A very important, if short research study is the one about the revaluation
period of Russian stamps between 1918 and 1923 known to us from the comprehen-
sive study by Paul Krynine in the discontinued "Russian American Philatelist",
and a short brochure by Lissiuk. A 1927 Soviet Catalogue likewise gave us
data about these very rare surcharges on ordinary Russian stamps, known maMhly
in used condition and necessitated by the continuous inflationary devaluation
of the Ruble. The study is written by S. Parkhomovich and gives us a number
of new discoveries. He distinguishes between 6 different revaluation periods.
Some of the towns which surcharged the current stamps provisorially in 1920
and were not mentioned by the earlier sources are: Barnaul, Krestsy, Mglin,
Nakhtyiskaya, Urievka, Novocherkassk, Troitsk and Khomutov. But the author
leaves out some towns known to us as having issued these so-called revolution-
ary provisional, such as for example Bashmakovo, Kitovo, Koovrov etc. His
and the material known to us should serve as the basis for a comprehensive
article in "Rossica" about this fascinating field.

The next section is a catalogue of Soviet stamps, issued in 1962, with-
out mentioning any varieties. These stamps, of course, are already listed in
Scott and all other catalogues.

The last important article concerns mainly collectors of topical items.
It is a listing of official special cancellations in 1962 by V. Jacobs----a
continuation of the recently published catalogue by Vovin.

The rest of this issue of "Soviet Collector" is dedicated to articles
about plaques and medals, paper monies (bonism), picture post cards and -
match box labels. One of the last articles gives a listing of local philatelic
exhibitions during 1961 and 1962. It has some interest for us inasmuch it
acquaints us with the themes and the names of exhibitors, as well as with the
prizes received. There is a short but very good polemical article against the
speculative issuance of special cachets by local collectors' societies, titled
"Against wild cancellations".

At the end of the "sbornik", we are given the addresses of all philatelic
societies in USSR (there are 120 of them at present). This may be welcome
to some of our readers for reasons of Philatelic correspondence and swapping.

It is to be hoped that all these local societies will soon be amalgamated
into an All Russian Philatelic Society and that the "Soviet Collector" will
again appear in monthly issues. In the meantime, we are eagerly awaiting
the next bi-annual issue which is being printed at the time of this writing.


Page 76 No. 66