Front Cover
 Officers of the society
 Representatives of the society
 Life of the society
 Zemstvos by Michel Liphschutz
 The "mother lode" of Russian-Alaskan...
 The Dainy field telegraph branch...
 Colors of the dotted numeral cancellations...
 A special marking of the Russian...
 The urgent border post office during...
 Additional notes on Poltava Zemstvo...
 Notes from collectors
 Scarce Soviet perforations from...
 The ancient Russian posts by M....
 The transmission of mails on steamers...
 Ukrainian "Skrinka" markings by...
 Two unissued Soviet sets of 1933...
 Soviet color trial proofs...
 Stamped envelopes of U.S.S.R. by...
 The riddle of the Alexandria Zemstvo...
 The paper money issued at Khabarovsk...
 The small current stamps (additional...
 Book reviews


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00003
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1965
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00003

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Life of the society
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Zemstvos by Michel Liphschutz
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 6b
        Page 6c
        Page 6d
        Page 6e
        Page 6f
        Page 6g
        Page 6h
        Page 6i
        Page 6j
        Page 6k
        Page 6l
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The "mother lode" of Russian-Alaskan postal history by Michael Rayhack
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    The Dainy field telegraph branch cancellation on a remarkable cover by M. M. Kessler
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 20b
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Colors of the dotted numeral cancellations by O. A. Faborge
        Page 24
        Page 25
    A special marking of the Russian posts in Bulgaria during 1877-79 by D. N. Minchev
        Page 26
    The urgent border post office during 1877-78 by D. N. Minchev
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Additional notes on Poltava Zemstvo stamps by R. A. Sklarevski
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Notes from collectors
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Scarce Soviet perforations from 1946-1961 (compiled by the editorial board)
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    The ancient Russian posts by M. N. Vitashevskaya
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    The transmission of mails on steamers in Russia
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Ukrainian "Skrinka" markings by K. Adler & L. H. Stone
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
    Two unissued Soviet sets of 1933 by K. Adler
        Page 54
    Soviet color trial proofs 1932-1934
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Stamped envelopes of U.S.S.R. by St. G. Dronnan to list by E. Fomin
        Page 57
    The riddle of the Alexandria Zemstvo stamp by Boris Shishkin
        Page 58
    The paper money issued at Khabarovsk by M. Byckoff
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 62a
        Page 63
    The small current stamps (additional notes) by Mejor A. Prado
        Page 64
    Book reviews
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
Full Text
of the

Silver Medals at Belgrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937"and
the International Exhibition, Koenifsberf "Ostropa 1935"
Bronze Medals at the International Exhibitlon "Frat 1935"and
Vienna International Exhibition "WIPA 133"
"Recent Iaternational Awards:
Silver Medals at Berlin,"Bephil 1957", Parana."Eficon 198"
and Buenos Aires,'Temex 1958"
Hamburg "Interposta 1959" Palermo "Sicilia 1959" "Barcelona 1960" -
Johannesburg "Unipex 1960" Warsaw "Polska 1960" Prague "Praga 1962"
and Auxembourg "Melusina '63"

pycaoro Mhmr svmq
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.


Hon. rcbmb. Dr. G. B. Bondarenko-Salisbury


Hon. bMmb. R. A. Sklarovski Hon. Inmber V. A. Kurbas


Hon. nbmb. A. N. Lavrov
P. 0. Box 406 Englowood, N. J., 07631


Hon. I'bmbers: A. Cronin K. Adler O.A. Faborge K. Jansson E.- Marcovitch


2 Officers of the Society, Hon. Members and Representatives of the Society
3-4 Editorial. Life of the Society (continued on Page 69)
5-10 Zomstvos by Michel Liphschutz
11-19 The "Mother Lode" of Russian Alaskan Postal History by Michael Rayhack
20-24 The Dalny Field Telegraph Branch Cancellation on a Remarkable Cover
by M.M. Kesslor
24-26 Colors of the Dotted Numeral Cancellations by O.A. Faborgo
26-27 A Special Marking of the Russian Posts in Bulgaria During 1o77-79
by D. N. Minchev
27-2C The Ungent Border Post Office During. 17-78 by D. N. Minchov
29-30 Additional Notes on Poltava Zomstvo Stamps by R. A. Sklarovski
31-3G Notes from Collectors
39-41 Scarce Soviet Perforations EDITORIAL BOARD
42-47 The Ancient Russian Posts by M. N. Vitashevskaya
4L-52 The Transmission of Mails on Steamers in Russia by N. Sokolov
52-53 Ukrainian "Skrinka Markings" by K. Adler & L. H. Stone
54-55 Two Unissued Soviet Sots of 1933 by K. Adler
55-57 Soviet Color Trial Pro6fs of 1932-34 by K. Adler
57 Stamped Envelopes of UoS.S.R. by St. G. Dronnan to list by E. Fomin
58 The Riddle of the Alexandria Zomstvo Stamp by Boris Shishkin
59-64 -The Paper Money Issued at Khabarovsk by M. Byckoff
64 The Small Current Stamps (Additional Notes) by Major A. Prado
65-68 Book Reviews

No. 68 Page 1


President 3r. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarovski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arefiev


K. Adler J.F. Chudoba A. Cronin O.A. Faborge K. Jansson
N.I. Kardakoff A. Kotlar V. Kurbas A.N. Lavrov M. Liphschutz
E.I. Marcovitch G.B. Salisbury R. Sklarevski


Now York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, New York
San Francisco K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Washington B. Shishkin 2032 Tunlaw Rd. N.W. Washington, D.C., 20007
Western USA L. S. Glass 1533 So La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles, California
...... .............................................................
Argentina B. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia V. Tvolkmeyer 21 Elizabeth At. Paddington, Sydney, NSW.
Belgium I. Braunstoin 6 rue Mignot, Dolstancho, Uxollos, Brussels
Brazil *P. Beloff Rua Martiniano do Carvahlo 197, Sao Paulo, Brazil
France A. Liashonko 1 rue du Bocago, Paris 15, France
Germany E. P. Fomin Munich 54, Rudinstr. 9, West Germany
Great Britain J. Barry 77A St. James Road, Sutton Surrey, England
Israel A. Trumpoldor Arba artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel
Canada G. Rodzy Woda 65 Dorking St., Downsview, Ontario, Canada
............................................................................ .

Directors of the Society Kurt Adler. Vsevolod Kurbas. Konstantin Jansson
Auditing Committee Kurt Adler. Joseph F. Chudoba. Lydia Callahan

The views expressed by the authors are their own and the Editors disclaim any

.............. .................................................................

IMmbership Duos are $4.00 for US and Canada (per annum) and $3.00 for all other
countries of the World. Application forms, which must be filled out, are avail-
able upon request. ebmborship lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the
membership lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to
A. N. Lavrov, Treasurer P.O. Box 406, Englewood, New Jersey, 07631.
...... ........ ............................. ............. .

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates are as
follows: Full page Add is $30.00. Half page Add is 15.00. Quarter Page Add is
$7.50. Five (5) lines is 2.50. IMmbers of the Rossica Society pay one half or
50% of the above rates for the ADDS. Therefore the net cost of advertisements to
members is 25 cents per line. We have for sale some back issues of the JOURNAL
both in ENGLISH and in RUSSIAN.

Page 2 No. 68.


President 3r. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. Kotlar
Secretary Russian Speaking Section A. N. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarovski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arefiev


K. Adler J.F. Chudoba A. Cronin O.A. Faborge K. Jansson
N.I. Kardakoff A. Kotlar V. Kurbas A.N. Lavrov M. Liphschutz
E.I. Marcovitch G.B. Salisbury R. Sklarevski


Now York Group J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, New York
San Francisco K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Washington B. Shishkin 2032 Tunlaw Rd. N.W. Washington, D.C., 20007
Western USA L. S. Glass 1533 So La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles, California
...... .............................................................
Argentina B. Riasnianski, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia V. Tvolkmeyer 21 Elizabeth At. Paddington, Sydney, NSW.
Belgium I. Braunstoin 6 rue Mignot, Dolstancho, Uxollos, Brussels
Brazil *P. Beloff Rua Martiniano do Carvahlo 197, Sao Paulo, Brazil
France A. Liashonko 1 rue du Bocago, Paris 15, France
Germany E. P. Fomin Munich 54, Rudinstr. 9, West Germany
Great Britain J. Barry 77A St. James Road, Sutton Surrey, England
Israel A. Trumpoldor Arba artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel
Canada G. Rodzy Woda 65 Dorking St., Downsview, Ontario, Canada
............................................................................ .

Directors of the Society Kurt Adler. Vsevolod Kurbas. Konstantin Jansson
Auditing Committee Kurt Adler. Joseph F. Chudoba. Lydia Callahan

The views expressed by the authors are their own and the Editors disclaim any

.............. .................................................................

IMmbership Duos are $4.00 for US and Canada (per annum) and $3.00 for all other
countries of the World. Application forms, which must be filled out, are avail-
able upon request. ebmborship lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the
membership lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to
A. N. Lavrov, Treasurer P.O. Box 406, Englewood, New Jersey, 07631.
...... ........ ............................. ............. .

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates are as
follows: Full page Add is $30.00. Half page Add is 15.00. Quarter Page Add is
$7.50. Five (5) lines is 2.50. IMmbers of the Rossica Society pay one half or
50% of the above rates for the ADDS. Therefore the net cost of advertisements to
members is 25 cents per line. We have for sale some back issues of the JOURNAL
both in ENGLISH and in RUSSIAN.

Page 2 No. 68.


Our society can be justly proud of its success, since the appearance of the
last issue of our journal. The reviews of #67 were very kind and most enthusias-
tic. Both editions are very much in demand, and our stock of back issues is
dwindling fast. We have added many new members because of the reviews and socict:
publicity, and we urge those new recruits to buy the back issues, immediately,
before it is too late. We are already out of many numbers, such as Nos. 44, 45,
46/47, 49/50, 51, 59 and 60. Those numbers are already commanding fancy prices
at booksellers.

The Annual Joint MAoting of Rossica-B.S.R.P. was a great success, and during
the two-day mooting, bourse, and programs, as well as the huge party, we had a
record breaking attendance. Those of you who come to the ASDA show, or can easily
reach same, miss a groat treat by not coming to the Vandolbilt Hotel, across the
street from the Armory, on Saturday afternoon, and evening and all day Sunday.

The recently hold Interpox was another triumph. Our society hold the largest
number of frames of exhibition material, the biggest group attendance at the Ros-
sica mooting, and the most enthusiastic crowds around our treasures, shown to the
public. During the meeting, our two outstanding members, and tireless workers
in our field of collecting, Michol Liphschutz of France and Andrew Cronin of Now
York were unanimously elected as honored moebors of the society. Andy Cronin noed
no introduction to our readers for he has been a most prolific writer, active
editor, erudite judge at various exhibitions, and generous with contributions of
time, research and money. Michol Liphschutz, author of a fine treatise on Russia
f# in the past, and the author .of outstanding article on Zomstvos in this issue
likewise needs no introduction for he is a giant in the international competition.
Those who do not exhibit, may not know of his honor, so we are presenting a list
of just some of his awards in the "Life of the Society". We must point out also
that Michol Liphschutz has gonorously paid the groat expenso of the twelve pages
of illustrations of his article, involving several hrirod of dollars. Members
present at the Interpox mooting were most vocal in thjir gratitude for this fine

In closing may we voice a bit of criticism concerning the way the exhibition
shoots wore sent to the committee. .any stamps wore sent with poor hinges, or
lightly hinged. Blocks should be hinged both at top and bottom to prevent curling
of mint stamps. The thin album shoots wore hard to mount in the framos, bent
quickly and wore easily damaged. All of this creates many extra hours of work.
tension and damage. Ploano cooperate in the future, for otherwise your efforts
were great and resulted in the success of the exhibition, and of Rossica itself!


We wish to inform our monbors that our recently elected Honorary Nbmbor Michol
Liphschutz of France appeared on television in Paris. In his program he presented
various rarities of Russian philately.

M. Liphschutz's honors are many. His prizes at the international exhibitions
include Gold medals at Nice 1954 (French National Exhibition). 1955, Oslo (Nori.-
1955 Stockholm, 1955 Praga, 1956 Holsinki (Finlandia), 1957 Tel Aviv (Tabil)
classo d'honnour, 1959 Hamburg.Intorposta likewise class d'honnur and gold at
Palermo Sicilia'59, Warsaw Polska 60 also a Grand Prix. All of those wore for
Russia until 19C0 and Zemstvoa. Russia till 1900 without Zomstvos: 196C
London Gold, Fraga 1962 hors concours, 1964 Paris Philatoc hors concours.
Russian Post in the Near East and Middle East: 1957 Tabil Tel Aviv, gilt silver.
1960 Barcelona, gilt silver, 1962 Praga gold, 1963 Istanbul gold, and Paris

No. 68 Pago 3


Our society can be justly proud of its success, since the appearance of the
last issue of our journal. The reviews of #67 were very kind and most enthusias-
tic. Both editions are very much in demand, and our stock of back issues is
dwindling fast. We have added many new members because of the reviews and socict:
publicity, and we urge those new recruits to buy the back issues, immediately,
before it is too late. We are already out of many numbers, such as Nos. 44, 45,
46/47, 49/50, 51, 59 and 60. Those numbers are already commanding fancy prices
at booksellers.

The Annual Joint MAoting of Rossica-B.S.R.P. was a great success, and during
the two-day mooting, bourse, and programs, as well as the huge party, we had a
record breaking attendance. Those of you who come to the ASDA show, or can easily
reach same, miss a groat treat by not coming to the Vandolbilt Hotel, across the
street from the Armory, on Saturday afternoon, and evening and all day Sunday.

The recently hold Interpox was another triumph. Our society hold the largest
number of frames of exhibition material, the biggest group attendance at the Ros-
sica mooting, and the most enthusiastic crowds around our treasures, shown to the
public. During the meeting, our two outstanding members, and tireless workers
in our field of collecting, Michol Liphschutz of France and Andrew Cronin of Now
York were unanimously elected as honored moebors of the society. Andy Cronin noed
no introduction to our readers for he has been a most prolific writer, active
editor, erudite judge at various exhibitions, and generous with contributions of
time, research and money. Michol Liphschutz, author of a fine treatise on Russia
f# in the past, and the author .of outstanding article on Zomstvos in this issue
likewise needs no introduction for he is a giant in the international competition.
Those who do not exhibit, may not know of his honor, so we are presenting a list
of just some of his awards in the "Life of the Society". We must point out also
that Michol Liphschutz has gonorously paid the groat expenso of the twelve pages
of illustrations of his article, involving several hrirod of dollars. Members
present at the Interpox mooting were most vocal in thjir gratitude for this fine

In closing may we voice a bit of criticism concerning the way the exhibition
shoots wore sent to the committee. .any stamps wore sent with poor hinges, or
lightly hinged. Blocks should be hinged both at top and bottom to prevent curling
of mint stamps. The thin album shoots wore hard to mount in the framos, bent
quickly and wore easily damaged. All of this creates many extra hours of work.
tension and damage. Ploano cooperate in the future, for otherwise your efforts
were great and resulted in the success of the exhibition, and of Rossica itself!


We wish to inform our monbors that our recently elected Honorary Nbmbor Michol
Liphschutz of France appeared on television in Paris. In his program he presented
various rarities of Russian philately.

M. Liphschutz's honors are many. His prizes at the international exhibitions
include Gold medals at Nice 1954 (French National Exhibition). 1955, Oslo (Nori.-
1955 Stockholm, 1955 Praga, 1956 Holsinki (Finlandia), 1957 Tel Aviv (Tabil)
classo d'honnour, 1959 Hamburg.Intorposta likewise class d'honnur and gold at
Palermo Sicilia'59, Warsaw Polska 60 also a Grand Prix. All of those wore for
Russia until 19C0 and Zemstvoa. Russia till 1900 without Zomstvos: 196C
London Gold, Fraga 1962 hors concours, 1964 Paris Philatoc hors concours.
Russian Post in the Near East and Middle East: 1957 Tabil Tel Aviv, gilt silver.
1960 Barcelona, gilt silver, 1962 Praga gold, 1963 Istanbul gold, and Paris

No. 68 Pago 3

Philatoc 1964 gold, class d'honnour. Post in Russia 1917-1923 Paris Philatec
1964 a silver. bW are very proud of those honors for our member, Rossica and
Russian philately.

ROSSICA SOCIETY B.S.R.P. Annual Mboting. The annual joint mooting of the Rossica *
Society of Russian Philately and the British Society of Russian Philately took
place Nov. 21-22, 1964 at the Manger-Vandorbilt Hotel, Now York with another record
'breaking attendance for the tow day series of events.

A business meeting of the Rossica Society was hold, with Dr. Salisbury pro-
siding, at which time the election results were announced, all past officers were
unanimously reflected, the new constitution was approved, and:Joseph F. Chudoba,
who was the energetic chairman of both committees,. was thanked for his excellent

The members present approved plans for participation in the forthcoming INTERPE
and WIFA, and voted to offer suitable awards in the name of Rossica, to various
societies and exhibitions, for entries judged best in the field of Russian

A buffet party followed, lasting from nine until after one in the morning.
bombors, wives, friends, celebrated at the bar, buffet, the number swelling from
fifty to nearly a hundred, during the height of the affair.

The annual bourse of both sister societies was held on Sunday at noon in Room
111, as usual, and it lasted until 2 p.m., at which time a drawing was hold of the
lucky door prize offered annually by Dr. Salisbury, Ms. Charlotte Downs drew the
lucky ticket and it wont to NM. S. de Mgovo. It consisted of throe scarce philate
lie covers.

The joint meeting of the sister societies was then formally opened by Dr.
Salisbury, acting in the dual capacity as the head of Rossica and of B.S.R.P. in
the U.S., being their roprosontative hero. He read greetings from various parts
of the world, from different chapters, prominent collectors, and report of the
recent annual mooting of B.S.R.P. in London, the elections there, and the resigna-
tions from office of John Barry and Will Huddy, who had served so well for twenty
years as Secretary and Treasurer, respectively.

After the business mooting, Kurt Adler, chairman of the program committee,
offered a most varied program.

Rossica Society of Russian Philatoly mot during the Intorpox International
Stamp and Coin Show on March 21, 1965 at the Americana Hotel in Now York. It like-
wise oxhibited the largest number of frames of any participating group, and its
member, Kurt Adler won the Grand Award of the Intorpex as well as the Rossica
Grand Award, for his amazing "Russia, Used Abroad". Rossica's First Prize, a
Silver Modal was won by Dr. G. B. Salisbury for a ton frame display of the "Romanov
Tercentenary Issue of 1913". J. F. Chudoba won the 2nd Rossica Prize, a Bronze
Modal for his early imperials, while the Rossica 3rd Prize was won by Dr. G.
Torroy for his "Used Abroads". Lydia Callahnn won the Honorable bMntion of
Rossica for her display of Zomstvcs. Jorri Chaivoc, who had done a tremendous
amount of work to make the show a success, in his capacity as the chairman of the
Rossica Intorpox Committoo, won the A.T.A. medal for his fabulous "Spatial Progress
of Russian Cosmonauts".

The exhibits and the society lounge were well attended during the show, as
well as the meeting on Sunday, which was filled to the capacity of the mooting
hall. Dr. Salisbury presented his reports in the dual capacity of the President
-continued on p.69-
Page 4 No. 68


On Thursday, June 18, 1964, the"Academie de Philatelie de France" received
its foreign corresponding members at the occasion of the Philatec.Exhibition.
Throo lectures, illustrated with projections and films, wore hold, followed by a
dinner in a large restaurant in the "Bois de Boulogne".

One of these lectures was given by our member M. Liphschutz, on the history
of the Zemstvo Post in Russia. The salient parts of his speech are reproduced

by Michel Liphschutz

Before I begin discussing the postal history of the Zemstvos, I would like to
say a few words concerning the Zemstvos themselves existing in the Russian history
during the eighteen sixties, the years just after the Crimean War. This war,which
was disastrous for Russia had hardly come to an end when the autocratic Nicholas
I, called the "Iron Czar", was succeeded by Alexander II. The new emperor saw
that the time was ripe for some liberal reforms, and that it was no longer pos-
sible to govern Russia as in the time of Nicholas I. One of the principal re-
forms was the creation in 1864, of the Zomstvos. The word "Zomstvo" is derived
from "Zemlia", which moans earth in Russian. The Zemstvos were thus, local count-
ry organizations on the provincial and communal scale, or as it is said in Russian
on the scale of the "Gubernia",(the latter being a division of a country adminis-
tered by a governor), districts and the sub-divisions of the Gubernia. These
Zemstvc organizations were elected by the local nobility, the owners of the great-
er part of the land, and also by some representatives of the towns and villages
of the district.

At that time most of the peasants, who were just freed from the serfdom, of
course, had no voting rights. It is also necessary to ci- here that the Zemstvos
were limited to the northern, central and southeo: -. rinus of the European
Russia. Poland, for instance, was excluded, as the c,"ifidence in the loyalty of
Polish nobility was restrained. Caucasus, as yat was far from being pacified,
and the Asiatic Russia which was sparcely populated, and furthermore had no nobi-
lity, did not as yet interest anyone.

What did Zemstvos attend tol Well, to local administration, roads, communal
schools, hospitals, organizations of charity, local insurances, etc., etc.

From the start, the Zemstvos had difficulties in corresponding with the
villages, boroughs and other subdivisions, which depended on them.

What did the "Post" in Russia represent at that time The territory was
enormous, and in spite of thousands of miles of postal roads, the Imperial Post
reached only the chief towns of the districts, or at the .bests the main boroughs.
The small and middle sized villages remained outside of the postal roads, and
often, it was necessary for a peasant to travel 50 or 100 miles, to pick up or
deliver a letter.

TFrom the beginning of their existence, most of the Zemstvos, without waiting
for official authorization, organized their own post in order to be able to cor-
respond with various localities inside the district, extending thus the Imperial
Post. -The Imperial Post considered this initiative of the Zemstvos with real
satisfaction, as it contributed to solution of a very bothersome problem, i.e.
the establishment of distant post offices, unremunerative to the Imperial postal
No. 68 Page5

From 1865, the date of the emission of the first Zemstvo stamp by the
Schlusselburg Zemstvo, 20 districts.established their own post without waiting for
an authorization from the Imperial government. It was formally legalized on Sep-
tember 5, 1870.

The extracts from the above-mentioned decree, illustrate better than any ex-
planation, the conditions existing at the time of the creation of the Zemstvo
postal roads.

The decree of September 5, 1870, signed by the Governor of the Ministry of
the Interior, Prince Lobanov Rostovsky, reads as follows:

"Considering the limited means at the disposal of the administration of the Im-
perial Post, and because of the lack of sufficient means for regular distribution
of mail to all inhabitants of the Empire, living principally in the places which
by their location are almost totally deprived of the.postal communication, or
those living in places situated at a great distance from the organized offices,
and in order to assure processing of the correspondence in a more convenient and
less expensive way, relying on the Ukaz of the Senate dated August 27th of this
year, I authorize the establishment of a particular local post in the places
where it is necessary, under the following conditions". The operating modalities
which follow can be summed up thus:

1. The Zemstvos have the right to transport the mail from the Imperial Post
Office, mostly from the main town of the district to the places where zIo
postal installations existed.
2. Transport the mail from the villages to the nearest Imperial Post Office.
3. Transport the mail between different points within the district.

Following are the three principal restrictions:

1. The Zemstvos are not allowed to deliver mail from one Zemstvo to another,
even though they are adjacent to each other.
2. The adhesives issued by Zemstvos are not allowed to look like the current
Imperial stamps.
3. The local postmen could wear on their bags the arms of the province or the
district, except the post horns, which were the emblem of the Imperial

From the time of the publication of the decree, the Zemstvo Post was a comp-
lete success. Out of 371 existing districts, 345 established their own post, and
162 of them issued between 1865 and 1917 more than 3,000 different stamps. More
than 180 districts operated without stamps, either free or by collection
of necessary fee in cash. The covers from districts which did not issue stamps
are very scarce, and in 20 years of collecting I succeeded in finding only two.

Furthermore, as the Imporial Post gradually expanded, the Zemstvo posts redu-
ced their activity, because the two postal systems were not allowed to operate
concurrently, but anyway, just before the revolution of 1917, more than 40 dis-
tricts were issuing 7emstvo stcniz. and the local post was still in operation.

To print their first stamps, the Zemstvo used local artists and printers. In
most of the cases the printing was done by lithography. These printings are
characterized by their design often being extremely rudimental, also for a deep
contempt in the composition of the subject plate, which may have been because of
th6 constant care to economize paper.

Page 6 No. 68

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I am illustrating below the composition of some of the sheets:

Ardatov 1880 Schmidt No. 4 was issued in sheets of 25 stamps, consisting of
4 rows of 6 stamps. The 25th stamp was located in the lower right,
teto-becho. (Fig. 1).

Arzamas 1877 Schmidt No. 4 was issued in sheets of 25 stamps, consisting of
3 rows of 8 stamps. The 25th stamp was in "coucho" (printed on the side)
position below, in the middle. (Fig. 2).

Buzuluk 1881 Schmidt No. 8 was issued in sheets of 74 stamps, consisting of 4
rows of 12 stamps plus 3 rows of 8 stamps in couches position, plus
2 stamps "tate-becho" in the corner. (Fig. 3).

Dukhovstchina 181 Schmidt No. 12 was issued in sheets of 21 stamps, consisting
of 3 rows of 2 stamps plus 2 rows of 4 in couches position, at the
right, plus 3 stamps lying below, pair of them being tote-bacho. (Fig.

Zomstvos had numerous "tote-boche" varieties, which often wore the result of
the method by which they were printed. For example: -

Byezhetsk 1892 Schmidt No. 8 was printed in sheets of 10 stamps, consiting of
of two rows of stamps, each row being tete-beche to each other. (Fig. 5),

Alexandria 1880 Schmidt Nos. 4 & 5 was printed in sheets of 18 stamps, consist-
ing of 3 types of one value (each having slight difference in printing),
repeated 6 times, the 6th being in green instead ciY blue. There cro 3
tote-boche, one of them being in green. Only two shoocts are know- b:,
exist. (Fig. 6).

Bielozersk 1878 Schmidt No. 15 issued in sheets of 48S, cron.isting of 4 groups of
12 types with 6 teto-bocho. (Fig. 7).

Because of the difficulties for some of the Zemstvos to print their own seam"o.
the Imperial administration came to their aid, and from 1884 placed at their j:3--
posal standard designs in which it was necessary only to i-sort the name of the
Zemstvo and its coat of arms. An individual Zorstvo thus, after choice of the
pattern, could order their stamps at the Imperial State Faper Printing Office
There were 5 different official designs; the generall-; iDented ones were that of
Biolozersk (1st Zemstvo to use it) in 1393, and that cf krdatov (1st Zomstvc to
use it) in 1902.

For e ,.mple:

Shadrinsk 1910 Shoot of 25 Typo of Biolozersk (Fig. 8).
Tetyushv 1911 Sheet of 25 Type of Ardatov. (Fig. 9).

After 1902, most of the Zemstvos having their own post adopted one of the
above types.

After having seen all these sheets, you would have the impression that we can
find all of the Zemstvo stamps in complete sheets. Unfortunately, it is not the
case. Around 1930, Schmidt, a great Gurman-Ruissian collector, and one of the
foremost experts of Zemstvo stamps, and who left his collection to the Postal
iseum at Berlin, undertook to determine the actual number of each scarce stamp
known to exist. Of the 3,000 stamps (different) issued, apprvximatyly 500 are

No. 6 Paec 7

scarce or very scarce and 250 exist in quantities of less than 20 of each.

Below I am listing examples of some of the first issues, and also give in
parenthesis the quantities known to exist to Schmidt. Without accepting these
figures completely, we have to admit that they are very near the truth. (Fig. 10)

Buzuluk 1877 Sch. #5 (7) Morshansk 1685 Sch. #17 (4)
Arzamas 1874 Sch, #1 (6) Sumy 1868 Sch. # 1 (4)
Alexandria 1880 Sch. #6 inv- Sumy 1868 Sch. # 3 (4)
erted surcharge (1) Kassimov 1869 Sch. # 1 (3)
Kharkov 1870 Sch. #2 (2) Pavlograd 1869 Sch. # 1 (7)
Atkarsk 1871 Sch. #3 (5) Tikhvin 1873 Sch. # 2 (4)
Chern 1872 Sch. #12 (4) Glazor 1891 Sch. #6a inv-
Riazan 1874 Sch. #12 (9) erted ground (2)
Kassimov 1870 Sch. # 2 (4) Bie1ozersk 1880 Sch. #18 (5)
The Mail Within the District M_1mzh 1869 Sch. # 1 (2)
Lobedian 1872 Sch. # 4 (7)
The mail within the district, especially from the villages to the main towns
of the district, mostly consisted of the requests from the peasants. The letters
wore franked with Zemstvo stamps only. The cancellation was, in some districts,
an ink cross made by pen mostly in the beginning. Sometimes, the chief of the
post office applied his signature on the stamp or wrote the date on the item. In
some other offices, special seals in various sizes and colors were applied.
(Fig. 11, 12 and 13).

One of the first customers of the Zemstvo Post for mail which was sent from
the chief town to the villages was the Imperial Postal Administration. As a
matter of fact, it was found that the Zemstvo Post was the easy means of forward-
ing the notification of an arrival of money orders and registered mail to the
addressee. Figs. 14 and 15).

The Mail Within Russia

The mail from a village of a district, or from a certain point in the Empire
to a village in a district, had to be franked by a Zemstvo atamps for the distanrc
travelled inside of the district and with an Imperial stamp for the forwarding
by the Imperial post. This is the reason, why we have mixed franking, consisting
of Zemstvo and Imperial stamps.

In this case also, the Imperial Postal Administ-ation used the Zemstvo Post
to forward registered mail or money orders. ExaT.ri-o f this Money order from
a village of Pskov Zemstvo to St. Petersburg. (1;, 16)

Almost all of the Imperial issues from 1866 oni vro used in mixed franking
with stamps of various Zemstvos. We illustrate examples on Figs. 17 to 41 and
likewise list them below.

Zemstvo Schmidt No. Imperial No. Illustration Fi;.
Kadnikov 6 -1866 1, 3k. 17
Biezhetsk .-1875 8k. 18
Ardatov, Biezhetsk and Viossiogonsk -1879 7k. 19, 20, 21
Bielozersk, Bogorodsk and Tula -1883 7, 14k. 22, 23, 24
Buzuluk, Glazov, Sumy, Shatsk, Novo- -1889 7, 2k. 25, 26, 27,
moskovsk and Urzhum (hor. laid) 28, 29, 30
Stavropol -1889 7k.
vertt. laid) 31
Krasny, Petrozavodsk, Gadiach -1909 1, 3, 5 32, 33, 34
and 7k.
Page 8 No. 68

Zemstvo Schmidt No. Imperial No. Illustration Figs,
Perm and Tetyushy 1913 7 k. 35, 36

Franking with Postal Stationary

Pskov 2 5k. post card 37
Morshansk 7k. envelope 38

Sometimes, the Zemstvos "cut" stamps for half or quarter of its face value.

Osa, Irbit, Cherdyn 39, 40, 41

Foreign Mail

The letters arriving from outside of Russia to the villages within a Zemstvo
quite naturally had a mixed franking consisting of foreign stamps and the stamp
belonging to the address in the Zomstvo. Below are some examples:

Foreign Zemstvo Illustration Foreign Zemstvo Illustration
Finland Vossiegonsk 42 Russian Levant Bogorodsk 43
Austria Bogorodsk 45 Russian Levant Kharkov 44
Turkey Bogorodsk 47 Great Britain Bogorodsk 46
Germany Bogorodsk 48 France Bogorodsk 49
Gor. Lev.Kharkov 50 Gorman Lovant Bogorodsk 51

Mail Between Zonstvos

The forwarding of the mail between two Zemstvcs could only be realizing by
passing through the Imperial Post. That is the reason for triple franking.

S Example No. 1 Cover from a village in Dankov Zemstvo to a village in Bogorodsk
Zemstvo. Cover franked with Dankov stamp, cancelled by WSS; 7k.
Imperial stampcancolled by Imperial post of Dankov; transit cancel-
lation of the Imperial post of Bogorodsk; Bogorodsk Zematvo s7_-p
cancelled by Bogcrodsk Zemstvo postmark. (Fig. 52).
Example No. 2 Cover containing a remittance of money sent from a village in the
Irbit Zomstvo to a village in Ustsysolsk Zemstvo. Franked with Z<.
Irbit stamp cancelled by MSS. The Imperial post seals of insured
correspondence sealing the letter and an Imperial cancellation of
Irbit struck on the cover. The forwarding by the Imperial post is
paid in cash. An Imperial transir postmark of Ustsysolsk and an
Ustsysolsk Zemstvo stamp canc;.-Id by an oval cancellation, road-
ing "N E 0 P L A C H E N C" \u'ipaid). The letter is then forwarded
to the addressee.

These are the only two examples in my possession. I have seen another one in
collection of M. Larrisch, in Munich.

Mail of the Zemstvos which Never Tssued Stamps

There are two covers of Kirsenov, one of the districts having Zemstvo Post,
but which never issued Zemstvo stamps. One is addressed to Moscow in 1892, the
other to Tambov in 1903.

Two small rectangular postmarks indicate the names of the sending village.
They are the only two letters of such type that I have ever seen. (Figs. 54, 55).

No. 68 Page 9

It is quite certain that the scarcest covers are those from the Zemstvos which
have never issued stamps, as no one thought at the the time of their usa to con-
serve them.

I have I have given you a small idea of the extent of the Zemstvo post in
Russia from 1865 to 1917, and how it was utilized.

?. main purpose has been to show that the postal history of Russia is closely
tied to that of the Zemstvos, and that it is practically impossible to dissociate
them when we try to study the postal history of that period.

000O000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000
0 0
o o
o L I S T 2C0 Riverside 1rive o
o o
o New York, Now York, 10025 o
c o
o Want lists for collectors and dealers are filled by return mail. o
o Better grade approvals by country are also available. Dffny rarities o
o and oddities for specialists are on hand. (1840 1860) o
o o
o Many countries are available o
o o
o o
o o

0 0

0 0
o 0
o Stamps and Covers of the World. o
o o
o Al so all philate ic supplies. o
o a
o o
o 10 9 W. 4 3 rd. St r e t, N.Y. 36, NE W Y RK o
o o
ooo000000ooooo0 CoCooococcooooCoooooccoooccOccoCOOOOOOcOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO000000000

0000000000OCO000CO00000OCOOOCCC0000. 0000000000C0O C O00000000000000
0 0
oocoW AN T ED 0 tt o n n T u rx Tr i ah and Offices in Turkey o
o material; Balkan Wars, and Aegean Island material; used o
o only. Stamps, covers, locals, stampless, etc. o
o o
o Gordon Torroy 3065 Porter St., NW. Washington 8, D. 0. o
o o
0 000000oooooo 0ooo00000000ooooocoooooooo Cooocooccoooooooooooooooo000ooooooo0ooooo

This is the 25th number of the Journal under the Editorship Dr. Salisbury.
The first one was mcimb-r !, which appeared in 1954.
Sxxxv0 xxxx 8xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxcxxxxxxoXXXXXXXXXxxxxx

Page 10 No. 68

by Michael Rayhack
Without the fine foundation of facts on Russian-America written by our
Editor and President, Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury, in our Journal #44, the puzzling
and defiant postal history of Russian-Alaska, may have remained an enigma to this
day. For here in the traditional, fictional manner of the detective story, was a
mystery that baffled experts for over a hundred years. All clues were disposed
of, living persons of the era had long since died and their tales with them, a
new culture replaced the old, and yet a solution must be found. Spured on by
this lack of actual postal facts known, this author began the tedious process of
writing letters to any organization, company or person that might cast light on
this obscure corner of Russian Philatelic history. The response was immediate,
courteous, and co-operation was simply marvelous to this author in his first at-
tempt at serious research into postal history. But letter after letter contained
less than Journal #44, on actual postal affairs, Through the courtesy of Lr.
Bruce Gimelson, I am reprinting this letter published in the Western Express,
April, 1964, "A Taste of Alaska".

Territory of Alaska
Library & Museum
June 9, 1938

Dear Sir:
In answer to your letter asking for information during the Russian regime
prior to 1867, in regard to whether there was any Russian postal station or post-
al communication between America and Russia and whether there were any postage
stamps sold in Alaska, I have to say thnt according to historical records, cail
facilities, such as they were, were carried on through the merchant's vessels be-
longing to the Russian-American Company.

eil coming to Alaska was collected at St. Peter-burg in the head office
of the company and forwarded by the ships to the head office of the company in

I have, in the Museum Library, many documents and manuscripts of Russian
origin but in no case have I come across any postage stamps.

The letters sent over from Russia were again distributed on this side
thru the office of the Russian America Company in the locality to which they we.s

For information on this same subject by various stamp collectors has been
brought to my attention many times and the answers given to them are the same
that I am giving to you now.

With kind regards, I am,
Yours very truly,
A. P. Kashevaroff, Curator and
Librarian Territorial Library & Museum
I began to sympathind with Mr. Kashevaroff, with probably his 1000th
answer to the same question. The University of Washington Libraries with their
fine oollpchtons of old manusctipts and logs of explorers as Vitus Bering, had
nothing on Alaska, as did other sources. The original and logical choice of the
cold North for this research was quietly becoming a dud.

Then I was fortunate to obtain a copy of Robert G. Woodall's great mas-
terpiece, "The Postal History of Yukon Territories", and he has graciously

No. 68 Page 11

granted me permission to quote pertinent portions from his book. Fact #1.
Perry MRc. D. Collins, U. S. commercial agent made a.journey in 1856-57 from St.
Petersburg across Siberia to Nikolaevsk, between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea
of Japan. A route that will come up constantly in this narrative,.and upon
which further research will be lavished to obtain information from the Soviet
Union, regarding postal activities. Fat 2. The writer, ( M. Woodall) has
seen a letter from Chief Trader Charles Ross dated 10 January 1944 and written
at Fort Victoria, Vancouver's Island, which he was building. This is addressed
to a friend in Scotland and travelled across the continent to York Factory where
it went to England, by the annual supply ship, "Prince Ruppert". In it he
writes, "I believe you accuse me unjustly of negligence in my correspondence...
The fact is I wrote as often as the opportunity presented itself. Last year
none occurring by the usual route, I addressed you by the very unusual one of New
Archangel-Siberia & ca. Which letter, whatever it was worth, I trust is now in
your hands". (Authorsts comment--The year is 1844 and mail is being sent over--
land via Siberia, not by slow ship around the tips of continents). At this time
Hudson's Bay Co. and the Russian American Trading Co. were bn good terms and
trading freely together. It is therefore not surprising to find a servant of
the H. B. Co. sending a letter across Asia and Europe to Scotland by favor of
the Russian Governor. One must consider the possibility of a similar rare oc-
curance happening between Fort Yukon and St. Michael after the two places had
made contact in 1863. From St. Michael a letter could be sent through the
Russian postal service via Siberia, or in a trading ship to Hawaii, which was a
port of call for both Russian and British Ships.

From Mr. Woodallts fine book many important facts emerged, first that a
overland route existed through Siberia to connect Continental Russia, a fact
substantiated by books such as Prince Alexandre Tarsaidse's epic, "Czars and
Presidents", published by cbDowell/Obolensky New York, which lists accounts
of travelers and adventurers traversing Siberia as early as the years 1700's.
Here we have Alexander Baranov managing a glass factory in Irkutsk, Siberia,
while endless caravans of fur traders passed Eastward to Russia. Secondly, a
vast international fleet ploughed the Alaskan waters to trade with the Russian-
American Co., the Hudson Bay Co. and Jacob Astor. Hawaii and California had
Russian forts, and Russian settlers. Baranov negotiated far south with the
bexican Government and the Spanish Voce-Roys of South America, to trade his furs
for food and gold. The northern waters teemed with American ships in 1865 as
Western Union began the construction of an overland telegraph wire from Portland,,
Oregon, 600 miles thru British Columbia, then 1900 miles through Russian-Alaska.,
to be run 40 miles under the Bering Sea, then 2500 miles from the Bering Strait
to the mouth of Amur River. On January 1, 1866, in Russian-Alaska, near Nulato,
the first telegraph pole was raised on Russian-American soil. Similar activi-
ties were progressing on the Siberian soil, when the "Great Eastern" laid it'
second and successful Transatlantic cable on July 27, 1866. The work was o*r.:r-
ed immediately to stop on the overland telegraph wire, but the Siberian party
did not receive the news until July 15, almost a year later. This story is
worthy on an article itself, and our thanks to the Western Union Company, Mr.
George Oslin who authored a seven page exiting story, from which these dates
are drawn, and thanks to Mr. William H. Watts, Publicity Director of Western
Union for his help.

I turned next to the Smithsonian Institution for help, and Mr. Carl H.
Scheale, Associate Curator in Charge of Philately and Postal History, and.1M.
Leo Gordon of his staff, who specializes in the Russian aspect of their collect-
"ions, responded nobly. M .. Gordon had read the Official Transactions of the
rouvrnzment (Imperial Russian) Commission on Russian Alaska. This commission was
formed to gather linforma-tiun on conditions in Russian-American areas (which

Page 12 No. 68

includes Alaska and the Islands in the adjacent waters, such as Sitka, the
Aleutians, Kodiak, Unalaska, etc.) in order to aid the government is passing
jt4ogoent on the company's request for a renewal of its franchise for another 20
year period.

0 The Transactions, published in two volumes, contain reports from the Com-
pany, from MBbbers of the Commission, from Administrative heads, and several
other interested parties. These reports cover every phase of the Company's
activities from the very beginning of its rule. Everything-the Economic, Social,
Religious, Educational, NIdical angles- is related in great detail. I. Gordon,
as a philatelist, could not help but notice, the total absence of any reference
to postal matters. t1ention was m de, in relating the reasons for turning over
the affairs of this extensive territory to a private organization, of the diffi-
culty in administrating the area from a distance of some 5000 miles from Russia's
Capitol. TAuthor's note the distance as you can divine is measured overland)
and the extraordinary length of timo it took written communications to reach their
destination. This was one reason another the expense of maintaining police,
military and administrative personnel. (note that no mention is made of Postal

To my second letter asking what was the actual length of time it took a
letter to traverse from Russia to Alaska, NM. Gordon sent the following: From
Doklad Komiteta ob Ustroistve Kolonii (Report of the Commission on the Organi-
zation of the Colonies). St. Petersburg, 1863, page 186:

We must not lose sight of the fact that the company (Russian-Americcn Co.)
is already established there; that it assiduously tends its affairs in Russia
also, that it has all means to take whatever measures arc needed for its welfare,
while the introduction of a new colonial administrr.tio- cr-no-,t be accomplished
in a short time. It takes not less than 7 or 8 morrt' r;.ch the colonies
from St. Petersburg by the around the world roia. .'. ibs hardly possible to
send written orders and receive an acknowledgement; in Ie- t-le ". No known
example of mail originating from Russian-Alaska has boon seoe by Mr. Gordon and
earliest cover in their possession is postmarked Sitka in 1883, addressed to
South Canterbury, Connecticutt.

From the Library of Congrss, through Mr. Sergius Yakobson, Chief, Slavic
and Central European Division, and Dr. Robert V. Allen, Area Specialist (USSR),
there came an exchange of letters that shed increasing light and the big break-
through that started with this letter:

The Official history of Russian postal service in the 19th century is
MLnisterstvo Vnutrennikh Del; Istorichoskii Ochcrk. Prilozhenie Vtoroe: Pochta
i Telegraf V XTI Stoletii (St. Petersburg, TipograflA Ministerstva Vnutrennixh
rel, 1901. 248 p.). It contains many illustrations and provides a number of
bibliographic references to official an unofficial publications. A cursory ex-
amination of a number of pages on the years before 1'67 did not reveal, however,
any information about Alaska and the Irperial postal service in that region. A
post-Soviet publication on the postal service of the 19th century, Konstantin V.
Bazilevich's Pochta V Rossii V XIX Veke (1,bscow, Izdatelstvo NKPT, 1927), states
on page 68, in a chapter describing the postal transport of the first half of
the 19th century, that Kamchatka was the last Russian possession in the north-
eastern part of Asia which had postal communication with the interior parts of
the empire. A further statement, on page 163 seems to indicate that it was not
until 1893 that organized postal service was furnished to any other point in
this area.

io. 68 Page 13

SV. D. Levinski's Ukazatel Bterialov Po Istorii Pocht V Rossii (Guide
to Material on the History of Posts in Russia), Moscow Tipographia Obshchestva
'Rasprostranenia Poleznykh Znanii, 1881, p. 53 lists, as item 13 on page 42, Spi-
sok Gorodov i Lrugikh Miestov V Imperii, V Kokikh Suschestvuit PochtovyayiKontory
i Otdelenia S Pokazaniem Dnei Otpravlenia Pochty Iz St.Petersburg (List of the
Cities and Other Places in the Empire in which there are Post Offices and Sub-
Stations, with the Indicatioh of the'Days of Dispatch of the Mails from St. Peters-
burg), which isstated to have been published in 1860 and which may contain more
specific information on Alaska. (Note this author contacted the Lenin Miseum
in Moscow for information on this book, as it doesn't exist in any other museum,
excepting possibly the Helsinki University Library as it was one of the official
depositories for publication under the copyright laws of the Russian Empire. On
January 15, 1965 a long awaited reply was received by the publisher from Mr.
Rayhack). The reply (in full) is reproduced below:

Lenin State Library of the U.S.S.R., Moscow, U.S.S.R.
Bear Mr. Rayhack'.

In connection with your letter we wish to inform you that we found the
following material concerning the postal communication between Alaska and Russia.

In the "Report of the Russian-American Company of 1852" (St. P., 1853,
pp. 7-8) is stated that "delivery of goods and messages" to the Russian posses-
sions in Alaska, was accomplished by the Russian-American Company in two ways.
The first, a land route, connecting the center of Russia with the factory of the
R. A. Co. on the coast of Okhotsk-Port Ayan, went through Tomsk, Crasnoyarsk,
Irkutsk and Yakutsk. It is designated on the chart, appended to the "Postal
Guide of the Russian Empire" published by the Postal department of Russia (St. P.

Detailed information about the wagon route, laid out for communication
between Yakutsk and Ayan, is contained in the following publications:

1. Tikhmenev P. Historical Outline of Formation of Russian-American
Company and its functions up to present time. Vol. 2, St. P. 1863,
pp. 7, 18-20.
2. Report of the Russian-American Company for 1854-1856, St. P. 1857.
Appendix, pp. 1-9.

Transport of mail from Ayan to the ports of Alaska was done in the ships
of the Russian-American Company (See Report Russian-American Co. 1852, St. Po
pp. 7-8.)

The second, sea round the world route, connected Kronshtadt and oth-r
European ports independently with Nrvoarchangolsk in Alaska. This route wcorn
through the 'Atlantic and Pacific Oceans along the shores of Africa and Ameri0ca,
Along this route sailed foreign vessels, engaged by the Russian-American Company
likewise ships which belonged to the Russian American Company.

Detailed information concerning the trips of these ships is contained
in periodically published reports of the Russian American Company,

We wish to state that in the "List of towns and other places of the
Empire, in which exist postal offices and postal branches" issued by the Postal
PDpartmwoit in -1860, settlements of Alaska are not included.

In this list is found Port Ayan, where the post is sent from Petersbourg

Page 14

on Tuesday and Fridays.

Information concerning independent postal communication between Alaska and
Russia, in the literature examined by us, does not exist.

Respectfully Yours,

I. Eagrova

In charge of Dept. of Information-bibliography

No direct reference to Alaska appears in the Bibliograficheskii Ukazatol
Ocherkov...Pomeshchennykh v neofitsialnvkh pochtovo-tele grafnvkh zhurnnalkh...za
period c 188L po god vkluchitelno (Bibliographic guide to essays....published in
unofficial postal-telegraph journals...in the period from 1884 to i927 inclusive).
Moscow, Izdatolstvo NKPT, 1929, 147 p.

In view of the absence of definitive references to postal service in Alaska
having been furnished by the Imperial Administration, it is possible, therefore,
that any such service was provided by the Russian-American Co. itself. However,
a somewhat cursory examination of Tikhmonev's description of the activities of
the company, Istorichoskoo Obozrenie Obrazovaniya Rossiisko-Amorikanskoi Kompanii
I Beistviya Eya Do Nastoyachego Vremeni, (St. Petersburg, Tip. E. Veimara, 1861-
63, "v.) offered no reference to an organized postal service or of any transport
of mail or message, oxcopt for the company's own account.

Then on October 2, 1964 I received the following personal letter from Dr.
Robert V. Allen, the big break through had come. He had discovered the "WFthcr
Lode of Alaskan Postal History".

Dear Mr. Rayhack:

Dr. Sergius Yakobson, my supervisor in the Slavic and Central
European division of the Library of Congress, has shown me your letter to him,
and his to you, concerning the information which he supplied you about the post-
al service in Russian-America. In the meanwhile, spurred on by my own interest
as a philatelfst (the 1869 issue of the United States), I have found one group
of documents in the Library with information which may be of interest to you and
others interested in Russian Philately. The enclosed "Note Upon the Postal Ser-
vice of Russiah America" contains the preliminary results of my examinations of
of this material you may wish to publish it in Posgi4c in addition to the irnfcm
inc.ti6ax we have already supplied. Insofar as th3 Russian Orthodox Church Mras
probably the single most important recipient or source of mail, other than the:
Russian American Company itself, it would seom that the collection of documen'L
to which Irefer deserves careful.study for tho light it can through upon the
subject. Probably some of'the.points which I,-ko in this short paper will need
to be modified lator, but I think that the pictpir of the way in which the Rus-
sian American Company acted to convoy both official and persona correspondence
for the Russian Orthodox Church and its clergy is correct in its general c"T-
Very Truly Yours,

Robert V. Allen

A Noto Upon the Postal Service of Russian America.

The Whnuscript Division of the Library of Congress possesses, among its

No. 68 Page 15

riches, several hundred boxes of documents in the Russian language which refer to
the activity in Alaska, both before and after 1867, of the clergy of the Russian
Orthodox Church. One of those boxes, No. 308, is marked as "Diela o poluchonii i
otpravlenii pisem i raznykh bumag, 1841-1867" matterss concerning the receipt and
dispatch of letters and other .papers, 1841-1867) and contains over 20 folders of
receipts and other papers relating to letters to and from the Alaska Church Con-
sistory. Those records are written in a Slavic handwriting which is not always
clear and the paper, in addition to the effects of ago, seems to have been affected
by water to such an extent that oven the best of handwriting becomes a puzzle.
However, the general outlines of the situation are clear. fany of the documents
bear the printed letterhead of the Novo-Arkhangelsk (Sitka) office of the Russian-
American Company and are addressed to the Novo-Arkhangelsk Church Consistory or to
the Bishop of Kamchatka and Novo-Arkhangolsk, announcing that a ship of the Compa-
ny has brought a certain number of letters and packets addressed to the Consistory
or to the members of the clergy, which letters and packets are therewith forwarded
Other documents constitute registers of letters from Consistory to clergy or govern
ment offices in other parts of the Empire, and there are a number of papers from
the Company or from ship masters acknowledging the receipt of letters and packets
for forwarding to such addresses. In no instance is there any indication that
postal charges were levied or that any postage stamp or postmark was used.

One letter on the Company's letterhead dated January 16, 1856 (Probably old
style) notifies the Consistory that an American ship Zenobia (V) has brought a
number of letters from California. Attached to this is a letter from the Russian
Vice-Consulate in San Francisco, dated December 26, 1855/January 7, 1856, to the
effect that those letters have been brought to San Francisco from Port Ayan by
another American ship. This Port Ayan is the harbor which is located on the Sea
of Okhotsk at 56 degrees 27 minutes N, 138 degrees 10 minutes E, and during the
years from about 1844 to 1867 it was the location of a port and "factory" of the
Russian America Company. Since it was the terminal point of a post road from
Yakutsk and, via the latter town, from European Russia, it seems to have served
as the place for transhipment between the ImiPrial postal service and the Company';
ships. One of the last documents in this collection, dating from 1867, states
that certain sums of money, ovidontly the property of a deceased clergyman in
Alaska, are to be handed over to the Ayan post office for transmittal.

Other records indicate that the Company's ships also provided mail service
within Alaska, for among the papers of the church at Unalaska are a number of
receipts given by skippers for letters and packets addressed to the Consistory of
Sitka. There is also to be found in this church's records a wrapper or cover,
bearing the following in Russian writing:

From the Archangolks Church Consistory
To the Unalaska Clergyman Androi Sizov Regulations
Nos. 3, 7, 32, 62, 72, 93, 113, 117-118. 136, 139-140,
142, 148, 162, 178, 200, 201, 202, 204, 218, 285,
292 and 299.
With (Rod sealing wax) a Box with Books pertaining to No. 74
To Unalaska.

There are other marks of red sealing wax on this wrapper but none shows any
indication of any marking or indication that they served any purpose except to
seal the package. Nor are there any postmarks or indications of date, foes, etc.

It has not yet been possible to determine the approximate date of this cover,
by reference to the period of Fr. Sizov's service at Unalaska, but it is clearly
from the period of Russian rule.

Page 16 No. 68

~f !e t. .. .. -

,/ J,, 29/ e.

... z ^ y r e;,. ,r.-
j", -949 -10 e 1//. -4^M-90 .1 .ill(,l ../ AV #

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d/(4 6? 2/ i, !, 3. /"/44 44 ,S.. /6, //b Zoo,
,4 tl, ,24 f 7, 7I, q # 4,r .

it, KfopJ1 C/!oS XtIet L44A tVl s%
TV^^ K

Further study is being made of those documents in order to present a more co-
herent picture of the postal service of Russian America, insofar as it affected
the Russian Orthodox Church, but the information thus far obtained soomod so in-
S toresting as to warrant making it public, oven in usch a fragmentary form.

To comment on this groat discovery is superflucus, but the Essex Insituto of
Salom, Massachusetts confirmed the ships name "Zenobia" as being correct and fur-
ther attempts will be made through this Institute to confirm the sailings of the
ship "Zonobia" and addition ovidenco of postal receipts or log markings in Alaskan
waters, to add to our store of knculodge. The Library of Congress has furnished
us with photostats for illustration in our Journal of the wrapper and bill of
lading addressed to Clergyman Andrei Sizov. Through Dr. Allon it was learned that
Father Sizovts service in Unalaska oxtondod from 1844, and he does not seem to
have boon there in 1867. Unfortunately it is not possible to precisely date the
S wrapper, except by the number on the wrapper which is lower than that of the ships
S postal receipts, brought by the Russian ship Lloxandor in the year July 27, 1858
as shown on the receipt illustrated.

Then on November 12th, another wonderful communication from Dr. Lllon:

I have managed to.find time to got back to the box of manuscripts on the
postal service of Russian America. Although I haven't manangod to road ovory one
of the papers on the subject I think the picture is fairly clear. In addition to
the information already sent, I have turned up the following:

In August of 1846 Bishop Innokontii of Alaska anncuJeod to his subordinates
that the conditions of postal service had changed and that outgoing letters might
be sent either to Potropavlovsk in Kamchatka or to Aian for transmission to other
parts of the Russian Emiro. This coincides with information which I found elso-
where that Alan was the location of a "factory" of the Company from about 1844,
in place of Okhotsk which had boon the place of transfer from Imperial to Company
mail service before then. Locumonts of 1847 refer to Aian as the point of origin
of ships bringing letters to Sitka. It would seem that the Company's ships car-
ried this mail up to the time of the Crimean War (1854-1856), but during that war
there a number of references to American ships performing that service. In May of
1855, for oxamplo, there is mention of letters brought by the American bark
"Sanai" (That is translated from the Russian and I can't dotermino what the rx-.m
really was though it could have boon "Cyano", named after the ship captured from
the British in 1815) and this ship is also stated in a later document to have
brought letters to Sitka from points within Alaska. An American schooner "Foni-
more Cooper" is also mentioned. In Jr.neruy of 1856, as I noted previously, the
American ship "Zonobia" came to Sitka bringing letters which had come from Aian
via California, and evidently this route was used in revorseo for on February 13
(Old style) the Company's office in Sitra informed the Church authorities that
certain letters and packets had boon sent off on the "Zonobia" to the Russian
Vico-Consul in San Francisco for the latter to forward at the first opportunity.

The Russian were undoubtedly glad to h.vo American ships available for this
period, since the summer of 1855 saw an attack by the British and French against
the major port on Kamchatka, Potropavlovsk and probably any Russian ships in the
area Could have run a high. risk of capture. It was at about this timo, you may
recall, that the first indications that Alaska might be put up for sale began to
be hoard.. Senator Gwin of California seems to have undertaken some moves along
this lino, and it is possible that some of the letters carried to San Francisco
by the "Zencbia" had a part ot play in this. The Russians, of course, had every
reason at the time to try to win our good will, for, with England and France at
war with them, they noodo all the services which our merchant marine, then the

No. 68 Page 17

largest in the world and at the last height of glory of the sailing ships, could
provide them. They went so far as to support our side of an argument we were
having with Denmark over the tolls that country was charging for entry into the
Baltic, and Denmark had been a special favorite of the Russian Empire for decades.

However, after the Crimean War, mail service seems to have been provided once
more by Russian ships, and Aian seems to have continued as the transfer point bet-
ween the Company's service and the Imperial posts. Now and again, both before and
after the Crimean War, there are references to Russian ships on voyages around the
world which have arrived with letters, but the normal route was that via Aian.

As far as my quick investigation goes, Aian was at the end of a so-called
post road from Yakutsk which was suitable for pack horses in summer and dog sleds
in winter but not for wheeled traffic. It certainly wasn't a route fit for heavy
traffics and, even though it ran to Yakutsk, the biggest town in the region, it
did not communicate with any really important center of the Russian Empire except
at second or third hand. This road is still in use, by the way, and I gather, by
analogy to similar roads elsewhere, that most traffic is in the winter when cater-
pillar tractors haul trains of sledges over the snow and frozen ground.

For the last ten years or so of the Company's rule in Alaska, postal service
seems to have settled back into the old rut. Four or five times a year the
Administrator's Office would inform the Church Consistory that a ship had come
bearing letters and packets addressed to the Bishop and to the members of the
clergy. The Church offices, as requested, acknowledge receipt of the mail. The
registers of letters dispatched by the Church and the clergy have not been pro-
served in such completeness at the receipts for incoming mail, bet enough remain
to make it clear that the Company's ships also served the Church's needs for the
carriage of outbound mail. Nowhere in all this correspondence have I found any
indication that payment was required on incoming or: o-T..cing letters. Is it po;-
sible that the Russian postal regulations of the ti:a allowed postal charges to be
paid at either end of the route

I looked through those papers for the period afeor Russia issued its first
postage stamps with some care to see if any mention wore made of them, but there
isn't any indication that they were used. Tho:te are a couple of earlier refer3n-
ces to sums as "200 rublei markami" (literally "'200 rubles in stamps) which cltar-
ly denite the sealskin currency you mentioned in your first inquiry, but those
references are only to sums of money which some one wants to send by mail. The
word "marka" can mean "token", ".crip" and the like as well as "stamp".

After looking rather carefully at the whole folder on the Sitka church
board and its correspondence, I can't really recommend any document for photo-
graphy for the purposes of reproduction. M.ch of it is pretty ragged stuff and
the handwriting, even for those knowing Russian, generally runs somewhere between
illegible and.barely legible. The situation is much better with regard to the
cover addressed to Unalaska and to the receipts for letters given the.priest of
that church by captains of Company ships. I have asked the manuscript Division
to have the Photo-duplication Service prepare you an estimate of the cost of a
photocopy of these items and you should receive it shortly.

I will continue to delve into this subject and will certainly let you know oQ
anything which I may pick up in addition. Furthermore, I have checked the re-
ference in your last letter to the article "Fochta v Alaska", supposedly in
Pochtovo-Telografnvi zhurnal for 1902, but didn't find it there. I will try
looking in some other sources, and may come up with it.
Sincerely Yours,
Robert V. Allen
Page 18 No. 68

Needless to say this letter as the previous, has given our members a histo-
tical breakthrough to the postal services in Russian-America. Dr. Allan has con-
tributed many long hours to the research and writing of these letters, and without
S his philatelic interest and help, this wonderful article may not have boon written.
In regards to the spelling of the ship "Cyano", the Old Darthmouth Historical Soc-
iety Whaling Aiseum, confirms it as such, and she was a whaler out of San Francisco
and was lost at sea in 1883.

In regards to the "sealskin money" of Alaska, very little information can be
added to that previously published in Journal #144. Ir. Arnold Keller of West
Berlin, and a foremost collector of Russian Currency, tagged them with a new name
"Money Orders (Paper Mtney Certificates)", and despite the low price listed for
them in Gormany, are rare and very desirable items, and Mr. Kardakoff in his
Russia-Paper Money Catalogue lists them on page 263 as follows:

Alaska, Russian Colcny in North America in the 30's of 19th century.

Russian-American 10 kop. 60 D.M. 1 Ruble 80 D.M. 25 Rubles RR
Company 25 kop. 60 D.M. 5 Rubles 150 D.M.
50 kop. 120 D.M. 10 Rubles 150 D.M.

The Smithsenian Institution in their Numismatic Division had no examples or
extensive knowledge about the use of the "sealskin money", as being applied toward
postal use. They-rocommonded Waurice M. Gould and Kenneth Bressett, Alaska's
Goinage through the Years, Whitman, Racine., 1960, pp. 6-7. This author has had
no opportunity at the moment of writing, to divulge its contents.

My hearfelt thanks are given-now to all the people, public institution, and
fellow philatelists who gave so much of their time in helping me to write this
O article. Special thanks to Mr. W. T. 7cGroor, dealer and specialist in Alaskan
covers, who tried for months to run down six Alaskan covers in the west, which
were from Sitka in the early 1860ts, and had scuare markings in the corners.
We thought these might be the elusive "soalskin money" affixed to covers, but
later turned out to bo very early American Alaskan covers.

In regards to this article, many fascinating facets of future postal research
have been opened up, especially the transfer cf Russian-Amrrican Company nmil to
Imperial posts, and the method of payment for personal mail at either end of the
postal route. It is hoped that Soviet sources may furnish the answers to thi'
unclear postal situation, and further research will be slanted in this direction,
Wy special thanks to Tr. Salisbury for his help and encouragement in furnishing
me books, articles, and his fine letters to me.
COOOOOCC0000 cc00000 ooo 'cozco
0 0
o ZE:ST1OS. o
o Anything or any quantity of stamps of this district c
o including single itons, multiple pieces, postal history o
o items, postal stationary, essays, proofs, etc. desired. o

o I am also intortead in liteorutirq portaining *o o
o Zemstvos, gonoral as well as Ahilabtlic. c
0 0
So Harold G. Cobb, V. A. Cont3r, Los Angeles, California. 90073 o
o o
0000 CO 00oCOOOcOCCO OOCOoCCOCOOOcCCCo OOOOCO OOCC OOO OCOco o000000000 0000000000000CC

No. 68 Page 19

by M. M. Kessler

This article is about a cover that has an unknown type cancellation of the
Russian Field Telegraph Branch used at Dalny, China. Aside from this exciting
find, the cover has other remarkable postal features in association with the dis-
covered cancellation: combination use of the cancellationn with the Field Post
Branch one of Dalny, an unrecorded registry label and marking from Dalny, and an
unusual routing. There are a total of ten different cancellations on the cover
in addition to the registry labels All those postal elements make the cover an
important find because some fill in a significant gap in our knowledge about the
postal history of the Russian civilian-military establishment in Dalny in the
Lyao-Tung Leasehold in 1903.

The cover dates from April 1903 and was sent by M. M. Langhorn of the U.S.A.
Consular Service in Dalny to the U.S. Dispatch Agent at the San Francisco Post
Office. The cover is blue and of an official size (9- inches by 4i inches). In-
stead of being routed more directly via the Pacific Ocean, the cover and the con-
tents travelled westward via the Trans-Siberian Railway, transited Ibscow and Ham-
burg, and then to the United States -- a circuitous routing, to say the least --
to its destination. The cover, illustrated in the journal, has been reduced in
size in order to show both of its sides on one page. The cancellation and registry
label are numbered in the illustrations and are keyed to the numbers in the article
References have been incorporated in the text for the reader's convenience.

This article will first briefly discuss the history of the Russian Field te-
legraph postal establishnrnt and the cancellers used during the Russian occupation
of Manchuria before the Russo-Japanese War in order to familiarize the reader with
the shift that occurred in the Russian postal administration in M1nchuria and sur-
rounding regions during that period. The historical summary will give the reader
the proper perspective for appreciating the description of and comments oh the
cancellations which follow.

Russian Field Pest and Telegraph Branches in Manchuria, 1900-1903. The story of
tho military post and telegraph branches (or offices) in Manchuria, Southern Man-
churia, and the Lyao-Tung Leasehold is rather intricate. It is admirably covered
by S. D. Tchilinghirian and W.S.E. Stephen in the section on "Sedentary Field
Post Offices of the Occupation Period", in their Stamps of the Russian Empire
Used Abroad, London, 1959, Part 5, pages 401-406, the main source of information.
References to Dalny cancellations in that part and Parts 4 and 6, pages 381-382,
and 579, respectively.

The Russian Dalny Post Office was one of the three Russian post offices
located in territory known as the Lyao-Tung Leasehold which extended from the
southern %ip of the Lyao-Tung Peninsula to the mainland, lying between the Gulf
of Chih-Li and the Yellow Sea. Those and otherbranches in Manchuria were staffed
and operated by the Imperial Post and Telegraph Administration (IPTA)--under
authority of the Imperial ukase of 26 February 1890 -- in places under Russian
military occupation during and following the Boxer Rebellion of 1900.

As of 30 May/12 June 1900, the IPTA established a series of Field Post Bran-
ches in occupied strategic towns and Field Telegraph Branches at the main stations
of the Chinese local telegraph lines seized by Russian troops. These branches
were in effect sedentary (non-mobile) and handled military and civilian mail.

After the Boxer Rebellion, The Russo-Chinese Agreement of 26 nlrch/8 April
1902, provided for the orderly evacuation of Russian forces from Manchuria over

Page 20 No. 68

on a remarkable cover-Melvin M.Kessler IN RULGARIA 1877-79

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an 18 months period in three stages at six-month intervals, commencing 26 Septem-
ber/8 October. During the.first evacuation period, a dec.oe issued 1/14 January
1903, authorized the existing Field Post Branches (and presumably some of the
S Field Post Branches) to be changed into civilian postal establishments under the
jurisdiction of the Pri-Amur Regional Department of IPTA. The change for Dalny
officially occurred on 1/14 arch. In the process, the Pri-Amur region designa-
tion would be used on the postal cancellers to indicate the civilian aspect of the
post branches, in keeping with the withdrawal plans of the troops. The planned
second evacuation stage, however, never came about. The reason for cancelling the
evacuation plans was probably due to the mounting friction between Russia and
Japan over Russian interests in nearby Korea. Japan considered the interests,
notably timber concessions, and the area to be within her sphere of influence.
The question of these prerogatives was one of the factors that contributed to the
Russo-Japanese War.

For a time in 1903, Dalny, Pitsevo and Chinchow were officially grouped as
the United Post and Telegraph Branches in the Lyao-Tung Leasehold. When this or-
ganizational designation came about is uncertain, but it applied to Dalny until
the end of 1903. The Field Telegraph Branch cancellers were introduced in 1900
in ehnchuria.(no earlier evidence) and have been assigned by Tchilinghirian
(Part 5, page 405) as Standard Type NN: single circle, diameter 26(mm with baton
capitals of town name at top and inscription at bottom abbreviated "POLEV. TEL.
Telegraph Branch of the Pri-Amur Region), serial number at sides and cross-shaped
date in center. This type canceller is not the one used on the cover described

by 26 September/90ctobor 1903, the short-lived civilian-status of the Field
Post and Field Telegraph Branches was converted to that of military status. From
the period of October 1902 until the change, most of the Field Post Branch and
Field Telegraph Branch cancellers continued to be used as civilian-type cancol-
lors. Following conversion of the post in Mcnchuria to that of military status,
the Russian postal establishments were officially renamed Reserve Field Post
Offices; but they continued to use their former cancellers without the word Re-
serve" added. This canceller had the inscription in a single-circle limitedto
"FIELD POST OFFICE", a serial nuboer, and cross-shaped date. It is designated
by Tchilinghirian as Standart Type 00 (Part 5, pago 405).

The history of the Russian post and canceller. used after October 1903 and
during the Russo-Japanese War is outside the scope of this article. The rosejr
is referred to Tchilinghirian's examination of the post during this period n.r
the extensive study made by Kurt Adleor in a series of articles titled "Russian
Field Post of the Russo-Japanese War", in tho British Journal of Russian Philato-
ly, Nos. 16, 19, 22 and 25.

Cancellations and Registry Indicators on the Cover. Let us now examine and com-
ment on the cancellations and the registration on the cover. As will be seen,
the cover has many features which possibly make it unique.

Illustration Figure Numbers. (Note that cancellations are black except for No.ll)

1. Dalnv Field Telopraph Branch. This cancellation struck on the front
once and on the back of the over three times ties on the back a strip
of three Russian 7 kopok stamps verticallyy laid paper, porfuration 1/4),
roads in sans serif letters DALTY POLEV. TEL. OTD. (abbreviation for
PeLEVOYE TELGRAENOYE OTDELENIE -- Field Telegraph Branch), has serial
1 at the sides and the cross-shaped date 24 TV 1903 (24 April 1903), and
measures 27-nm. in diameter.
No. 68 Page 21

Comment: This cancellation establishes an unknown and unsuspected type used for
the Dalny Field Telegraph Branch. It is different from the Standard
Type NN mentioned earlier which, according-to Tchilihghirian (Part 5,
page 404 and part 6, page 574), would have been the type cancellation
used with inscription DALNY. It is reasonable to assume that the newly
identified type canceller might have been used for other Field Telegraph
Branches in Manchuria during 1903. However, this cancellation has not
been found used at other Manchurian or Lyao-Tung Leasehold Field Tele-
graph Branches. Why it has not turned up elsewhere is not known at
this time. It is also highly possible that this cancellation may heVo
been the one accepted for the field telegraph branch use under the mer-
ger of the United Field Post and Telegraph Division (Dalny was one of
the stations in the branch for the Lyao-Tung Leasehold). The fact that
this cancellation is the only one thus far recorded (to my knowledge)
and dates from 1903 suggests that it may have had .such limited use.
Other suggestions from rqadars will be welcome.

See Comment under No. 4 on use of this canceller together with the Field
Post Branch canceller of Dalny.

2. Registry Handstamp Marking Used at Dalny. This marking is presumed to
have been applied at Dalny at the Field Telegraph Branch facility. It is similar
to their types used in China and Russia. It measures 21mm. in diameter, and the
height of the "R" inside the circle measures 13bmm. The top of the "R" seems to
have a longer serif extending to the left than is usually seen on this registry
handstamp. This seems to be the firstrecording of this registry marking from

3. Dalny Registry Label. The cover was 188th one registered presumably for
the year at Dalny. If so, one can only wonder what happened to the other Dalcy
registered covers deposited in the post during the first four months of 1903.
When I purchased the cover, the seller indicated that this was one of the covers
from the Cooper correspondence (Cooper was the dispatch agent in San Francisco),
implying thereby that other Cooper covers have been known to exist, but not, no-
cessarily, from Dalny. It seems plausible that some of the U. S. Consular Ser-
vice covers from Dalny should be somewhere.

4. No. 17th Field Post Office (Dalny). This cancellation measures 242mn.
.in diameter and is similar to Tchilinghirian's Standard Type MM (Part 5, page
405) which measures 26-mm. Note that the same cancellation is on the cover,
but is a full 2mm. smaller in diameter, a fact I cannot explain. Tchilinghi-ian
assigns the 17th Field Post Office cancellation as Type 2 for Dalny (Figure 381"'.
pages 381-382). The cancellation on the cover is single-circled, reads at the
top "No. 17i POLEV. POCHT. KON." and..at the bottom tPRIAJUR. OKR." (abbreviation
Pri-Amur Region.). The date is cross-shape is 25 IV 1903 (25 April 1903).

Comments Note that this cancellation, is dated a day later than the Field
Telegraph Branch cancellation. A possible explanation for the
use of both cancellations is this: The cover was processed for
transmission at the Dalny Field Telegraph Branch for postal fee
payment and registration. The 17th Field Post Office handled
the transmission of the cover by pouch via the Chinese Eastern
Railway (CER) for transfer to the westbound Trans-Siberian train
wiich stopped at the Manchurian-Siberian border station of Man-
chuli (See No. 5 below). It seems, unusual, however, that two
Dalny postal facilities should be involved in transmitting mail,

Page 22 No. 68

in this case, the cover in question. Comments from readers would be
welcome. Do readers have in their collections similar examples of the
combined use of field telegraph and field post branch cancellations in
& MIanchuria from the same town or station

It should also be mentioned that the existence of the two separate
Dalny Field Telegraph Branch and Field Post Branch cancellers confirms
Tchilinghirian's supposition (Part 5, page 404) that the two branches
actually existed in 1903 in the subdivision of the United Post and Te-
legraph Branches in the Lyao-Turg Loachold. (Concerning the different
type cancellers used, see No.l, Commont above).

5. Manchuli.- Chita Sector, Route 260, Trans-Siberian Railway. The cancel-
lation is a single-circle, 29imm. diameter and roads POCHTOVY VAGON NO. 260
(Postal Railroad Car No. 260), with serial 4, and is cross-shaped dated 29 IV 1903
(29 April 1903). The cancellation is dated four days after the cover left Dalny.

Comments: Trans-Siberian railroad cancellations have been discussed by Dr. A. H.
Wortman in Rossica Journal No. 65 (1963), pages 18-23. The article men-
tions this cancellation-route number and those described in Nos. 6 and
7 below. The even numbers of the routes indicate that the trains were
westbound. Route numbers were assigned to sectors of the entire Trans-
Siberian Railroad.

6. Chita Irkutsk Sector, Route 242, Trans-Siberian Railway. The cancel-
lation is a single-circle, 27Tmm. diameter, similar to 5 above, has serial 7, and
is dated in cross-shape 30 IV 1903 (30 April 1903), five days after the cover
left ,alny.

7. Irkutsk Krasnoyarsk Sector, Route 198, Trans-Siberian Railway. The
cancellation is a single-circle, 27mm. diameter, similar to 6 and 5 above, has
serial 10 (a high number), and is cross-shaped dated 2 V 1903 (2 bay 1903), seven
days after the cover left Dalny.

7a. Railroad cancellation unidentified.

8-9. Moscow Transiting. On 12 V 1903 (12 Mby 1903), 17 days after leaving
lalny, the cover was forwarded through MSCOW IV and V EKSPEDITSIYA (IV and V
Forwarding Stations) for the journey to Haiburg.

10. German-American Sea Post/Hamburg-Now York. This cancellation roads
CEUTSCHE-.ARERIK. SEEPOST/HANBURG-NEW YORK and is dated 28 5 03 (28 May 1903),
(New Style). The cover reached Hamburg 20 days after it left Dalny.

11. San Francisco, California Registry Division. This cancellation struck
twice in magenta is double circle, diameters 30 and 18-mm., and is dated 11 June
1903, The cover reached its destination 34 days after leaving falny by a very
roundabout route.

Comment: It may seem strange that there is no Now York registry arrival marking
on the cover. Registered mail at that time usually from abroad was so
cancelled at port of entry; and for inland destination, New Yor usually
was the port of entry. It is possible that since this might have been
an official dispatch it was not subject to ordinary mail handling at
the port of entry. The field of consular mail arrival markings and
handling in the United States is indeed worthy of research.

No. 68 Page 23

Conclusions, The Dalny Field Telegraph Branch cancellation described under No. 1
above establishes the existence of a hitherto unknown and unsuspected type cancel-
ler used at the Dalny postal facility. When the Field Telegraph Branch canceller
was actually introduced.at Dalny is unknown. The type cancellation at present is
not known to have been used at other Russian postal facilities in Wanchuria or in
the Layo-Tung Leasehold. In view of this, the cancellation may be considered to be
of. greatest rarity and is a significant.addition to the postal history of Russian
offices in Vanchuria and Lyao-Tung Leasehold. In addition, the combined use of
this rare cancellation'with the 17th.Field Post cancellations establishes the
uniqueness of the cover.

The reason for routing the cover across Siberia via Europe instead of the
much shorter route across the Pacific Ocean to San Francisco can only be surmised.
The situation in the Far East in 1903 was becomingg more and more tense between
Russia and Japan. Because of this, the U. S. Consulate in Dalny may have decided
that safer transmission of its dispatches to the United States could be insured
via Europe.

by 0. A. Faborge

Stamps of the Russian Empire, at least during their early period, had to be
cancelled in black color exclusively. That was the official decision, and the
post offices received continuous reminders to do so. Nevertheless there was a
number of post offices which.occassionaly used other colors than black, and stme
of them seem to have done it rather regularly.

The first uniform type of cancellers to be distributed among the various ps.t
offices of the huge territory of Imperial Russia, is known to us as the "DOTTED
NUMERAL" type, and the six main patterns are well known to all collectors of Russia
The both circulars No. 1,47 of 31 May 1858 and No. 157 of 17 August 1858 announ-
ced the exclusive use of these now cancellers to all post offices, and these can-
cellers stayed in use until they were withdrawn and replaced by a new type in
February 1863. The truncated triangular type alone stayed further in use and was
withdrawn as late as October 1877 (Circulars of 11 February 1863 and of 20 October
1877 respectively).

Pbst of the names of towns, villages, railroad stations, etc., which received
the aforementioned dotted numeral cancellers, are well known, due to some almost
complete lists officially published, and later included in various philatelic pub-
lications (Bochmann, Prigara, Billig, etc.).

Ink of other color than black have apparently been used for the dotted nume-
ral cancellations by a very small number of post offices, but as far as known to
the author, no attempt has yet been made to list such colored-cancellations of the
various dotted numeral type. Most of the numbers (of the truncated triangular
type) which have been distributed to the post offices abroad are, according to
Mr. Tchilinghirian and Mr. Stephen "Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad",
known in blue, which for these particular post offices seems to have been the
standard color. Some were in violet.

As the aforementioned listing is the only where.colored cancellations of thi.
type are mentioned, the author suggests that all of us, who have some colored cay-
cellations of the dotted numeral type in our collection, or have seen such items
in other collections, should contribute to a list of those rather rare items. A
list of this kind would certainly be welcome to all, who spoe.ali7z in oancellatio

Page 24 No. 68

and at the samo time it would fill a gap in the research of Imperial Russian ob-

The modest contribution of the author to this list is to be found at the end
of this article here some further considerations and suggestions:

In listing the various colors and their shades, it's almost impossible to
know to what extent the original color has changed due to influence of light, air,
etc. Most of these cancellations are about 100 years old, so there had boon
plenty of time for such influence. We cannot list but those colors, which we can
actually see to day, although some of th3m might have looked different at the day
of their origin. Nevertheless I guess that itts of greater importance for the
collectors to know what the colors look like to day, than to deal with guesswork
about the problem what they might have looked like a hundred years ago.

With regard to the aforementioned point of view I think it is reasonable only
to mention the shades, but to list the basic colors.

The basic colors (except black and its shades) were:

a. rod. b. green c. blue d. violet e. brown They all are scarce to
very rare. Some of the shades which the author has seen are:

a. red, brick red, orange red, brownish red (all rare), carmine (very rare).
b. green, grayish green (both very rare).
c. bluo (shades), grayish blue, gray blue, greenish blue, indigo blue,
violet blue, bluish gray (all scarce to rare).
d. violet (shades) (scarce to rare exclusively on Russian Levant cancel-
lationsl) .
o. brown no shades (rare).

As previously mentioned, the listing below is limited to such colored can-
cellations which the author actually has seen himself (with the addition of rec-
tangular type 301 and oval type 9). The author hopes that other collectors
will add to this list and publish their additions in our journal. These additions
I am sure, will be both numerous and important.

19 KOVNO..............blue 32 PENZA.............red

46 KMESLAVL............rd 260 MSTISLAVL............blue
49 NEVE...............red 273 V;SILSURS.K ...........bluo
(Dr. A. H. Wortman) 301 CELIBINSK............ rod
51 RECHIZA.......... red (BJRP No. 5, page 78)
58 GOROKHOVEZ........ rod 398 ZARISK ..............bl1s
175 TALSINO......... ...red 443 BERDIANSK ............blue
179 VIIKMER...........blue L65 PITIGORSK ...........red
185 YQURBOURG......... 11.B 501 ERIVAN ...............red
210 PUTIVL............rod 612 KOREZK...............greon &
(carmine) (blue Dr. A. H. Wortman)
223 NOVOSELITZA.........red
(col. L. Ruuskanen)
238 ILLUKST........... red
239 LIBAVA.............blue
240 POLAN'EN ...........blue
257 GORYGOREZK .........brown
(co. L. Ruuskanen)
No. 68 Page 25

6 ODESSA......blue 9 TAUROGGEN........blue (H. C. Goss sale 1, lot
(4). H E X A G.0 N T Y P E pointed up and down
"(none so far known to the author)

(5). HEXAG 0 N TY P E pointed to left and right
(none so far known to the author)

177 LUKNINSKAYA or 784 JAFFA.....................blue
VORENSKAYA..........blue 785 ALEXANDRIA........... .blue
(Dr. A. H. Wortman) 787 SALONIKA.................blue
200 KUFCHINSKAYA......... brown 803 DZURMEN ...................violet
(col. L. Ruuskanen) (Dr. A. H. Wortman)
212 GORODISHCHE..........red 812 unknown...................blue
247 LYADI....... .......blua 826 unknown....................blue
417 OKULOV...............blue Tol. L. Ruuskanen)
(Dr. A. H. Woitman) 884 unknown...................blue
586 NOVOIMLINSKAYA or (col. L. Ruuskanen)
PONUROVSKAYA ....... brown S08 unknown .................blue
633 KISILEVSKAYA.........brown (col. L. Ruuskanen)
(col. L. Ruuskanen) 915 unknown...................purple
672 OLIKSKAYA or (Dr. A. H. Wortman)
POKASHEVSKAYA. ......blue 925 unknown ............... bl
(col. L. Ruuskanen) 970 unknown.....................b].
747 KRYUKOVO ............ blue 979 unknown ................... blue
778 TREBIZOND............blue 999 unknown................. ..bluo
780 STYENA ...............blue 1006 unknown....................blue
and violet Thr". A. H. Wortman)
781 NERSINA..............blue 1040 unknown................... blue
782 ALEYXADRETTA.........blue 1067 ROKIZINI..................blue
and violet 1323 unknown ..................brown
783 BEIRUT...............blue 1390 unknown ..................blue
and violet (col. L. Ruuskanen)

N 0 T E: This article was written and already sent to our editor when the author
received some back numbers of the British Journal of Russian Philately.
In No, 29 I found an excellent article by Br. A. H. Wortman on "The ts
Numeral Cancellations" with much detailed information. In his article
Dr. Wortman also mentions some colored strikes, which he has seen up ,-o
the time of writing (1961 .). This made me re-write my original list
in order to include some additional numbers from Dr. Wortman's article.

by D. N. Minchev

As a result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, the City of T'rnovo tempo-
rarily became a main administrative center of Russian Civilian Authority on libe-
rated Bulgarian territory. For this reason, the Central Administration of Posts,
i.e. the "Postal Department", was also established there.

In its turn, the post office at T'rnovo, as one of the principal offices
operating during that time, developed into quite a busy facility. There are three
postmarks known to have been applied there during the initial months of its

Page 26 No. 68

existence. These markings are preserved on letters, official correspondence,
etc. and exhibit no little interest for Bulgarian philately. They are described
in Vol. I of the notable work of Tchilinghirian and Stephen, devoted to Russian
postal services abroad.

0 Here we are dealing with a hitherto unknown marking of the Russian Posts in
Bulgaria, applied at T'rnovo during this initial period. It is a single-circle
type with a diameter of 26mm. and completely in Russian. In its upper half, it
bears the inscription "Postal Department" and in the center in 5 lines "Commission
for storing undelivered letters". At bottom there are two inked posthorns, the
emblem of the postal service.

What is the real significance of this postmarkt- From it, we have learnt
of the existence of the Central Administration of the Posts, i.e. the "Postal
Department" and that it included a Commission which was set up for the purpose of
holding for a specific length of time, mail which had not been delivered for one
reason or another. In other words, a "Eead Letter Office". To this Commission,
every post office would have been obligated to forward any undelivered letters,
etc. and such mail would have received the marking described here. This is yet
another instance of the thorough organization and activity of the Russian Posts
in Bulgaria.

The original impression of this marking reproduced here is in black and on
piece, most likely from some letter. This piece was found in the philatelic
holdings of a collector of many years standing, M. Nikola Iliev of T'rnovo, to
whom thanks are due for the photograph he has placed at our disposal.

by D. N. Minchev

In connection with the work of the Russian Fieldpost during the Russo-Turkish
war of 1877-78, hitherto unknown documents are still being found which bring to
light something new, supplementing or clearing up information about which little
was known to date. Such a document is one recently found by us and is the sub-
ject of this present article.

This is in the form of an Order of the Day, #106 of ay 14, 1877, issued
at GHQ in Ploesti, Rumania, by the Chief of Staff of the Russian Army on active
service at the Danube-Balkan Front. Here is the original text, word for word:-

"In order to obviate difficulties which have arisen as a result of army movements,
in regard to the delivery of postal correspondence addressed to the army, it is
decreed by regulation that all correspondence from the Empire be addressed to
personnel in the army on active service, as follows:-

'To the Ungeni Border Post Office, for delivery to the army on active service',
together with the exact indication of the specific unit of the armies, or mili-
tary establishment, of which the person, to whom the correspondence is being
addressed, forms part. The above-mentioned directive should be brought to the
attention of correspondents for the proper dispatch by them of mail to personnel
in the army on active service".

It should be pointed out here under the term "Ungeni Border Post Office"
there be understood one of the main border post offices of pre-revolutionary
Russia, exchanging mail with abroad. This particular office was situated in the

No. 68 Page 27

village of Ungeni, on the Pruth river, to the north of and in the vicinity of the
city of Jassy in Rumania. Mr. A. Cronin published in Rossica #66.under the "Notes
from Collectors" section a comprehensive outline of the importance and role of
this border office.

The careful attention given to the correct addressing of correspondence is
clearly evident from the above order of the Russian High Command and these elemen-
tary requirements must have aided greatly the rapid and correct receipt of letters.
This was a very important point, as it is well known that efficient mail communi-
cations between the soldier at the front and his family and relatives represents
one of the most vital factors in maintaining good morale.

00000000000 000000000000.00000000000000.000000000.000000000.0000000000.0000000000
0 0
o 0
o Large Selection -- Accumulation of 35 years Russia, Border States, Latvia, o
o o
o Lithuania and many other countries. o
o o
o Also a specialized stock of AIRMAILS and TOPICALS, U. N., ROTARY EUROPA, o
o o
o o
o Kindly write for details and/or approvals o
o c
o S. Serebrakian P. 0. Box 448 Monroe, New York o
o c
000o000o0000000000000000000000000000000000000000cooooooooCo ooocoooooooo00o000000

000000000000000000000000000000000000000000. OOOCOOCOOOOOOOOOOO0000OOOOOOOOOOOOC
O 0
0 0
o Complete price list of RUssia MINT o
o o
o 0
o S P A CE material c
o 0
o F. D. C. o
o o
o Free upon re c ue st c
o 0
o o
o WAN TED to buy RUSSI A, I N T O NLY o
o o
o Special Scott Sets and Air Post o
o Your offer is welcome o
S .
o o
o S. de Me g e ve 7 0 3 1 5 0 th St r eet o
o o
o White stone 5 7. L. I NE W Y RK o
o o

Page 28 No. 68

by R. Sklarevski

Chuchin's Zemstvo Catalogue states that after 1 and 3 kop. of 1912 issue
(Bulak's Nos. 150 and 151), Chuchin's No. 94 and 95, the stamps of the E. Z. G.
B. (Ekspeditsia Zagotovlenia Gcsudarstvenykh Bumag) reappeared. Those are listed
by Chuchin as follows:

No. 9 3k. blue (1904 & 1915). No.17-3k. red (1912 & 1916) No. 19-10k. br. lilac
No. 16- 1k. green No.18 6k. blue No. 20-30k. orange.

All of the above are of the Ardatov type. I do not know what numbers Mr.
Bulak assigns to the above in his article.

Mr. Bulak's article reminded me of one written by C. K. Mariancvitch in the
Soviet Collector for 1930 (#4-5). He stated that in 1916 Prof. of International
Law in Kazan University, V. A. Ulianitsky, received from the director of E. Z. G.
B. warehouse a list of all the Zemstvo stamps printed by them between years 1C93
and 1916, inclusive. We may also state that E.Z.G.B started to print stamps for
various Zomstvos in 1893. Arzamas, Livny and Stavropol were the first ones to
utilize this service.

E. 2. G. B. started to print stamps for Poltava in 1905, and continued to
do so through 1916. The quantities printed wore as follows:

1905 22,625 1907 11,500 1912 55,000 1915 9,625
1906 10,000. 1909 17,375 1913 3,500 1916 11,000

The total printed in eight years being 140,625 stamps. Some of interesting
facts about Poltava stamps are as follows:

1. Poltava utilized the services of E.2.G.B. soon after the first locally
stamps were printed, perhaps finding out that i.t was cheaper to have them
printed that way. They used their services intermittently between 1905
and 1909.

2. From 1J09 through part of 1912, various commemoratives were printed
and it is probably safe to say that many of them found their places,
in mint condition, in various collections.

3. Between 1910 and 1912 numerous overprints were made on the Ardatoff
types ordered between 1905 and 1909 from the E.Z.G.B. as well as on
the commemoratives issued during that period.

4. Poltava was one of the first and very few Zemstvos which issued commomo-
rative stamps.

5. Note that in 1912 a large order,consisting of 55,000 stamps, was placed
with E.Z.G.B.

P. P. Gankc in 1914 printed a brochure, entitled Zemstvo Post of the Poltava
Uezd, and that the stamps of E.Z.G.B. for Poltava were ready in March of 1905.

The Zemstvo collection of Agathon Faberge auctioned by H.R. Harmer in 1940
contained a copy of Schmidt's No. 26, 1k. in black on 6k. deep lilac, issued in
1911, of which only 25 copies were overprinted. It was sold for 17/6.

No. 68 Page 29

Fred Speers in his Zemstvo Gazetteer, in #31 B.J.R.P. describes Poltava
Government and gives the stamp issuing period for the City of Poltava Zemstvo
as 1903-1918. He states that the population in 1910 was 53,060 and that it was
the second largest Zemstvo stamp issuing locality, emiting some 151 varieties
(Chuchin lists 158).

One may construe from various data on hand that perhaps Poltava Zomstvo
stamps are much more philatelic than Mr. Bulak thinks and that their usage for,
postal purposes was limited.

Examining the list of various "numeral" cancellations used by the Imperial
Post we find that Poltava Gubornia was well supplied with the government post
offices, which wore necessary, because of its proximity to Poland, etc.

0 0
o For Dealers Only .
o o
o R U S I A "Around the World with Stamps" ,o
o at 0
o o
o .
o Is my Spe c ia t y 0
o A.,S D A & P T S o
o SETS, mint and used. P.CKETS. .......................
0 .o. . o ..o .. .
o Inquiries & offers welcome. o
o 0
o I R V I G L A P I N E R
o 39-23 A9th St. o
o Long Island City N. Y. 11104 o,
o o
o Tel. Area Code 212 HA 9 3325 Cables: LAPI3T ..:T, NEW YORK o
o o

000OOOO00000000000000000OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO.0000000C00000000000000000COCOOCO CoC0O
0 0
o 0
o We buy and sell anything and everything to do with Russian Philately o
o o
o Imporials, R.S.F.S.R., Civil War, Caucasia, SoviLos, Zemstvos. o
O .0.
o Let us know your needs...if we cannot help immediately, doubtless we o
o o
o will be most likely to be able to do sooner or later than most other o
o 0
o European dealers. WE WANT TO BUY.... Send us your surplus..... o
o o
o Good collections, accumulations, early bundleware, covers, .specialist stu- ,
o dies...Cash waiting for practically anything interesting to do with R.ie.a, o
c 0
o EN G L AN D 0
oooo00 oooooooooc0ooooooooooooooccooooooooooo0.o0ooooooooooo0oooo000ooooooooooocoo

Page 30 No. 68


J, Chudoba. Brooklyr, New York
S(A). The first installment of "The Transmission of Mails on Steamships in
Russia", which appeared in #66 of our Journal interested me greatly because of the
information on the regulation regarding the prepayment of mail leaving Russia by
steamer, at the ordinary external rate. Judging from an entire in my collection,
it appears that the regulation may also have applied in the opposite direction.
Illustration #1 shows the front of an entire sent by IMessrs. Barton and Guostior
of Bordeaux, France and addressed in Russian and French to a Mr. Pashcher-kcv-
Trapkin of Moscow, advising of a shipment of wines and liqueurs on April 17, 1873
(new stylo) .

The letter bears the firm's cachet at upper loft and it was apparently given
at the last moment to the captain of a ship leaving Bordeaux for Russia. Upon
arrival at St. Petersburg, he franked the letter at bottom left with a 10 kopock
stamp at the normal inland rate on April 1C, 1873 (old style) and mailed it at the
St. Petersburg 3rd City Despatch Office. However, as the letter obviously origin-
ated from abroad, it was assessed during processing for a further fee of 15 kopecks
owing, as evidenced by the "DOPLATIT" marking at bottom left. This was probably
done at the St. Petersburg 1st Despatch Office, whose markings of April 10 and 11
are on the back, together with the arrival postmarks of IOSKVA III UTRO of April
12, 1873 and MOSK. TSNTRAL. OTDELENIE 173, 12 APR., 12 o'clock. I suggest,
therefore, that mail in those days had to be fully prepaid both when leaving and
entering Russia by steamer. Comments by fellow-members would be appreciated.

(B). Please see illustration #2 for the back of an unusual misdirected cover which
I recently acquired. It was sent by a Bulgarian living at Drogichin, Grodno govern-
ship, on April 24, 1901 (old style) and addressed to a Mr. Peter S. Pippeff, 12
Loguot St., Sofia, Bulgaria and for some unaccountable reason. it wound' up
in the Russian postal system in China'.'. There it received the Russian Chefoo
marking of June 4, 1901 (probably new style), then black postmarks of Shanghai
Russian P.O. of June 21 (new style) and Hong Kong June 26, befcr- being finally
forwarded to Dulgaria. It was then handled at the Serbian bor-r- by the Bulgarian
Tsaribrod-Kharmanli R.P.C. dated August 30, 1901 (new style) and received at last
in Sofia on the same day (August 17, old style) The entire journey took 114 d;ay
to complete by going half way around the world and how the letter could have been .a
misriroctod in the first place is a complete mystery to me.
---*--------- 0----- --------

Michael Rayhack, Little Fallls, Noew Jersey

I would like your opinion on this 1C kopeck RFomr:r-v currency stamp, overprinted
in Red ink 5 p ". Off hand I would say the ste.' a counterfeit, but the
5 p is in an unexplored realm. E D I T 0 '1it stamp is a fake.

I noted with interest two quite similar articles, both in our Journal #66, and
in British Journal #34, crediting the Korensky stamps, as Soviet #1, duo to a tolQ-
gram credited to Fodbelsky, ordering the usage of face values 35 and 70 kop. (Kercn-
sky) stamps, On October 15, 1918.

Now we come to a disparity about the issuance of these stamps in an article
published in the British Journal of Russian Philately, #2C, written by E.C. PEEL,
about these same stamps. Now note the dates from a paragraph on the Imperforates,
O page 1`, which is as follows: "I have a front with both varieties postmarked
LOSINOOSTROVSKLYA MIOSK G. 12.2.18. It will be noted that this is four months prior
to the earliest dated copy mentioned in Mr. Berry's article (3.6.18) and shows that

No. 68 Page 31

they were known very shortly after the stamps were issued." In other words these
same Kerensky stamps were used and cancelled in February and June 1918, months
before the Podbelsky order.

Then we come to the issuance of the Kerensky stationary, and again whoever
printed them must have printed the stamps, and my earliest date is on a double 5 W
kopeck card, dated August 30, 1918, again months before the official Soviet order.

I have written a similar letter to Mr. Ashford, Editor of the British Journal,
pointing out these same discrepancies in official usage of dates. For it.is my
belief that we have erased much of the falsities about Russian Philately, to
accept the Pcdbelsky statement, without more research, especially with so many
earlier dates of usage being known, and in the hands of reputable and serious

I recently acquired a large collection of Kerensky material, stamps and covers,
however I cannot come close to the earlier dates of usage noted by Mr. Peel and
Mr. Barry, and thus help to clarify this philatelic mystery.

A. Cronin, Windsor. Ontario, Canada

It is obvious that the varied cancels in our field of collecting and in par-
ticular those of a bilingual character or inscribed in an unfamiliar alphabet,
would sometimes trip up the unwary postmark engraver. It is intended in these
notes to present a tentative classification of the unusual errors found in this

It appears that such mistakes fall into two main groups and it is proposed
to define them as follows.

(1). K I R I L I T S A Errors, or errors in the Cyrjl>ic inscription on a post-
mark. Such examples would normally be engraved by a 2.:'i'c.ssian, who might be
easily confused by the unfamiliar alphabet. A typical case in this area is a
bi-lingual bridge-type marking for the village of WALKEARKSKI in Finland. In pre-
paring the bottom segment of the cancel, the Finnish engraver cut a Latin "S" in-
stead of the Cyrillic "C", thus producing an unusual but understandable error
(see Fig. 1). It would appear from the two strikes illustrated that the canceller
was in use for at least 34 months between 1897 and 1899. Perhaps fellow members
could check their Finnish material and advise earlier and later dates, or even a
correction to this marking. It seems reasonable to assume that mistakes might
also be found on Finnish bilinguals from other localities.

(2). L A T I N I T S A Errors, or errors in the Latin inscription, made by
Russian engravers who would not be familiar with the Latin alphabet. Two good
examples of such mistakes are known, and their description follows:

(a). A route marking in French, reading "VOIE TRANSSIBERIENNE" (Trans-
Siberian Route) and showing two inverted "s s", while what should haVe been the
three "N s" are in reality the Russian letters "i" in capital form (see Fig. 2-a).
This error was noted by the eminent French postal historian, Henri Tristant, on a
cover from Ngoc-Giap, province of Thanh-Hoa, Annam, Indo China, which passed
through the provincial capital on February 3, 1914 and travelled to Boulogne,
France via the Trans-Siberian Railroad (see "Les Feuilles Marcophiles", #158.for
Dec. 31, 1963, pp. 83-84). Judging from the typically Russian mistakes in the
lettering, Monsieur Tristant believes that the cachet may have been applied en
route at Vladivostok.

No. 68 Page 32

(b). A second and most interesting example is taken from a cover in Kurt
Adler's collection, sent from Uralsk, Kasakhstan on June 7, 1933 to Prague, Czecho-
slovakia. Uralsk is the capital of the province of West Kazakhstan and is situated
S 230 miles east of Saratov. In this case, the Kazakh name for the city, Oral, was
inscribed at bottom in the Latin-Turki alphabet. However, the Russian engraver mad
two mistakes in doing the bottom portion of the postmark; he engraved the first
three letters in lower-case type, and the last letter was inscribed in the capital
form and inverted (See Fig. 2-b).

Other errors doubtless exist, particularly in the Latin-Turki types but it
should be pointed out that this latter alphabet includes lower-case "e" in inverted
form and it has other letters which could be mistaken as Cyrillic characters. It
is suggested that members consult Rossica #56, pp. 99-100 before advising of
errors in the Latin-Turki alphabet.

R. Sklarevski Towson, ,l.ryland

To complete the Yassy story, written in #65, pp. 12-13 I would like to add
the following additional sources.

Catalogue of the Russian Rural Stamps by Wm. Herrick (Fully illustrated and giving
the present market value of every stamp). It was published by the Scott Stamp &
Coin Co., Limited, N. Y. (123 pages).

This interesting handbook spells the Zomstvo as Itssy, and gives the date of
of issuo as January 1, 1679 (which does not agree with the date in Shishkin's
article). Ho also lists the following reprints, issued in 1S83:

on white wove paper on white wove paper, pin perforated
Rl 2k. vormillicn 25 R3 2k. vornillion 25
R2 5k. br. pruss. blue 50 R4 5k. prussian blue 50

on thick white wove paper
R5 2k. vermillion 25 R6 5k. prussian blue 50

"The reprints can easily be distinguished from the originals by the paper,
which is smooth and very white for reprints, while the originals are printed cn
rather rough and yellowish paper, this is especially the caso with the 5k. blue, ttn
paper of which is quite a dark dity yellow. The 5k. blue can also be told by the
color of the ink."

The prices given in 1,96 for the regular stamps were 2k. vermillion 5Cc.,
5k. vermillion 4Cc. fnd 5k. dull greenish blue t2.00.

It is interesting to quote the following from the preface of the Herrick's

"There have been several catalogues written on the rural stamps, such as
Kaprovsky's and Lubkert's; but they were written years ago, when comparatively
little was known about the older issues and they are almost useless. Mr. Moens'
catalogue has been the groundwork of this catalogue. This work was criticized
before publication by Mr. E. von dor Boock, of Moscow".

The handbook by Hugo Libkrv is oLitl+.d "flndbnich lustwUrt.hzUichon dor Rural-
Poet.re V..n Russl2and". Vienna, 13,'2.

We also see that the Yassy post was in existence for less than a year, being
suppressed in December, 1879.
No. 68 Page 33

Russian Offices in China (#55, Page 14, paragraph 3)

Unfortunately the Soviet Journal does not state whether the 1 ruble Kitai,
perf. 12- was mint or cancelled. Therefore I assume that all of the copies of
the aforementioned stamp, so far known, are cancelled.

Dr. V. Stoyanoff, Rousse, Bulgaria

I am enclosing a photo of a cover of Russian Levant which I bought approxima"
tely 29 years ago. There are two attestations by our honorable expert Mr. Karai-
vanoff, already 85 years old. Neither 1, nor Mr. Ashford have seen a similar can-
cellation of Smyrna before. ty old friend Mr. Franz See of Vienna writes me that
this is not the only unrecorded cancellation known to him. There are many other
cancellations of Russian Levant and Russia used in Bulgaria which are unrecorded,
and some of which I intend to describe for recording.

John Barry. Sutton Surrey, England

Regarding your querry on the origin of the name Port Arthur. Port Arthur was
named after the British Naval Leiutenant of squadron who put ashore a party to
take a look.

R. Polchaninov, Brooklyn, New York

I have a question regarding the article on "Russian Finance Ministry War
Charity Labels of 1915-16"by Fred Spoors, in which he quotes you and other mem-
bers. In my collection I have dark blue on blue and dark green on green labels
of the 2nd set. Are they the same labels which are described in the article as
being on dark blue and light green paper

Of the two series, in imperforate condition, I have only 9 labels instead of
10. Eight vignettes duplicate the designs of the 1st series, while the ninth
pictures a truck, which is not a part of the first series. I also have a block
of four from the left border of the sheet, which has the following vignettes,
described as follows, from left to right: #10, truck label, #13 and f15. I also
have singles of ##14, 9, 18, 25 and 4.

1. What is the design of the 10th label mentioned in the article!
2. Do the labels in blue on green paper exist'

I also have 3 post cards with multicolored reproductions of the labels of
the 1st series.

Sam Robbins, Los Angeles, California

I like to announce the details of an Interesting Imperial cover that has come
into my possession. It was mailed, on March 14, 1901, from Kalvariya, Suvalki
Gubernia, in what was then Russian Poland'. It is addressed to Brooklyn, N.Y.
The 10 kop. rate was made up of 3 copies of 1 kop. Scotts #46 and one copy of 7
kop. Scotts #50, all on horizontally laid paper. One can plainly see that the
upper portion (half) of the design shows no background at all. (See ill.) At
first thought, this might mean that the background had been shifted, but then
the portions of this background would have shown up in the white parts of the
normal design, such as in the value circles. This is definitely NOT the case
here as there is no visible overlapping. This cover was seen by Mr-. Glass and
also by Kurt Adler who said that the series on horizontally laid paper did not
have many printing defects, in comparison with the issue on vertically laid paper

Page 34 No. 68

which came later, and such a variety as the upper half of the background omitted
was very scarce on cover. Comments on this variety and suggestions on how it came
about would be vory mnch appreciated.

V. Popov. Nyack. New York

What is your answer. I am sending you a photo of-a Russian Offices in China
stamp, which is a "riddle" to me. This stamp was included in F. Rich auction of
1P-20 June, 1964. It is described in the catalogue as 1 Ruble, perforated 10,
very rare, very fine, signed "Diena".

I personally had no opportunity to examine the stamp. What number is given
to this stamp by Scotts Catalcgue Under the magnifying glass one can easily see
that the perforation is of private origin. Every one knows that the overprint
"KITAI" does not exist on the imporforate 1 ruble of 1917 of Russia (Scotts #131).
It seems to me (judging by the size of the stamp, the unshaded lines which may be
seen on the photo and which separate one issue of this value from another), that
the stamp in question is Scotts #45 of Russian Offices in China, which some one
re-perforated. The cancellation of the Station Djalainor of the Chinese Eastern
Railway (Tchilinghirian, page 411, Fig. 569) seems to be genuine.

All in all, it is a "puzzle"t It is possible, that some one has added "KITAI"
overprint to Russia, Scott #131, which went through the Station Djalainor post
office, thus creating a variety of Russian Offices in China, Scotts #45. Whether
this is what happened or not, 1 am roequosting the members to send in their

A. S. Waugh, Bath, Somersot., Uni+-' Kinrdom

With reference to the interesting article by A. Cronin, on page 31, #66 of
your esteemed journal, "The Story behind the Podbelsky Commemorative", there
appears to be a revival of interest in the USSR concerning the two "chainbreaker"
stamps issued under Fodbolsky's decree. The Novosti Press Agency (APT) produced
a similar article in the Spring of 1964 by Maria Kovalyeva, their philatelic cor-
respondent, concerning this stamp issue. It was pointed out that some confusion
has arisen because the stamps are inscribed "Russia" and not"R.S.F.S.R,". The
reason givon for this omission was that the values were designed well before the
Fifth all-Russian Congress of Soviets, which in July 1918 adopted the first So-6-t
Constitution, and only then, legalisod the name, "Russian Socialistic Federative
Soviet 2Eepublic". The first edicts of the Soviets were in the name of the "Peoples
of Russia", a title carried onto the 35k and 70k stamps put into circulation on
October 15, 1918.

It may be worth recalling that a journalist,,N.P. Avilov, was first Commissrer
of Post and Telegraph, being appointed with the other commisosmson November 8, 1917.
He was on the staff of the paper "Novaya Zhian" writing under the pen-name "Globcv'
and speaking in the name of Social Democrats. In My 1918, this faction split from
the Bolsheviks over War Communism, and it is from this period, that Podbolsky and
his decrees on postage stamps, etc., came into the philatelic picture on those
historically interesting times.

Taking this opportunity of wishing "Rossica" well in 1965, and continued

Kurt Adler. Now York. N. Y.

Referring to the article by Andrew Cronin in #66 about the early motor from

No. 68 Page 35

Moscow of 1913, I can announce the existence of a similar type of meter from the
same year but applied 7 months later at St. Petersburg, the capital.

This I found on a cover in my collection of "vokzals" or railroad stations,
and there are several interesting features I would like to report here. In the
first place, the cover is from the head office of the Armavir-Tuapse R.R. Co. in
the capital and addressed to a firm in London. It was apparently sent after hours
by registered mail at the Vitobsk R.R. Station in St. Petersburg, as shown on the
front of the cover by the motor marking in red (see ill. #1). At this time, how-
ever, the meter is bilingual, in Russian and French. It reads' in three lines "Z
S. Petersburg Ts. V./R. S. Petersbourg G. Tz./213 OKT. 17. 13". Here, as in the
case of the Moscow type, the date is given in American style and the figures bo-
fore the date (213) are obviously the registry number of the letter. The initials
"Ts.V." and "G.Tz." are apparently the abbreviations in Russian and French for
"Tzarskoye Solo" Railroad Station.

Looking at the back of the cover, we see that on collection at the R.R. post
office, an interesting 2-line unframed marking in black was applied at bottom
left, reading "P R I N Y A T 0 I Z A V T 0 M A T A" ("taken from an automat")-
(see ill. #2) and the necessary postage of 30 kopeks was affixed in 1k. and 2k.
Romanov stamps and cancelled with the oval R.R. post office marking of the same
date. The cover was received in London 3 days later. Perhaps other members will
come up with further examples of those unusual items when they examine their

Ir A. H. Wortman, London, EnFland

There were some interesting things among the covers reported by Sklarevski.
Cover 14 has a common TPO cancellation. In this type I have KIEV MOSKVA Zh.,
KIEV BREST d., SOCHI LENINGRAD GORKII v. all common no doubt. Cover 16
is a Town Post cancellation and was illustrated in BJRP No. 8. I want to take
up the matter of the "K. Ya." marking, in a square frame. Whatever this is it is
not the receiving mark of Ivanovsky Monastery' I have it, also on a cover to
Moscow and mine is a 7k. postal stationery envelope, "F I L 0 N 0 V S K A Y A
OB. V. DON 2 NOYA 1890, 1 POCHT. TELEGR. OTD. 1" and it is addressed simply;
V' E1DSV Vt VMAGAZIN SCHWABE. There is Mosoow Town postmark on the reverse of
4th Nov. and another of the same date of the Moscow Ekspeditsiya. The date in
my "K. Ya." marking is 4 YANVARYA, year unreadable, and it is difficult to know
whether this is a mistake for NOYABRYA or whether the cover was in the Post Office
until the following January. Could this "K. Ya." possibly mean that the cover
was put into some box or other awaiting collection, since the address was a bit
indefinite'. ("K. Ya." Kontor. Yashchik) This is only a guess, but I cannot
find any Ivanovsky Monastery mentioned in Baedeker and maybe the Post Office
couldn't find it either. I should be most interested if any Rossica reader
could offer any other explanation.

Another thing I must mention is that the"heavy inked loop" on the 1G12 letter
illustrated opposite page 50 is a postage due marking, a stylized figure "9"
meaning 9 decimes to pay, in spite of MS france. These stylized figures are well
known to postal history students. There is another example, the "30" on the
cover in the neighboring illustration of Mincl-v cover.

The following is evidently a copy of a document, which was turned over to
the Editorial Board, by Bill Bogg, who found it among several thousand covers
purchased by him.

At the top of the copy in 7 lines is the following inscription:

Page 36 No. 68

1. To the manager. 2. of the post office. 3. in. 4. Bulgaria. 5. "16" February
of year 1878. 6. No. 261. 7. City of Sistov.

d4 The letter follows:

To Postmaster of Tirnovo:

Before the opening of postal stations in Bulgaria, for lightening the load
of the office expenses, I distributed to each one of the stations 10 ruble bank-
note (kreditn. bilot), from the 400 ruble advance allowed and for justification
of these expenses each station furnished me with the shopkeeper's bills plus the
the account of the moneys which each postmaster spent from their own funds.
Likewise, the postmasters of each of the first 12 stations established submitted
expense accounts, greatly excoeding the considerable monthly sum that was approved,
for a period from January 1. Since, from the money already advanced, besides
the 10 rubles already given I am in position to return to each Postmaster, for the
period beginning from the day of the start of the service to January 1, the sum
of 8 rubles.

On account of that, I am forwarding an attached report No. 109, for a period
from January 29, of padded expense account of Postmaster Stanislavov for 16r.
OCk. I am urging to return the expense account to him, with an offer of no more
than 8 rubles in banknotes.
Chief of Postal Service in Bulgaria,

(s) Trubiny

C. do Stackelberp. Washington, P. C.

SUp till now, the "Cronin Retouch" on the 35 kop. stamp, Scott ##84/128
(Rossica #55, page 35 and #60, page 26) was only k:-o!n on stamp #2 of the lower
right-hand pane, on the sheets of late printings (with no plate No.), perforated
and imperforate.

Mr. John Lloyd also found a similar retouch on stamp #4 of the upper right-
hand pane on perforate sheets, with the Plate #5 marking in the lower right-
hand corner.

The other day I acquired an upp6r right-hand pane, perforated, of this
stamp, where the "Cronin Rotouch" appears on stamp #5 of the pane. (Printing
of III Period).

So far as I lnow this position has not yet been recorded.

Last year I acquired an entire shoot of Crime.n stamps, 35kcp./lkop., Scott
#51 of South Russia. The original lk. imperforato sheet, has in the lower right-
hand corner a marking "Plato No. 1", which !r. J. Fohs lists as that of 1917
printing. 1y sheet shows all of the varieties and flaws listed on page 20 of
Rossica #58. However the round dot, variety, instead of the normal square
dot after "kop.", does not appear only on stcmp #54, but also very distinctly on
stamps ##1, 9, 11, 12, 34, 42, 49, 59, 62 and 85. There are dots of other shape
which I do not list, and which belong to an intermediate stage uf development
from the normal square to the round dot variety.

As the "type" of the surcharge became more and more worn, the square dots
tuvno iAuO rould Anos, arulI T EpI-ooo m shaet is of a 1S.+.tr printing than the
No. 68 Page 37

sheets originally described by Mr. S. Manjeley in #22 of the "Old Rossica Journal.

R. Sklarevski, Towson, Maryland

I like to report the following interesting military cancellation. The cancel
is a three ring type, purple. Inside of the smallest 20mm. circle,in two lines
the inscription "2-aya" "Rota" (2nd Company). Inside of the two large circles
(both circles of 33 and 30mm in dia. are outside of the inscription) is the follow-
ing inscription, reading clockwise "93-ee PESHEI KALYZHSKOI DROUZHINY" or 93rd
Kaluga Unmounted Body-guard.

The other cancellation on the same piece, in black, inside of a single-lined
29.5mm. diameter circle, reads clockwise, as follows: "Polev. Glav. Pocht. Kent."
(at top). At the bottom, reading counter-clockwise, between four diamonds, is
"Vilna Zh.". The date 29.5.15 is found inside of 3-line rectangle (no top line),
the rectangle being in a circle of 17mm. dia.
S0---Z --0--------

R. Polchaninoff, Brooklyn, New York

Among the interesting Revenue stamps in my collections is a revenue certifi-
cate of 1755 which heads my holdings of revenues. Revenue collected 1 kop. is
placed manually on the sheet and all sheets with the exception of the two having
no text on the front, one with illegible notations and five sheets with text in
the front, one mint, one with notations of 1785 at the end of the ledger. There
are 5% sheets, the 34th being without text. All shoots are bound into the lodger.
All the documents are "copies" as is stated at the beginning of each document.
"List of various yezds (districts), various villages within them in the jurisdic-
tion of the government collegium with copies of present transactions" is the
lengthy title. Not all the names of districts is legible, however one was Pskov

Recently among the collector's literature received from Russia I received
several catalogues of "ex-libris" book marks. This produced a thought of forming
a catalogue of Russian ex-libris abroad in which I wish to include:

1. Russian artists abroad (from 1917)

2. Foreign artists for the Russian living abroad (from 1917)

3. Various ex-libris abroad with Russian inscriptions

According to my calculations there are but few such ex-libris and aly
information would be of great value to me.
0oooocooOc oo000 oo0000000

Have a copy of 175 page, paper bound handbook entitled "Soviet Collectioner",
Moscow 1963, which was picked up from a newspaper stand in Russia by a tourist.
The issue consisted of 15,000 copies. The handbook deals with following subjects:
Philately, picture post cards, numismatics, paper money, match boxes, etc.

On page 150 is a list of catalogues which have been published in 1962 as well
as a listing of other philatelic literature which is ( we hope they were published)
on the presses. Besides literature pertaining to Russian stamps, there is a
list of numerous catalogues on stamps of various Iron Curtain countries, namely
Mongolia, Korea, Viet Nam, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Rumania and

Page 38 No. 68

(Compiled by the Editorial Board)

During the period from 1946 to 1961, some of the stamps issued appeared in
S two typos of perforation. After 1961, strict measures were taken at Goznak, the
State Printing Office, to see thr.t scarce perforations were not issued, and as a
result they now rarely, if ever, appear.

The chock-list set out below is based mainly on information taken from the
1958 edition of the Soviet Catalogue and its supplements. For the convenience of
our members, the Editorial Board has keyed the listing to the numbering system of
four major world catalogues. The scarce varieties are line-perforated 12p-, unless
otherwise stated.

Year Value & description Soviet Scott Gibbons Yvert Mchel

19/6 60k. Order of Insignia of Honor 1081A 1035 1177 1016 1030
196 60k. Distinguished Service edal 1093A 1043 1178 1028 1032
1947 30k. Flyer Offset printed 1191A 736 566f 736 622II
1948 Ir. Air Force. Comb-Perf. 12,d12 1425 C82 1445 1308 1297
1949 25k. Canoeing. Comb-'orf. 12x12p 1448A 1377 1498 1369 1358
1952 40k. 1Mmin-Sibiryak 174SA 1649 1739 1635 1652
125 40k. Griboyodov Gomb-Perf. 12r-x12 1783A 1690 1624 1675 1692
1954 lr. Griboyedov Line-Perf. 12_ 1784 1691 1825 1676 1693
1954 Ir. Chkalov Comb-erf. 12-,x12 1786A 1693 1927 1679 16?5
1952 40k. Stalin 1792A 1699 1633 1684 1'01
1955 2r. Airmail (green) 1839 C92 1882 Av.99 174"
1955 40k. Garshin Comb-Perf. 12x1l2 140A 1746 1880 1731 17..8
1955 2r. Airmail (blue) -eFrf. 12x12 1852A C94 1894 Av.101 17-;2
1955 40k. Lomonosov State University 1871A 1736 1912 1734 170
1955 lr. Lomonosov Stato University 1872k 1737 1913 1735 1730'
1955 2r. North Polo overprint 1 4- Co6 1922 Av.1Q3 '17;
1956 4Ok.. Abovyan Mint Only 1906A 17)9 1939 17&4 l^,'
1956 40k. Sechonov 1933A 1C26 1966 1810 1 CI
1956 40k. Kirov 1939A 1632 1973 1816 lc '.
1956 40k. Fencing 1955A 1647 1987 1837 185l
1946 40k. Tennis 1959A 1845 1990 1835 1655;
1956 Ir. Franko Mint Only 1967 1859 2004 1848 1869
1956 40k. IFkhmud Eivazov 1964 1860a 2006a 1843A 1671 I
1956 40k. Builders' Day 1991 1855 1996 1826 1864
1956 Ir. Builders' Dav Comb-Porf. 12x12- 1993A 1857 1998 1628 1893
Mint Only
1956 40k. Kotovskii 1995A 1885 2029 1673 1896
1956 40k. Shatura Power Sta.
Comb-Porf. 12-x12 19F8A 1891 2030 1874 1897
1956 Ik. Lomonosov Comb-Perf. 12-x12 2005 1898 2040 1684 1903
1957 40k. "Tale of the Host of Igor"
Comb-Ferf. 121x12. rint Only 2014 1960 2076 1923 19/2
47 4Ck. Glinka 2019 1907 2049 1892 19J6
1 lIr. Glinka 2020 1908 2050 1893 1917
1957 25k. Hockey Comb-Perf. 12xl2O2- Mnt Only 2022A 1910 2052 1895 1919
1957 49k. Hockey Same Applies 2023A 1911 2053 1896 1920
1957 61k. Hockey Same Applies 2024A 1912 2054 1897 192]
125 40k. Voloeda Lace-making 2034A 1925 2066 1902 1932
157 40k. Bakh 2C39 1930 2069 1913 1934
1957 4k. Eulor 2040 1932 2070 1915 1936
1957 40k. Lenin with soldier & sailor 2041A 1934 2.'73 1917 1938

No. 68 Page 39

Year Value & description Soviet Scott Gibbons Yvert Michel

1957 40 k. Portrait of Lenin 2042A 1933 2071 1918 1937
1957 40 K. Fielding 2053A 1946 2091 1937 1959
1957 20 k. Festival sculpture 2073A 1937 .2084a 1930 1946
1957 40 k. Festival emblem 2076A 1913 2055, 1897A 1948
1957 1 r. Festival emblem Mint only 2078A 1914 2087 1933. 1949
1957 1 r. Moscow State Univ. Comb-Pcrf. 12 2088A 1977 2111 1958 1976
1957 40 k. Philatelic Exhibition 2089A 1979 2112 1959 1978
1957 40 k. Beranger 2095A 1980 2116 1960 1983
1957 40 k. T. U. Congress Mint only 2103A 1990 2124 1968 .1994
1957 40 k. Lenin & two banners 2108A 1999 .2128 1991 1996
1957 40 k. Miner 2109A 2001 2126 1988 1998
1957 60 k. Harvester 2110A 2002 2129 1989 1999
1957 40 k. Sikhote-Alin' Nbteorite
Comb-Perf. 127xl2 2137A 1995 2149 1997 2024
1957 40 k. Yermolova Comb-Perf. 12-x12
Mnt only 2146A 2026 2159 2007 2038
1957 20 k. Second Sputnik Mint only 2151A 2032 2164 2012 2042
1957 40 k. Second Sputnik 2152A 2034 2165 2014 2043
1958 40 k. Tsi Bai-shi 2155A 2029 2170 2017 2049
1958 40 k. Luxemburg Mint only 2157A 2028 2169 2016 2047
1958 40 k. A. Tolstoy 2158 2031 2172 2024 2052
1958 40 k. Turkmenian carpet-weaving
Comb-Perf. 12x122 2160A 1928 2067b 1903A 2050
1958 1 r. Chaikovskii 2172 2046 2183 2030 2061
195! 40 k. haxim Gorkii 2177A 2048 2185 2032 2065
1q58 60 k. VLKSM. Comb-Perf. 12xL2- 2179A 2050 2187 2034 2067
1958 10 k. Brussells Exhibition 2182A 2051 2188 2035 2068
1.958 40 k. Brussolls Exhibition 2183A 2052 2189 2036 2069
1958 40 k. Radio Day 2196A 2063 2202 2049 2082
1958 40 k. Rimskii-Korsakov Mint Only 2203A 2074 2212 2058 2091
1958 40 k. Football Championships 2204A 2072 2210 2056 2089
1958 40 k. Third Sputnik, with coupon
Comb-Perf. 12x:12 2217 2083 2222 2068 2101
1958 40 k. I.G.Y. Geomagnetism 2220A 2090 26?5b 2069 2103
195I 40 k. I.G.Y. Aurora Borealis 2221A 2089 2095c 2070 2105
195_8 40 k. I.G.Y. DjVteorology
Comb-Perf. 12x12- 2222 2091 2095a 2071 2104
1958 40 k. Astronomical Union Congress 2238A 2092 2232 2074 2110
198 10 k. Postillion 2245A .2095 2236 2078 2114
1958 40 k. Ural Plant 2284A 2118 2277 2102 2259
158 40 k. Cheliabinsk Plant 2285A 2116 2276 2101 2157
1P 40 k. Zaporozhye Plant 2286A 2117. 2278 2103 2158
1'59 40 k. Larwin 2313A 2166 2306 2144 2195
1959 40 k. Sholom Aleichem 2216A 2164 2308 2148 2199
160 40 k. Cosmic Rocket 2481A 2350 2456 2301 2357
O196 40 k. Korea 2547A -2407 2519 2363 2429
12 0 60 k. Uzbek Costumes 2549A 2417 2521 2365 2432
1S1l 2 k. Georgian Costumes 2562A 2419 2538 2375A 2478
1961 3 k. Byelorussian Costumes 2565A 2421 2540 2376A 2479
1961 12 k. Estonian Costumes 2570A 2426 2545 2379A 2495
1961 1 k. Bear 2576A 2429 2534 2381 2448
1961 6 k. Beaver 2577A 2430 2535 4382 2449
1961 10 k. State Electricity 2580A 2428 2552 2385 2452
1961 6 k. Shevchenko, with coupon 2590A 2452 2562 2394 2461
1961 4 k. Rublyov 2594A 2453 2563 2395 2463

Page 40 Page 69

Year Value & Description Soviet Scott Gibbons Yvert Vichel

1961 6 k. Venus Rocket 2597A 2456 2571 2399 2468
1 2961 10 k. Venus Rocket 2598A 2457 2572 2400 2469
1961 4 k. Fyatnitskii Choir 2599A 2459 2569 2390 2466
1961 4 k. Africa lay 2607A 2460 2574 2406 2471
1961 4 k. Lenin .2610A 2466 2579 2408 2476
1951 50 k. Lenin 2616A 2485 2585 2425 2486
1961 6 k. Hydromoteorology 2631A 2495 2600 2429 2500
1961 4 k. Spartakiad 2633A 249 2602 2431 2503
1961 4 k. I'bngolia 2636A 25n4 2605 2436 2507
1961 2 k. Stamp Anniversary 264FA 2516 2618 2448 2517
1961 6 k. Stamp Anniversary 2650A- 2517 2620 2450 2519
1961 4 k. Congress 2662A 2(27 2629 2461 2534
1961 4 k. Congress 2664A 2629 2630 2462 2535

The assistance given by Bob Siegel of Estaie Liquidations, Inc., of New
York and Mr. S Rockling of Maison Romoko in Paris, in the compilation of the
above data is gratefully acknowledged by the Elitorial Board.

o 0
o I wish to correspond and exchange with collectors of fiscal stamps and o
o 0
o vignettes of countries in the field related to Russia. The countries o
o C
o are: Russia, USSR, Ukrnitna, Finland, Poland, Baltics, Caucasus and o
c o
o Regions or Oblasts relate" to Russia. o
o o
o 0
o I am very anxious in obtaining rare fiscal and vignettes. o
o e o
o Emile %arcovitch 10, rue Jouvonot, Paris (16 ), France c
c 0
ccocoocooccccoCC coZCCcCCcocoCoocococcccoc ccCcco.cccooooocoooCcococo coCccocsoc
0 0
00 00
o I am selling my 3-volume MINT collection of Russia consisting of the o
o following material: c
o 0
o I. Scott NOS. 88-217P Mn"T, plus many souvenir sheets. All the rare c
o sets are there (Spartakiad, Antiwar, Tall Buildings, etc). o
o II. All the airmails through C81 .lENT (incl. ('23a, 068, etc.). o
o III. All the soemi-postals up to B41 ENT2 incl. B24-29. 0
o IV. All the Express and Postage Dues IBTT. o
o V. In addition, 01 different Tsarist issues up to #87 (M & U). 37 dif.o
o Offices in Turkey MINT, 47 diff. Offices in China, 94 diff. Wrangol o
o issues, MINT. o
o The retail price of Scott 88-2178, the airmails and semi-posta;ls ALOg. cum-ao
o to at least $1400. iy price for all 3-volumos ONLY 50C.Cc.

o ANDREW SWAZ(OVSKY 1313-35 Street, N.W. Washington D.C. Fe 7-6669
coooo u uoocooooooooooco oooocococcocc ccco

No. 68 Page 41

by Maria Nikolaevna Vitashevskaya

So far, we have only spoken of the"organized relay service", i.e. transmis-
sion from relay station to relay station, which was arranged (hence the term a
"stroinaya") by the Government. But in a number of localities, beginning with the
second half of the 16th century, another form of the relay service is encountered.
The public itself, without the help of the Government, organised several under-
takings, similar to the "arranged relay service". This form of the normal cartage
obligations, which constituted an evasion by the public of the governmental re-
quirements, was called "mirskiye otpuski" (private despatches).

It is difficult to understand why the Muscovite Government set up relay ser-
vices on one route, while on the other roads it entrusted the transmission of
state mails, freight and official personages to the public itself. Only the Govern-
ment had the right to set up relay services along routes that led to the frontier,
or upon which important documents and eminent travellers were often conveyed and
it took great care to see that such transmission was not hindered. The "mirskiye
otpuski" or private services were organized along routes where less important
papers or government freight were transmitted. This was the case of Perm, Sol-
vychegodsk and Solikamsk, i.e. on main routes where freight was transported from
the North. There were other reasons also. It has already been pointed out that
often, especially in the 16th century, the relay service was "torn down", the pos-
tillions ran away and the relay stations deserted. Sometimes, in spite of all
efforts made to revive the relay route as before, the service was not successfully
reestablished. Hence the government introduced private services in such instan-
ces, and this was the case at Mozhaisk, Vladimir, Arzamas, etc.

Beginning from the second half of the 16th century, the transmission of govern-
mental freight was organized in another way. A special tax was levied on each of
the land holdings of the local inhabitants. The money thus collected was regarded
as the reserves of the private services and the district officials used them to
hire horses and carts, as many as were required. Soon they began to collect the
money on a general basis, not only from volosts (districts) but also from entire
uyezds (counties). People and goods were only carried on hired horses and carts
within the confines of their own districts, and they would only go to outside
areas in order to deliver the traveller or load to the nearest dwelling. But it
soon became apparent that it was not convenient to conduct traffic in such a man-
nor. It often happened that -vhen it was necessary to change horses and carts at
the nearest hamlet in the adjacent district, there were none available and they
would have to be sent there from some tens of versts away to pick up the goods or
travellers which had been dropped off. Hence the inhabitants of adjacent counties
decided not to unload freight at the border of their area but to convoy it further
on into outside territory to the nearest large center, and often even to the des-
tination. At the beginning of the year or at the times designated beforehand, the
number of verst covered by horses and carts in outside counties was computed and
the corresponding accounts were presented for settlement. Special books were
kept, in which the quantity of horses and carts and the monetary expenses incurred
rin their maintenance were recorded. In cases where a dispute arose between coun-
- s., the local state organs or the governor who understood the question being
cgued intervened. The unsatisfied party could always complain to noscow.

The "zemskii starosta" or county bailiff allocated horses for the collection
of the private service monies. He levied the specified amount of tax on each land
share and the collected sums were pooled in his office of business. A bonded of-
ficial was also put on the staff of these expeditions and he covered the relay
service expenses from the ploughing taxs: very often misunderstandings arose

Page 42 No. 68

because the organization of the relay service was handled in such a way. Horses
and carts, especially from outlying points, were forwarded late as a rule, oven
though horses for travellers or for freight under governmental protection were re-
quired to be procured without delay. In such cases, the bailiff took the plough
S money from the bonded official and hired a horse and cart. There were oven occas-
ions where the bonded official had no cash on hand and it was then necessary to
seek money as a loan, thus paying heavy interest.

The county bailiff and bonded official had many other matters to attend to,
and so they entrusted the supervision.of the private despatches to the relay mana-
ger. The latter had a relay clerk on hand to carry out computations. The relay
collected money from the ploughmen and the amount levied was recorded in the book.
Special books were also kept for recording the despatch of horses. Each year, the
relay manager and clerk struck accounts before "the best people" in the presence
of the voovodo, in whose custody the private despatch monies were kept. The local
population rarely got on well with the voevodes and eventually the latter were ex-
cluded from exercising control over the private services, the managemDnt of which
was transferred to the relay directors.

Upon arriving at his destination, the "golova" or director collected the
money remaining after expenses, took stock and announced the newly-chosen relay
service managers. Then the director, together with the newly-chosen relay service
managers and bonded officials levied taxes on the townsmen and peasants in the
county. At the close of the year, the director struck accounts pertaining to the
expenditure of the despatch monies before the Relay Services Office. Ho loft
countersigned copies and the balance of the money in the toll-house, to be handed
over to the new director. Thus, the director was only in charge of the collection
of the relay service monies and participated in their allocation, while all remain-
ing matters came within the province of the relay service manager. The latter set
up the private services, hired horses and carts, sent them out in accordance with
the orders for post horses and purchased boats and stores.

While the "starosta" or relay manager actually covered expenses from the re-
lay service fees, the "golova" or director, together with the agents of the relay
settlement strictly rcgulatod the money he paid out. The manager was instructed
upon the purchase of stores, and when people had to be hired, the bonded officials
had to be called in so that the payment was made known to the private despatch
authorities. After making purchases, he was obl:iated to produce suitable
"reports". The manager wrote down in a book the first nal.! of the hired person,
his patronymic, last name, district and village of origin and where he lived.

Several counties were so larre that it was necessary to establish intermedicto
relay stations with their own selected relay managers, all subordinate to the co-
unty relay manager. Thus in the county of Solvyehegodsk, there were three inter-
mediate relay stations: at Lalsk, Ilyinsk and Spassk.

The "podryadchiki" or "contractors", who supervised the intermediate relay
stations, conducted transmission on specified routes and for this they received
money from the relay service manager. Sometimes, the contractors were chosen and
in the eyes of the postillions and the public, the contractor was the relay station.
manager. In fact, ho called himself so. Actually, the contractor performed all
the functions of the relay station manager and sometimes even collected the horses
for ploughing tax.

In remote counties, where traffic was light, horses and carts were collected
as a form of tribute, as in former days. Here the coiiuty bailiffs established the
r-lay suirvlee, while tho morns+.ori.al -.ldrks did the same on oimnst.ic lanrds.

No. 68 Page 43

be stationed between Moscow and Putivl. The firemen were required to be "from
Moscow to Putivl with the sovereign's edicts and from Putivl to the sovereign in
in Moscow to go with written answers from halting-place to halting-place in haste".
But this institution functioned most erratically, The result was that a clerk had
to be sent out in order to set the matter aright. He was given 12 equerries and
48 horses to facilitate the delivery of correspondence. In 1668, halting-places
were set up on the road between Moscow and Sevsk. Each halting-place had two
wardens, to whom four horses each wore given.

The relay postillions were now quite rarely entrusted with the delivery of.
packages and letters of especial importance. They began to transport trustworthy
persons for whom the Relay Services Office issued special orders for post horses,.
For urgent case's, special "urgent contractors" and "rapid postillions" were

The growing commercial links between the State of Muscovy and Western Europe
also required the establishment of regular relations. Postal communications were
needed by governments in Western countries, so that they would know in good time
what was going on in VMscovy.

At this time, the Muscovite Government received a proposal on organizing a
postal service from Yurii Krizhanich. He was one of the most interesting scholars
and writers working in Russia at that time in the second half of the 17th century
and the first part of his treatise "Talks about governmental administration" is
especially noteworthy to us. In this work, he give advice on how to set up a
postal service and he spoke at length of "regulating the postillions".

The Muscovite Government realized the importance and necessity of establishing
relations with countries abroad. For example, in the peace treaty of Kardis
(Karde in Estonia), drawn up between Russia and Sweden in 1661, there was a special
article referring to the establishment of relations between these two countries.
The 17th article of this treaty stated that postillionss drawn from both sides,
and noblemen, and voevods, and generals and governors with papers one to the
other want to send, must freely and safely and without delay come and go everywhere
and the papers on them to be taken away nowhere and not to be read, and, in cases
where they pass by the armies, they are to help them in transit".

Russian traders disliked greatly the ways of foreign merchants who success-
fully utilized "information and notes" during the trading season. The traders, in
their petition in 1646, relate that, basing their hopes on the high price for
floss silk obtained in previous years, they had bought up all stocks of silk in
the expectation of reselling them advantageously to the Germans. However, the
price of silk on the European market had then fallen, and the Germans, who had
found this out "by quick news and notes", not only did not buy even one bale of
silk, but also made fun of the traders.

The year 1665 may be regarded as marking the beginning of the international
postal service in Russia, when the aMscovite Government concluded an agreement
with the Durchman van Sweden for setting up postal communications with countries
abroad. It is known from the text of the agreement that "500 rubles, and further-
more of sables 500 rubles worth annually" were given him for expenses.

In further official extracts, it is noted that van Sweden organized postal
communications "with his own people and on his own horses", not for 1000 rubles
but for 1200 rubles annually. his was a huge sum for those times and it was
equivalent, for example, to 20,400 gold rubles at the beginning of the 20th

Page 44 No. 68

However, the variation in organization of private despatch services was more
apparent than real. Actually, we are examining one and the same form hero, but in
different stages of its development; the historical succession of these forms is
indisputable. The places where the relay service was relatively undeveloped,
I there was no pretext that the public could use to evade the onerous but traditional
method of contribution: it was difficult and disadvantegeous to adhere to the
previous methods and thus, instead of traditional obligations, taxes were collect
from the public to maintain the relay service and a special person was appointed
to administer them.

The private services.operated at a very high cost in some localities, but
much more cheaply in others. The annual outlay of the private dispatch services
was made up of expenses incurred in buying.and rigging boats, the purchase of
harness and trappings, -saddles, wages for the hire of oarsmen, postillions and
guides, allowances for the director of tolls, the relay station manager, the relay
clerk, tho"yardman", etc. This estimate was laid out in terms of the plough
taxes and it incorporated special lists in which the order of sequence for persons
to take. out plough-horses for distant trips and in cases of emergency was speci-
fied. For example, at Solvychogodsk, the private despatch service taxes were
levied. in 1642 on the basis of 120 rubles per plough; in all, .the sum of 1693
rubles 15.altyns and 3- dengas was collected and out of this, and amount of 1505
rubles 11 altyns and 4 dengas-was spent, while 587 horses were delivered by the

Disputes and misunderstandings often sprang between counties over accounts,
or in instances where, for example, the relay station in a neighboring county did
not change horses. Sometimes outright abuses took place; horses were taken from
the relay station and they were not returned. Bonded officials arriving in an
adjacent county at the expense of the private services, would depart from the
relay yard and take away the books therefrom, so that there would be no possibility
of proving their indebtedness to the private despatch system. Thus, the private
services were the source of various kinds of wrangles and the subject of endless
official inquiries.

The Government was then drawn into the matter to give a decision on the con-
flicts that had sprung up between the disputing parties. Unfortunately, the State
did not have the resources to enable it to do away with the private despatches
altogether and replace them by regular relay services. There are no data as to
when the private services were finally wound up, but in documents dating from the
beginning of the 17th century there are still references to the disputes between
counties over accounts.


The relay service played a major role in the development of the life of the
.country. Thanks to the relay stations, close links were established between the
newly-incorporated provinces of north-eastern Russia. The relay stations provide"
cheap methods of communication and facilitated quick transmission of information
.from all provinces of the State. -However, the cumbersome operation of the relay
system ceased to satisfy even the Gov-rrnent, no to mention private persons who
did not utilize the system to send news. Moreover, the growing commercial capa-
city and ensuing industrial activity of Russia also could not exist without
regular communications. Thus, a-new method of sending information sprang up in
the second half of the 17th century, side.by side with the relay service.

In 1659, a Government ukase was issued, by which it was decreed that firemen

Nc. 68 Pago 45

The organization of postal:services along thousand versts of roads presented
great difficulties and the Mhscovite Government did not stint itself, as it re-
alized the importance of setting up the state mails. Correspondence sent by van
Sweden's post was transmitted only between Moscow and Sveisk border, i.e. at Riga.
Along this route, private letters as well as state correspondence were conveyed.
But van Sweden's postal service was badly organized and correspondence abroad pre-
ferred to send letters to Moscow by special couriers.

The true founder of the Russian Posts must justly be regarded as Afanasii
Lavrentievich Ordyn-Nashchokin (commemorated on a 25'kop. value of the set issued
by the USSR on August 19, 1958 in honor of the centenary of the first Russian
stamp and also featuring episodes from the history of the ancient Russian Posta.)
He was one bf the most'interesting personalities during the reign of Tsar Aleksei
Mikhailovich. The son of a Small squire in Pskov county, he received a good edu-
cation, was very learned, knew mathematics, Latin and German and during his term
of service, he also studied the Polish, language.

Young Nashchokin soon stood out even among the crowd of clerks when he was
in the service of Tsar Mikhail Romanov and he was often entrusted with ambassado-
rial commissions. By the beginning of the reign of Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich,
Ordyn-Nashchokin was already a prominent man. In 1658, he very successfully con-
cluded the armistice of Valiesar with Sweden, and he later on rendered very im-
portant services to his country when, after 8 months of diplomatic talks, he
concluded the armistice at Andrusovo (Smolensk region) in January 1667 with the
Poles, surprising not only the Russians, but also foreign diplomats. By this
armistice, Russia not only got back Smolensk and the Northern Districts, but also
Kiev and its surroundings. Upon his return, Ordvn-Nashchokin was appointed Chief
Administrator of the Ambassadorial Office, with an official high-sounding title,
unprecedented for that time, of "Royal Guardian of the Great Seal and of the High
Governmental Ambassadorial Affairs, i.e. he became a state chancellor.

Once in service, Ordyn-Nashchokin tried to strengthen even further trade re-
lations with Persia, Khiva and Bukhara, and arranged for a legation to India. But
he did not restrict himself to questions of external politics and his sharp mind
was felt in many undertakings of the Muscovite Government. In internal affairs,
Ordyn-Nashchokin made a deposition to the Trade and Industrial Corporation. "The
trouble with business", he wrote, "is not that there are too many people, but
while there are many people, there is still no industrialist, and so nothing will
come of the matter".

This advocate of the growth of trade and industry gave great attention to
the organization of mails. In one of his letters to Tsar Aleksoi Mikhailovich,
he wrote the following about the postal service: "This great unifying factor of
the State henceforth the growth of everything good to the Muscovite kingdom will

In the draft to the armistice at Andrusovo, Qrdy-Nashchokin put in a stipula-
tion about organizing regular international postal services. The necessity of
establishing this was explained by private communications of the Muscovite Govern-
ment with the Polish Authorities. This postal service, in the mind of Ordyn-
Nashchokin, was to pass through the locality of Kadin, lying on the border of the
voevodship of Mstislavl. 'The. Post was to be sent once weekly. It would be possible
to send not only Government correspondence, but also commercial mail. The "Nachal-
nik nad Pochtoyu" or "Master over the Posts" at Kadin would immediately forward
the mail to the locality of Mignovichi which was already situated in Russian ter-
ritory in the voevodship of Smolensk. The "Master over the Posts" at Mignovichi
would send it off via Smolensk to Moscow. Correspondence was to be forwarded by

Page 46 No. 68

the same method in the opposite direction. At the conclusion of this article in
the treaty, it was noted that tradesmen had to pay for the despatch of commercial
letters, as was also the case in other countries. Letters sent through the mails
O had to be recorded by the letter-carriers. Thus, the treaty pointed out the neces-
sity of a postal service, not only for the Government, but also for the merchants.

It was true that merchants, and especially foreigners, were already using van
Sweden's service, and it is known that they paid for the transmission of letters
at the rate of 2 altyns per zolotnik (6 kopeks per 1/7 oz. A zolotnik was 1/96
part of a Russian pound). The Government knew about the transmission of private
letters, but it did not protest, although, by the Treaty of 1665, it would have
been in the right to prohibit the despatch of private correspondence.

Ordyn-Tashchokin did not restore postal communications between Moscow and
Poland at one stroke. He evidently did not trust van Sweden very much. It is
suggested that foreign traders entered into an agreement with van Sweden to send
valuables in packages: pearls, golden articles, precious stones and thus depri-
ving the Government Treasury of revenue. Whether or not this was the reason, van
Sweden did not receive this now postal route, and the latter was, on the suggest-
ion of Ordyn-Nashchokin, allotted in 1668 to Leontii Marselius.

Alarmed at the news of unexpected competition, van Sweden immediately present-
ed a petition to the Tsar. In it, he mentioned that he had conducted the postal
service "with honor" for three years. Van Sweden also declared that he was willing
to take 200 rubles less than formerly. Moreover, van Sweden did not insist that
he be granted the right to utilize relay horses. But if, he said, the Tsar per-
mitted him to make use of the relay establishments for his postal osrvice, he
would agree to take only 400 rubles per annum as his salary. For this amount, he
would conduct the postal service both to TRiga and' Vilna and send the mail not once
a fortnight, but every week.

Mirselius, in his turn, stated that he would waive any salary at all and
would throw himself at the mercy of the sovereign. To this he added that his
undertaking had already been sot up and only required a confirmatory decree from
the sovereign, while the mail had even been prepared for despatch. And in conclu-
sion, he said that with him "refined gold and 'yefimki' and pearls and precious
stones by secret conveyance there will not be". (In those days, the term "yofin-
ki" referred to foreign silver coinage, which was the main medium of exchange in
Muscovy during the 16th and 17th centuries. It generally consisted of Dutch marks,
etc., as well as Joachimsthalors which were minted in Bohemia). Van Sweden had to
yield. But on the next day, in a declaration before the Secret Court, he begged
that his postal service be not terminated. He was agreeable to maintain it with
his own resources,-if only he.would be allowed to accept and deliver the letters
of foreign merchants. The motive for his request was that he had many employees
whom he had hired for a specific length of time and that he had already given those
their wages in advance. The'Court took his previous service into account and so
the agreement with him was not dissolved, but upon suggestion of Ordyn-Nashchokin,
merchants wore directed to send letters and packages only by the postal service
of Marsolius.

Van Sweden died in 1668 and the agreement was transferred to his wife, Maria,
and his nephew. Deprived of profitable clients such as merchants, the van Sweden
postal service gradually declined. 'Howvoer, the names of van Sveden, his sons or
nephews are still encountered in books on postal operations dating from the be-
ginning of +he lth century.

Illustration for this installment: picture of Ordyn-Nashchokin previously sent.
Page 47 (to be continued) No. 68

by Nikolai Ivanovich Sokolov
(continued from #67)


The gradual development of trade links between Russia and the Middle East soon
raised the question of transmitting the so-called "yostochnaya korrospondentsiya"
or Middle East mails on steamers of the Company. To study this problem on the
spot, Lieutenant-Captain Schultz of the Postal Department was sent to Odessa. The
information collected by him about the facilities for forwarding the Middle East
.mails oa steamers of.ROPiT, served as a basis for working out.a new agreement,
concluded by the Postal department with the Company on June 28, 1862. This agree-
ment, which went into effect.on January 1, 1863, consisted of. the following 23

1. The ROPiT undertakes to transport ordinary correspondence
a. from Russia to Constantinople and all ports in the Levant at which the
steamers of the Company call, or would be calling,
b. from these same ports to Constantinople and Russia.
2. Prompt conveyance of mails to steamers and immediate receipt of mail from
steamers, proceeding from Russia and Constantinople to Levantine ports,
and vice-versa, is to be undertaken by the Odessa Border P.O. and the
Constantinople P.O. Abroad.

N. B. In addition to this, mails are to be delivered immediately to ships of
the Company and accepted from them, when being despatched to Middle East ports
from the post offices at Taganrog, Kerch, Yeisk, Mariupol and Berdiansk, as well
as in the opposite direction, during the navigation season on the Sea of Azov.
When the Sea of Azov freezes over, mails from these designated ports are to be
forwarded via Odessa.

3. Post offices are to accept correspondence addressed to the following ports:
a. Batum d. Smyrna g. Beirut j. Mount Athos
b. Trebizonde e. Mersina h. Jaffa k. Salonica
c. Mitylene f. Alexandretta i. Alexandria

N. B. The present stipulations are not intended to infringe upon the right of
the Company to change the sailing times of its steamers and cancel services to
specific ports, when it can show that such calls would be unprofitable, but in
such latter cases, the Company is obligated to notify such changes to the Postal
Administration at least one month beforehand.

4. The rate for transmitting letters by sea from Russia to Constantinople
and ports in the Middle East, as well as from these ports to Russia and
Constantinople, and from Constantinople to Russia, is to be uniformly fixed
at 20 kopeks per lot (i oz.), thus representing a surtax of 10 kopeks,
over and above the normal internal tariff.in force on a per lot (- oz.)
basis for mail between Odessa, Taganrog, etc. and Russian cities further
inland, and vice-versa.

In addition to letters, it is permissable to send "sous bande" (i.e. under
wrapper) by steamer, newspapers, magazines, price-lists, circulars and other print-
ed matter, which do not show any handwritten communication apart from the addres-
ses. For such sending, the rates will be 6 kopeks per lot for surface trans -
mission (i.e. by sea), and 4 kopeks per lot for overland transmission between
Russian cities in the interior and Odessa, Taganrog, etc., as well as in the
reverse direction.

Page 48 No. 68

5. Letters and wrapper sending, despatched from Russia to the Levant, and
received therefrom, must be completely prepaid when being mailed, with the
requisite postage stamps affixed thereon. Letters without stamps are not
Sto be accepted for transmission and if they are dropped into the letter
boxes, installed at the agencies of the Company, or at post offices, they
are not to be forwarded. In cases where such letters are deposited in the
letter boxes installed on ships of the Company (see article No. 9), a spe-
cial fee, amounting to double the amount applicable for the normal rate,
i.e. 40 kopeks per lot is to be levied on the addressees upon delivery of
the correspondence.

N. B. Official correspondence between offices and agencies of the Company is to
be transmitted free of charge on steamers and such transmission will not require
the permission of the Postal Service.

6. The acceptance, despatch and delivery of mail (but not the obligation of
specifically delivering correspondence to the addressees) in Middle East
ports, with the exception of Jerusalem, Jaffa and Constantinople, as well
as the sale of postage stamps, is to entrusted by the Company to its
agents, who are obligated to have special cancellers (to be received from
the Postal Authorities) for the designation upon letters of the place of
despatch, as well as the month and day of letter transmission. (With re-
gard to Jerusalem, there existed then a private Russian postal service
between that town and Jaffa, which was established in November 1859 and
had its offices in the promises of the Director of the Russian Charitable
institution in Jerusalem. At the beginning of the 1860's, it was suggested
that a postal agency be c-pnod in Jerusalem at the expense of our Govern-
ment, but this proposal was shelved because of diplomatic complications
which arose in 1864. Referring to Jaffa, the stipulations of this present
* article No. 12 herewith, which please see, were revoked as a result of an
agreement concluded between the Postal Department and the ROPiT in Decem-
ber 1862, in consequence of which Jaffa was put on par, sc far as its post-
al operations wore concerned, with other 11idcdle East ports).

7. Postage stamps, which have already boon introduced into Russia, are to be
utilized for the franking of letters and wrapper sondings. The nominal
value of the postage stamps to be affixed to letters and wrapper sendllngs,
must be in conformance with the established postal rates.

3. The ROPiT undertakes to publish and make known to the commercial ccmmn.:ty
and the public at large in Middle East ports, all regulations and conc,-ii-
ons regarding the transmission of correspondence on steamers of the Co-pa-
ny between ports in the Levant and Russia.

9. The installation of letter boxes is permitted on all steamers of the

10. Letters received in the Levant and which have not been delivered to the
proper parties because the addressees have not presented themselves, are to
be exhibited by the agents in frames at places visible to the public. How-
ever, if a large amount of mail accumulates, only lists with the names of
the addressees are to bc displayed, instead of the letters themselves. The
agents are obligated to see that all letters got to their destination.

11. Persons found guilty of secretly conveying letters on ships of the Company,
are to be held liable to a fine in accordance with Article No. 1609 of the
Penal Code. If any of the Company's employees on the steamers are ever
convicted of such cases of transmitting letters, the relevant fine, as

No. 68 Page 49

specified by the above-mentioned article, (at the rate of 7r,. 5k. per
letter) is to be paid to the Postal Authorities by the Company, Which is
itself to be held accountable for this fine together with its employees.

12. In compensation for the obligation accepted by the Company to organize,
through .its agents in Levantine ports with the exception of Constantinople
and Jaffa, the acceptance, despatch, safe-keeping of mails and delivery
of the same, 25% of the income, which would go into the postal revenues
for the transport of correspondence by sea, will be set aside for the
company; i.e. 5 kop. out of the 20 kop. rate for letters .nd 1- kop. out
of the 6 kop. for wrapper sending, on a "per lot" basis. (According to
a ruling by the Postal Department which followed in December 1862, the
stipulations of this present article were also made applicable to mail
which was exchanged between Russian'and other foreign ports. .Such corres-
pondence, exchanged with ports abroad, was subjected to special rates,
determined by the principal of the Company, without requiring the permis-
sion of the Postal Department). The computation for the payment of this
compensation is to be carried annually by the Odessa Border P.O. upon
completion of inspection of the report of this service.

13. The responsibility for accepting mailbags on steamers and their convey-
ance thereon to post offices and to the agencies of the Company in the
Levant, is to be conferred upon the captains of the steamers, or to per-
sons to whom this duty would be recommended by the Company. In either
case, they would all be answerable both for the security of the mailbags
and the seals placed thereon, as well as for the correct delivery of the
mailbags to the relevant post offices and agencies of the Company.

14. Should a steamer not be in a position, for any reason at all, to call at
a particular port, any mailbags addressed to this point are to be put
ashore at the nearest port for their transmission by the next available

15. In the case of shipwreck, one of the principal duties of the captain must
be the saving of the mails.

16. The main responsibility for the correct transmission of correspondence,
despatched by means of steamers of the Company, as well as the account-
ability for the entire operation, are to be vested in the Odessa Border

17. The Odessa Border P.O., the Constantinople P.O. Abroad and the district
P.O.s at Taganrog, Kerch, Berdyansk, Yeisk and Mariupol, together with all
agencies in the Middle East, are to be provided, for the purposes of this
undertaking, with specially bound ledgers, which have been countersigned
by an official designated by the Postal Department. Each page of this
book is to be ruled into two halves, and on each part there is to be writ-
ten the total number and weight of letter and wrapper sending sent in a
mailbag to a specific port. In other words, the book is to be made up of
two copies of one and the same list, of which the copy on the lower half
of the page is to be cut out by the mail dispatcher and placed in the mail-
bag together with the correspondence, while the second half of the list is
to remain in the book as a duplicate copy of the despatch.

The mailbags are to be handed over by post offices and agencies to
steamers, only upon special acknowledgement by the captains. The skippers
of the steamers are to have available special blank forms for mailbags, in
the form of way-bills, upon which they will note the receipt by them of

Page 50 No. 68

mailbags from post offices or agencies. Upon delivery of the mailbags at
their destinations, the receiving officials are to certify on those forms
that they have actually taken delivery of the transmitted mailbag, and the
captains are then to hand over the filled in way-bills to the Odessa
Office of ROPiT, where they are to be kept for reference, in case of en-

18. The printed blanks for the ledgers and the mailbag way-bills,, as well as
the binding for the recording books for the agencies in the Lovant, are to
be produced at the expense of the Postal Administration, upon arrangements
made by the Odessa P.O., which latter is to provide for the Constantinople,
Taganrog, Kerch, Berdyansk, Yeisk and Mariupol post offices with recording
books. The ledgers prepared for the agencies in the Midleo East and the
blanks for the mailbag way-bills to be used by the steamer captains are to
be forwarded by the proper party to the Odessa office of the Company for
further distribution.

19. For the settlement of the accounts, the post offices at Constantinople,
Taganrog, Kerch, Berdyansk, Yoisk, Mariupol, and all agencies of the Com-
pany in the Levant are obligated, at the end of each month, to
forward to the Odessa Border P.O. the lists cut cut of ledgers and received
by them together with the transmitted mails from these points from which
the correspondence originated, and at the close of the year, to deliver by
the first mail to the Odessa P.O. their own special ledgers (i.e. the dup-
licates of lists, despatched by them together with the mails).

The Odessa P.O. is to compile a report every three months, from the
individual monthly lists recoivod by it, on the transmission of Middle
East correspondence together with data on the postal revenue derived from
the samo, and it is to present those reports to the Postal Department.
Upon receipt of the special ldcr-rs at the close of the year, the Odessa
P.O. is to compare them with the individual lists and finally to present
to the Postal Department no later than the following March 1, a comprehen-
sive annual account of all operations. A copy of this account is to be
forwarded to the Odessa office of the Company for its information.

20. Upon request from the Odessa office of the Company, the post office in thaL
city is to provide the necessary postage stamps for all agoncics in the
Levant against receipt of card cash. The despatch of postage stamps to
agencies in the Levant is to be entrusted to the Odessa ,office of the

21. The postal fees,.received by the agencies of the Company in the Levant for
franking letters and wrapper-sendings despatched with postage stamps affix-
ed, are to remain in the safes of the agencies and be noted in the income
of the Company under a special account. At the close of each year,
these agencies are obligated to forward immediately to the Odessa office
of the Company a full accounting of all such amounts, upon receipt of which
the Odessa office of the Company is to compile from this information a
combined account and submit same in due time to the Odessa Border P.O. for
comparison and verification by its own records. Upon clearing up any pos-
sible discrepancies which may be brought to light by this procedure and if
everything appears in order, the Odessa P.O. is to strike accounts with
the Company, and, with the permission of the Department, hand over to the
office of the Company that sum which is to be computed on the basis of
article No. 12, i.e. 25% of the gross takings received for transmitting
correspondence by sea on steamers of the Company.

No. 68 Page 51

22. The Company undertakes to transport on its steamers officials of the Postal
Administration, who are actually proceeding on matters directly concerned
with the transmission of mail to ports in Levant, absolutely without char-
ge, but it will be entitled to receive payment for board provided. For
this latter purpose, special vouchers are to be distributed to the P.O.
officials by the Odessa office of the Company.

23. These articles are to be concluded between the Postal Department and the
ROPiT for a term of two years, primarily to gain experience. If, during
the course of this term, it is demonstrated by experience that it would
be useful and convenient to change or widen the scope of several stipula-
tions set down hero, this is to be settled by mutual agreement on both
side s.

As there was no provision in the agreement drawn up herewith between the
Postal Department and ROPiT for the transmission of postal correspondence bet-
ween Caucasus and ports in the Levant via Poti and Sukhum-Kale, an additional
covenant on this matter was concluded with the Company by the General Admini-
stration of the Viceroy for the Caucasus, which in its contents corresponded
exactly with the 1862 agreement. This additional Caucasian agreement went into
effect on January 31, 1864.

In 1865, the number of Middle East ports visited by ROPiT steamers increas-
ed by a further six, i.e. steamers now began to call at Samsun, Kerrasunde,
Dardanelles, Chios, Latakia and Tripoli (in Syria).

(to be continued)

E D I T 0 R I AL C 0 MM E N T: Our members will agree that the above instal-
lmont of Mr. Sokolov's brilliant study includes information that will help to
clarify some puzzling features and ambiguities in the history of the Russian
Posts in the Lovant. Mr. Sokolov's note in parentheses after article No. 6
above, about the existence of a private Russian postal service between Jerusalem
and Jaffa, dating from November 1859, is amazing news and we hope that our
Levant enthusiasts will soon be able to turn up some material from this service.

by Kurt Adler and Lnuson H. Stone

The word "skrinka" means a "chest" or "box" in both Russian and Ukrainian.
However, it is only in the latter language that it has the additional meaning
of a "letter-box" and it also differs slightly in spelling in having the soft
sign .(b) after the letter "n".

Our first example is an unusual cover in the Kurt Adler's collection, mail-
ed at Kiev and addressed to Paris, France. The flap shows an unrecorded two-
line Ukrainian unframed marking in black, reading "VIINYATO Z POSHTOVOYI /
SKEflKI"T, with penciled initials beside it (see Fig. No. 1). The inscription
translates as "taken out of a posting box". The franking, which also on the
flap, consists of three copies of the 10 kop. small heads issue on watermarked
paper, cancelled with a bilingual Ukrainian-French marking reading "KIYIV
ZALIZ. p. KIEW GARE 18.11.26". P registry label, reading in French "Kiew Gare/
R. No. 265" was added to the front of the cover and it was received in Paris
a week later. In other words, this appears to be a case of a letter requiring
registration, but as it was apparently mailed after hours, the sender merely
affixed the necessary postage and dropped the cover into a letter-box, at the

Page 52 No. 68

Ukrainian "skrin'ka""markings_ R AH I, v ,: K--- ROSMEZO
3 PAX OB0 .- 1 'Ml .nbrA3A A RCMHA
by K.Adler and L.H. Stone. i^i^ ^ -..,
H jI O j lWT.CHPM olq ; i..n n iul rpy"",,BMe,^p 1 i J] .r..l
B B HIaTO 3 7nOWTOBOT F iq.4:KirIyhza Fig S: Kor6sme2z
FK1 Kaov ndTi sou) I YasinQ.-
F ^ CKpHilK'I.n ' \ .... ., T,, 'DL--,
E-" Fjg.: Raho-Rakhov.

TL0 !JSk* terror

/:;tta 1"/e'm i "a 7a- /k(l / 3,9 X1.16.
S1 W-' -.25, 6- 6: Huszt-Khust.
Il H n Il!9 .c NPNlbL r S Z O LYVA

Il i / I, i / I / '2 PUlEVELSZEKR iYB OL
r0'. /7/7 HE i- OW S Hi Chp-HHbKbti

B u tda p e st lY. 'p -
5 '5\ 5 -- iq,.. g.2:Corredte
v-------V. klo/d c 0/C. Huszt-Kst pmik.

KIM kMRio Kill 1

1unissued"75t2 1923
anniversary o
RKKA set (1918-
1933). K.Ad ler

CyonnNot Coll "ectCrs.' Con.A; Nos ro Colectors".
C~~ronin--- o-- - C llc o s -----


F .3 1 (b)
-Fig 2

Kiev railroad station. When the box was cleared, the cover received the marking
illustrated herewith, and all further details wore then attended to.

A somewhat similar usage is now demonstrated by an interesting front in the
. collection of Lauson H. Stone, of Brooklyn, N.Y. (Fig. No. 2). This item, addres-
sed to Budapest in Hungary and also intended for registration, was-dropped into
the letter-box at the railroad station of HUSZT (Khust), in the Carpatho-Ukraine,
during the Hungarian administration. The Hungarian postage of 70 fillers is can-
celled with two strikes of a rectangular bilingual marking reading "HUSZT/KHUST
41.III.25". The Hungarian abbreviation "PU." below this, stands for "palyaudvar",
which corresponds exactly in meaning to the word "vokzal". The entire Hungarian
phrase literally roads "railroad station, letter-box out of". The final line, in
Ukrainian, means "from a railroad posting box'.

The cover was then put aboard the. next train to Budapest, and in transit the
same day, it was handled by the Hungarian RPO KIRALYHAZA-NAGYKAROLY-BUDAPEST No.
305, of which a strike appears at top-left. On arrival in Budapest, it received
a registry label No. 585, affixed at bottom loft over a written Hungarian indica-
tion to that effect. The inscription on this label translates as.."Mobile Post,
Central Office/Budapest, Western Railroad Station".

Similar rectangular markings were prepared by the Hungarians for application
at the other railroad stations in the.Carpatho-Ukraine, and Mr. Stone has a 2 fil-
ler Hungarian stamp on piece, cancelled at RAHO (Rakhov) on June 29, 1943 (fig.
No. 3). He also holds what appear to be proof impressions for 4 more railroad
stations, applied by the Hungarian cancel manufacturers on small slips of paper.
Figures 4 & 5 show markings intended for KIRALYHIZA, dated October 7, 1941 and
KOROSMEZO (YASINA) June 3, 1941, respectively. The final two cancels shown
are very striking in that they both show the Cyrillic letter "3" reversed by mis-
S take in the Ukrainian inscription at bottom. The first example, dated January 7,
1941, is from HUSZT (fig. No. 6) and in must have been noticed and corrected, as
can be seen by referring back to the frontdescribed above, mailed at this station
and dated later on in the same year on March 25. Probably the cancel for the stc-
tion at SZOLYVA (SVALYAVA see fig. No. 7), shown hero with date November 16, 1939
also had the error rectified before being issued for use. However, we have not,
as yet, seen the markings from Kiralyhaza, Korosmezo and Szolyva actually applied
on mail and this remains an interesting point to clear up.

E D I T 0 R I AL C 0 M M5 E N ': We invite comments and news of further discover-.
ies in this unusual subject from our members and we like to point out that the source
material, namely Hungarian stamps issued between 1939 and 1944, is very cheap and
easy to come by.

Our Ukrainian friends will notice that there are grammatical differences bet-
ween the Ukrainian text on Mr. Adler's cover and that on the material held by Mr.
Stone. In the latter case, the Hungarian ALmiristration of 1939-1944 encouraged
the Slav inhabitants of the Carpatho-Ukrainc to regard themselves as "rusiny"
(Ruthenians) and of their country as "Rusinsko" (Ruthenia). The Slav language
utilized during this period was called "rusinskii" and it was basically a Ukrainian
dialect with elements of Russian and many borrowings from Hungarian, all written
in the old Russian orthography. The place-name Kiralyhaza mentioned above, is
known as KRALYOVO NAD TISOYO to the Ukrainians and KOROLEVO to Russians.

If is sufficient interest is exhibited by our Ukrainian readers, we will pub-
lish additional data on the interesting bilingual cancels of the Carpatho-Ukraine.
Please watch forthcoming issues of the journal for details.
0000o000o 0000.000000000co

No. 68 Page53

by Kurt Adler

.Early in 1933, the foreign philatelic'press carried announcements about two
Soviet sets to be issued later in the year. The first of these was to commemorate
the'15th anniversary of the RKKA (Soviet Armed Forces), this being a follow up on
of a similar series.which was actually issued in.,1928 in a set of 4 values on the
occasion of the 10th anniversary of the same services. The second set slated for
1933 was intended to mark the 10th anniversary of the proclamation of the USSR
in 1923.

A check through the catalogues will show that neither of these two sets were
ever issued. However, I was able to obtain some time ago two series of publicity
photographs, distributed in 1933 by the SFA in announcing the impending issue of
these sets to the philatelic press and they are illustrated herewith. They con-
sist of the following designs and values:

A. 15th Anniversary of the RKKA 1918-1933

All in double-panel designs, contrasting conditions in 1918 at left, with
those in 1933 at right. All are inscribed "15 LET RKKA" between the two

3 kop. Charging infantryman in 1918, and border guard in 1933.
5 kop. Cavalryman with sabre in 1918, and saluting cavalry officer in 1933.
10 kop. Two gunners in action in 1918, and motorized artillery in 1933.
15 kop. Armored car in 1918, and tank in 1933.
20 kop. Biplane amidst flak in 1918, and air squadron in formation, together
with dirigible in 1933.
30 kop. Gronade-throwing sailor in 1918, and.naval commander on duty at the
bridge in 1933.
35 kop. Staff officer in the field in 1918, and military staff in 1933.

B. 10th Anniversary of the Proclamation of the USSR 1923-1933

5 kop. Flag and map of the Tadzhik SSR. 10 kop. Flag and map of the Uzbek SSR.
15 kop. Flag and map of the Turkmenian SSR 20 kop. Flag and map of the Byelorussian
30 kop. Flag and map of the Transcaucasian Federation (Armenia, Azerbaijan
and Georgia)
35 kop. Flag and map of the Ukrainian SSR.

The first three values are rather interesting, since they feature maps of three
republics which are actually adjacent and so the maps fit together like a jigsaw.
It would be very desirable to know if essays exist of either of these two sets, or
whether the photographs supplied by SFA were taken from artists' drawings and

E D I T 0 RI A L C 0 M M E N T: Obviously, there was a change of policy, which
stopped production of all these stamps. Comparing both sets, it is seen that they
tally in face-values, except that the -first series also has a 3 kop. value. Looking
at the map designs, we find that all tha Union republics as then constituted are
represented, with the exception of the RSFSR...Perhaps a 3 kop. value was also
planned to feature this republic, which would have brought this latter set in line
with the BKKA series (seven designs).

Glancing again at the second set, we notice now a good reason for the series not
having been issued. On the 35 kop. value, which features the boldly outlined

Page 54 No. 68

outlined boundaries of the Ukraine as they existed at that time, there is also
a dashed outline at bottom left, labeled "Bessarabia" (please see illustrations).
It will be remembered that Bessarabia formed part of the Kingdom of Rumania in
1933, and the issuance of this design at that time would certainly have had
diplomatic repercussions.

by Kurt Adlcr

One of the most interesting and fascinating features of our hobby is that one
constantly discovers new varieties, new. aspects of an issue which was thought to
be completely covered by research and description. The period of Soviet Russian
philately from 1927-1937 could rightly bo called the classical period. It not only
brought stamp design and printing technique to. a height never before reached in
that country's stamp production but it also --through its limited issues--brought
about a sharp increase in value. Some stamps of these issues are completely lack-
ing in 90% of collections in Russia and they are also getting increasingly scarce
in the West. I shall endeavor to describe some hitherto unknown aspects of some
of these issues which came to my attention only recently and which I had the fortune.
to acquire from the most varied sources. I am speaking of series of stamps pasted
on cardboard and surcharged "project" in Russian in such a way that each stamp is
touched by at least one letter of the surcharge. The surcharge is in red and there
is also a date of presentation of these "projects" to the postal authorities for
acceptance. Each stamp of these series appears in different colors which gives us
the right to classify them as color trial proofs. One cclor was finally chosen for
the issued stamp. The earlies color trial proofs, or those which are not printed
by the gravure process, use the remainders of the waterm.rked paper in use before.
The "projects"most of the time also differ in perforation from the finally issued
sets. I do not claim to have complete sets in all cases of these color trial
proofs and I would be grateful to hear from members or readers who could amplify
my notes.

The first "projects"l have, came from 1932-1933 set of the 15th anniversary
of the 1917 revolution (Sc. 472-478, Yvert 462-467, St. Gibbons 593-598). The his-
tory of this set is interesting in itself. The chosen designs were the result of
a competition and they were of such a divergent style that a coordinator, A. S.
Plotnikov-Grudin, had to be appointed in order to bring some harmony to the set.
The sot consisted of seven values of which two were not ready in time for issuance
for the commemorated date, Nov. 7, 1932. These were the 20 and 30 kop. which wore
issued in 1933. Two other stamps of this set wore admitted to the printing works
on Oct. 19, 1932 and were thus finished in a very short time. The printing process
was photogravure. The "projects" wore submitted on Oct. 17, 1932 which shows that
only two days wore needed for their confirmation. The 30 kop. was the last stamp
to be submitted, the date of the "project" being August 11, 1933. The issued set
is comb perforated 11x12x and 12xll respectively. The paper is watermarked.
The 10 kop. stamp has a few varieties. First of all it comes line perf. 12.- and
a plate variety exists with a clearly seen dot in front cf the "1932" year date.
The 15 kop. stamp shows considerable varieties of shade from light green to dark
russian green. The 35 kop. had a very limited issue and is eagerly sought afte
in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Collector article of Oct.-Dec. 1932 (No. 10-12)
which credits N. F. Denisovsky and A. S. Plotnikov-Grudin with this design seems
to be in error.

I have 3 values of this set as color trial proofs, on watermarked paper, perf.
11. They are the 15 and the scarce 35 kop. in six colors, namely purple, blue,
gray-black, brown, red and green, both dated Oct. 17, 1932. I also have the 30
kop. in 3 colors, blue-gray, lilac-gray and gray, dated August 11, 1933.
No. 68 Page 55

The next issue...and it is indeed a large one..is the Etnographical issue of
1933 (Sc. 489-510, Yvert 476-496, S. Gibbons 608-628), depicting different nation-
alities of the Soviet Union. The "projects", like the issued stamps are again on
watermarked paper and perforated 11- while the issued set is perf. 12x12w, or
121x12. The color trials...again six different ones to each value. They are:
red purple, brown, green, blue, red and gray-blue. I have thus the 1, 3, 4, 5, 6,
8, 9, 10, 14, 20, 30 and 35 kop., all dated Aug. 10, 1932. The larger 15 kop.
stamps appeared as "projects" on Dec. 17, 1932 and came in the following colors:
black-gray, red purple, gray, brown, red, dark gray-blue, light green and rod.
I have only three values: the Bielorussians, the Turkmens and the Uzbeks.

The next issue is the Red Banner stamp of 1933 (Sc. 518, Yvert 503, S.
Gibbons 637). This stamp is normally perf. 13- and comes also in a very rare and
actually unexplained variety of a perf. 9j which never before or after was used
for Soviet stamps. The regular stamp, as well as the variety has yellow, rippled
gum on the back. The "project" consists of 3 different colors, perf. ll-, and
like the issued stamp is on unwatermarked paper. It is dated Aug. 11, 1933. The
main color of the trial proofs is black-gray, brown purple and blue-gray. The
first mentioned color was used for the issued stamp. "Projects" exist also for
the following issue: the so-called Baku Commissars (Sc. 519-523, Yvert 504-508
and S. Gibbons 638-642). This set was printed by photogravure on unwatormarked
paper, perforated 13- and consists of 5 values. There are quite a few varieties
in this set, mainly imperforate-between stamps--from which, alas, clipped imperfo-
rate stamps were manufactured--and some fan-tail varieties (imperforate on one
side). I have the 5 and the 20 kop. imperforate-between, the 5 and the 20 kop.
imperforato at the left, and the 20 kop. imperforate at the bottom. There are
considerable shade variations of the 20 kcp. stamp, the color varying from blue
violet via purple to deep purple. The color trial proofs are still stuck on
cardboard but the word "project" and the date of the confirmation appear now not
on the stamps but between each row of 4 stamps---each color proof trial consisting
of 8 color varieties, The colors are: blue, light gray, light brown, gray black,
red, light green, light purple and -"ight orange red. The date is Oct. 3, 1933.
The proofs are perforated 13 and are on watermarked paper. In a recent auction
a proof (not a "project") on unwatermarked paper in the finally adopted color
of the 40 kop. value was sold at a high price. I have "projects" of 8 copies
each of the 5, 20, 35 and 40 kop., but no 4 kop. Evidently the missing stamp
found a home in a different collection.

The next set, the so-called 2nd Lenin Mausoleum set (Sc. 524-528, Yvert 514-
518, S. Gibbons 643-647) shows some of the most interesting varieties. Two of its
values, namely the 5 and the 10 kop. exist imperforate and came to this country
right after World War II. They are thus extremely rare and are unobtainable in
Russia itself. This time the "projects" are not color trial proofs but exam-
ples that show an earlier stage of completion which could be called the color
trail essays. These "projects" show a blank space where the denomination later
was to be put in. They also bear the inscription "Lenin's Mausoleum" (Mavzolei
Lenina), instead of the dates 1923-1934, which appears on the issued set (see the
illustration). I have 8 different color trial essays-of these stamps, of which
seven are dated Oct. 14, 1933. The eighth color trial essay is dated Nov. 4,
1933 and shows some improvement. The background of "Pochta SSSR" consists now
of finely criss-crossed lines, whereas the earlier 7 essays show a rough and in-
distinct background at that spot. all are perf. 13- and and on unwatermarked pape.
The colors are: brown orange, black brown, slate blue, blue, brown, green, gray
and deep red. Each essay is mounted on a special cardboard. The last "project"
that I could come across belongs to the 1934 Feodorov set (Sc. 529-530, Yvert
519-520, S. Gibbons 648-649). This set, as such, is most interesting to the
student of Russian philately. It consists of 2 values, commemorating 350th
Anniversary of Birth of the First Russian Printer Ivan Feodorov. At first glance:.

Page 56 No. 68

both values look absolutely the same. More detailed inspection, however, will show
that they were printed from two completely different plates. The main differences
are: 20 kop. the floor is drawn straight-lined. The shading on Fecdorov's left
O shoulder is criss-crossed. The pestles on the floor are indistinct, as is the back
of the head of the type-sotting helper in the background. 40 kop. the floor is
drawn slanted. The shading on Feodorov's left shoulder makes coat and arms more
distinct. The pestles are clearly distinguishable. The back of the head of the
type-setting helper is also clearer. It seems that the designer, V. Zavialov, or
the engraver A. Troitzky were not satisfied with the engraving of these two stamps.
Andrew Cronin discovered that the year dates were constantly reinforced and lined
out stronger in order to stand out more. This can be clearly seen if one has se-
veral copies of the same stamp for comparison. The set, as regularly issued was
engraved on steel and perforated 13.- and printed on unwatermarked paper. It also
exist imperforate mint and cancelled to order years later---in 1943 to be exact-
with a Tula postmark. The color trial proofs show that the 40 kop. stamp was con-
firmed first, the date being Oct. 10, 1933 (see illustration)-. The 20 kop.
"project" is dated Oct. 14, 1933 (see illustration). I have each value in two
colors, mounted separately on cardboard, but they ought to exist in more colors,
among them the finally adopted one. My color trial proofs are: 20 kop. in black
gray and blue gray. 40 kop. in indigo (the approved color) and in dark brown. The
perforation is 11 and the paper is unwatermarked.

This brings to an end my accumulation of "projects", although I have soon 5
color trial proofs of the 50 kop. of the 2nd International Polar Year airmail
stamp (Sc. C34, Yvert Posto Aerionno 31, S. Gibbons 5S8). These color trial proofs
wore priced unreasonably high so that I had to refrain from adding them to my col-
loction. I do, however, have this stamp as issued, but with the very rare perfo-
ration 10, missing in almost all collections.

Additions by B. St. G. Dronnan to list by E. Fomin

Type I

40 k. red 23-11-57 Moscow G.F.O. (Phil. Exhib. "100 Years of Russian Stamps,
25. I 3. II 1953").
40 k. lilac28-3 -59 Steel worker anri target outputs, 1958 and 1965

Type II

40 k. brcwn/lt. rod 19-7-60 Feodosic Sanatorium No. 40

Type III

1 r. red 24- 8-54 Moscow Planetarium
40 k. red 19-.7-55 Moscow Public Library
40 k. pale red 12-10-55 Siberian Landscape
40 rc. red 17-11-56 Now Year's greeting (Spassky Tower)
4C k. rod 3- 4-57 Samarhacnd 1Musclou.ms-
40 k. carmine 23- 7-57 Kliny pathway, Yasnaya Polyana
40 k. red 14- 8-57 New Year's greetings (Teacher and children)
40 k. deep rod 17- 8-57 Archangolskoye Home-Museum, near Moscow
40 k. pale red 9-10-57 Girl and boy skaters

Type I7
40 k. pink/blue also red/blue 9-9-55 Views on Chuly, Krasnoyarsk District

No. 68 Page 57

by Boris Shishkin

At the last annual meeting of 'the Rossica Society at the Vanderbilt Hotel in
New York last November, Kurt Adler posed following question to .tho numbers

Who can solve the mystery of the origin of the design'of the. Alexandria zemstvc
stamp, which so closely coincides with the design of the Alexandria, Virginia
local, issued earlier in the United States of America.

And, indeed, by what strange coincidence a stamp issued in a remote corner of
the Kherson district in 1870, had a design so closely resembling the design of a
stamp issued in an American town in 18461

Although unable to resolve fully this question, let me offer the following
as at least a lead toward a solution.

I began to collect stamps as a boy in Odessa. It all began when I found on
the bottom shelf of a bookcase the stamp collection formed by my maternal grand-
father. Housed in five or six volumes published in Germany, it was a rather ex-
tensive collection of nineteenth century stamps.

It was strongest in old German states. Early issues of the United States were
also well represented, including some early locals, such as St. Louis, for
e example.

Because the old German album did not provide printed spaces for local American
issues, grandfather had pasted a blank page to accommodate them.

The Alexandria local was not among them. But a space for it was provided by
a hand-drawn square. Underneath this square was a notation lightly pencilled-in
in my grandfather's hand: "Rarity. One is in M's collection."

lry grandfather, Leopold Franzovich Wojevodski, was professor of philology at
the University of New Russia in Odcssa. Quite possibly, M was a colleague of his
on the university faculty, or, perhaps, simply a collector-friend.

Stamps of nineteenth century Russia were well represented in his collection -
both mint and used, each stamp mounted underneath the other.

Since the German album had no printed pages for the Zemstvo issues, addition-
al pages for them were pasted in by grandfather in the back of the volume con-
taining Russia.

Underneath the 1870 stamp of the Alexandria Zemstvo, Kherson district, there
was a pencilled notation written in grandfather's neat and precise hand:

"Design taken from stamp of Alexandria, Virginia, U'.S.A., sent by M to the
zemstvo administration."

To the Russian boy in Odessa, this inscription was particularly memorable, as
it evoked a romantic vision of far-away Virginia beyond the seas.

Little did I know, when I saw it, that, some day I will be a resident of that
little city, though never the possessor of the Alexandria, Virginia local, whose
design was adopted by the local zemstvo in Alexandria, Russia.

Page 58 No. 68

by M. Byckoff
Because of its remoteness from the Central Authorities in the capital, and
transportation difficulties, the supply of paper money in the Khabarovsk region
was completely cut off at the beginning of 1918. The shortage of currency was
intensified by the fact that, upon instructions from the Central Govcrnment, the
Council of National Commissars in the Far East was obligated to take out of circu-
lation the whole range of Governcmnt Securities and bonds including the coupons
attached thereto, which had all served in place of paper money, since they had
now boon demonetized by the Central Soviet Government.

In an effort to got out of this difficult situation, the Council decided to
place its own paper money in circulation. Those bills, with values of 10, 25 and
50 rubles, were prepared from the designs of a local artist or artists, printed
locally and went into use in February 191C. All three values of this issue have
"one and the same design; on the face of the bill a hemisphere is shown, featuring
the western basin of the Pacific Ocean and the countries bordering it. The hemi-
sphere rests on-a bank of clouds and.a folded band issuing from it on both sides
encloses the word "FAR" at left and "EAST" at right (please see fig. No. 1). The
figures of value are given in each corner. Above the hemisphere there is an in-
scription at top reading "Far Eastern Council of National Commissars" in script
capitals, and under this, the face value of the bill- is spelt out in words: "TEN
RUBLES" ot "TWENTY FIVE ROUBLES". However this last designation in words is miss-
ing on the 50-ruble bill. At bottom left there is the word "Predsodatel" follow
by the signature of Krasnoshchekcv (Chairman of the Council of National Commissars
in the Far East) and at bottom right the abbreviation "Kom. Fin." and signature
of T. Kalmanovich (Commissar of Finances). At bottom center below these two de-
signations, there is the term "Upr. Gos. Banka", signed Fugalcvich" (Fugalevich,
Director of the Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank). Those notes were nicknamed
"Krasnoshchekovki", because of his signature as Chairman on the bills.
The designs and colors of the background on the face of the bills vary for
each value: on the 10-ruble note, it is in bright violet; on the 25 rubles in
rose and on the 50 rubles in orange-yellow. The rectangular border on the face is
the same for all values and consists of a narrow panel depicting a garland of
laurel leaves, entwineo in some places with a ribbon. The central design, signa-
tures, text and border are all in black. On the reverse of the bills and towards
bottom center, there is a representation of a rising sun with rays reaching out
into the sky; the sun is almost hidden by an oval with an ornamental frame on-
closing a shield with the figures of value of the bill (pleae see Fig. No. 2).
Below this frame there is the year dato "191"". To the right of the rising sun,
there is a view of the countryside, with a sloping hill, windmill, dates, gardens
and cultivated fields. The figure of a peasant in a Russian shirt with rolled-up
sleeves, bareheaded and in bast shoes, fills cut the right half of the bill. WitL
his left hand, he supports a scythe on his shoulder. At the feet of the reaper,
there is a steam locomotive emitting a cloud of smoke. On the left side of the
"bill there is a workman in the same size as the peasant, again with sleeves rolled.
up -an. bareheaded, hammer in hand and in working pants and shod in leather half
shoes. At his feet there is an ocean-going liner, ploughing up waves through an
unruly sea and further back the crystalline surface of a river with a little
steamer peacefully sailing thereon. The shore is covered with trees and beyond
them, up on the high hills, there are some factories with tall chimneys belching
some clouds of smoke. In the center of the bill above the sun, there is wavy band
with the initials R.F.S.R. (Russian Federated Soviet Republic) in the center. Of
the 50-ruble note, the face value is given above the band in script capitals, and
at top on all values there is a line of text reading "Obligatory for circulation
within the bounds of the Far East". This line is flanked by the figures of value
placed at an anglo. A warning about prosecution in accordance with the law for

No. 60 Page 59

forging currency bills is placed on the face of the notes under the signature of
the Director, Fugalevich. A total of 535,299 bills in the amount of 11,369,575
rubles was issued during the existence of the Council of National Commissars in
the/Far East. It is believed on good authority that when Khabarovsk was captured
by the forces of anti-Bolshevik organizations, the new authorities turned for help
to Omsk, as they had no currency bills of their own whatsoever. At around the
same time as the fall of Khabarovsk, the city of Blagoveshchensk was also taken by
the Whites on September 14, 1918. The latter also lacked a currency medium and
they apparently asked Omsk for a supply of bills. At Omsk, the Siberian Provisional
Government had at its disposal modest stocks of the.Romanov and Duma.issues and was
also at that time in the process of preparing its own "Siberian Notes" for circula-
tion. However, it could not immediately satisfy those requests for cash and it
was therefore decided to place substitutes on the market. On September 23, this
Government issued a regulation concerning the circulation, on a par with paper
money, of the short term securities paying 5%, the 4% Government Treasury series,
bonds of the Freedom Loan including the 100-ruble detachable coupons supplied
therewith, as well as coupons from all Government stocks due for redemption up to
October 1, 1918. (see "Collection of Regulations and Orders .of the Siberian Provi-
sional Government", October 12, 1918, No. 14, Section No. 1). The supply of these
securities at the branches of the State Bank in the cities of Khabarovsk, Vladivo-
stok, Blagoveshchensk, Nikolaevsk-on-Amur and Petropavlovsk did not amount to much
more than t*e million rubles and therefore could relieve the local shortage of
currency for a short time only. At this time of the year, the fishing season ends
both on the Amur, as well as along the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk and the fishing
cannors had to have quite large stocks of cash on hand to pay off the seasonal
workers who had come into the area to process the catch. Theso workers included
many from remote places in the Far East and even from Western and Eastern Siberia.
The same situation was also applicable to the steamship flotilla on the Amur River,
as the navigation season had drawn to a close and the steamer crews had to be paid
off in cash. Local private banks also began to ask for cash from the branches of
the State Bank, since they (i.e. the former) in turn wore being pressed by their
depositors and regular clients who had accounts and needed cash to pay for the
adcivory of gold from the local mines as well as for provisions and supplies deli-
vn;-d during the navigable season to the mines and logging camps. The result of
al. these demands was that Omsk was swamped with requests by local branches of the
St:'.to Bank for supplies of currency and this apparently was both incessant and
6 'yperating. The authorities at Omsk understood the situation, but, not finding
enciLh(r way out, they issued a regulation on October 17, 1918, which permitted
the temporary circulation of paper money issued by the Soviet authorities in the
cities of Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchonsk and Chita upon condition that they be stamped
as valid up to December 1, 1918 after which they would be exchanged for bills of
the Siberian Provisional Government. The validity of bills so treated was to be
reatrictod to the area in which they were originally issued (see the "Journal of
Finances, Industry and Trade", Omsk, 1919, No. 7).

Upon receiving these instructions, the Khabarovsk branch of the State Bank
immediately proceeded to validate the "Xrasnoshchekov" bills issued by the Far
Eastern Council of National Commissars in the values of 10, 25 and 50 rubles. With
thli purpose in mind, a rubber stamp measuring 76x37mm. with a double-lined roc-
tangular frame was prepared and applied. The text was in the old spelling, inclu-
d.i.g the hard sign. In the left hand of the cachet, a single-line circular seal
with a diameter 33-34mm. and showing the double-headed eagle of the All-Russian
Provisional Government was inserted (ploaso see fig. No. ) Around the eagle at
the top there appeared the words "Khabarovsk Branch" and at bottom "of the State
Bank", with little stars separating the two terms. The right half of the cachet
had a five-line inscription reading "Prosonted/30 November 1918/at/Khab. Br. St.
B./Cashier.....", and the cashier added his signature in rod ink while the color S
of the cachet was violet. In spite of the fact that the validity of these stamped

Page 60 No. 60

bills was extended from December 1, 1918 to the 15th of the same month and then to
April 1, 1919, the original date on the validating cachet was not changed. Be-
cause of the dispersion of population over the huge expanse of the Maritime pro-
O vince and the great difficulty experienced in getting the bills into the Khabarovsk:
branch of the State Bank in time for validation, permission was finally given to
have the validation carried out also in other places, and these locally validated
bills.:could then be o3hanged at the Khabarovsk branch of the State Bank for re-
gularly validated "Krasnoshchokov" bills. The local validation of the
"Krasnoshchekov" bills was permitted at the following places:-

A. The Administration of the Ussuriisk Cossack Army at the stanitsa of BIKIN.
B.'The Treasury at the town of IMAN.
C. The District Zemstvo Administration at the village of KIIN. (See Fig. #3)

Validating cachets made of mastic were applied on the notes at the above
points, normally in violet. Upon delivery of bills so treated at the Khabarovsk
branch of the State Bank, they were restamped with the validation.of this latter
branch, as explained above, and then placed in circulation throughout the area
as circumstances required. In view of the above procedures, notes-which show,.
Only a validation'stamp from one of the three designated local points have not
yet come to light in collections, although they should theoretically exist.

Bills are also to be found with seals of the Nikolaevsk-on-Amur branch of
the State Bank, in two types, as follows:-

1. Text in the old spelling.in two lines, struck in violet and given in
lower case type. The Cachet reads "nikolaevsk-na-amure otdelenio/
gosudarstvennago banka.
2. A circular seal, 34-35mm. in diameter:, with the double-headed eaglo0
crowned and with all Pegalia, in the contor, and reading at top between
stars "State Bank" and at bottom "Nikolaevsk o/A branch". In the center
below the eagle there is a;torm "for packets". (Please see fig. #4).

There was no official regulation for: the validation of the "Krasnoshchekov"
bills or notes of the Amur Province (known as the "Mukhinki" of Blagoveshchonsk)
by the Nikolaevsk-on-Amur branch of the State Bank. The population of the city
of Nikolaevsk and of the Amur estuary either refused- or very unwillingly accepted
bills originating in the Khabarovsk and Blagoveshchensk- areas. In view of the
severe shortage of paper money on-the market in.the.Nikolaevsk-on-Amur area, the
Slocal'branch of the State-Bank, in.its quest for ways of alleviating.the shortage
of currency, began to apply the two above-mentioned cachets on Khabarovsk and
** Blagoveshchensk bills, thus giving them a kind of "citizenship"-in its own territ-
ory. 'As a result, the local population changed its attitude towards:them and
began accepting them without any qualms at all, on a par' with bills of local
issues which were circulating in this district.

On one occasion in 1930, when I was living in Shanghai, China, I acquired a
bundle of Khabarovsk currency bills and on sorting them, I noticed that while
there were many examples with the validation of November 30, 1918, another kind
of cachet was also to be found, with a different date and text in five lines, as
follows: "September 1918/Khabarovsk Br./ of the State Bank/Authorized for/
circulation" (please see Fig. #1).

The F. Chuchin catalogue for 1927 ("Catalogue of Vouchers and Paper Money of
Russia, RSFSR, USSR, the Borderlands and Organizations 1769-1927", Moscow, 3rd.
Edition) lists the paper money of Far Eastern Council of National Commissars
under No$. 10104-6, on page 101, without specifying the town of issue (Khabarovsk,
and then on the next page the following information is given under the heading of

No. 68 Page 61

"Zagolovkol": "Ditto, with cachet of br* of State Bank", without indicating the
name of the branch or branches of the State Bank or the dates when the cachet or
cachets were applied. The face value of these bills are listed under Nos. 10107-
9; whether these bills had one- or more Cachets applied on.them by one, two or
three branches of the State Bank with the same or different texts and length of
validity are left to the collector himself to judge. On the.other hands A. Pogre-
betskii, in his work "The circulation of currency and currency bills:of the Far
East during the War and Revolution" (Kharbin, 1924) notes on pp. 180-1 that the
Bills of the Council of National Commissars of the Far East were:validated on the
basis of a regulation dated October 17, 1918, issued by the Siberian Provisional
Government, but he does not quote the texts of validation.

As I did not find any information in the literature on paper money at my dis-
posal about the validation of the "Krasnoshchekov" notes in September 1918, I
Turned to the magazine "Soviet Collector" (Moscow) to clear up these points.
Under what circumstances and by whose arrangements was the validating cachet of
September 1918 placed on the "Krasnoshchekov" bills, when the official regulation
for the validation of these notes was published d month later in October'. Unfor-
tunately, a reply to this enquiry was not forthcoming. At that time, the former
Commissar of the All-Russian Provisional Government for the city of Khabarovsk in
,the Governor-Generalship of the Maritime Provinces, a NM. A.N. Rusanov, was living-
in Shanghai and I turned to him for answers to these questions. In his time, he
had been active in the social and political activities of Khabarovsk bat had not
interested himself greatly in financial affairs, so at first, he could not give
any explanation at all. However, after a few talks with him, during which he re-
called the flow of all political events and struggles of that period in the Far
East in general and at Khabarovsk in particular, he suggested the hypothesis set
out hereunder, with which, after many discussions with other persons in all walks
of life who had lived in Khabarovsk or the Far East in 1918, as well as the former
witnesses or even participants in the events that took place at that time and in
,those places, I could not at first hand disagree and thus reject his hypothesis:

The city of Khabarovsk was captured on September 6, 1918 by detachments of
Ataman Kalmykov. The new authorities could not keep "Boshevik money" in circula-
tion either in the city or in the area cleared of the Bolsheviks and so the
"Krasnoshchekov" bills ceased to circulate as paper mo(ey by tacit consent of the
population although there were no official rulings to that effect. -In the city,
there appeared Romanov bills in the values of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 25 rubles;
"Catherinos"; "Dumas" in the values of 250 and 1000 rubles; 20 and 40-ruble
"Kerenskies" and also War Loan coupons which had originally gone on issue at the
:beginning of 1917. Omsk was apparently informed of all this by telegraph. On
September 23, 1918, the regulation from Omsk regarding the release for circulation
of Government securities and bonds with coupons attached to serve as paper money
resulted in a breathing space for short time, after which the demand for the
currency grew with renewed force. Since the market was flooded exclusively with
bills of the Council of National Commissars of-the.Far East, which were the only
mcdLum of exchange in the Khabarovsk district up till.September 6, 1918, the situ-
ation required exceptional measures for supplying the area with cash without delay
and in sufficient quantities. For those and other reasons, such as the termination.
of-the fishing.and navigation seasons, as explained above, the only logical and
possible way out of the situation, for which there was practically no solution,
was, 'as far as the authorities in Omsk were concerned, to put back in circulation
in this arda currency bills which had been in use there up till September 6, 1918,
in quantities not only sufficient for daily requirements but also for future
needs. It is apparent, therefore, that a ruling was also given by telegraph to
th e Khabarovsk branch of the State Bank to place the "Krasnosbchekov" bills of 10,
2.5 -md 50-ruble values back in circulation in the capacity of paper money, after
applying thereon cachets with specific dates and texts relating to their

Page. 62 No. 0

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' N,- 3,-Yn--a-a-,-.,i "j e-rcsn/^au a v.1%.

"bH ecriw *AP "AHK I:

Onsnr3aTeeH K ospauneHHwK a npeae nax AaJlbHerO BOCTORa.

voi sPeoF 65 .

IA e 5 .ruble. V% 50

IFF 1,k 4 .A GEr .

O~D saTen c O BoI IIO I npeSAe ax 4SJbHr o cT9II&

Volotrj4 4 IEMSKA.rt UptA "*>^'2.6MSrVO

authorization for circulation as paper money. It is quite feasible that the
actual text of the cachet was telegraphed from Omsk. Thus, the appearance of the
"Krasncshchokov" bills with a September 1918 date may be justified.

S There was no information whatsoever officially announced in Khabarovsk news-
papers of that period, or any explanation about the suggested measures or even
measures already taken to supply the public with a sufficient quantity of paper
money. Also, in view of the passage of time, the installation of the new autho-
rities, replacement of civil servants in the state services and for many other
reasons, the correspondence relating to placing the "Krasnoshchekov" bills back
in circulation after applying the September cachet was apparently lost and it was
thorefore not mentioned at that time in the literature on paper money.

Hence we see that bills have survived with this September 1918 cachet, showing
that the local authorities, with or without the permission of the Omsk Government
(we greatly doubt their proceeding without permission) found it necessary to put
back in circulation currency bills which had already been withdrawn either through
the pressure of public opinion or not, either publicly or without prior announce-
ment, officially or by private means. The application of September 1918 cachet
on the "Krasnoshchekov" bills poured paper money in the amount of some millions
of rubles into the financial channels ;f the area in a very short time and made it
possible for the local businessmen to discharge their financial obligations to the
public in a normal way at a very critical period when the fishing and navigation
seasons were closing. The September issue would have served as a "trial run",
permitting the Siberian Provisional Government to acquaint itself with the mecha-
nics of such a procedure, collect some information on the reaction of public,
trade and industrial circles to the appearance of such a step and prepare the
ground for carrying cut similar measures as announced in the regulation of October
17, 1918 issued by the Provisional Government. This regulation was, however, of
noticeably larger scope, since it now covered the territory of the Transbaikal,
Amur and Maritime provinces. The results of this measure may be regarded as being
completely succossfull; during the entire period of the announced obligatory
validation, "Krasnoshchekcv" bills in the amount of 10,666, 885 rubles were stampe
i.e. 93 of the original issue.

The application of the Soptomber 1918 cachet did not oxempt the "Krasnosh-
chokov" bills from being restampod upon the basis of the regulation of the Siborial
Provisional Government, dated October 17, 1918, and therefore all bills with the
September cachet, apart from the very rare exceptions, also bear the second vali-
dation cachet reading "Presented 30 November 1918".

In conclusion, I am setting out for the record a listing of currency bills
issued by the Council of National Commissars of the Far East, together with all
varieties of the cachets found' thereon:

I. February 1918. Khabarovsk. Oririn-l issue.

No. 1 10 rubles No. 2 25 rubles No. 3 50 rubles

II. Cachet "a". Khabarovsk br. State Brnk. "September 1918, authorized for

No. 4 1C rubles No. 5 25 rubles

III. Cachet "b". Khabarovsk Br. State Bank. "Presented 30 November 1918".

No. 6 10 rubles Mo. 7 25 rubles No. 8 50 rubles

No. t8 Page 63

IV. Cachet "a" and cachet "b"

No. 9 10 rubles No. 10 25 rubles

V. Cachet "Bikinskoe Stanichnoe Pravlenie" and cachet "b"

No. 11 10 rubles No. 12 25 rubles No. 13 50. rubles

V1. Cachet "Imanskoe Kaznacheistvo" and cachet "b"

No. 14 10 rubles No. 15 25 rubles No. 16 50 rubles

VII. Cachet "Kiinskaya Volostnaya Zemskaya Urrava" and cachet "b"

No. 17 10 rubles No. 18 25 rubles No. 19 50 rubles

VIII. Cachet "Nikolaovsk N/A Otdelonie Gos. Banka"; both cachets and cachet "b"
(but not always).

No. 20 10 rubles No. 21 25 rubles No. 22 50 rubles

(Additional Notes)
by Mejor A. Prado

Since my article in Rossica f66 some other collectors put their finds in
the BSRP Journal with nice articles and a lot of information about the small
current stamps. Among them Mr. Irmann-Jaccbson of Norway and Mr. A. S. Waugh
of England. Our friend, Mr. Chudoba sent me a lot of large pieces for examinat-
ion and among them I note the following:

30 kop. Typographed (aviator)

Blue CP 12 no blue stripe on the margin
Blue CP 12 Blue stripe 0.75mmn. wide on the top margin

5 kop. (Offset ,) (Worker). The white "0" flaw..

Red CP 12 Size 14.50x21.75mm.
Deep Red CP 12 Size 14.00x2150mm.

This stamps is not rare. I obtained half a dozen copies from different
sources and now I wonder why it was not detected or mentioned by others studying
this field. The color ranges from red to deep red, the paper is always white
and the "0" is well defined. For the benefit of the readers with large pieces
or even sheets of this stamp I am showing an enlarged photo. Perhaps someone
else can bring more light on this matter.


S V I E T S K I I K 0 L L E K T S I O0 N ER N o. 2 (The Soviet Collect-&
No. 2). Published by the "Svyaz" Printing House, Moscow 1964 in an edition of
32,000 copies. Containing 176 pages. It is priced at 1 ruble and is roviuwed
hereunder by our member Kurt Adler.

The 1964 issue of the newly revived "Soviet Collector" is as interesting

Page 64 No. 6S

IV. Cachet "a" and cachet "b"

No. 9 10 rubles No. 10 25 rubles

V. Cachet "Bikinskoe Stanichnoe Pravlenie" and cachet "b"

No. 11 10 rubles No. 12 25 rubles No. 13 50. rubles

V1. Cachet "Imanskoe Kaznacheistvo" and cachet "b"

No. 14 10 rubles No. 15 25 rubles No. 16 50 rubles

VII. Cachet "Kiinskaya Volostnaya Zemskaya Urrava" and cachet "b"

No. 17 10 rubles No. 18 25 rubles No. 19 50 rubles

VIII. Cachet "Nikolaovsk N/A Otdelonie Gos. Banka"; both cachets and cachet "b"
(but not always).

No. 20 10 rubles No. 21 25 rubles No. 22 50 rubles

(Additional Notes)
by Mejor A. Prado

Since my article in Rossica f66 some other collectors put their finds in
the BSRP Journal with nice articles and a lot of information about the small
current stamps. Among them Mr. Irmann-Jaccbson of Norway and Mr. A. S. Waugh
of England. Our friend, Mr. Chudoba sent me a lot of large pieces for examinat-
ion and among them I note the following:

30 kop. Typographed (aviator)

Blue CP 12 no blue stripe on the margin
Blue CP 12 Blue stripe 0.75mmn. wide on the top margin

5 kop. (Offset ,) (Worker). The white "0" flaw..

Red CP 12 Size 14.50x21.75mm.
Deep Red CP 12 Size 14.00x2150mm.

This stamps is not rare. I obtained half a dozen copies from different
sources and now I wonder why it was not detected or mentioned by others studying
this field. The color ranges from red to deep red, the paper is always white
and the "0" is well defined. For the benefit of the readers with large pieces
or even sheets of this stamp I am showing an enlarged photo. Perhaps someone
else can bring more light on this matter.


S V I E T S K I I K 0 L L E K T S I O0 N ER N o. 2 (The Soviet Collect-&
No. 2). Published by the "Svyaz" Printing House, Moscow 1964 in an edition of
32,000 copies. Containing 176 pages. It is priced at 1 ruble and is roviuwed
hereunder by our member Kurt Adler.

The 1964 issue of the newly revived "Soviet Collector" is as interesting

Page 64 No. 6S

as the 1963 edition and surpasses it in many respects.

The initial article is written by Ernst Krenkel, famed radio operator of the
Cholyuskin Expedition headed by Prof. 0. Schmidt, and also of the Papanin Expedi-
tion on the drifting polar ice floe which kept him busy during nine months of con-
stant danger. Ernst Krenkel, in his free time, is a stamp collector and he calls
his article "The Right to a Hobby". In it, he defends with great energy our be-
loved hobby and has the courage to criticize the fact that the USSR has not yet
established a centralized All-Russian Collectors' Society with its own publication.
He does with those words: "It is a pity that 170 collectors' societies and clubs,
organized in different cities of the Soviet Union are not connected with the Mscow
City Collectors' Society. It is a pity that there is no Union-Wide Collectors'
Society with its own journal, be it oven a modest one." We feel sure that Ernst
Kronkel's wish will be fulfilled some day. Our own Rossica Journal, which is well
known in leading Russian collecting circles, should serve as an example of what can
and ought to be done in the way of Russian philatelic research.

The next article is by V. Karlinskii and deals with some research into the
original models for some stamp designs, usually sculptures. He also clears up the
question as to why the 1932 Moscow Philatelic Exhibition set (Scott 485-486,
Gibbons 600-1, Yvort 469-70) did not have a surcharge indicated for the surtax,
whereas the same set surcharged for the Leningrad Philatelic Exhibition (Scotts
487-488, Gibbons 606-07, Yvert 471-72) did have the amount expressly added on the
stamp. In the original case in Moscow, misunderstandings arose because there was
no notation of the additional charge. At the Leningrad Exhibition which foli_ *,
this misunderstanding was clJarod ub through the special surcharge.

A very useful article is the one by Ya. Vovin about the differences in design
of the lithographod, offset and typogrn.phod standard series stamps (Scotts 735..
736, 1306, 1315; Gibbons 55AV, 560f, 1406c, 1406g. 1406 106 406ha, 1406k; Yvort
735, 736, 132g, 1330). Ono recalls the recent Ear.Lle by Hans Irmann-Jacobson in
BJRP No. 34, but Vovin's piece has bettor illustrations and more helpful explana-
tions. Then follows an article about IhIL.TEC 1964 in which due credit is given
to the excellent frames of our member M. Liphschutz. After a short article by A.
Smyslov about how to set up album pages for exhibition, an important comprohen-
sive study is given by E. Sashenkov about collecting material devoted to the topic
of Outer Space. It enumerates all stamps, entire and special cancellations having,
to do with Outer Space, starting with Scotts C37-39; Gibbons 634-636; Yvcrt
Aeriens 30-40. Sashonkov also includes other countries, even United Nations,
Liberia, Haiti, etc. but neglects to dwell on the US material relating to this

Perhaps the most important work in the 1964 issue of the "Soviet Colloctor"
is S. M. Blokhman's research on the stamps and postal history of Mongolia. For
the period of the Imperial Russian offices in Mongolia he uses some illustrations
from the Stephen and Tchilinghirian handbook, giving the authors due credit in the
bibliography at the end. Mr. Blekhman has a lot of very valuable information on
the postal history and stamps of the Mongolian National Republic, from 1923 onwards
Some are things that we hoar about for the first time. But it met also be said
that we here have material that Mr. Blokhman has never seen.

A. Kolcs'ikov tkcs u ean o01 problC m for us, but a now one, however, for mo-
dorn Russian roa/'rs: can tbr Tiflis Town Post stamp really be called the first
Russian postage stamp! The writer bases his research in the main on K. K. Schmid.
article which appeared in Russia in 1924 and was reprinted in this country. It i0
a pity that Mr. Kolcsnikov did nct have access to our Editor-in Chief's research
work, which appeared in "Rossica No. 46-47", pp. 57-64. He also does not know
that there are two copies of this elusive stamp in U.S. collections. The author

No. 68 Page 65

calls on collectors of Soviet Georgia to try and locate some old archives that
may shod light on this rarest of Russian stamps.

The next item in the "sbornik" is a discussion about what to call a variety
of a postage stamp. Then follows a continuation of the discussion whether it is
more advisable to collect mint or used stamps. V. Yakobs gives a complete listing
of all official special cancellations for 1963, which brings the collectors of this
realm of Russian philately almost up to date.

The numismatic department brings a highly interesting article about the early
coins of 1787, which circulated in the newly acquired Crimean town of Kaffa, re-
named Thoodosia. Then follow articles about "Wine Money Notes" of Yakutia and the
restoration and preservation of paper money. A long article is devoted to the
topic of Taras G. Shovchenko on illustrated postcards, which will be of great in-
terest to our Ukrainian readers, and a similar treatment is given to the topic of
the 1812 War on postcards. An article about Ex Libris (book plates) illustrates
a fascinating one designed on an Outer Space topic for Yuri Gagarin and short notes
from collectors and reviews end the very useful 1964 edition of the Soviet

"SPUTNIK FILATELISTA" by Ya. Ozolin. Published in Russian by the Latvian State
Publishing House, Riga 1964, in an edition of 20,000 copies. It contains 104 pages
of toxf and a separate rotogravure section of 32 pages. Price 22 kop.

Just in case anyone has already jumped to premature conclusions, the title has
nothing to do with the topic of Outer Space, but simply moans "The Colloctor s
Companion". This little book is in fact a Russian edition of the excellent
Latvian work by Janis Alborts Ozolins, published in Riga in 1962 and already ado-
quately reviewed in No. 66 of our Journal. This Russian edition will undoubtedly
be of great value to budding philatelists in USSR.

The British Journal of Russian Philately #35, Oct. 1964. Editor of our sister
journal, Poetr Ashford is to be congratulated once more for an excellent issue,
well edited and rich in philatelic content. We can only single out a few titles
of articles, due to a lack of space, and among those we list: Fred Speors "Jassy
A Venture into Research", H. Fletchor and W. Fletcher "An Inperial Postal Forgery
of 7 kop.", Dr. A. H. Wortman "Moscow and Petrograd Ekspeditsiya 1921-22", P.T.
Ashford "Covers of the Armenian National Republic", A.S. Waugh "Modern Soviet
Perforation Varieties", H. Irmann-Jacobson "Key and Flower Watermarks" and John
Lloyd "Philatelic Paris 1964". Keep up your fine work, Pete!

Billig's Philatelic Handbook Vol. 30, Price $7.50. Published by Fritz Billig.
Jamaica, N.Y., 11432. Contains the entire "Zomstvo Gazeteer" by Fred W. Spoors
of great interest to all the Zemstvo collectors.

Journal of Chinese Philately, Oct. 1964. Issued by the China Philatelic Society
of London contains a most valuable article by A. Cronin, "The Mongolian National
Posts", which had originally appeared in the February issue of 1964 of "Philatelic
Proglod" of Sofia, Bulgaria. The author, our honored member, and editor is to be
congratulated for his immense research in this little known field.

Journal "Russ-Fil", issued in Nov., 1964, through the Danish, Finnish, Norwegian,
and Swedish collector-clubs.

The Editor of the journal is our member Hans Irmann-Jacobsen, Oslo. In the
introduction it is stated that the aims of the journal are 1). to establish an
instrument of contact between Scandinavian collectors of Russia and USSR by

Page 66 No. 68

by bringing a list of registered collectors with their addresses and interests in
each number, and also by giving every registered collector the opportunity to use
1/8 of a page gratis in each number. 2). to try to inform Scandinavian collectors
who do not road foreign languages, about the research results, and new discoveries
in the Russian sector of the philatelic world, and 3). to act as a forum for the
collectors in case any-one should be able to contribute to our common knowledge
on Russian philately.

The first number of RUSS-FIL has a list of common words often soon on Russian
stamps with the equivalent Norwegian translation, mainly following the list given
in the French catalogue of 1956 of "Corcle Philatoliquo Franco-URSS". ERNST
BORGLIN writes on modern Russian stamps and the generally known varieties. A
column of Notes and Inquiries includes a quotation from "EWENS Weekly Stamp News"
and "Potorsburger Zoitung" 1905/06, which gives the quantities sold of the Charity
issue of 1905 to:

3 kop. 248,000 5 kop. 178,000 7 kop. 302,000 1C kop. 161,0C0
10 kop. 161,000
The article of the "The Soviet Definitive Series of 1948-49" by HANS IRPJM N-
JACCBSEN, which was printed in BJRF No. 34/7arch 1964, has been translated and the
editor writes also on the problems of catalogues in connection with Russian Phila-
tely as an introduction to the appendix to the journal: The first 15 pages of a
translation of the new French Corclo-cataloguo 1964.

The list of registered collectors gives some 49 names and addresses, of whom
some are members of ROSSICA and /or BSRP.

The next number which is duo in Spring 1965 will contain a presentation of
ROSSICA, BSRP, "Russian Fhilatelist", Cercle philateliquo and Ukraina-Vorband,
and among other things also the interesting sections of the Postal convention
between Russia and Sweden/Norway of lC46.
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Stamp, its History and Recognition, by L. and M. Williams). Published by Svyaz of
Moscow in 1964 as a paperback in an edition of 60,000 copies. Priced at 62 kopeks,
it contains 180 paLgs plus 16 pages of illustrations.

This is a basically Russian translation of a paperback the famous philatelic
writing team of L. and M. Williams did for "Pelican Books" of London in 1956.
Their work takes up 131 pages of the translation and covers the history of tnc
postage stamps, advice to the beginner and the classification of stamps, all done
in the inimitable and informative Williams' style. In addition, there is chapter
by B.V. Stalbaum, of the Moscow City Collectors' Society, on topical collecting,
with emphasis on the themes that interest Russian collectors and the last 16 pa-es
of the book are taken up with commentaries by the translators on the material pro-
sented the Williams brothers.

The edition of 60,000 is large by Soviet standards and there is no doubt that
there was a groat need there for such an authoritative work. The anecdotes and
other material given by the authors should help greatly to bring Russian-collectors
into the mainstream of the international philatelic stream and our English-speaking
members will no doubt want to get hold of the original English edition so as
to absorb the interesting information it contains.

No. 68 Page 67

Russian Dictionary of Geographic Names of the Ukrainian SSR) by V. Ya. Nozhnipapa.
Published by Radyanska Shkola, Kiev 1964, in edition of 8000 copies; it contains
196 pages and sell at 45 kopeks.

Although not a philatelic work and more in a form of a gazetoor, this work
should prove of use to collectors of Russo-Ukrainian bilingual cancellations in
classifying and identifying their holdings, and to Ukrainian philatelists in ge-
neral. This book is not comprehensive as many villages are unlisted, but it
gives around 4000 Ukrainian place-names with their Russian equivalents and status
as at the end of August 1964. It covers all the territories forming part of the
Ukraine, such as the Western provinces, The Transcarpathian region, Northern Buko-
vina and Southern Bessarabia including part of the Budzhak steppe, and also the
Crimea. In the last area, many of the Tartar names still survive and in fact a
look through the book will show place-names of Turkisk and Tartar origin cropping
up over much of the country; a mute testimony to the chequered history of the

The book would have proved even more useful if the many changes of name had
also boon listed and classified. All in all, however, it is a handy addition to
philatelic reference library.

MISLIVTSI ZA DIAMiNTAMI. (PRviowod by L. Georgiov, in the Decomber 1964 issue of
the Bulgarian magazine "Philatdlen Progled" of Sofia; copies of the brochure
reviewed are available in the U.S.)

The "Veselka" publishing house in Kiev issued in 1964 a brochure of 70 pages
by the philatelist Victor Khokhlachov, entitled "Hunters for Diamonds". This is
neat presentation in th- Ukrainian language and very well illustrated, including
a picture of the front of the magazine "Philatelen Proglod".

The booklet abounds with short and absorbingly described facts and opportunity
ios for collecting the most varied objects, with the main emphasis on postage
stamps. It is divided into six chapters with headings such as "From the depths
of the centuries", "An enviable fate", "Sensible and senseless inclanations", 'qIot
just to break world records", "Visiting cards of countries" and finally "A cured

"Hunters for Diamonds" reads with verve, because of the many curious historic
facts related, dating from 3000 B.C. up to our times. It speaks of the colloctLe-
of rare books and manuscripts, pictures, coins and banknotes, all possible kind
of labels and tickets, medals and badges, butterflies and flowers, phonograph rocc
and films, Russian balalaikas and rare porcelain, ancient chess pieces and proci:c
stones, oven autumn leaves and clam shells, but especially and above all, it has
unusual and entertaining stories about postage stamps. It describes the interest
manifested in stamps by some of the worlds most noted personages, such as
Einstein, Maxim Gorkii and A. P. Chekhov, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Ivan Pavlov
and Professor Wilfred Mackenzie, which is backed up with episodes from their
lives and their comments on postage stamps, of which they were not only friends
but which some of them oven collected.

Page 68 No. 68

and Editor, then suggested that 'ichel Liphschutz of Franc aCrd .cnrewi Cronin of
Now York be placed in nomination as Honorary Mbmbers for their tremendous efforts
in behalf of the society and philately in general. Both were nominated and unani-
S mously elected to the high post.

During the meeting J.F. Chudoba, chairman of the N.Y. Group, 426 Eastern Park-
way, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225 urged the local members to attend the monthly meetings,
and this was echoed by Boris Shishkin, chairman of the Washington group, 2032
Tunlaw Rd., N.W., Washington 7, D.C. who described the wonderful meetings well
attended by members of that city and adjacent states.

Washington Chapter of Rossica, under the able leadership of Boris Shishkin
hold a number of very active meetings at various members homes. A bourse, stamp
swap and show have been the popular features of the meetings......as well as Sr.
C. do Stackelborg's blini and caviar

During recent British Philatalic Exhibition our members G. U. Frtcrtsand
A. H. Wortman, M.D. of England received silver gilt medals for Podolia, and Dot
numeral cancellations respectively. Dr. Wortman and his charming wife Doris are
coming to the U.S. at the end of April.

We wish to announce the sad news of the death of Vasilii Boryaov, our former
member, in Sofia, and of F. Julius Fohs, of Houston, Texas, a long tire nombor
of both the Rossica Society and of B.S.R.P. Mr. Fohs was a prolific writer, and
author of outstanding research articles on Imperial Russian Stamps in the journals
cf both Societies. By profession he was a geologist, a most successful one, and
his death is a groat loss for us all.
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