Front Cover
 Officers of the society
 Representatives of the society
 Life of the society (continued...
 International philatelic exhibition...
 Polish occupation of Ukraine 1919...
 The transmission of mails on steamers...
 My exhibition sheets of the imperial...
 Postal history of the Bulgarian...
 An interesting letter sent through...
 Normal and inverted backgrounds...
 Poltava Zemstvo issues by C. P....
 Some additional notes on the Russian...
 Counterfeits of the Lenin mourning...
 The contemporary stamped envelopes...
 Notes by E. Fomin
 Transfer varieties of the 1950...
 Additional notes to transfer varieties...
 Historical background of the "Asobny...
 An 1812 letter from Smolensk by...
 Kashgar covers by V. Popov
 Mongolia and Mongols by C....
 A letter sent across Bulgaria by...
 The postal service at Khiva Town...
 Rare finds of papers and Schindt...
 The ancient Russian posts by Maria...
 Correction - no. 66. The transmission...
 Turkey used in Batum by G....
 Pages from Bulgarian Erinnophilia...
 The stamps of the Russian Socialistic...
 Interesting cancellations by R....
 Book reviews
 Life of the society (continued...


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00004
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1964
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00004

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
        Page 2a
        Page 3
    Life of the society (continued on page 81)
        Page 4
    International philatelic exhibition "Philatec Paris 1964" by E. Marcovitch
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Polish occupation of Ukraine 1919 by C. W. Roberts
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The transmission of mails on steamers in Russia by Nikolai Ivanovich Sokolov
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    My exhibition sheets of the imperial issues provisionally used during the revolutionary & inflationary period of R.S.F.S.R. by John Lloyd (concluded from no. 66)
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Postal history of the Bulgarian colonies in southern Bessarabia by A. Cronin
        Page 23
        Page 24
    An interesting letter sent through the Russian field post in 1917 by D. N. Minchev
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Normal and inverted backgrounds on postal saving and control stamps by O. A. Faberge
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Poltava Zemstvo issues by C. P. Bulak
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Some additional notes on the Russian consular stamps of 1913 by J. Posell
        Page 35
    Counterfeits of the Lenin mourning issue - Scott nos. 265-8 by R. Sklarevski
        Page 36
        Page 37
    The contemporary stamped envelopes of USSR by E. Fomin
        Page 38
        Page 38a
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Notes by E. Fomin
        Page 44
    Transfer varieties of the 1950 Kalinin set by A. Cronin
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Additional notes to transfer varieties of the 1950 Kalinin set
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Historical background of the "Asobny Atrad" stamps by Dr. C. de Stackelberg
        Page 49
    An 1812 letter from Smolensk by Fred W. Speers
        Page 50
        Page 50a
        Page 51
    Kashgar covers by V. Popov
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
    Mongolia and Mongols by C. P. Bulak
        Page 54
        Page 55
    A letter sent across Bulgaria by the Russian consular post by D. N. Minchev
        Page 56
    The postal service at Khiva Town during khanate by E. R. Christio
        Page 57
    Rare finds of papers and Schindt catalogues by Hal Cobbs
        Page 57
        Page 58
    The ancient Russian posts by Maria Nikolaevna Vitashevskaya
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Correction - no. 66. The transmission of mails on steamers in Russia
        Page 64
    Turkey used in Batum by G. Torrey
        Page 65
    Pages from Bulgarian Erinnophilia by D.N Minckev
        Page 65
        Page 66
    The stamps of the Russian Socialistic Federated Soviet Republic by R. Sklarevski
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Interesting cancellations by R. Sklarevski
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Book reviews
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Life of the society (continued from page 4)
        Page 81
Full Text
of the

Silver Medals at Belprade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937"and
the International Exhibition. Koenifsberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronse Medals at the International Exhibitionr rata 1935"and
Vienna International Exhibition "WIPA 133"
--ecent International Awards: -
Silver Medals at Berlin."Bephila 1957", Parana."Eficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires,Temex 1958"
Hamburg "Interposta 1959" Palermo "Sicilia 1959" "Barcelona 1960" -
Johannesburg "Unipex 1960" Warsaw "Polska 1960" Prague "Praga 1962"
and Luxembourg "Melusina '63"

No. PoCCH a19
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.


Hon, hbmb. Dr. G. B. Bonderenko-Salisbury


Hon. Ibrmb. R. A. Sklarovski Hon. PMmb. V. A. Kurbas


Hon. Pinb. A. N.'Lavrov
P. 0. Box 406 Englewood, N. J., 07631


A, Cronin Hon. bembors: K. Adlor O.A. Faberge K. Jansson E. Marcovitch

2 Officers of the Society, Hon. Members and Representatives of the Society
3-Z1 Editorial. Life of the Society (continued on Page 81).
5-9 International Philatelic Exhibition "Philatec Paris 1964" by E. barcovitch
10-12 Polish Occupation of Ukraine 1919. by C .N. Roberts
13-18 The Transmission of 'hils on Steaners in Russia by N.I. Sokclov
19-23 -' E:4ibition Sheets of the Imperial Issues Provisionally Used During the
Revolutionary & Inflationary Period of R.S .F.S.R. by John Lloyd
23-25 Postal History of the Bulgarian Colonies in Southern Bessarabia. by A. Cronin
25-26 An Interesting Letter Sent Through the Russian Field Post in 1917. by
D. N. Mnchov.
27-30 Normal and Inverted Backgrounds on Postal Saving and Control Stamps. by
O.0. Faberge.
31-34 Poltava Zemstvo Issues. by C.P. Pulak
35-36 Some Additional Notes on the Russian Consular Stamps of 1913. by J. Posell
36-37 Counterfeits of the Lenin burning Issue Scott Nos. 265-8. by R. Sklarovski
38-44 The Contemporary Stamped Envelopes of USSR. by E. Fomin
44-45 Notes. byE. Fomin
45-47 Transfer Varieties of the 1950 Kalinin Set. by A. Cronin
4 7 Additional Notes to Transfer Varieties of the 1950 Kalinin Set. by A. Cronin
49-50 Historical Background of the "fSONY ATRAD" St.ops. by C. do STackelberg
59-52 An 1812 Letter from Smolensk. by Fred W. Speers
52-53 Kashgar Covers. by V. Popov
54-56 Mongolia and Mongols. by C.P. Bulk
56-57 A Letter Sent Across Bulgaria by the Russian Consular Post. by D. N. Minchev
5 7 The Postal Service at Khiva Town During Thanate. by E. R. Christie
57-59 Rare Find of Faborge and Schnmi.t Cctalogues. by Hal Cobb
59-64 The Ancient Russian Posts, by taria Yikolaevna Vitashevskaya
6 4 Correction No. 66. The Transmissicn of Mails on Staamors .in Russia
6 5 Turkey Used in Batum. by G. Torrey.
65-66 Pages from Bulgarian Erinnophilia. by D. N. Minchev
67-75 The Stamps of the Russian Socialistic Federated Soviet Republic. by R.
* 75-71 Interesting Cancellations. by R. Sklarovski
78-81 Rovi3ws Postmarks Used in Rumanian Territories up to 1891. Writers in Our
Homeland. Catalogue of Spocial Soviet Postmarks 1922-61. Starps Speak.
Catalogue of Imperial Russia. 3rd Supplement to the Catalogue of Ukrainian
Unr'ffcial Stanps.


President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section l. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Mbney Circle K. Janssen
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arofiev


K. Adler K. Jansson V. Kurbas G. B. Salisbury
J. F. Chudoba N. I. Kardakoff A. N. Lavrov R. A. Sklarevski
0. A. Faborge A. Kotlar E. I. Marcovitch


New York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, Now York
San Francisco K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Western USA L. S. Glass 1533 So La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles, California

Argentina B. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia V. Tvolkmeyor 21 Elizabeth St. Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue 1Signot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Brussels
Brazil A. Vansovich c/o Livraria Freitas Bastes, Caixa (Rio Region)
Brazil P. Beloff Rua Ihrtiniano de Carvalho 197, Sao Paulo
France A. Liashonko 1 rue du Bocago, Paris 15, France
Germany E. P. Fomin Dinich 54, Rudinstr. 9. West Germany
Great Britain J. Barry 77A St. Jamos Road, Sutton S-rrey, England
Israel A. Trumpoldor Arba artzot 25, el Aviv, Israel
Toronto, Canada G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking St., Doirwnciew, Ontario, Canada

Directors of the Society Kurt Ader. Vseovolod Kurbas. Konstantine Jansson
Auditing Committee J. F. Chudoba. K. Adler. Lydia Calahan.

The views expressed by the authors are their own and the editors disclaim any
................. ..................... ..
Ibmbership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries of the world. Appli-
cation forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request. Ibmbership
lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists will be sent
out annually. Kindly make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov, the Society's Trea-
surer P. 0. Box 406, Englewood, New Jersey, 07631.

"We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates
are as follows: Full page add is $30.00. Half page is $15.00. Quarter page
is $7.50. Five (5) lines is $2.50. Fembers of the Rossica Society pay only
one half or 50% of the above rates for the A D D S. Therefore the net cost of
advertisements to members is 25 cents per line. We have for sale back numbers
of some issues of the journal, both in English and in Russian language Editions.

UNITED ST ATES U ES are U .00 per annumi

... ......... ..... ........................No ...6....... 7

Page 2 No. 67


President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section l. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Mbney Circle K. Janssen
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arofiev


K. Adler K. Jansson V. Kurbas G. B. Salisbury
J. F. Chudoba N. I. Kardakoff A. N. Lavrov R. A. Sklarevski
0. A. Faborge A. Kotlar E. I. Marcovitch


New York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, Now York
San Francisco K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Western USA L. S. Glass 1533 So La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles, California

Argentina B. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia V. Tvolkmeyor 21 Elizabeth St. Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstein 6 rue 1Signot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Brussels
Brazil A. Vansovich c/o Livraria Freitas Bastes, Caixa (Rio Region)
Brazil P. Beloff Rua Ihrtiniano de Carvalho 197, Sao Paulo
France A. Liashonko 1 rue du Bocago, Paris 15, France
Germany E. P. Fomin Dinich 54, Rudinstr. 9. West Germany
Great Britain J. Barry 77A St. Jamos Road, Sutton S-rrey, England
Israel A. Trumpoldor Arba artzot 25, el Aviv, Israel
Toronto, Canada G. Rodzay Woda 65 Dorking St., Doirwnciew, Ontario, Canada

Directors of the Society Kurt Ader. Vseovolod Kurbas. Konstantine Jansson
Auditing Committee J. F. Chudoba. K. Adler. Lydia Calahan.

The views expressed by the authors are their own and the editors disclaim any
................. ..................... ..
Ibmbership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries of the world. Appli-
cation forms, which must be filled out, are available upon request. Ibmbership
lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists will be sent
out annually. Kindly make checks payable to A. N. Lavrov, the Society's Trea-
surer P. 0. Box 406, Englewood, New Jersey, 07631.

"We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates
are as follows: Full page add is $30.00. Half page is $15.00. Quarter page
is $7.50. Five (5) lines is $2.50. Fembers of the Rossica Society pay only
one half or 50% of the above rates for the A D D S. Therefore the net cost of
advertisements to members is 25 cents per line. We have for sale back numbers
of some issues of the journal, both in English and in Russian language Editions.

UNITED ST ATES U ES are U .00 per annumi

... ......... ..... ........................No ...6....... 7

Page 2 No. 67


DR, KO'ZAKLAt.i 7. S lPEI sA C- 13i F;E. Trt f BNuAL E fRCul Cn '. L.P '-"cri urZ liD
Me-ra.iN ArT vnwDea.tr HeT.r. 1q'ij3 u. R nai r, PA'; .ih TrFED. 'PII L.


PRAT C F cwA MGLrTING& biRt.5LRG so itY AiSS
M E O RL WihlA t Ci~ C R Mr. P H W A TELIN P L L )
(^ORe Lfc rRH lUET M l-' i AT .'y

S 1

"o H j L FLo -CTE LT-rtrJiuNAr j SoLiETqi -TT


It has been a sad but an accepted fact, for some time, that the philatelic
literature plays a secondary role in our hobby. Collectors who regularly spend
considerable sums of money on steps, often for out and out trash,,ere generally
loth to purchase philatelic bocks and journals. nr-y members of specialized
philateatlic societies do not bother to acquire back issues of publications, or
specialized catalogues, which would -nrich their knowledge and their enjoyment,
many are delinquent in duos, that are needed to cover the costs of society pub-

International philatelic exhibitions have come to reflect this lackadaisical
and indifferent approach, in dealing with the class of philatelic literature,
entered for competition, the latest, PHILATEC, being no exception to the rule.
Let us cite our own experience.

Lfter the preliminary and the final entry forms had been sent in, as well
as the fee, in this instance far beyond the actual amount requested, we began
the long wait for the final instructions, as stated in the final entry form.
When the time grew short, we panicked, and sent the journals of the Rossica Soci-
ety by air mail, double in number, so as to have a set for the jury, as well as
a set for the exhibition frame. All were sent to the committee, protesting that
we have not received instructions, yet the exhibition was but throoe weeks away'.
We finally heard from cur society representative in Paris that all had arrived,
all was set, and in order. lbanwhilo we rocoived the bolated instructions, which
would have caused us to be late, had we waited for them.

When the exhibition catalogue arrived, we wore shocked to see that the n.me
of the Editor was entered and a note "Journal de la Sociote Russo do Philatelie
Russo." Whero was the name "Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philate-
toly'. The name of the society was omitted, thus losing Rossica Society valuable
publicity value.

When the list of winners was released in the New York Times by David Lidman,
member of the PHILATEC jury, we 'id not find our name listed, and took the fact
as good sports. The mail however brought another story. Our representative in
Paris informed us that our society's name was errcreously omitted, that the omis-
sion was pointed out to the organizers and the jury, that a silver award was
given to us, and that it was to late to rectify the error of emission as the
brochure was already printed, etc. We woro to be officially notified. Thanks to
the shoddy handling, valuable publicity, which could have meant now members has
boon lost, likewise loss of prestige.

This is not an isolated instance. Our journal was awarded a silver modal
at MIlusina. We wore not so notiScd,we received no medal, and our letters have
boon ignored. At Fipex, our journals sent tcgothor with philatelic stamp entries,
wore left in the bin, while the stamps wore exhibited, they wore not listed in
the catalogue, nor were they considered by the jury, inspite of proper entry of
the Rossica Journals in competition. It is amazing that in -spite of such indif-
foront attitude we wore able to win fifteen silver medals during past ten years
at internationals'. Inasmuch as the philatelic literature is the life blood of
our hobby, and it is the only permanent record and heritage left for the future
generations of stamp collectors, long after the name collections and award win-
nors are forgotten, as well as the exhibitions themselves, we suggest the follow-

A stronger emphasis be placed on the category of philatelic literature,
appointing efficient members of the committoo in charge of same. ;AM philatelic
literature entries be given ample time for mailing-in entries, to avoid the high
No. 67 Page 3

cost of airmail for heavy parcels. All entries be double checked, in the
catalogue listings and lists, brochures for the jury, and from them, as well,
to avoid errors and omission. The society's name and the name of the journal
must be correct and must be included in the lists, not just the name of the
editor, plus a vague listing, as was done to us in PHILATEC. The journals
should be judged on content, rather than lavishness of production. The
awards should be given to the S 0 C I E T Y and to the J 0 U R N A L as well
as to the Editor. In the past, generally the Editor received the medal, and
this has caused bitterness, and discontent among those who aided in the forma-
tion of the journal, and rightly sot. In this manner an award is a blessing
instead of a curse. The main object of entering the journal is to obtain
valuable publicity and recognition for the journal and the society. Finally,
the news releases of winners should be double checked by the jury, the com-
missioners, the committee in charge, so as to eliminate embarrassment and
neooeless frustrations.


Joseph F. Chudoba, Chairman of the Constitution and Election Committees and
and head of the N.Y. Branch of Rossica reports that the new Constitution mailed
to all members has been overwhelmingly approved. All the present officers of
the Society have been reelected, by a huge majority. Auditing committee was
voted in, consisting of J. F. Chudoba, Kurt Adlor and Lydia Callahan. Board of
Directors now consists of Kurt Adler, Vsovolod Kurbas and K. Jansson.
---- ---- -------------------
Rossica Journal won its fifteenth silver award, the latest, at the fIILATEC
PARIS 64. Rossica winners at the exhibition are listed in E. Irrcovitch' s
----------.-_-,..--- ^^
STATIS magazine gave Rossica 7'66 a splendid review, so did the SPA Journal,
COVERS magazine reprinted "Russian America" written in #'4, Rossica Journal by
our editor. STAMPS and LINNts Weekly gave us much valuable publicity, in writing;
of our participation at NOJEX 64.
------------ -----------
Dr. G. B. Salisbury served as one of the judges at NOJEX. He selected two
other judges to study and judge the Russian entries: Andrew Cronin and S. Sere-
brakian, both of whom did a wonderful job! Jos. F. Chudoba presided at the
meeting of the Rossica members present at NOJEX. Plans were discussed about the
Annual meeting in N.Y. in November, also of participation at the next INTERPEX.
Winners at NOJEX 64 Kurt Adcer put on a dazzling display of stamploss covor;
which won him the Dr. Gregory B, Salisbury Award for Philatelic Research in
Russian Philately, and the First Rossica Trophy for Russian material, including
amazing Soviet varieties, and hitherto unknown proofs, for which he received
special felicitations from the jury. He also received a Gold IMdal in the Champ-
ionship Class, and a Gold medal for his Russo-Turkish, and Russo-Japanese War
covers. Jos. F. Chudoba received a silver medal for his fabulous Imperial
issues, and a Second Rossica Trophy, whilo Lydia Callahan captured the third
award for her Zemstvos, 1st Certificate for the best Postal Stationery Exhibit,
and a Gold Idal for best postal history, of pre-adhesive period, and a bronze
silver for Zomstvos.
Constantine P. Bulak, of El Paso, Texas received a diploma with spocia3 praise
of the jury, for his Zemstvcs, exhibited non-competitively, at ionteroy, N. L.
Ibxico by Sociedad Filatelica Regiomontana.

Pago 4 No. 67
Pago 4 No. 67

by E. Marcovitch

The Philatoc Paris Exhibition during June 1964 presented much material in
the field of Russian philately. To therefore consider that it is imperative
to report briefly about it to our members and readers, especially since scvo-
ral members of Rossica exhibited oxtrreely interesting items at Philatoc.

The exhibition by its scope and quality of material shown, was grandiose.
The building used was the Grand Palais, a huge edifice, which usually contains
automobile and aircraft salons, likewise the major exhibitions of contemporary

Foremost architects and decorators took part in mechanics of its creation.
Presentation of frames and their lighting was faultless, to view all of the
exhibition it was necessary to walk seven kilometers. Thus every visitor
viewed only those parts which were of interest to him.

Frames were placed not according to the content of the material but accord-
ing to the exhibiting nation. Thus, in order to see all that was shown in our
field one had to visit various places, often situated several kilometers away
from each other. I had to visit the exhibition eight times, staying each time
several hours, so as to see all of the fraz s pertaining to Russian philately.

Beside the frames, concentrated among the nations of the exhibitors, there
were two other special halls, one called "cour d'honneur" and another, classese

In course d'honneur were exhibits not in competition. These were the col-
lections which have received highest awards during the past few years "Grand
Prix" at the International exhibitions. In the first place of this section
was exhibited a part of the collection of Queen Elizabeth II, consisting of
projects, drawings, and proofs of the first stamp of the world, and first
issues of stamps of the British Empire, also of the first letters and envelopes
so-called Mulready. Also shown were the carricatures of those envelopes,
issued at that time. Especially interesting were the letters sent personally
by Kulroady, (Lay 2, 1840) and personally by Sir Rowland Hill (one on May 6,
1840, another in l1I).

In the second spot was shown a part of the collection of the Prince of
Monaco, in which were exhibited letters with stamps of Sardinia, cancelled
with the Ionaco cancellers ":onaco" and "Lentone". Likewise there were French
letters with same postrarks. There were also stamps of the first issues of
Lionaco in sheets, among which several were unique.

In the third place was shown a portion of the Cardinal Spellman's collect-
ion (Now York) showing the first issues of Italy. I shall not describe other
collections of the same class, but will that in our field was exhibited a spe-
cialized collection of the first stamps of Wenden, among which we saw singles
with all the variotios and types, mainly on letters. Such a collection may be
seen only rarely, even at the International exhibitions. This collection be-
longed to Sir John Wilson, one of the greatest specialists in Russian phila-
tely, in the world.

The most interesting exhibit in this hall, to us, was the portion of a
collection of old Russia, belonging to our member of Rossica, 1. V. Liphschutz,
for which he had received several gold medals at past International oxhibiticn7

No. 67 Page 5

likewise the highest philatelic award, Grand Prix in Warsaw in 1960, thus shown
not in competition. A full description of this collection, in a journal is im-
possible. One can only say that it contained the greatest of Russian rarities,
such as almost all existing inverted eagles, among which was the very rare 3r.
50k. also the telegraph stamp, known only in several copies; a sheet of paper,
used for printing the No. 1 stamp, with the watermark of "1" (only two such
sheets are known), St. Petersburg and Moscow Town Post stamped envelopes,
among which were several unique items; a large collection of essays and proofs
of the first issues, among which were the not accepted projects of stamps of 3r.
50k. and 7r. in various designs, and colors. Ulany of these essays and projects
were extremely rare, and some were unique.

In this hall, "cbur d'honneur" were et-Aibited only twenty eight of the
world's greatest collections, and Rossica has the right to be proud, that one
of its members, belongs to this section.

The next hall, classo h'honnour" consisted of collections which had received
no less than two gold medals, and which competed for the Grand Prix.do la classes
d'honnour-modal given for this exhibition by the President of the Republic.
This award was receivedby J. Schatzkes, for his exceptional collection of old
France 4 Likewise he was awarded a huge medal, wilghing 210 grams "Grand Prix
Philatec", for the first tiom in the history of philately.

In this hall, M. V. Liphschutz showed a portion of his collection of Russian
Levant,.namely its first issues. The collection begins with the letters of
.0O.P.iT. pro-stamp period with rro r-and unique postmarks such as for oa:mple
the towns of Tripoli and bMetelin. Then he showed all the issue of No. 1 (6 kop.
otpravlonio na vostok, i.e. sent to tlhe ast) with all of the shades and varie-
ties, cancelled and mint, singles strips and blocks, also proofs, reprints, and
falsifications. Especially interesting were the letters with the stamps of
R.O.P.iT. Rare Tos. 2 and 3 wore shown on letters in pairs and strips, likewise
with the following numbers on letters with the rarest of postmarks. The rarest
of stamps of various issues wore shown on letters among which were the provision:
overprints "7" (thick and thin) and "l" on 10 kop. black and blue. Mr. Liphschuts
received a gold medal for this collection, and he richly deserves it.

Besides this collection, in this hall, were two other-collections of Russian
Levant. Tovfik Kuyas of Istanbul, showed his specialized material of Turkish
classics, a part of which was a first rate collection of Russian Levant. There
was a large collection of the stamps of R.O.P i T. and other old issues on
letters, 1 (6 kop.) in sheets and proofs. The same period, first issues of
Russian Levant, was also shown by Timofoi Natukhin of Istanbul, also with a large-
grouping of rarities and covers. Both collections were awarded gold medals.

In the same hall were shown two other collections of interest to us: Our
member, Miroslav Bojanowicz of England, presented one of the finest collections
of Poland No. 1 (1860) and stamnod onvelopes of the same period. He showed many
mint copies of various shades, a.nd types, and a large collection of letters,
showing various types of postmarks, especially the numeral ones, among which we
saw the rarest and unique items. This collection received a gold medal. Likc-
wise in the sam, hall was shown cno of the most complete and most developed
collections of the first issues of Finland by Ralf Gummonson, a Swede. As in
the other collections in this class, he showed many mint copies of various
issues of the first two stamps, in singles, pairs, blocks and teto-becho. The
center of interest of course was in the covers with varied and rarest postmarks.
The stamps wore selected for their oxcellont condition. This collection received
a silver gilt modal.

Pago 6 'NO. 67

Seppanen (Finland) likewise showed a first class, well worked out and
comploto collection of Finland up to 1917. Another collector, Stenborg, a Swede
showed an interesting collection of pro-stamp covers, and first issues of Fin-
land, who showed beside the "o. 1 and 2, a well worked and developed collection
of issues snake-like perforations in single examples, also in blocks, and on
covers. For this he received a silver mod-l with special praise for the
scholarly presentation.

Both halls, the cour d'honnour and clause d'honnour took up a comparatively
small part of the exhibition. The rain part of the exhibited natorial was
placed, as previously mentioned according to the nationality of the exhibitor.
In this great grouping, one of the most interesting collections was one by M. V.
Liphschutz, devoted to Russia, during the Civil War covering the period 1913-
1923, when instead of postage stamps were frequently employed others such as
savings stamps and control staomps, and when postage stamps wore overprinted by
hnndstanps or in manuscript with the now value and word "rub" instead of "kop".

This part of Russian philately appears the most complicated and least known
or worked out. The Chuchin catalogue, in which are listed local hand-stneps
and manuscript overprints, is by far incomploto, and besides it contains rany
errors. Questions or problems of revaluation of postal tariff, use of saving
and control sta-ps, and revalued stamps of pro-revoluticnary issues, is barely
touched there, while the Russian philatelic literature contains very little on
the subject.

.r. Liphschutz, appears to be one of the first collectors, who massod in
this sphere a tremendous amount of nmterial, and scientifically developed sare.
It is known to no that he is preparing a detailed monograph on this subject,
in which he gives a complete listing of all known to him provisional overprints.
This collection of stamps and covers of this period (1918-1923) he displayed
for the first time, as he comoletcd mounting it but a short tine ago.

All of the collections of !Er. Liphschutz, besides their richness of ccntent,
possess a special charm. Exa-iring the album shoots of his collections it is
evident with what lovo, deep -understanding, and labor as well as devotion he
created and counted his collections. This is especially shown in this part of
his collection. One can readily see how the pro-revolutionary stamps were used
during the four revaluations. Exhibited natorial is in the main, letters which
wont through the post, letters and pieces from the money orders. The collect-
ion begins with the stampless letters of 1919. This was a .moont when the
Soviet government issued a docrec- about free delivery of post of ordinary, net
registered, mail. This was a very brief period, thus such covers with clocr
cancellations aro great rarities. Then follow letters with rovalucd stamps of
the old order, without overprints, with rixcd frarning with saving and control
stamps, which during the different periods had different valuo. One sees also
covers, after 1921, with minrrd franking of the czarist and soviet types. After
this come the stamps, covers, roney orders along with the accompanying blanks
with local overprints, of provincial tons localities.

Of course this part of Ir. Liphschutz's collection was little understood
by the foreigners, and the jury, not well acquainted with the material of this
sort, thus they could not properly judge this collection. In spite of this the
jury awarded him a silver ncdal for his scientific study and beautifully pre-
sented collection. However Russian collectors, and foreigners, specialists in
Russian philately reacted to this collection with great plcasuro.

Our honored member Kurt Adler showed the rarest exarplcs from his immense
collection of Russian covers, such as letters from the Russo-Turkish War of

Page 7 No. 67

1877-1878, Russian post in China, Mongolia, Near East, all with the rarest post-
marks. He likewise showed a block of 10 kop. with the overprint "KITAI" with
vertical lines. Only one other block such as this is known to exist. This is
without a doubt a great rarity in our field. In view of the fact that the col-
lection of Kurt Adler was not presented in a worked out presentation, and that
it merely demonstrated the most rare oxamples of his collection, the jury gave
him a bronze on silver modal.

Among other members of Rossica, who received a silver medal was Dr. Seichter
for his rare stamps and unique items of Ukraino. As it is well known, Dr.
Seichter is the greatostcollector and specialist of this field, and is the
author of monographs and catalogues of the trident overprints of Ukraine.

Mr. Droar, member of our sister society B.S.R.P. was awarded a bronze silver
modal for his rare letters of Russia.used abroad. Mr. John Lloyd of England,
member of' Rossica, received a bronze medal for his Russian letters with rare
postmarks, and for the provisional overprints on pro-revolutionary stamps of the
early soviet period. Our member Gauthior Vidal, of Turkey, received a bronze
medal for his collection of Russian entiros, covers and post cards.

I must mention our Belgian member of Rossica, Mr. Braunstein who was invited
by the administration of the exhibition to be a member .of the jury, on stamps
and covers of airpost, the field in which he is a specialist and expert.

All in all many of our members played a major role in this exhibition and
they exhibited much extremely interesting material.

Forty collectors from the Soviet Union, including two junior collectors both
of whom received awards, Sharinsky-brcnzo, and Bui-a diploma. The major part of
Soviet exhibitors showed thematic or subject collections, artistically presented,
and well worked out, such as stamps of cosmos, fauna, flora, etc. Fifteen soviet
collectors received awards, bronze and diplomas. Several of those deserve our
attention, especially: Panin (Baku) showed an excellent collection of Transcau-
casian Republic, (Bronze, silver rodal) Voichanovsky (Baku), Kotlov (Baku)
bronze medals for Azerbaijan and Georgia, Tartakovsky (Baku) letters from the
front, World War I (diploma), Bernhardt (Moscow) Russian Post in China (diploma),
Parkhomovitch (Moscow) a very good collection of provisional of Russia, Uhkr.ino,
Belorussia, period 1918-1923 (Bronze silvered medal).

Now I shall say a few words about other collections in our field. Stamps
and letters of the Czechoslovak Corps in Siberia, 1919-1920 were shown by Jan
Mrnak of Prague. This, collection, the only one of its type must interest all
Russian philatelists. li note that these stamps actually had postal use, and
are not, as some consider them, fantastic issues. We see a large amount of
covers,, and accompnying blanks, franked with various issues of these stamps with
postmarks of sending and receipt. Stamps were also shown of this type with the
various overprints, not listed in the catalogues, as for example, aiding the Reo
Cross, overprints of the let Jugoslavian Rogiment in Siberia, and overprints for
sending parcels to the home and (Czochslovakia), with the surcharge "50 kop.".

Besides, there were shown' draings-projects, from which were printed those
stamps in Irkutsk, likewise a whole row of proof imprints in various colors.
Beside those genuine stamps and overprints, he likewise exhibited a whole row of
falsifications, which appeared after their issue.

Without a doubt, Mr. rnak had a close connection with the issuance of these
stamps, otherwise creation of such a collection would have been impossible. This
however merely increases the-philatelic valuo of.such a rare collection.

No. 67 Page 8

T. Gryzewski of Poland, member of old Rossica Society, and one of the greatest
specialists and authors of monographs and catalogues of Poland exhibited a rare
collection of covers of various Polish Armies abroad, beginning with the
Napoleonic Campaign in Spain in 1808, and ending with the late war, of Polish
Army on the Western Front. This collection was awarded a bronze modal.

It is necessary to mention several other collections of interest to us.
Hoffman of Western Germany, showed most interesting pro-stamp covers of Latvia
(Kirland) among which the oldest, from Riga, wore of the XVIII century. Award -
a bronze modal. Pennoquin of France exhibited a fine collection of Polish stamps
1950-1951 with handstampod overprints GROSZY. Vihanto, of Finland showed many
steamship cancellations on Finnish stamps.

In the field of philatelic literature in our sphere very little was shown.
Besides our journal "Rossica" which won a silver medal, Association France -
U.RS.S. showed their publication, in the French language, "Lo Timbre Sovictique",
and their issued catalogues of pro-revolutionary Russia. These catalogues are
very good, as in their creation took part big specialists and major collectors of
Russian stamps. They appear probably the best published to date. Award a
bronze modal.

I would like to close my account with a very interesting communication. Mr,
M. V. Liphschutz was invited by the administration of the exhibition to present
a talk before its participants, in the field of Russian philately. This speech
was given on Juno 18ti in the presence of a largo international audience of the
philatelic elite. The theme, selectoec by the speakor was the Zemstvo post; it
was beautifully developed ald illustrated on the screen with enlargements of the
rarest of the stamps, sheets and covers in his collection.

Foreign philatelists have a very weak knowledge of the Zemstvo post, with the
exception of those who specially devote their efforts to the Russian philately.

In view of this, Mr. Liphschutz began his talk with a brief exposition of the
reforms of Alexandor II and in particular in the organization of zemstvo self
government, and the zcestyo pott. He informed those of the directive of the
government on September 5, 1870 concerning the function of the zomstvo post,
stated that out of 371 zonstvo upravas of the European Russia, 345 organized,
during the period of 1865 to 1917, their own local zemstvo post, out of which 162
zemstvos had their own original stamps. In more than 180 zomstvos stamps did not
oxist, as the delivery of the letters was free, or payment was extracted by money.
Letters sent by Zemstvo post without stamps are extremely rare. During twenty
years of collecting Liphschutz was able to find only two such letters, which he
showed on the screen. He showed how local provincial typographies printed the
stamps, being concerned mainly with economy of paper, and trying to print on each
shoot as many stamps as possible. The printing was done more frequently by the
lithographic process, and in view of the fact the cliches wore small, and consisted
of few stamps, printing was done several times on the same sheet. In each cliche
wore as many types as were stamps which wero included. This method of printing
he explained showed the origin of srrt types repeating themselves several tines
on same shoot and frequent toto-bache and so called stamps-couche. Likewise, Lir.
Liphschutz, as an illustration, demostrated several typical sheets and besides
showed rarest stamps from his collection, known to exist in smallest quantities.

With this I shall end the description of the exhibition, about which I must
say that out of all the biggest international philatelic exhibitions taking place
in Paris, which I had seen (1925, 1937, 1949, 1964) this latest was the most im-
pressive and richest in the quantity and quality of the material, pertaining to
the field of Russian philately.

Page 9 No. 67

C. W. Roberts

In August 1919 Polish forces entered the Ukraine and occupied the town of
Kovel. Ukrainian stamps found in the Post Office were overprinted (Figs. 1 &
2) and placed on sale on 20th August. They were withdrawn on 24th August.

Ikaros Polish Catalogue 1935 gives a list of numbers overprinted and sold.
Col. Larking in the series of specialized articles on Poland published in Stan:-
ley Gibbons Monthly in 1932 gives a list and date of issue 20.8.1919. The
issue is also listed in the official Polish Stamp Agency Catalogue. Dr.
Seichter in his 1961 Ukraine Price eist gives a list of the values (omitting
the 50 fen/20 kop. perf.) under the heading "Kowel 1920 Philatelic Issue".
Apart from this all is surmise. No general Catalogue Editor will have anything
to do with this issue, and it is clear that most consider it in a similar manner
-to Dr. Seichter or worse. Surely it is an issue that no responsible collector
of Ukraine or Poland for that matter would really wish to collect except
perhaps if he could pick them up as curiosities for a few pence. I could be
wrong, but on the facts as known to me, I disagree, and if you can pick up
genuine copies of these stamps for a few pence, or even a few shillings, I
think you could do worse.

What do I know During the period 20/24th August 1919 this issue .(or some
values of it) were freely on sale at Kovel Post Office, as British Officers on
duty in Poland visited the town during this period and purchased the stamps at
the Post Office in the ordinary way. I have this on the authority of a friend
of mine who did so and who subsequently gave me three stamps he bought there -
30 fen./30 Shag., 50 fen./5C Shag. and 50 fen./l Rub. Imperf. Kiev Type 2.
These were the only values available at the Post Office at the time of his
visit. He does not remember the exact date except that it was in the latter
part of August. However, I do not think the date of issue is in doubt. He did
not send, or attempt to send, any letter franked with these stamps as he thought
the Postal Service might not be very reliable, and unfortunately he was not
interested in covers. Eventually he decided to concentrate on the stamps of
the British Empire and hearing that I was interested in Ukraine he gave them
to me.

In view of the short period the stamps were in issue, the Postal Service
can hardly have had time to be properly organized, but covers are known though
these are very rare. One in my collection, which I think is clearly philatelic,
was illustrated in the B.S.R.P. Journal No. 20 (May 1%6) as the outstanding
cover, and in my description I gave all the particulars then known to me. This
cover (Fig. 3) is backstamped Lublin 27.8.19 and has the date 24.8.1919 in penci'
on the front. It was franked with the 30 fen./30 Shag., 50 fen./50 shag.,
50 fen./20 grivni and 50 fen./l Rub., Kiev Type 2, Imperf., and has a Rubber
Registration marking with No. 223 in pencil, also the Censor mark "Censura
wojskowa w KOWLU Conzor I". I understand there is a similar cover in the
Munich Musuem.

I have another ocvor in my collection (Fig. 4) which is a local letter
frankod with 30 fen./30 Shag. and 50 fen./50 Shag. There is no backstamp or
Censor mark. It is dated, in pencil, on the face 23/8/1919 and it does not
appear to be philatelic.

I know of no covers other than these three, though I find it hard to beli-
eve that they do not exist. I have several copies on pieces which have clearly
come off envelopes, one piece even has the Censor's stamp on it. It should be
remembered that the importance of covers was little appreciated at that time

Page 10 No. 67

^. ?o Poczm Polska

"-" f. Poe7 /Polska

^H'&J^s t
I/ I, G.I .P-, .

04e LP4t>- Fi C-,Z.

i K 7- -0, KOWEL


a? 50 fen Pb ra o!
SEL Fc Pc Po Pokh
" "- SOfen .e

B i K.or THIE


u S rD 09 0 -19 ,2
-O. a. F A B&Ee6-

and they wore apt to be considered rather a nuisance.

All the used stamps I have seen were cancelled with a rubber handstamp in
violet or blue "KOWEL" in a straight line (Fig. 5) presumably as a normal type
of obliterator was not available. The Registration label was also a rubber
handotamp applied in violet, with the number filled in in blue pencil.

The overprints were applied with single rubber handstamps in violet or
red (30 fen only), whero possible horizontally, but on the smaller 15 and 20 kop.
stamps vertically. I cannot say whether the normal overprint reads up or
down as I have not seen sufficient copies to justify me in c::ressing an opinion,
but my guess is that it was a matter of indifference. From blocks in my
possession it is, however, quite clear that single handstamps wore used, and
that a quite separate one was made for the 30 fen overprint.

According to IT-ros Polish Catalogue 1935 the numbers overprinted and
sold wore:

30 fen on 30 shag. 4,900 Overprinted 800 sold to public
50 fen or 50 shag. 8,680 Overprinted 1,090 sold to public
50 fon on 20 griv. 22C Overprinted 11C sold to public
50 fen on 15 kop. Perf. 650 Overprinted 325 sold to public
50 fen on 20 kop. Perf. 20 Cverprinted 10 sold to public
50 fon on 1 rub. Imp. 5CO Ovorprinted 250 sold to public

The 50 fon on 15 kop. is found on both porf. and impcrf. stanps, so possibly
the figure given for t'o 15 kop. porf. also include Imporf.

I understand the remainders wcre sjnt to the Warsa Museum.

I have recently acquired an additional value, 50 fen on 20/1L kop. Kiev 2.
The overprint is clearly double and thorofore although apparently genuine it is
not possible to check it accurately. However, in its favor is the fact that to
the best of my knowledge this little known overprint has not yet been forged.

The following is a chock list compiled from my own collection, but to the
best of my knowledge it is complete.

Overprint horizontal (H) Overprint reading downwards (D) or upwards (U)

Overprinted in Red

1. 30 fjn on 30 shag. pale blue (H)
2. 30 fen on 30 shag. deep blue (I Prussian Plue) (H)

Ovcroruntrd inr Violet

3. 50 fLn on 50 shag. rod (J)
4. 50 fan on 20 griv. oran.oc brown or green (H)
5. 50 for on 15 kop. Porf. blue and purple on Kiev Type 2 five stamp (D)
6. 50 Tfn on 15 kop. Perf. blue and purple on Kiev Type 2 five stamp (U)
7. 50 fen on 15 kop. Imp. blue and purple on Kiev Type 2 five stamp (D)
8. 50 fen on 15 kop. Imp. blue and purple on Kiev Tyco 2 five stamp (U)
9. 50 f-n on 20 kop. Porf. rod and blue on Kiov Type 2 (U)
10. 50 fen on 20kop./14kop. Pcrf. rod and blue on Kiev Ty-o 2
Double Polish Overprint (U)
11. 50 fen on 1 rub. Imp. orange and brown on palo brown, o: Xicv Type 2d (H)
These reo f-ctjs. ,hyat follows is -iry Snvurniso.

No. 67 Pago 11

What is the true explanation of this issue t I doubt if we shall ever know
now but the most plausible explanation seems to me that the local Commander of
the Polish forces that occupied Koval had the stamps in the Post Office ovor-
printed to show that the area was under Polish jurisdiction and was using
Polish currency. When it came to the knowledge of the Polish Authorities they
immediately ordered the withdrawal of the overprinted stamps probably because
at that time they did not wish to risk offending the Ukrainians and also be-
cause it was unr.uthorized. If this is correct one can see that at the time
neither the Polos nor the Ukrainians had any desire to acknowledge the issue,
which has remained unknown to this day. I had boon collecting Ukraine for 25
years before I oven heard of it.

The next question is how rare are those stamps! Clearly from the numbers
reported sold to the public they cannot be very plentiful; I myself have soon
or heard of less than 100 All told, used or unused, out of the total stated to
have been sold of 2,585. The only source of supply seems to be whoa important
specialisod collections of Poland come on the market and are broken up, but I
think the bulk must have been desrtoyod. My experience is clearly limited,
but the order of rarity is.not what one would expect, so perhaps it would be
simpler to give the percentages of what I have seen rather than deal with each

No. on chock Percentage of Percentae- of
list those soon those scl.

1 and 2 (about 17 31
3 oaual) 16 42
4 8 4
5 and 6 11 12 Only about one-fifth of
7 and 8 10 ) those I know of are used.
9 1 2
10 1
11 36 10

The most striking thing about this list is the comparatively large number
soon of the last on the list the overprint on I Rub. Imperf. One possible
explanation of this is the number of spaces in the sheet of 1 Rub. filled with
"V''". For some reason it is usual to find that these spaces ware overprinted
as well as the stamps proper and collectors would be inclined to koep those in
blocks or strips.

One final point; oven in the short time the 50 fen handstamp was in use
it seems to have started to show signs of vear. E-xamination shows that although
the most usual damage is to the top of the "o" in Poczta, there are also some-
times others a distinct broe- in the "t" of Poczta, in part of "PI in Polska
and a small break in the "0" of 50 at about 2 o'clock (Fig. 6). I have not so
frr soon any signs of damage to the 30 fon overprint, but this is frequently not
to easy to see owing to its color.

I have told you what I know and what I thitk. It is up to you to decide
whether you would include this issue, when obtainable, in a collection of Ukrai-
ne or.Poland or not. I think so and I also think it is worthy of inclusion in a
general catalogue because the stamps were freely available at the Post Office,
oven if only for a short time, and they did Postal service. Many issues of
those difficult times have achieved cataloguo rank with far loss justification.
00.00 o000000000O000 OOOOOOQ .

Page 12 No. 67

by Nikolai Ivanovich Sokolov

(continued from the "Postal-Telegraph Journal* for 1896, Unofficial Section,
published by the Central Administration of Posts and Telegraphs in St. Peters-
burg. and notified by our member Kurt Adler.)


Postal communications between Russia a.nd Turkey by way of Black Sea were
already under way long before the invention of the steamship. There is a refe-
rence in the "Complete Collection of Laws" to the effect that in the year 1779,
the Board of Admiraty assigned suitable light vessels for the trmans.izcio
of mails between Kherson and Constantinople and between Constantinople and
Taganrog (P. S. Z. #15148). This manner of convoying postal correspondence bot-
woon Russian ports and Constantinople, which took place once monthly, was, how-
ever, deemed to be inconvenient and our Government therefore expanded the regu-
lar postal service which it had organized to go by land from the Russian fron-
tiers right up to Constantinople, at which city a Russian post office was opened

When steamer connections began to expand in Europe, our Government ordered
engines for two steamers in 1828 and bought a third ready-built steamer for the
establishment of regular communications, (a). across the Black Sea between
Odessa and Redut-Kalo (Caucasus) and (b) between Odessa and Constantinople.
The third steamer, which was named the "Nova", was purchased from the director
of the Alexandrov Foundry at St. Petersburg. Upon being placed at the disposal
of the Black Sea Steamship Co. in 1833, it completed several trips between
Odessa and Constantinople. The engines of the other government steamers had
sank in the Sea of Azov and up till the year 1833 they were still being

Regulations were finally laid down on June 30, 1831 for the transmission of
postal correspondence on the steamer which plied between Odessa and ConstJ.--
nople. These rules, which were based on the regulations referring to the .f-ins-
port of mail along the Baltic on Joliffe's steamer, also included the foll -iix:

(1). Even in cases where correspondents wished to send their lottc'-' Iy
sea, the management of the steamer could accept them from Russian post cfflicc-
only. Moreover, the letters had to boar postmarks and accompanied by way-bj _-1
signed by authorized post offices and showing that the scheduled postage for
such letters had been paid.

(2). Passengers on the steamer who wished to carry with them letters for
personal delivery to the destination, were obligated to show them at the pst
office at the port of departure, so that they could be listed in the postal re-
cords and the computed rates for each letter paid into the postal revenue.
After that, the letters were returned to the bearers after the postmark has
been applied. The Customs Officials at Odessa were duty bound to see that
there was no one on the steamer who had letters without postmarks.

(3). For every letter secretly taken aboard ship, a fine was payable in
accordance with section #204: Recommendation for the organization of the Postal
Service, 1830 (25 rubles in banknotes for each letter).

The prohibition of unrestricted transmission of other articles and money
on the steamer was deemed unsuitable upon the grounds that "the conveyance of
all such articles should proceed upon the basis of the existing tariff and it
was impossible for the Post Office to take upon itself the responsibility of

No. 67 Page 13

despatching them by sea ("P.S.Z. #4680, sanctioned by Imperial Consent on June
30, 1831; Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers").

The steamers acquired at the expense of the Treasury were placed at the dis-
posal of the limited company, authorized by Imperial Sanction to establish regu-
lar services between Odessa.and Constantinople. This company, which was known
as the "Black Sea Company of Steamers", received a concession in 1833 for a term
of 10 years and was granted various privileges by the quarantine, custom and
postal authorities.

The company enjoyed very important amenities with regard to the transmis-
sion of postal correspondence. The port fees for the transport of letters were
placed at its disposal. It also got the benefit of the installation and change
in rates which were ratified by the Governor-General of the Novorossiisk Terri-
tory and handed over to the postal authorities for disposal. An exemption was
granted for official correspondence, which was forwarded free of charge on

In order that Odessa merchants be not inconvenienced by the delivery of
their mail to the Quarantine, delivery of these letters was subsequently made to
the head office of the company by a postal officer, in conformance with existing
postal regulations. The same basis was used for the delivery of letters in Con-
stantinople at quarters specifically designated by the head office of the company
Mail bags received in Odessa after being purified in the Quarantine were deliver
to the offices of the company, while those despatched from Odessa to Constantino.
ple were forwarded to the customs office of the company. On those mail bags a
special notation had to be placed, reading "mail bag from Constantinople to
Odosse" or vice-versa. Upon arrival at their destination, the mail bags were
opened by postal officers appointed for this purpose, who, after checking the
letters against the way-bills, distributed them according to addresses to the
head office of the company in Odessa, and in Constantinople at its office there.

The letters accepted for despatch and received for distribution were kept,
at the responsibility of Head Office, in a place specially set aside by it. The
rates for letters forwarded by steamers went into the coffers of the company and
this revenue had to be accepted daily or upon the departure of the steamer. Post-
al officials appointed for the emcution of postal operations in Odessa and Con-
stantinople were obliged to follow to the letter all the arrangements made by
the head office of the company with regard to postal matters. So far as parcels
and money were concerned, the transmission of those items was effected by the
head office of the company without the participation of the Postal Administratioi
Since the Postal ADministration did not accept on its own responsibility the des-
patch of government packages by steamer, the same Administration proposed to
governmental offices and personages that they send their packages by steamer by
arrangement with the head office of the company (sanctioned by Imperial Consent
on May 16, 1833; recommendation of the Committee of 1Ministers, P.S.Z. #6216).

In spite of all these amenities-and periodic subsidies allocated from the
Treasury,. the Black Sea Company of Steamships quickly slumped and could no longer
complete the regulation sailings between Odessa and Constantinople. For the mair
tenance of.these services, our government founded an official steamship company
on the Black Sea and ordered two steam frigates from England, which were suitable
both for commercial and military operations. The.operation of these govornmonta2
steam frigates was entrusted to a special department which formed part of the
"Customs Office at the port of Odessa, under the director-generalship of the
Governor-General ef the. Novorossiisk Territory (sanctioned by Imperial Consent
on 1!ay 13, 1841l; Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers). The following
persons made up the composition of the departmentt: three' departmental heads

Page 14 No. 67

(ono each from the Odessa Customs Office, the Maritime Authority and the local
guild of merchants), a manager of affairs, clerks and other lower officials.
There was a special agent in Constantinople to look after the affairs of steamer
services and he was subordinate to both the Odessa Steamship Department on the
one hand, and the Commercial Office of the Russian mission (in Constantinople),
on the other.

With regard to the transmission of postal correspondence on government fri-
gates, the following rules wore promulgated by Imperial Consent under paragraph
#24 of the recommendation of the Committee of Ministers dated Feb. 23, 1843
(P.S.Z. #16560) -

(1). The reception of letters sent on steamers was to be carried out on
the basis of thogeneral postal regulations in force at the Odessa border post
office of the Russia post office in Constantinople.

(2). The rates for written correspondence, transported on steamers, were
determined by the General Directorate of Posts in agreement with the Governor-
General of the ITovorossiisk Territory, and then upon ccnfirration of the arran-
god conditions, the schedule of rates was published for general information.

(3). The rates for mail were to be collected by the offices at which let-
ters were deposited and from those offices the mail was to be forwarded to the
Steamship Department.

(4). Steamers were obligated to accept for transmission packets and par-
cels under seal from those deoarteonts and personages which had the right to
send their mail by post without paying postage. Such sondings were required to
be delivered to the steamers .rni boar the notation "mail bag containing gcvern-
mont correspondence".

(5). To prevent the mcrot convoyanco of letters by persons leaving Odessa
by steanor, the Odessa Steamship Departrnnt was considered under an obligation
to see to it that none ol the crow or passengers brought sealed letters with hir,
under pain of a fine, instituted in accordance with regulation #204; Recommrn-
dation of the Organization of the Postal Service, 1830 (25 rubles fine in brak-
notes for each letter).

(6). In order that the Russian public at large could send their letters
to Constantinople by steamer, Russian post offices wire instructed to accept
written correspondence for despatch to Constantinople by sea with the proviso
that over and above the postage to Odessa,
the additional rate from Odessa to Constantinople was to be applied. A
note reading "for despatch on the steamer to Constantinople" had to be written
on the covers of such letters.

(7). Whenever a plague or other conta ious disease was detected in Odessa,
requiring quarantine precautions, the reccipt of correspondence took place at the
Quarantine Station, as per postal regulations, through the medium of the postal
officer who was despatched there.

(8). The distribution of letters,rccoivod by steamer in Odessa and Con-
stantinople was entrusted to the local post offices.

(9). Fumigation of the letters received in Odessa from Constantinople was
to take place in the presence of the postal official sent to the Quarantine Sta-
tion, who, upon checking the letters with the way-bill, delivered theo to the
post office for distribution to the addresses.

No. 67 Page 15

(10). Packages from our missions and consulates in Turkey and Greece,
addressed to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, were fumigated in the Odessa
Quarantine Station, as per the regulations in force, in the presence of the
appointed agent of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who, upon purification of
the packages, immediately took delivery of them for further transmission to
St. Petersburg.

(11). The acceptance and despatch of sums of money, as well as of govern-
ment and private parcelswere executed by the Steamship Department without the
participation of the postal administration.

(12). All packages of the Steamship Department, of its agent in Constanti-
nople and of the commanders of steamers, all of which were under government
seal and destined for the Steamship Department at Odessa, were accepted for
despatch by surface (land) mail, without the payment of postage. With regard
to this matter, the administration bf the Steamship Department was considered
to be under the obligation to see that no private letters were placed in such

The charge for letters, transported between Odessa and Constantinople on
government steam frigates, was fixed at 30 silver kopeks per lot (j oz.) obser-
ving the existing rises in weight as in force at that time (Recommendation of
the Committee of Ministers sanctioned by Imperial Consent on June 28, 1843. P.
S.Z. #16987). All the income derived from the despatch of correspondence by
steamer was placed at the disposal of the postal administration.

With regard to the transmission of ordinary correspondence between Russian
cities which were situated along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, this began
in the year 1847 and it appears from a report of the Director-General of the
Postal Department in the same year that this was carried out on the government
steamers of the Novorossiisk Territory. For the transmission of letters on
those steamers between Odessa, Nikolaev, Kherson, Eupatoria, Sevastopol, Yalta,
Theodosia, Kerch, Berdiansk, Mariupol and Taganrog, as well as from Odessa to
Galatz, Izmail, Kiliya, Akkerman and Ovidiopol, postage was collected from the
senders at the rate of 10 kopeks per lot (T oz.). All this income went into
the postal revenue, while the Steamship Department was only informed of the
amount for recording purposes.

In 1856, Aide-de-camp Captain of the first rank Arkas, together with
Collegiate Councillor Kovoselsky put before the Iinistry of Finances a draft
of a charter for a Russian Company for Steam Navigation and Trade (ROPiT), vlhirc'
they suggested be established for the maintenance of regular services for
Russian ports situated along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, both between
each other and the countries in the Middle East. Upon examination by the Com-
mittee of Ministers, the draft of this charter was approved by Imperial
Authority on August 3, 1856 (P.S.Z. #30813). On the basis of the articles
contained therein, the Company was obliged to establish services along the
following lines, as per article #3: -

(1). between Odessa, Eupatoria, Sevastopol, Yalta, Theodosia and Kerch.
(2). between Odessa, Yalta, Redut-Kale and Kerch.
(3). between Odessa, Kinburn, Ochakov and Nikolaev.
(4). between Odessa, Kinburn, Ochakov and Kherson.
(5). between Kerch, Mariupol, Bordiansk, Yeisk and Taganrog.
(6), between Odessa and Galatz.
(7). between Ovidiopol and Akkerman across the Dnestrovsky Gulf.
(8). between Kerch and Taman.
(9). between Odessa, Constantinople, Mt. Athos, Smyrna, Rhodes, Alexandria,
Beyrouth, Jaffa and Aleandria.
Page 16 No. 67

(10). between Odessa, Constantinople, Syra, Piraeus, Messina, Naples, Leghorn,
Genoa and Marseilles.
(11). between Odessa, Constantinople, Syra, Zante, Copiallonia, Corfu, Bari,
Ancona and Trioste.

S In accordance with article i#4, rlil, couriers and state messengers had to
be conveyed by the Company free of charge on lines which had regular sailings.
Apart from the flag showing the State srrs, which was granted to the Company,
it also had the right to fly the postal flag on all those lines where a regular
transmission of mail had been established. In following out the articles of
the charter, a special agreement was concluded between the Postal Administra-
tion and the ROPiT with regard to the transport of postal correspondence bet-
ween Russian post offices. The representative of the Postal Administration at
the conclusion of this a1ronont was Court Councillor Charukovsky, well-known
crganizer of the transmission of nails on Russian railroads. In accordance
with this contract, ratified by the Director-General of the Postal Department
on December 18, 1857, a uniform type of ordinary correspondence was despatched
on the steamors of the Company in conformance with the following rules:-

(1). All corroopondonce was to be enclosed either in mail bags or in
pouches and packages. On the mail bags, wax seals were to be placed and on
the others, load seals were to be applied, in addition to nor'al wax seals.

(2). All correspondence was to be delivered by officials or employees of
the postal administration at its own expense to the stea.er and if the steamer
had not yet docked, to the steaEship wharf. In the latter caso, the mails
were to be conveyed by the Ccrrrny to the steamer froe of charge.

(3). If the Company four it more convenient to have the mail delivered
to its offices, rather than to the wharf, the delivery to the Companyts offices
was an obligation of the Postal Administration and further transmission was
at the expense of the company.

(4). The tine at which the rail was to be delivered to the stoanor, the
wharf or the offices of the Company, was to be determined by mutual agreement
between the local postmaster and the local offices of the Company or its agents
The schedule was to be dotermined in such a way that the mail would always be
delivered on tine to the stearor without delaying its sailing, while allowing
the public as much time as possible to mail its letters.

(5). After mail had been deposited by the public, the post office had the
right tc send directly to the steamer even supplementary correspondence deposit-
ed aftor the closing of the nails, seeing to it that the despatch of such cor-
respondonce did not delay the sailing of the staer=r. Such delivery of this
late mail to the ship was to be effected at the expense of the postal treasury.

(6). The steamer did not have the right to sail from a port earlier than
the tine indicated on the time-table.

(7). If the times of sailing for steamers were changed at any port what-
soever, the local postal authorities were to be informed of the fact not less
8 days in advance.

(8). Upon accepting the mails, the commander of the steamer was obliged
to chock all packages, satchels and mail bags and oxarino the wax and lead
seals. When receiving the mails, the commander or agent of the CoI.pany had to
specify on the receipt if the correspondence had been rucuivud in a damaged

No. 67 Page 17

state, giving the exact extent of damage: to the wax or lead seal or even to
the outside wrapping enclosing the mails and sign the receipt only after all
these particulars had been completed.

(9). The mail had to be stored in the safest place aboard ship, and the
Company was responsible for the safety of the correspondence from the time it
took delivery of the mails until they were handed over to a postal official.

(10). Upon arriving at a harbor, the mail was'to be unloaded ahead of the
passengers and other freight and delivered by.the Company at its own expense to
the post office, where it was handed over upon the signature of a postal official

(11). The signatures of'postal officials. and employees were a confirmation
that the correspondence had boon received from the'offices.or agent of the Ooem
pany in a safe and sound condition thus relieving the Company of all further
responsibility in the matter.

(12). Upon receipt of the correspondence, the postmaster opened up the mails
immediately, as he was obliged to hand over at once to the representative of the
Company, or deliver to the offices of the said Company any ordinary correspondent
addressed to the offices of the Company, as per advance agreement.

(13). Where the post offices had no mail on hand addressed to a specific
destination, they were obliged to send to this latter office an emply mailbag,
enclosing a notification with respect to the absence of mail.

(14). Postal officials and employees proceeding on the steamers of the Com-
pany upon government business or upon instructions from the Postal Department,
were accomodated free of charge according to the following grades of berths:
first-class cabins for officials of staff-officer rank, second-class cabins for
personages of chief-officer rank, while postillions and other employees wore
lodged together with the third class passengers. For their keep aboard ship,
the Company was paid at the rate in force at those destinations to which the
officials were travelling.

(15). Boxes for mailing letters addressed to Russian destinations had to be
displayed on each steamer. Letters were to be enclosed in stamped envelopes, or
prepaid with adhesive postage stamps. The keys for the external boxes were in
the custody of the commander of the steamer, while those for the internal box3
were held by the post office.

(16). The Company was obliged to see to it that passengers did not have
sealed letters upon them.

In the month of September 1858, new lines were established by ROPiT,
as follows:

(a). between Taganrog and Constantinople.

(b). between Theodosia and Constantinople.

(c). between Redutt- 'alo and Trebiaondo.

Postillions were appointed from 1860 onwards to accompany the mails
which were being forwarded on steamers of the Company between P:ssian ports.

( to bo'continued )

Page 18 No. 67

OF THE R. S. F. S. R. 1917--1923
by John Lloyd
concludedd from #66)
Correction On page 21 of the English Edition of Journal No. 66, in the first
line of the title, next to the last word should be PROVISIONALLY
instead of previously. Likewise, kindly meke the same change in
the INDEX.
---- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

From 15.X.21 all Savings Bank and Control stamps wore sold at 250 rubles each,
irrespective of the denomination, but unfortunately I have only two examples of
this. Tho first a cover from Vyazma, r.clensk, date cancelled 4.11.21, addres-
sed to Ekatorinoslav (the first "E" not shown) date stamped on arrival 4.1.22.
It bears a 10 kcp. brown Savings stamp, wis eventually returned to the P.O. as
"address unknown", after which it was sold as philatelic material. The second
item is a cover of mixed franking of 1000 rubles, bearing 3, 5 kop. Savings
stamps (750 rubles) and a 250 R. regular Soviet issue. This was sent from
Maksotikha, Tvor 14.12.21 by registered mail to Ekatorinoslav. It has the
Chinovniks (Post Office Official's) guarantee of postage cachet in black.
Writing in pencil at the top of the cover by the local postman states that the
addressee no longer resides at No. 16, cover then being returned to the "dead
letter office".

On the first of April 1922 there was again a revaluation in those Imperial
stamps. The Arms type kopeck values, Savings Bank and Control stamps wore to
be sold and used at a million times their face value (F x 1,000,000) but to be
withdrawn and replaced by the 3rd Soviet regular issue that was printed to take
its place. The ruble value of these Arms types to be retained, temporarily
anyway, and used at ton thousand tines face (F x 10,000).

Postal rates rose fantastically as follows, being for foreign mail in
April 30,000 rubles, early Lay 150,000 rubles, 28th of May 200,000 rubles, July-
October 4.50,000 rubles rand registered letters wore double this. Foreign news
papers 18C,C00 rubles and postcards 270,000 rubles, so it will be understood
that the regular issues could nvt cope with such a rise in rates, hence tleo
reason for these Arms types, kcpeck values, included, continued to serve for
postage to help eke out supply c. Of the Savings Bank and Control stamps I have
not seen any used after the First of April 1922, I would therefore be very in--
torested to hear of anyone owning or having soon any of those used after this

Before going further with the description of my material of this period I
should say that eighteen months ago it was my very good fortune to be able to
acquire an unpicked lot of Russian material, among which I found an office file
containing all stamps, just as they were cut out from arriving mail, from envo-
lopes, parcels, etc., still on their original pieces and pasted on foolscap
shoots, probably by the office boy. These offices belonged to the firm called
Centrosojuz, Hazlitt House, Southampton Buildings, Holborn, London, a branch of
the Lll-Union Coperative Association, whoso Head Office was in Voscow, Staraya
Ploshchad, L. hey received an amazing amount of mail from all corners of the
Soviet Union, the first of this arriving soon after the 30th May 1922 and the
last of the material being dated about 1926. he stcry of this find was montioD-
ed in the B.S.R.P. journal No. 32 of arch 1963, when three pieces from this
material was chosen by the Editor forinclision and i lu'stration as outstanding
items. For noebcrs of Rossica who perhaps are not members of the B.S.R.P. a
word about these pieces would not be amiss.

No. 67 Pago 19

Item I. Two panes of the 10 kop. Arms type, Imperf. Although this stamp
is catalogued at only a moderate figure, it is unquestionably a scarce stamp,
occasionallythey are seen mint, but to find two pans genuinely used is somo-
thing quite out of ordinary. The stamps were cancelled with a small double cir-
cle "Moscow eksp." postmark dated 13 September 1922 and with an arrival cancel
in red "London E. C. Registered". Mr. Maslowski and Mr. Liphschutz of Paris
agree that neither of. them have seen such a piece used and are quite surprised
at its late date of use. To date this piece seems to unique, certainly no
member of B. S.. R. P. have seen the like.

Item II This is a large piece consisting of twenty copies of the 4 kop.
imprf. (scarce). and 4 copies 6f th6 1 R. imperf. cancelled with a double circle
pmk. reading "NIZHNI YAKP.JAKA" and dated 4.8.22, with London arrival cancel-
lation of 15.8.22., As members will know this is the postmark of the Great Nizhr.
Novgorod Fair that for hundreds of years was held at Nizhni Novgorod in the
suburbs of Kunavino, which lies between the rivers Oka and Volga. Nizhni Fair
cancellations are not scarce and have been written up I believe on different
occasions in both the. Rossica and B.S.R.P. journals, but this is the first time
that the cancellation of this Fair has been recorded used after the October
Revolution, when it was opened on the First of August 1922. The opening of this
Fair is recorded in the "Outline History of the U.S.S.R" published by the
Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow 1960. It is interesting to note that
this Fair is only mentioned once in this publication, and that the following
year, on the same date it records the opening of the First Great Agricultural
Exhibition, one could therefore suppose that these Agricultural Exhibitions
took place of the Nizhni Novgorod Fairs. As incredible as it may seem, I have
a correspondent, now living in Moscow, who before the last war, lived in Gorki
(the new name of Nizhni Novgorod) and had never heard of this V'air. However
on making inquiries from relatives living there she was told that her uncle had
on one occasion, and one only, sold his produce at the Nizhni Novgorod Fair
under the Soviet Regime. This seems to confirm the history book.

Item III. This third item in our journal was a flaw to the 5 R. Arms
type, perf. 13i- and there were 4 examples of this particular flaw in this batch
of correspondence, see Rossica journal No. 64, page 32 in Addendum to check
list by Dr. Stackelberg.

So much for the pieces recorded in the B.S.R.P. Journal. There were many
other interesting blocks of stamps in my acquisition and I have a few collected
in the normal way. Conspicous by their absence during this period are the 15,
20, 25, 35 and 70 kop. values, not one single itoe. The remaining kopeck and
ruble denominations are all present, a few as a single stamps or examples but
the rest in very large numbers, all on piece or on covers. The largest number
on any one piece being 120, 3 kop. perforated stamps date cancelled Moscow
8.8,22. Of the ruble values, the largest number on a single piece being 64,
5 R. perf. 13- used from Moscow 28.7.22, with a London arrival pmk. date 4th
August. Now 64 of these stamps should represent the sum of 3,200,000 Rs, but
someone, I presume the. Post Office clerk at Moscow, when applying the stamps,
wrote at the top of the sheet in ink, "4,800,000". This loaves me to believe,
as I have said on occasions, that I doubt very much if officials were always
correct when sticking these largo quantities of.stamps to mail and that they do
not necessarily correspond with the rate applicable.

The following is a list of stamps of which I have only one example on
piece. Eight, 1 kop. imporf. on piece with other values date cancelled Moscow
3.6.22. Of the 4 -kop. imperf. I have only one example already mentioned on the
Nizhni Yarmarka. puece.

Pago 20 No. 67

Of the 14 kop. without surcharge I have a block of twenty on cover registered
from Petrograd dato cancelled at the local P. 0. 4.11.22 and again at the
Petrograd forwarding Office 8.11.22, finally London arrival pmk, dated 26 Novem-
bor 22, Of the 3i R. stamp, which by the way, was not authorized to be sold
at the now value of 10,000 times face, I have block of four porf. 13- with
vertical C.N. used on a wrapper with 4, 1 R denominations again with Vert.
C .N. perf. 13 the whole being date cancelled Moscow 3.7.22. On this page
also, is my only example of the 5 R. with the local perf. 12-, it is a block
of 9, date cancelled 15,9.22 with a London rogistod pm1k. of 29th September.

In regards to the other denominations, both kop. and ruble values not
mentioned in the above paragraph, I have them on many pieces in blocks, panes
and even whole shoots, all sent from the R.S.F.S.R. after the 1st March 1922.
A fve I think are worth a description.

Two whole panes of the 3 kop. inperf. cancelled Moscow 9.6.22 with part
of the London arrival prk. in red. Across these two panes there are a number
of six sided cachots, violet in color, 45 to 50mm. in width and reading "Bargain
Department of the Central Union Co-operative Societies in Moscow", no date.
These cachets I presume would be applied by the Firm before being taken to the
P.O. for despatch. If this is correct, it is most interesting because we have
always been load to believe that these Arms type stamps were only sold over the
counter and applied to mail at the Post Office of despatch.

Another piece bearing 35, 10 kop. perf. stamps, 1D of which are of modiur
blue color, the other 25, of a very dark blue, the whole being cancelled Moscow
10.6.22 with London arrival prk. in red.

The outstanding 5 R. values I have already d scribed, a full description
and illustration being given in the E.S.R.P. journal No. 32.

Here follows the details of some ClRs. on pieces.

A complete shoot of 50 stamps used from Moscow date cancelled 1.th Septem-
ber 22 complete with London arrival pmk. in red of the same month. This is a
very interesting used sheet, showing on stamp No. 2, the "Sklarevski" flaw
(joining of the letters L and B in the word "Rublei") and also showing the
"Stakolberg" or "Pooln retouch (ornamental small irregular white square, slightly
slanted to the left, just below the Arms oval) as stamp No. 49. See article on
these flaws with their illustrations in the Rossica journal No. 55, pages 30/32.
Colarbeing carmine and gray.

Then follows a part sheet of 33 stamps of this sane value perf., pmkd.
Moscow 2.10.22, rod and dark gray in color. This piece shows the flaw to strmp
No. 40 (broken line between largo scrcll and th3 lower value tablet) as recorded
in Rossica No. 61, in the article by E. F. Kowman.

As we approach the next change in values, one notices that the donominations
used on the nail have become very varied, as though post office officials, aware
of the change to come, were trying, or possibly were obliged to use up all the
odd values that wore on hand.

To continue, here I have a cover addressed to the British Consulate in
Roval, Estonia that was dispatched from Rostov-on-Dcn on the 24th August 22,
journeyed to Moscow where it received a machine cancellation dated 29th., then
on to Royal where it was again machine cancelled 16.1X.22 (note here the first
use of the Roman figures in the cancellation date) but the obliterator was
Tallinn, the town's new name. One wundors if tho namo changod between the 24

No. 67 Page 21

August and the 10th September or if the sender was ignorant of the changed name,
franking being 4. 10 kop. and 1, 5 kop. Arms types, all perf.

Then follows a fine example of the 5 kop. dark purple or plum color in a
multiple block of nine, date cancelled Moscow 10.11.22, only six days before
now currency change,

So, now, to the last change in value of these Arms type Imperial stamps.

A new currency is declared, 1 ruble to equal 10,000 of the first rubles and
on the 16th November 1922 the Arms type was re-issued, overprinted ,ith Star,
Sickle and Hammer together with a surcharge in the new currency. These over-
prints were executed by both lithe and typo process. I have all these varieties
in at least one oxmple. excepting the well known 20 R. on 15 kop. imporf., this
so far has eluded me. Of the 15 kop. large die there is one block of 4, used
in 1923, it is imperf,, stamps measuring 16.8x23mm. with space betwoon stamps
of lImm.

The last dated eomples of these stamps, are on a cover registered from
Staro Konstantinovo in the Ukraino date cancelled 7.9.23 with arrival prb .
Zhitomir 30.9.23. This cover is franked with 30, 30R. on 50 kop., 5, 20 R. on
70 kop. with 3, R.S.F.S.R. regular issues. Of this type of mixed franking I
have quite a number. This 30 RP. overprint was however not popular with the P.O.
o'erks when using these large number of stamps, due to their being odd and not
so easy to add up, hence the reason that one does not see this denomination
so often as others. Here a fes of these covers chosen from quite a collection:-
Registered cover from Moscow 7.6.23 to Warsaw arrival 31.6.23 franked 3, 100 R.
on 15 kop. with various other regular issues, bearing also the purple cachet
"Mit Luftpost". Then again a cover frcr Yelan to London 30.6.23 with many 40 R.
overprints on the 15 kop. and with them a colorful array of the regular stamps.

On this last change being made all other Arms types were supposed to have
been withdrawn but I have found two examples of those stamps being used after
the new currency had been declared and the stamps of the Imperial types over-
printed. They afe first a block of 4, 5 kop. imperf. date cancelled 13.1.23,
name of town not distinguishable, the second a piece bearing 27, 10 kop. dark
blue (not indigo) in color, date cancelled Rostov Station (Vokzal) 18.1.23., a
circular pmk. and not the oval railway type. It has also the London arrival pnk.
in red date 29th January. The only piece I know of at present bearing those
normal Arms types, used later than the above date, is on piece owned by John
Barry and if my memory is correct it is of a later date of this same month.

All these Imperial were withdrawn and demonetised in March 1923 and these
same overprinted provisionals on Imperials were withdrawn on the November 1, 1923

Thus it can be seen that, until March 1923 the Imperial issues of 1909 -1912
and.their re-issues, wore the most important stamps of the revolutionary period.

To finish off this article, I would repeat, that this information has been
gathered from many sources and may conflict with some members views, I may have
erred on some minor points, but my "writing up of sheets", if not substantiated,
is certainly not contradicted by the material on hand. There may bo some piece
of information not mentioned in those paragraphs, if this is so, it is only due,
to the lack of material to prove the point and I would appreciate any remarks,
derogatory ot otherwise, on the subject from members-of Rossica. Although a
difficult period to study, to some perhaps confusing, this collection is written
up and presented in such a way that the juries of two International Exhibitions
understood its context and granted awards. In the first instance it was entered

Page 22 No. 67

in a class with provisionals, in the second it was in the class for specialists,
and I hope at some future date to enter it in a class for pctal history, pro-
ving thereby that this particular material has the ingredients for all. This
then has boon my reward for four ycars work in collecting of the material, sco-
Sking the information and finally writing up this most interesting period of
postal history. Being a born optimist, I still fool that there is a wealth of
material to be found and I therefore lock fo.rard to a great deal of study and
research of these fascinating Inpcrils for a long time to come.

by A. Cronin

Further to the valuable notes given by Mr. D. N. N.inchov in Rossica #65, a
classification in now sot out of the various Thases of the postal history of
this area, so as to help members to arrange systematically any material that
falls into their hands. The main subdivisions are as follows:-

(1). Russian pro-stanr -oriod until L'arch 30. 1856

The only offices likely to have functioned during this period would have
been at BOLGRAD and KC1.RAT (KPRJT) and much of this mail would have boon ad-
dressed to Bulgaria. Since EBul ria was then still under the autocratic rule
of Turkey, any such corrospor-ence would only have boon handled by the Russian
Consular Posts, whichlatter -wa so offoctively described by Mr. Yinchev in #63.
Mail of this nature probably cr.rriod no postal markings and would therefore only
btr recognizable from the contents. Thj only other category of mail would have
boon in the form of correspondence addressed to other parts of the Russian Em-
pire, being for the mcst part of an official nature and as rare, if not rarer,
than mail addressed to Bulgaria. However, mail to other parts of the Empire
would have borne Russian postal markings and any details of these from other
rombors would be greatly appreciated.

(2). RuniarnArr.inistration of the Southern Budzhak 1856-1878

As a result of the Crinean War, Russia coded to the Principality of YIolda-
via the Bessarabian districts of Bclgrad, Icmail and Kaul by the Treaty of
Paris (M!arch 30, 1856). Thoso districts, which ccntainod many Bulgarian ccl--
rics, remained under Runanian rule until the Treaty of Berlin of July 13, 132.
The throe offices likely to have been patronized by tho Bulgarians in this po-
riod would have boon at Eolgradu (Bolgrad), Israil (Izmail) and Rcni.

(3). Russian A.iristrration of the Northern Budzhra 1856-1878

Since the "dots" typos of cancellations woro introduced throughout the
Russian Empiro in the late 185C"S Dr. Bochnan's listing allows us to dotarrino
what Russian offices woro utilized by the Bulgarian colonists in the rreaining
portion of the Eudzhok steppe. Accordingly, e know that Komrat used #220,
Kuboi used '222 and Tatarbunar #226, all in the roctcngular type for county
post offices.

(4). Unified Russian Ldminirtraticn 1878-1919

With the victorSiTa conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, the
Treaty of Berlin returned the Eolgrad, Izmail and Kagul districts to Russia and

No. 67 Page 23

thus the Bulgarian colonies wore again united. The steady progress in this
period, as noted by Mr. Minchev, resulted by 1917 in quite a good coverage of
post offices over the somewhat sparcely populated Budzhak steppe. By this time
practically no colony, with one or two exceptions, was more than 5 miles (8 km.)
away from the nearest post office or ambulant postal service (R.P.O.).

With the kind help of Dr. Seichter, it has been possible to establish what
offices wore functioning in 1916 and 1917, from reference to the official Postal
Manuals in his possession. In the tabulation that follows, a list of the post
offices operating in the Budzhak is given at the left, and the dependent villages
at right. Whero an (x) appears before a P.O. name, this means that it was not
itself a Bulgarian settlement, but the nearest office for the colonies in the
vicinity. In other words,"for the purposes of this study, markings from such
offices are only of interest on mail which originates from dependent Bulgarian
villages. The listing is as follows:


ALEKSANDROVSKOE VOL. PRAV. Satalyk Khasan-Batyr, Novo-Troyan, Pandakliya
Hobzha Agency. Akkorman Co.
X ARTSYZ, Akkerman Co. Burudzhi, Satul Nou (Novo.Selo)
X BEREZISKOE Agency, Akkerman Co. Dzholtai, Kiriet-Lunga .__.
BOLGRAD P. & Tel. Office, Izmail Co. Kegxreurt, Kurchi, Tabak
CHADYR-LUNGA, P. & Tel. Office Gaidar, Kazayakliya, Kiriutnya, Valea-Perzhy
Bendery Co.
CHIISHI Agency, Akkorman Co. Also Novc-Troyan, Pandakliya
known as Gradina
CHIISHIISKOE Aency (closed in 1917) Novo-Troyan, Pandakliya
CHISHME-VARUITSKOE (Koloniallnoe Upra-
vlenio) Izmail Co. Dermindery
IV'NOVKL BOLGARSKAYA P. & Tel, Dovlot-Agach, Lmitrovka Bolgarskaya, Glavan,
Office. Akkerman Co. Khasan-Batyr. Zadunaevka, Iserliva
X IZMAIL P. & T el. Office, Izmail Co. Babele, Dolu2ioi. Kairakliya
KOFPRT (KAU'RAT) P. & Tel. Office, Avdarma, Bashkaliya, Chok Maidan, Dezgindzhe,
Bendery Co. Khirsovo (Baskioi), Tomai_
KONGAZ Agency. Izmail Co. Baurchi, Beshalma, Golitsa_ Kazzyaliya
KUBEI, P. o- Tel. Off. Akkorman Co. Kalchevc
KULEVCHA Agenc.y operating in 1917, Akkerman Co.
KULECHFSKOE VOL. PRAV. (closed in 1917)
X LEIPTSIGSKAYA, Akkorr.an Co. also
X PARIZH Sta., Akkerman Co. Chumle-Kioi, Dyulomen, Kuparan
X R.P.O. #75-76 BE-DERY-RENI Besh-Gyoz, Bolbeka, Chishme Kioi, Dzholtai,
Etulia. Imputsita
X R.P.O. #335-336. Akkerman-LoiptEig- Chumle-Kioi, Kamchik
skava. In oper. after about 1917.
X REI, Kagul Co. Anadolka, Dzurdzhuleshty, Karagach
X ROrNOVKiA (Bessarabskay) Sta. Bondoryv Co. .Abakliya
SHIKIRLI-KITAI P.O., Izmail Co. Banovka, Fontina Zinolor, Solioglu, Stari
Troyan, Tashbunar, Yenikioi
TARAKLIYA Agency, Bendery Co. Tatar-Keochak
1. TARUTLTO P. & Tel. Off. Akkorman Co. Tvarditsa
X' TATAR-BUNAR P. & Tel. Off. Akkerman Co.Bur udzhi.- Deldzhiler. Karchik
TROYANOV VAL Sta. (Novaya Bulgariva). Izmail Co...
Agency. Izmail Co.
VOLKAESHTY Sta.. R.P.O. 75-76, K Cu C ..._

Page 2 No. 67

The dependent colonies have boon determined by consulting a monumental se-
ries of Austrian military maps, published by the Military Geographic Institute
in Vienna (various editions) and hence some place-names overlap when a colony
is at an approximately equal distance from two or more offices. With the ex-
Soeption of Kulovcha, Roni, the RPOs, VoLkaneshty and their dependent colonies,
0 all other offices and colonies are situated in the compact enclave enclosed by
the Kunduk and Yalpukh rivers of Southern Bessarabia and reference to the ex-
cellent map given in #65 should, in general, be sufficient for our members.

The following installment will give details of the cancellations and postal
history material so far known and while a very interesting assembly has already
been accumulated, it would be ruch appreciated if members would advise what
items are in their collections, so as to make the survey as complete as possible
All help will be greatly acknowledged.
(to be continued)
------- --------------- --------------------------

by D. N. Minchev

As is well known, the Russian Army created and maintained a well-organized
postal service during the time of Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. Philatelic
documentation, in the form of letters, cards, eto., transmitted by the above
service are very difficult to find those days and they are extremely interest-
ing. Despite its military character, it is important to point out that this
postal service also transmitted letters from private persons.

A very good example of the latter, in the form of a cover which has sur-
vived, is now the subject of this article. The letter is an item among the
O postal history exhibits of the Rcmano-Russian Museum in Bucharest and it is also
of great interest to Bulgarian philatolists.

The cover is without adhesive stamps and was sent to Evlogi Georriov, a
well-known Bulgarian merchant in Bucharest. The address is given in French and
below that there is a notation in Bulgarian, reading "To Mistor Naidon Nikolaov'
for whom this letter was actually intended. On the back of the cover, there ai
two types of markings of the Russian FioldpLet,whoso services wore utilized for
the dispatch of the letter to the Rumanian capital. In addition, there is a
third type of postmark, that of the Rumanian post in Bucharest.

The first postmark to be noted is a double-circle type, of which only a
small portion is shown in the illustration and we can mrako out the following
inscription: "FIELD POST SUB-OFFICE .9.(1).9." Unfolrtunatcly, because of the
state of the cover, the date is not visible. There zro two strikes of the seo
cond type of marking, again a double-circle type, and very clear and legible.
The inscription roads "FIELD POST OFFICE (1)" and in the center the date, 18
July 1877, is given in three lines. The third style of marking is that of the
Rumanian post in Bucharest, as noted before, and shows the arrival date, 5
August 1877. As the letter had not boon propaid, the figure "30" was marked
on the face of the cover in pencil, upon its arrival at the Rumanian capital,
and this was subsequently confirmed by the applicas;on of a framed marking
reading "30 NANI". This indicated the particular : .-nt that had to be col-
lected from the addressee and such a typo of cachet was often utilized in those
days by the Rumanian Postal Administration on unprepaid letters.

S In considering the abovca-ntionod facts, it may be asserted that the
letter was sent by a private party from the Sistov (Svishtov) district, or even

No. 67 Pago 25

from the town itself in Northern Bulgaria, a bare month after the liberation of
this area by the Russian Armies. This is readily apparent from the second type o:
marking on the back of the cover, that of the main field post office (#l) oper-
ating in Bulgaria. As far as we know, this was established by the Russian field
post service at Sistov and the first, incomplete strike on the back shows the
marking of the 9th branch of the sane office, operating either in Sistov or some-
where in the district. In passing, it nay be mentioned that there were four
other sub-offices of this main field post office, namely #s 2, 3, 4, and 5 but
these latter branches operated in Rumania.

xxx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx-zoica Y.xx xxxxxxxxx

C 0
o o
o o
o Stamps and Covers of the World. o
o .
o Al so all phi 1 ate 1 ic supplies s o
o 0
o C
o 109 W. 4 3 rd St r e t, N.Y. 3 6, NE W Y ORK o
o o

S' 0
o W A N TE D Ottoman Turkish and Offices in Turkey material; Balkan o
0 Wars, and Aegean Island material; used only. Stamps, 0
o covers, locals, stampless, etc. o
0 0
o Gordon Torrey 3065 Porter St., NW. Washington 8, D. C. o
0 0
c00000o00000000C00000 OOOCOOOCCCOCC000COCCOCC0000000000000000000000000CCoocoococo

O 0
o Anything or any quantity of stamps of this district o
S. including single items, multiple pieces, postal history o
o itons, postal stationary, essays, proofs, etc. desired, o
o o
o I am also interested in literature pertaining to o
o Zomstvos, general as well as philatelic. o
o o
o Harold G. Cpbb, V. A. Center, Los Angoles, California. 90073 o
0 0
ooccocooCOco C O Ccoc cooCCCCCooCCoo 0cO CCo cC ocooccooCocoOOO Oo0000 000
0 : .
" ish toi Pa rha No. 51 and earlier issues of Rossi6a, particularly o
So .. Nos. 4/ nd 49. Kinr]y 4ITp pos'luare with offer. o
o o
o RAYMOND W. WARD 4048 Third Ave. San Diego 3, California' o
oP g 2 '.. oS
. O0OOOCOCOOOOpOOOOOcOocccro.cc.-. ocOCCOOOCOOOOcccococc ocoooooo0000000000OO

Page 26 No.67

by O. A. Faberge

Having examined the Postal Saving and Control Stamps during my research
work with the Imperial Revenues and Fiscal Stamps, and having compared them to
the corresponding material in my postal collection, I recalled to my mind the
notes written by Mr. R. Sklarevski in our Journal No. 55 (page 32). In these
notes Mr. Sklarevski ontions some inverted backgrounds he found on the 25 kop.
Postal Saving Bank Stamps in his collection.

Inverted backgrounds have always attracted collectors in a special way, so
I think a few words on this subject might be of some interest. On stamps of
the aforementioned kind large size Soving Bank and Control stamps there are
5 different types of background I of these can be distinguished if inverted,
but the author at the time of writing has seen but 3 of them with this variety
of background.

To begin rith, let's describe the 5 types of background and see on where
sorts of stamps they are found.

Type I An uniform pattern of horizontal loops (see ill. in Rossica No. 55
opposite page 46). On Saving Bank Stamps of 25 and 50 kop.

Type II A composition of three patterns. A narrow frame usually outside
the design of the stamp and the background of the upper inscrip-
tion ("SAVING BANK ST.A'-P") is of the same pattern as we know from
the postal stamps of 1889/1904 (Scott 41-44). The background of the
central inscription ("0 B ROT3E" or "THREE ROUBLES" or "FIVE
ROTUBTZLS") is simply dotted. The balance of background is dotted too,
but has a symetrical rhomboidal design. On Saving Bank Stamps
of 1, 3 and 5 R.

Type III Another composed pattern. Background of the imprinted portion of
the stamp has small dots. The balance of the background (lower free
portion of the stamp and a framu usu;al!y outside the design cf the
stamp) has an enlarged version of the po-tal stamp pattern of bac--
ground (Scott 41-44). On Saving Bank Steps of 10 and 25 R,

Type IV An uniform composition of vertical wavy lines. On Saving Bank
Stamp Of 100 R.

Tye v An uniform pattern of verticel loops (see ill. in Rossica No. 55,
opp. page 46). On all Control Stt-nps.

Due to its pattern the background of Type IV cannot be detected, even if
it would be inverted, while all the other types can.


Invertions of background on imperial postal stamps have usually ori-inated
fromsheots which by mistake w3re turned 180 degrees between the two or three
printing operations.

The author has found that invertions of Type I backgrounds on Saving Bank
Stamps AEE NOT A RESJLT OF SUCH A YISTJ.XE. Both varieties, the normal as well
as the inverted background, can be found together on multiple pieces, which

No. 67 Page 27

The author never had seen a complete sheet of these stamps, so I do not
know how many of the stamps hcee normal and how many inverted background, but
some blocks and vertical strips in my collection show a constant regularity in
the distribution of the two varieties of background.

The pattern of the background seems to continue from stamp to stamp without W
interruptions sideways, but after every second horizontal row there is an inter-
ruption. This narrow white space is no more than 2mm wide and less in some

The author has found that two such groups of two horizontal rows each,
with the same variety of background, are followed by two groups (4 horizontal
rows) with the other variety of background and between all the two-row groups
there is the aforee ntioned mm. white space.

Thus each of the Saving Bank Stamps 25 and 50 kop. can be found with both
background varieties se tenant forming vertical TETE-BBCHE pairs (with respect
to the background only). These "background T-B" pairs are to be found both
with the normal background in the upper stamp of the pair, as the other way:
top stamp with inverted and lower stamp with normal background. As far as I can
judge there are no horizontal "background T-B" pairs ( See illustration).



1. 25 kop. black, yellowish brown background
a. normal background (concave) c. vertical pair, both varieties of
b. inverted background (convex) background se tenant.

2. 50 kop. yellowish brown, background in same color
a. normal background c. vertical pair, with both varieties of
b. inverted background background se tenant.


3. 50 kop. yellowish brown, background in same color
a. normal background (probably c. vertical pair with both varieties of
exist, but not yet seen by background se tenant (probably exist,
the author). but has not been seen by the author).
b. inverted background


Possibly due to its multiple pattern, which is rather easily detected when
inverted, invertions of this type of background seem to be very rare. The
author has so far seen but one copy with inverted background of the 3 Rub.
Saving Bank Stamp.


SAVING 3:NK ST;: P "18 ,...g."

4. 1 Rub. orange, background orange brown.
a. normal background

5. 3 Rub. green, background orange brown
a. normal background b. inverted background

Page 2B No. 67

6. 5 Rub. deep blue, background orange brown
a. normal background

SAVING BANK ST!P "l.....g."

0 7. 1 Rub. orange, background orange brown
a. normal background

8. 3 Rub. green, background orange brown
a. normal background

9. 5 Rub. deep blue, background orange brown
a. ncrmal background


This dual pattern background is so far known to the author in normal posi-
tions only. This type of background too would be easily detected if inverted,
as the ordinary dotted pattern would be soon on the free, lower portion of
the st-ap .



10. 10 Rub. rod, background yellowish brown
a. normal background

11. 25 Rub. chocolate, background yellowish brown
a. norral background.

SAVING B.^ ST...P "l.....,g ..

12. 10 Rub. rod,background yellowish brown
a. normal background

13. 25 Rub, chocolate, background yellowish brown
a. normal background


This typo of background, due to its pattern, is the only one which cannot
be detected if inverted, and it is found on one staip only.


SAVING B;MK STI.:F "18.,,, f,"

14. 100 Rub. dark brown, background blue to rod


This type of background is found on Control Stamps exclusively, and rost
of them are also known to the author with background inverted.

On stnaps from this issue I have not found any white spaces in the background
pattern between the stamps neither vertically nor horizontally. The undis-
turbed pattern seems to continue without interruptions from stamp to stamp on

No. 67 Page 29

the blocks and pairs which I have examined, and there was but one variety of
background represented on each of the multiples I have inspected.

Inverted backgrounds seem to be rather scarce on stamps of this issue, and
their origin can probably be explained the same way, as we do with some imperial
postage stamp invertions: the complete sheet has been placed upside down during
the second printing process.


CONTROL STAMPS ("19.....e")

15. 25 kop. black, background yellowish brown
a. normal background (convex, single lined arcs facing to the right)
b. inverted background (convex, single lined arcs facing to the loft)
(probably existp,but has not yet been seen by the author).

16. 50 kop. dark brown, background yellowish brown
a. normal background
b. inverted background (probably exists, but has not yet been
seen by the author).

17. 1 Rub. red orange, background yellow to yellowish brown
a. normal background b. inverted background

18. 3 Rub. yellowish green, background yellow to yellowish brown
a. normal background
b. inverted background (probably exists, but not yet seen by the author).

19. 5 Rub. deep blue, background yellow to yellowish brown.
a. normal background b. inverted background

20. 10 Rub. red, background yellow to yellowish brown
a. normal background b. inverted background

21. 25 Rub. chocolate, background yellow to yellowish brown.
a. normal background b. inverted background
c. variety UIPERFORATE with normal background

22. 100 Rub. dark brown, background blue or dark blue to carmine
a. normal background b. inverted background

And now lot us all do some "digging" in our collections in order to fill
up the gaps in this listing. The varieties of backgrounds: 3a, 3c, 15b, 16b,
18b and perhaps some additional copies of Type II or the not yet discovered
invertion of background Type III all those arc worth while to "dig" for.

NO T E: -

You will note from illustrations to Sklarovski's article in #55, opposite
Page 46 that Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5, consist of double lined loops in one direction
and single lined arcs in the opposite direction. Sklarovski in his notes on pae
32 (#55) used double lined loops for description, whereas Mr. Faburgo in his
article on Pages 11 and 13 of #67, usos single lined arcs.

Page 30 No. 67

by C. P. Bulak

The Poltava Zomstvo Postal Services oexstod from 1913 to the end of 1917. 151
different steps (including those surcharged with the now values), altogether
258,520 stamps wore issued. The shortest issue surchargedd stanps)was 16,the
largest printing was 1R,325. The data on the Poltava issues was taken from K.
Schmidt's catalogue, the only work in oxistanco that gives the most information
on each stamp of the Poltava issues.


"The tabulation shows the catalogue nunbors, values in kop., quantities
printed, and the quantities loft unsurcharged. The numbers missing belong to
the surcharged values. For the details see the catalogue*

Cat. Val u n t i t i o a Cat. Val. 0 uantit i s
Nos. Kon. Printed Unsurchargod Nos. Koc. Printed Unsurcharoed
1 1 2,060 1,960 Perforated
2 3 4,,16 0 4160 47 1 9,000 9,000
3 6 2,160 825 48 2 9,000 7,740
4 2,140 1,740 49 3 9,000 9,000
50 5. 9,000 2,740
Nos. 5, 6 and 7 were surchar- 51 6 9,000 7,600
ged on Nos. 1, 3 an 4. 52 10 9,000 5,8(0
53 15 9,000 1,478
8 1 18,425 14,025
9 3 5,875 5,"00 Imperforate
10 6 11,350 7,325
11 10 5.000 2,175 47a 1 1,C00 1,000
12 15 3,000 825 LSa 2 1,000 1,000
13 3 10,000 9,925 49a 3 1,000 1,000
50a 5 1,000 444
Nos. 14-17 are surcharged on 51a 6 1,000 864
Nos. 8, 10, 11 and 12. 52a 10 1,000 744
53a 15 1,000 404
18 1 4,700 4,700
19 3 6,875 2,775 The following numbers 51 to 81, in-
20 6 5,800 525 elusive belong to the now valuo stamps
surcharrod on Nos. 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 50a.
Nos. 21-34 correspond to the 51a, 52a, and 53a.
surcharged stamps.
Stamps "os. 82 to 111, inclusive -
35 1 15,000 15,000 the official stops wore all of 3 kop.
36 3 15,000 15,000 value. Part of those, i.e. Nos. 112-137
37 6 15,000 15,000 wore surcharged with 1 kop. and 5 kop.
38 10 5,000 5,000 values for ordinary mail use.
39 30 5,000 5,000
39a 3 9,625 9,625 Cat. Perforated Imporforate
40 3 11,000 11,000 Loft Loft
Ic3. Printoednguh PrintUd _Un
Nos. 41 to 46, inclusive cor- 82 500 375 50 50
respond to the atyiliary h:Ini stamps 83 525 275 50 50
for the postage due letters, no in- 84 525 375 50 50
formation on quantities. 85 525 475 50 50
86 500 300 50 50
87 450 300 50 25

1o. 67 Page 31

Cat. Perforated Imperforate Cat. Perforated Imperforate
Left Left Left
Nos. Printed Unsurcht Printed Unsurch. Nos. Printed Unsurch. Printed Unsurch,
88 525 475 25 25 100 500 525 50 50
89 500 375 75 75 101 525 525 50 50
90 500 375 50 50 102 525 350 50 50
91 500 325 50 50 103 500 200 50 50
92 500 450 50 50 104 500 250 50 50
93 525 425 50 50 105 475 325 50 50
94 475 425 50 50 106 525 225 50 50
o0 500 425 59 50 107 500 250 50 50
96 525 500 50 50 108 500 500 50 50
97 525 525 50 50 109 4O 450 50 50
98 525 500 50 50 110 450 450 50 50
99 475 425 100 75 111 5,600 100 25 25
Cat. Val. Quant i tie s Cat. Val. Q u antitie s
Nos. Kop. Printed Unsurchargod Nos. Kop. Printed Unsurcharged

Perforated 147 30 1S8 20
138 1 150 150 148 40 170 30
139 3 230 230 149 50 170 30
140 3 210 210
Imperforate 141 1 250 250
138a 1 25 25 142 -
139a 3 25 25 143 3 250 250
140a 3 25 25 144 -
145 10 20 20
Podzemsky Print Perforated 146 20 30 30
141 1 2,700 2,700 147 30 20 20
142 1 50 50 148 40 30 30
143 3 2,700 2,700 149 50 30 30
144 3 50 50 150 1 1,050 Perf.
145 10 180 20 151 3 1,050 Perf.
146 20 170 30

The above, same as submitted analysis shows the scarcity of the Zemstvo
stamps. Under the present day standards the Poltava, the same as the most of
Zemstvo issues would classify as short to very short ones. And considering the
abolition of Zemstvos 47 years ago, the terrible losses to philately due to the
wars and revolutions, the actual quantities that may be still left are probably
just a fraction of what was issued originally.

From the very beginning of the Poltava issues one may note that the 1 kop.
and 3 kop. stamps were used more than the stamps of other denominations. It is
possible that the Zemstvo postal officials did not see clearly ahead as to what
value stamps would be more frequently used, and so, as long as there was not
much use for the higher value stamps, they were simply surcharged and converted
into the 1 kop. and 3 kop. denominations.

During the same time there does not have been any definite system as to
what stamps were to be surcharged. It is most probable that when more cheaper
stamps were needed, any sheets were grabbed and surcharged. On the other hand
it seems that there were exact records kept of such changes of value. Sclmidt's
figures of the totals printed, as compared with the totals of the stamps sur-
charged do not show any errur to thie ffdc t that -,hru wuro mor atiupa sur- S
charged than were printed.

Page 32 No. 67

This analysis shows that with the intense surcharging of the higher value
stamps, the quantities of such higher value stamps do decrose considerably as
may be soon from the last column of analysis: "loft unsurchargod". Examplosi
No. 11 the 10kop. of which 5,000 copies were printed was reduced by sur-
charging to 2, 175 stamps. The printing of 9,000 of No. 53, after numerous
surcharging was reduced to 1,478 unsurcharged. A similar tendency is noted
throughout most of the Poltava issues, i.e. surcharging of the higher values.
It could have boon due to cconomry, as it was cheaper to surcharge, thus utili-
zing the existing stocks rather than printing new stamps.

Generally speaking the Pcltava Z'mstvc issues may be divided into four

A. Regular issues, both surcharged and unsurchargod
B. Poltava Jubilee issue, both surcharged and unsurcharged
C. Official stamps, partially surcharged and converted to ordinary stamps,
(apparently there was very little use for the official stamps)
D. A rather short issue, printed by Podzonsky in Poltava (Nos. 141-149).
It is hoped that some of the Ukrainian collectors may mako some addition-
al remarks on the Podzorsky printing. It is possible that the Kinistry
of the Interior did raise some objections to what could have been inter-
preted as a rather nationalistic Ukrainian design, so that these very
short -lived stamps wore replaced imrodiately by the meaningless and
neutral stamps of the Koboliaki No.3 Type. Thesc last issues were
printed in the Poltava Province Governor's printing shop.

The tabulations show that during the 14 years of the Poltava Zemstvo ser-
vice there wore printed 258,520 stamps, which would mran an average of 49.5
stamps per day. Assuming that the stamps in the hands of the collectors would
be one half of the above total one may come to an assumed conclusion that the
Poltava Zemstvo handled about 25 pieces of mail daily.


We do not have much data for comparison. On page 30 of Rossica No. 65
there is a note on the quantities of the Zemstvo rail handled in 18V9 and
1892. The listing is as follows:

In 18P9, 125 Zemstvos handled 6,706,900 pieces, avoragin-: 153 daily.
In 1892, 133 Zemstvos handled 7,285,400 pieces, avora;:in 154 daily.

The figures of 153 and 154 cormared with the assumed 25 for Poltava seem to
be out of proportion by being six tires larger. There is also a difference
of "years in use" to be considered. In some Zemstvcs the Zomstvc service wes
on the increase, while in the others due to the establishment of new Imperial
Post Offices, the Zerstvo Postal Services were either on decrease or dis-
appearing. Still, these figures of 153, 154 and 25 do have a similarity and
prove one thing: verv little mail was hbrndled in Poltava Zemstvo.

Judging by the present day standards such small quantities of nail handled
daily is near to unbelievable, and naturally, this throws some doubt on
Schmidt's figures. An entirely different an' very serious approach is required
to understand and fool them. Let us try to transport ourselves from the pro-
sent 1964 to the first years of this century, years prior to the first world
war, and try to visualize the conditions existing then, whether in Russia or
elsewhere, outside and away from the large centers of population. Let us try
to forget the existing mail transportation systems, the nails arriving and
departing several times a day using various ways of moving, just forget

No. 67 Page 33

such things as sorting machines, conveyors, cancelling machines, zone numbers,
zip codes, and etc., things created to speed up the handling of large quantities
of mail. Try to move yourself into the days prior to the "explosion of popula-
tion" in the world.

Try to imagine a small village or a ranch, away from any means of transport-
ation that existed then, such as the railroads and the river steamboats ,second
in part of the year only from a very few existing paved roads. Once such a small
settlement is visualized let us not commit an error of thinking in terms of
several thousand or hundred inhabitants, where there may have been only five or
ten dwellings, perhaps less. This will be very easy to understand if one checks
in his collection on the precious old covers that went through the Zomstvo
posts and carry Zemstvo stamps. They always have the name of the person and the
place where the person lives. No streets, no numbers. There was nothing to

This was the kind of service, the Zemstvos were giving serving such small
and far apart places.

In all probability, if the country seat was on the rail line, there would
have been (depending on the trains) a daily service between the Imperial and
Zemstvo Post Offices. But, away from the railroads, it was different, the service'
could be once ot twice a week, this depending on the weather. The town of Pol-
tava was on the railroad. We do not know how many mail carriers the Poltava
Zemstvo had, but, whatever the number was, it must have been small two, maybe
three. These men had to carry mail from the County Seat to the remote corners-
of the county, many times carrying a letter, or a parcel, or a newspaper, to
points miles apart. This was done mostly on foot, in rain, heat, snow or mud,
walking slowly from place to place. Naturally, when a mail carrier could get
a ride he got it. But do not led the reader imagine that he got speed that
way. The horse drawn carriago,during the wet months, moved slowly through the
mud, this was all the horse could do.

Without going far lot us take a look at the Griazovets stamp, Schmidt's
design 13, which shows a Zemstvo mail carrier en route, in his heavy winter
garb, with a large bundle of mail, consisting of letters, newspapers and pack-
ages in one hand and a whip in the other to defend himself from the village
dogs. How many miles did he walk each dayt He did not get back home after
day's work. He slept in any village, or ranch where had to deliver a letter
and where the night caught him. How many pieces of mail did he deliver daily.

Years ago, when I was young, I lived in Kiev, and can still remember the
"balagula", the stagecoach that served the route between Kiev and Zhitomir, both
being the province (gubernia) capitals. That stagecoach made the trip once a
week. It was drawn by six or (eight!) horses, and carried first, second and
third class passengers don'tt ask- me how, but it did), also the mail.

Considering all these facts Schbidt's figures do make sense to me.

The final observation is referring to the stamps Nos. 150 and 151, the last
Poltava stamps, which were issued in December 1912, the stamp printed in the
Poltava's Governor printing shop, in the quantities of 1,050 each of 1 kop. and
3 kop. The Poltava Post existed for another five years. What does this mean'.
Could this mean that there were still plenty of overprinted stamps in stock
Or that the strain of war that started in 1914 nearly stopped Poltava Zemstvo
Postal Servicest. Or that the sano reason prevented Schmidt from getting the
exact reports on thb post-1914 issues. Or, raybo, the newly established Impe-
rial Post Offices took over most of the Poltava Zemstvo Postal routes We do
not know, and any additions, critisisms, will be mest welcome.
Page 34 No. 67

by J. Posell
Mr. V. B. Safroncv of Kiev sends the following interesting information on
Russian Consular stamps which, with his kind permission is herewith being re-
printed in our Journal.

"The issuance of stamps for Consular Duty was announced by the Treasury De-
pertment in official journals towards the end of 1912. They wore also described
in some philatelic journals of that time. Certainly however, neither Forbin nor
his correspondent who informed him about their issuance, saw any of the stamps
in rouble values, The catalogue only lists thesc stamps in one color as do the
bulletins of the Treasury and the magazines. The rouble stamps in values of
10, 50 and 100 roubles went into circulation somewhat later. The information
regarding these stamps was inaccurate and there was no time left to correct
Forbin s listing since his catalogue which ca-e cut in August 1914, was actually
written during 1913 while those stamps wore still rare. It is easy to convince
oneself of the inaccuracy of the information which was received by him: the
dimensions are wrong, and mainly the colors of the 1 and 2 rouble stamps which
are mentioned in the catalogue, but which in fact do not exist. These are
actually the colors of 1 and 2 kopek stamps which were loft out of the catalogue.
This explains the first mystery of the Forbin catalogue fairly simply. The 5
and 25 kop. stamps were announccdby the Treasury later. No mention of them
appeared in the philatelic margzines and when they finally went into circulation.
it was too late to include thi:o in Forbin's catalogue."

"There now remains the mystery of the 30 rouble sta.p, which is listed by
Forbin and which was announced in a Treasury ccminunication, but apparently was
never put into circulation. This is confirrod by the fact that this stamp is
not mentioned in the manuscripts of one of the greatest Russian philatelists,
who not only collected Fiscal stamps, but also worked on the compilation of
their catalogue. In his remarks on this series, he wrote 'Unissued and ex-
perimental stamps of various colors are known.'" Obviously, the 30 rouble value
falls into this category. It is possible to believe the author, .. E. ARTAMONOi 0
Because in the capacity of his work he had access to the archives of the Tre:.u:
Department. In the same manuscript by iLr. .rtamonov, he states that the entire
series exists with OBERZETS (Specimen) overprint in black on the lower talon
of the stamp. I own only one stamp, the 7 r. 50 k. value, with such overprint.
(The two stamps illustrated in this article arc from the collection of J.

"It is hard to judge the number of the 100 ruble stamps which were circule-
ted at that time, but in 1937 1 only knew of two other copies besides my own
and their present fate is unknown to mo. (At the present time the only two
known copies of the 100 rouble consular str.ps are in the collections of J.
Posell in Cleveland and V. B. Safronoev in Kiev). "

"To complete a description of these stars it would be necessary to mention
that the 50 rouble stamp exists with a coarse 1li perforation. I own both
varieties, i.e. the stamps with perforations gauging 133 and 11. Whuthur oth
values of the series exist with coarse perforations I do not know."

Author Unknown Reported by Michael Rayhack

During 1914, in accordance with the instructions of th. Ministry of Posts
and Telegraph, specimens of new projected stars were prepared. When composing

No. 67 Page 35

the designs for same the Post Office Authorities undertook the task of illustra-
ting the might and greatness of Russia, vast extent of her territories, the dif-
ferences of her geographical and climatical conditions of life, and finally the
varied forms of postal transmissions which the authorities had to utilize.

On the stamn values from 1 to 7 kopeks, being those more widely used, was
shown a symbolical figure of Russia a woman sitting on a throne with a spear
and shield in her hands. Various postal transmissions were shown on the stamps
of 10 to 70 kopecks. On the 10 kopeck stamp a troika of horses with a carriage,
14 kop. a sledge, 15 kop. an elk with sledge (used for transmission of postal
matter in the far North). The 20 kop. pictured a camel (used for transmission
in the steppe districts of Central Asia), 25 kop. stamp dogs hitched to a
sledge (used for transmission in the far North East). The 35 kop. stamp showed
a steamer (used for transmission on the Volga and other rivers). The 50 kop.
value a train and the 70 kop. a motor car.

At the same time, in order that the wider masses of the general public could
become better acquainted with the historical buildings of the country, it was
thought wise to retain certain of the designs of stamps of various issues showing
the Kremlin at Moscow on the one rouble stamp; the Winter Palace on the two
rouble stamp; the Ipatievsky Monastery on the three rouble stamp, and the House-
hold of the Romanov Family, before they became the ruling family in Russia on
the five rouble stamp. As a result, however, the Great War (1914-1917) and the
internal government troubles which succeeded the same, these stamps were never
issued and only trial copies of same remain.


by R. Sklarevski

It is a well known fact that the Lenin mourning Issue, Scottts Nos. 265-8,
exist in two different types of counterfeits.

The first type is on vory thin white paper with white gum, and is usually
found with extremely large margins on four sides (between 4- and 7mm.), which
made one assume that they were printed singly. Of course one may find the same
counterfeits with the margins trimmed down.

The second type is on grayish paper, ungummed, and with normal margins.

Recently I came across another type of counterfeits, which I will call Type
3 and which until now I have never seen nor heard of. As I write this I have in
front of me two large blocks of 18 (9x2) stamps, which may be described as

First of all the stamps are on very white paper, have white gum (as in Type
I), except -

First strip consists of a top row of 9 of 3 kop., with a 72mm. margin on the
left, and a bottom row of 9 of 20 kop. stamps, with a margin of similar size. It
appears to me that originally the block consisted of 20(10,2) stamps, from which
a vertical sa-tenant pair of 3 and 20 kop. stamps was cut off (from right margin),
because the stamp on the oaxcroeo right has a margin of only 1nm. The horizontal
spacing between stamps is 2-mm. The bottom row is separated from the top row
by 4- to 4-L spacing.

Page 36 No. 67

The 2nd strip of 18 is similar to the one previously described, except the
top row consists of nine 12 kop stamps, while the bottom row has the saimo number
of 6 kop. stamps. In this strip I assume that the 10th stamp of each row (steanp
on the left) was cut off.

Counterfeit I (204 21) x 26mn. white white gum
Counterfeit II (202 21) x (25 -25-)r-. grayish no gum
Counterfeit III (21i 214) x 28n=. white white gum

The highest vertical dimension of any of the genuine stamps and Types I and
II of the counterfeits is 2621m. This is a fact which has been confirmed by
many students of Russian stamps and has never been disapproved.


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No. 67 Pape 37

by E. Fomin

Our magazine, quite justly, gives much attention to the classic and in ge'
neral to the pre-revolutionary covers of Russia. As far as the present day co-
vers are concerned they are very rarely mentioned and there is no more or less
detailed listing of those covers, without even mentioning a catalogue. In my
opinion this is not just.

My interest in the present day stamped covers is rather recent and, as it
happens frequently, it has happened due to an occasion. A friend of mine was
reading me some letters received from USSR. Being a philatelist, I was interest-
ed in the covers which without exception were stamped and to be truthful I was
astonished by their abundance. Of course, I knew of their existence before;
I had a few used ones with special cancellations in my collection, but I never
suspected there were so many.

It would be impossible for a single person to make a full list of the
stamped envelopes issued during the past years and therefore I have decided to
publish in the pages of our magazine the list of the covers known to me hoping
that other collectors would tell of the covers they have that are not mentioned
in my list, thus completing it. With time there will be a detailed list of the
present-day stamped envelopes and, later, of the other pieces of the postal
stationery of the USSR.

The envelopes I have cover the period from 1954 to 1964, but my list is far
from being complete. They can be subdivided into six different types, without
counting the special issues.

This subdivision into six types is a tentative one, without arranging them
chronologically or by their values. It is evident that this system of subdivi-
sion will have to be modified with time.

Type I. White paper, unwatermarked. Printed stamps of different colors in
the upper right hand corner. Seven dotted lines below, also of dif-
ferent colors. In the beginning of the first line is printed the
word "Where to", in the beginning of the fourth line: "to whom",
in the beginning of the sixth line: "address of the addressee". The
line from the above is heavily underscored.

On the left half of the envelope are different drawings, frequently of
different colors, sometimes with an explanatory text.

The date of the printing and the name of the artist are on the reverse.
The issues prior to August or September of 1957 have the above on the obverse
side, vertically on the right hand side of the drawing, occasionally under.

Type II. Same as Type I, but all the obverse side of the envelope has a back-
ground. A white rectangular space is left for the stamp, thus the
stamp is in a white framo,

Tyro III. Same as Type II but without the dotted lines and the words "Where to"
"to whom" and "address of the sunder".

Type IV. Same as Type I but on blue paper with the watermark "octagons".

Type V. Same as Type IV, but with five lines for the address instead of seven
The lowest line is not underlined with a solid line, but by a line
consisting of thick vertical columns.
Page 38 No. 67

_., FOM IN



OI $. I..I

F oebo /,I !. Z* ................................. ,. ..

pec om np.a.e.EA ........................................................

t 0 T0Pi

'Tsin i

Type VI. Colored paper, ranging from gray green to blue, with or without
watermark. Printed stamp in the upper right hand corner, with
the coat of arms of USSR in the upper left hand corner.

a. Five dotted lines 98 to 99mm.long on the obvers side. The bot-
tom line is underlined with a solid thick line. Under the lines
is an inscri-tion (small letters) in parenthesis: "(name of the
place where the post office is...)", etc. The distance between
the stamp and the coat of arms is 91-92mm. Unwatermarked paper,
or paper with watermark "octagons".

b. Same as Typo VIa, but without the inscription under the lines.
The bottom line is underlined by a line consisting of vertical
columns. The lines aro 125-128 and 109mm. long. The distance
between the stamp and the coat of arms is 100mm. On the reverse
side is an inscription, reading "price of the two stamped covers
9 kop." Unwatormarked or watermarked "octagons".

c* Same ad Type VIb. Watermarked "octagons". The distance between
the stamp and the coat of arms is 95-96mm.


I. Issue commemorating 100 years of the First Russian postage stamp. The draw-
ings of the stamps in the upper right hand corners of the envelope correspond
to several stamps of the August 1958 issue, however, they are printed in one
color only. Seven dotted lines under the stamp, as in Types I, II and IV.

On the left side of the covers are drawings that correspond to the stamps,
but with some changes. For example the value and "USSR Post" are missing.
Also they are about four times larger. A branch and a ribbon with inscription
"1858-1958" is under the drawing. On blue paper, with watermarks -
a-"circles and squares" or b-"wevy lines"(from left to right upward). The
watermark is described, when looking on the obverse side of the envelope.

II. The "Intourist" Publicity Issue, to attract foreign touriststo visit USSR,
Issued probably in 1962 (All cf my covers are cancelled during the various
months of 1962, the earliest being July 27). On white, unwatermarkod paper.
Stamp in the upper right hand corner. No dotted lines and words "whero-to"
and "to-whom", etc. On the loft side of the covers are noted places in'
various cities of USSR. The emblem of the "Intourist" stylis airplane and
word "Intourist" with the globe of the world in the background. Also an
inscription "Visit the USSR", in English. No date of issue or the name of
the artist.

MiI. Issue of 1963 commemorating the 3rd Film Festival in Moscow. Stamp in the
upper right hand corner. White, unwatermarked papor The lower. quarter
of the envelope is of the same color as the stamp. The left corner of the
envelope has an inscription, reading upward "Third International Film Festi-
val". The festival emblem is in the upper left hand corner, consisting of
a globe of the world with an encircling inscription. On the globe is a film
sequence with an inscription "1963 Moscow". Under the emblem scones from
various films with an explanatory inscriptions. On the reverse the date of
the authorization for printing and the name of the designer.

Moaning of the five vertical columns in the listing

1. No. 2. Value of the stamp in kopeks or rubles

No. 67 Page 39

3. Color of the stamp. If two colors that are given are divided by an in-
clined line, example "blue/yellow" then the first one indicates the
color of the stamp and the second, the color of the paper or background.

4. The date of authorization for printing, either on the obverseor the re-
verse side of the envelope.

5. A brief description of the drawing on the envelope. If any inscriptions,
then it is given briefly, in parenthesis.


Type I

1 2 3 4 5
1 1 r. carmine brown 25 2 54 Moscow. Minin and Pozharsky Monument
2 1 r. carmine 10 9 54 VSCHV. Main Pavilion
3 40 k. violet red 11 2 55 Svordlovsk. J. M. Svordlov Monument
4 1 r. rod 2 4 55 May Ist greeting
5 40 k. violet rod 19 7 55 Ritza Lake
6 40 k. red 9- 9 55 On the Moscow canal
7 40 k. violet red 3 12 55 Exrcise with a hoop
8 40 k. light blue 14 12 55 Night in Crimea
9 40 k. bluish green 21 12 55 Birch grove
10 40 k. orange rod 21 12 55 Monumont to millennium of Russia. Novgoroc
11 40 k. violet red 27 1 57 Lvov. May 1st Street square
12 40 k. light rod 9 3 57 Fall of Sikhota-Alin motheorito
13 40 k. violet rod 10 5 57 Lvov. Ukr. SSR. Lenin Monument
14 40 k. light red 16 8 57 Tashkent Uzb. SSR. Educational Institute
15 40 k. violet red 20 8 57 Sochi.Road descending to sea
16 40 k. violet red 21 10 57 Evenki Nat. District. Podk. Tunguzhka
17 40 k. rod 30 12 57 1918-1958. Red Army soldiers
18 40 k. red 31 1 58 Bunch of field-flowers.
19 40 k. rod 11 3 58 May 1st.
20 40 k. red 1 9 58 15 May 1958. 3rd. Soviet Sputnik
21 40 k. red 3 9 5' Letter Week. October
22 40 k. red 13 10 58 Groat October holiday greetings
23 40 k. violet rod 29 10 58 USSR. 1959 population census
24 40 k. violet red 20 10 58 Latvian SSR. Riga seaside
25 40 k. violet red 22 11 58 Latvian SSR. Riga seaside
26 40 k. reddish v'l't 2 2 59 Centen. Popov's birth anniversary
27 40 k. violet rose 16 2 59 First of May greetings
28 40 k. violet rose 11 3 59 Greetings on May 1st
29 40 k. violet rose 27 6 59 Fishing ground
30 40 k. rod 7 7 59 Letter Week. October.
31 40 k. rod 21 9 59 Ltom powered Icebreaker Lenin
32 40 k. red 3 10 59 Now Year's greetings
33 40 k. red 30 10 59 Now Year's greetings
34 40 k. rod 23 1 60 Greetings May 1st
35 40 k. red 26 2 60 Lenin's house museum
36 40 k. rod violet 14 3 60 5 Years. Women's International Feder.
37 40 k. violet rod 29 3 60 Baku. Sam. Burgun's place
38 40 k. red 25 4 60 Khorson. Admiral Ushakcvts Monument
39 40 k. red 28 6 60 20 Years of Latvian SSR.
40 0_ k. violet red 7 8 60 Letter Woek
41 40 k. olive 1 10 60 N. Kakhobk. Energy Stadium
42 40 k. blue black 2 11 60 First space travelers. Bolka & Strelok
43 40 k. blue 24 11 60 Glory to Soviet Olumpic sportsmen.

Page 40 No. 67

1 2 4 5
4 4 k. violet rose 26 1 61 USSR Navy
45 4 k. 26 1 61 March 8. International woments day
46 4 k. 6 2 61 Lvov District. Truskavietz resort
47 4k. reddish brown 11 2 61 Riga. City canal
48 4 k. red 17 3 61 May 1st greetings
49 4 k. orange rod 15 5 61 50 Years. Anniversary of Piatnitsky chci,
5OF L k. blou 16 5 61 Glory to the first space flier
51 4 k. brown 3 4 61 Kiev. Kreshchiatik
52 4k. blue 26 6- 61 Letter Woek
53 4 k. light blue 30 6 61 Motor ship Latvia
54 4 k. olive 27 7 61 Hcuso-musoeum of Lomoncsov
55 4k. blue 10 8 61 Glory to October
56 4k. brown reddish 31 8 61 M. B. Lomonosov. 1711-1765
57 4 k. black 31 8 61 Kazakh. SSR. -Uralsk. Houc of Soviets
58 4 k. violet 20 9 61 Glory to conquerors of cosrcs
59 4k. rod 5 10 61 I. B, Lomonosov. 1711-1765
66 4 k, bluo 16 10 61 Moscow. Kremlin palace of conventions
61 4 k. red orange 27 10 61 All world congress of prof. unions
62 4k. brownish cran. 9 11 61 Skier
63 4 k. blue 9 11 61 New Yoar's greetings
64 4 k. grayish blue 19 11 61 Virgin Soil. Short and in granary
65 4 k. light olive 22 12 61 Roindeers in harness
66 4 k. blue 8 1 62 USSR state regional dancers gr-,up
67 4 k. violet blue 23 1 62 On fishing ground
68 4 k. orange rod 26 1 62 Ukrainian SSR. N. Kkhovka house of Sc '
69 4 k. orange red 5 3 62 Ukr. SSR. Trans-Karp. Mt. Tissa hctol
70 A k. crane red 26 3 62 anniversary y of man's flight into spaco
71 4 k. blue 7 4 62 Ukrainian SSR. N. Kakhovka go. view
72 4k. orange 14 4- 62 Dancers
73 4 k. light blue 28 4 62 Glory to cosmos conquerors
74 4 k. black 28 4 62 Ducks above the lake
75 4 k. brown 19 5 62 Door in the forest
76 4k. orange brown 25 5 62 ruail
77 4 k. violet 7 7 62 Kaluga. Ziolkovsky's grave monument
7S 4 k. light blue 24 7 62 Glory to cosmos conquerors
79 4 k. violet 31 8 62 5 yrs from day of sputnik's flight
80 4k. groon 10 10 62 Now Yor'S rreotinps
81 4 k. red 1 11 62 New Year'sgreetings
82 4 k. rod 19 11 62 Now Year's greetings;
83 4k. rod 29 11 62 Fisherman
84 4k. grayish blue 29 11 62 The mail has arrived
85 4 k. light blue 3 12 62 40 yrs. of air fleet. T.U 104
86 4 k. navy blue 24 12 62 Knowing the Antarctic
87 4 k. brtt. navy blue 1963 World and Progress
88 4 k. rod 10 1 63 S.S. Gulak-Artemovsky. 1813-1873
89 4 k. reddish brown 10 1 63 March -th
90 4 k. rd 19 1 63 Radio in each house
91 4 k. light blue 13 2 -63 Apr. 13 day of USSR space flying
92 4 k. orange rod 1 3 63 1963. All Union Winter sports moot
93 4 orange rod 20 3 63 May 1st
94 4k. navy blue 30 3 63 Tennis
95 4k. orange red 9 4 63 Boy with paints
96 4k. crango red 18 4 63 Anemones
97 k. navy blue 18 4 63 River, boat, autumn view
98 4 k. rod 20 5 63 Greeting with the new school year
99 4k. rod 26 6 63 Football players at the tent
106 4 k. gravish nqyy 28 6 63 Moscow. Kremlin palace of Soviets
No. 67 Pago 41

1 _2 3 4 5
101 (Not filled in)
102 4 k. rod 9 7 63 125 years of Kemery resort
103. 4 k. brown ochre 31 7 63 Glory to the groat October
104 4 k. blue 10 8 63 Now Year's greetings
105 4 k. light blue 10 8 63 Glory to the Soviet science
106 4 k. black 16 9 63 Boy with chickens
107 4 k. green olive 23 9 63 Violets
108 4 k. violet red 28 9 63 13th convention of USSR prof. unions
109 4k... rod 30 10 63 Motorcycle races
110 L k. bluish arav 31 10 63 Ussuriisk. Central hotel
111 4 k. red 2 11 63 Boy on small sled
112 4 k. black violetlO 11 63 Motor ship Gruzia
113 4 k. violet brownl3 11 63 20 years friendship-with Czechoslovakia
114 4 k. black 16 11 63 100 yrs. anniv. of Shovtchenko's birth
115 4 k. gray 20 1 64 Glory to Soviet cosmonauts
116 4 k. cobalt 6 2 64 Virgin soils guarantee good crops
117 4 k, rod 22 5 64 USSR football cup

Ty e Il

1 40 k. green/rose 19 10"- 60 New Year's greetings
2 4 k. red/groen 2 10 62 International womenTs day
3 k. red/blue 20 11 62 Ice skating, fir tree
4 4 k. 1't. brown/ol22 1 63 Gorky. Oka river bridge
5 4k. red/rod 4 4 63 May lst
6 4k. rose/gray 25 4 63 Cyclemen

T y p e I
1 4k. black/blue 2 10 62 Ermines
2 .4 k. brown/yel. 10 11 63 Ducks above the lake

Type IV

1 4 k. red/blue 27 12 62 April 12. Space flying day
2 4 k. blue/blue 22 3 63 Moscow. Kremlin. Tsar Bell

Type V

1 4 k. vtt.br/blue 31 8 62 Buffaloes in the forest
2 4 k. black/blue 1963 *Boy with a ship
3 4 k. blk/lt. blue28 5 63 In the boat
4 4k. gr. bl/blue 8 6 63 Night on the shore

Type VI

a 40 k. blue/green No watermark
al 40 k. blue/light blue Watermarked octagons
a 4 k rodgreen No watermark
b 4 k. red/green No watermark
bI 4 k. red/green No watermark
c k. rod/blue

1. Issue for the centenary of the First Russian postage stamp
a. Blue paper. Watermarked wavy lines
1.40 k. blue gray Carriage with three horses:

Page 42 No. 67

2. I. 40 k. dark red(alrplane). b. pale red(aitplane)
c. red brown (airplane),

4. 1 r. brown (Means of communication)
b. Perforation under the stamp. The postal horns with thunderbolts
corresponding to the postal horns of the pre-revolutionary period.
The perforated horns are 26mm. long.

b. Blue paper, Watermarked Circles and Squares

1. 40 k. blue gray (Carriage with three horses).
3. a. 40 k. dark red (Messenger) b. pale red (Messenger)
0. With tho horizontal gold lines, one above and the other
under the cachet.
4. 1 r. brown (Means of communication)

Note The material for the list of the covers commemorating 100 years of the
first Russian postage stamp was taken by me partially from Kurt
Adler's notice on Page 34, No. 62 Rossika Journal.

II, Issue of the I N T 0 U R I S T

1. 4 k. violet (1962 uncertain). (Bogdan Chmelnitsky Monument).
2. 4 k. gray blue (1962 uncertain).(Moscow River Bridge. Building).

III. Issue commemorating the 3rd. F IL FE S T I VAL

1. 4k. green olive 20 6 63 (Human Fate)
2. 4 k. olive 24 6 63 (Story of a Soldier)
3. 4 k. red 1 7 63 (Maxim's Return)

Note The design of the stamp on all envelopes of 1 r. corresponds to tte
stamp. Michel #1245 or Yvert #1233.

The design of all 4 kop. value envelopes corresponds to stamp
Michel #2437 or Yvert #2370.

The design of the stamp on the 40 1. Type I envelopes corresponds
to stamps Michel #1335 or Yvert #1330.

The design of stamps on the 40 k. Type VI envelopes corrseponds
to stamp Eichel #1336 or Yvert #1331.

Type I Covers

1. Envelope #38 until the present time is kncwn only with a two line
black surcharge.-"From January 1, 1961 the price of the envelope
with stamp is 5 kop. "
2. Envelopes ##40, 41 and 42 have on the left of the stamp an ins-
cription (not a surcharge) in the same color as the stamp -
"From Jan, 1, 1961 the price of the envelope with stamp 5 kop."
3. Stamp on the envelope #61 is printed on orange background, where
the orange square is slightly larger than the stamp.
4. Envelope #62 until the present time is known only with a violet
hand stamped surcharge, reading "3 11.2.62 Winter Sport Games".
This hand stamp is under the cachet.
5. The envelope #73 apparently was printed 3 months later, as an
additional issue, same as the envelope #78. Both envelopes are

No. 67 Page 43

are completely the same. The stamp and the cachet of #78 are
printed in a slightly lighter color. The main difference consisting
in the date of authorization: 28-4-62 in the first case and 24-7-62
in the second case.

Type III Envelopes

1. There is no white space for the stamp on Envelope #2.

The airmail envelopes are also very interesting and have many varieties.
I will endeavor to describe them in the next issue of the magazine.

by A. Fomin

Rossika No. 60 (1961), had a note by Mr. N. I. Vladinetz regarding the
USSR issue of stamps commemorating the First Football World Victory.

Among some of the things the author states, one is "the stamps of this
issue have so many differences that one should discuss here only the different
plates." (Underlined by the writer). In continuation, the author describes
the five types of these stamps.

To start with, it is necessary to note that with the multi-colored prints
the shifts of the different colors is not something unusual in philately.
Particularly, when such shifts are in fractions of a millimeter. Such shifts
are more of a rule than an exception and the stamps printed in three or more
colors, where the colors are exactly where they should be are met less frequent-
ly than the stamps with slight shifts.

In this case Mr. Vladinetz has described the turns of the goals by the foot-
ball players which are created by some shifts of the colors. These stamps were
printed in four colors: blue, orange yellow, red and black. The impression
of the turn of the goals is created, mostly, by the shift of the black ink.

The faces and the hair of the players are printed in black ink, so are the
shadows of their shirts, shoes and the football, as well as the letters USSR
on the globe.

With the exact register (normal) position of the inks of all colors, all
three players are looking at the ball and they are running on the white strip
which separates the inscription "POST USSR" from the blue background, while the
soles of their shoes are on the same line with the lower edge of the blue back-
ground. If the black ink is shifted: for example up, then the first player
does not look at the ball, but looks straight.up, while the second player also
seems to look up. The third player becomes baldheaded, since his hair is print-
ed on the blue background and he also looks up. This picture changes accord-
ingly if the black ink is shifted to the left, right, etc.

I consider the only differences of interest to philattei4b are -the perflt-
ration varieties of 12 amd 1222s-.

Page 4 No. 67

Part II


A short time ago I acquired in one of the West German auctions an accumula-
tion of sheets and parts of sheets of the different stamps of USSR of the 1935-
1941 issues.

Among others, there were in this accumulation two incomplete sheets of the
15 kop. stamps of the. industrial issue of 1941 (I-ichel 787, Yvert 7 Tellier 711,
USSR 823).

This stamp shows a blast-furnace with two chimneys in the rear on the right
.hand side, the left one is higher than the right one, both chimneys smoking.
While preparing the plates on one of the stamps, somehow, on the top of the right
hand side chirmney, there was remaining a white, oval shaped spot. On this re-
maining white spot the retoucher'engraved ten inclined lines. Thus there was
created a large and heavy cloud of smoke and the chimney itself became about a
millimeter shorter. The stamp described above is No. 36 in both parts of the
sheet that I have. The stamps ar3 perforated 12Jx12. I have found several more
of these stamps at the dealer'. (See illustration).

by A. Cronin

In comparison with the issues of other countries, varieties on the engraved
stamps in our sphere of interest are rather few and far in between. In his se-
ries on RSFSR stamps in #66 of our Journal, Hon. member Rimma Sklarevski has ren-
dered us a valuable service by pointing out the effect of paper shrinkage
on stamps printed by the engraved process, particularly on the 40 ruble stamp
of 1921. (Scotts #187, 187a Gibbons ##212, 212a Michel #139 -.Zumstein #139
Yvert #143).

The subject of this prosunt article is the existence 'of yet another type
of variety, also inherent in this printing process and so far seen only on the
5 ruble value of 1950 Kalinin set. However, before we come to this stamp, let us
look at the entire issue (Scott's ##'1512-1514; Gibbons #1651-1653; Michel
##1515-1517; Zunstein ##1507-1509; Yvert ##1498-1500) and try to reconstruct
the sequence of preparation. This set was designed by S. A. Pomansky, englaved
by N. likheyev and issued on November 20, 1950.

Considering the technical process involved, it would appear that Mkheyev
engraved a primary die for the 40 kopec value only and this was utilized, by
means of a transfer roller, to lay down the printing plate for the stamp. Why
is it assumed that this was the first value to be produced'. Well, examination
of the bottom panel, the most irmortant part of the design on all values, gives
us some indication. On the 40 kop. stamp, the shading surrounding the term at
bottom left barely extends beyond the "P" of "CCCP', while the value indication
"30 kop." is boldly engraved as an integral part of the design. (Fig. la)

When we turn to the 1 ruble value and look again at the bottom panel, it
Smay be. noticed even with the naked eye that the shading after the "P' of "CCCPF
has been strengthened, with the vertical lines of hatching extending past the
lower part of the loop of the letter "F". rMreover, there is a definitely dark-
er patch of shading on Kalinin's coat, almost rectangular in shape and situated
over the box containing the abbreviation "rub.". This patch corresponds roughly

No. 67 Pago 45

to the former position of the "O" of "40" (See. Fig. lb). In other words,
it appears that the old value indication was either blanked over or burnished
off, the new value engraved over the same spot and the rest of the bottom panel
and the coat touched up to remove flaws. Using a transfer roller, this modified
die could then be used to lay down the required printing plate.

The final value of 5 rubles turns out to be the most interesting stamp in
the whole group. Instead of merely changing the figure of value, the box con-
taining the abbreviation has been noticeably made smaller than in the lower
ruble value presumably to accommodate the wider figure "5". The die for the 1
ruble value may have been modified, to read "5 rub." in the manner explained
previously, but there are no visible characteristics to show this and the patch
on the coat does not appear to be noticeable. Here again, examination of the
whole of the bottom panel repays attention. About of all the copies seen by
the writer have a normal dark impression of the bottom part of the design, with
heavy vertical shading extending well past the "P" of "CCCP". In addition, the
figure "5" and the "rub." indication are in solid color, with no shading detail
apparent (See Fig. Ic). However, on the remaining of the copies examined, the
bottom panels show various stages of lighter shading, so much so that the ver-
tical lines are no longer apparent after the "p' of "CCCP", giving a pale look
to the right side of the panel up to an including the value indication. In fact,
the retention of ink is now so slight that the vertical lines of hatching are
noticeable on the figure "5" and the bare "ribs" show up in the "rub." box
(See Fig. Id). The obvious reaction might be to regard the solidly printed
panels as shown on Fig. Ic as an example of heavy retouching, and the paler
varieties as exemplified in Fig. Id as examples of ink stripping. Neither of
these suggestions appears to fit the case, for the following reasons

(a). No white patches have been seen in the impressions, which would point
to the existence of ink stripping.
(b). Even in the presence of ink stripping, traces of the extensive re-
touching assumed on the heavily printed copies would also be found
on the lighter colored panels together with the white patches. How-
ever, this is definitely not the case on all the lighter copies seen
by the writer.
(c). The pale impressions are limited to the bottom panel of the design
and although various states of the vertical shading have been found,
right down to where it is practically non-existent, several copies
have been seen of each state, thus pointing to constancy.
(d). The upper portion of the design is always printed in the same deep
color, irregardless of the state of shading in the bottom tablet.

In considering the above points, it would appear that the paler shadings
are due to weak transfers or weak entries, from the transfer roller. This rol-
ler is used in the engraving process to transfer sufficient impressions from the
die onto the plate used for printing the actual stamps. In the case of this 5
ruble value, weak transfers would occur whenever the bottom part of the design
was not "rocked" unto the printing plate to the same depth as the rest of the
unit and this may have been due to the following factors:

(1). After laying down the impressions on the printing plate, the transfer
machinery may have got slightly out of alignment and thus prevented
uniform intensity.
(2). The emission of this 5 ruble stamp may have been a last-minute deci-
sion necessitating speed to get the plate ready on time. In other
words, there may have not been time to check the transfer roller for
allignment after laying down each impression. If we look at other
sets issued around the same period, we see that they mainly consist

Page 46 No. 67

of 40k. and Ir. values and the authorities may have decided at the last
moment that there was need for a ruble stamp to cover a specific rate.
Upon cheeking the catalogue's, it will be seen that although mint copies
are priced up well, used copies of this stamp are much cheaper, in compa-
rison with equivalent used stsmps of this period. Indeed, contrary to the
general rule, practically all copies soon by this writer have been commer-
cially used, as late as December 1952 (from Mbscow), and they are rolative-
ly common in the U.S. in that state.

All of the above-mentioned varieties aro readily seen with the naked eye
and thus are not examples of "fly-speck" philately. With regards to Figs. Ic
to Id, the writer has selected the two extremes of the weakest and the heaviest
transfers, so as to show the maximum contrast obtainable. It should be emphasi-
zed that intermediate steps of both types alsi'exist. Moreover, pairs or blocks
of this stamp could conceivably exist showing weak and heavy transfers side by
side in the sheet and perhaps fellow members will be able to notify such unusual
and showy combinations. The process of preparation, as outlined by the writer,
implies an unusual extent of die economy and this would mean that the numbers
issued for the set must have been small. Any member interested in further de-
tails on the engraving process would do well to consult the fine English work
"Postage Stamps in the Making" by John Easton.

The writer realizes that the discussion so far has been highly technical
and to help members to see the basic principle involved, he would like to give
what may be regarded as the classical example of a "weak transfer" or "weak
entry" in philately, as found on the two centimos Spanish stamp of 1931 which
portrays the famous writer, Vicente Blasco-Ibanoz (Scott's #526; Gibbons #873;
Iichel #617; Zumstoin #636; Yvort #498). On one stamp on the sheet, there is
weak transfer of the bottom panel which is so prominent, that in comparison with
its neighbors, the lines of shading around the words "REFJELICA ESPANOLA" are
very much pales and indistinct, while the inscription below the base frame-line,
reading "FCA. NACIONAL DE MINEDA Y TIIERE" on the nc:-mal stamps, is now comple-
tely missing (See. Fig. 2)

The writer would appreciate reading other comments or theories on the
stamps considered here. With the notes given by Mr. Sklarevski on paper shrink.
ages and the above examination of weak transfers, we have now looked at two
types of varieties which may be found on engraved stamps. It is intended to
discuss other flaws existing on engraved stamps in our sphere in a future


Since the above article was written, the author has had the opportunity of
examining a couple of large blocks of the 5 ruble stamp. This set was printed
in sheets of 50 (5 horizontal rows of 10 stamps each) and from the material
seen, the position of weak transfers have been confirmed on stamps #11, 15, 21,
25, 35 and 45 on the sheet of 5 ruble value. Judging from the arrangement of
these weak transfers, it is suggested that they appear on all stamps of the lst
and 5th vertical rows on the sheet, thus giving a clue as to the direction in
which the transfer roller laid down the printing plate. This assumption would
also imply that there was a total of 10 weak transfers per sheet, thus compri-
sing 1/5 of the total number of stamps printed. The writer would appreciate
it greatly if readers would examine the stamps in their possession, particular]:-
if in eompleto sheets, so that the above assumptions may be either confirmed or
corrected. In any case, the material already seen indicates that normal stamps
and the weak transfers may be found side by side in pairs and blocks, thus
making striking and interesting combinations.

No. 67 Page 47

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Page 4 No. 67


by Dr. C. de Stackelberg
I have read with interest It. R.Po hchaninoff s article in #66 of the
Rossica on the counterfeits of the Bulak-Balakhovich'.Asobny Atrad"stamps and in
#34 of the B.J.R.P. bssrs. H. G. Leslie and William P. Fletcherts article on
the same "White Russia" stamps.

These two articles appeared in both journals practically at the same time.
The same cancellation found on these stamps is described in both articles, though
one appears on a stamp in Mr. Polchaninoffts collection, whereas the other is
found on two stamps of 5 and 10 kopecks on a postcard in the Stanley Gibbons
Reference Collection in London.

This cancellation reads translated as follows:

"Field Post Office. Special Belorussian Detachment. 17.4.20"

The B.J.R.P. brings an illustration of this postcard, which also bears an
arrival cancellation "Riga 23.4.20.".

These cancellations soom to me, to be complete phantasies made later by a
forger, who did not even know the political conditions and the military situat-
ion which existed in 1920 along the eastern borders of Poland. The cancellation
"Riga 23.4.20" was at best made by some postal official in Riga, much later than
April 1920, to oblige a collector, dealer or a forger.

The Encyclopedia Britannica describes in the article "Poland" under the
subheading "Hostilities Against Ukraine and Russia" the conditions existing at
this time in that country.

After the withdrawal of the German Army from White Russia, after the end of
World War 1, this area was occupied by Soviet detachments. During 1919 Poland
directed its military activities south, against the Ukraine. Only on April 25,
1920 were Polish troops able to commence an advance East into Soviet occupied
territory. However, this advance resulted in a strong Soviet counter-offensive
which, it will be recalled, brought the Soviet Army to the gates of Warsaw. Onl
with Allied assistance was Marshall Pilsudsky able to stem the Soviet advance
and start a new offensive of his own on August 14, 1920, and thus to drive the
Soviet armies back. To stop further Polish advances a preliminary Peace Treaty
was negotiated by Soviets and signed in Riga on October 12, 1920. 'The new Po-
lish-Soviet frontier was established along a line running from the Latvian front
er south, about 18 miles west of .Insk and 70 miles east of Pinsk.

Mozyr, from where Bulak Balakhovitch operated, was situated about 70 miles
further east, than the new Polish-Soviet frontier, i.e. well inside Soviet te -
ritory, in the Pripiet swamps. Thus the time when Bulak-Balakbovitch could have
established a "White Russian" government in ozyr, would have been at the earlier
in September 1920. By the end of Iovember 1920 he was already thrown back by
the Soviets into Poland and there disarmed.

Thus the date of April 1920, as indicated by above-mentioned cancellations
seems historically to be quite impossible. The stamps were probably, ordered.tV
be printed in Riga at the earliest in October 1920, but never. arrived in Mozur
to be used postally, as the "White Russian" government was already dissolved an,
back in Poland by the end of November 1920..

Finally I must say that I am amused by the Riga date of arrival cancellati

No. 67 Page 49

For a postcard from BAbyr to reach, in 1920, Riga in five days is just inconceiv-
able, in view of the chaotic conditions of railway and postal communications,
which prevailed at that time along the eastern frontier of Poland and between
Latvia and Poland. A postcard would have first to be forwarded to Warsaw, hence
to Germany, then by boat or rail from Kenigsberg, through Lithuania, to Riga.
All this sure took more than five days.

by Fred W. Speers

IWre mention of the name Smolensk, for example is enough to excite interest
of students of Russian philately and history and of the life of Napoleon I.
Smolensk, for example, was one of the few Russian cities which prepared but never
issued Zemstvo adhesives. That was in 1894. Just why that program was abandoned
has never been clearly explained with documentation. Like so many of the details
of Zemstvo philately that story most likely is lost forever.

Smolensk, for centuries, played an important role in the history of eastern
Europe. One of the oldest cities in Russia (said to date back to the Ninth QSn-
tury), it also through the years has been a key factor in bitter conflicts, not
the least of which was Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812.

Smolensk at that time was a city of 15,000 population. To the north lay
the road to St. Petersburg, 355 miles away. To the east ran the road to boscow,
285 miles away. Both were old postroads, unsurfaced and muddy in rainy weather,
dusty and dry and barely passable in winter.

The letter which forms the basis of this article is in philatelic terms an
"entire." It consists of one folded sheet of laid paper, measuring 15 by 9 3/8
inches. The writing, as the accompanying illustration shows, is finely executed,
indicating like the letter's phraseology and variety of words the high degree of
education enjoyed by its writer Polycarpe Goure. It was written in black ink
that has faded to very dark brown. While there is no clue to the writer's rank
it is clear from the text that he did rank very high and quite likely was a staff
officer at Corps level. The letter is addressed to his wife in Lyon.

Philatelically, the greatest interest attaches to the outside which bears
the address (see illustration). Of special interest is the orange red imprints

Bau Gal


This measures 5xlcm. and is.placed at the upper right hand corner of the
folded outside of the letter. The meaning of a heavy inked loop with downward
stroke in the center of the addressed side is unknown.

The letter's date is Aug. 20, 1812. This appears in the heading "Au Quar-
tier General de Syniawyna en avant de Smolensk le 20 Aout 1812." At the left of
this heading appears this wording: "3o Corps de i'armee." This, together with
certain specific contents of the letter, enables one to pinpoint the actions in
which the letter writer participated.

To be precise, the letter was written at Sinyavin, a very small village a
few miles east of Smolensk. It was at Sinyavin where Napoleon on Aug, 19 has
shouersd ribbons, medals, favors and promotions on the surviving victors of the

Page 50 No. 67

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L1414RrlF--CRO4 D%~G.rCRReY EJOM It

Battle of the Hill of Valutino. It is clear that this letter describes the
scene of carnage following that engagement between elements of Marshal Ney's
command and those of the Russian general, Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly,
later known in Russia as Michael, Prince Bogdanovich. Although holding a field
command, Barclay retained the portfolio of Minister of War which had been given
him in 1810 by Tsar Alexander I.
Smolensk together with the related onganoant Valutino was of great signi-
ficance in the campaign of 1812. It gave Napoleon the first indication of the
kind of war in which he was engaged and the "scorched earth" policies and with-
drawal tactics which would be employed by the Russians. It was failure at Smo-
lensk that caused Barclay to relinquish his command and accept a minor position
under Iikhail Ilarionovich Kutuzov who was named commander in chief immediately
after the loss of Smolensk. And it was failure of the corps commander, Junot,
Duke of Abrantes, to carry out Napoleon's orders that led to his disfavor and
eventual suicide by throwing himself out a window. Junot failed to move quickly
enough to prevent the retreating forces of Barclay and Bagration from joining on
the way to Dorogobruzh, some 30 miles east of Smolensk. It was at Smolensk
where General Gudin, wounded in the legs by a cannon ball at Valutino, died.

The division under Gudin s command had launched a heavy attack upon a Russiar
grenadier division, sent to bolster the roar guard action at Valutino. The gre-
nadiers held and withdrew only when night came. Junot's failure to arrive on
the scene enabled them to escape.

All in all, the engagement at Valutino, occurring on Aug. 19, the day after
the French entered the burned city of Smolensk, cost Ney 7,000 men and Barclay
6,000. This was the scene of destruction described the following day by Polycary

The translation of Goure's letter follows:

S"y Sweetheart, I am writing you a couple of words in haste. For six days
our corps has been fighting continuously with the Russians. It is a constant ri-
and appealing carnage without *ease. One treads on the feet of corpses that lit-
ter the ground (French and Russians are spread out pell moll). They could not
be buried. There has barely been time to bandage the wounded. In a word, it is
a hideous spectacle and if one did not finally become accustomed to these scones
of horror revolting to humanity one would not live a week."

"Our corps has done wonders. It has fought constantly against troops six
times more numerous and has had the glory of defeating them everywhere. These
successive victories have cost us dear in blood and a third of our corps has
been killed or wounded. The Mrshal (Authort? note: Presumably Ney) has had
a horse wounded and he, himself, has been struck by a bullet that pierced his
cravatte but did not enter his neck. Villemontre has had.one horse struck by a
bullet and another hit in the head and shoulder, but he is not dead and it is
hoped he will recover from those wounds. Boreover, the whole troop has conduct'
itself marvellously and the Emperor is perfectly happy with it. They fought
again yesterday until midnight (Author's note: This apparently was the Valutir
engagement). General Gudin, according to B'. Levrier, yesterday had a leg taken
off. They believe he will not die."

"Wre entered Smolensk the 18th after terrible conflicts. It was a very im-
portant city because of the resources it could offer, but it has almost entirely
consumed all of the stores it had. (Author's note: Observe the corps avoided
mention of the fact Russian army and the citizens of Smolensk, of whom only
1,000 remained behind, had put tho torch .to the city.)"

No. 67 Page 51

"We are on the road to bscow, former capital of Russia (Author's note:
Alexander had left Aoscow in April and the affairs of the Empire were being con-
ducted from St. Petersburg by Count Soltykov while the tsar stayed with the
troops) about 800 leagues from France and probably we will be there at the be-
ginning of September. (Author's note: Advance units of the French entered
Moscow on September 14 and Napoleon on the following day)."

"I will write you at once and give you full details. Tell Adrien that I wrote
him twenty days ago. I sent the letter by an officer who was leaving for France
and told me he would post it in France; he also had a letter for you. I will
write him the first moment when we have lodgings for I must tell you that we are
constantly without tents and I am writing this on my kneees. I will surely give
him all the interesting details; I depend on him for all of our little affairs
and I am sure he will take care of them the best way possible. Tell him I thank
him and embrace him. I have received his letter of %y 25."

"Go see my father. Tell him that we are well, that we send our respects and
that Villemontre has run a thousand dangers and exposed himself to all perils but
he has not been wounded. (Author's note: This second reference to Villemontro r
can be taken as indication that he and Polycarpe were fairly closely related.)
The Mhrshal likes him very much and even esteems him. The Emperor is also very
pleased with him and I hope that will finish well for him and consequently for me

"Have courage and patience, Sweetheart, times will get better and I hope that
the future will repay us for these present privations. I have not yet received
a letter from you but I think I shall have one soon. Adieu. Polycarpe Goure."

The letter itself had been folded in such a manner that it measured 3 1/8 by
4 5/8 inches and one end was stuck inside the edges of the other. Where the two
ends were fitted together a seal with some oily greenish ink had been impressed.
The impression is circular in form and measures about an inch and a half in dia-
meter. The words "Grando-Armee" can be made along the edge of the seal.

EDITORIAL COrI)ENT: "Roads barely passable in winter" does not accurately describe
climatic conditions of middle and northern Russia covered by snow from
November to %xrch. This period was the best one for communications as
the snow produced fine roads for sleds. Frozen rivers likewise afforded
fast mail service.

Up to the union of both armies, the supreme command was nomi-
nally in the hands of the Emperor, afterwards it was turned over to
Kutuzov. Thus it is inaccurate to say that Barclay had to relinquish
his command and accept a minor position under Kutuzov. He remained as
commander of an army under Kutuzov's supreme command.

by V. Popov

Those notabe.a of Rossica and BSRP who received in February 1962 a catalogue
of an auction No. 391 Russia (collection for sale in Holland, of a BSRP member
M&. J. V. Stuart) by the firm of J. L Van Dieten, noted on p. 48, under No. 589
a photograph of a cover sent from Kashgar to Tientsin. Description of the cover
in the auction catalogue stated: Insured cover from Kashgar, Chin. Possession
(Tchil. fig. 424) 29-5-1918 (latest date unknown) ('. V.P.) to Tientsin, frank-
ed with Russ. 70 k. (2) and 1 rub. imperf (5). Very rare cover' (Tchil. only V
2 covers known. Photo). Tchil. Book by S.D. Tchilinghirian and W.S.E. Stephen

Page 52 No. 67

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"Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad".

In connection with the last notation (about the number of known covers) the
auctioneers allowed an inaccuracy. In the book by S. D. Tchilinghirian the no-
tation "only two covers known" concerns exclusively with the covers franked with
imperforate stamps of Russia, issue of 1917. Likewise, covers of the Russian
postal branch of Kashgar, franked with other stamps of Russia, are known to
exist in larger quantities.

Later, the firm stated that this cover was sold for 230 guilders, that with
the commission and postage expenses, the cost in U.S. dollars was about $73.50.

One can imagine my joy and surprise when such a cover was sent to mo, same
as described, from the same correspondence, only franked with other stamps on
the face of the cover issue of 1909-12; 25 kop. vertical block (5x3) plus
one single and 50 kop. two vertical pairs, all in all 6 rubles in postage,
and on the reverse side a vertical pair of 20 kop. of the same issue of 1909-12
and five wax seals.

VI1 correspondent who sent this cover informed me that he has in his collect-
ion another such cover, and upon request sent a description of his envelope.

Now several comments are in order concerning those three covers from the
correspondence of "Tun-shen-khe". 11 covers have same writing, in violet ink,
made by a typewriter on a special handstamp in five lines (see photo.).

First Line "Open letter with declared 2nd Line Value of....five hundred
(500) rub. (underlined part, made by author, with a note: written in ink).
3rd Line Tientsin Tun-shon-khe 4th Line only N (written by hand in red
ink). 5th Line Kashger Tun-shon-khe Kashgar".

S1l these are franked with Russian stamps of 6 rubles 4 kop. value (cover
of my correspondent on its face has following Russian stamps of 1909-12 issue,
consisting of 20 kop. (2) plus 25 kop. (vertical block of 5x4) and on the roc '-s-
side a strip of 4 stamps of 25 kop. value. The cover sold at the auction had
No. 330 written in rod ink, mine No. 356 and my correspondent's No. 395.
Likewise, all covers have a postmark date of 29.5.18, and we must assuLn that
on that day several tons of covers were turned over to the Russian post office
at Kashgar, valued at tens of thousands of rubles. Likewise, in the auction
catalogue in the description of the cover, after the date of cancellation 29.5,
1918, there is a notation, reading "latest known date of cancellation". Upor
what basis this notation was made I do not know. In Tchilinghirian book the
only statement given is that the Russian post office in Kashgar was closed only
in October 1920. On the reverse side of my cover No. 356 and also on the cover
of my correspondent No. 395, is fund one more cancellation, same as on the
stamps, but with date 14.6.18 One ccn firrly bolMoe thtit the cover Eo, 330
sold at the auction, also had such a pcstmark of 14.6.18. This means that the
covers with the money remained at the P.O. more than two weeks, i.e. until they
were sent to their destination. Eosides, were they really sent neither on the
covers known to me (Nos. 356 and 395), nor the one sold at the auction (No. 330)
none had a notation (postal cancellation) of arrival at Tientsin.

If one is to believe the cook of Nyack Chinese restaurant, the Chinese
markings on cover moan: Black ink address; red ink (which came out much
lighter on the photo) the print is private mark of the sender. I would be
very indebted to the readers of Rossica Journal if they would stLabe their
opinions about those covers.

No. 67 iare 53

by C. P. Bulak


postal Relay Stations between Kiakhta and Urga about 300 versts (kilometers)
distant; between Urga and Uliasutai about 1000 versts and between Uliasutai and
Kobdo approximately 540 versts.

These relay stations were served by Mongols who were conscripted by the au-
thorities for this service. Their work was paid for. Many of them, once they
got settled in the wilderness, became prosperous growing herds of camels, horses,
and cattle, their luck depending on the rainfall, etc. Each station had eight
to ten families, depending on the climatic conditions and the ideas of the autho-
rities. The stations were spaced most unevenly, this again depending on the
water supply, fodder, fuel, etc.


Orgon (Orgon River Ferry photo) Monsonay Khorimtu
Gangha Khadasun

U R G A, or Da-khure, the main town of Northern Mongolia, or Khalka. The
*ngolian word "Orgo", its literal translation being "palace" or "seat of the
important person", modified by Russians to "Urga" is practically unknown to Mon-
gols as the name of this town. At present, the Mongols call Urga by its official
name "Da-khure", or "Iekhe-Khurc", meaning "large settlement" or "settlement".
The town of Urga, being the seat of Khutukhta (the present reincarnation of
Buddha), has also its religious name "b'Rai-Bun-Gechzhi-Lin", its ull name be-
ing: "b Rai-Bun-Ghedzhi-Dub-Lin".


Bosida (Sonoshkhulantu) Dam-Khabirgha (Bulak) Khuduk-Urtu
Bukhek (Bayashkhulantu) Shara-Shubutu Shargalchzhut
Chzhirgalantu Lus Tuy
Undur-Doboe Khirai-Chzhirim Urtu-Khara
Tala-Bulak (about 186 families) Ologhoy
Naran Tsabochir (about 7 Utah
Khirain-Tugurik (Kalgan (families) Baidarik
Road Junction) Tugurik (about 60 Dzak
Mbdon families)' Khobol
Toyrim Dzeren (photo-about Bumba
Boro-Daga 52 families) Ubur-Chzhirgalantu
Bain-Khoshu Onghiin Aru-Chzhirgalantu
Bilgikh Khadatu Khuchzhirtu
Bologoy Khara-Khidun (21 Temurtu
Sudzhi families) Shuruk
Sair-Usu (photo) Gorida
Modon Tatsa

Note: In Mongolian the accent is always on the last syllable.

ULIAS U T A I to K 0 BD 0 Relay Stations

Aldar Dzhur Durgha Tszakha-Buluk
Ulan-Khuduk Arghalintu Kharaghana Khara-Usu
Yokho-Tzses Baga-Dor Chzhirgnalantu

Page 54 No. 67

Page 280. Agust 21. Friday

Left Uliasutai today, having stayed there 10 days. On the 19th M. Minin,
the dean of the Russian merchants there, has notified the authorities of my plan
to leave today for Kobdo and the "Ambans" following this notice have issued an
order to send the postal horses to my Uliasutai lodgings, notifying also all
postal relay stations of my trip... .Herewith the translation of the document:

"The following is ordered to "taychzis", "tsangins", and "khundus" in charge
of the postal relay stations from Aldar to Khara-usu.

The reason for the issue of this order to all of them together:

To dispatch from Uliasutai on the 12th day of the seventh moon of the pre-
sent year the two Russian men that have commissioned to Kobdo on official busi-
ness by the office of the Russian charge d'affairs in Urge, rank functionary
Shishmarev, we hereby order to furnish them the required two saddle horses, three
pack camels, six mounted guides to haul the cart and one tepee; and apart from
the above (you are to) send from each station the special officials, so as to
deliver (the aforementioned men) under their care to the destination".

Pages 670-672

Turning to the review of the Russian lifo in Kalgan we must mention before
everything the only existing here (Russian) government office, the Kalgan Post
Office. Its staff is limited to one person, the postmaster, and of course no
larger staff is needed here. Four mails pass through Kalgan from Russia to
China each month, same number from China to Russia. These mails bring the corres
pondence only to the three Russian comrcrcial establishments. To collect, sort,
and deliver such mail may take at most 1-- to 2 hours each time, which is the
most the postmaster does during the mail days, that is to say eight times per
month, the rest of the time he is completely free. There is doubt that such an
official could have been useful to our government in other respects....but it is
understood that it would be necessary to have a better educated person. Thi
education of our postal officials in Mbngoliais not higher than the grammer
school level...it is hardly possible to have better educated postmasters consider.
ring the very meager wages assigned by our government. For example, in Kalaci,
the postmaster has a salary of 700 rubles, for the rent. of the premises 300
rubles, for the office expenses 100 rubles, or a total of 1100 rubles (silver)
per year, deducting from this amount the pension fund and the money transfer
charges. At the first glance this sum may seem to be sufficient, however, if
one considers the costs of life in Kalgan, one must say that it is practically
impossible to exist on these moneys. Herewith are the most indispensable and
exact expenditures:

1). Rent of the premises, consisting of four small rooms with kitchen, built
in Chinese style, unfurnished, without floors and stoves, otherwise
speaking practically for the clay walls and a small 1550 sq. ft. lot,
per year............ 150 rub.
a). One must add here that any repairs or improvements were to be made by
the tenant and these were estimated to be at least to start with250. rub.
b). Yearly repairs........ 25 rub
2). To heat'such a house, considering the climatic conditions, etc.,
: annually, at least... ... .. 320 rub.
3). To heat the servant's and mail carriers quarters....... 25 rub.
4). Hire of messenger...... 50 c). Water carrier.......12
a). Night watchman......... 12 d). Office expenses......28
b). Lighting. ....... 48 T o t a f o r t he ye a r 200 r.

No. 67 Page 55

5). Garbage and yard cleaning, tips...........:. .. .. ..... ..... 30 rub.

Thus the postmaster had over (750 r.) for expenses per year.

This left for food, clothing, etc. only....350 rub. (silver) per year. This
amount is less than a modest one, considering the permanent bad harvests in
Northern China, the food products in Kalgan were quite expensive...The postmaster
must have his own furniture, stoves, kitchen utensils, etc. etc. It is impos-
sible to satisfy all these needs from the modest 350 rubles per year. Some of
the postmasters had additional work with Russian tea firms, and thus could live
decently. However, such office work demands certain amount of education and
good handwriting, which is rarely met with among our hardly educated postal
officials, so they have to exist on the official salary...


by D. N. Minchev

Letters, conveyed during the 19th century by the Russian Consular Posts and
preserved to this day are very rare and represent real historic and philatelic
value. This is especially the case with respect to those letters whichthe Rus-
sian couriers carried by the land route from Russia to Constantinople, by way of
Bulgaria. Of course, such items are also of indisputable and considerable inte-
rest to collectors of the prestamp period in Bulgaria.

A typical example is preserved in the rich collection of the Rumano-Russian
Museum at Bucharest. The letter, which is written in Green, bears the date Con-
stantinople, November 11, 1846. It was sent by a trading firm in this city, lo-
annis G. hMvridis & Co. and addressed to Christo G. Pulioglu (Bulioglu, i.e.
Puliev), a prominent Bulgarian merchant in Bucharest. It arrived there on Novem-
ber 19, 1846, as has been clearly noted by the receiver. The address at top is v
written in Italian, a traditional usage which dates back to the Venetian influence
in the Middle East. Under this, the. name is indicated in Greek and there is a
strike of the Russian Consular Post Office in Constantinople on the letter. The
marking is a double-circle type, enclosing the word "Konstantinopol", together
with a three-line date reading 1"4.6 / Noyab. / 11", and it is struck in red.

The letter refers to the purchase and despatch of cottons to the value of
3800 groshi and the method of transmission to Bucharest; along the Danube, and b3
sea, via Varna. In any case, the forwarding of the cottons would be delayed, on
account of the fact that the ships had suspended their runs with the onset of the
winter. The text of the letter is of great value to us in determining exactly
the method of conveyance.

With regard to the letter itself, it was transmitted by the land route of
the Russian Consular Posts, which ran across Bulgaria. We are assuming here that
the courier carrying this letter utilized the route Constantinople-Adrianople-
Stara Zagora-Kazanltk-Shika-Gabrovo-T'rnovo-Bela-Ruse (Rustchuk). From Rustchuk
onwards, the route went via Giurgiu and across Walachia to Bucharest.

The marking has dimensions of 17 and 30mm. and is described by Tchilinghirian
and Stephen in their series on Russian Offices Abroad as the third type of mark-
ing, used by the Russian Consular Post Office in Constantinople Para. The same
marking is recorded dated 1838, then later in red during 1842, as well as ten
years later in 1852. In other words, it was in use for a long time. It should
be noted that there is no marking of the Russian post office at Bucharest upon

Page 56 No. 67

its arrival there, nor are there any transit cancels. All of this supports the
opinion that the letter in question was conveyed by a Russian postal courier from
Constantinople, via Bulgaria. As can be soon from the dates, the letter was re-
coived in Bucharest only 8 days later. This was a remarkably short time for
those days, considering the method of transmission. The rate was paid in cash by
the sender in advance at Constantinople and further information. on the Russian
Consular Posts in Bulgaria are to be found in the article published in Rossica
#63, pp. 29-35.

by E. R. Christio

The great rarity of Russian postal markings from the town of Khiva during
tkh Khanate period has always puzzled postal history enthusiasts, the only im-
pression so far known dating from March 1916 and in the possession of Wr. I. B.
baslowsky of Paris. However, the mystery now seems to have been cleared up with
the discovery recently of a very useful reference to postal matters by Fiss Ella
R. Christie, F.R.G.S. in her book "Through Khive to Golden Samarkand", published
with 55 illustrations and a map by J. B. Lippincott Co. of Philadelphia in 1925.
Wiss Christie's visit ot Khiva took place in 1912 and we are indebted to the
publishers for the following oxcorpt taken from the beginning of Chaptor VII
entitled "Lifo in Khiva" (pp. 6'-69): E d i t o r.

"As we neared the town, a building whoso foundation wore little more laid,
showed itself just outside one of the gates. Anything of a modern nature seemed
surprising its purpose, as I afterwards learned, not less so, being a post
office and fever hospital co-binod; surely an absolutely unique arrangements of
any kind, nor of course a telegraph, yet that town of 60,000 inhabitants seemed
to have prospered notwithstanding its lack of either. Letters, should anyone
ever be seized with the extraordinary desire to write, or to have reourse to
the professional lettor-writjrs, must be handed over to the care fo sozoone
attending the market at Yovi Urgontsch. This has to be done on Thursday for
Sunday s mail, with all the acco-panying risks of being lost en route. If it
did reach Novi Urgentsch it might lie there, as the postman frequently laid
letters aside from one mail to another, there being only two in the week to
Charjui. As to delivery, I imagine the same course followed, and a chance visit
to the post office or town was entrusted with anything for Khiva. I had a letter
to Colonel Korniloff, the Russian advisor to the Khan, so wont first to his house
to soo about accomodation, as there was not even a possible inn or native serai".

It may be seen from the above comprohensivc data that fMss Christie was no
slouch as a postal historian and we now realize why markings from Ncvi Urgensch.
have boon much easier to find than those from Khiva. Moreover, it now seems ad-
visable that any members who come across cards or covers front Novi Urgonsch during
the Khanate period should carefully examine them to determine whether they have
not originally been sent from the town of Khiva itself. The fact that even the
mail for the Russian advisor had to be forwarded in such a haphazard way from
Novi Urgensch to Khiva is important as this may have been the:reason for finally
establishing an official Russian post office at latter place, with ell the neces-
sary equipment, sometime during the war years.

BY Hal Cobbs

The two most important works. on the Zemstvo issues are solIoz seen today and
scarcely ever appear on the market. The earliest resulted from the long ti"o

No. 67 PaPe 57

its arrival there, nor are there any transit cancels. All of this supports the
opinion that the letter in question was conveyed by a Russian postal courier from
Constantinople, via Bulgaria. As can be soon from the dates, the letter was re-
coived in Bucharest only 8 days later. This was a remarkably short time for
those days, considering the method of transmission. The rate was paid in cash by
the sender in advance at Constantinople and further information. on the Russian
Consular Posts in Bulgaria are to be found in the article published in Rossica
#63, pp. 29-35.

by E. R. Christio

The great rarity of Russian postal markings from the town of Khiva during
tkh Khanate period has always puzzled postal history enthusiasts, the only im-
pression so far known dating from March 1916 and in the possession of Wr. I. B.
baslowsky of Paris. However, the mystery now seems to have been cleared up with
the discovery recently of a very useful reference to postal matters by Fiss Ella
R. Christie, F.R.G.S. in her book "Through Khive to Golden Samarkand", published
with 55 illustrations and a map by J. B. Lippincott Co. of Philadelphia in 1925.
Wiss Christie's visit ot Khiva took place in 1912 and we are indebted to the
publishers for the following oxcorpt taken from the beginning of Chaptor VII
entitled "Lifo in Khiva" (pp. 6'-69): E d i t o r.

"As we neared the town, a building whoso foundation wore little more laid,
showed itself just outside one of the gates. Anything of a modern nature seemed
surprising its purpose, as I afterwards learned, not less so, being a post
office and fever hospital co-binod; surely an absolutely unique arrangements of
any kind, nor of course a telegraph, yet that town of 60,000 inhabitants seemed
to have prospered notwithstanding its lack of either. Letters, should anyone
ever be seized with the extraordinary desire to write, or to have reourse to
the professional lettor-writjrs, must be handed over to the care fo sozoone
attending the market at Yovi Urgontsch. This has to be done on Thursday for
Sunday s mail, with all the acco-panying risks of being lost en route. If it
did reach Novi Urgentsch it might lie there, as the postman frequently laid
letters aside from one mail to another, there being only two in the week to
Charjui. As to delivery, I imagine the same course followed, and a chance visit
to the post office or town was entrusted with anything for Khiva. I had a letter
to Colonel Korniloff, the Russian advisor to the Khan, so wont first to his house
to soo about accomodation, as there was not even a possible inn or native serai".

It may be seen from the above comprohensivc data that fMss Christie was no
slouch as a postal historian and we now realize why markings from Ncvi Urgensch.
have boon much easier to find than those from Khiva. Moreover, it now seems ad-
visable that any members who come across cards or covers front Novi Urgonsch during
the Khanate period should carefully examine them to determine whether they have
not originally been sent from the town of Khiva itself. The fact that even the
mail for the Russian advisor had to be forwarded in such a haphazard way from
Novi Urgensch to Khiva is important as this may have been the:reason for finally
establishing an official Russian post office at latter place, with ell the neces-
sary equipment, sometime during the war years.

BY Hal Cobbs

The two most important works. on the Zemstvo issues are solIoz seen today and
scarcely ever appear on the market. The earliest resulted from the long ti"o

No. 67 PaPe 57

collaboration between Agathon Faberge and Carl Schmidt and was published serially
at St. Petersburg betweenl908-16 under the title of "DIE POSTWERTZEICHEN DER
RUSSISCHEN LANDSCHAFTSAEIRER." As is well known this catalogue, to the sorrow
of Zemstvo enthusiasts, was never completed. Subsequently, another major work
was published under the name of Carl Schmidt alone in 1932 under the same title
as the earlier work. This mimeographed epic consisting of a 40 page introduction
and some 707 pages of text liberally illustrated with inset photographs is the
only complete major work in the field if Chuchin's "CATALOGUE OF RUSSILN RURAL
POSTAGE STA.PS" (ibscow 1925) and Schmidt' s still later catalogue are excluded.
None of the German language catalogues have been translated into English for pub-
lic consumption. With his 1932 catalogue Schmidt won a gold medal at the WIPA
exhibition in Vienna in 1933. In 1934 he issued a more modest catalogue to memo-
rialize his donation to the German Postal Maseum under the title of "SAnMgLUNG

Both the Faberge and Schmidt opus and the 1932 Schmidt are difficult if not
almost impossible to obtain today even for reference purposes. Obviously
the few copies extant are jealously hoarded by their fortunate owners. The last
copies appear to have been offered the general public in the Stibbo sale in 1957.
By happy chance in February of this year Sam Robbins of the Los Angelos group
located parts 1 9 of the Schmidt Faberge A through K catalogue in the compre-
hensive library of the Federated Philatelic Clubs of Southern California where
it had apparently lain unnoticed for years under lock and key. He was permitted
to make it available to the writer for copying. A set of photocopies of this
portion of the catalogue (Akhtyrka through Kherson) along with some 51 pages of
photographic illustrations has been furnished Dr. Salisbury for the Rossica li-
brary. The original source of this portion of the catalogue (a part of set #43)
is not noted in library records of Los Angeles. Likewise, no explanation of
what have happened to parts 10 through 20 has been forthcoming.

MTro recently an udvertisement in the CINDERELLA PHILATELIST resulted in
correspondence with an Eastern collector of locals who had in his library set
The original 8 paperbacked numbers of this work had been bound in two volumes
and preserved in pristine condition. Fortunately, the owner, who had purchased
this set in England in 1945, was willing to part with it and it has since been
acquired by the writer. Thus, the fortuitious acquisition of a portion of the
Faberge and Schmidt and the whole of the 1932 Schmidt makes available an inva-
luable resource for future research.

NUny interesting mysteries are associated with these works. The most obvi-
ous, perhaps, is the publication by Schmidt under his name only of his 1932 cata-
logue. It is known that during the period when he was preparing it Agathon Faber-
ge was still collaborating with him (perhaps more actively than ever) by making
the material acquired from the Forrari collections available to him. Why then
did he deny Faberge joint authorship as in the earlier venture,

Another concerns the extent to which either of these catalogues has been
preserved. Or, more basic still, how many were actually published". Chuchin on
page 6 laments the destruction of many of the earlier work by having been "burrt
as useless waste paper by the well known author Theodor Sologub for heating his
room during the rovoliution". Anyone possessing or having knowledge of the where-
abouts of any parts of these two gruat classics is urged to comerunicatb with the

N 0 T E There are actually four Zemstvo catalogues associated with Carl Schmidt.
Chronologically they are: -

Page 58 No. 67

(1). The 1908-16 Faberge & Schmidt A through K
(2). Within the covers of the Los Angeles copy of the first portion of the
proceeding is a highly abbreviated, priced and-illustrated catalogue
over the signature of Carl Schmidt dated 1910. This was evidently
irtendod to parallel the contents of the accompanying volume. It ovi-
dently is as incomplete as the remainder of the catalogue.
(3). The 1932 complete Schmidt
(4).. Tho 1934 memorial catalogue.

by Maria Nikolaevna Vitashevskava


Upon the institution of new conditions, the relay living quarters began to
expand and thrive. In addition to carrying out the relay service, the postil-
lions busied themselves at the same time with various pursuits and trades; they
baked "pirogi" (pastries) and dealt in then. Cattle were on sale, they engaged
in agriculture; ordinarily they gave up their land for money or bread supplies
or cultivated it with hired labor.

The relay living quarters were most varied in size, depending upon the import-
anco of the route and the significance of the inhabited locality near which they
wore to be found. In the sout-eastern provinces, the relay living quarters had
from 10 to 20 sections of land apiece, while in the central districts they con-
sisted of 60 to 100 sections. In the case of Kosnodemyansk, ten portions of land
were attached to the relay living quarters there, The outside arrangement of the
living quarters never changed; in the middle of tho "sloboda" the relay station
* yard was to be found, enclosed by several huts. he biggest hut was set aside fc
the incoming travellers, while the yardmen and the "dlyachok-pis' ovodited'"
(recording clerk) lived in the others. Hay lofts, sheds and stables adjoined
the huts and the entire section surrounded by a fence or a hedge. The construct-
ion of the living quarters improved, people dwelt there for a long opriod of time
and so the position changed from the old days when the relay volunteer was more
concerned with his old yard-than with the sloboda yard.

The wages of the postillions were not specified exactly and so they fluctuat'-
depending upon the locality whero the relay station was situated. Striving to
build up the relay service as quickly as possible, the government in some cases
paid as much as 40 rubles per annum as wages to postillions. However, it was
difficult for the government to maintain this scale of payment and there is no
further mention recorded of such wages. In the first half of the 17th century,
the allowance was set at from 10 to 15 rubles and subsequently it was raised to
20-25 rubles per annum. The postillions at Pskov and Novgorod, who received 25
and 30 rubles respectively per anhur, were required to have on hand not three
but four horses each.

As in former times, the postillions received'fees for going from one station
to another. In spite of the very groat drop in the value of money, the distance
required remained as before: 3 dengaS (li- kopeks) were paid for 10 vorsts ( 7
miles) and even that scale was not always adhered to. From INizhny to Vladimir,
the postillions received in payment 7 altyns (21 kopeks) for the distance of 226
versts (147 miles) and yet he was also given the same payment for going from
I izhny to Arzamas, which was only half the previous stretch.

Apart from conducting the relay service, the postillions concerned themselves

No. 67 Page 59

with the private carriage of goods. Moreover, any traveller not proceeding on
"state business" with an order for post horses, forfeited the right to request
horses and he had to negotiate with the postillion.

The activities of the "prikaznaya sistema" or civil service system in Ancient
Russia required the despatch of a number of official papers. Various ukases, or-
dors and reminders were sent from Moscow to the provinces, and in the reverse di-
rection Moscow had to deal with written answers, correspondence, replies and pe-
titions. Ofton, persons were sent out on special commissions and they were ac-
companied by archers, clerks and others. Horses and carts were also needed for
the transportation of official functionaries who were sent out into the country-
side. Finally, many horses and carts were utilized for ambassadorial convoys
which, as a result of the development of international relations, often began
to visit Moscow.

In hard times, the relay service was at the mercy of the State Budget, it
was decided to curtail the relay expenses by whatever means available. Savings
were made possible; the "progony" or travelling allowances were not assigned
to all postillions and they made the travellers pay for some part of the journey.
In other words, the authorities utilized any means at all so that travelling
allowances would not be paid in full. In the orders for post horses, the nota-
tions "express matter", "urgent government business", "secret government business'
were inscribed and in these cases, horses and carts were sent without travelling
allowances. The civil servants tried to fit every document into one of these

In the special regulations of the year 1627, the number of horses and carts
to be given to each traveller was specified. Formerly, a boyar (Russian noble-
man) or important church dignitary could uso his power to take from the relay
station almost all the horses he wanted. However, the number of horses and carts
granted was now dependent of the official status of the traveller and it was
strictly regulated. Some amendments were made to this ukase over the years, but
its basic aim was to regularize the functions of the relay system and this re-
mained unchanged to the end of 17th century.

In spite of the series of restrictive measures taken, the scope of the relay
system was still great. Hence, in the postscript to the above ukase, an instruct-
ion was noted that 30 horses with carts be given to Vasily Arslanovich, the son
of the tsar of Kasilov,

It became necessary to curtail also the number of horses and carts used for
the relay system. In accordance with the ukase of 3649, it was decreed that no
messenger should be conducted if proceeding on unimportant business and so far
as the despatch of documents was concerned, it was recommended that the errands
of messengers from various towns to the same destination be consolidated so that
the paper could be sent in bulk. This was done on orders from Moscow to various
slobodas, who were to coordinate operations so that two or more messengers did
not go to one and the same point. In this same edict, it was forbidden to give
horses and carts to townsmen, liquor sellers and people who were not civil ser-
vants and who wont to Moscow on their own affairs, even though they carried with
them various government documents.

In the 17th century, life in the relay living quarters was not regulated by
edicts but by ukases. An edict was only sent to a specific relay station, while
an ukase was addressed to all relay stations for strict execution. There was no
difference between these two types of administration, since the contents of the
edicts wore almost identical with those of the ukases and the latter reiterated
the conditions df the edicts.

Page 60 No. 67

The ukase was set out in a traditional manner: "the sovereign rocommondod
and the noblemen supplemented". After that, the ukase was sent from the Ass6mbly
of Nobles to the Head Office of the Relay Service where it:as inscribed in the
Ukase Book. This book then served as a guide to the administration of the relay
service. However, the previous edicts wore enforced for a long time afterwards.
When sent out on those latter, the postillions still enjoyed their privileges and
in cases where the new ukases contradicted the old edicts, the government mado con-
cessions. We can site one specific case where the relay volunteers at Verkhoturye
were made to go out in unfavorable weather also. They protested, quoting from their
charter of regulations, by which they were given the right to withhold horses and
carts during the bad road seasons of autumn and spring. An order was given in
Moscow to search for this particular regulation and upon examination, the allegation
of the postillions was verified. Thus it was not required of them to give horses
and carts during the bad road seasons, but it was recommended than only "fast" mes-
sengers were to conduct the service "without delay".

The direction of the living quarters was in the hands of the clerk and
"starosta" (anagor), as of yore. However, the significance of the clerk was sharply
reduced and in 1679, his functions wore abolished altogether. The local voevode
(army commander) supervised the living quarters and in fact the whole province.

The intervention of the voevode in the relay service operations had in fact be-
gun much earlier. Formerly, the relay volunteer who obtained horses and carts from
the public was almost independent of the local governor and he could by-pass his
voevode, but since he now received his wages from the Treasury, he became dependent
on the latter. The independence of the relay living quarters was thus terminated
and they gradually began to change into ordinary settlements liable for taxes, i.e.
living quarters which paid tribute.

A lot of infcrmaticn has come down to us about voovcdes who acted on their own
initiative in the relay living quarters. For instance, the voovodes at Pskov took
horses and carts from the postillions by force and did not pay any travelling allow-
ances at all for them. The voevodo at Kasimov, Aloksei Kondyrev, was not satisfied
with the fact that he inflicted "many taxes, tolls, contributions and insults, be-t
and injured them when requiring horses and carts" from the relay volunteers, but he
also, on one occasion, went to the relay living quarters with an armer detachment
and razed to the ground. In another case, when the postillions were out on the road
the voevode at Voronezh "exacted cartago duties on the women in the relay quarters:
i.e. mimO the women exchange husbands.

When a voevode took horses and carts, he hung on to them for a long t h.-. :
ever, in spite of many irregularities, some slobodas thrived and the government be-
gan to im.pcse a tax on them. : The r:eay living quarters, which formerly paid no tax-
es, became disturbed and petitions were sent to bscow, asking that the old relay
privileges be restored and the governront yielded to some extent. In accordance
with the ukases of 1663, 1670 and 16W9, it was directed that 50 rubles each be ex-
acted from the land portions assigned "to each of the Lbscow slobccas which trade
in all kinds of goods", 10 rubles each from the land portions of the slobodas at
Nizhny Novgorod and Yaroslavl and 5 rubles from the slobodas at Kasimov, etc. The
result was that the relay living-quarters v 7re gradually divested of their special
rights without rocourse to special ukases.

However, all those occurencos, i.e. the malpractices of the voovcoes, the deser-
tion of various rcl-.y vol'ntoors, etc., did not influence greatly the eccnoric
strength of the relay sloboda. In the 16th century, a sioboda of 10 lad portions
would havocceood to exist if several of the relay volunteers pulled out or the hor-
ses fell cown. However, in the second half of the 17th century, when such a slobod;
was burned to the ground, all of the postillions stayed on the spot and even asked
for materials so that the yards could be sot up again.
Page 61 No. 67

At the end of the 17th century, many relay living quarters grew into the
richest villages ina district. The postillions, availing themselves of the ex-
emption from taxes, engaged in commerce. They handed over the relay service to
poor postillions and hired help. For instance, the postillions at Yaroslavl were
known as big traders in bread and flour, while the postillions in Nizhni Novgorod
aroused the envy of the townspeople because of their business and trade. Obvi-
ously, no matter how difficult the relay service was, it was still easier than
for the public at large who had to meet the normal tributes.

For the regulation of their station in society, the postillions formed a
special guild. In accordance with the ecclesiastic statute of Tsar Aloksei
Mikhailovich of 1649 (ex "Mmorial of Russian Law", issue #6, M)sccw, Gosyuriz-
dat, 1957.), they were classed as higher in status than ordinary peasants. Thus,
if a peasant were guilty of an infamy, he would be fined one ruble, while a relay
volunteer was liable to a fine of five rubles for the same offence.

In summertime, the postillions went out in a small telega, drawn by one horse
and in winter in sleighs to which one or more horses were harnessed in tandem.
The postillion ordinarily sat at the feet of the passengers and the guides astri;
the horses. On approaching the relay station, the postillion would announce his
arrival with a deafening blast and ask for a change of horses and carts. The
attire of the postillion consisted of a "Zipun", which was a type of peasant
tunic in azure or blue, a sash and a hat with a red or cherry colored top. In
wintertime, a warm "kaftan" or a peasant topcoat was put on over the "zipun".
The value of the postillion's street dress was estimated in an official document
of the year 1628 as follows: "one azure zipyn at 2 rubles 50 kopeks, a cherry
red hat with down at 1 ruble 50 kopoks, a cotton sash with knives at 50 kopeks,
a fur kaftan of lady's cloth in azure at 2 rubles nett".

The vehicle and harness of the postillion were not distinguished with beauty
and convenience, but they were nevertheless durable. Only a solidly built wooden
telega could negotiate the roads in those times and if it were ever overturned,
the postillion simply climbed out and, carrying his axe, he there and then went
into the forest to hew new axles and a linch-pin. In spite of the appealing roads
the postillions had to proceed quickly but the horses could not endure such a
pace for very long. The postillions complained that it was too much "to set off
two or three times in a row and it would not be possible to keep that up in the
future". It sometimes happened that the postillions succeeded in getting 5
rubles for each horse that was killed from over-exertion.

Each sloboda had a brand, with which the horses of the relay living quarters
were marked. The brand was called the "state crown mark". Thus, for the relay
station at Bronnitsy, the brand showed a wolf, the one at Zayachye a hare, while
that at Krestty was a flying snake and Yazheblitsy even had one depicting an


In Siberia, the relay service was built up with the utilization of several
local advantages. The lands beyondd the Rock" (i.e. beyond the Urals) were known
to the Russians long before the advent of the famous Yermak. From manuscripts
we know about the expeditions i 1187 and 1193 of the resourceful river pirates
of the Novgorod to the Yugor area of the lower concourse of the river Ob. Mbre-
over, regular communications with Siberia became possible after the destruction
of the Kazan Khanate by Ivan IV in 1552, when the Volga-Kama route to the Urals
was made available.

No. 67 Page 62

From the beginning of the 16th century, Miscovite Russia was able to trade
directly with Western Europe. A more decisive factor in this regard.was the
opening of the sea route to Russia in 1553 and the establishment of Russian tra-
ding ports, initially at Rugodiv (Narva) and later in 1585 at Archangel. To the
traditional market in the east for pelts (furs) from Khiva, Bukhara and Persia,
there was now to be added the ever-increasing demand front jootorn countries.
As a result, Russian manufacturers were obliged to outfit expeditions deep into
Siberia to open up new "sources for sables".

After the conquest of Siberia, the Miscovite govt. attempted to enlist the
local population into the relay service. Thus, for example, the Voguls conducted
the relay service between Tyumen and Verkhoturye (the Voguls are very closely
related to the present-day Hungarians). However, they only worked for a short
time and then presented a petition to be freed from their duties. In fact, quite
a few Voguls complained, and in the reply to the Tatar servant of the prince
Yepancha and his clan, it was ordered as a result that the local populace be
freed of the cartage duties. This was not just a promise; the government de-
cided to sot up relay stations along Siberian routes.

During this period, the public itself in the Muscovite state chose the relay
volunteers and gave them assistance. However, the maintenance of the volunteers
was beyond the resources of the local population. Although there was a crying
need for the relay service, the pelts which the local inhabitants delivered were
even more essential and valuable. Hence the government emphasized in evory way
that the officials in Siberia respect "the Siberian people and flatter them and
should give then a good reception and never be severe with them". An order alonE
these lines was given in Mbscow in the year 1600.

The relay volunteers were chosen, or as it was said at that time, "they were
called out" at the first Siberian rol.y station at Verkhoturye in 1599 and sub-
sequently at all other relay stations. The relay volunteers were chosen front
various towns in European Russia, at Voliki Ustyug, Solovychegodsk, Perm, Soli-
kamsk, etc. It was decided that relay volunteers, with their wives and chilr'xn
be chosen from the free people and not from serfs. The volunteers were paid at
the rate of 5 rubles per person and in addition to this they received frof tcw .c
four horses and carts for travelling. The volunteer was also given assistanna
on the spot and granted some amenitios, e.g. the Verkhoturys postillions wore
freed from the payment of taxes for three years. Almost all relay routes in
Siberia were sot up in that way.

At first the Siberian postillions lived well as a good allowance was plac-i
at their disposal. For instance, at the beginning of the 17th century, the r>:-
illions at Verkhoturye each received 20 rubles in money and'12 chetvorts (i.c,
96 bushels) of rye and hay per annum. Their portions of the land wore also lar-
go; thus, the postillions at Tyumen got from 22 to 30 hectares of land each.

However, this favorable state of affairs lasted only a short time. First of
all, the scale of wages was changed. It was gradually reduced year by year and
by the second decade of the 17th century the postillions were already being paid
only 7 rubles per annum and the distribution of bread supplies was cut down sharp
ly. Postillions began to run away, with the result that at Verkoturyo only 39
postillions remained out of the 50 required. It was therefore necessary for the
government to raise the wages of the postillions with each succeeding year. At
the beginning of the 17th century, the Siberian postillions received 28 rubles
per annum but they were not now entitled to the receipt of bread supplies and so
this salary in real money was somewhat less than 20 rubles at the beginning of
the eentugry.

No. 67 Pago 63

The great distances and the sheer impassability of the roads made travel
the Siberian expanses very difficult. However, the relay service, together with
the number of horses and carts supplied and the mileage in roads, grew with each
passing year. In 1621, the postillions of the Verkhoturye relay drove along a
stretch of 1850 versts (1734 miles) and by the year 1660, this had already risen
to 2600 versts(1734 miles). The Turinsk postillions originally drove along two
roads, to Tyumen and Verkhoturye, but in 1648, they were already operating on
five routes.

The living quarters of the postillions were curtailed rather rapidly and only
very rarely did the government rectify the numerous complaints of the postillions.
It was true that a special scale was worked out for Siberia with regard to which
officials, depending on their rank and eminence, could requisition horses in tra-
velling by the relay service in stipulated numbers. However, this regulation
hardly lightened the position of the postillions since a voevodo (army commander)
sould request as many horses and carts as he liked.

At the beginning of the 17th century, a ukase was especially issued regula-
ting the amount of relay freight to be conveyed. This ukase was especially ira -
portant for Siberian roads, where a horse could often barely make its way, even
when unladen. It was stated in the ukase that, in wintertime, no one had the
right to force a postillion to put on a cart more than 15 poods (540 pounds) of
freight. In summertime, only 4 poods (144 pounds) weight were allowable, exclu-
ding the driver. If the driver sat on the cart, then he could only take with
him a "yepancha" (wide sleeveless cloak) and food "enough to make him full". But
this ukase was not adhered to. Judging from the complaints of the postillions,
the government employees loaded down the telega or sleigh with two or three times
more than the specified weight and would not even allow the weight of the freight
to be checked. The disputes were brought to the notice of the voevode (army
commander), but he rarely took the part of the postillion.

to be continued

o o
o Vernon L. Ardiff o
o P.O. Box 105, El Viejo Sta. o
o 0bdosto, Calif. 85353 o
o o
o Wanted... ."Paquebot", "ship Letter" covers.....Wanted o
o o
o World wide, 1880s to date, accumulations, collections, lots, individual o
o items........ o
o o
"o Including stamps of Russia, with Japanese, Korean, Persian and other arrival o
"o markings, cancellations and points of origin endorsements, as well as ship's o
0 purser cancellations, and shipboard ambulant postoffice cancels, o
o o
o Also, stamps of other countries with Russian arrival markings, etc. o
o Advise or send offers with description, prices.......... o
o o

Correction No. 66. The Transmission of Ihils on Steamers in Russia. Page 6,
2nd paragraph, lines 1 and 4 Change Capt. Blake to Black.

Page 64 No. 67

by G. Torrey

While usually we are interested in Russian Used Abroads, Turkey used in
Russia also are a part ef Russian postal history. In my quest for postal nater-
ial from tho Ottoman Empire I have acquired two items relating to the Turkish-
Russian struggle in the First World War.

On October 29, 1914, without a declaration of war by Turkey, Turkish and
German warships suddenly bombarded Odessa, Sovastopol, and Theodosia on the Black
See oast. Russia declared war on Turkey three days later. In mid-December the
Turks initiated their land campaign by a drive against Kars, but the offensive
ran out by the end of January 1916. At the same tine the Turks invaded Persia
and took Tabriz, which was retaken by Russian troops who had invaded Persia.
The Russians kept on the offencivo until the Russian Revolution and the fighting
was not waged in Transcaucasia. With the collapse of the Russian armies the
Turks drove towards Caucasus.

Following the Revolution, Transcaucasia moved toward separation from Russia
and, finally, the Transcaucasian Republic was organized in the autumn of 1917.
The armistice was agreed to by the Turks, but this was soon broken and the Trcns-
caucasian Republic declared war on Turkey on April 15, 1918. Over the next few
months Transcaucasia went through .process of disintegration and the Republic
broke into its respective Armenian, Georgian, and Mislic Azerbaijani components.
Germany and Turkey then contested for domination of Georgia, with Azerbaijan be-
ing in alliance with Turkey. finally, on June 4, 1918 Turkey and Georgia conclu-
ded a treaty which gave the furks transit rights on the Georgian railwayto Baku,
in Azerbaijan, Meanwhile, Turkish trccps had occupied area around Batum and in
late Juno carried out a "plebiscite" for union with Turkey. The outcome was
overwhelmingly pro-Turkish, as could be expected with Turkish troops in occupa-

During their occupation of Batum the Turks established an Ottoman post office
where Turkish stamps were sold and mail accepted. So far I have discovered only
two separate issues with Batum cancellations Turkey Scott numbers 424 (10 paras,
and 547 (5 paras) of the 1918 and 1917 issues.

Following the armistice of Hidros (October 30, 1918) when Turkey surrendered
to the Allies, Turkish forces were withdrawn from Eatum and British troops occu-
pied the city.

Another Ottoman Post Office had operated in Batum beginning in 1871 until the
city was acquired by Russia following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. This of-
fice used a special hexagonal cancellation with Batum in Turkish script as shown
S11. i. Examples on Ottoman stamps of the opriod are exceedingly rare.
OO--O-- O--C-O--o0-o-O-O--O-o-o-

D. N. Minchev

The purpose of these notes is to record a small but interesting facet of
Bulgarian Erinnophilia. This is linked with the memory of a groat event for the
Bulgarians; the liberation of the country from the five centuries long yoke of
the Turks the result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78.

In the center of Sofia, there was crocted, in front of the National Assembly,
an imposing "Monument to the Liberators", which was solemnly unveiled on August

No. 67 Page 65

by G. Torrey

While usually we are interested in Russian Used Abroads, Turkey used in
Russia also are a part ef Russian postal history. In my quest for postal nater-
ial from tho Ottoman Empire I have acquired two items relating to the Turkish-
Russian struggle in the First World War.

On October 29, 1914, without a declaration of war by Turkey, Turkish and
German warships suddenly bombarded Odessa, Sovastopol, and Theodosia on the Black
See oast. Russia declared war on Turkey three days later. In mid-December the
Turks initiated their land campaign by a drive against Kars, but the offensive
ran out by the end of January 1916. At the same tine the Turks invaded Persia
and took Tabriz, which was retaken by Russian troops who had invaded Persia.
The Russians kept on the offencivo until the Russian Revolution and the fighting
was not waged in Transcaucasia. With the collapse of the Russian armies the
Turks drove towards Caucasus.

Following the Revolution, Transcaucasia moved toward separation from Russia
and, finally, the Transcaucasian Republic was organized in the autumn of 1917.
The armistice was agreed to by the Turks, but this was soon broken and the Trcns-
caucasian Republic declared war on Turkey on April 15, 1918. Over the next few
months Transcaucasia went through .process of disintegration and the Republic
broke into its respective Armenian, Georgian, and Mislic Azerbaijani components.
Germany and Turkey then contested for domination of Georgia, with Azerbaijan be-
ing in alliance with Turkey. finally, on June 4, 1918 Turkey and Georgia conclu-
ded a treaty which gave the furks transit rights on the Georgian railwayto Baku,
in Azerbaijan, Meanwhile, Turkish trccps had occupied area around Batum and in
late Juno carried out a "plebiscite" for union with Turkey. The outcome was
overwhelmingly pro-Turkish, as could be expected with Turkish troops in occupa-

During their occupation of Batum the Turks established an Ottoman post office
where Turkish stamps were sold and mail accepted. So far I have discovered only
two separate issues with Batum cancellations Turkey Scott numbers 424 (10 paras,
and 547 (5 paras) of the 1918 and 1917 issues.

Following the armistice of Hidros (October 30, 1918) when Turkey surrendered
to the Allies, Turkish forces were withdrawn from Eatum and British troops occu-
pied the city.

Another Ottoman Post Office had operated in Batum beginning in 1871 until the
city was acquired by Russia following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. This of-
fice used a special hexagonal cancellation with Batum in Turkish script as shown
S11. i. Examples on Ottoman stamps of the opriod are exceedingly rare.
OO--O-- O--C-O--o0-o-O-O--O-o-o-

D. N. Minchev

The purpose of these notes is to record a small but interesting facet of
Bulgarian Erinnophilia. This is linked with the memory of a groat event for the
Bulgarians; the liberation of the country from the five centuries long yoke of
the Turks the result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78.

In the center of Sofia, there was crocted, in front of the National Assembly,
an imposing "Monument to the Liberators", which was solemnly unveiled on August

No. 67 Page 65

30, 1907. This memorial, whose foundations were laid during the year 1901,
shows the Russian Tsar, Alexander II, on horseback, and about him below, impor-
tant scenes and episodes from the war are pictured in bas-relief. This monument
to the liberators is the work of the great Italian sculptor, Antonio Zecchi. Fol-
lowing upon a motion by the Militia Veterans Organization, a special committee was
set up for its construction, under the chairmanship of the well-known Bulgarian
revolutionary figure, Stoyan Zaimov (1853-1932). This committee began to collect
the necessary funds through its more than 500 branches throughout the country.
A considerable sum was required because of the size of the monument, which was
also intended to remind the rising generation of the historic contribution made by
the fraternal Russian people in the restoration of the Bulgarian State. And, as
matter of fact the Bulgarian people responded generously.

Among the various methods utilized to gather financial resources, there was
also the emission of special vignettes. So far, we know of the following four
labels, namely, 50 stotinki bright green, 1 lev dark wine-brown, 2 leva blue and
5 lava black-brown, all carefully printed by the lithographic process, Of course,
it is quite feasible that other values in this set will turn up. There is just
the one design, a bust of Alexander II, and below him a raised spray of olive-
laurel and a hand presenting money. The inscriptions read "Tsar-Liberator Commit-
tee" and dates 1878-1903 at top, and the indication of the face value at bottom.
(see Fig. 1). The overall size of the stamps is 35x65mm. and of the design
32x60mm; the labels are line-perforated Ul7. It appears that the vignettes were
orinally gummed, but the present examples have no trace of gum. The numbers print-
ed are still unknown but it may be assumed that there was a large issue. We have
seen some copies of these vignettes cancelled with a postmark, which suggests
that they were occasionally affixed, together with the requisite postage stamps,
on correspondence which was mailed. At the present time, these labels are quite
difficult to find.

Later on, in the very difficult years for Bulgaria after the First World War,
the Bulgarian people did not forget the sacrifices of its liberators. We find
that during the year 1923, a 10 leva vignette was issued to aid the surviving
Russian veterans and Bulgarian volunteers, who fought side by side during 1877-7'.
and also to commemorate the 45th anniversary of liberation (1878-1923). The I'-es
was lithographed in lilac-red and roughly line-perforated 10i. It has as its
central theme the well-known painting "All quiet at Shipka", by the noted RuT iai.
artist, Vasily Vasilyevich Veroshchagin (1842-1904), who took part in the Russo-
Turkish War of 1877-78. The theme is surrounded by ornamentation, which included
two St. George crosses for bravery (one at each side). The inscription on vign>i
reads "For the surviving Russian and Bulgariancombattants in the Liberation War
of 1877-1878" (see Fig. 2). The size of the label is 45x35mm. and of the design
40x32mm. It has colorless gum, smoothly applied.

Thus we see that, side by side with the regular postage stamps, issued in ho-
nor of the liberation of the Bulgarian people from the Turkish yoke, which cost
200,000 Russian casualties (see the issues of 1902, 1934, 1946, 1953, 1957, etc.)
we also have the above-mentioned vignettes which also bear witness, in the final
analysis, to the gratitude of the Bulgarian people for its Russian liberators.

E D I T ORIAL C 0 MEN T: With regard to the first set of vignettes,
issued in 1903, this had a total face-value of at least 8.50 leva, at a time when
the pro-W.W. I Bulgarian currency was at par with the gold franc. This ripresonxte
a considerable sum of money for those days, especially in Balkans, and it reflects
well upon the generosity of Bulgarian contributors.

By 1923, the post-W.W. I depreciation of European currencies had also affected
Bulgaria and the face value of 10 leva was already a nominal sum, being equivaloni
to not much more than the rate for a registered letter going abroad from Bulgaria
at that time.
Page 66 000000000000oooooooooooo.oooooooooooo000000000000 No. 67

by R. Sklarevski

ADDITICGS TO PART I. appearing on Pages 40 to 44 in #66

C ance 1 1 at i o n s Additions to Page 42

I have in frontof me two covers with Russia (Scott ##178-180 and 187), sent
to me for examination by Mr. S. Robbins of Los Angeles, California, Both covers
have complete sets of Ir. through O4r. and the same cancellation, dated Aug. 19,
1921 which was supposedly used during the first month of the use of the issue.

The double circle cancel (30, 20mm. in dia.) has between circles "IWSKVA"
(at the top) and "xAx" (at the bottom). In the center is the date "19.8.1921".

Both of the covers have local Ibscow addresses. Examining covers of later
issues I came across one having a duplicate cancel to ones described, dated June
27, 1921 (between two faint lines), on stamps which supposedly were not issued
until August 1921. The cover is addressed to Kaunas and is backstampod and
dated June 30, 1921.

I have no other stamps or covers of this period with the same typo of can-
cellation. This leaves me to conclude, that until more information is available,
we may consider the above cancellation as doubtful.

Whether the cancellation is good or not, the rate on the cover amounting to
68 rubles is crazy and has no meaning. Of course, if the cancellation may be
proven to be good, one may then say that the stamps were placed on the cover to
get them cancelled, which is and has been a widely used gimmick by collectors,
who often either have single stamps or complete sets placed on a piece of some
sort, be it an envelope or a piece of paper which may be of any size or shape,
and have them cancelled.

A good oxample cf the above occurred recently when I tried to talk a friend
of mine from taking mint gutter pairs of imperforate Farleys of 1932 and have
them cancolled in 1964, just to got cancelled copies. One very important factor:
to consider when collecting covers or cancelled stamps is to remember that the
postal clerks are human and often are very obliging, and this applies not only
to the present time but to the times that have passed.

C o u n t e r f e i t s Addition to Pages 43 and 44 (#66)

Dr. C. de Stackelberg, who seems to be very obliging in sending portions of
his collection for examination, sent me this time a number of Soviet sounterfoil
which included the following Scott Nos. 177, 178, 191-194, 196-199, B29 and
B14-16 (both in two types), B30-31 and Cl. Since these articles at the present
time, deal only withe 1st Soviet issue, I shall laave the others until some
other time.

Scott Nos, 177 to 179 (1. 2 and 5r.)

On the counterfeits the gum is not cfackly, and the details of the printing
are not clear. The variation in shades between originals and oouintrfeits is
so slight that one can not give them a color name, although it can be said that
the counterfeits are duller.

It is quite unnecessary to go into great details in describing both origi-
nals and counterfeits, because they are spotted easily by their size.
No. 67 Page 67

25x291- to 30am. 24 to 24j x 29 m.

Basic counterfeits of #177 to 179 were used to prepare Scott Nos. 191 to 193
and 196 to 198. Incidentally, I have not as yet seen a 5r. unoverprinted

Scott No. 189 (20r.)

Counterfeits of 20r. are on pelure paper and have many shade variations, and
blurred details. The most important differences between the good and the bad is
the size.

38-- to 38L x 23- to 23jmm. 37 to 38 x 22- to 22Smm.

* Replace the sizes given at the top of page 44 (#66) by the sizes given above.

Again, as on the first three Soviet stamps, the basic counterfeit stamps were
used to prepare the counterfeits of Scott ##194a and 199a. I have not as yet
seen an unoverprintod counterfeit of 20 rubles.


Dr. Stackelberg reports 20r. (ordinary paper) with a double impression.


Page 41 (#66) The rate for Foreign Letters should be 1000r. instead of 100r


August 25, 1921 2nd Soviet Issue

The 2nd Soviet issue consisting of 100, 250 and 1000 rubles made its appear-
ance on August 25, 1921, soon after it became evident that the first issue con-
sisting of values from 1 to 40 rubles was useless, because of the low face value
and because of therapid 'upward increase in the postal rates (See Rossica #66,

As we will see later, because of huge quantities printed, there were a number
of printings of the Second issue, which are ably described by G. M. White in his
handbook, but unfortunately not written up in any of the Russian philatelic lite-
rature of 1922 or later. Whites breakdown of printings is given in the follow *
ing Sections, numbered I to V. (See page 10,of G. M. White's handbook, Sections
pertaining to 100, 250 and 1000 rubles).


Printing I. August 25. 1921

Issued in sheets of 50 (10x5) single pane, also in sheets of 50 consisting
of two panes of 25 (5x5). Paper medium wove.

10Or. lemon yellow 250r. slate violet 1000lr. dull, rose red
a. orange a. gray violet a. deep rose rod (rasp-
b. orange brown b. black violet berry)
c. olive yellow b. carmine
Pag. 68 No. 67

Soviet catalogue for 1924 states that the-paper used was that which was used
for the Czarist issue of 1909-17, which had a watermark on the edges of the
sheets. The stamps of this printing are dull in polor and the details of the
design are not as sharp as on the later printings.

Printing II, September 15, 1921

Sold by the post office in sheets of 100, four panes of 25 on paper as in I.
The colors vary as in 'the Ist printing, and White, states that in fact, certain
shades listed under the 1st printing belong to the 2nd printing. The confusion
may be attributed to the sizes of the sheets of the 1st printing, which may be
derived by cutting down sheets of the 2nd printing. The Soviet catalogue also
states that the 250r. was sold in sheets of 50, consisting of two horizontal
panes of 25 (5x5).

100r. orange yellow 250r. slate violet 1000r. dull, rose red

In Printing I I, sheets of 100 of 250r. exist with panes (half sheets of
50) tete-becho, horizontally. Also, the same value was issued in shoots of 100,
consisting of a single pane of 100 (lOxlO).

A footnote in 1933 Soviet catalogue states that beginning with the 2nd
printing some shoots had as many as 500 stamps.

Printing III. October 2C, 1921

Issued in sheets of 50 and 100 stamps on thin translucent paper (peluro).

100r. orange 250r. sl.to purple 100r. deep, rose red
a. lomon yellow a. purple black

Printing IV, Date of issue unrlT-'-n

Printed on glaze'. chalky paper.

250r. slate violet 1000r. carmine

Printing V. Date of issue urkncwn

Printed on carton (thick) paper.

100r. rose red


The 1924 edition of the Soviet catalogue gives the quantities issued of some
of the earlier Soviet issues, which are being recorded in these articles. The
quantities given are es follows:

10Cr. 4L,39),900 250r. -78,929,150 .1000lr. 53,869,950

All of the above stamps were overprinted at one time or another. Some are
listed in Scotts catalogue and some are not. The quantities of some of the over-
prints are known while-on the others there is no record. We are listing all of
these overprints so that the reader can see what they are and add or subtract
these quantities from the numbers issued, which are given abouv. Frankly, we
do not know whether they should be added or subtracted.

No. 67 Page 69

Overprints on 100r. basic stamps

Scott ## J10, B43, Ukraine 170. Non Scott 10O,000r./100r. in violet and
red violet local overprint at S E R A F I M0 D I V E E V S K 0 E in Nijego-
gorodsk Gubernia. Official 5k./100r in black, with very rough perforation.

Overprints on 250r. basic stamp

Scott #201 (2,000,000), 210 (19,0000000), B40 (25,600) or a total of
39,025,000. Ukraine #171. Non Scott Official 10k./250r. in black with very
rough perforation. 7500r./250r. local overprint in black (Smolensk Gubernia).

Overprints on 10OOr. basic stamp

Scott ##B47 and Ukraine 172. Non Scott 6ffieial 50k./1000r. in black
with very rough perforation.


Cancelled stamps of this issue are more common than on the previous issue,
although those dated 1921 are far more elusive than those dated 1922. Likewise,
cancelled stamps of some shades and paper varieties are very scarce.

The earliest postmarks in my collection are dated September, 1921. I have
a cover with two 1000r. (registered from Odessa Sept. 23, 1921). 100r. (Sopt.
21). It will be up to the readers to decide what the earliest date is and
whether it was in August or September of 1921.


Here again, as in the previous issue, the information on postal rates is
lacking, and the postage found on covers varies considerably, thus creating

This may be attributed to various factors, some of which re listed below.

1. Numerous post offices still had Imperials on hand in 1921 and 1922 and
either wanted to use them up first, or perhaps were reluctant to use the
Soviet stamps.

2. Porhape due to rapid fluctuation in postal rates Imperials were more
handy to make up the necessary rates, or perhaps due to their size they
took less space on covers than the Soviet stamps.

3. Likewise, perhaps the early distribution of the Soviet stamps was not
very efficient.

I have one cover addressed to USA (Nov. 1921) with ten lOOr. stamps.
Another (registered) from Elizavetgrad to USA (Oct. 1922) has a single
100r. stamp, while a similar cover dated Aug. 1922 has four 100r. and
a pair of 250r.

4. Another factor is that although a set postal rates undoubtedly existed,
only a portion of the total postage necessary was placed on the envelot
and the remainder was collected in cash.

Page 70 No. 67


a. Ordincry wove raper 1CO, 250 and 1000r. (Soo 1st and 2nc' Printings).
b b, Poluro Cthin Tpoer 100, 250 and 1000r.
c. Chalky glazed paper 250 and 1000r.
d. Carton (thick paopr) 100r. The stamps on this paper usually have
pink backs.


See the data given under the first issue for spacings. 250r. black on
chalky paper is a trial proof. The following chemical changelings exist, al-
though they were never issued thus. 1COr. rose and also deep brown. 250r.
various shades of red. 1000r. buff.

Although WIhite lists tote-boche variety only under Printing II (ordinary
paper) it was also issued on poluro paper.

Soviet catalogue (1958) states that the stamps listed under #7 and 9, were
issued in September (August in the earlier edition) and that the 100r. (Scott
#181) exists with a watermark.on the edges of the sheets.

AuCust 25, 1925

Lithographed on unwatermarked medium wove paper and issued imperforate in
sheets of various sizes. All stamps have (s) variations.

N 0 T E: Beginning with this issue the f3r-.t of listing has been changed to
include all shades listed by various catalogues. Likewise, all of
the collectors are warned here that a listed shade nomenclature of
one cataloguer may appear under another name of another cataloguer.
This is beyond our control.

Ordinary wove paoer 1964 1958 1958 1956 1956 1945 1938
V a 1 u e Scott Soviot _us Gibbons Romeko Yvert icchel Ill.

7. 10Cr. orange 1l1 6 214a 144 144 144x 1
a. crane yellow 6a 163a
b. lomon 6b
c. orange brown 6c 214b 144c
d. olive yellow 6d 144d
e. yellow orange 163
f. It. yellow br. 163b
g. olive 163c 214c
h. yellow 214 144a
i. rod orange 144b
j. light yellow 14,a

S c a r c i t y 6c (41), 6d (ACN), 163b ($2.75), 163c ($5.59), 214b (24C3?,
214c (420N), 144c (200N), 14ld (400N), 1Ub (1ON). Abbrevia-
tion (N) means N 0 R !? A L, while the number before it means
that the variety is that many times scarcer. For example (240N)
for 214b means that it 240 ti-mes scercor than #214. In some
cases the actual listed value is given in dollars Example

No. 67 Page 71

Ordinary Wove Paper 1964 1958 1958 1958 1056 1945 1938
V a 1 u e Scott Soviet MInkus Gibbons Romeko Yvert fichel Ill

8. 259r. dull violet 183 8a 146 146 142x 1
a. gray violet 8b 146a
b. black violet 8c
c. slate violet 165 216a
d. slate lilac 216
e. gray black 216b 146b

8t. tete-beche 183c noted 165t 216c 146d noted 5
a. gr. violet (L.N.) noted see note
b. blk. v't. (L.N.) noted see note
c, blk. v't. (L. In.) noted see note

9. l000r. carmino 186 149a 149 1
a. red lla 219b 149
b. bright red llb
c. raspberry red 11
d. dull red (pale rose-G.) lld 219a
e. carmine red 168
f. rose carmine 219
g. bright carmine 219c
h. rose 149b 145x
i. double impression 149c
S c ar c i t y 216b (36N); 146b (1ON); llc (20N); lld (20N); 219a (30N);
l19b (15N); 1A49c (300N) .__

N 0 T E S Michel states that Nos. 7-9 exist cft. height 30mm.
Billig in his booklet (Lieforung No. 38) illustrates the difference
between the genuine stamps and the two types of counterfeits. Cft.
Type I 25.5x30mm. Type II 24x29mm.
Romeko No. 144 exists with local perforation (Rostov on Don).
Impression on back 146c
Teto-beche varieties (L.N.) Left stamp normal, right stamp inverted.
(L.In.)- Left stamp inv., right stamp normal.
The tete-beche varieties (pairs) are gutter pairs. In other words the
vertical margin between the stamps is wide. It is the gutter margin
which separates the stamps.

September 15, 1921

Lithographed on unwatermarked polure (thin) paper and issued imperforato in
sheets of various sizes. All stamps have (s) variations.

Pelure Paper 1964 1958 1958 1958 1956 1945 1938
V a 1 u e Scott Soviet Minkus Gibbons Romeko Yvert Mchel 111

7p. crango 181a 6A 163p 220a 1441 listed 140y 1
a. orange yellow 6Aa
b. lirht yellow 6Ab
c. olive yellow 6Ac
d. yellow brown 6.d
e. ochre 163pl 220b
f. yellow 220 144Ia
g. bruwn orange 144TIb
s e r c i t y 6Ac (40o); 6Ad (40N); 163pl ($4.25); 220b (180N); 144Ia (2.5N);
144I__b (150N). ,____

Page 72 No. 67

Polure (thin) paper 1964 1958 1958 1958 1956 1945 1938
V a 1 u e Scott Soviet Winkus Gibbons Roreko Yvort Michel Ill

S 8p. 250r. dull violet 183a 165p listed 140y 1
a. gray violet 8A 146I
b. violet 8a 1461a
c. black violet 8Ab
d. slate lilac 221
e. slate viclet 221a
f. gray black 146Ib
g. liFht grey 146Ic
h. double impression 165t1 146Id

8pt. tote-becho-pairs
hcrizontal-violot 221b listed 5
a. gray violet (L.In.) noted 146If
b. black violet (L.In.) noted_

9p. 1COCr. red 186c 11A 168p 1491 listed 145y 1
a. bright red 1lAa
b. r.spbcrry rod llAb
c. dull rod llAc 149Ia
d. rose red 223
e. scrlt 223a

S c a r c i t y 165tl ($3.00); 146lI (5T); 116Ic (SN); 146Id (150N); 1lAc (20N);
223a (3:).
N o t e s Rcm.7io Impression on the b-oc 14Ic; 146Ic
_Gibbcns- Gives dates of issue is Soetembor October

Chalky Faper

8C. 250r. dull violet 183b 1663l noted
a. violet B 142z
b. gray viclet 8Ba
c. palo violot 8Eb
d. slate lil-c 224
e. slate -iclet 224a
f, violet blue 14611

9C. lOCOr. carmine 6a 6 16rl noted 1
a. bright rod 11B
b. dull rod llBa
c. car--i'ne rod 225 149II
d. scarlet 225a
e. roso 145z-

S c rc i t PBb (5'); llBa (2C0:); 165pi (20N); 224 (50N); 224a (601).
N o t o s Romcko 1L6 II (Ao' Ihan and Odessa Postal district) .ditional
information is nooedo on this item Fditcr

Carton cr thick papor

9D. ICCOr. carmrin 168b 16(p2 noted 1
a. raspberry red 11C
b. carmine red 226 141III

r6. 67 Page 73

September. 1921 3rd. Soviet Issue

The 3rd Soviet issue consisting of 200. 300 and 500r., like the 1st issue
was lithographed on ordinary white paper, and issued imperforate, except for
Printing III.

White, breaks down this issue by printings (same as the 2nd issue). We are
reproducing the breakdown below.

Printing II. September 15. 1921

Issued in sheets of 100, in four panes of 25 on medium wove paper.

200r. pale brown 300r. green 500r. blue
a. chestnut brown a. deep green a. deep blue
b. deep brown
c. sepia
d. grey

Printing III. October 20. 1921

Issued in sheets of 50 and 100 stamps on thin translucent (pelure) paper.

300r. green


200r. 4,000,000 300r. 3,000,000 500r. -1,071,900

Overprints on basic stamps See the paragraphs following the QUANTITIES ISSUED
of the 100, 250 and 1000r. *
Overprints on 200r. basic stamps Scott #B44. Non-Scott Official lr./200r.
in black, with very rough perforations.
Overprints on 300r. basic stamps Scott B45. Non-Scott Official 25k./300r.
in black and 10k./25k./300r. in black, both with
very rough perforations.
Overprints on 500r. basic stamps Scott #B46.


Ordinary paper 200, 300, 500r. issued in sheets of 100 consisting of 4 panes
of 25 (5x5).
Thin (pelure) paper 300r. issued in sheets of 50 and 100 stamps.


I have no covers of this issue and none of my stamps are cancelled prior
to 1922.

In February 1922, the 200 and 300r. of this issue, due to increase in postal
rates wore revalued 10 times, i.e. to 2,000 and 3,000r. respectively and were
sold and used thus by the post office without overprinting.

S P C I N G B E T WE E E ST P S T R I A L P R 0 0 F S. ET C.

Spacing between stamps varies as in the 1st and 2nd Soviet issues. There
are no proofs. Like in White's handbook, the Soviet catalogues mention the

Page 74 No. 67

same color changelings, namely 200r. rose, also violet and 300r. palo blue, plus
200r. green, and states that they were never issued thus.

It is stated somewhere in philatelic literature, that the 3COr. on peluro
paper exists counterfeit, produced by thinning the stamp printed on ordinary
paper and then soaking it in paraffin. Confirmation of this is lacking.

Same notations apply here to counterfeits on the ordinary paper as in the
2nd issue.

September 15, 1921

Lithographed on unwatormarked r-'ium wove papor and issued imporforate in
shoots of various sizes. .1l stamps have (s) variations.

Ordinary Wovo Paper 1964 1958 1958 1958 1956 1945 1938
V a 1 u e Scott Soviet Finkus Gibbons Romeko Yvert S.chel Ill.

10. 200r. light br. 182
a. brown 7 215 145 145 141x 1
b. dark brown 7a
c. rod brown 7b 215a 145b
d. Lray brown 7c 215c 145c
o. gray 7d
f. It. yellow brown 164
g. drab brown 164a
h. chocolate 215b
i. black brown 145a

11. 300r. groon 184 166 217 147 147 143x 1
a. dark green 9
b. light green 9a
c. pTle green 217a

12. 50Cr. blue 185 1C 218 148 148 144x 1
a. dark blue lOa
b. pale blue 10b 148a
c. grau blue 167

Pelure Paper

11A. 300r. green 184a 9A 166p 222 1471 'bntioned 143y 1

S c a r c i t y 7b ((N); 7c (4N); 7d (LO!:); 164a ($1.75); 215a (12N); 215c
(150N); 217a (O3F); 145a (2-); 145b (3N); 145c (50N); 1l4a (z2).

to be continued

by R. Sklarevski

Through the courtesy of Bill Pogg of the ew Erngland Stamp Co. I am able
to describe a number of interesting postal markings fund on covers.

No. 67 Page 75


A cover originating from the American Consular Service Vladivostok, Siberia
and addressed to the Northern Aluminum Co., Ltd., New York City, USA.

The 10 kop. rate is made up of a 3 kop. Romanov and a 7 kop. of the Arms
issue. The letter traveled by the "Vladivostok Tsuruga Steamer", via Yokohama,
Japan. Fig. 1 illustrates the steamer (black) cancellation. This is the standard
type of cancel Type T (see page 14 of S. & T. Handbook).

Figure 2 illustrates a transit marking (faded blue), in two lines, which
reads "Chorez Yaponiu (Via Japan)" size 55x32mm. and on the second line "V
Ameriku (to America)" size 46x323mm.

Unillustratod marking, found on the reverse side of the over is circular,
purple, and roads "Yokohama, Japan" and "Nov. 24., 1914".

This cover was carried on one of the Chinese-Eastern Railroad (C.E.R.)
Maritime Company's steamers, which are mentioned on P. 478 of S. & T. handbook
as (4). Vladivostok-Tsuruga Express Line.


Posted at the Russian P.O. in Chefoo. The 8 kop. rate is made up of four 2k.
horizontally laid paper stamps, which are tied with Type 1 (S. & T.) Chefoo
cancel in black, illustrated on P. 360 (Fig. 503).

The interesting point about this cancellation is that it has only a normal
outer circle. The inner circle is formed by faint dots (probably a worn out cir-
cle). Of the date 19.20/11.03, the "19" is completely missing. Cover bears a
Chefoo arrival marking (black), shown on P. 375, Type C 6 (Fig. 534) of S. & T.
and is dated Feb. 20, 1903. The cover is addressed to Weymouth, Dorchester, En-
gland via Chofoo Port Arthur lscow. Chinese P.O. added a pair of j cent
dragon stamps and sent it on its merry way. The cover is backstamped March 17,


A post card of a standard type, with printed form in German, from Tientsin
(Type 6, P. 351, Fig. 491) to Borezovka, Transbaikal, in black. Censor marking
of Irkutsk (standard type of Irkutsk) in purple.


Registered, from Ibscow to Riga, dated Aug. 1891. Rate 42 kop. consisting
of Scotts Nos. 35 and 37. The background of 7 kop. (No. 35) is misplaced 2Tmm.
north and l-mm. east.


A cover from Nizhni-Novgorod to Ivanovsky Monastery, Mbscow. Illustration
2 in black, rounded corner square, with date 31/cbtobor 1880 and initials "K.
Ya." in Russian. The latter marking is evidently a receiving marking of the
Ivanovsky Monastery.


From Warsaw to a small village in Radom Postal Region (Poland) with a
straight line "Przhytyk Rd. Gub." cancel (probably a transit point).
Page 76 No. 67

C O VE R 7

Circles 23.5, 14.5mm. dia. At the top "Kiev (bilingual). At the bottom
"Vokzal". In the center 17ch. 1 Jan. 1932 (3 lines). At the sides Four
arrows, which appear in a form of a parallelogram.


Circles 32, 20.5mm. dia. Between circles, starting opposite the bottom
horizontal line, in clockwise direction "Novorcsiisk Port". At the bottom -
"A" In the center, between two horizontal lines, 12-im. apart "20 3 32".
On the sides of "A" asterisks.


Circles 31, l1mm. dia. Between circles, starting from the bottom horizon-
tal line, clockwise "Viatka Zh. D. P. T. 0. (Viatka RR Post Office". At the
bottom "G". At the sides of "G" Solid 5 pointed stars. In the center, bet-
ween two horizontal lines, 12-mnm. apart "21 2 31".


Ovals 31i25i-, 22xl5nm. Between ovals "Lonlngrad 191 Zhlobin". At the
bottom "3". Between two horizontal lines, 10 mm. apart "16 11 29". It is
itoresting to note here that it is the same Imperial route, except "Petrograd"
was replaced by "Leningrad".


Ovals 32x26j-, 22x17-mm. Between ovar.s "Kerch 131 Dzankoi". At the
bottom "a". At the sides small strrs. In the center, betwjoen two horizontal
lines, lln. apart is the date. Another cover dated "1928" has a Russian "b" at
the bottom. This routo is the same as the one used during the Imperial times.

C 0 ER 12

Ov-lis 31P26--, 22x16mm. Between ovals "P.V. Moscow (the name of the
second city is illegible)". At the bottom geometrical figure. In the cota.::,
betwo3n wavy lines "4-8-28" his cover is addressed to N.Y. and is b.cksi-.--r
"5 scw Esp 5 9 28". On the sides of which is a three line slogan
cancellation, reading "Sub scribe at pcst office 'fr nr&wpapors and. journals".


Circles 31t-x17-'m. Between circles, frc- the bottom line, clockwise -
"Leningradsk. G. Vokzal". At the bottcn, btwecr. two pointed stars Russian
"b". In the center, between two horizrntrl linc., 12mmn. apart "5 5 30".
Evidently this type of circular cancel was used in other cities during the saeno
period because I note one fror: Choliabinsk.. Likewise it is interesting to men-
tion that the sizes of the circles vary, as well as the botton-letter and'the
figures on the sides. The position of the date is the same but the spaoes 'n
each outer sides of the horizontal lines are partly filled in.


Circle 2-Tmm. dia. At the top "USSR", and below it 5 pointed star.
At the bottom, reading counterclcc'kwise "PV Kiev Leningral". In the center -
"15 15 8" botwcen two thick horizontal lines. 10)jAm. apart. The sides of the
horizontal lines are closed arcs, which are part of a circle 17mi. in dia.
P3low the bottom horizontal line "u".
fo. 67 Page 77

C O0V E R 15

Circles 32, 20mm. dia. Between circles, beginning at the asterisk at bot-
tom left, clockwise. "Pocht. Agent. Na Sta. Kruchina, Zab. Zh. D. (Postal
Agency of the Station Kruchina on Transbaikal Railroad)". In the center date.


Circle 25mm. dia. Clockwise, inside of circle "Zdano dlia dost." In
the center, in three lines "V 8 chasa utra". (Posted for delivery at 8 0'
clock in the morning). At the bottom geometrical figure flanked by asterisks.
This is a local cancellation used in Vilna. the pages of three sheet letter
are dated between January and fay 1901. (Illustration 4 .
0000000000000000000 000000000000000000


R 0 M I NE P I N A IN U L 18 8 1. (Postmarks used in Rumanian
territories up to the year 1881), by Gr. Racoviceanu. Published by "Editura
Transporturilor si Telecomunicatilor", Bucharest 1963 in a limited edition of
2149 copies. Includes a reproduction of an Austrian postal map of 1848 and
contains 115 _ages. Price Lei 12.25.

In line with the intensive research now customary on the international
philatelic scene, the author does a well-documented job on the diversified po-
stal history of his country; the late S. V. Prigara, our contributor D. N.
Minchev and Vfessrs. Stephen and Tchilinghirian all come in for an honorable
mention. As a result, the book contains an excellent 6-page section on the
Imperial Russian Posts in Rumania, with no loss than 18 illustrations of post-
marks, mostly of the very rare pro-stamp types and including an unusual Rumriaan
marking for the border post office at Skulyany.

It does not follow that the rest of this work bears no interest for our
members. Rumania is a Latin country but it has had Slav neighbors for many
centuries. This is evident in the native markings from the pre-stamp period,
which are inscribed in a quaint mixture of Cyrillic and Latin lettering.

The book is entirely in Rumanian but is still very easy to follow. It
went to press in 1963 and has just appeared this year (1964).
xoxoxoxoxoxoxox.O .xOoxoxoxoxoxox

PISATELY NASHEI R 0 DIN Y. (Writers of our Homeland). A 95-
page album, compiled by Mie. A. N. Panina and issued by Glavnaya Filatelistiches-
kaa Kornor. _oscow 1961 in edition of 20.000 copies.

Adding to the growing pile of philatelic literature published over the last
few years in the USSR, this is a well-bound album, printed on good quality paper
and including basic data on famous writers of Russia and associated states,
supplied by Mme. Panina. The data are given on the left-hand pages and tally
with the well-arranged illustrations of the stamps on the right-hand pages. All
the stamps of the USSR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania
pertaining to this topic and issued up to 1961 are illustrated and there are 7
additional pages to cater for later emissions. Following upon all this at the
end of the volume, all the authors and stamp designers are carefully cross-index-
ed, thus helping to give reference value to the book. The album was awarded a
bronze medal at "Philatec-Paris-1964".

Parge 78 No. 67

This work sells for 2r. 05 k., new currency, and interested topicalists
among our membership would be advised to contact their correspondents for a copy,
or write the Baku Collectors' Society, P.O. Box 71, Baku, Azerbaijan for further
pa oooooccoooccoooooooocooocooooococooo
O000OO OCC00oO.000000OOOOCOD0000O oOOO

Y E S H T E : E L Y A 1922 1961. (CratClogue of Soviet Special Postmrks
1922 -1961). Compiled by Y. M. Vcvin and published by Glavnaya Filatelistiches-
kaya Xontora, oscow. 1963 in edition of 15.CO0 copies.

Lack of space did not permit adequate review of this work in our Journal
#66. The book fills a long-felt gap in this wide field and it is obvious that
most of the types applied up to the year 1939 are either rare or very rare. In
fact, there is a notable omission in this section, namely the cancel ccmmomo-
rating the Esperanto Congress, held at Leningrad in 1926 and struck in green,
it is inscribed entirely in Esperanto and was illustrated on p. 69 of the 1933
SFA catalogue with date 10.8.26.

fhrkings applied after the year 1939 are shown and listed in great variety
and profusion. In fact, the tendency over the last few years has boon to such
attention to fino detail, one has the impression that many of them would make
good postage stamp designs. The book is certainly of use to many tcpicalists.

G 0 V 0 R Y A T M A R K I. (Stamps speak). By V. A. Alokseev. Published by
Kharkovskoye Knizhnoyo Izdtelt stvo in 1961 in an edition of 30.000 copios.

Reference to this 12E-page work has been made by our member John Lloyd in
Rossica #65. Intended primarily for ycung collectors, the writer opens with a
good chapter entitled "From the first Russian stamp to -he First Soviet sta.i;r'.
He then devotes several chapters to various topical subjects and ends with a
section which gives hints to the young collector on how to collect stamps.

This is not a profound work and it has been severely criticized in the
manual "Soviet Collector 1963". From the bibliograhic point of viou, it is
of interest as a sample of philatelic literature as nprduced outside ftscow and
the illustrations are excellent. The rtprcducti:.i :'. natural colors of the 1958
souvenir sheet for the centenary of the Ru r-r.n ypo.tage stamp is so good, it
looks like the real thing. The book is new c301 out.
ocooooooo00 oo0oooo00cco:0ooOoooooo

tCatalogue of Imperial Russia) Edited by Cerclo Philatelique France-URSS. 8,
eo o qla\Vrilliore. P2aris alor. Eit t nieur Georges Citero_ President.

In 1956 this Society published a catalogue, 125 pages, of Imperial Russia
and the Soviet Union. For several years now members and other philatelists from
many countries have been pressing for a now edition.

Having studied all aspects of the problem, the Society decided to publish a
real encyclopedia of stamps of the old Russia and the young Soviet Union with
as mch added information as possible in three volumes. This then is the first
part, and in the preface by the President, thanks are tendered to all who helped
in this work, among which special thanks to Messrs. Liphschutz and Rockling of
Paris, The British Society of Russian Philatoly, Societo D'Amitio Polgo-Sovieti-
qu3 and others.

No. 67 Page 79

There are first of all short chapters on Geography and History of the Count-
ry, Postal History and general information on the stamps of Imperial Russia, i.e.
sheets, inks, perforations, methods of printing, paper, etc. This is followed
by short study of the Russian alphabet and the translation of many Russian

Now follows the catalogue proper, headed by a chapter on the first postal
entire (envelopes), postal stationery and post cards. Pagos 47 to 76 are taken
up by the stamps issued from January 1, 1858 up to the Revolutionary overprints
of Romancvs of Phrygian Bonnet and Swords. Into this work has been incorporated
a great deal of information front the Reynolds catalogue. The whole is laid out
by issues, from the first to sixteenth, giving varieties, forgeries, proofs,
essays and many other items of interest.

Pages 77 to 94 are devoted to postal markings, cancellations, St. Petersburg
and Mbscow postmarks, travelling P.O. and Mite cancellations. To finish a short
chapter on Zemstvos (general information).

Of this work a hundred copies were printed on art paper and numbered 1 to
100, the remainder was printed on ordinary paper, all being paper backed. To
all interested in Russian philately it is a "must" and in my opinion a very
fine effort.

John Lloyd

by E. bIrcovitch
Recently appeared third supplement to the catalogue of the Ukrainian unof-
ficial stamps written by the greatest specialist of this sphere -J. L. Iksym-
czuk. This catalogue was awaited with impationce by errinophilists scattered
all over the world.

As all catalogues of this author, the latest is scientifically worked out
with great care and knowledge.

Classification of Ukrainian unofficial issues is extremely complicated due
to the great variety of stamps, vignettes, blocks, entire, postmarks, and as
well as of the organizations issuing them and their purpose. By looking at the
contents of the catalogue one can readily understand the variety of this material

(1). Postal issues of the Ukrainian Governments in Exile and of Ukrainian
National Council.
(2). Issues of military formations. (3). Issues of the Camp-posts in Germany.
(4). Issues of Ukrainian Plast (Scout).
(5). Issues of the organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Revolutionary Wing)
and underground post.
(6). Issues of other Ukrainian organizations.
(7). Revenue, fee and due stamps, various donations, welfare and propaganda
seals, labels, cacheted covers, cancellations, etc.

As in the previous editions, the author gives a list of all newly discovered
old issues. In this he is aided by various collectors and specialists of Ukrai-
nian philately and errinophilia.

Thus, in this supplement, one must note the rarest series of charity labels
issued in 1912 in Lvov by the Ukrainian Radical Party benefiting the Union of
Ukrainian Sharpshooters (Strelkov). In this series are two types of designs.

Page 80 No. 67

Type I a group of strolkov gymnasts and Type II a horsonan in a hetman cos-
tume. Each is in three various colors. In the previous supplement was recorded
only one single vignette, now the entire series.

In spite of the fact that this catalogue and the previous ones are in
Ukrainian language, unknown to most of the foreigners and oven difficult for
the Russian collectors, everyone can use the catalogue because of oxcellont
illustrations. Of course if the catalogue were also issued in English, it
would receive a greater distribution and use.

We express our warmest wish that the author would join all the catalogues
into one, editing same in two l:nngages. We are sure that with the help of
errinophilists in various ccuntrios such an edition will cover its expenses,
especially as separate sections of the catalogue such as: vignettes of the
Red Cross, Olympics, sports, scouts, etc. will interest wide circles of orrino-
philists of the world.

A special feature of the issues of the Ukrainian organizations of the past
few years is the appearance of many blocks, souvenir sheets, post cards and
covers, 1st day and others. It seems that these organizations easily sell them
to their members rather than separate labels. Thus, the desires of the collect-
ors re big issues of vignettes, and cutting down of souvenir sheets, covers
have no effect on the Ukrainian organizations. We mast admit however that these
covers, on the whole are very criminal and in good taste.

Tbcmers interested in the cataloguo of this author should write to -

Juliam M .S Y M C Z U K, 1622 N. Monitor veonue, Chicago 39, Il., SA

The Price of the Catalogue is ^3.00
o00coC oo0ooo00 oooooooo0oo00

(Continyvd frc- Faec )

Boris Shishkin, authorized to start a Rossica branch, at the last Annual
informs us as this goes to print that a group has been crCeanizod in Washington,
D.C. and that a meeting, with a fine philatelic program has been hold, also a
dinner. All those living in Washington-Baltimore area are urged to contact Mr.
Shishkin, Roosica No. 536.
, *"~--- ~-) ~'~~f" ""~"
Hal Cobb sent us a photo-copy for our library, of the rare find, via the
efforts of San Robbins, of the first portions of the Schridt-Faborgo catalogue
of Zemstvos, this is detailed later, in the journal. Congratulations and thanks
----- W -----_---_ ------ ------
A meeting of the Los Lncolos Rcssic. Society was held at the home of M. &
Mrs. Howard Lehman, this summer, the a-ust of honor being Mr. N.V. Gorasimov,
head of Philatelic Department "nMzh'unrc;Idnaya Knica", Moscow. A frank discus-
sion was held on all phases of Russian philately and stamp issue policy, phila-
tolic literature and catalogues in English language.
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