Front Cover
 Officers of the society
 Honorary members
 Representatives of the society
 Life of the society
 Literature review (continued from...
 An unrecorded money letter sent...
 Documents of troubled times by...
 The 1939 stamp of the Carpatho-Ukraine...
 The trans-Siberian postal route...
 Postmarks by Dr. A. H. Wortman
 The transmission of mails on steamers...
 The field postal service of the...
 The mysterious "K. P." (K.R.) handstamp...
 Three experts from Schmidt & Faberge....
 Notes about the Russian post offices...
 The M. V. Liphschutz article on...
 The ancient Russian posts by M....
 On the track of a rare coin by...
 Hungarian RPOs in the Carpatho-Ukraine...
 The paper money issued by the council...
 The paper money of Blagoveshchensk...
 Notes from collectors
 Book reviews
 Literature review (continued on...


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00002
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1965
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00002

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Honorary members
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Life of the society
        Page 3
    Literature review (continued from page 69)
        Page 4
    An unrecorded money letter sent through the Russian field post in 1877-1878 by D. N. Minchov
        Page 5
    Documents of troubled times by Major Asdrubal Prado
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The 1939 stamp of the Carpatho-Ukraine by Viktor Indra
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
    The trans-Siberian postal route by Henri Tristant
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Postmarks by Dr. A. H. Wortman
        Page 21
    The transmission of mails on steamers in Russia by N. I. Sokolov (continued from no. 68)
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    The field postal service of the Russian troops in the war in Hungary, 1848-49
        Page 28
    The mysterious "K. P." (K.R.) handstamp used in Riga in 1810-1857 by Dr. C. de Stackelberg
        Page 29
    Three experts from Schmidt & Faberge. 1908-1916 "Die Postwertzeichnen der Russischen Landshharftsaempter" by C. P. Bulak
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Notes about the Russian post offices in Rumania by K. Adler
        Page 34
        Page 34a
    The M. V. Liphschutz article on Zemstvos by C. C. Handford
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The ancient Russian posts by M. N. Vitashevskaya (continued from no. 68)
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 40a
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    On the track of a rare coin by Ivan G. Spasskii
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Hungarian RPOs in the Carpatho-Ukraine 1939-1944 by L. H. Stone
        Page 51
        Page 52
    The paper money issued by the council of people's commissars of far east at Khabarovsk in 1918. Addenda by M. M. Bykov
        Page 53
    The paper money of Blagoveshchensk and territory of Amur 1917 & 1918 by M. M. Bykov
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Notes from collectors
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Book reviews
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Literature review (continued on page 4 of this journal)
        Page 69
Full Text

of the

Silver Medals at Belgrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937"and
the International Exhibition. Koenifsberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronse Medals at the International Exhibition "Pai 1935"aad
Vienna International Exhibition "WPA 1933"
-ecent Iaternational Awards:
Silver Medals at Berlin.'Bephil 1957", Parana."Eficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires.Temex 1958"
Hamburg "Interposta 1959" Palermo "Sicilia 1959" "Barcelona 1960" -
Johannesburg "Unipex 1960" Warsaw "Polska 1960" Prague "Praga 1962"
and Luxembourg "Melusina '63"

No.;. POC Ha 19

Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.


Hon. Memb. Dr. G. B. Bondaren'o-Salisbury


Hon. Meib. R. A. S-larevsri Hon. Mbmbor V. A. Kurbas


Hon. Memb. A. M. Levrov
P. 0. Box 406 Englowood, I. J. 07631


Hon. bMobers: A. Cronin K. Adlor O.A. Faborgo K. Jansson E. Marcovitch

I N r E X

2 Officers of the Society, Hon. Lambers and Representatives of the Society
6-7 An Unrecorded Money Letter Sent through the Russian Field Post in 1877-78
by D. N. Linchov
7-10 Documents of Troubled Times by Maor As'-rubal Prado
10-15 Tb'- .939 Stamp of the Carpatho-U'-raine by Vil-tor Indra
15-21 The Trans-Siherian Postal Rout6by Henri Tristant
21-22 Postmar'-s by Dr. A. H. Wortman
S 22-2 The Transmission of viails on Steamers ii Russia by N. I. Sololov (Cont. #68)
28-29 The Field Postal Service of the Russian Troops in the War in Hungary,
29-30 The Mysterious "K.P." Handstc.mp Used in Riga 110-1857 by Dr. C. de StacknLber
30-34 Three Exerpts from Schmidt & Faberge. 1908-1916 "D=E POSTERTZEICHNEN
34-35 Notes About the Russian Post Offices in Rumari. by K. Adler
35-37 The I. V. Liphschutz Article on Zemstvos by C.C. Handford
37-44 The Ancient Russian Posts by M. N. Vitashl-.s::aya Cont. from #68
47-51 On the Track of a Rare Coin by Ivan G. SpE.sski
51-53 Hungarian RPOs in the Carpatho-Ukraine 1939-4 by L.H. Stone
53-54 The Paper Money Issued by the Council of Feple's Commissars of Far East
at Khabarovsk in 1918. 'Addenda by M.M. Bykov
54-58 The Paper -noney of Blagoveshchens' and Territory of Anur 1917 & 1918 by
1.M. By1rov
59-66 Notes from Collectors
66-69 Eool Reviews
69& 4 Literature Review (Continu-i on page 4 of this Journal)

3 Editorial
3 &4 Life of the Society
4 Literature Review Continued from page 69

No. 69 Page 1


President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. otlar
Secretary Russian SpeaVing Section A. I. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arefiev


K. Adler J.F. Chudoba A. Cronin 0. A. Faberge M. Liphschutz
N.I. Kardakov A. Kotlar V. Kurbas A. N. Lavrov
E.I. Marcovitch G.B. Salisbury R. Sklarevsli K. Jansson


New York Group J.F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, New York
San Francisco *. Jannson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Washington B. Shishkin 2032 Runlaw Rd. N.W. Washigton, D.C., 20007
Western USA L.S. Glass 1533 South La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles, California

Argentina B. Riashianski Larrazabal 2870,'Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Av. Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstoin 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Belgium
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Germany E. P. Fomin 1iunich 54, Rudinstr. 9, West Germany
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel
Canada G. Rodzay oda 65 Doring St., D St ownsview, Ontario, Canada

Directors of the Society Kurt Adler Vsevolod Kurbas Konstantin Jansson
Auditing Committee Kurt Adler Joseph F. Chudoba Lydia Callahan

The views expressed in this JOURnAL by the authors are their own and the Editors
disclaim any responsibility.

.At the present time the Membership Dues are $4.00 for US and Canada (per annum) and
$3.00 for all other countries of the World. Application forms$ which must be filled
out, are available upon request. 1Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements
to the membership lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable
to A.N. Lavrov, Treasurer P.O. Box 406, Englewood, New Jersey, 07631.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates are as
follows: Full _DaraAdd is 30.00. Half age is $15.00. carter page is $7.50.
Five line is 62.50. Iranmbjjr of th- Rossica Soclty pauy ane half_ r '_5 of the
aiove rates for the A D DS. Therefore the not cost of advertiseomntq to menmbre
is only 25 cents per line. We have a very limited number of back issues of the
journal for sale, bot in Russian and in English.

..c. I .....C. .OC C.O .c..- .c............

Page 2 No. 69


President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. otlar
Secretary Russian SpeaVing Section A. I. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arefiev


K. Adler J.F. Chudoba A. Cronin 0. A. Faberge M. Liphschutz
N.I. Kardakov A. Kotlar V. Kurbas A. N. Lavrov
E.I. Marcovitch G.B. Salisbury R. Sklarevsli K. Jansson


New York Group J.F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, New York
San Francisco *. Jannson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Washington B. Shishkin 2032 Runlaw Rd. N.W. Washigton, D.C., 20007
Western USA L.S. Glass 1533 South La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles, California

Argentina B. Riashianski Larrazabal 2870,'Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Av. Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstoin 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Belgium
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Germany E. P. Fomin 1iunich 54, Rudinstr. 9, West Germany
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel
Canada G. Rodzay oda 65 Doring St., D St ownsview, Ontario, Canada

Directors of the Society Kurt Adler Vsevolod Kurbas Konstantin Jansson
Auditing Committee Kurt Adler Joseph F. Chudoba Lydia Callahan

The views expressed in this JOURnAL by the authors are their own and the Editors
disclaim any responsibility.

.At the present time the Membership Dues are $4.00 for US and Canada (per annum) and
$3.00 for all other countries of the World. Application forms$ which must be filled
out, are available upon request. 1Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements
to the membership lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable
to A.N. Lavrov, Treasurer P.O. Box 406, Englewood, New Jersey, 07631.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates are as
follows: Full _DaraAdd is 30.00. Half age is $15.00. carter page is $7.50.
Five line is 62.50. Iranmbjjr of th- Rossica Soclty pauy ane half_ r '_5 of the
aiove rates for the A D DS. Therefore the not cost of advertiseomntq to menmbre
is only 25 cents per line. We have a very limited number of back issues of the
journal for sale, bot in Russian and in English.

..c. I .....C. .OC C.O .c..- .c............

Page 2 No. 69


President Dr. G. B. Salisbury
Vice President A. otlar
Secretary Russian SpeaVing Section A. I. Lavrov
Secretary English Speaking Section R. A. Sklarevski
Treasurer A. N. Lavrov
Chairman of Numismatic and Paper Money Circle K. Jansson
Assistant in Charge of Numismatics V. Arefiev


K. Adler J.F. Chudoba A. Cronin 0. A. Faberge M. Liphschutz
N.I. Kardakov A. Kotlar V. Kurbas A. N. Lavrov
E.I. Marcovitch G.B. Salisbury R. Sklarevsli K. Jansson


New York Group J.F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, New York
San Francisco *. Jannson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
Washington B. Shishkin 2032 Runlaw Rd. N.W. Washigton, D.C., 20007
Western USA L.S. Glass 1533 South La Cienga Blvd., Los Angeles, California

Argentina B. Riashianski Larrazabal 2870,'Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth Av. Paddington, Sydney, NSW
Belgium I. Braunstoin 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Uxelles, Belgium
France A. Liashenko 1 rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
Germany E. P. Fomin 1iunich 54, Rudinstr. 9, West Germany
Israel A. Trumpeldor Arba artzot 25, Tel Aviv, Israel
Canada G. Rodzay oda 65 Doring St., D St ownsview, Ontario, Canada

Directors of the Society Kurt Adler Vsevolod Kurbas Konstantin Jansson
Auditing Committee Kurt Adler Joseph F. Chudoba Lydia Callahan

The views expressed in this JOURnAL by the authors are their own and the Editors
disclaim any responsibility.

.At the present time the Membership Dues are $4.00 for US and Canada (per annum) and
$3.00 for all other countries of the World. Application forms$ which must be filled
out, are available upon request. 1Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements
to the membership lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable
to A.N. Lavrov, Treasurer P.O. Box 406, Englewood, New Jersey, 07631.

We welcome advertisements from members, non-members and dealers. The rates are as
follows: Full _DaraAdd is 30.00. Half age is $15.00. carter page is $7.50.
Five line is 62.50. Iranmbjjr of th- Rossica Soclty pauy ane half_ r '_5 of the
aiove rates for the A D DS. Therefore the not cost of advertiseomntq to menmbre
is only 25 cents per line. We have a very limited number of back issues of the
journal for sale, bot in Russian and in English.

..c. I .....C. .OC C.O .c..- .c............

Page 2 No. 69


Once again we are proud to announce another silver-medal, this time at WIFA
l 1S5 in Vienna. Since the journal cover was printed a short while ago, listing
our past awards for philatelic journalism, we havefaddod Molusina in Luxombourg,
Philateb Paris, and now oWIPA. Our deep thanks to the authors and to the editorial
staff for making these successes possible. Now, on to SIPEY in Washington, whore
our member George Turner is the head of the Sixth International Exhibition.

This journal will reach you at the end of the year and it is of greatest im-
portance that we stress several timely points. First of all, the dues for 1966
are to be sent on January 1st, regardless of when the member joined, unless he en-
tered a short time ago and specified that his membership ws to start with the co-
ming year. Those who have not paid their 165 dues will not receive any journals
after this issue, unless they settle their debt. Our sister society in England haf
raised its dues, and plans to raise dues again, because of the rising costs of prc
duction and postage. Unless our members cooperate, we too shall be forced to do
the same. All of our members are likewise urged to send in their zip code numbers;
r.s the new postal regulations demand that this data be included in future mailing.
Likewise please inform us of any change of address. Returned journals cause pos-ag
due foes, additional postage, and frequently a new envelope. If a journal costs
1.50 to produce and 25 postage, envelope expense, payment of postage due, plus
new postage, lack of consideration on the part of members can be quite costly.
.lmbers will be asked in the future to cover all additional costs, caused by their


Mow York Chapter Under the able leadership of J. F. Chudoba it met recently at
the Clinton Youth Center Y.M.C.A., 314 W. 54th St., F.Y. on the last Sunday of the
month. It was decided that A. Cohen should fill out the unexpired term of the
treasurer. Nominations and election of officers will be hOld at the end of the

The Washington Area Chapter It had a busy season to date. The July meeting was
held at the home of R. S'rlarevs'-i, and the host astounded all those present with
his immonso philatelic holdings, and his wife's cooking! On September 25th Eoyis
Shishvin provided his usual hospitality, stamps and refreshments. J.S. Terlec'iy
of Philadolphis visited, and joined the group. Considerablo stamp exchanging high
lighted the get together. The October meeting was scheduled for Ed Wolsli's

Our Hon. Member M. Liphschutz travelled this summer to Moscow, whore he showed his
outstanding collection of Russian philatelic material. The trip was most success
ful and it shall be written up, and published in the next issue of the journal.

C. P. Bula. was the star of the recent SOUTHWESTPEX in El Paso, Texas. He won
the Bill Taylor Iemorial Award, for the best exhibit from a member of the El Paso
Stamp Club, his collection was in the Court of Honor, and ho was given the Ist
Award for his Mexico XIX Contury postal stationery. How about showing your fine
Russian holdings next year Constantine'.

Kurt Adler won a Bronza EIedrl at "IPA, then proceeded to conduct opera on an
extended Eastern European tour. Our maestro, as usual, took along some Rossica
Journals, and philatelic rarities, Pnd armed with those he mot with various promi-
nenb philatelists, and visited major philatelic societies. He repcnts that our
colleagues over there '-enow of Rossica, appreciate our journals, and our research
in Russian philately.
No. 69 Page 3


Once again we are proud to announce another silver-medal, this time at WIFA
l 1S5 in Vienna. Since the journal cover was printed a short while ago, listing
our past awards for philatelic journalism, we havefaddod Molusina in Luxombourg,
Philateb Paris, and now oWIPA. Our deep thanks to the authors and to the editorial
staff for making these successes possible. Now, on to SIPEY in Washington, whore
our member George Turner is the head of the Sixth International Exhibition.

This journal will reach you at the end of the year and it is of greatest im-
portance that we stress several timely points. First of all, the dues for 1966
are to be sent on January 1st, regardless of when the member joined, unless he en-
tered a short time ago and specified that his membership ws to start with the co-
ming year. Those who have not paid their 165 dues will not receive any journals
after this issue, unless they settle their debt. Our sister society in England haf
raised its dues, and plans to raise dues again, because of the rising costs of prc
duction and postage. Unless our members cooperate, we too shall be forced to do
the same. All of our members are likewise urged to send in their zip code numbers;
r.s the new postal regulations demand that this data be included in future mailing.
Likewise please inform us of any change of address. Returned journals cause pos-ag
due foes, additional postage, and frequently a new envelope. If a journal costs
1.50 to produce and 25 postage, envelope expense, payment of postage due, plus
new postage, lack of consideration on the part of members can be quite costly.
.lmbers will be asked in the future to cover all additional costs, caused by their


Mow York Chapter Under the able leadership of J. F. Chudoba it met recently at
the Clinton Youth Center Y.M.C.A., 314 W. 54th St., F.Y. on the last Sunday of the
month. It was decided that A. Cohen should fill out the unexpired term of the
treasurer. Nominations and election of officers will be hOld at the end of the

The Washington Area Chapter It had a busy season to date. The July meeting was
held at the home of R. S'rlarevs'-i, and the host astounded all those present with
his immonso philatelic holdings, and his wife's cooking! On September 25th Eoyis
Shishvin provided his usual hospitality, stamps and refreshments. J.S. Terlec'iy
of Philadolphis visited, and joined the group. Considerablo stamp exchanging high
lighted the get together. The October meeting was scheduled for Ed Wolsli's

Our Hon. Member M. Liphschutz travelled this summer to Moscow, whore he showed his
outstanding collection of Russian philatelic material. The trip was most success
ful and it shall be written up, and published in the next issue of the journal.

C. P. Bula. was the star of the recent SOUTHWESTPEX in El Paso, Texas. He won
the Bill Taylor Iemorial Award, for the best exhibit from a member of the El Paso
Stamp Club, his collection was in the Court of Honor, and ho was given the Ist
Award for his Mexico XIX Contury postal stationery. How about showing your fine
Russian holdings next year Constantine'.

Kurt Adler won a Bronza EIedrl at "IPA, then proceeded to conduct opera on an
extended Eastern European tour. Our maestro, as usual, took along some Rossica
Journals, and philatelic rarities, Pnd armed with those he mot with various promi-
nenb philatelists, and visited major philatelic societies. He repcnts that our
colleagues over there '-enow of Rossica, appreciate our journals, and our research
in Russian philately.
No. 69 Page 3

Our British member, W.P. Fletcher of 4, Crook Log, Bexleyheath, Kent, U.K. writes
that he has some professionally produced photocopies of Chuchin's catalogue of
Russian Rural Postage Stamps (1925) which he will sell to our members at P6.00 each.

Our member Sam Robbins of 3563 Meier St., Los Angeles, California has some dupli-
cates in his library for sale. Billig Handbooks 28, 33 in German on the Imperial
and Soviet Forgeries at $1.50 each, Rossica (Jugoslavia) #/'14, 20, 22,'and 26 at
$2.50 each. Photocopy of BSRP #1 for $5.00. He also offers Xerox copy of Russian
American Philatelist for $7.00, a good used copy of 1924 Soviet Catalogue for $10.00,
and one of 1933 with the reproduction of the Scott B30-33 miniature sheet for $15.00.

6ne of our Moscow correspondents writes that in U.S.S.R. a national philatelic
Society (Vsesouznoe Obschestvo Filatelistov) is being organized, with its aim to
participate in FIP at all international philatelic exhibitions, publication of
philatelic literature, foreign exchange of stamps, and a monthly journal "Philately
of U.S.S.R."

SouthernOregon Philatelic Society's SOPEX 1965 presented a Rossica Certificate to
Walter Rohling, for the best exhibit in the field of Russian Philetoly, at the show.
Car Rossica Society is offering our beautiful certificate to all societies in United
States and abroad, to be presented to the best exhibitions in our field. This
certificate, which scored quite a big hit in Oregon, is a fine ambassador of ours
at philatelic gatherings, for it spreads the name and prestigeof Rossica and of
Russian philately.

(continued from page 69)

The Collectors Club Philatelist 22 E. 35th Street, New York, New York.

"Ulraine 1919 Polish Russian War" by our member Dere Palmer of Santiago,

Kollokcionars of Latvian Collectors A. Petrevics, 67 Borden Ave., Perry, N.Y.

An excellent journal in Latvian edited by our member.

Journal of Chinese Philately April 1965. P.I. Padget 30 Clarence Grove Rd.
Weston super Mare, Somerset, England.

Chinese Post Offices in Sinkiang, Tannu Tuva and Tibet by our member A. Cronin.

France U.R.S.S. Le Timbre Sovetique Philatelic by G. Citerne 8 rue de la
Vrillione, Paris.

The publication features excellent articles on Russian emissions, Zamstvos.
St. Petersburg town post envelopes, etc. The publication is in French.

Page 4 No. 69

by D. N. Minchev

Jubt recently we had the opportunity of 'coming across an interesting money
letter sont thru the Russian Fioldpost in 1878 to Russia from newly liberated
S Bulgaria. We found the letter in question in tho collection of a philatelist of
many years standing, Mr. Nikolalliov of the town of Veliko T'rnovo. In our opin-
ion, this lottor exhibits no small interest, particularly for specialists, and in
these few lines we shall attempt to describe it as accurately as possible,

In essonce, this is a cover measuring 145 x 82 mm., white on the outside and
of a strong cream shade inside. No postage stamps of any kind wore affixed to it
and it soivod for the transmission of money. The sender, a soldier in the
Bulgar ian Volunt.or Forces, had sent in. it the sum of throo rubles to one of his
close rolativbs living near the. city of'Yokaterinodar (now Krasnodar). The ad-
dress is concisely written in lilac ink end roads as follows: "To Yokatorinodar,
Kuban Province, to the stanitsa of Yolisavotovka, to the citizen Fyodor Potrovich
Chumak". Below that, there is further notation reading "Throo rubles sent by
Private 6f the BulgarianVoluntoor Forces Il'ya Chumak" (please see Fig. 1).
Again ;it lilac ink thore is a designation "324", apparently the number of the
latter, arid in black ink thoro is another number "345". *We also sec on the front
of the cover s6mo other notsa, jotting, etc'., written in blue pencil, being appar-
ontlygrstylized rato figures, otc. :

Towards'thb bottom right cornor of the cover thoir appears a marking of the
.issian. Foldpost, Typo No. 61 according.to Tchilinghirian and Stephen, reading
"FJOLEVOE POCHT. OTDELENIE .11.(1).11." with-spaco for the date in three -linos in
the contor,- but ronly the first two print, reading "30:'MAYA. This double-circlo
Sparking is pi..tho. known normal size of 26 mm.. On both 6idos of this marking,
thoro aro stirikos of a very clear one-circle cancel, again of the same size as
before and reading "1 GABROVSKOE..P. OT. 1 / GABROVSKO POSHTENSKO OTD." with the
S dato in throo lines in *th 'center given as "23 0KT. 1878". These last two mark-
ings, which by now belonged to the Russian civilian postal service, are explained
by the fact that the letter was not delivered, for one reason or another, to the
addressee in the Yokatorinodar area and they wore applied on the lQtter upon its
return to Bulgaria. kMroover, those two strikes from Gabrovo incline us to the
opinion that the Bulgarian volunteer, Iliya Chumak, and his unit wore stationed
their at Gabrovo or T'rnovo or sonowhore in the near vicinity. oW take the liber-
ty of directing attention to the fact that this fioldpost cancel of the llth sub-
office has not boon recorded previously.

The -biaok of the cover also has some very interesting features (ploaso see Fig.
2). There is a large and well preserved seal in rod wax in the middle, about 28
mm. wido aid with a very clear impression reading "POLEVOE POCHT. OTDELEIE
.Il.(l).l" around the edges. The Russian Imperial .EglI is depicted in the center
and at its foot we see the abbreviations "STR..KORR." standing for "Insured
Correspondonco", as far as wo can make out. This is the first time we have oncoun-
torod such seal used by the army postal service. It is readily apparent from its
application that it was used only for-sealing money letters and perhaps also on
parcel sondings-with doeiriad value. 7on this side of the cover there are four more
seals in rod wax, which--show somb"kind of family coat of arms enclosing ornamental
initials. Four other markings of a-.postal..naturo also appear"on this same side of
the covory two of them from bOdssa through which the lott6r passed. The first is
-dated "31 '(month illogible). .14878 and tho s'ccond "22 Sop. 187" ; The last two
strikes air from the post office at ;Yoaktorinodar and are dated Juno 7, 1G78 and
Soet, 16': I878- '- There is a Russian.notation in lilac ink reading "To T'rnovo, for
. onquiry,.ato' ihoro tho' condor is to be found". Another pencilled note in Russian
says "To T'rnovo". There are also some figures jotted down and a word written in
black ink in the flap, but as its covered by postmarks, it was not possible to
No. 69 Pago 5


EDIT 0 RIAL C 0 M ME N T: Mr. Minchev's article is most important on at
least two counts, in reporting the existence of yet another fioldpost sub-office,
namely No. 11, and also that insurance facilities were made available by the army
postal administration to members of the armed forces on active service, thus rof-
"looting well upon the throughnoss of its organization.

Some time after the receipt of Mr. Minchov's information, we received by coinci-
dence some details on the earlier operations of this same sub-office, in the form
of an interesting stamploss cover hold by Dr. Richard M. Stevens of Now York City.
In this second case, both sides of the cover again exhibit some important features.
Looking at the front (Fig. 3), we see that the country of destination, Russia, is
given in French, while the remainder of the address is written in Russian and roads
in five lines as follows: "Petersburg / Gatchina, the Palace / Her Excellency /
Sophia Sorgoovna / Ozerova".

The French indication for Russia is significant and points to the cover being
mailed on Rumanian soil, which is further supported by the application at top right
of the "BEZ'LAT." marking in rod, also attributed-to the Russian fioldpost service
in Rumania. This is the first cover to be formally recorded with this marking and
the color of its application. An examination of this cachet brings out some inter-
esting points. Firstly, it is not too clear as it appears to have been struck along
that section of the cover where the fold of the letter inside must have been. How-
ever, it is now possible for us to record the dimensions of this unusual rectangu-
lar marking with shaven corners, namely 39 x 13J mm. 'Also, there is a period after
the "T." of "BEZPLAT.", thus confirming what our Russian-speaking collectors have
realized all along, i.e. that "BEZPLAT," is an abbreviation for either "bozplat(noe
pis'mo)" or "bozplat (noo dole)", in other words "free letter", or "free matter".

Turning to the back of the cover (Fig. 4), we note firstly at extreme right an
incomplete strike of the same fieldpost sub-office as before, i.e. "POLEVOE POCHT.
OTDELENIE .11.(1).11." dated some time in September 1877, as we can just make out
the bare outline of "C" of "CEN ." (Sopt.). The next marking in transit roads "S.
PETERBURG III / 25 SEN. 1877 / 3 CHASA" at bottom loft. Next is the normal "S. PE-
TEZBURG / 1 EKSP." cancel of one day lator, then a part strike of the same date with
inscription at bottom reading "P.O. S.P.B. VARSHAV. ZH. D." and finally the arri-
val marking of GATCHINA, also dated 26 SEN. 1877.

Thus, we are able to confirm from the efforts of our two contributors the exist-
once of Fieldpost Sub-Office No.11 operating somewhere on Rumanian soil during Sep-
tember 1877 and then some 8 months later in Bulgaria in the Gabrovo-T'rnovo area.
We would like members to keep a'good look-out for further covers, especially with
"BEZ'LAT." abbreviation, so as to try to determine just exactly where itwas ap-
plied in Rumania.

"by Major Asdrubal Prado

Covers and Money Transfer Orders discussed here are mainly f 'the yo-ars between
1915 aid 1925. During this time Russia had the 1st World War, the change to com-
munism,'the Civil. War and the years of relative political stabilization. All this
is reflected on the postal material emanating from Russian towns on both sides-
Russian 'and Grman, revolutionaries and counter-revolutionaries, enthusiastic cdm- i-
munists and deluded emigres.

Page 6 No. 69

\s 't/ s-

"*-' r )- --- -- _'


-- 4: The BEZPLAT. cover.

N.Tristant "Tk Tmns- 5,1r(Qn H.Tr isoat: "The Trans S iberian
Postal Route' postal Role" B

if .3 TrhE M VST.r -0S
^ i Fi. ^
4 2: ..MINCHEV An unrecorded Ue N A -
tt sen hru he Rsbyn Fieldpo
R, .I FW. 3T4: Te RCBEZPLA.t covKELr E
u.rrisaont: "Ti1R TFSibirion H.Tristcnt: TheTrons S beonri--
Po-t- Route" Postal Route .. I

jg 2I .x Tjw. 182 1

UsPAf -4 EB18h 1)1

j fcy by
D R, A.H.WPRTMA N4 ( R,C.aeStctkC<6iL 86E ,<'

Before we begin tho description of the Postal Documents, for brevity the follow-
ing abbreviations are used in the article.

C circular P perforated I imporforato Sc Scott catalogue
a Mi Michel catalogue As Ascher catalogue (statinery) MO Money Transfer
Order Note unless otherwise stated all cancellations are in black

Postal Docum onts

# 1 A postal card used in Poland, sent to POSEN (POZNAN), with the follring

a-Colored card with Polish typos and printed in Poland.
b-Stamps one 1 kop. of Romanov Torcontonary issue.
ARMEE. 29.3. 1915.

NOTE: Germans had a Military Postal organization during the war and in the
early months of 1915 they did not have issued yet the special occupa-
tion stamps for Poland. Anyway it is hard to understand why the mili-
tary authorities accepted a Russian stamp to frank the card.

# 2 A cover sent from KARSUN, SIMBIRSK to Luzorn, Switzerland. The points:

a-Stamps All of Charity issue on colored paper: One 1 kop., P. 121 four
3 kop., P. 13- and one 7 kop. P. 11.
b-Postmarks C. of KARSUN, 30.3.1915. C. of Luzorrn 29,lV,1915.
c-Rogistration labels two, one on front wi h ..:i .hractors, KARSUN in
black with R in rod and register number filloi Lux `y -anid; the other on
back of the cover, frame and 3 in red and printed registor number, city
^ and province name in black.
d-Consor marks-- a wax seal closing the onvolopo with OPotrograd War Censor"
and "*" around the edge and an Imperial oaglo in the center. Handstamp
"D.Ts" (in Russian)' in violet.

Note: BSRP Journal #20 states that this censor originated in Moscow. No
dates give any clue and'wo do not know whether the letter-was examined

# 3 A cover sent from Shanghai, China to Luzern. The envelope of the "Banquo
Russo-Asiatique", Shanghai". The characteristics are -

a-Stamps Arms issue One 10 kop. with lozonges of varnish on face and XITAI.
b-Postmarks C. of "SHAGHAI POSTE RUTSE, a, 3.6.1915 tying the stamp to the
envelope, On the back "PETROGRAD 2.15. Aug. 1915" and "Luzern 3/1/1915"
in C mc.rkings.
c- Censor marking "D.:Ts9 inside of a 'irclo, in violet.

Note: This censor marking, according to BSRP Journal #20, belongs to
BA&NAUL. However, there remains tho'possibility of it being a.War
Censor marking from Moscows which is of the same shape and color.
The service adyway was not perfect. The cover has no indication of
examination. This is perhaps duo to the fact that tha destination
Swas Bola Sekula in Luzdor

# 4 A registered cover sent from MOSCCT to Cruz Alta, R.G.S. Brazil.. Thochara-
ctoristics are:

No. 69 Page 7

a-Postal stationery envelope of 5 kopi with diagonal 3 kop. in black,
(As ad).
b-Stamps Arms issue with lozengos of varnish, throe 1 kop. P., throoe 3
kop. ditto (one I.), Charity issue on colored paper one 1 kop. P. 13-2
and two 7 kop. P. 13f.
c-Postmarks C., MOSCOU, 24.4.1917. Tho next postmark outside Russia was
Seattle Terminal Station, JUN 10, 1917, Registry section in violet. The
oval Now York, N.Y., 6-20-1917, Registry (19) Foreign precedes the C. Cruz
Alta, 20 JUL 1917 on destination.
d-Rogistration label rectangular frame in rod as well Moscou in Latin
script and the R on the right side. Registration number printed in black.
e-Censor marking C. Moscou War Censor 36 in violet (see BSRP Journal #20,
#15). Boxed I (12xl5mm.) in violet aside. Largo wax seal with circular
"WAR CENSOR X POST 'X and in the center the Imperial eagle. This seal
was not reported in the BSRP #20 Journal.

# 5 A registered local cover posted at YENAKIEVO, Ekaterinoslav. Description

a-Stamps Arms issue with lozenges of varnish, one 3 rub. 50 kop. P. and
framed trident in black.
b-Postmarks C. of YENAKIEVO, 15.11.18, a. The same cancellation on back
of cover the next day.
c-Registration label Frame and 3 in rod. Number and city name in black.

Comment: A very lovely cover. Everything in the right place, neat cancel-
lation and so on. Ukraino Tridents! Hum! .....

# 6 Is a registered letter of APALIKA; Saratov province, sent to Moscou. It has
the following marks:

a-Stamps Arms issue with lozongos of varnish, two 20 kop. P. and Postal
Savings stamps, two 5 kop. used at,face.
b-Postmarks C. of APALIKA, Sar. 15.4.19,. C. of Moscou 19.VI.19..(VI in-
c-Rogistration label Apalika, frame and 3 in rod. Printed number and
city s name in black.

# 7 A MTO sent from BLAGOVESCHENSK, Amur to Istobonskoo, Vyatka. The amount of
500 rubles was mailed with:

a-Stamps Amur province issue, two 5 rub. in blue, I.
b-Postmarks C. of BLAGOVESCHENSK, 11.1.21, m. C. of Irkutsk, (arrival)
4.4.21, e; (departure) 5.4.21. C. of Istobonskoo, 2.6.21. C. blue of the
same agency on 26.6.21, a,
c-Rogistration label framed in black and no R or 3.
d-The word OPLACHENO framed in rod violet with 55xlOmm.

# 8 TO sent from BLAGOVESCHENSK to Byra, Amur. Amount of 25,294 Rub. 30 kop.
Particulars are:

a-Stamps Amur province issue, throe 2 rub. rod, four 5 rub. blue and sly-
teen 30 rub. violet.
b-Postmarks C. of BLAGOVESCHENSK, 6.12.20, a.
c-Tho word OPLACHENO framed in violet: 40xllmm.

# 9 -, o sent from the same city above t-o Mlkailovakoe, Amur. To pay an amount
of .3,965 rub. 73 kop.- thanilaS aros

Page 8 No. 69

S. ,
a-Stamps Amur province issue, four 5 rub blue and two 30 rub violet.
"b-Postimark. --C. -f'BLAGOVESCHENSK,'"17,;.21, .m, C. of Mikailovdtke, 20.1.21,
a agiin- C of BLLGOVESCHENSK, 23..21.2 c.
c-Rogistraticnelab6l--.identical 'to-tho ono on Doeumont'#7. '-"
d-tho word OPLACEid O unframed, in black-with 36x7mm '

Observation: It sees this MTO, after being paid up at Mikailovskoo was sent
back to tho city on departure. If this was a rule it was not
always observed- sonom .O did not rocoive tho cancellation of
:'tho city of origin 6r did not got back.

# 10 MTO sent frorZEYA to Ovsianka, Amur. Amount of 50,000 rubles. Tho points:

a-Stamps Amur province issuo, thirty six 30 rub. violet including two toto-
bocho pairs, ono l0kop./7kop. Arms issue.
b-Postmarks -.C. of ZEYA, 1.12a20, a, C. of Ovsianka, 9.12.20.*a*.

Noteo This one differs from the others because it has no registration label
nor the OPLCHENO handstamp.

# 11 MTO sent from KASHIRA to boscou. The amount of 2,090 rub. to be paid.
a-Stamps one 50 kop. P., 5 rub. I. all of the Arms issue with lozenges of
varnish, eight 5 rub. of Savings Bank issuo.
b-Postmark C. of KASHIR 9.4.19.
c-Rogistration mark handstampod Kashira framed in violet, filled by hand.

Comment: It is usual to find this material punched to annul the stamps,
however only one of the Ocove iTO's follows this procedure.

# 12 Card of 5 kop. (As 29, Postkarton) sopt from MOSCOU to Kiov. The piece
shows the following marks:

a-Stamps ono 100 rub. and one 250 rub. (thin paper) of the first Soviet
issue, one 100 rub. of'the 4th Anniversary of tho Russian Rovolution,
one 5 rub. and ono 25 rub. of the Control Stamps issue.
b-Postmarks small C. of MESCO, G.5.22.

Nota: According to the highly informative articio by Dr. Paul Kryninc in
the Russian American Philatelist #22, the 200 and 300 rub. wore re-
issued in 1922 at 10 timos face value. 100, 250 and oven 500 rub.
are not mentioned and it would bo.of interest to find out why those
stamps 'did not rocoivo the same treatment.

# 13 Registercd air cover sent from KIEV to Berlin with the following features;

a-Stamps :--on6 5 kop. and thirty four 10 kop. of the Arms issuo, P. with
": lozongos of garnish. .
S b-Postmarks -C. of IV, Contral Agony, '02.12.22, Russian "b. C.-of.
"" scon, 1-4.12.22 29 and C. of har'lottonburg, 8.12.22.
"c- Rgiitration labol famedd in'black with Latin letters, name in Tronoh.
S ::. : -.i feod :at loft. : '
a. -Air label --palo ro6s 'framed and 'with two lines, -in black, Envoyo par la
"postc dorionno. .
Observation: Dr. Krynino's article 'sttos that those stamps wore used at
1,000,000 times face value. This was quite a sum for a 10
grams air letter'.
No. 69 Pageo 9

# 14 Air cover, registered from Petrograd to LCONEN.

a-Stamps one 5 rub one 10 rub. and two 20 rub. Soldier, Worker and
Peasant issue (Scott Nose.240, 241 and 241A; Mi 217, 218 and 219).
b-Postmarks the small 0. 6f PETROGRAD, 17.9.23. c, large C. of Moscou,
N 20.9.23 9 and the rod registration marking 26 SP 23 of London.
c-Registration label purple, printing identical to the one on #13.

C 0 N C L U S I 0N: From the documents we described we can see that the Russian
Post Office worked fairly well despite the state troubles,
wars and political changes.. Some points however, remain un-
solved, at least regarding'the postal rules; for instance:
absence of registration label or handstamps. The return of
the MTO to the city of origin, and without punches to annul
the stamps. The rules governing the examination of letters
by War Censors and the problem of stamp reissues, All this
for other students with more material of the period to answer
and write up their conclusions.
oooooooooo00000000000 .oooooooooo

by Viktor Indra

At the beginning of February 1939, the daily.press and some philatelic magazines
of Czechoslovakia published news about the proposed issue of a stamp to commemorate
the opening of the 1st Carpatho-Ukrainian National Assembly in Chust .(Khust). The
.information was only of a general nature, since no one then know anything that was
specific. In the course of the next few days, the notices in the daily press and
philatelic magazines became more concrete, but the facts seemed to contradict them-

For instance, the Postal Section attached to the Ministry of Economics of the
Carpatho-Ukraine in Chust wrote on February 10, 1939 that this first stamp Gf the
CarpathZoUkraino would appear on March 21, on the occasion of the festive opening
of the First National Assembly, and that it would be of a value of 3 K., printed in
blue on yellow paper. In addition to the stamp, a souvenir shoot showing the sans
doesigh wold also be issued. The stamp was to be sold at face value, i.e. 3 K. and
the Pouvenir shoot for 6 K. The stamp was to be available at all post offices in
tho Cacpatho-Ukraino, butthe shoot only in Chust; the sheet would appear in a limi-
ted printing and a subscription service was also to be made available. The stanm and
the shoot wore to be valid until March 31,.1939. A commemorative cancel was to bo
applied in Chust on the opening day of the National Assembly.

A few days later, some more details about this stamp were made known. Judging
from the description of the stamp design, it was to portray the characteristic wooden
church at Jasina (Yasinya), which had previously boon featured on a 60 hal. Czech
stamp of 1928: Scott #145; Gibbons No. 281; Yvort #245; Michel #270; Zumstoin
#236 (sQe Fig. 1). In other words, the die for this 1928 stamp was to be modified
to show the now value, a Ukrainian inscription above the church design reading
"KARPATS'KA UKRAYINA" or "Carpatho-Ukraino", and at the bottom between the values,
"1. 80DA. 2.11.1939" or "First National Assembly, March 2, 1939". The day of issuo
was announced as "theo beginning of March". But just t'wo days later, one could read
in the philatelic magazines that it was finally decided to abandon the issuance of
the souvenir shoot. Tho stamp was to be sold in.Chust,'and Rachov (Rakhov), as well
as at the Philatelic Counter in Prague. However, the stamp was.to be utilized only
for franking mail which was handed in at Carpatho-Ukrainian post offices. Special
cancels were to be applied at Chust and Rachov.

Page 10 .No. 69

At the end of. February, it was annondced that the opening of the National
Assembly was to take place on March 2,: 1939. This date is also givohron the stamp.
It.was now decided to apply ipocial cancellation only in Chust.

Howovo., the stamp did not appear on March 2, and the opening of the National
Assembly was put off for an unspecified time. The opening date was advanced to
March 9, then lator to March 14 and thoro was also word of March 21. Finally, on
the 14th of that month, the Carpatho-Ukraine declared itself independent and the
"National Assombly,.was convoked for 3pm on March 15., 1939.

The Promior of theo Carpatho-Ukraina at that time, K. U. Voloshyn, handed over
Sto the Chust post office a handwritten decree, in which he ordered the sale of the
commemorative. stamp to tako placo. On March 15 at around 10:30 am,_ the post office
telegraphed Prague to the offoct that the latter should also now put the stamps on

The total printing for this stamp was 900,000 copies, of which 200,000 (2000
shoots) wore sent to Chust on March 1, and a further'100,000 (1000 shoots) a few
days later. The 600,000 copies remaining wont on sale at the Philatelic Section
in Prague on March 15 as instructed and wore sold out in about 10 days.

Returning to the position in Chust on March 15, the faco value of the stamp,
3 K., was sufficient to send covers by registered mail and by the end of that morning
about 10CO registoroe articles had boon handed in. Some of those received, in ad-
dition to the registration abol, received a Ukrainian single-line marking in rod,
reading "Porucheno" or "Rogistorod" (see Fig. 4). The registered mail could not be
do-patchod since the only possible route to the west, the Chust-Prosov highway, was
no longer functioning. However, it appears that at least one cspatch of ordinary
mail cot throughby bus to Prosov in Slovakia befcro the highway'was cut, since 'r.
S Lauson H. Stono, of Brooklyn, N.Y. has such a cover franked with the commomorative
stamp properly cancelled and authenticated by a noted Ukrainian export of the ti-r,
E. Vyrovyj of Prague. The cover was addressed by ordinary mail to Slovonsko Raslavi-
co in Slovakia on March 15 and it has a backstamp applied at the destination two
days later at S am on March 17, 1939. Such examples must undoubtedly be of consider-
able rarity.

On March 16, 1939 at 6 pm, Chust was occupied by the Hungarian military, and
the first mail roloased by them was sent from Chust to Borohovo on .arch 18. This
dispatch also included all the registered sondings which had boon handed in on March
15. All the mail was then sent to Budapest and forwarded from there to the addros-
sees. Lottori for occupied:Bohemia and Moravia began arriving.on March '20 or 21, i.o.
5 or 6 days after they'had boon mailed in Chust

The unsold remainders of the stamps in Chust, as well as the cash takings, wore
takon over by the Hungarian authorities against a confirmatory receipt.

(1) A pictorial type with a diameotr of 33mm., showing the arms of Carpatho-Ukraino,
the namo "Chust" at top in Ukrainian and Czech, and at the bottom the Ukrainian
inscription "VIDKRITTYA PERSHOHO SOIWT" meaning "Opening of the First National
Assembly" (Fig2). It boars the fisxh dato 2.111.39-10 with subscript "a" and
Swas not officially applied as the stamp did not go on sale until 13 days later.
The 3 K. commemorative has however boon seen with this cancellation applied Ir
rod, apparently by favor after the Hungarians had occupied.the town.

S (2 & 3). Two nonnIpictorial typos, lacking the arms and with a d4amotor this time of
". 3l-imm., with-tho r.ame 'inscription and fixod date as before, but now with sub-
scripts 'a" or "b" below the date bridge. Here again, they are both known.
.applied by favor in rod on the commomorativo stamp as shown un tbo card in

No. 69 Page 11

fig. 3, hold by Mr. Stone. Ho also has the "b" stamp cancelling a Czech. 10
Kcs. dofonitivo affixed to a shoot of paper. Neither of these two cancels was
over applied officially by the Ukrainian postal authorities, and usages noted
here, including the additional impression in blue and yellow of an earlier spe-
cial marking to commemorate the 20th Lnnivursary of the Central Ukrainian Nation-
al Council on January 21, 1939, as shown on tho.card in fig..3, appear to have W
taken place for philatelic reasons during the confusion after March 15.

(4). Exactly as typos 2 and 3, but without the subscriptlettors "a" or "b" and with
changeable date rollers. Again with a diameter 3limm., this was the only offi-
cial cancel and it was applied in rod, reading 15.111.39-15 (i.e. March 15,
1939, 3pm.). This special cancel, pictured in Fig. 5, was apparently lost in the
occupation of Chust and hence not turned over to the Hungarian authorities.

Apart from this official cancellation, the normal bilingual Czech-Ukrainian
double-circle dates stamps for this office, reading CHUST at top and XYST at
bottom together with a subscript letter below the datobridge, continued in use.
Those latter markings wore struck in black on normal commercial mail, while the
commemorative cancel in red was applied at the special counter for philatelic
mail, or upon request. For this reason, gonuinly delivered registered letters,
franked with the commemorative stamp and cancelled with the normal bilingual
typos in black are much rarer than those treated with the special cancel. By the
samo token, normal Czech stamps bearing the official red cancel are also very
desirable items.

Because of the rarity of the commemorative stamp in used condition, forged
cancellations wore inevitable. Soon afterwards, the Czech philatelic magazine
"Tribuna Filatolistou" warned that someone in Chust had prepared a forgery of
the special cancel,.made of rubber, in contrast to the genuine marking which was
a steel type. This forgery is illustrated under Fig. 6 by courtesy of Mr.
Yaroslav S. Torlocky, a Ukrainian specialist of Philadelphia, Pa.

Its main characteristics .are as follows:

(a). The diameter is 32m= as against 31-mm in the genuine typo.
(b). The "X' of "XYCT" is. wider at top than in the genuine marking as
shown in Fig. 5.
(c). The asterisks are larger than in the genuine marking.
(d). The sorifs to the top of the "1" of the figure "15" are much longer
than in the genuine cancel, and the date figures, in general, are
larger than in the genuine.

A second forgery has been noted on a cover held by Mr. Paul M. Stoelo of
Wostorvillo, Ohio, and purports to have been sent under registration No. 606
from CHUST to a Mr. Frantisek Horniok, House No. 127 in the village of Irshava,
Carpatho-Ukraino. It.is. shown in Fig. 7 and its features are as follows:

(a). The diameter is 32mm as against 31- in the genuine type.
(b). In the last word "SOIMU" at bottom, the accent "v" is up against the
inner circle instead of sitting directly upon the "I/I" (English "N"
(c). The asterisks are smaller than in the genuine cancel.
(d). The last letter in this same word as given-as the Latin letter "Y",
instead of the Cyrillic "y", an. elementary mistake implying that the
forger was no.thor Ukrainian nor Russian.
(0) The bottom sogmjs-n of the inner circle, formed by the.lower horizontal
bar of the datobridge, is noticeably larger than the -uppersegment.
In other vrTh, Th ?htrciE rg I ut cn'orectly.placed-. Moreover,

Page 12 :: N.o. 69


".&-S. .. ._:'

i 2.- -- -----

rlopyteH fl Kj CJIABA .J, \
\F-. 4. / ,7 ,o-
YVAI \21 I. ,1 13.2'/Bg I

Genuine i
C ance I. -

3 ,1 orerj o -
lu Czech

i15.111e3-15 Luson Stone


S.. F.. R.PO.No-672
The "ChusTt The Latin". KoAe YKPAHA
f^oe^r-Ymroslcv f9e -.Pj L P ProstIjo I
S. Terlcky M. Stele Mrch2.
Collection. Collection. 12t9-i Mach29. n|
KORKA n./Mor.
u o
Tch' AA-

I an


SFig.c 19. j

the lower horizontal-bar points ttwards thq center of the letter "" of
"SOIMU", while in the genuine cancol it points towards the loft arm of
the ".".

It might be pointed out parenthetically, here that although Mr. Stoolo's re-
gistered cover is also not backstampod on arrival at IRSHAVA, this alone would
have been enough to cast suspicion on it, since at that time the Czech postal
system did not sometimes backstamp registered mail.

In the Lauson H. Stone collection, there-is. an unregistered cover locally
"addressed to Chust arid bearing what appears .to be a forgery of the Czech bilin-
gual "ff type, dated "15.III.39-16" and struck in gray-black on the commemora-
tive stamp (soo Fig. 8 for illustration). The subscript letter "f" has not as
yet been seen by us applied during the Czech administration in Chust and it may
therefore be a completely bogus cancel, rather than an imitation of an already
existing type. Further comments would be appreciated.

Various first day covers and, collecting sheets featuring the commemorative
stamp or the famous wooden church in Jasina (Yasinya), together with supporting
texts in Ukrainian, wore privately prepared in Chust for use on March 15, 1939.
The commonest type of first day cover soon-shows a modified and magnified ver-
sion of the stamp design at the left, printed in blue. The same printer was
apparently the producer of largo collecting shoot containing a reproduction of
the stamp in blue and yellow, below which the actual stamp was affixed and can-
celled. Both the F.D.C. and collecting,sheet have.a blacked-out one-line ins-
cription, interesting from tho.linguistic point of view and reading "VITVORETINY
SOIMJ KARPATStKOYI UKRAYINI" or "Opening of the National Assembly of the
Carpatho-Ukraino". This was replaced by a modified three-line text bolow, read-
"of the First National Assembly of the Carpatho-Ukraine, Khust 1939", the second
variant for the word "opening" being considered more correct. Another type of
FDC, soon in smaller format,. features an illustration at top left of the wooden
church in Jasina, printed in blue together with a Ukrainian text reading
the First National Assembly of the Carpatho-Ukraine, Khust 1939".

The post office at Chust had available official cards moasurinF l2xScm.
with yellow and blue bars of color at top and bottom, the Ukrainian trident at
left and below that the slogan "SLAVA UKRAYINI." ("Glory to the Ukrainol"), both
printed in blue: see Fig. 3. The commemorative was affixed to these cards and
received the special cancel in rod. Normally, these cards were not addressed
or sent through the mails, but Nr..Stone has an interesting example sent by re-
gistered post to a local address under No. 1804 and also backstampod with red
official cancel on the same date (IMach 15).

The commemorative was printed in Prague at+ the State Printing Office by the
Stickney rotary press, in sheets of 100 stamps. To accomodate-100. stamps in
printing with this machine, an unusual shedt make-up was necessary for a do-
sign of this format, which was also the case for similar Czech stamps. The
shet.had 1'6 horizontal rows, with the first and last rows having only one stamp
at far loft together with six empty spaces in the size of the stamps. The other
14 rows had 7 stamps each. Tho last empty space at bottom right bore the plato
number, either "I" or "I A". -The stsm:p- have a streaky gum and are line-perfo-
rated 124. The left and rijht vertical sheet margins also have the perforaticns
extending towards the od1s.

Theso stamps wore o:.y available in Chu0st and Frague, as stated previously.
The stamps which wore subscribed and paid for at Chust were not delivered, and

No. 69 Page 13

the money was later returned from Prague. According to regulations, the stamps
were only supposed to be applied to sending mailed in the Carpatho-Ukraine. How-
ever this was not practicable, and as the stamps wore on sale at Prague for
about 10 days, they were also used in occupied Bohemia and Moravia for franking
mail (see Figs. 9 and 10). The postal service had no objection and tolerated
such usages. Today, such frankings on covers and cards cancelled in Bohemia and
M oravia have now become quite scarce.

A few years ago, I found in a kiloware sample one of the commemorative
stamps, which had unfortunately been cut off a cover and showed portion of a
Prague cancel reading 15... probablyy March 15, 1939). However, this cancel does
not touch the stamp but only the margin at far right. It appears that the
letter was mailed in Prague and addressed.to the Sudetenland, then under Nazi
occupation. Prague apparently had its doubts about the validity-of the stamp,
but it was cancelled in transit with a typical oval German R.P.O. marking
the train No. 2186 (see Fig. 11). It is great pity that such an interesting
cover was destroyed!

In addition, I acquired a few years ago a cut-out from a cover, showing the
commemorative cancelled in black with a provisional Hungarian rubber stamp,
reading "MAIGYAR KIR. POSTA" (Hungarian Royal Post) at top, the figure "102" at
bottom and the Hungarian arms in the center. This marking was used at Chust in
the early days of the occupation and the application noted here is either a case
of a favor cancel, or it may have come from a letter found in a letter-box and
cancelled by the postal service after the Hungarians arrived. (1t. Intra's
first supposition appears to be correct one, as Mr. Stone has the commemorative
affixed to a blank sheet of paper and cncellod with the same type of marking
in black, but now reading "103" at bottom: see Fig. 12.. This number is also
known to have boon applied by the Hungarian postal service at Chust).

Finally, it would be fitting to give details of the bogus souvenir sheet of
the Carpatho-Ukraine. The political confusion and uncertainty at the time was
taken advantage of by an enterprising young man, a certain J K. of Dolany, near
Olomouc in Moravia. From the cliches he had ordered, he had blocks produced in
a printer at' Olomouc (see Fig. 13). The printing sheet was composed of six
impressions, in two rows of three designs, the rows being tete-beche, but each
impression was separated before sale. In the upper half of the souvenir sheet,
there is poor typographic representation of the 3 K. stamp, as opposed to the
engraved process which was employed for the genuine stamp. In the center, there
is a typographed two-line inscription in Ukrainian, reading "OTVORWIT-YA 1.
SOI1U KARPATS'KOI UKRAYINI/2.II.1939 ("Opening of the 1st National Assembly
of the Carpatho-Ukraine, March 2, 1939"), demonstrating another version for the
word "opening", while the Cyrillic inscription shows one spelling mistake and
some of the letters are not well formed. In the bottom half of the sheet, the
arms of the Carpatho-Ukraine are typographed in natural colors; the left side
consists of four blue and three alternate yellow bars placed horizontally, while
the right side shows a bear in red. The stamp and the inscription are in blue
and the sheet is printed on yellowish paper, which was cut to measure 97 L'. i
prior to sale and then crudely piummed by hand. M. J.K. barely sold 200 she's,
at 20Kcs a copy, when the police wore already on.his trail. Upon searching his
home, they confiscated all the completed sheets and the same fate befell the
unfinished specimens at the printer. There were 1000 sheets prepared altogether
of which, asstated above, only 200 got out, together with a few ungummod oxampl
in various formats. After the trial, the confiscated souvenir sheets were
destroyed and the surviving examples are now much sought after by specialists,
and collectors of bogus material.

Page 14 No. 69

ED I T 0 R I A C O ME T.: Mr. :Ipdra is a keen cover collector and postal
historian of many years standing in Czechoslovakia, with especial emphasis on un-
usual countries such as Carpatho-Ukraino. We believe that by'incorporating details
of material hold in the U.S. by Messrs. Paul M. Steele. of Westerville, 'Ohic, Lauson
H. Stone of Brooklyn, N.Y. and taroslav S. Teflecky of Philadelphia, Pa., we have
given our members the best possible coverage of this fasdinating subject and we
invite comments from our Ukrainian, Czechoslovak and Hungarian readers. We also
like to announce that comprehensive articles are being prepared on the 1944-45
issues of the Carpatho-Ukraine, as well .as on interesting aspects of the country's
varied postal history.

Finally, we would like to thank Dr. Wn. Reinor-Deutsch for advising us of Mr.
Steele's unusual cover and notifying us of a short article on the 1939 stamp,
published some years back in "The Czechoslovak Specialist". Our grateful thanks
also go to Messrs. Steel, Stono and Torleky for allowing us to feature these items
from their collections.

by Henri Tristant

Forew ord

In December 1963, in reply to a question posed previously in the French postal
history journal "Les Feuilles Marcophiles", in the issue No.10/155 for July 31,
1963, I published a short article entitled "A research subject of international
interest: the mail transmission route from the Far East".

In.this.modest note, which appeared in the issue No..15' of "Les Feuillos
Marcophiles" for December 31, 1963, I drew the attention of our;colleagues to the
correspondence origination from Far Eastorn mails and forwarded by the Trans-Siberian
route, referring to several unrecorded markings found applied thereon. I had also
tried to specify the limits, for the period prior to W.W.I. of the geographic zone
served by this route, which extenfcr.c down to Tonkin and oven to the northern part of
Annam, through the port of Haiphcng in Indo-China.

In conclusion, I said that our "study" was still in its first stages and con-
fessed quite readily that my personal knowledge of the matter was rudimentary. I
appealed to all our readers to develop the subject further. This appeal has not
been in vain, since a greater number than I had expected have done me the favor
of recording the pieces in their possession. all interesting and some hitherto un-
known. They will be described in this present survey.

F. Raymond Sallos has had the great kindnCess. to nform me that he himself would
furnish details -of the transmission of mail of the French Expeditionary Corps in
China,: with the relevant markings and cachets which.are of interest to us. Nothing
would suit -us better than for him to cover such a subject.

Several members of our French society.for,postal history and of the Franco-
British Philatelic Society ave informed me of an'article by W. Raife ebllstaed,
published in the journal of the Postal History Society in England, giving a very
detailed study of the initial-period of the Trens-Siberian postal route. *I would
also like to adc that;among my correspondents, Messrs. A. Cronin of New York, DJ..
Ninchev of Sofia 'and J.P. Vissor of Drachton (Holland) have been kind enough to pass
on the information at their disposal.

All this encouragement, which confirmed, if that were really necessary, the

No. 69 Page 15

extent of the circulation of "Les Feuilles Marcophiles" and the care with which the
information published therein has been read, has prompted me to come back to this
question, in the light of new documents which I have been able to examine, thanks
to the kindness of our colleagues.- In addition, I myself have had the good fortune
to find some new items, and also various notes which I have taken from publications
of the period under consideration.

The lines that will follow are intended to answer some of the questions raised
in my original article and also to cover a new period, namely the era after W.W.I.,
when the 'Tans-Siberian route resumed its postal activity after a lapse of several


The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad was:decided upon at the begin-
ning of 1l91 by the Imperial Russian Government, The intentions was to consolidate
the unity of this immense empire, stretching from the Baltic to the Sa aof Japan,
and to promote the economic development of Siberia. A direct link would thus be
established between Moscow and Vladivostok, the name for the latter city meaning
"Domination of the East", from the beginning these gradiose projects came up against
the aspirations of the Empire of Japan, whose sights were fixed on certain areas
already occupied or coveted by Russia. It was obvious that some trouble would arise
in carrying out these Russian projects of expansion.

The work started almost simultaneously at both ends of the line, namely at Che-
lyabinsk, on the boundary of Russia-in-Europe, and already linked with Moscow, while
the other end was at Vladivostok. The meeting point of the two sections was to be
in the vicinity of Lako Baikal. The western portion, began in 1091, reached Omsk
in 1895, and Irkutsk, close by Lake Baikal, in 1:98, while the eastern branch, cros-
sing the Chinese province of Manchuria via Kharbin, reached Chita in 1897, to arrive
at the eastern bank of Lake Baikal in 1902. The transfer of passengers and mail
from one bank to the other was made by steamers during the season when the lake was
not glutted with ice floes.

After the occupation by the Russian Fleet at the end of 1C97 of Port Arthur, an
important strategic position at the tip of the Liaotung Peninsula, in the province
of Kwangtung, a branch line across Manchuria, linking this city with Mukden, on the
line from Tientsin to Kharbin, was constructed by the Chinese Eastern Railroad Co.
with the consent of Russia.

Shapter One

In this first chapter, we will study in detail the different periods of the
postal usage of the Trans-Siberian route, drawing upon the French and international
sources consulted, and will cover briefly the reasons behind the total or partial
suspension of traffic which separate them. Moreover, there will be special mention
of the dates when rates wcre changed for mail exchanged between France and the Frencd:
Offices in China or Indo-China, in cases whore mail was'forwarded by this route.

I. Preliminary Period: End of 1902 to September 30. 1903

At the end of 1902, the Trans-Siberian Railroad became the normal route for fo-.
warding mail exchanged between Russia-in-Europe and Lanchuria, as well as with Cli;n..
province of Sinkiang in the interior, where Russian post offices had been establis'.-
ed. It was then that the Russian Government made contact with the Western Power:vE
to whom International Concessions had been granted by China in the Treaty of Peking
in 1G60, and in particular with Great Britain, France and Germany, for the utili-
zation of the Trans-Siberian postal route.

Page 16 1.o. 69

Those Powers maintained contingents of troops and naval forces to ensure the
protection of numerous commercial enterprises installed in the Concessions of the
Chinese coast and along the great communications routes, such as the Yangste Kiang,
as well as at Poking itself. Moreover, their postal administrations had opened
offices which oxchangod a largo volume of mail with their mother-countries that, till
now, had boon forvardcd by sea.

It appears that, in 1902, there were some isolated cases of letters mailed at
certain French offices in North China, which had taken advantage of this new and
quick way of forwarding mail during the first few months the Trans-Siberian Railraod
was open to traffic, apparently by passin- in transit through the Russian post office.
At least, that is what may be assumed from the cover described in No. 155 of "Los
Feuillos Marcophilcs" for July 31, 1963, and which left the French P.O. at Tientsin
in 1902 for Germany, bor-ing a Russian single-lino cachet struck in violet (see Fig.
1), reading "CHREZ SIPIR'", which translates to "Via Siberia", as pointed out by
Mr. D.N. Minchev to our French readers.

But the generosity of Russia was of short duration. Indeed, soon afterwards,
this country claimed the following scale of fees for forwarding the mail:

(a). 15 francs/kilogram for letters (equivalent at that time to 3.00 U.S., or
12/6 sterling per 24 lbs.).
(b). 3 francs/kilogram for other articles (6C0 U.S., or2/6 sterling per 2
Ibs.), excluding postcards which were unacceptable.

These rates seemed prohibitive and rose.tcd in refusal on the part of the
European Powers as well as Japan, who were, however, still very interested in the

From that timo onwards, Russian post offices which had boon established in China
"in the Concessions, together with the offices of Western Powers, forwarded commer-
cial mail of ll1 origins from the beginning of 1903 exclusevoly for the purpose of
taking advantag- of the Siberian route for Europe. By this route, for example, a
letter from Peking reached Enland in 26 days, as against 41 days taken by the routes
utilized previously, while a letter from Shanghai arrived to London 2; days later,
instead of a minimum of 35 days.

An item from this new mail service has eoon cited by Dr. Camboulivos of Franco.
It is in the form of postcard, franked with stamps of the Russian Offices in China
and addressed to Lyon, France, having boon mailid on iay 6, 1903 from the Russian
post office in Shanghai. This card boars a single-line cachet in French, struck in
violet and reading "VIA SIBERIE" (Fig. 2), which appears to be the earliest known
usage of a marking in the French language recorded so far.

There have oven been accidental cases, where mail franked with stamps issued
by Western countries for their offices in China wont through the Russian'P.O. at
Shanghai, as referred to in a study of two items by W. PRife Wellstod in the Bullet-
in of the Postal History Society in England, No. 117, Jan. Fob. 1962. The first
piece is a registered letter, described and reproduced in the book by Colonel F.H.
Webb, entitled "Hong Kong and the Treaty Ports of China and Japan", London 1961;
the cover is franlod with Hong Kong stamps, cancelled by the Russian P.O. in
Shanghai on July 3, 1903; it is addressed to Torni in Italy and the arrival post-
mark seems to be dlted August 7. The printed designation "Poskarte Postcard" had
been crossed out with ink.

II. The First Period of International Transmission

Under the pressure of merchants established in China, who had maintained

No. 69 Pae 17

connections by mail with Europe, the first countries to accept the rates imposed,
by Russia wore Germany and France, but not without reservations. They wore followed
by Great Britain, which had ho choice but to fall into line, and also by Jata.n,
whose mail for Europe had till then boen-forwarded either via Suez,'or North Anerica
via San Francisco, Seattle or Vancouver and then onwards by Now York. The obhor.
postal administrations took identical steps.

In the French "Bulletin Mensuel des Postes" for October 1903, the official
opening of the Trans-Siberian postal route was announced in the following terms:

CcO.r-, c7ONDENCE".
T-o Trans-Siborian route for transmission of mails was opened. on October 1,
1903t. It is now the normal route for the transmission of ordinary and registered
mail addressed to Japan, Korea and North China, as far down as and including
Snarnhai and Hankow.

Mail for the -southern provinces of China will also be forwarded by the Tran..-
Sib-'jin route if they boar a notation indicating that forwarding by this route is

Mail with value declared, as well as parcels destined for any point in the Far
East, will continue to go by way of Suez until further notice.

Postal sending, intended to go by way of the Trans-Siberian route, will be
sent. from Paris daily at 8:05 pm by mail train No. 125 as far as Tergnier, and from
there by Train No. 127.

A mail train will leave daily from Moscow at 4:40 pm, arriving on the 17th day
following, at the terminals of the Trans-Siberian Line (Vladivostok, Port Artur,
Inkow). The total time for the journey from Paris is 20 days. A daily departure w
will also take place in the opposite direction.

The sending will be transported beyond Dalny, Port Arthur and Vladivostok by
mail steamers controlled by the Chinese Eastern R.R. Co., leaving on the following

(a). From Dalny and Port Arthur for Chofoo (on the south coast of the Gulf of
To-Chi-Li); every Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Sunday. Travel time:
18 hours.
(b). From Dalny and Port Arthur for Shanghai (direct service): every Wednesday.
Travel time: two days.
(c). From Dalny and Port Arthur for Nagaseki (direct service): every Wednesday.
Travel time: two days.
(4).. From Dalny and Port Artur for Shanghai, via Chomulpo, Korea: every 16
days. Travel time: Dalny to Chomulpo, two days; Chemulpo to Shanghai,
two days.
(e). From Vladivostok to Shanghai via Gonsan and Fusan in Korea, and Nagasaki:
every 23-24/ days. Travel time: Vladivostok-Nagasaki, 5 days; Nagasaki-
Shanghai, 3 days.

If available, the mail steamers of the Russian Volunteer Fleet will also be urJd
for the transport of mail on the following routes:

(a). Port Arthur to Nagasaki: one voyage per month. Travel time: two days.
(b). Port Arthur to Shanghai: one voyage por month. Travel time: two days.
(c). Vladivostok to Nagasaki: two voyages per month, at irregular intervals.
Travel time, four days.

Page 18 No. 69

(d). Vladivostock to Shanghai: one voyage per month: Travel time, six days.

Finally, postal communications between Tientsin and Pekingwill be served by the
North China Railroad with a nail train which will run four times wookly in both di-
S roctions between Nowchang and Peking. "

During the same period, the British G.P.O. published on November 3, 1903, a cir-
cular under io. 14, reproduced in the article by Mr. W. Raife Wellstod, with the
following text:


The Siberian route is now available for the transmission of letters and postcards
from this country to the Far East; but not for any other classes of correspondence
or for parcels.

Letters and poscards intended for transmission by this route should be specially
superscribed "via Siberia" or "via Russia"; and the postage must be fully prepaid.
Any letters and postcards in regard to which these conditions are not observed will
be sent by the ordinary routes follo-'wd in other cases.

Letters addressed to H.E. Shi s on the China Station, to the Colony of Hong
Kong, or to Chofoo, Wei-hai-'ei, Shanghai, Amoy, Canton, Foochow, Hankow, Hoi How,
Ningpo and Swatow, at all of which places there are British Post Offices, can pass
at the rate of ld. port- oz. To other places in China (including Lanchuria) and
also to Japan, Corea and the Philippine Islands the rate for the letters is 2-d.
per oz.

The rate for postcards is in all cases 1I. each.

Mails containing correspondence complyinr- with the above mentioned conditions
will henceforth be despatched from London to Moscow every evening, Sunday excepted.
Fron bscow there is a dAily service to Dalny or Vladivostok, whence the mails are
sent on by Russian steamers as opportunities offer.

The time occupied in transit varies according to circumstances from 22 to 3C
By Command of the Postmaster General.

General Post Office,
3rd November, 1903."

In the notice quoted above, the term "via Siberia" has a circumflex accent over
the "a" of "Via", which will be encountered again on certain cachets applied on mail
odparting from Tientsin and Shanghai. This is a Latin convention to oexress the
merninr of "by way of", as opposed to "vie", without circumflex accent, standing
for "road".

These two official notices are so explicit that comment is practically super-
fluous. However, it should be remembered, that the mail, limited in its nature,
c e.T- only travel in sealed dispatches made up in the mail-exchange offices of their
cetrijcs of origin, and that.while the Trans-Siberian trains ran on a daily schedule
co:r.-. :onlence by sea for various destinations in the Far East did not leave more
often than once weekly.

In comparing the French and English toxts, the following conclusi-ns' may be
arrived at: The English text specifies the postal rates applicable for various dos-
tinations, while the French text makes no mention at all of such rates. This

No. 69 Page 19

question of:the French rates will be touched on later in this study.

However, by contrast, the French text is much more explicit about the trans-
mission routes and travel times. This allows us to compare bo-.toi thele pcr'icds
of transit with those required for s-ufa8e mail (i.e. by see), which fr o e 7 ,.1:le, _
were of the following duration from 190L2 onwards between Marsxilles and th- pa
Far Eastern ports served by the mail ships of the "Compagnie des Messag;r.i -., .r-..
time s":

Hong Kong 29 days. Saigon 25 days. Shanghai 33 days. Yokohama 40 days.

It should be added that the travel time between Peking and Shanghai was around
7 days.

The first mail left London on September 28, 1903, to join the first French dcs-
patch, which, as we have seen, left on October 1, 1903. From this time onwards, a
joint despatch of French and English mails was scheduled to leave nightly from
Paris, destined for Moscow and the Far East.

This arrangement was followed until the beginning of 1904, when the service was
temporarily suspended, as per the following announcement published in the "Bullotin
Abnsuel dos Postos", No. 2 for February, 1904:


By reason of the political events now taking place in the Far East, the trans-
mission of mails excr....god with China, Korea and Japan, which had been carried on
since October 1, l14C3; by means of the Trans-Siberian Railroad has been temporarily
suspended by the Russian Postal Administration.

Originally limited to the services to Korea and Japan, this suspension of ser-
vice has been extended to mail directed to China, according to a notification from
the International Bureau at Borne, dated February 15, 1904.

The mails for the Far East, which had been taking advantage of the Russian
service, are now being forwarded under the same conditions that applied before the
Trans-Siberian Railroad was open for transmitting international mails. However,
mails for Manchuria and the Chinese towns of Kuldja, Chuguchak, Urumtsi and Urga
are still to be delivered to the Russian postal service.

The services from Marseilles by French mail ships, from Brindisi by English mail
ships and from Naples by Geroman mail ships have again become the normal routes for
the transmission of mails destined for China, Korea and Japan.

Despatches from Paris

Every second Saturday evening, starting from March 15 via Marsoilles.
Every second Saturday morning, starting from March 12 via Brindisi.
Every second Tuesday evening, starting from hMrch 1 via Naples.

For Japan and China only, forwarding of mails via Canada or the United States
is possible. Onward transmission is as follows:

(a). Leave Vancouver about every threo weeks.
"(b). Leave San Francisco four time por month.
(c). Leave Tacoma three times p'.r month.
(d). Leave Seattle twice monthly.",

Page 20 No. 69

EDITORIAL COMENT. Monsiour Tristant is one of the.leading postal historians in
France and we are proud to present to our readers this absorb
ing study from his erudite pen. More highly interesting infor-
nation on postal arrangements and agreements is coming up,
After which Monsieur Tristant will present a concise listing of
the various cachots applied, classified according to their
office of origin, thus helping our members to check their hold-
ings and advise their new finds in this interesting field.
(to be continued)

By Dr. A. H. Wortman

VILEA PAR. (Fig. 1) is a postmark which has puzzled collectors for a long time.
It is not very common. I have a letter from which the illustration was drawn, and
Eric Pool in England has one. In the U.S.A. Kurt Adler and Andy Cronin each have
one and the late Dr. Leo Snegireff also had one. I discussed this mark with Loo
on many occasions and recently with Andy and we decided that "PAR" could not be an
abbreviation for "PAROKHOD". The River Viliye which flows through Vilna is too
small a river for steamers carrying mail and it is frozen during the winter. As in
the illustration, the postmark exists with winter dates (note that GETVLRYA was
the old form of YANVARYA).

I have the rectangular mark (Fig. 2) reading VIUNO on a 10 kop. stationery co-
ver. The date looks like 1154, but the last figure is indistinct. In any case it
is not in o150Os. The VILNO cover is addressed to Warsaw and is of course, pre-
paid by the 10 kop. impressed stamp, while the VITiA FAR. letter is also prepaid
and is addressed to Bordeaux. It boars a framed AUS RUSSLAND FRANCO mark and the
only difference between the two items is that this letter was handed in at the post
office and paid for at the time in cash.


Frigara gives the terminals of Pouto No. 187 8 as NOVONIKOJLAVSK -
KRA'OPARSK,-but a recent acquisition makes it necessary to amend this to OB -
KIC.OIOYARSK until some time botwoon 1908 and 1912 when the Western Terminal became
I'VCVTIKOLAEVSK. The Official Guide to the Great Siberian Railway, St. .Potrsburg
1920, says that OB is a 3rd Class Station, that it is situated on the lofty and
piF-crosquc right bank of the River Ob and givos an illustration showing a modium-
sizcd building compared with other stations of the line and with quite d crowd of
rassengors on the platform. There is the following reference to NOVC1IKOLIEVSK.

"With a view to regulate the pressure and to -moot the demands of the population,
the r.'!ninistration of the Cabinet lands allotted a piece of land watered by t4e
s:.::: stream Kamonka, a tributary of the.Ob, for poriaanont settlement by the' emi-
r 'i households. It bears the .name 6f Nbvo-Nikolaovsk. settlement and contains
a iC,:.laticn of 15,000".

The item referred to above is an illustrated postal card with no message, add-
rc '....., E russels and bearing a 2 k. stamp. The oval cancellation, rather a round-
od 'c than usual, roads KRASOYARSK 188 OB 4.11.08 and there is also a DOP-
IAT ~: VAG. KRASNOYARSK. OB. mark but with no indication of any chrnrgo. The
oa.: i,,vt KRASNOYARSK. 188. NOVONEIOLAEVSK which I have is dated 15.9.12. If anyone
Sheo- c-collations of either of these marks bet-;;u3n 190, and 1912 it will enable us
tc e.row the gap and determine more accurately the date when the change was made.

No. 69 Page 21

Has anyone seen another example of this most unusual postmark (Fig. 3). It is
struck on an illustrated postal card from Moscow, addressed to St. Petersburg and
franked with a 3 k. stamp cancelled by the la-ago double circle MOSK.7', ?:. GOR.
POCHT. TEL. OTD. 23.12.08 3ch. As will be senn he- is the abbrev .;
at the foot of this postmark which is next to tht- c-z:' iiation (st r-..::: : :..3 _
usual) and S .PETEBURG appears at the top. 'iT c'. 24.1208, (.-; i; f
significance unusual volume of correspondence, i,.r c.:--....ple.) the hu:c i.: 1.2 :A th
number of the handstamp is 1""1 It seems to r,;p-:.;:. a special marking for C,;.:Xo,.;
pondence arriving in St. Petersburg from Moscc,-, ,_J;lhough it is not cbvioua why a
special marking is necessary for this. iMybe iLt w3, o:;perimental.

Kosslerts account of his very remarkable D'LITY cover mado me ro-oxamino my throe
loose 2 k. KITAI stamps which have a DALNY canca nation and which oevi:'i;blly all ca:e
from the same cover. I had always thought that this cancellation was Stophon a* n
Tchilinghirian's Fig. 545, the slight difference in spelling being duo to Tch-ilh.ln-
ghirian's 10 ki stamp having disappeared aid the illustration being drain po:.iepf
from memory. The lower part of the cancellation-on my stamps is unreadableo, bat I
am sure that it is the same as Kessler's. The split date on my example roads

The explanation of the additional F.P.O. cancellation on the same cover seems
to be that this was situated somewhere outside the town with easy access to the
railway, perhaps on the way to Port Arthur, It usually appears on the covers with
railway T.P.O. transit marks, I have a pootcard franked with a pair of 2 k. KITAI
stamps cancelled No. 17 F.P.O. 17.IX.1903, Thi transit mark is T.P.O. No. 262, the
final letter of thePOCHTOVII being an "N"t, c:':. Cyrillic and a curious error. i
also have a cover with printed heading RUSSCC ::-'L:SE BANK DALNY franked by a 10 1:.
Russian, cancelled No. 17 FP.O. 23.X11.1903 ;,Ah transit mark T.P.O. No. 261
26.X11.1903. Someone had a merry Christmas in tho sorting office on the train I
think, as this should be No. 262 since the train was going West. The number e
movable and they forgot to change it. The serial number is 7 and the other witn the
"N" error is 6.

Kessler is right when he says the diameter of the No. 17 F.P.O. cancellation is
24 mm., both mine are the same. There is no mistaking the left hand serial numbuo
I of this cancellation, the large serif sticks out at a less acute angle than usual,
as is clearly seen in the illustration.

J. Chudoba's cover addressed to Sofia and routed to China is an example of the
ignorance of geography in the good old days; I have a postcard addressed to 'Made-
ira, ANGLIYA." One detail needs correction, the single circle CHEFOO postmark is ir
Old style, and the double circle SHANGHAI in New Style as he rightly says. The jour-
ney from Chefoo to Shanghai always took four- days at this time.

by Nikolni Ivanovich Sokolov
(continaod from *No. 68)

As was stated.previously, only ordinary correspondence was forwarded at first or
the ROPiT steamers. However, with a view to facilitating and accelerating postal
services along the Black Sea cost, the Postal Department entered into an agreement
with ROPiT in 1866 regarding the establishment of transmission of not only ordinary '
mail on the Company's steamers between Russian Black Sea ports, but of all types c<
postal corrpondPence. When this agreement went into effect, the following procedu:-

Page 22 No. 69

for the transmission of internal-postal corrospondonco along the Crimean Sea of
Azov line was worked out by the Postal Dopartmont:-

1. Post offices woro to be roouirod to do up corrospondonce of all kinds addressed
to Black Sea and-Soe of Azov ports. in special .bcgs or trunks, affixing labels thereon
specifying the city of designation and in general confirming with all postal rogula-

In addition to processing the corrospondonco in this way, all steps of despatch-
ing procedure wore to be recorded on the route way-bill. Moreover, this entire pro-
codure was to be noted in a specially designated book, which the postillion accom-
panying the mails on the steamers receipted.

2. Postillions wore to be appointed to accompany the correspondence on the
steamors. Those postillions accepted the mails as designated on the way-bills, care-
fully checking to see that the bags and trunks with their wax and loaddn seals wore
intact. Moreover, if they noted any discrepancies, they were obligated to point them
out to the person delivering the mail for rectification. In other words, they could
only sign the books to confirm the receipt of the mail when all those details had
been complied with.

3. The processed mail was to be delivered to the stoamor one hour before its

4. Upon delivery of the mail to the steamer, it was to be stowed away in a spe-
cial place, allocated by the captain of the steamer, and no unauthorized person was
to have access to this spot. The bags and trunks wore to be stowed away in a conse-
cutive order of the postal destinations to which they wore procooding.

5. At the time of arrival of steamers in thd port, horses were to be sent to
bring the mail and postillion accompanying it to the post office.

6. Upon processing correspondence, to ports on the Black and Sea of Azov, as spo-
cifiod on article No. 1 above, post offices wore to note the operation in the spociall:
designated book available and then send the mail to the wharf at the time indicated in
the timo-tiblo for steamer arrivals, in the care of a reliable employee, who was to
deliver it to the steamer. Once there, he would hand it over to the postillion, who
was to acknowledge this fact in the book and also confirm it on the route way-bill.
At the same time, he was to tako from the postillion, accompanying the mail on the
steamer, the correspondence under the lattorts care after signing for it on the way-
bill, while the postillion himself wrote down the number and the nature of the article
he accepted in the book to be returned to the post office and confirmed this with his
signature .

7. At these ports where thb steamers had to anchor at some distance from the shore
delivery both-to tho steamer and from there to tho shore of correspondence, was to be
carried out with the facilities made available by the ROPiT management. On occasions
whore stoamers could not put in at any port whatsoever because of unfavorable weather
conditions, the correspondence procossod for such'a port was to be sent either over-
land with the normal mails, or by the available steamor, depending upon which of the
two methcds was:the fastest for delivery. Tho- correspondence coming within this actc
gory was to be handed over on such occasions by the steoaor to the next port,. from
whore it would then bo.forwarded as specified either overland or by the next steamer.

8. As a gonoral rule, the safe delivery of the mails from-the shore to steamer untr
back to shore, in the cases where wharves were not available in any port, was to be
arranged by ROPiT, which waQ also ublgrfi.n +.c tako all y.sibln p osros tu sa-v
the mail in cauno of shipwraock.

No. 69 Page 23

In conformance with the above-mentioned articles, .the transmission of. internal
correspondence on the ROPiT steamers started in 1067, being initially performed du-
ring the summer navigation season and from 1871 in winter also. At around the same
time, the transmission of all types of postal correspondence to ports in the Cauca-
sus was also established on the Company's steamers. The internal mails being for-
warded on steamers wore accompanied by postillions up to the year 1873; after this
year mail sorters wore also appointed to accompany them.

In the year 1867, when the transmission of all types of. internal correspondence
was initiated on Black Sea. stoamors, the entire postal function in the Lovant was
transferred to ROPiT and at the same time arrangement was concluded whereby the
Russian post office at Constantinople was abolished (i.e. it passed from consular
operation into an agency run by ROPiT). Since the transfer to the Company of the
entire postal operation in the Lovant meant that the procedure of transmitting Mid-
dlo East correspondence had to be changed drastically, the agreement of June 28,
1862, no longer corresponded with the facts and it was therefore replaced by a now
covenant concluded on December 9, 1867. This latter agreement consisted of 24
articles, as follows:

1. The ROPiT undertakes (a) the transmission and distribution of ordinary
letters, wrapper sending, registered letters and money transfers, proceeding from
all cities and ports of the Russian Empire to all ports of the Levant visited by
steamers of the Company, and (b) the acceptance and transmission of all the above-
mentioned typos of correspondence from all ports in the Middle East visited by
steamers of the Company to all cities and ports of the Empire.

2. The prompt transmission to steamers of correspondence proceeding from Russia
to Levantine ports, and the acceptance from steamers of mail from Middle East ports
to Russia was to be provided by the Odessa Border P.O. and all post offices in ports
along the Black and Sea of Azov.

3. The post offices are to accept mail addressed only to those ports in the
Levant which were designated in the ROPiT timetables of sailings. Those timetables
had to be communicated annually by the Company to the Postal Department.

The Company is to be granted the right to change the time of steamer departures
and to terminate services to those ports, calling at which was not required of the
Company in accordance with the charter established with Imperial Consont, or to whicl
it was found unprofitable to go, but all such alterations had to be advised at least
"one month in advance'to the Postal Department, except in special circumstances.

4. Ordinary letters, registered letters and wrapper sending, proceeding from
Russia to the Levant are to be conveyed free of charge by the Company. The postal
rates for these sondings, as set out below under articles Nos. 5 & 6 are to be tre-
"ated as part of the income of the Postal Service. The tariffs derived from ordinary
letters, registered letters and wrapper sending, going from the Levant to. Russia,
as well as-those exchanged between ports in the Middle East, are to be regarded as
the income of the ROPiT. .The renumoration to the Company-for theotransfor of money
by sea is set thereunder in article No. 13.

5. The rate for the transmission of ordinary letters by sea, -proceeding from
Russia to Levantine ports and vice-versa, is to be fixed at a flat rate of 10 kopoks
por lot (- oz.) in addition to the 10 kopek internal-rate, this latter being the
general charge on a per lot basis for the overland transmission of letters from
Russian cities in the interior to Odessa and other port pities, or vice-versa.

Newspapers, .journals, price-lists, circulars and other printed announcements in
which there is nothing written apart from the address, will be allowable for

Page 24 No. 69

transmission under wrappers (under the wrapper rate). For these sondings,.there will
be a charge of 2 kopeks for each unit of 3i lots (about 1i ozs.) weight or part ther6-
of, one kopek of which representing the rate for transmission by sea and the other
S kopek paying for overland transmission in the territories of Russia. Tho upper
weight limit for wrapper sondings is to be rostrictea to. 20 lots (about 10 oz.).

6. For the transmission of registered letters by sea, there will be a uniform
charge of 25 kopoks per lot, in accordance with the Russian internal rate, together
with basic postal rate in force for overland transmission of registered letters
from Russian cities in the interior to Odessa and other port cities, and vice-versa.

7-. For each registered letter lost, a compensation amounting to 10 rubles will
be paid to the sender and this latter amount will be recovered from the person guilty
of its loss.

If, in the course of time, experience shows that for the handling of correspon-
dence sent from within Russia, the existing procedure of compensation for foreign
correspondence should roquiro a higher payment to the sender for loss in the mails
of a registered letter handed in for despatch, the ext6n of this payment in such an
eventuality which would be greater than the 10 rubles now specified, is to be:made
obligatory for Middle East correspondence also, both for the Postal Service as well
as for the ROPiT.

S. Upon the closing of navigation during the winter season at the ports of Kerch',
Bordyansk, Mariupol', Yeisk and Taganrog on the Sea of Azov, as well as at the river-
side ports of Khorson and Nikolaev, letters and wrapper sondings, proceeding from
the Lovant to the above-mentioned ports or vice-versa, would be forwarded between
Odessa or the nearest ports thereto, and the ports designated above, by overland
S mail at the same rate as applicable for their transmission by sea.

9. Ordinary letters and wrapper sending, despatched from Russia to the Levant,
as well as received therefrom, must be completely prepaid when being mailed, with
the requisite postage stamps affixed thereon.

The Postal Department will provide.the ROPiT with specially designed postage
stamps exclusively for the prepayment of correspondence handed in at Levantine ports,
at the cost of their preparation. The delivery of these stamps, in the quantity
required for all agencies in the Levant, will be carried exclusively by the Odessa
Border P.O. to the Customs Office of the Company. Thereafter, if it is found that
correspondence has been handed in at Middle East ports for despatch by steamer and
franked with any other stamps whatsoever, the Company would have the right not to
accept such correspondence and roouire its prepayment by the sender with the requi-
site postage stamps.

Letters from Russia to th'o tvant, or vice-vorsa, without stamps, will by no means
be accepted for despatch and, if such letters be dropped into the letter boxes,
there will be a charge upon delivery to the addressee amounting to double the rate
applicable for the normal rate. For letters convoyed from .the Levant to Russia, this
charge would be treated as part of the income of the Postal Administrationy,and-for
those transmitted from Russia to the Middle East as part.of thewincome of ROPiT.

10. Official correspondence between Russian government departments and the Imporia.
Russian Embassy in Constantinople, as well as official sending forwarded between
the Sublime Porte (Imperial Takish Govt. at Constantinople) and its Imbassy- nd
consulates established in Russia are to be conveyed on the Company's steamers without
payments of any kind. By the same token, official correspondence between the agen-
cies of the Company is to be transmitted on the steamers free of charge and without
requiring the permission of the Postal Service.

No. 69 Page 25

11. The company is to be permitted to install letter boxes on all its steamers,
its agencies and other places in Middle East ports considered to be convenient.

Letters received in the Levant and which have not been delivered to the proper
parties because the addressees have not presented themselves, are to exhibited by
the agents in frames at places visible to the public. However, if a large amount of
mail accumulates, only lists with the names of the addressees are to be displayed,
instead of the letters themselves. The agents are obligated to see that all letters
get to their destination.

12. For the secret conveyance of letters on the Company's steamers, the guilty
parties are to be rendered liable to a fine in accordance with article No. 1126 of
the Penal Code, in the amount of 7r. 50k. per letter. If any of the Company's em-
ployees are ever convicted of such a case of transmitting letters, the above-mention-
ed penalty will be doubled.

The captains themselves of the steamers and also their subordinates are person-
ally to see to it that letters are not secretly conveyed aboard ship. In the case
of discovery of such an occurrence, they are to notify the fact to the agent upon
arrival at the next port, so that the guilty person may be penalized in accordance
with the law.

13. Money sending, both in the form of banknotes (currency bills) and specie
(hard cash) are to be transferred from Russia to the Levant and vice-versa, in accor-
dance with the following conditions:-

(i). Post Offices within Russia accepting valuable correspondence for despatch
to Middle East ports via Odessa or the ports nearest the place- of delivery will be
required to ask the bearers to send the letters in special money envelopes and infor-
ming them at the same time that the post offices would have to open packets. The
post offices are to transmit all sums received by them to a trustworthy person of
the Odessa office or agencies of the ROPiT with an accounting signed for in a special
ledger but sent together with the original envelopes and covers.

(ii). The Head Office in Odessa and the agencies of the Company, upon receipt of
the designated correspondence from their trustee, are to forward it to the place of
destination, or they may at their discretion instruct the local agencies to pay out
the corresponding sum of money from the cash available at their offices.

For the transfer of money from Russia to Middle East ports, the accepting post
office is to collect from the sender a fee on behalf of the Postal Service for the
transmission of money by overland mail to Odessa or the nearest port, this fee being
computed on the basis of the internal postal rates. Upon payment of the money at
Levantine ports, there is to be a charge levied on the receivers on behalf of the
Company of i%-of all sums despatched, and half of this charge is to be regarded as
the insurance commission while the other half is to cover the postage or tariff for
the transfer or delivery of the money by sea.

(iii). For the despatch of money, proceeding from Middle East ports to Russian
internal destinations, the Company is to charge the senders (a) a special fee based
"8n its own rate for surface transmission to the nearest port but on no account this
fee is to exceed that specified in clause (ii) above, and (b5 for onward transmission
from the port to the designated place, a charge is to be computed on the basis of the
scale of postal rates, with an additional fee for bagged money, if the amount is to
be forwarded as specie.

The charges specified in (b) are to paid in full to the post office by the
person concerned. Amounts sent from Levantine ports to Russian inland destinations

Page 26 No. 69

are to be addressed to the Odessa office or agencies of the Company, which .1.ttor
are to be required to forward them to the post offices for onward transmission with-
in 24 hours of receipt, except on official holidays.

The Company is to be required to inform the Postal Department before thb onset
of the coming year and no later than September 1 of impeding changes in the rates
for the transfer of valuable correspondence by sea from ports in the Levant to Rus-
sian ports. N. B. Arrangemonts for the format of receipts, procedures for handing
over money and other formalities are to be left to negotiation.between the Postal
Department and ROPiT.

14. Money and registered correspondence which could not be delivered fdr various
reasons to the destination, all fees ccrlculted for its transmission both in the for-
ward and return directions are to be charged to the presenters, after taking into
account the amount that had been paid by the senders when despatching the correspon-
dence in the first place. The Postal Service and the Company are to conduct mutual
accounts for charges on returned correspondence.

15. The agents of the Company in the Lovent, to whom the operation of the posts
has boon entrusted, are to enjoy the special protection accorded the representatives
of the Russian Government in connection with their postal functions as agents of a
government ostablishmont.

The Company is to be required to place a sign in each agency reading "Acceptance
of correspondence to be sent to Russia, and the delivery of correspondence received
from Russia".

16. With the exception of specific delivery to the addressees, the acceptance,
despatch and delivery of mail in Middle East ports and the sale of postage stamps
are to be entrusted by the Company to its agents.

17. All the conditions stated above are to be extended also to correspondence
forwarded across Russia betwocn Levantino ports on the one hand, and the Kingdom of
Poland and Grand Duchy of Finland on the other. By the same token, the dosina-d'r'
conditions may, upon consideration by the Governor-Generalship of the Transco:-l an
Region, be applied also to mail forwrxded between Levantine ports and. Transcz.ucasia
via the post offices at Poti and Sukhum-Kalo.

1C. Honcoforth, the following stipulation is to be strictly adhered to in con-
nection with computations for the conveyance of letters and wrapper sending for-
warded from Russia to Greece and vice-versa, on steamers of the Company between
Odossa and Constantinople, in accordance with the postal convention concluded bewoen
Russia and Greece on August 25, 184S and still in forces

Correspondence, proceeding in the direction from Russia to Greece, would be de-
livered by the Odessa post office to the Company's steamers in sealed mail-bags,
addressed to the Courior Despatch Office of the Imperial.Russian Embassy at Constan-
tinople, and for the transmission of the designated mailbags by sea to Constantinople
will not receive any payment whatsoever, in accordance with the basic conditions of
the present agreement. The correspondence proceeding in the opposite direction,
i.e. from Greece to Russia, is also to be delivered -from the Courier Despatch
Office to the Company's steamers in similar mailbags.. Since the payment due to t.-
Company for th6 conveyance of this correspondence cannot be levied by the Company
on the senders, the Odessa post office is to sot up a special account to furnish
subsequent payment to the Company for the conveyance of all letters and wrapper
sending from Greece to Russia, specifically in accordance with the tariff which
is to be established by the present agreement for the propayTiont of correspondence,
transmitted to hissia from ports in the Lovant.

No. 69 Page 27

19. The ROPiT is to undertake to publish and make known to the commercial com-
munity and the public at large in Middle East ports, all regulations and conditions
applicable to transmission of correspondence on tho'Company's steamers between ports
in the Levant and Russia.

20. The acceptance of mailbags on steamers, and their delivery from steamers to
post offices and Middle East agencies of the Company, are to entrusted to a person
to whom this duty would be assigned by the Company, with responsibility both for
the safety of the mailbags and the intactness of the seals placed thereon, as well
as for the correct delivery of the mailbags to the relevant post offices and
agencies of the Company.

21. Should a steamer not be in a position, for any reason whatsoever, to call
at a particular port, any mailbags addressed to this point are to be put ashore at
the nearest port for their transmission by the next available steamer.

22. In the case of shipwreck, one of the principal duties of the captain must
be the saving of the mails.

23. The main responsibility for the correct transmission of correspondence, des-
patched by means of the Company's steamers, is to be vested in Odessa Border P.O.
N. B. The establishment of all procedural requirements of the postal service is
to be vested in the special agreement of the Postal Department with the Company,
and the relevant instructions must be drawn up in accordance with this principle.

24. The Company is to be required to transport on its steamers officials of
the Postal Administration, proceeding specifically on matters directly concerned
with the transmission of mail to ports in the Levant, free of charge but without
providing board, and special vouchers are to be distributed by the Company for
that purpose.

In the month of September 1168, clause (ii) under Article No. 13 of this agree- S
ment, which went into effect from January 1 of that year, was amplified with the
following note:

"The designated commission of 2f% has been established for the transfer of funds
in the amount of 20 or more rubles. For the amounts less than 20 rubles, the
charge is still to be the same as for the full amount of 20 rubles, i.e. 10
kopeks for each transfer".
(to be continued)
xxxxxxxxxxxTxxx. x'XX xxxxxxxX

From: Alfred Clement. Handbook of the Field Military Post in Austria. Graz,
1964._____ ._____ _______

SThe Russian relief-corps had its Headauarters in Hraditsch, Hungary (May,
149). The-mail was sent to that postoffice. All officers, soldiers and military
"personnel- of the Russian Corps in Austria had franking privileges..

S An understanding was reached with the Royal PolipshGeneral Postal Authorities
in I-fcsaw-that all mail for the Russian Corps would be sent from Warsajy to Krakow,
anid .lot, as formerly,, by way of Vienna. -The military commander in Krakow would
then have to forward the mail to the .location of the Corps. In this way the for-
warding of the mail was considerably faster.

The establishment, of Field Post Offices was envisaged, but information about

Page 28 No. 69

these is lacking. Also the .disposition of the Russin troops in Austria is not

EDITOR: Staff of Russian Armies in 1849 was in Ungarisch Hradischt (in German).
This town in spite of its name wasn't in Hungary but in Moravia.

by Dr. C. de Stackelberg

Differences of opinion as to the meaning of the "K.P." on a handstamp used in
Riga (and Mitau) between 1G1C and 1857, continue unabated in philatelic circles in

This RIGA handstamp exists in three main types:

TYPE I. C110-1`15. "RIGA/KP" in Cyrillic letters, on two lines.
TYPE II. 1816-1826. "KP/RIGA" in Cyrillic letters, on two lines.
TYPE III. 1327-1857. "KF/RIGA/year/day and month" on four lines, surrounded by
a circle of approximately 38mm in dia. The first two lines
are in Cyrillic characters, the month on the fourth line in
Latin lettering. Since about 1/87 this canceller was slightly:
changed: the date, month and the year appearing all on one
line and the month now also in Cyrillic characters. (See

Also known is a handstamp of Mitau, the capital of the Government of Kurland,
showing in a circle in cyrillic characters: "L.ITAVJ/KP" on two lines.

Mr. H. von Hcfmann, the new editor of "PHILATELIA BALTICA", Hamburg, the excel-
lent publication of the Working Group Latvia (LETTLND), an affiliate of the German
Philatelic Association, in the last issue of his Journal (No. 41/42 of June 1965)
maintains that the "K.P." in the above handstamp should mean "Kazonnaya Pochta",
i.e. Government or Stato Mail.

I am of a different opinion and so are, I understand, our editor and our Hon.
member Kurt Adler. I think it stands for "Konnaya Pochta", i.e. Horse Mail.

My deduction is based on the following facts:

1. All mai4 service in Russia was a government monopoly,' thus a "Kazonnaya
Pochta". The Zemstvo Mail services came much later into being.
2. No State-mail-service (Official Mail Service), like "Dienstpost" in Germanys
ever existed in Russia.
3. All ordinary mail was transported by dilige'nco, i.e. by post-coach.,
4. Only in special, urgent cases, was important or secret Government correspon-
dence transported by special courriers oA horseback. Some high officials
also used this facility for their private letters. .In such cases the sender
indicated on the cover "per estcrfottoO or "secret".

It is known that special horses were kept at the post stations, 6nly to be
used for forwarding this special mail by courriers on horseback.

Ian of the opinion that to distinguish these special letters from the ordinary
mail, the Postmaster in Riga (and Mitau) affixed on them a handstamp with "K P"F to
indicate that they were to be forwarded on horseback, i.o. by Konunya -Fuchta and
not ny Diligence.

No, 69 Page 29

This is only my own deduction.- We do not have any actual proof on the definite
meaning of the letters "K P", as up to now none has become available.to the research-
ers of this problem.

Some corrsepondents have suggested that K P" .means Kontora -Po-chty, i.e. Office
of the Post. This already has been discarded as in Russian it would have been not
"K .P." but "P.K.", Pochtovaya Kontora, as in English Post Office.

Other have suggested:that it fans "KazEnnoye Piomn", i.e. Official letter or
"Bienstbric'f" in German, a service which did not exist in Russia, as explained in
point "2", above.

Perhaps some of our correspondents or readers could help us to unravel this

"Finaly in the 'Baltikum-Sammler' or Stuttgart, Germany, No. 4 of 1965 a Mr. A.
Tenisons from Belgium suggests that "K.P." means "Kazennii Paket" (Government
Parcel). Why not letter.
00000000000000000 0000000000000000000

RUSSISCiLEN LANDSHHAFTSAEiMPTER". They are the reproductions, full size, of the
following three documents with their translations:

1. Postal Rules of Bogorodsk Zemstvo. (p. 175)
2. Postal Rules of Buzuluk Zemstvo. (p. 308)
3. Zemstvo Post Timetable, Borovichy County. (p. 226)

The following may facilitate the understanding of some of the terminology. A
province (gubernia) has several counties (uyezd's). Each county (uyozd) was sub-
divided into several"volost(s)", a term frequently repeated in the above postal
rules. .In these translations, instead of using the word "volost" I am using the
term "district". (Schmidt & Faberge are using the same term in their major onus).
A province was headed by the Governor appointed by the Secretary of Interior Lffairs.
The County was headed by the County Chief and the districts by "starosta", (the word
"elder" would be the best translation). Each district had its management (Volostnoye
pravlenie), the Elder and the Scribe being the officials. This administrative sub-
division was entirely different from the Zomstvos which were units of the self-
government within the limits of each county. Both Buzuluk and Bogorodsk Rules men-
tion frequently the District Elders and Scribes as persons that were handling the
Zemstvo mails locally, a proof of full team work between. the Zemstvos and Government

The postal rules use frequently the expression "within the county or other
-towns", or .simple "other towns". In this case the correct meaning of "other town"
is the "town outside of the county". What existed is that a county, as a rule, had
only one .single town which also was the county seat. Other settlements, at times
larger and .more important ones that the County Seat did.have the classification of
villages, .ranches, settlements (selo), etc., but did,not -have the category of towns.
Thor< were exceptions. There existed some so called "zashtatny good" goodro" means
".t'o'i'), a town that for some historical reasons had lost its status as an admini-
"strabiio center.

I "pood" equals 40 Ibs.

Finally, 'a "sheet.of letter papar" nor.ionnd at tmo .was just about the sizo4.
of th double 3er g sims'e sheet.

C. P. Bulak

Page 30 No. 69


For the official and private correspondence that is sent by the Bogorodsk Zem-
stvo Post of the Moscow Province, as studied and approved by the Bogorodsk Zemstvo
S Assembly of 11 October 1893.

Regarding sending the official (froo of charge) correspondence.

#1. By the official envelopes are meant the onos that are sealed with the of-
ficial seal and carry the number. Such parcels are received from different State
Institutions and officials with a signature in the delivery book and are delivered
to the addressees with the receipt. All other parcels without the official seal and
number are considered as private and are to be franked.

#2. The official packets are received in the District Managements, as well as in
the County Office daily except the holidays. During the mail days, Tuesdays and
Friday, the official packages are received until lO0 A.M., the receipt of mail is
stopped until the next day. The time from 11 A.M. to 3 P.M. is for preparation and
packing of mail.

#3. The official packages and parcels that do not fit into the mail pouch are
not accepted for mailing.

#4. The sending of the official mail on the routes is done in the following or-
der: All official envelopes and packages received in the District Managements are
sent by the 1bnagomonts to the Zemstvo Office which receives them and sends them
whereto they belong and to the post. The envelopes are to be noted in the delivery
book showing the number and to whom they are aliressed.

1#5. The district elder or in his absence the district scribe sends and also re-
ceives the mail bag with all the envelopes signing when necessary

#6. All correspondence from the (Zomstvo) office to the district managements is
entered in the route lodger and is sent in a closed bag. On receipt of the mail bag
from the Bogorodsk route, as well as from the other districts the elder or the scribe
open the bag as per para. #5, and receive all the correspondence, checking the cor-
respondence addressed to the other district managements. If the correspondence
chocks, the anotation is made in the route ledeor, similarly the anotation is made if
some of the correspondence is missing. The keys from the padlocks of the mail bags
are always to be guarded by the district elder or tho district scribe.

Regarding sending of the private (paid) corrsepondenco.

The persons that desire to receive by the Zomstvo post the newspapers and period-
icals of different sorts must pny for the right (of sending) 1 ruble per year or 50
kop. for 2 year.

The wrapper mailings cost 2 kcy.

The letters and notices of the post:office are paid with 4 kop. stamps instead
of 5 kop.

The registered or letters with money are paid with a 8. kop. stamp instead of
10 kop. Applications (to the government offices):, statements and other corrospondon-
ce of the size of 1/8 of the letter size paper which is delivered to the Zemstvo
Post for mailing in.closed envelopes is franked with an 8.kop. stamp and in envelope
of 1 size of the shoot is franked with 20 kop. stamp. The printing of the said
stamps was approved by the Moscow Governor Novomber ii, No. 2486.

No. 69 Pago 31

The money and registered letters are sent by the Zemstvo Post at sender's risk,
and are received from the persons that wish to send thdm:without any receipts.

The official in charge of the postal business is to be renumorated for his Zems-
two Post work by 1 kop. from 4 kop., 2 kop. from 8 kop. and 4 kop. from 20 kop. as
it was before. .

President of the Zemstvo Office G. Lomakin
Members: A. Zubelievitch, J. Leonov

RULES for the receiving and forwarding of-all correspondence by the Zemstvo Post
of the Buzuluk County, starting from January 1, 1897.

I. Receiving Correspondence

The packages with money, as well as the parcels whether official or private that
are to be mailed from the town of Buzuluk to (the points within) the County are re-
ceived in the Office daily (excepting Sundays and holidays) from 9.00 A.M. to 2.00
P.M. The ordinary mail with the Zemstvo stamps affixed may be deposited any time
into the mail box at the Office.

The Zemstvo Office will not receive from any official institution, or any official
as well as from any private person for mailing into the County the moneys that will
exceed each time the amount of 300 rubles. As far as the parcel post packages that
are sent via the Zemstvo Post are concerned, the parcels that weigh over 2 poods, or
are to bulky, as well as the ones valued over 300 rubles will not be accepted by
the Zemstvo Post.

The corresponding receipts will be issued for the money parcels and packages
which are guaranteed against loss according to the decision of Zemstvo as of May 25,
1870 and June 2, 1876.

Within the County all classes of correspondence to be sent to the different parts
of the Buzuluk County, as well as to the other towns are received in all district
managements; in case of the sending of the moneys and parcels the district managa-
ments are to comply with the rules expressed in the previous paragraphs. The rece-
ipts, if the senders wish, may be given for the ordinary mail.

II. The rules for soening of the correspondence.

The correspondence of all classes sent from the Zemstvo Post Office to the County,
whether ordinary, or moneys and parcels, when being sent via the Zemstvo Post, is
inscribed into a special ledger for each district, with the detailed explanation as
to whom, the kind of correspondence, if money how much, and if official, what
Numbers and the ledger has to show how much money is to be collected for mailing via
the Zemstvo Post.

The District Managements that are on the Zemstvo routes, having received from th,
mail carriers the mail that goes to their Dostrict, as well as to the Districts that
are attached to it as far as the receipt and mailing of the Zemstvo Posts are con-
corned (seb the time table forwarded with'-the Office Circular No. 1641 as of May 3,
1888), sign the receipt of mail on the mail carrier's bills of lading, as well as on
the ledgers, which ledgers, after month's expiration are to be presented into the
Zemstvo Office together with the moneys collected for the mailing of the correspon-
dence.. In their turn, the District Managements are to enter into the special ledgers
all correspondence, whether its own, or from private persons, or officials, or from
different institutions, that has to be sent to the different points of the Buzuluk
County, or to the other towns, which lodgers are delivered tv *tho manni carri.rs who

Page 32 No. 69

are to sign in the book of the District Management. The lodger of the district
Manaeomont is to show in detail how much money for each kind of correspondence is
sent for the Zemstvo Post account, or for the State Post if the correspondence is
S going to other towns.

III. Payments for sending via Zeostvo Post that are charged either in the Zemstvo
Office, or in the District iManacoments of the County.

1. Each private letter, application, notification, etc., sent to the different
points of the Buzuluk County, as well as to the other towns (in the last case for
mailing only to the town of Buzuluk and delivery to the Empire Post Office), is to
be paid for with a 3 kop. .Zmstvo charge, .for which purpose a 3 kop. Zomstvo post-
ago stamp is affixed to the correspondence, the said stamp being the proof that the
Zemstvo charge was paid.

2. The person that receives the private correspondence that is transferred from
the State Post to the Zemstvo Post which is sent to the county, pays 3 kop. for each
separate letter, application, notification, etc., if the Zomstvo stamp is not affix-
ed to the letter.

3. For a registered letter in Buzuluk County 6 kop. or 2 stamps.
4. For mailing via Zemstvo Post tothe different parts of the County of the pri-
vate parcels without declared value the loss of which is not reimbursed by Zemstvo
the charge is 10 kop. for the parcels not over 10 lbs. For parcels from 10 lbs. to
2 poods the charge is 1 kcp. per lb., i.e. for 11 lbs. 11 kop., etc.

5. For sending via Zemstvc Post of private letters with moneys addressed to va-
rious parts of Buzuluk County, the charge is 6 kcp. for the letter and kop. in-
surance per each ruble, (50 kop. or more is counted as a whole ruble).

6. For the private letters with money addressed to the other towns, that is to
say via Zemstvo Post as far as the town of Buzuluk and their delivery to the State
Post the charge is 6 kop. per letter plus kop. insurance per ruble, plus 1 kop.
for sealing wax. The moneys r3quirod for payments of the State Post are attached
as per tariffs approved by the Postal Department.

7. For mailing via Zomstvo Post of private parcels with declared value the charge
is 10 kop. per parcel and kop. per ruble of declared value.

C. For sending of the official money letters whether t Buzuluk County points
or to other towns the charge is 1 kop. per coach ruole that is sent.

N O T E S:
I. The moneys sent by the Zemstvo Post are not placed in the envelopes but de-
livered to the mail carriers with a note on the closed envelope how much
will go with it.
II. The private parcels sent via Zomstvo Post must be very carefully packed and
III. The 3 kop. Zemstvo postage stamps may be purchased any tine in the Zemstvo
Office and in all District Managemonts.
IV.-No charge for sending the newspapers and magazines, or for Se bocks to and
forum sibscribnrs of the Buzrluk Zemstvo Public Library.

President of the Zomstvo Office Ivanov

Secretary Skariatinov

No. 69 Fage 33


Days of arrivals and departures of the Zomstvo post -through;-the Borovitchi County

DISTRICT NAMES leaves Arrives

Ustiuzhna, Lievotch and Somin Routes
Novosielitskaya Kushevierskaya Monday Wednesdays
Zasypinskaya Lievotchsaya
Nikolo-Moshenskaya Dolgovskaya and and and
Ustriokskaya Konchanskaya
Vasilievskaya Migolochskaya
Minetsko-Starsko-Gorskaya Thursday Saturday
Tikhvin Route
Bielavinskaya Lzitchskaya
Volotskaya Stiepankovskaya Tuesday and Friday
Die siato-Piatnitskaya Sheriekhovskaya
Liubitinskaya Nikandovskaya
Vyshnievolotchek Route Sunday, Monday
Rovienskaya and Pierolutchskaya Wednesday and Thursday and
Shchegrinskaya and Riadovskaya Saturday Sunday
Khcromskaya Tuesday Thursday
and Sunday
Vielikoporozhskaya, Pirusskaya,
Gorodiscjenskaya, Oriekhovskay, and Use State (Empire) Post.
000o00000000ooooxcooco00 co0oo

by Kurt Adler

In Volume I of Tchilinghirian and Stephen's Handbook of Russian Post Offices
Abroad, the authors established the fact that a Russian P.O. functioned in Rumania
in 1731. They are treating the subject of this article, based on research originally
emanating from Rachmanoff's'article in the old "Rossica" Journal., re-printed arnd
re-issued by the Russian-American Philatelist and by Sklarevski and ic Cann. Razh-
manoff established the fact that Russian Offices were in operation in R.nman.ia dcling
the War of 182S/29. In fact, he had in his collection covers written by 'Rus..n
Army Officers to St. Petersburg from three cities: Bucharest, Yassy, and Foceani.
These covers, possibly the only ones known at the time before World War II were
destroyed during the War by the bombing of Warsaw, Wfr. Rachmanoff's domicile at that

It has been my good fortune to acquire one of these early covers. It bears the
one line postmark Bukarest (Tch. and St. Type I) and was mailed to Kishenev on Jan.
15, 1`26 which is two years before the 1`G2-29 War started. The letter itself is
written in Greek and is addressed to what must have been a lady of high status:
Mine. Jle2xandre de Soutzo, la postelnitzosse a Kisnowe. The word "postelnitzesse"
is not clear to me. It may have to do something with postel-bed in which case the
lady might have been the housekeeper of some convent. Maybe some readers will have
the explanation. The letter which is illustrated bears ie number 4---.all early
letters were numbered by the rostmaster--and also the manuscript marking "ochish-
chono-Krivitzky", meaning "disinfected Krivitzky". In accordance with this remark
the letter shows some slits made by scissors which was the method then in use for
disinfecting the mail during cholera and typhoid epidemics. The letter bears a
manuscript remark of the arrival date in Kishinev, probably the 2nd of February
1826. The red wax seal bears no inscription. The letter is proof that the Russian
post functioned in Rumania even before the occupation during the War of 1828/29.

Page 34 No. 69


"D a t A, '

S. '* .. .*

-o e..

X2 9X2 VIL2"/ VIL2 X2 99X 2& 2..3 9XiI21
^c~t ese^&w ^Sf~az w^^t^ ^fitf

-- ---~ V'...cm- ... H" "

.. L,. H. S TOB
9XRL2 39 9XI.8 39 X2.1V8 29 X 39 Xl p279

^n m.k

Tchilinghirian.and Stephen quote Dr. Cohon, the late eminent collector of.
Rumanian Postal History, as'saying "a covor from the Russian Post Office in Ismail
is reputed to exist". This leads one to assume that Dr. Cohen did not own one him-
self. I was able to acquire two covers from this elusive post office.

The first one wont from Ismail to Yassy (illustrated). It is postmarked "Ismail
dispatched 1st of May 1853" and "Yassy received 6 May 1853". This latter receiving
mark is of a type not yet described by T. and S. The cover also boars a beautifully
clear wax seal with the inscription "Ismail Post Office" and the Russi.n-Type post
horns. The cover is addressed to the Ezarch Archimadrite Afanassi Jerusalomsky and
was insured, the rate being 48 kop. including cost of mailing. Those markings are
in manuscript. It was addressed to the Hierodiacon Kiril of the Usponsky Monastery
in Yassy.

The second cover from Ismail is especially interesting because it was mailed on
the 12 of November 1C63 during the time when Ismail was occupied by Russia, after
having boon coded to Rumania in 1656. It qualifies therefore as a genuine Russian
Offices Abroad cover. It cost 30 kop. to mail and was addressed to the well known
Bulgarian merchant and founder of the Sofia University, Christo Georghiu who had
largo business interests in Bucharest.

The postal history of the Russian Post Offices in Rumania is enriched by the
welcome addition of the above described three covers.


The over increasing interest in the Zemstvo Posts of Imperial Russia will gather
further momentum among serious philrtolists with the publication of //#6 Rossica
Journal featuring a historical sketch of those issues, superbly illustrated by the
reproduction of choice items from his collection, by such an eminent student as
Michel Liphschutz.

The status of Zomstvo Posts in the Imperial Postal system is clearly stated
and verified by the writer, who not only quotes the claause in the TJkaz of the Senate
on 27 Aug. 1870 outlining their mode of operation, but surmarisos these defining
their restrictions. In the face of such official evidence of their validity as
"Postage Stamps", it is difficult to find any legitimate excuse for their exclusion
from Standard Catalogues.*

The twelve pages of illustrations provide us with a glimps into what must surely
be one of the finest collections made of those issues since the days of Agathon
Faberge and Charles Stibbo, indeed, the covers illustrated far surpass those acquired
by. the latter collector.

Most intriguing of all are Examples 1 and 2 featuring mail between Zemstvog,
which, although many students realisoed such combinations wore possible, only by.
SEEING could they believe that they existed. -We cannot be sufficiently grateful to
Mr. Liphschutz foraallowing his treasures to be reproduced for our benefit. If it
be true, (and there is ovary reason to boleive it is) that the greatest pleasure a
philatelist derives from his hobby is to share its joys with his friends, then Mr.
Liphschutz must be one of the happiest of men.

Expnlo 1. Mil between Zomstvos, showing cover from a village in Dankdv Zams-
stvo to a'villaog in Bogorodsk Zonstvo bears the 7 k. Imperial stamp cancelled at the
Imperial F. 0. according to regulation, whereas Ema 16 2. from Irbit Zemstvo in
Form Province to Ustsysolsk Zemstvo, in Vologda Province, has no such franking.

No. 69 Page 35

As it is secured by the five official seals applied on insured mail, why was no stamp
affixed when it was sealed at the Imperial P.Oo Does this conform with the first of
the summarized restrictions quoted from the 18i70Ukaz. Maybe it is a case of an odd
cover evading the eagle eye of officialdom. We know that similar examples can be
found in both design and format of Zemstvo stamps which trespassed on Imperial Post
preserves some were detected.and-withdrawn, a few escaped.c The owner is to be con-
gratulated on the possession of two extremely rare pieces, and we can thoroughly
appreciate the statement that he knows of only one other example. The ones illustra-
ted are the solo examples seen in over thirty'years studying and collecting these
fascinating issues.

Although the above two covers are selected for special comment,'all those illustra-
ted are beautiful examples in the various sections of Zemstvo mailing.

Figures 54 and 55 provide us with an equally interesting and difficult hunting
clue, that of tracking down covers bearing postmarks of Zemstvos which never issued
stamps. The two examples from Kirsanov to Moscow (1902) and Tambov (1903) being the
only two Mr. Liphschutz has ever seen indicates the rarity of these covers.

In the list of stamps of some of the first Zomstvo issues (P. quantities known
to Schmidt are quoted together with the writer's view as to their accuracy. Colloct-
ors in general will agree with him that these numbers are very near the truth. At
odd times an item may appear to excite the emotions of the student of those issues.
In 1950 a small selection of Zemstvos was submitted to me by a well known London
dealer among which was found a copy of Chombary 54 with the upper right corner damage'
This item Schmidt records as existing in solitary isolation in his own collection;
it now rests in the Berlin Postal Museum out of reach of private collectors. For
the past thirty years a copy has graced one of my album pages, therefore there are
two complete and one damaged specimen extant. One must admit that such instances are
very rare, but it is by no means boycnd the bounds of possibility that others may
occur as the.search intensifies.

All the single items reproduced (Fig. 1C) are of great rarity and consequently
much in demand whenever they become available. The where about of these Zemstvo
gems are fairly well known to specialists and usually carry their pedigree with them
when they change owners. Their number being limited, it naturally follows thaG the
collectors possessing them are limited also, thus the opportunity affoivdd to those
of us in the outer circle for our information and delight is greatly appreciated,

Several of the items shown are strangely familiar, in particular Malmyzh 1869,
Glazov 1I91 inverted background, the 1868 sopies of Sumy which may have crossed the
English Channel in 1957. An unsuccessful bidder memories his failures with regret,
but in this instance at least he can enter fully into the delight.of their present
owner; long may they remain in his possession.

In the section devoted to the composition of sheets, 1t. Liphschutz provides va-
luable information for the study of their arrangement and production. His selection
is admirable, providing the most unusual as well as the more.conventional settings.
The tote .beche and couche varieties always excite great interest whenever they appear
in Exhibitions or Society displays. The sheet of Aleksandria of 1880 showing S5
caused al least one admirer to turn a similar shade with envy!

Sheets of any of the Zemstvo issues should be highly prized by their fortunate
owners, supplying as they do, every facility for the study of the issue they repre-
sent. For instance among those. shown we have two comparatively common sheets, those
of Shadrinsk & Totyushy which serve the very useful purpose. of illustrating the
normal composition of sheets printed by the State Printing Woris.in St. Petersburg.
They also show the two pain designs adopted by a considerable Mummor of Zonstvos

Page .36. No. 69

Authorities at various periods of their postal activity. A young collector will
always remember securing his first complete sheet of these stamps which give him
the great thrill of being able to really study the issue.

Such a thrill has been given to all Zomstvo collectors privileged to see, pro-
bably in some cases for the first time, material of their dreams, and Wr. Liphschutz
can rest assured that his main purpose has been achieved. In addition he.has given
ample proof that ho status of Zemstvo staps as legitimate postal issues is beyond

At the Philatelic Congress of Great Britain hold this year at Harrogato, Lr.
K.R. Lake, a member of the Leeds P.S. submitted a Paper entitled "The Collector's
Catalogue Fifty Years On", one passage causing the B.S'.R.P. delegate to mount the
rostrum when the Paper was being discussed. The salient portion of the passage was:
"I have hoard Zomstvo collectors lamenting that their priceless collections are
spurned by many collectors because they are not 'RECOMGIZED' by Gibbons....' It
must be clearly understood that the catalogue editors job is to include, not to
edit out; he must give the facts on which the collectors may decide for himself
what to accept and what to omit..."

As the delegate who had the temerity to raise his voice in support it would
have been heartening to have had the weighty evidence of-Mr. Liphschutz to clinch
the argument.

by Maria Nikolaevna Vitashevskaya

S Noto Before -proceeding with the current installment, we like to point out that
there were some errors in No. 68, caused by oversight. The corroations
aro as follows:

Pa3n 42: The onittod heading to the page is "CFHATER VII. THE PRIVATE DESPATCH

For Chapter VII, the order of pages is 42, 43, 45. For Charter VIII, the order
of pages is 45, 44, 46, 47.)
-------------------------------- ------------------------------------------

The forefather of the Marselius family, the Dane Gabriel Marselius, ctae to
Moscow in the first years of the reign of Tsar Michael Romanov. Petor, the son
of Ikrsolius, was born in Russia and oxcorcised great influence in Moscow. Offi-
cially, he was.regarded as the representative of the King of Denmark and he also
conducted diplomatic affairs, but his main activities were in trade and commerce.
Ho was a partner in the metallurgical works of Vinius at Tula and they built factor
ies in association with Thiolmann on the Vaga, Kostroma and Shoksna rivers.

Potor arbselius had two sons, the older, Peter, who succeeded to all commercial
and trado undertaings, and the younror: Lontii, who was a diplomat. The entry of
.Leontii. Mrselius. into the ranks of Russian Postmasters was made by the Muscovite
Government, without any objoctionsbeing raised by anyone. On May 25, 166g, a
ukase was issued, in accordance with which the postal service hitherto conducted
by van $wedon, was henceforth transferred to Leontii vbrselius and a postal routq
was sot up from Moscow to Vilna. The organization cf the mails was entrusted to
the Ambassadorial Office and Leontii TI.rselius-was instructed to go to Kurland
(the Latvian province of Kurzeme). An edict was prepared containing a request to

N. 69 Pag 37

the Kurland Government to lend a helping hand in his undertakings, as well as from
there onwards to Vilna.

Before setting off, Marselius prepared a proposal for organizing the mail service.
First of all, he asked that money be given him for the road, and in addition his semi-
annual salary, which he wanted to allocate to people who would be useful in communi-
cations at Riga, Vilna, Danzig, Hamburg and other cities. However, as to what amount
of money he would need Marselius was silent, pointing out that "how much in wages
they gave formerly for such work, about that it is known at the Office of Secret

On top of that, he asked that a letter be given him from the Relay Head Office
concerning the appointment of postillions at all relay stations to transport trunks
and mailbags with seals. The selected men had to take an oath to the effect that
they would convey mailbags "with care and rapidly, and by day and by night, without
breaking seals and in spite of anything". Marselius promised to pay these postil-
lions himself. The couriers had to be dressed in kaftans (peasant coats) of green
cloth, upon which a badge consisting of an eagle and postal horn was sewn. Ordyn-
Nashchokin himself devised a sample of such insignia.

In conclusion, Marselius asked that edicts be sent to army commanders, directing
them to protect the postillions and not delay them at any point. In accordance with
the orders in the new ukase, 40 sable furs worth 100 rubles each were delivered to
Leontii Marselius and he was then sent on his way to Riga. Having made an agreement
with the Riga Postmaster, Marselius returned to Moscow on August 7, 1668, where he
came to an arrangement with Ordyn-Nashchokin which provided for the acceptance for
transmission of letters from the Ambassadorial Office, as well as from Novgorod and
Pskov, and to convey not only governmental correspondence but also letters and pack-
ages of private parties. After the arrival of Marselius from Riga, Ordyn-Nashchokin
prepared an order for the reorganization of the mails. In accordance with this order,
Leontii Marselius was obligated to conclude a postal treaty with the Riga Postmaster
with regard to the establishment of the transmission of correspondence from Riga to
the border at Pskov and return. It would be required of Riga to forward correspon-
dence from there to all countries to which it was addressed. The Ambassadorial
Office would be able to send by mail all types of edicts and letters, and receive
correspondence from abroad. In connection with the latter, Marselius was necessarily
obligated to deliver newspapers issued abroad, so as to help with preparation of the
"Kuranty" (i.e., "Course of Affairs", derived from the French word "courant"), which
was the first Russian handwritton newspaper. The compilation of this first Russian
newspaper, the "Kuranty", from the translation of newspaper articles published abroad,
from the "warning letters" of army commanders and diplomatic agents as well as from
information received from special persons .working in the Ambassadorial Office, started
from the year 1621.

The Muscovite Government was very much concerned with the quickest possible estab-
lishment of diplomatic relations with foreign countries, and it was therefore in
urgent need of the receipt of information on governments and formalities abroad. It
transpired that in Moscow they did not even know the names of reigning monarchs and
had addressed themselves to rulers who had been dead for long past. The Government
received news about life abroad through its diplomatic representatives and special
agents and at the beginning of 17th century, the f first newspapers began to appear
abroad. It is estimated that the first of these was the newspaper which began pub-
lishing at Strassbourg in the year 1609. The Muscovite Government made great efforts
to obtain them and made extracts from those periodic publications of everything of
especial interest to it. Beginning with the 30s of the 17th century, the Government
received annually from abroad 27 newspapers in German, 7 in Dutch, 5 in French, 2 in
Polish and one each from Italy and Sweden.

Page 38 No. 69

In accordance with regulations, businessmen had the right to send and receive
commercial letters through the mails. It was not permitted to send such letters or
packages by hired persons or travelling merchants as the opportunity arose.

* Not one postillion, as Marselius had originally requested, but a total of three
wore assigned to each relay station. Moroovor, a courier was in readiness at the
border with a horse and cart to accept and despatch the mails. Marsolius was obliga-
ted to make this special order known to the army commanders and clerks at Moscow,
Novgorod and Pskov. The organization of the postal service proceeded so swiftly
that by August 20, the order had already been presented to the army commander at
Pskov. This decree was made known to him first of all, since, as Pskov was especial-
ly close to the Swedish border,. it was to become the main point for the exchange of

The "postal organization" was sot up with an unheard-of speed for those times.
The army commander at Pskov immediately instructed the relay station to select postil-
lions and by August 21 he already had confirmatory replies. On August 26, confirm-
atory advice was rocoived from Zayachyo and other relay stations. In these notes,
the postillions guaranteed that they would drive "quickly" and not convoy any letters
or commissions whatsoever for strangers. If, instead of himself, the postillion sent
another man on a run, the latter would be obligated to be sworn in, just as the post
lion was. In cases where these conditions wore not complied with, officials had the
right to levy fines on the postillions.

The postal uniform, consisting of "Zipuny (peasant coats) with insignia" was
quickly distributed to the relay stations, and in connection with this, Moscow re-
ceived confirmation of the o-pointmont of postillions, arrival of "zipuny" with eagle
insignias, news of the selected men being sworn in, etc. But evidently, the autho-
rities did not succeed in having the regulation uniform tailored in time for all
postillions, and in order not to delay the opening of the mails along the Novgorod
route, an order was sent out to the effect that "according to the ukase of the
Great Sovereign to be sent from Novgorod-Volikii a postillion dressed in a dark-green
kaftan bearing the insignia of an eagle, rapidly with letters of tidings and it is
ordered that letters be conveyed with this aim from relay station to relay station
on .requisitioned horses and carts. And to the manager of the relay station at Bron-
nitsy, those letters held by the courier In his self-made kaftan in which he arrives
from Novgorods are to be sent off immediately to relay station at Zayachyo." From
the relay station at Zayachye, the postillion was obligated to proceed in the same
kaftan to the relay station at Zimnegorsk. At the conclusion of the ukase, it was
stated that kaftanp would soon be sont to all relay stations.

On difficult stretches of the road, there woro agents stationed, upon whom Mos-
cow conferred the long title "that man, who knows about the receipt and despatch of
the mails in .skov or any other city". Among such agents there was the interpreter
Jakob Gittnor at Novgorod, and at Pskov the interprotcr Joachim Fonter, or as the
Russians dubbed him, "Yefim Fenturov", while at Mifnovichi the first agent was
Lieutenant Yelizarii Khukov and later on Faddoi'Kryzhavskii. LAt Smolensk, the intor;
peter Sinoratskii handled the mails, and from 672 it was Ivan Kulbatskii. Accordir
to an official statement by Leontii Marselius, the first'mail to Riga, via Tver' and
Novgorod, -went but on September 17, 1668.

The mail service to Vilna was not organized as quickly as that of Riga. Marsel-
ius did not go to Poland until March 1, 1669 to conclude agreements with mail con+r-
"cters abroad. He was given as before 1CC rubles worth of sables, and at his int+r-
cossion two pairs of sables worth 30'rubles, "indeed 5-soroks or 200 pieces of sable
navels (the most valuable part of the pelt) to the value of 30 rublon" woro preosnte(
as an additional gift to Reinhold Eissing, the Postgtm tr -.t Vllna.

No. 69 Page 39

Marselius was provided with an official travelling document, issued iS the name
of the functionaries of the Polish-Lithuanian State. In this document, mention is
made of the necessity to send "governmental edicts" and all letters with the aim of
maintaining friendship and taking military measures against the common enemy. Fortu-
nately, Marselius was able to have satisfactory arrangements made with the Polish
postillions and the mails left Moscow for Vilna for the first time on March 11, 1669.

Ordyn-Nashchokin ordered that notices be sent out to all foreign merchants, an-
nouncing the organization of postal communications with Sweden and Poland. The times
of receipt and departure of the mails wore sot out in these notices. The mail was to
arrive on Wednesdays at Vilna, and on Thursdays at Novgorod. Russian businessmen
were also informed of the inauguration of the mail services. The opening of the
mails "for matters abroad" was advertised in all suburbs and business districts, so
that everyone would know what conditions applied for sending letters.

The mail service to Riga began functioning in conformance with the order drawn
by Marsolius to the army commander at Pskov. According to this order, letters sent
from Pskov to Riga or Kurland were to be addressed as follows: "To Riga, to Mr.
Rademacher". The letters were put in a mail bag labelled "Riga". Official letters
addressed to Rugodiv (Narva), Kolyvant and Yuryev-Livonskii (Tartu or Dorpat, in
Estonia) were placed in a bag labelled "Valk" and mail for Novgorod had its own spe-
cial bag. Replies addressed to Muscovite sovereign were enclosed in a bag labelled
Moscow. A list had to be enclosed in this bag, stating to what government department
any and all edicts therein were to be delivered. The letters of private parties were
sent from Moscow in those same bags.

The order also stated that even if there were no letters or edicts to be sent
when the mails closed, the postillion was still obligated to set off with an empty
bag on the specified day. This was a very important event in the history of the
Russian Posts; their transmission was no longer dependent on the available occasion
but was put on a regular basis.

Letters from Riga arrived at the border on Wednesdays. There was a special postil-
lion at the Pochory Monastery who sent to the frontier on Wednesday and exchanged
letters there with the courier from Riga. The foreign mails received from the monas-
tery postillion were inspected at the government roundhouse in Pskov; the letters
addressed to Pskov were picked out of the correspondence received and the rest was
carefully packaged and sealed, to be sent to Novgorod and from there to Moscow.

The arrival times for letters from Moscow and closing times for letters handed in
locally were announced beforehand at Pskov. From Pskov, they were sent to Pechory,
where the monasterial courier was waiting for them. Care was taken to see that the
mails were delivered in time so that the courier would get to the border on Wednesdays
to exchange correspondence with the postillion from Riga.

Foreigners living in Pskov were advised that they should never, under any circum-
stances, send their letters either by messengers or travellers. Should anyone be
caught with such letters in their possession, they were t be, taken from him and handed
over to the postillion, while a fine in the amount of one ruble per zolotcnik of weight
(1/7 oz.) was to levied on the sender of the letter.

The "mails" of the "Sovereign" were forwarded free of charge and a rate was estab-
lished applicable to private persons. The charge in Moscow for letters to be sent to
the border was 2 altyns 4 dongas (8 kopeks) per zolotnik of weight; from Novgorod to
the border 8 dengas (4 kopeks); from Pskov to Riga and vice-versa 2 altyns (6 kopeks)
and finally fr6m Pskov to Rugodiv (Narva), Kolyvan' or Yuryev-Livinskii (Tartu) and
vice-versa 2 altyhs, all on a per zolotnik basis. This was a high tariff, since,
for example, 8 kopeks in the second half of the 17th century was equivalent to 1

Page 40 No. 69

THE ANCIENT RUSSIAN POSTS BY Maria Nikolaevna vitashevskaya

Punishment or the
`-Nrl :,-.P---7" HaKa3aie smigHROB 6aToraH. yamsch k postmen with
.. ... l- / :A :.,, CTapmuaax rpaaIopa H TCKCT3 rpa- y p t ith
S-... Moabi foB ropoAcKoMy orae Go*- rods.Anclent engraving
PH-y XKS3iS YpycoBy, 1684 r. and text or the letter
to the voevode of
Novgorod, boyar in Prince
Urusov, 684 order Ing
him to punish the yam-
schiks mercilessly.

ap MbHtunHCA po sal ro ut A s(KAGA 8 i AtH.fiCAAHA Ki I-
HAoWA BAHnKHi rocnAc n ruAMOrA.BiAtHO aMMIynIHl, KOT' .
pis (z flnoTOI roMAIOT?, MtWiaOTHO H OnAOWHO OYpiHHT .
3jHb(t, HT GASTor Ht(pAAHO. A InfpiA npHKna16Tb MH
aiMn"4 il/4 Ct n(1yTO0l CI IrANKHMl nOCntwiiti
TOnM1 IK TOi rOHbGt bIC6pdNHb61i;4 t65ii
AH,H Hn KOr; Hn HAHHMAAH,M Hd iMtIa r gyp**
MturKAAH. A IgAtHO iMM rOHATA n 0830& "
stCT Ii 83 CiH tI 3wMOIo no nATH 61 PUi D
JyHATCA HtnOCAuWHiMl, nfU HOyjMl e e'ap WA Np

Map of the postal routes -1'
of communication in Russia
at the end of the XVII cent. V J
and the beginning of XVIII .0

Kaprj wOouma noy ai coo6qeunr a Poccnu xsOmaH XVII naBIa XVIII as.

ruble 36 kopeks in gold at the beginning of the 20th century. The dissatisfaction
felt by the business community at the high rates charged by the Marselius postal
service was therefore not surprising.

SThe mails went through from Moscow to the Swedish border under favorable con-
ditions for the first three wecks. However, with the onset of the spring thaw, cor-
respondence took appreciably longer to get through. At that time, there were either
no bridges left spanning the roads, or they had been carried away by the spring
tides. For example, the postillions advised that a bridge across one river had boon
completely swept away between the relay stations at Kresttsy and Zimneoorsk, while
at another river, the bridge, though intact, was all under water. "It has become
difficult to drive", they advised, and they askod that they not be penalized for
the delay. The postillions from Torzhok often abandoned their horses during the
spring thaw and dragged the heavy mailbags to Vyshnii Volochek by themselves. The
couriers were sevorly punished for the delay, Thus, in 1671, all postillions who
had been late in delivering mails were ordered to come to Novgorod, where they were
beaten with sticks (see illustration). The couriers were made liable not only for
delays but also for other omissions. In one instance, the postillion Alyoshka Kotok
came into the postal yard on foot. One of the bags he was carrying was found-with
the seal broken. The courier was questioned and Kotok related that he had got into
difficulties. At the Khotelovskii relay station, the mail was brought up to him by
Ivashka Ankudinov. Kotok did not examine the bags carefully but took them on his
way. However, they were not accoptod at Vyshnii Volochek, Torzhok or Tvert, while
at Klin they would not even give him horses and so it turned out that the postillion
had to drag the heavy sacks all by himself from Klin to Moscow, a distance of 45

An order was immediately sent by the Amtassadorial.Office that Ivashka.ankudinov
be interrogated as to whether he took letters cut of that particular bag, and, what
was more important, who instructed him to do so. If "he broke the rule on that oc-
casion without malice aforethought", it would be sufficient to beat him mercilessly
with rods, but if there was evidence of "malpractice", he was to ve sent to Moscow
and "bo put on the rack to got a confession". They questioned Ivashka. The inci-
dent was simply explained; he was going across a bridge when his horse fell down
and the seal broke on one of the bags. He took nothing out of the bag and no one
warned against this anyway. The fault was entirely with the bridge although he him-
self "felt very bad" about it.

It was not only just a case of a bad road that held up the postillions. Here,
for instance, is what Gittner, the representative at Novgorod, told Marselius at- o
end of 1670. The ferrymen on the Veryazha, Cherna and Sumina rivers did not want to
transport the couriers and their bags free of charge. They charged one postillion
2 altyns (6 k6poks) and another one as tiuch as a "poltina" (50kopeks) for the trip.
And when the postillions began protesting that according to the royal ukase there
was really no stipulation that fares be collected from them, the forrymJ n threatened
to kill them.

The task of setting up the postal service to Vilna was performed by Reinhold
Bissing, the Postmaster there. In his view, the main point for foreign correspondence
should be Konigsberg, since it was from there that .the greatet number of letters
was sent. From Konigsberg, the letters could be sent to Moscow via Vilna. The milsls
could be delivered to Moscow in 8 days from Vilna.

With Bissing's arrangement of the service, the procedure for transmitting th- .
mails was as follows: The mail had to be sent.from Vilna on Friday at noon pnd 4t
would arrive in Minsk on Saturday at 3pm. It would then get to Mogilev at nuon on
Monday," and at the border early on Tuesday morning. The mail from Moscow was to
arri-v bloi a* thle seir tmei. Th _1cVritLh ostillion bhd to be back in Moscow

No. 69 .- Fage4

on the same day at midnight (Tuesday night), while his Vilna counterpart was to be
back in Minsk at 5 a.m. on Thursday and finally in Vilna at noon on Friday.

The postillions were provided with a uniform consisting of a red "kaftan"
(peasant coat), together with a leather belt, on which they had a horn suspended,
which they blew, letting the citizens know of their arrival. The postillion was give
a special sheet upon which the day and the hour of the despatch of the mails was
noted. In conjunction with Marselius, the Ambassadorial Office drew up a manual on
the transmission of the mails within the territory of the Muscovite State and it was
sent to the Relay Head Office on March 9, 1669.

We now quote the schedule for the postal service to Vilna, on its first run.
Leaving Moscow, the mail arrived in Mozkaisk on August 4, at Vyazma on the 6th, at
Dorogobuzh the next day, at Smolensk on the 8th and it was delivered to the border
on the 9th of August.

Practically no documentation has come down to us about the mail service to Vilna
during the first years of its existence. The only thing that has been preserved is
a complaint from Bissing, the Postmaster at Vilna. He wrote at the beginning of May
1669 that the last post from Moscow was received by him not in four days time, but
three weeks later. If this sort of thing persisted, foreign traders.would suffer
large losses. Evidently, the mail was not delivered on time even after this, since
the Government often resorted to having the postillions punished with beatings.

In connection with the reorganization of the postal service, many obligations
were placed on the shoulders of the postillions, their responsibility for the mail
being transmitted increased and nobody paid them any money for driving. As a result,
the couriers began writing complaints. In 1671, the postillions at Tvert presented
a petition. In it they stated that on September 12, 1671, they chose three postil-
lions in accordance with the royal ukase. The selected men drove from Tvert to Klin
and from Tver' to Torzhok. During this fast run, they not only tired out their hor-
ses, but also themselves, and so they began to abandon driving. The postillions
themselves could see that the three chosen men were not equal to the task and it was
decided that every men in the relay settlement should convey the mail by turn. At
first, they transported mailbags in good time, but later on, packs of 10 poods weight
(360 lbs) or more began to be accepted for transmission. To carry such loads became
unendurable and delays again appeared. Indeed, all the horses became lame with such
loads on the fast mails and there was no money to buy new ones. In 1668, the wages
still -owing to the postillions at Tver' amounted to 5C rubles, in 1669 to 600 rubles
and in 1670 to 200 rubles. Moreover, they had not received their driving allowances
for the past four years.

Running the mail service was not an easy job, but Marselius did not take any
measures to make: it any bettor. He always blamed the postillions for all mistakes
and he himself constantly complained about them. However, he never once rommembered
that the mailmen should be paid for transporting the mails. By an agreement with
Ordyn-Nashchokin dated August 7, 1668, Marselius was obligated to maintain the postal
with his own resources, but he only paid his agents abroad. The postillions tolorat-
ed this for a while, but soon petitions began arriving in Moscow from them about
non-payment of postal driving allowances. Marselius flatly refused to pay the post-
illions, basing his stand on the fact that driving allowances for the couriers al-
ways came from the Relay Head Office. The government officials agreed with Marsel-
ius' interpretation and it was decided that the annual salaries and driving allow-
ances for the postillions conducting the postal service should be paid in accordance
li-th the scale in force when the service began.

However, in was only in 1672 that the scale of payments was finally established.
In that year, a petAtiou from managers of all relay stations situated on the route

Page 42 No ..69

from Moscow to Pskov was sent to the army commander at Novgorod, in which they asked
that the driving allowances for the postal service be allotted to them. The complaint
was forwarded to Moscow and it was decided there that driving allowances for the post-
al service be given only for two horses from each relay station. No payments were
S allocated for-idle (lay-about) days or for the return trip.

At the end of 1669, two translators at the Ambassadorial Office declared that
Leontii Marselius was conveying foreign newspapers with seals broken. Especially
important information, which was being translated for the Government, appeared to
have become known to all and sundry. "In the German States, it would never come to
this, that the courier would brodk the seals on newspapers", the translators added,
"and if he did convey them with seals broken, then they would punish him for it".

Leontii tMrselius attempted to explain all this by saying that it was necessary
for him to break the seals on the packages, so as to take out personal letters. He
was told that letters addressed to members of his family would be delivered to them,
but they were obligated to deliver the mailbags with seals intact. A few days later,
a more serious charge was leveled against Marselius to the effect that governmental
letters were arriving with broken seals. Even worse than that, the postillions some-
times took the liberty of leaving behind original letters at their homes and carried
copies in their places.

The head of the family, Peter Warselius presentedtd himself to explain. He con-
voyed the bags in a sealed state, but he said that both his son Loontii, and he re-
garded this decroo as reflecting greatly upon them. In conclusion, he stated that
he did not acknowledge it as being possible to break the seals on the bags as prohibit.
ted in the decree and he brought the bags back.

The Government turned for advice to Ordyn-Nashchckin., whose at that time, was cn
ambassadorial business at ?ignovichi. He was sent the rel.avant depositions which
S stated that "the postal service was not being conducted as required by the oati-A !e
took. They break the seals on letters and Marselius said that in future they would
also be broken. It is evident that they copy out information to an unknown extent.
And in regard to golden ducats, there is evidence that many are being forwarded
through the mails and he does not declare them all." Ordyn-Ncshchokin replied that
"Leontii Varselius will give answer for.himself, how he receives the mails; and did
he not take an oath to serve truthfully. This is a state Matter".

During the first years that the Marselius family held the Postmastership, an
attempt was made by them to organize the transmission of mails from Moscow to Arch-
angel. Orc'yn-ashchokin supported this project of the Marselius family and in April
1669, he wrote a letter to the Tsar, stressing the necessity of establishing a mail
service to Archangel. In June 1669, Loontii Marselius, to whom the letter written
by Ordyn--ashchokin was known, presented a petition requesting the establishment of
the new mail service. Letters would not be conveyed all the year round, but only on
a weekly basis from May 1 to October 1. Five foreignn merchants also supported this
proposal. A mail service to Archan-ol wcs also an urgent necessity for the Moscow
merchants who controlled much of the trado with the Northern Territory. It was also
required by the Muscovite Government, since it maintained communications with Europe
via Archangel. However, the petition of Msrselius was rejected. Not even the inter-
cession of Ordyn-Nashchokin was of any hel. Marselius received a reply to the
effect that "the Great Sovereign about the mail service to the City along this route
did not order to be".

The year 1671 was a difficult one for the Marselius family, as their patron,
Ordyn-Nashchokin,died. Loontii Marselius outlived him only by a short time, but the
energetic Peter Marselius saw to it that all postal operations would be inherited
by his son Peter, Jr.

"No. 69 Page 43

A certain man named Xielburger, who was in Moscow in 1674, describes the postal
service at that time as follows. The mail loft Moscow for Novgorod, Pskov and Riga
on Tuesday, and arrived in Moscow on Thursdays. It took the post 9 to 11 days to
go from Moscow to Riga. The rates, as given by Kielburger, are somewhat varied.
For the transmission of letters from Moscow to Novgorod, 6 kop. were paid per zolot-
nik or 1/7 oz. (formerly 8 kop.) The mail to Vilna went out on Wednesday evenings
and arrived the following Wednesday in the morning. It was possible to send letters
by mail via Koenigsberg to all towns in Germany. The rate for a letter from Moscow
to Berlin was 25 kopeks per zolotnik.

Old Peter Marselius died in 1674 and the mail service passed into the hands of
his son, Peter Jr. While the Marselius family formerly had the postal seTvice under
their firm control, Peter Jr. did not know how to handle it. At one stroke, Bissing,
the Postmaster at Vilna, swindled him. He got cut of Marsolius sables worth a fair
amount of money and then arbitrarily charged him for the conveyance of letters at a
very high rate, so that the sables went for next to nothing and he did not pay half
the money owing. After this experience Marsolius began allocating very little atten-
tion to the mail to Vilna, and this service gradually got worse and worse. At times,
the mail only went out once a month. The new "noble-born Master over the Posts" was
also careless about the service to Riga. As a consequence, a ukase was issued on
December 4, 1675, in which it was ordered that "the mail services to Vilna and Riga,
which Peter Marselius directed, under the jurisdiction of the Ambassadorial Office
to be given to the translator Andrei Vinius, for this reason", that "at present the
mails begin to arrive in Moscow not on the specified days, but arrive with a delay
of a day or two".

The charge about the delay of correspondence was well-founded, but apparently
Peter Marselius himself had lost interest in this wearisome operation and he gave
up the mail service without a struggle.
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Page 44 No. 69

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No. 69. Page 45

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Page 46 No. 69

"by I. G. Spasskii

An adaptation from the English summary publisihd with:the or'gal' ausian work,
I which was issued. by the' "R6Siet.tdk i-Khudoshnxi"I Printing Hoerae of teningrad in an
edition of 10,500-copies during 1964. .. -

The pattern ruble of C'G2vihi thhe portrait of.. the. mperoi Ccnstatine is widely
known, not only among 'Russian cbllctors, but also abroad, where several specimens
of this rare-coin have popped up at various times,. Changing their owners and always
increasing in price, these coins rhavo been mneition6d 'frcm time to time in various
auction sale catalogues. IHoeverI, the .rether- 'olutinous -literature dovo.ted to: the
Constantine ruble is not infrequeitly lackingg reliable data as to it: history.

The factual story of the coin began dn November 27,.1325, when the news of-the
death of Emperor Alexander I -in Taggarog reached St. Petersburg. However, it was
tnly on December 12, 125 that it became definitely known that Constantine, the dece-
ased Emperor's brother and successor to the throne, had abdicated his right to the
crown. :Nevertheless, during a fortnight. of general confusion, the St. Petoroburcg fin
was kept busy preparing pattern-dies for the new coins for Emperor Cnstantine, that
were to be issued. Although the Minister of Finance, E. F. Kankrin, was well aware
of uncertainties surrounding the 'succession to the throne, five pattern coins of 1
ruble denomination were struc koff. The coins, manufactured with new dies and old
milling rings, were of a rather rough finish.

Dating back to 1797, i.e. over a space of two decades, Russian coins had been
usually issued without -the portraits of emperors thereon, and although medallists at
the Petersburg Mint had repeatedly produced samples of portrait coins with the effi-
gies of Paul I, Alexander I and lator on of Nocholas I, these samples were never san-
t eioned and coins bearing portraits appeared only from 1886 onward. An attempt in
1825 to strike a coin with the portrait of Emperor Constantine was therefore especial
ly inopportune aind also not successful.

As Constantine had become extremely unpopular among the members of the royal fa-
mily, the Minister of Finance, fearing that' his undertaking would eventually lead to
unpleasant consequences, ordered that all traces of the work done be covered up. By
December 19, 1325, a sealed box containing throo pairs of dies (ono pair complotod
and used to strike off the .coins and the other two pairs unfinished), 19 tin impres-
sions of the dies and another sealed packet containing drawings by the medallist
Jakob Reichel and a report by the Chief of Mint, E I. Ellsrs, was forwarded to the
Ministry of Finances to be stowed away in the secret archives, where they remained
hidden until 1879. At theUsame time in 1825, the-archives received the five pattern
coins which had been struck off.

Jakob Reichel, the doeigher':of the coin and dies, being a keen dol-iCotor and the
owner of a rich numismatic collection, which -was afterwards..acquired by the Hermi-
tage, managed to strike a specion of the cein for himself, after the work had been
stopped. This coin was distinguishable from the others by having a smooth edge, as
Reichel had no milling ring at his disposal. Thus, it turned put that not five but
six pattern coins were struck, one of them devoid of the lettered edge.

In spite of all precautions taken to keep secret the story, of this mysterious
coin, word of it leaked cut into St. Petersburg collecting circles, In order to
avoid any undesirable requests, the Minister of Finance, E. F. Kankrin, spread a
K- rumor that three coins had boon delivered to Constantine in Warsaw and that the
rest of the coins, together with the dies, had been destroyed. This version sounded
very plausible, as,. five years later, Constantine's residence, the Bolvedere !cle-.co
in Warsaw, wa& attacked during the Polish uprising and he hineelf died the next

No. 69 Page Z4

year in 1831. Jakob Reichel, in agreement with kankrin, with whom he was on friend-
ly terms, represented himself a.sethe sole instigator of the Constantine ruble.

SI the 40s and 50s of the 19th century, the coin from the Reichel collection
came into the possession of the well-known numismatist, General.T. F.. Schubert, who
published news of it abroad in 1857, after the death of Nicholas I. Schubert
took the opportunity to claim that his specimen was one of the coins which had been
sent to Warsaw, a safe assertion to make since the personages involved wore already
dead (Constantine in 1831, Kankrin in 1845, Ellers and Reichel in 1856)

It was not until the year 1857 that .an official communique was issued on the
tragic events of December 1825, and among the cQurriers listed as having been sent
on November 27, 1825 toC onstantine in Warsaw, -the-name of Cornet Saburov of the Re-
giment of Hussars was mentioned. When this, now elderly courtier with the reputat-
ion of a foolish gabbler, .heard in-1850s about the-coins sent to Warsaw, he began
assuring everybody that'he was the person who carried the coins.to Constantinel
The version about the coins being delivered to Warsaw and stolen there, was accepted
by the public with complete confidence. Numerous copies were made of Schubert's
specimen for collectors by the gilvanoplastic process,
In 1866, after the death of Schubert and Saburov,.the curator of Hermitage,
Baron B. V. Koehne published the story-of the coin in Berlin,. such as it was known
in St. Petersburg (see "Berliner Blatter fur MNbz-Siegel-und Wappenkunde", Vol. III,
Berlin, 1866, pp. 208-213).

According to Keehne, one of the coins stolen in Warsaw was won by a Russian
general at a game table.in Homburg, a pleasure resort in Southern Germany, and after
the death of the latter, it was purchased by Schubert. Although Koehne fully believe
the story, he finished his article with the Latin quotation "relata refero", i.e.
"I am passing what I heard". This unique ruble became very well known, but shortly
afterwards news appeared about some hitherto unknown finds.

In 1868, the Russian consul in Marsoilles, Prince A. V. Trubetskoi wrote letters
to his cousin-Count S. G. Stroganov, Baron Koehne and Prince Alexander of Hossen in
Darmstadt, asking them all to become a party to buying up five of the Constantine
rubles. According to Trubetskoi, the coins belonged to a widow of a Polish emigre
who had appropriated them in 1830. Trubotskoi supplemented his letters with photo-
copies of his correspondence with the trustee of the owner, and with photos and
castings of the coins.

Trubotskoits coins were struck at a high technical lovol. Like the Schubert
coin, which was then the only one .known, they had unlottored.edgoo and differed
from it only in the setting of the dies. However9 the figures on Trubetskoi's
coins were more typical of the style current in the 1C5Ce and 1860s.

Prince Trubetskoi, who had formerly been an officer in the Chevaliers de Garde
Regiment, had tarnished his reputation by his lose friendship with Dantes, the
assassin of 'the geat Russian poet, A. S. Pushkin, and. by the role -he played in the
infamous persecution of the poet. In 1845, he .retired with the rank of colonel and
he had been abroad since 1852, disobeying the order of Tsar Nicholas I to return
to Russia. He was threatened with court-martial, but the Emperor died. Upon his
return home, Trubetskoi re-entered the military service and retired in 1857. From
1868 to 1874s.he occupied the post of Russian consul in various Mediterranean,

The number oT coins offered for sale, five. instead of three, inspired no confi-
dence in Trubetskoi' offers and they were met with coldness. Rumors were spread in
St. Petersburg that Trubetdkoi was attempting to dispose of forgeries and this

Page 48 No. 69

"ON T T T"ACI OF A ?A?J. C0r, by I, 7 3- 3:'II

noAAAHHHni py6AB KoHcTarHTr a. InoNeAbHbii py6AS Tpy6eKoro.
Authentic Constantine rouble The counterfeit Trubetzkoi rouble

Flo-IIHHbli pyOAb. FIoAeAAbHUH py6Ab.
Authentic rouble The counterfeit rouble

P\CCKd>i lOUe.AKd pyO6. KOHCTaHTIIHa 113 6blB-
iruro co6pdHlia M. nIAi)omKHHa
lpoeKTHbLe pHCyHIUI AAA py6A KoHCTarHTHHa.ro c06pn (1). N%. HAioi a
poeKTHbe fp C oHK ain ro Russian counterfeit of the Constantine trouble.
Drawings for Constantine trouble Form'-rlv in the collection of F. M Plushkin

opinion was expressed forcibly by Baron Koehne. To save his reputation. Trubetskoi
published a pamphlet at Marseilles in 1873 in a printing of 40 copies, bringing to
light his correspondence with all persons concerned. Ho. attempted to- rove that
* Schubertt s coin VaS' a- counterfeit fabricated abroad. '

According to Trubetskoi, he persuaded a certain Vons.iQur E. Giraiit,; a.cpin doal-
S" er and the representative of "Mr. Webster, a rich Aericen collect' from .Kntucky"
to buy the five coins In one, lot and to elnh.nge two of them, .whit e th other- three,
as affirmodby-yGiratilt, wpt.don in .the shiprec of. thbo -Oity of Boston", together
with 1Wbsterts luggage in January 1870. Inn substantition of.'this'-story, Tiubetskoi
publiahed-Girault't'letters on'the subject. However, up to-the present time, all
endoavors to ascertain tho existencee of "Mr. Webster, a rich Amoriiden collector from
Kentucky" have failed. Trtbtskol turned -over one. of his .-coins to -the Hormitage.
To support the-version of.iv e coins havingg been sont to Warsaw, Trubetskoi
referred to Saburov, but the letters published by. the -former-roeverted.that Sa.burcv
was' not certain about the exact number.. BMoroeove the letters of ZSfrbgancv n.
Prince Aloxnder- of Hessen poitad qut. that Kankrinn himself-had publicized a story
that only. three coins had been delivered to Constantine I In his letter .dated -16C_,
Stroganov mentioned the rumors. that the 1325 dies were still in existence and hid-
don in St. Petersburg.. .

In 1874, a well-known St. Petersburg numismatist Yu. B. Iversen, published news
of tin impressions taken from the original dies for both sides of the Roichel ruble,
taken from the collection of A. F. Byohkcv, without referring to their origin, and
he described the Trubetskoi ruble as a counterfeit.

In 1G78, Baron Koohne published in the Russian journal "Vsomirnaya Illustratsiya'
Vol .9, p..327, an anonymous article, in which he repeated the facts given in his
S publication in 1866 and attacked Trubotskoi, accusing him of fraud. Moreover, he
republished the article in 1379 in the "Revue Belge do.Numismatique", V. XXXVII,
terminating it with a bitter attack on Trubetskoi. However, ho was obliged to add
a special note to his reprinted article) informing the reader that while the article
was going to press, five Constantine rubles together with the original dies, tin
impressions from the same and some documents pertaining thereto, had just been dis-
covered in the Ministry of Finance.

However, the position of Trubetskoi was even more embarasping. Being much less
informed than Koehne, the moment he read the article in the "Revuo Belge do Numis-
mrtique", he issued.yet another booklet in July 1-79, in which he persisted with the
Warsaw version of five coins and on. the destruction of the dies, and declared that
the coins and the dies found in the Ministry of Finance were a fabrication of a
Intor date.

In 18IC, St. Petersburg numismatist, .D. F. Koboeko who had occupied the post
of Master of -the Chancry'"at the Janietry of FMinace until 1079,- and who undoubtctly
had-relicable information at :i's disposal,. made public the finds in the archives cf
the ,fnistry, including the contents of the 1825 documents, thus ascertaining the
authenticity of the dies and coins in question.

In June 1879, Emperor ialonder II requested the coins'from the Ministry. Ont.
piece he kept for himself, another he donated to the Hermitage, end. he gave the
other throoe to the Grand Dukes Georgii ikhailovich and Sergoi iaeksandrovich, an3
Prince Alexander of Hesson respectively. The dies remained at the Kfnistry until
1GC4, when they wore transferred to the Hermitage. The 17 tin impreesiona and tbo
'drawings by Reichol did not enter the Hermitage uitil 1917.

The future fate of the coins was as follows. The Hermitage specimen remains

No. 69 Page 49

in place, The Alexander coin was transferred from the former imperial palace to
the Hermitage collection in 1927;' it has been housed 'in the State Historical Museum
in Moscow since 1930., This specimen is the best as to its quality and execution.

"Prince'Alexander of Hesaen received his coin in 1880' it was listed in the
work "Munzkabinet des Prinzen Alexander von Hessen. Numismatisch-genealogische
Serien, S. 1, p. '209", published ;in 189. It: was ;sold 'it th' MBerzbacher auction in
Munich in 1914 for a price of 14,350 narks and it was bought by Virgil M. Brand, a
collector from Chicago, who at.that time had another specimen of the Constantine
S ruble bought a year before .(this piece will be mentioned .lter on). After the death
of the towner in 1926, .th isiee passed to. his younger brother, Horace Brand, who
didd in 1963. It has recentlyy become known` that Hora6e Brand s ruble with a lettered
edge is to be sold. at auction in fucerne, Switzerland in the -autumn of 1964.

Grand Duke Georgii Mikhailovich obtained his coin in June 1879 and listed it
for the first time in his book "Opisanie i izobrazhenie nekotorykh-redkikh monet
moyego sobraniya", St. .Peter.sbbrg, 1886 as well as in his second publication
"Monety tsarstvovaniya imp. Nikfolaa I", St. Petersburg, pp.XII and :261-262, pub-
S lished in 1890.

"Impressions were issued of the genuine coin, the unfinished dies and the Trub-
otskoi ruble which he had acquired some time in 1886. In-1909, the Grand Duke
donated his numismatic collection to the Museum of Alexander III, now the Russian
State Museum. In 1917, during World War I, the collection was evacuated to Moscow
for safety and around about 1918, it was stolen and transferred abroad where it
came into the hands of the original collector's widow. In 1950, a portion of the
gold and platinum coins and medals from the collection, which had been catalogued
for sale as far back as 1939, were sold at Christie's. The balance of the collect-
ion was brought to the U.S. and, after passing through several hands it was recent-
ly acquired by the Smithsonian Institution, where apparently both the Constantine
rubles, the genuine and Trubetskoi specimens, will be housed.

A piece with a lettered edge, which was sold in 1898 for 1280 marks by the firm
L. & L. Hamburger of Frankfurt-on-Main, had been in the collection of either a "well
known French collector" or Signor Pettinati of Sestri, Italy, and it can be identi--
fied using the method of exclusion as the coin originally belonging to the Grand Duke
Sergei Aleksandrovich. The further fate of-the coin is unknown.

It can be taken for granted that the information relating to a genuine Constan-
tine ruble in the possession of a 1r. E. Szpalrowski of Australia, which recently
appeared in the relevant literature (E. SZPAKOWSKI. "A rare ruble", published in
"The Numismatist", Sept. 1960, pp. 1787-1789)., is unreliable. The specimen is a
crudely struck counterfeit. An exactly similar specimen is in the Hermitage col-
lection of counterfeits and can also be found in many Russian collections. The
illustration given in Mr. Szpakowski's paper is of a different coin, which is quite

SAs we have already said, the only:authehtic Constantine ruble extant without
inscription along the edge, passed.from Reichel's collection to General T.F.
Schubert. After his death in 1865, the whole of his collection including the
Constantine ruble which was estimated at 400 rubles, was purchased by the brothers
D.I. and I.I. Tolstoi. In 1913 I.I. Tolstoi sold all the 19th century coins at the
Hess auction. The Constantine rublo.was bought, as mentioned: above, by Virgil M.
Brand for 11,250,marks. Aftor Brand's death in 1926, the coin passed to his older
brother, Armand Brand, then to G. D. Gibbs of Pittsburgh, Pas, and later on it
turned up in the collection of King Farouk of Egypt. In 1954, the Government': of the
Republic of Egypt sold the collection at the Sotheby Sale No. 2559 and the cin was
purchased by Andrew Kelpsh of Miami Beach, Fla. Mr. Kelpsh died in 1961 and the
subsequent fate of the coin is'as yet unkn6on.
Page 50 No. 69

Such are the available facts concerning the six authentic coins of 1825. How-
ever, early in 1962, a Leningrader presented for expertization at the Hermitage ano-
ther specimen of a smooth-edged Constantine coin. This coin exactly matched the dies,
leaving no doubt as to it having been struck with their ,help.: Ittturned out that this
Particular coin became known for the first time in the period froi 1917 to 1919, i.e.
after the death of I. Tolstoi n 1916, when -it was in the collection of the St. Peter-
burg numismatist, L. Ch. Joseph,'" The Hermitage .curetor .A_.&A: Ilyin, who was thoroug-
ly familiar, with the.Tbolto.i:oll section identified the coin as the Constantine ruble
From the above collecliob, but he was unable to explain .hw itrotrmned to. Russia.
When J6seph--diod in 1919, his widow disposed -of the coins over a period of time.
Possibly T. F. 'Richter,, the gradfdther .of,the present owners wife, bought the ruble
directlyy from the widow. Richter died in 1938.

Although it had been struck back in 1825,- it is 'difficult explain why such a
rare coin remained unVnown after 7Shubertsa. publi1ation of the existence o'f his spe-
cimen, or even nfter 17'9, when the -Gonsthntine ruble elicited such great interest.
It may be assumed that the coin was struck by Reichel,. probably'to show 'it t the
Minister of Finance, E. F. Kankrin. Not being a collector himself, the. latter added
it to the five pieces placed in.'the archives of the Ministry in 1825. It should be
pointed out here that among the documents kept with the dies and other articles,
there is no mention anywhere of the number of coins placed in the archives. For some
time, D. F. Koboko, who has been mentioned above and who was a keen numismatist, was
a custodian of the coins in the Ministry. He died in 1916, i.e. at about the time
when the coin appeared in Joseph's collection.

Earon Koehne, and after him, several other authors, asserted that the Trubetskoi
rubles were fabricated in large numbers and even pointed to 50 pieces as a possible
figure. However, in contrast to the genuine Constantine ruble, this counterfeit coin
has never been encountered in the auction sale catalogues. As a matter of fact, it
is a great rarity. The specimen re6eivod from Trubetskoi is still housed at the
Hermitage, and the second one, which was incorporated in the collection of the Grand
Duke Goorgii likhallovich some time after 1806, is at present in the Smithsonian In-
stitution. Trubetskoi, who died in 1889, insisted on the factual existence of only
two coins, the other three having been buried at the bottom of the ocean.

However, one more Trubetskoi ruble cane to light in the collection of the Steward
of the Court, G. P. Alekseev, prior to 1917. After-the 1917 revolution, this coin
was in the hands of the Leningrad numismatist M. I. Antonov and from him it passed
on to P. M. Isayov. The latter died on December 31, 1941 during the Leningrad block-
ade. Just before his death, he showed the coin, which he to,:k for the genuine Con-
stantine ruble, to one of.his pupils, V. M. Brabich, who is still living in Leningrad.
There is reason to believe that the coin has remained in Leningrad and that it will
turn up sooner or later. It may be expected tbht the loss of three other coins was
a pure invention of Trubetskoi and that at least two more specimens have survived.

by L. HL Stone .

Further to the article on the "sskrin'ta" markings for the Carpatho-4kraine, pub-
lished in Rossica No. 68, I have tc'itional proof impressions of bilingual Hungarian
Ruthenian cancels prepared during the Hungarian Administration of 1939-1944. These
wore intended for RPOs operating within the province, or through to Hungary proper.
The impressions I hold are in two distinct sizes, with diameters of 3Cmm. (see Fi&..
S 1 to 5) and 25-26mm. respectively (see figs. 6 to 12). The details are as follows:-

FiF. I. Double-circle type with extended datebridge as shown, reading BUDAPEST
at top and KOROSMEZO-YASIN:. 33 at bottom, with the serial letter "A" below the

No. 69 Fap 51

datebridge, struck on a square of orange-colored paper* The unusual thing about
"this type is that the date of both the departure and expected arrival are given.
In the example shown here, the dates'read "XII.31.39.1.-I", or December 31, 1939
January 1, to indicate that it left Budapest on December 31 and arrived at Korosmezo
(Yasina) the day after. Actually, the year date should read "40" and not "39",
since in Hungarian style the full dates are always quoted as year, month, day, in W
that order and .Hungary did not again control of this part of the province until
March 16, 1939.

-I also have'this same type cancel, again in proof impression on orange paper,
with the letter:"B" and dates"t XII.26.39.XII.27" and finally.with loettor "C" dated

Fig. 2. This shows the return route KOROSMEZO-YASINA/BUDAPEST 33, which I have
Again on the orange paper with'letters "A" and "B",-both dated "XII.25.39.XII.26".
The "G" letter also exists but I do not have.an impression of-it.

Fie. 3. This again was prepared for KOROSE=ZO-YASNA/BUDAPEST route, which is
now numbered as "34" and there is ho hyphen separating the Hungarian and "Ruthenian"
or Ukrainian names at top. It is known in three types A, B & C, -of which I have the
last two as proofs on white paper this time, both dated "VII.27.40.VII.27".

Fig. 4. Another route, reading BUDAPEST/TARACKOZ-TERESHVA 39, cancels of which
I have as proofs on pink paper, with letter "A" dated "XII.27.39.XII.28", letter "B"
dated "XII.27.39.XII.27" and finally letter "C" dated "XII.28.39.XII.29".

Fig. 5. The return trip for route No. 39, again as proofs struck on pink paper.
I have letter"A" dated "XII.27.39.XII.27" and letter "C" dated "XII.27.39.XII.28".
Letter "B" is Ienown to exist but I have no details of it.

Fig. 6. Reverting to the smaller standard size of Hungarian cancels, we now
have a continuous style marking reading BUDABEST-FOROSMEZO YASINA with number 34
at bottom, struck on white paper with letters A, B, or C flanking the route number
and all three dated "40.VII.27" (July 27, 1940).

Another route apparently in this style is reported to be numbered "61" and
inscribed VOLOC VOLOVETS-MUNKACS (Volovets to Mukachevo). Perhaps some of your
readers could turn up some strikes from this route.

We now turn to unnumbered routes operating within the province and some of
them pose unusual problems:

Fig. 7 (I. II. III). The full route is given in Hungarian at top and in Ruth-
enian at bottom, in this case TSARCKOZ-KOROSMSZO/TERESHVA.YASINA, again struck on
white paper and in three types, all dated "39.XII.27" (December 27, 1939). However,
instead of a letter indication below the datebridge, these types are inscribed "I.jm'
"II.jm" and "III.jm". respectively, as shown. In an attempted explanation of those
three types, I can only say that I have other Hungarian provisional RFO markings in
a rectangular form, known to have been applied in the Carpatho-Ukraine, all number,
and showing in full the Hungarian word nJEQSZEKELOMETETI, which apparently means
"listing of the forward trip" and it appears that "jm" is an abbreviation of this
word. -The Latin numerals "I", "II", and "III" are probably specific stages of this
route. Comments and clarification from readers would especially be welcome.

Fig. 8 (I. II, II). This is the. same route as above, again as proofs with
the same date, but now operating in the opposite direction. Three types are also
known here, but this time the stages are inscribed "I.km", "II.km" or "III.km"
below the datebridge. This is a real puzzler, but the abbreviation "km" may possible:
stand for "kilometer".
Page 52 No. 69
Io 6

Fig. 9. This is another bilingual "ji" typo, but without stages, :fdr- the TLRAC-
KOZ-KIRALYMEZO/TERESHVA-USTCHOHINA:route, struck on white paper. and dated 39.XI.il"
(November 18, 1939).

Fing 10. Sqws .the samo route .operating i the apposite direction with tho
same date. -- :: '

Fig. 11. Again a "jm" type without stages, but in continuous style marking read-
ing BEREGSAS -1KOVACSRST.-KUSHNITSA datod "39.X1.16" (November 16, 1939)., :This is
Boregovo-4uushnitsa .-oute and Fig 12 shows it with the same date operating in the
other direction. : .: ..- .

Another "jm" route, poss'tbly in:tha ceontit ouws style of Figs. 11 & 12, is believes
to read UNGVLR-FETYvESVOLGY STABPICI .(Uzhgorod to Stavnoe) but I do not possess an

All the fore-oi:ng markings, and specially those of the internal routes, are
very scarce, but I may remind readers that it should be possible to find examples
on tho cheap postage stamps issued by Hungary between 1939 aid 194, thus making
an interesting and inexpensive field for specialization by Czechoslovak, Hungarian
and Ukrainian enthusiasts.

(Addenda by M. M. Bykov)

See Rossika No. 68, pp. 59-64

0 Due to unpardonable negligence of the author the last page of the abovemontionod
article was not sent to the editor of "Rossica" together with the manuscript and,
therefore, the list of the offices of the City of Khabarovsk and the Maritime Terri-
tory whero the registration of the paper money was made according to the ruling of
the Provisional Government of Siberia rs of October 17, 1918 was not given comploto.
In the continuation is presented the end of the list.

One also meets the paper-money with the stamp "b" of Khabarovsk Branch of the
..State Ban'r and the stamps of various offices and institutions of the Maritime Terri-
tory; those stamps are "Yilnskaya Volostnaya Zemskaya Uprava" type (Zemstvo of the
Maritime Territory); it is not possible to indicate exetly which stamps were used
for particular notes of different denominations due to'the lack of exact-information.

IX. Volispolkpm of Blagoslovepnoe Settlement" (Volostnoi Ispolnitelny Komitet -
District, Exoutiye QComr tee). : :
X, Viaspaskaya Volptnaya.Zo maya Uprava
XI. Pravlenie GIUovage -oselka ( Magement of'Glinav Village).
:XII. DormidontovsKayaV'olostnay Zemskaya Uprava
XIII. Ekaterilo-likoldky Volostnoi Komitet of Public Safety-
XIV. Zenkovslaya. Volostnaya Zemsdaya Uprava
XV. Ivanovskii Volostnoi Komitet Obshchestvennoi Bezopasncsti, (public safot-)
XVI. Kniaze-Volkondkayn Volostnaya Zemskaya Upravn
XVII. Kosmodemianskaya Volostnaya Zemskaya Uprava
XVIII. Lermontovgkaya Volostnaya Zemskaya Uprava
XIX. Nekrasovskaya Volostnaya Zemskaya Uprava
XX. Nizhne--Tmbovdkaya Volostnaya Zemskaya Uprava
XXI. Po jeiskaya Volostnaya Zeiskaya Uprava
XXII. Troitskaya Volostnaya Zomskaya Uprava

No. 9 Page 53

XXIII. Tunguzskaya Volostnaya Zemskaya Uprava
XXIV Khabarovskaya Uyezdnaya Zemskaya Uprava
XXV Tcherniaevskaya Stanichnaya Zemskaya Uprava

The following offices stamped with the pre-1917 eagle seal, i.e. with the double-i
headed State Eagle with the crowns in the center of the seal and the-name of the _
office on'the band around the eagle. Thestamp "b"' of the Khabarovsk Branch of the
State Bank was not used.

XXVI. Gosudarstv.(ennaya) Sbereg.(atelnaya) Kassa No. 532. (State Savings Office).
This office existed with the Khabarovsk Branch of the State Bank.
XXVII. Gosudarstv.(ennaya) Sbereg.(atelnaya) Kassa No..789, (with the Khabarovsk
Treasury) ( a
XXVIII. Khabarovskoye Kaznacheistvo (Khabarovk Treasury)
0 .ooooooooooo.ooooooooo0oooo

by M. M. Bvkov

Following the October Bolshevik revolution in Petrograd the Comissar of the
Russian Provisiohal Government with the General Governorship of the Maritime Terri-
tory, A. N. Rusakov called, in December 1917 in the City of Khabarovsk (Gen. Gover-
nor's residence), a meeting of the City and Zemstvo self-governments. This meeting
established on December 11, 1917 a "Zemstvo Bureau" to which Mr. A. N. Rusanov turn-
ed over his rights and functions. The "Zemstvo Bureau" has moved its residence to
the City og Blagoveshchensk. The Regional Zemstvo Conference, called by the "Zemstvc
Bureau decided on January 12, 1918 to dismiss the Bureau and took unto itself full
administrative powers.A .month later, on the 6th of February of the same year the
Regional Soviet of Workers, Peasants and Soldiers' Beputees liquidated the Zemstvo
Organization and the City self-governments and concentrated all the functions of
governing the territory in the hands of the Excutive Committee of the Soviets of
of the Territory ("ISPOLKOMR) headed by its president F. Makhin organizing locally
the Soviets of the Workmen. The power of ISPOLKOM and the Workmen Soviets lasted
until September 18, 1918, when the City of Blagoveshchensk was occupied by the
troops of the anti-bolshevik organizations and the government of the territory was
headed again by the "Zemstvo" which gave itself the title of Provisional Amur Govern.

Already in the middle of the summer of 1917, in the middle of the seasonal work
in the territory and with a considerable influx of itinerant labor there was begin-
ning to bb felt a shortage of small money change and the Blagoveshchensk Branch of tl
State Bank demanded urgently a reinforcement of its stock of small change. But
Petrograd, trying to deal with many high demands for money reinforcements from the
provinces, was issuing large amounts of 1,000 rub. bank notes ("DUMKI") and there-
fore was not physically able to comply with the demand of the Branch. Searching for
a solution to the continually increasing local money.shortage, Petrograd gave per-
mission by telegraph to use, along with the paper money, coupons of the State Bonds;
this issue did improve the situation for a short time only and in the beginning of -
November the Blagoveshchensk Branch of the State Bank after exhausting all its stock
of the bond coupons and small change was forced to close its cashier's office. Due
to these circumstances the City Self-government of Blagoveshchensk, with 'he permis-
sion of the local Branch of the State Bank, decided to issue its own paper money in
one and three ruble denominations. These notes, following the design of local paLh
er, were printed in one of the local typo-lithographer's shops on plain white thick
paper without watermarks; both denominations with the same drawing, size 14SxS8amn
on the obverse side in the middle of the note a shield with the coat of arms of
Amur Territory with a heraldic wand above, bundles of grain ears tied with ribbons
and two banners on the sides, two olive branches; under the ribbon a narrow strip

Pare 54 No. 69

of cloth tied to the bracket. This strip has printed on it the value of the note,
"one ruble" or "three 'tbles" and "1917"; name of the note "Blagoveshchensk City
Exchange Note" on upper edge' of the note, large 7mm high serial numbers printed on
'the left and on the right of central vignette (Photo 3). On the reverse side: An
eagle with wings spread, holding in its paws a snale anda half-open scroll on which,
handwritten, using the old orthography, is the-text: "These notes are changed
for the State Banknotes, ruble for ruble, in all credit institutions of the territo-
"ry-. City Mayor: Alexeevsky; Bodkeeper: Al Nilov; Cashier: A. Sergeev; on the
side of the scroll the denomination "rub. 1 rub." or drub. 3 rnb." and a warning
under the scroll (Photo 1) "Forgery prosecuted by law". The colors: 1 rub. brown,
light.brown, slightly rosy, three rubles brown on light yellow-green paper. The
1 rub. note was issued on January 11, 1918, in the quantity of 168,500i otes and the
three rubles on January 26 in the quantity of 200,000. Disregarding the changes in
"the Territorial and City governments, these notes without changes in the year, title
and names were re-issued again in the following quantities:. on February 15, 1918 -
207,300 of one ruble notes and 533,8e0 three ruble notes on February 27, April 19
and May 17, 1918. The total face value of all those notes was 2,574,80C rubles
(Photos 1 & 3).

The Executive Committee of the Soviets of Amur Territory (ISPOlXOM) has received
from the Zemstvo in February 1918, together with'the administrative power an empty
cash box, and thus, did not show any intention of stopping the printing or circula-
tion in the territory of the paper money with the signatures of persons that had left
the political arena. On the.contrary, the Ispolkom decided to increase the useful
notes by adding to the issue notes of 1C and 25 rub. denomination. These notes were
of the same design as the city issue of 1 and 3 rub., with the only changes in the
name of the note and the signature of the officials, also omitting one word in the
text, but conserving the old type of spelling, of "Amur Territory" instead of
"Blagoveshchensd City". On the reverse side the the word "Gorodskikh" (of the city)
"has disappeared. The inscription now reads: "The exchange of these notes.......".
* Instead of the signatures of the city officials there are the signatures of the
'territory officials: "President of the .S.V.R. & S.D. Th(omas) Mukhin", who was
the President of the Soviet of Peasants, Workmen and Soldiers' Deputees; "Comissar
of the State Bank C. Kurotchk-in". The IC ruble notes were in red and 25 ruble
notes in grayish violet. The notes were dated "1918" and were printed on thick,
smooth,white paper, watermarked with wavy lines.

N 0 .T E: The paper was manufactured in Germany by "Poensgen & Co.", Birgisch,
Gladbach (AK41). The paper from this factory was also used in 1918 to print the
10 ruble paper money of the Riga Council of Workmen's Deputoes and in 1919 Latvian
postage stamps, the credit notes of the RSFSR (Russian Socialistic Federated Soviet
Republic) in 1921 and numerous issues of"Notgeld" money notes, in Germany (special
paper money for prisoners of war).

The "Amur Territory Change Note" of 10 ruble denomination was issued on April
10, 1918 to the value of 5C4,0CO rubles. This was followed on April 17 by 43,60C -
25 ruble notes to the value of 1,090,CCO rubles. These notes were not reissued
probablybecause there was no moro paper 1oft with watermark in stock. Meanwhile,
the money shortage not only continued but was increasing, and to alleviate the shortage
the ISPOCKOM on May 25 of the same year issued another paper money note of 5 ruble
denomination. This :note was 10/,x69mm in size, but had a new drawing similar to the
preceding City and Territorial notes;..- in the center the same shield with the Amur
Territory coat of arms, surrounded on three.sides by. the oak branches with the leaves
and acorns, tied with a -ribbon that has a bow under the shield;. "1918" above the
shield and under the date ("1918") "Amur Territory Change Note". To the left of the
coat arms is the serial number in large 7mm high figures and to the right serial
letters of the same height as the numbers on the left. Undor the shield, in large
handwritten letters, slanting to the right, the value of the note "Five Rubles".

No. 69 Page 55

The frame was surrounded by two thin lines with small ornaments in the corners.
(Photo 10). On the reverse side of the notes is the same text as on the previously
issued territorial notes, in the old spelling and the same inscription as on the
notes issued by Mlkhin. Because of him all Blagoveshchensk territorial notes have
received the nickname of "Mukhinka". The text is enclosed in a rectangular frame of
complicated "Rococo" French style design. On the upper side, under the frame is a
line with value "rub. 5 rub.", and below, under the frame is "Forgery prosecuted
by the law" all of this is in a frame Is on the obverse side. The notes are blue
with light blue network, printed on thick, smooth unwatermarked white paper (Photo
6). There were three printings of this issue, one following another, one month
apart June 15, July 6 and August 12. The total issue was 1,326,000 notes to the
value of 6,630,000 rubles. Simultaneously with the last printing a 100 ruble note
was issued, in the same design, size and even color as the 5 ruble note. The net-
work on the new note was light brown, and on the background on the reverse side,
behind the text was added, colorless (white), large 22mm high figure of "100"
(Photos 5 & 6). Due to numerous printings of these values several kinds of paper
were used, all unwatermarked: white, same with yellow shade, "Vergee" all of
different thicknesses and quality. By September 1918 there were 6 printings of this
denomination totaling 569,930 notes, valued 56,953,000 rubles.

A new 15 ruble note was issued on July 24, 1918, printed on the promissory note
paper manufactured by the State Government Printing Offi3e in Petrograd, stocks of
which worofound in the stores of the State Bank and Treasury. These promisory
notes had a very complicated watermark, consisting of the State coat of arms and a
double inscription "Promissory Note Paper" in two shades. Two conditions were to
be kept in mind when starting printing the new notes:

1. To conserve in the new design of the new value note the two main elements
of the previous designs, i.e., the Amur Territory coat of arms and the
text with the signatures of the officials.
2. To economise on paper, i.e. by printing as many notes as possible on each
sheet of the promissore note paper.

Each promissory note sheet had 235x110mm of space free from the old promissory
note ornament and text. On each sheet by decreasing the height of the note by 9mm
it was possible to place four notes of 105x58mm, vertically (Photos 4 & 9). By
the obverse side of the note is called the face side of the note, i.e. the one that
has the title or the name of the note. The new 15 ruble note has the name "Amur
Territory Change Note", in two lines. It is on top of the familiar text of the old
issues, which previously was found on the reverse side of the note. At the sides
of the text is the denomination of the note, in two lines. A large colorless
numeral "15" is under the line of the title, and a frame in form of a narrow panel
with symmetrically place figures, drawn in Rococo styles surround that side of the
note. The text and the signatures are in buff red, while the background and the
line around the white numeral "15" are.yellowish'green. The coat of arms of the
Amur territory, which we have' been accustomed to see on the obverse side of the
notes of the old issues, is now on the left of the reverse side. The right side
is now decorated with a large 12mm.high, figure "15", under which is the word
"rublei", also in large letters. Theyear date is under the coat of arms, and above
it in large black figures is the serial number, The coat of arms, the leaves of
the wreath, year, and the background are green, while the value and the inscriptl-.
regarding forging are in buff-red. The drawing and the ornaments of the frame,
found on the obverse side, are buff-red. (See photo ).

The second printing of this value was issued on August 2, totalling 264,250
notes with the value of 3,963,750 rubles. Further issues of this value were stop-
ped, probably because all of the promissory note paper was used up*

Page 56 No. 69

The rule of the government of the Amur Territory Ispolkom ended on September 18,
.1918; the power was taken over by Zemstvo, which proclaimed itself the "Provisional
Government of Amur". The change in the government did not eliminate cn acute short-
* age of money notes either in town or in all territory and the provisional government
finding it physically impossible to satisfy the demand, ordered on September 20, 1918
as a substitute for the paper notes," circulation of certain kinds of State valuable
papers and obligations. These were the treasury notes and the Freedom Loan bonds
of 20, 40, 50 and 100 ruble denomination, same as their coupons. But since the
Blagoveshchensi- Branch of the State Bank, as mentioned previously, had already used
up all existing bonds and coupons by the end of 1917, the order of the provisional
government could not change the existing conditions. So, to cope with the absence
of paper notes, and to eliminate the seriods'aftermaths of the financial crisis which
would occur at the end of the season's work, the Provisional Government of Amur on
September 27, 1918, or one week f2ter it rocoived the power from the bolsheviv go-
vernment issued the "Amur Territory Chango Notes", i.e. the "Mukhinkas" in 10C ruble
denominations to the value of 9,115,000 rubles. The noted were issued without any
changes or additions in the text, and with'the same signatures oT the members of the
territorial Ispolkom as before. On October I, the 100 ruble' "Mukhinkas" were re-
issued to the value of 8,918,600 rubles. "In total the Amur Provisional Government
issued 18,033,600 rubles worth of "Mukhinkas".

"At the same time, the Blagoveshchendk City Self-government feeling acutely the
lack of money decided to replenish its treasury by-issuing "Blagoveshchensk City
Change Notes" of 1 ruble denomination. These notes were prepared originally in
1917 and issued at the beginning of 1918. This time the city self-government decided
to issue these notes without any changes in the text, thus conserving the changes
in the signatures of the city mayor and other officials, and only changing the year
of issue 1918" land the right hand side number of the series from numerals to letters
This issue amounting to 331,000 rubles was made on November 2, 1918. .(Photo E).

0 The monetary crisis in the territory freed from bolsheviks became general, cau-
sing the provisional government of Siberia to issue a decree of Oct. 17, 1918, in
accordance with which it temporarily allowed the use of the paper money issued by
the Soviet authorities of towns of Khabarovsk, Chita, and in the Amur Territory.
A definite condition was issued for the use of this money, and it was that these
money notes would be resealed until a certain date and that they could circulate
only in the territories for which they wore originally issued, to be exchanged later
for the notes of the Siberian Government.

The above decision of the Siberian Provisional Governient was communicated to
the Blagoveshchensk Branch of the State Ban1r by Mr. Skorolhodov, manager of the
Siberian State Bank in his telegram No. 1C5 of October 19, 1918. Mr. Kirilov, ma-
nager of the Blagoveshchensk Branch of the State Ban'-, in turn, advised the city
self-governments, Zemstvo district offices and security committees of Amur Territory
of the above decision, indicating the procedure of the registry of the city and
territorial paper money (those of Alxev and M1khin). 'This was to be done gradual-
ly, so as not to leave the population without money notes. They established the
order in which the non-registered notes were to be exchanged for the registered
ones; also confirmed that the stamping of the notes will be done only in the Blago-
veshchensk Branch of the State Bank and established the time limit for the stamping,
which was until December 31, 1918. They also declared that for the registry'there
will be used a stamp carrying the following te't: "Registered by.Blagoveshchensk
Branch of the State Ban'", with date, month, year and cashier's signature. On
stamped n'tes there will be placed also a seal of the Blagoveshchensk Branh of the
State Bank bearing the coat of arms. Later on, the time limit was extended several
times by the Government of Admiral Kolchak, the last extension being oi August 1,

No. 69 Page 57

The registry of the notes started immediately after the publication of the above
ruling of the Provisional Siberian Government, and in the order as indicated by the
manager of the Blagoveshchensk Branch of the State Bank. The population delivered
a:part of the notes to local authorities who made a list of the notes and gave a re-
ceipt. The local authorities,in turn, sent these notes to the Blagoveshchensk Branc
of the State Bank where the registry was made,only by using the abovementioned
stamp and seal. There were two 1inds of seals:

1. A rubber seal, the application of which made an impression of the letters and
Sof the coat of arms in the color of the ink.
2. A metal one, for the sealing Wax, which when used with inki gave the full
circle in the color of the ink, while the letters and eagle remained in the
color of the paper.

The round metal seal (Photos 3 & 7) is 30imm in diameter. The Imperial Eagle
has the crowns in the middle, and around the eagle, in a circle is inscription in
ordinary, vertical typographed letters, reading: at top "Of the State Bank" and
below "Blagoveshchensk Branch",(Branch being abbreviated). There were two types of
rubber stamps used, both with the imperial eagle in the middle as in metal ones, and
having the same type letters' inscriptions,' but of different diameters and having
different distribution of text. The are as follows:

1. Diameter 31 to 31 mm. Inscription Same as on the wax stamp, but without
the abbreviation of the word "Branch". The inscription is *GOSUDARSTVENNAGO

Total There are three varieties of the coat of arms seals. As we have men-
tioned above, the text was declared preciously by the manager of the Blagoveshchensk
Branch of the State Bank. This text in the stamp is distributed in five lines, and
reads "Registered in Blagovesch(ensk) Br(anch) of the St(ate) Bank.... .Xl 1918.
Cashier......". The text is in a rectangular frame of two lines, thick exterior
and thin interior line. The length of the frame is 43 to 436imm. and the height is
31 to 32m2m. The letters are inclined to the right with the capital letters being
msm and the others3mm high. The letter "a" in all places is in the old Slavic
form "az" for "a" (See photos 2, 3, 4 and 8). All letters are without thickening
or rounded parts as customarily used in drawing of the letters.
(to be concluded in # 70)

000000000000000000000o000000000000000000.00000o 0000000000000000000000o0oo00000000o
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
o beginning World War One from o
0 0
0 o
o Dr. J.K U D E R E WI C Z 142 Tarrytown Rd. MANCHESTER, N. H. o
0 o

Page 58 No. 69


Vsevolod Popov, Nyack, New York

I have before me a registered cover, eize 4x5 3/4 inches (ll2xl4-cm) and I en-
close photographs of both sides. It was sent on Oct. 31, 1923 from Sevastopol' to
Libava (Liepaa in Latvia). I would like to add that apart from its small size, the
cover is made of ordinary paper. This additional fact I regard as unusual because of
the strange franking on the cover. The envelope was prepaid with the following stamp,
of USSR: 2 copies of the 5 rubles of 1923 issue azure with the head of a peasant
(Scott #240; Yvert 220; Gibbons 322; Zumstein 213), 16 copies of the 1OC rubles
orange, head of a soldier, of the1923 issue (Scott #237; Yvert 208; Gibbons 310;
Zumstein 207), 2 copies of the 3 kop. red "gold currency" lithographed 1923 issue,
imperf. with the head of a soldier (Scott #252; Yvert 233; Gibbons 337; Zumstein
222) and finally 3 copies of the 10 kop. of the sane issue in blue (Scott #256;
Yvert 240; Gibbons 341; Zumstein 229) Thus the total franving came to 1610 rubles
in 1923 currency together with 36 kop. in "gold currency".

Covers of the USSR from the end of 1923 with mixed franlrings of the ruble values
issued before the currency reform of October 1923, together with kopek values in the
gold equivalents are rarely met with, but the unusual thing about the cover described
here is not this latter fact, but the total amount of fran.ing. This took place at
a time when an ordinary letter cost 5 kop. in gold and a registered letter 10 Vop.,
within the country. The rate for transmitting an ordinary letter abroad at that time
is not khown to me, but it could not have been higher than 10 kop. (or for registered
mail 20 kop.). I suggest that the rate for sending an ordinary letter within the
USSR at that time was equal to 5 kop. gold per unit of weight and not 6 kop. as
generally thought. Here is the reason why.

At the end of 1923, I was living with my uncle's family in Moscow. Wy two cousins
and I all collectedd stamps. On one occasion, a letter was received from the Far
East, franked with a "new" stamp, the "D.V./ top. 5 kop./Zolotom" surcharged on the
10 rubies azuro (Far Eastern Republic, Scott #69; Yvert 18; Gibbons 129). I dis-
tinctly remember that there was only the one stamp on the cover, but I do not recol-
lect which of the three of us.got the stamp!

Getting back to tho cover under discussion, some figures reading 57/50/285C in
a darker shade of blacv ini than that of the addresses of.the sender and receiver
and "zavaznoo" or registered notation, are also given on the face of the cover.
What they mean I do not know, but I repeat that the size and especially the paper
from which the cover was made does not support the supposition that anything else but
the letter was enclosed in tho envelope. Whatever the contents wero, they were the
reason for the unusual franking.

I would just lire to add that this especially interesting cover w'as acquired by
me for 750 in the fall of 1964 upon visiting the ASDA show in New York City, to where
I had come ovoe from :the joint meeting of the members of the Rossica Society and the
BSRP, being hold concurrently at the Vanderbilt Hotel.

EDITORL'L COMMF T: We than Mr. Popov for bringing this very unusual cover to our
attention and we certainly agree that mixed frankings of the 1923 ruble values an- :.
succeeding gold kopec values are rarely encountered. We welcome comments on the
points that Mr. Popov has raised and we like to supply hereunder the following infor-
"mation, which may help our readers to arrive at some definite conclusions and thus
solve the problem posed:-

First of all, we quote from the very useful booklet "The Postage Stamps of the

No. 69 Page 59

Soviet Republics, 1917-1925" by Godfrey White (Harris Publications Ltd., London
1925). The author states that when the gold ropeck stamps were first issued, the
smallest banknote (currency bill) in the gold currency was the chervonets, or ten
gold rubles, then worth $5.40 U.S. funds or 22/6 English funds. As a result, the
gold Iopecik stamps were sold for banknotes of the 1923 currency at the exchange rate
as published daily by the Controlling Commission of the Moscow Trade Exchange.
Treasury notes in the values of 2, 3 and 5 rubles in gold were issued in January
192 but notes of smaller denominations and silver coinage did not appear until
May June 1924. Some exchange rates of the 1923 currency as against the gold ruble
were as follows:

1923, July 15: 85 rubles 1923 currency to 1 gold ruble.
1923, Nov. 10: 800 rubles 1923 currency to 1 gold ruble.
1923. Dec. 10: 1700 rubles 1923 currency to 1 gold ruble.
1924, Feb. 15: 13200 rubles 1923 currency to 1 gold ruble.
19224 March : 50000 rubles 1923 currency to 1 gold ruble. (Stabilized rate)

According to Mr. White, the gold currency postal rate were fixed as follows:

Inland letters 6 kop. Foreign postcards 12 lop.
Inland postcards 3 kop. Registration fee 20 l;op.
Foreign letters 20 kop. for 20gr. or 2/3 oz. Airmail fee 20 kop.

The foregoing rates certainly seem to have been correct during the earliest pe-
riod of the gold currency, since they are all matched by the four values of the
Lenin mourning set issued on January 27, 1924. It may therefore be assumed that
when Mr. Popov's cover was handed in for registration at Sevastopolt on Oct'. 31,
1923, the total cost for it to go to Latvia would have amounted to 40 gold kopecks,
of which 36 ropeci-s were covered by the gold currency stamps on the cover. This
leaves the remaining 4 gold rop. to be accounted for by 1610 rubles in the 1923
currency, and reference to the rates quoted above will show that this does not
balance out. The manuscript figures on the front of the cover, referred to by Mr.
Popov as being in darker blacl ink, are a multiplication operation: 57x50 to give
2850. If we assume that the rato was fcr some reason 50 kop. and that's gold kop.
was equal to 57 of 1923 rubles, this still does not balance with the 36 1-op. in gold
values already affixed to the cover, so this multiplication may not have any con-
nection at all with the rate charged and may have been placed on the cover by the
receiver at a late date. All of us have, at some time or another, seen arithmetic
worked out on covers which have been used as scratch paper.

Finally, it should be pointed out that the original gold rates were apparently
found to be too high, at least for foreign sending, since we have seen covers of
later years addressed abroad in which the total postage was appreciably lower. Per-
haps some of our specialists of this early Soviet period could go into this subject
for our readers.. The fact that r, Popov noticed a 5 kop. gold rate from the Far
East at the end of 1923 for an-ordinary letter to Moscow may only mean that the
tariff in the Far East was temporarily slightly lower or even that the letter was
underpaid by 1 kop.

Dr. A. H. Wortman, London, England

Referring to the importance of the Ungeni Border P.O., as.demonstrated by A.
Cronin and D. N. Minchev in Nos. 66 & 68, I have an 1886 cover from Helsingfors,
Finland to Yambol, Bulgaria, endorsed "via Burgas", which appears to have travelled
by the following routes- From Helsingfors Poststation Sept. 21, 1886 (new style)
by the Finland Railway to S.P.Burg Warsaw Rlwy. Stn. dated Sept. 10 (old style and
thus one day later), then S. Peterburg 5 Eksp. of the same date, proceeding on RPO

Page 60 No. 69


KINW ADLRB: Back and front of
musKU;ll "MI a or mOffieial
Matter" entire of 1860, from
U3STILG (Udektg), Volhiynia
pubers as, to arsar h Russian '
Polish Kingdom.
Dr. A.H i M ,':
fBrly circular |----
1IOZAL oeua ti ***-
from Polta, in 1905 0
tUsUkrairn W, L
dated February 1
6, 1905. Y ,

"rext ." S Figs. 1 & 2: "Takea out of
'+" ,. a le ter box" notations.
SFig, 3 Special cancel with
"I.,,. "MBMTE" Latinitsa error. A BAH
SL304 TA

u4MKa. 6- WIn/Cdr. Peter I. Padget:
fr Bilingual Ulghwr-Russian
fIoqm.-Tei. lunoeHuif .%t cx- oancel from SAN, N. W.
Sinkiang (I-Li Republio of
1 4-b9 IL),

S /10/7

evoo< l i"

_L).V. Popov'S Cov._ ;
*< Mo...-- From C+ Ioed.-'tc"r4' -

route No. 5, dated Sept. 11 to Vilna (no postmark), followed by RPO No. 21 via
Kazatin to Odessa (no marking), from there with RPO No. 49 dated Sept. 14 to Ungeni
.wheYe it received Cronin's second type postmark of the same date and reaching Rust-
' chuk in Bulgaria two days later. It then got to Burgas, where it appears to have
been handled by'the Sofia-Burgas RPO, a faintstrile of which is dated Sept. 18,
1886. The total transit time was apparently 9 days. What a journey!

I pow want to raise the question of'the earliest usage of the word "vokzal', in
both the circular and oval type postmarks. Andy Cronin has a postcard to Riga with
a circular marking in blue-green reading "COITA-VOtZAL SUVALK. G.I. POCHT. OTD. I"
(now Alytus in Lithuania) dated May 29, 19C2 in the same style as my POLTAVA VOKZAL
marking of 1905 illustrhtod herewith and which I have struck on a 3 kop. Charity of
1905. By the way, I should still like to hear of any 1905 oval Vokzals or earlier.
My Irlutsk of August 1904 is the earliest I have heard of so far.

Kurt Adler, New York, New York.

I like to report an interesting Imperial entire I recently acquired, sent from
"Ustilug (Usciug) in Volhynia gubernia and addressed in Polish to Warsaw, apparently
in the year 1860, to judge from a pencilled note in Polish on the front of the cover.
The 10 kop."Russian stamp of 1858 issue, perf. 12-, received the normal "71" triangle
of dots marking in black. According to the red WARSAWA arrival markr applied, it
was received there on October 11. So far so good.

"-However, the unusual thing about the cover is the addition of a boxed "I.R."
marking with trimmed corners at top loft. It measures 22x11-mm. The very-same
initials in a different styling are to be found on the wax seal at the back of
entire. The clAos to the meaning of those initials are found by consulting a very
fine"German work published by Hermann Doningor in 1963 and entitled "Handbuch der'
abgelurzten verphilatelistischen Stempaln" (Handbook of abbreviated pre-stamp mark-
ings) ,Verlag Georg Amm, 8500 Nurnberg, Kirchenweg 56-8). They appear-to stand for
"Interes Rzadowy" of "Official Matter", and it would be interesting to know if our
Polish collogaues can come up with other types which wore applied in the Russian
portion of Poland.

Ustilug is on the Western Bug river, 7 miles west of Vladimir-Volynskii, in the
Western Ukraine. Both the postmark and the postage applied indicate that it was not
considered as a part of the Polish Kingdom in 1860, and yet the Polish "I.R." marking
and wax seal was applied there.

A. Cronin, New York, New. York

The Ukrainian marl-ing meaning "taken out of a letter box", referred to by Kurt
Adler in No. 68 points to the fact that similar notations also occur in the Russian
language and two examples are quoted:

The first, found on a private letter-card in the Kurt Adler collection, is add-
r6ssed to Roval and was mailedat St. Petersburg 1 Eksp. on Sept. 18, 1903. Unfor-
tunately, the sender'forgot to fti-' it and it'was assessed for 14 kop. postage due,
as shown by a St. Petersburg 1 iksp. Doplatit' oval marking at the bottom of the
card. To confirm this, an imperforate label, printed in blacr on blue paper and
suitably inscribed to cover all post'offices in the city, was affixed to the top of
the letter card. The horizontal inscription in its top right-hand portion roads as
follows in five lines: "Taken out of a box / without stamps / with a stamp formerly
"in / use / P.T. Official". The idea was to strike out the reason which did not
apply, in this case the reference to a previously used stamp. (see illustration 1).

No-. 69 Page 61

Perhaps other large cities employed a similar procedure and it would be interesting
to hear about them.

The second example is a 3 kop. on 5 kop. postal stationery envelope, which a Mr.
August Harvart mailed to himself at Schrader House on Sadovniri from a letter box
near Moscow 5 Eksp. on November 11, 1909. A postal sorter apparently noticed it
and placed on the bac' a three-line unframed cachet in violet reading "Taken out of
a postal / box. / Post. Tel. Official", conscientiously adding in ink the note
"without enclosure" and signing his name (Sea ill. 2). It was delivered the next
day by the 35th City P.O.

Turning now to the Latinitsa errors as described in No. 68, an example found
on a special cancel of 1958 can now be described. This is an interesting type,
inscribed in Russian and Latin for the International Geoligical Congress held at
Kiev from November 16-29, 1958 and specifically for the Conference of the Carpatho-
Balkan Association. Below the year date "1958", the international geological motto
is given in Latin and it means "With the mind and the hammer". It should read
"MENTE ET MALLEO", but the Russian or Ukrainian engraver has made the understandable
mistaore of using the Cyrillic "H" for the Latin "N", so that the word "MENTE" act-
ualy reads "ME (H) TE" (See ill. 3).

Wing Commander Peter I. Padget, Weston-super-Mare. England

I would like to bring to the attention of your members some details of an un-
usual issue of postage stamps, which appeared in the province of Sinkiang, China
and cancelled with bilingual markings inscribed in Uighur and Russiant The Uighurs
form the bulk of the population and they are related liguistically to Kazakhs and
Uzbels of the USSR.

Iii November 1944, a native Uighur uprising against the Chinese authorities took
place in N.W. Sinkiang and resulted in the formation of the I-Li-Moslem Government,
with its capital in Chuguchak. This regime overprinted the stocks on hand of the
Chinese issues of Sinkiang with a diamond-shaped design in red, showing the Moslem
star and crescent in the upper corner and an Uighur inscription below in Arabic
letters, reading "Devlet Banlasi" or literally "The State, its Bank". The stamps
known to have been so treated are the following:

Scott Sinlriank Nos. 163, 164, 166, 169-173 and China J83
Gibbons Sinkiang Nos. 182, 183, 185, 188-192 and China D74
Yvert Turkestan Orientale Nos. 125, 126, 128, 131-135 and Chine Taxe 62
Michel Ostturkestan Nos. 179, 180, 182, 185-189 and Chine Porto 74

A set of four crudely printed definitive followed and I believe all these
issues were valid until Oct. 1949.

Used copies are really scarce and I have been fortunate enough to acquire a
pair of the 200 value (the first of the catalogue numbers stated above), used on
piece and cancelled in red with an unusual marking, having a diameter of 26 mm,
and reading "SAVAJT / POSTASI" of "Savan, its Post" at top in two lines in Uighur,
something undecipherable in the center and at bottom two lines of Russian reading
"SAVAN / POCHTA" or "Savan Post Office" (See illustration). The word "savan" means
"meadow" or "prarie" in the Tur-i languages, of which Uighur is a member and on
checking the "Atlas Mira", the town has been found to be situated 31 miles (50km)
N.W. of. Manas, in N.W. Sinliang. The Chinese name for the locality is SHAWAT.

It seems certain that bilingual cancels must exist for other towns situated in
this short-lived I-Li Republic, especially for the capital at Chuguchak. Perhaps <

Page 62 No. 69

your members formerly resident in China could checi their collections of Sinkiang
overprints of the 1944-1949 period and advise any other cancels they might find
in this interesting type. (See illustration).

SFredUSpeers, 118 North Caroline Way, Escondido, California

I was particularly interested in the thorough and lucid article in No. 68 by R.
Srlareyski, "Additional Notes on Poltava Zemstvos." For my part, I am inclined to
concur with his observation that "One may construe from various data in hand that
perhaps Poltava Zemstvo stamps are much more philatelic than Mr Bulak thinks and
that their usage for postal purposes was limited".

I have in the past been in correspondence with both Mr. Sklarevslri and Mr. Bulak
and I have the greatest respect for their contributions to the Zemstvo field.

For what it may be worth I am giving here the reasons why I'n inclined to agree
with Mr. SI'larevs!i's surmise. I happen to have a rather large representation of
Poltava in by collection--73 different items among 163 stamps, including singles,
pairs, blocks, etc. Mr. Sklarevsri mentions Schmidt's No. 26 (1k. in black on 6>.
dc-ep lilac) and quotes the Fabergo 1940 sale catalogue as saying only 25 copies were
overprinted. That figure, of course, was ta'-en from the Schmidt opus which also
said that 25 copies of the 11,300 copies of this basic stamp were overprinted.

Well, this is all very fine and good, but I only wish that I could accept the
figure of 25 overprinted as factual, Understand that I do"not deny the figure, but
I don't accept it. One reason is that I have two of the 1k. in black on 6k. deep .
lilac---and I have no reason to doubt their authenticity.

S Then there are the strange cases of the February 11, 1912, handstamped over-
prints in pale yellowish red on the 10 and 15k. values. Only 82 of each were report-
edly so handstamped. Yet, here's little old me with three examples of the former
and one of the latter. Somehow, I just can't imagine myself to be sc-fortunate.
But, if perchance I should be so fortunate then I might hopefully look in my general
collection for a US 24-cent inverted air mail. There is none.

Basically, I'm inclined to bolie"v that the overprint figures cited--25 and 82
were to low but were accepted by C. Schmidt, "Architekt", without question from
sources he believed reliable. If we pass over the ever-present possibility of for-
"gery we can surmise in amplification of Mr. Sklarevs-i's speculation that (1) un-
Vnown to Schmidt's source more were overprinted, or (2) that Schmidt's source did
knowingly falsify the figures. There is no reason whatsoever, I would say, that
Schmidt would knowingly have been a party to such falsification.

R. Polchaninoff, Brooklyn- New York

Revaluation of illustrated Stamped Envelcpos of USSR. In connection with mone-
tary reform in 1961 in'USSR, new'valua envelopes began to be printed beginning with
November 1960. Ministry of Communications was probably advised six month in advanc-
of the forthcoming monetary reform and therefore started to issue stamped envelopes
with the inscription reading "Beginning January 1, 1961 value /"stamped envelope
5 arop."; color of 40 kop. stamp. Due to the fact, that a stock of unissued enve-
'lopes existed in the storerooms (issuance of any envelope for sale is usually pre-
ceeded by a special announcement of the Minstry) of the issues printed.in the begin-
ning of 1960 and even in 1959, it was necessary to overprint them as mentioned above
before issuing them. The overprint was made in the color of the stamp.

No. 69' Page 63

My correspondent in Leningrad advised me that only one type of stamped envelope
with and without overprint existed, that being the one with the view of steamship
"Admiral NaThimov".

Because at the time of the monetary reform large stocks of stamped envelopes ef
old values were on hand in many of the post offices, the Ministry of Communicatio,
sent to all large post offices a hand stamp; same for all post offices. For various
reasons, numerous post offices prepared their own hand stamps of various types, which
they used to overprint the stamped envelopes of old values. Collectors are having
a great deal of world in classifying numerous local overprints. Besides the post
offices, "Souyzpechat'" likewise, sold"revalued envelopes, using their own handstamps
with inscription reading"New value.... kop", where at times the value was inserted
by hand.

The writer of this note, together with E. Fomin, the author of the article
"Contemporary Stamped Envelopes of USSR'J which appeared in Rossica No. 67, have
began compiling a catalogue of illustrated stamped envelopes of USSR. We are asking
those readers of Rossica who are interested in the illustrated envelopes and their
cataloguing to help us. "Those living in Americas are urged to contact the writer
at 4llMontaul Ave., Brooklyn 8, N.Y., USA and those in other countries Eduard Fomin
of 8 Ibnchen 54 Rubinstr. 9. West Germany.

Dr. C. de Stackelberg, Washington. D.C.

I have read with'much interest Mr. M.M. Kessler's article on the "Dalny Field
Telegraph Branch Cancellation" in #68 Rossica.

Russian Imperial Postal communication were always established in a logical manner
to provide the fastest service possible. This why I feel that there is something,
let me say "odd" about the cancellation #4 on this cover. This cancellation is of
the 17th Field Post Office, which probably in about 1900 was transferred from the
Priamurskaya Oblast of Siberia to-Dalny. The cancellation on this cover is only
"similar" at best, as compared to the illustration of the F.P.O. 17 cancellation in
S.D. Tchilinghirian & W.S .E.Stephen's famous boot "Stamps of the Russian Empire,
Used Abroad. Part V".

This cover was first stamped on being registered at the civilian post office at
Dalny on 4.24.1903. Then one day later, on 25.4.1903 it was stamped by the 17th
F.P.O. From there on, all of the following cancellations are logical, being affixed
each time this letter was transferred froj one postal sector to the noxt.

The dilay of one day between the Dalny P.O. and the 17th F.P.O. is not great,
but it makes me wonder whether the F.P.O. in 1903 was still located in Dalny and
had not been transferred to some other location, to a point where the mail from.
Dalny was transferred to the Chinese Eastern Railway. It must be recalled that"the
C. E. Ry. was at this time still only being built, between Port Arthur and MIkden.
Thus the new location of the 17th F.P.O. could have been in Pulandyan, the last
railway station of the Lyan-Tung Leasehold or even somewhere further north towards
Mikden. (See map of this area in #65 Rossica, opp. page 34).

All this of course is pure speculation on my part, but it seems logical that
the 17th F.P.O. could by 1903 have been transferred "up the line" of postal communi-
cations from Dalny, to the junction with or the starting point of C.E.Ry.

By the way, the reproduction of F.P.O. 17 cancellation in Tchilinghirians' boot
seems to show an "i" in Cyrillic characters after "1"; unfortunately it is not
discernable on the illustration of Kessler's article in Rossica. As the "i" referee

Page 64 No. 69

to Fol. Pocht. Kontora it should have been in correct Russian Cyrillic "ja" and
not "i"! Possibly it is only an error, which occurred when this cancellation was
copied to be used as an illustration in Tchilinghirian book.

S I also read with interest it. Popov's note about the 1 ruble stamp of 1910/16,
with the overprint "YITAI", but perforated 10, instead of the usual 13 or the very
rare 12--, which Mr. Popov described in the Rossica some years ago. This stamp per-
forate 10 must be a complete fal-e as:

1. Perforating machine gauging 10 never existed at the Government Printing Office in
Petrograd, where these stamps were printed, perforated and overprinted.
2. The last printing of these stamps occurred either in 1915 or 1916.
3. The imperforate 1 ruble stamps, without this surcharge appeared for the first
time only in 1917.

Thus the faker used an imperforate 1 ruble stamp of 1917 or of a later printing
and applied a faoed "ITAI" overprint. Such fal-ed overprints are rather common.
After this he perfor-ted the imperforate stamp with perforation 10, and which is now
being sold as a rarity. Only the original imperforate stamp of 1 ruble of 1917 or
of a later printing is genuine, perhaps as well as the cancellation of the Station
Djalainor on the C.E. Ry. But what is the date of usage: Nevertheless I wonder,
why and how a 1 ruble impe!rforato stamp, without the 7ITAI overprint, was accepted
after 1900 for postage in :".nchuria

That the stamp is signed by "DI.'." does not impress nm. Ho is well r-nown and
respected e-pertizer of Italian stramps, but I never heard that he also was a certi-
fied expc- f Russian stamps.

One sentence of Mr. Popov's note intrigues me, and i.e. "Judging by the size
of the stamp, the unshaded lines, which may be seen on the photo and which separate
one issue of this value from, the other", etc.

What does Mr. Popov moan by this! I never herd that there were 1 ruble stamps
of different sizes, similar to the 15 and 7C rop. stamps of 1921/22 or does he refer
to the difference of the overall size of th' 1 ruble stamps, between perforations.
Nor do I not know anything about the difference in sheding, to distinguish the vari-
ous printings of this stamp; twelve printings in lil, as listed by Tr. Fohs in
#32 of the B.J.R.P. Should ir. Popov have discov-roe! adfiti6nal facts about these
stamps, we all would be very thsnkfull if he would m.'-3 it known to the public by
writing an article about it in the next issue of the Rossica.

Since Mr. Popov published his interesting note on page 14 of #65 of the Rossica,
bringing our attention to the very rare 1 ruble stamp overprinted "KITAI", but per-
forated 12V, instead of the usual 137, not one of our roeadrs apparently has commen-
ted about this rarity. The only explanation I can offer is that by some reason
some sheets were perforated on machine gauging 12-_, which was usually only used to
perforate the 191L Charity issue and some fiscal stamps. Perhaps when completing
this order at the Government Printing Office in Petrograd some sheets did not pass
the strict controls, which still existed at that time, .and some.additional sheets
had to be perforated anew, using the 122 gauge, as the machine using 13- gauge was
being used for some rush order. It is said that in 1919 this machine perforating
12- was evacuated from Potrogral to Perm end was used there to perforate 1, 3r- 5_r.
5 and.7 ruble stamps of the so-called "Perm Issue".

No. 69 Page 65

V. Kurbas, New York

My comments on the article in No. 69 by Mr. Stone

The author should clear up the point why the names of such important towns as
Uzhgorod, Mukachevo and Beregovo are found on postmarks only in Hungarian version
as Ungvar, Munlracs and Beregszasz. The author, it seems, lists all of these towns
to Hung-ry proper, when in realty they were torn away from Carpatho Russia or Car-
patho-Ukraine by so called Vienna Arbitration (Ribbentrop-Ciano). Thus, all the
important towns were, with the exception of Khust, occupied by Hungarians, cut-
ting off as a result, all the arteries of communication, which rendered the "indepen-
dence" of this region an impossibility.

Comments on Dr. Wortman's "Notes" in No. 69

A train from Helsingfors in 1886 could never reach the station of St. Peters-
burg-Warsaw R.R. Finlandskii VoTlzal or Station, as the Vokzal IRIOSKOI narrow
gauge RR. in St. Petersburg was on the right or north shore of Neva River. It
nearly touched the river, but there was no railroad bridge there, only a regular
road bridge. The station of the Warsaw RR, later entering into the system of the
Baltic RR was on the southern shore of Nova, and in an entirely different end of
the town. Later, before the war in 1914, a bridge was constructed to connect the
railroads, but in an entirely different place, above, considering the flow of Neva
current, probably in connection of the building of a second line uniting St. Peters-
burg with a net of Finnish railroads at Station Khitola.

Thus, the order of travel of this letter was as follows:

1. From Hel.-igfors to the station of Finnish RR. then by a post coach to Ekspedit-
sia 5, and only then to the Warsaw station or VoVzal.
2. Further travels of Dr. Wortmanis letter seem fantastic. He must have used a
PR guide close to 1914 vintage plotting a route that did not exist in 1886.
Beginning of the route St. P.-Vilna is in order. Further Dr. Wortman sends the
the letter on Vilna-Sarni line. This line was started as far as construction is
is concerned in 1883. Was it completed three years later! I doubt it, Five
large bridges had to be constructed across Niemen, Schdru, Pripet, Gorin and
Sluch, likewise such time spent in drying out the Pinsk marshess through which
the railroad had to stretch for great distances.
Further, why was it necessary to tale the letter to Kiev, especially on the
line Sarni-Kiev. I know this road well, even its smallest stops, as I used it
very often in going to University of Kiev. Line Kovel-Sarni-Kiev was built
approximately in 1909. When I used it for the first time in 1911, many small
stops or small stations were not built as yet and were substituted by temporary
houses or railroad cars. The railroad was not even in the project stage in
1886, while the station Sarni (now town) was apoor village not even found on
detailed maps.

The route could have been, in 1886, Vilna-Belostok, which was the continu-
ation of St. P.-Warsaw, Belosto0-Brost-Kovel-Privislanskoi, and Kovel-Kazatin-
Jmorinrka-Razdolnaya-Ungeni South-Westarn RR.


FIMi L_ D FRTE ORTSSTEPEL ("Finland Early Town Cancels") by Rolf Gummeson. A
96-pace booklet published by the author at Stock-holm, Sweden in April, 1964. No
price given.

This study, although entirely in German, is very easy to follow and is undoubted
Page 66 No. 69
mtNo. 69

The finest work so far in its field. With a glossy cover and printed on fine qua-
lity surfaced paper. Mr. Gummeson gives us a richly illustrated array of early-
Finnish markings from 1812 to 1870s, including pictures of each typo of Jancelling
S device. Of especial interest to our members are the first pro-stamp markings in
an unframed single-line'style, quaintly engraved in Russian letters by the Finns
and applied between 1812 and 1847. 'They all are rare and appear to have been ne-
glected so far by our specialists. If so, then:this book will certainly convert
them I Many fine covers fronmprivate collections, archives and museums are shown
to exemplify the various markings and the work includes. an exhaustive table- of dog-
grees of scarcity, list of colors applied, statistical data on post offices and the
pieces of mail each has handled annually at various times from 1845 to 1873, current
names for post offices, a list of acknowledgements and finally a comprehensive

Mr. Gummeson is one of the foremost dealers in his country and the booklet is
wonderful example of typical Swedish diligence and research. Interested readers
may write in English to ROLF GUMDSON A.B., Kungsgatan 55/III, Stockholm, Sweden
to order copies.

RUSSISCH AUF ERIEFMAREEN ("Russian on Postage Stamps") by Dr.. Hans-Joachim Lioes-
sner. Published by Transpress, Berlin 1963. A paperback containing 256 pages and
priced at DMV7.

The title.does not tell the full story about this unusual bool, since it is
actually-a basic course in the Russian language for German philatelists, using the
inscriptions on Russian and Soviet stamps as grammatical examples and even quoting
the catalogue numbers. A totil of 24 lessons are given, with the student cutting
his teeth i. the last chapter on a slab of Russian philatelic prose. A key is added
to all the exercises, the grammar carefully indexed and an extensive glossary is
is given of all inscriptions to be found on stamps issued down to the end of 1962,
being a great help to any topicalist. All abreviations found on the stamps are
then listed, followed by a Russo-Gorman glossary of philatelic terms arranged under
various headings, a bibliography and 8 plates of stamp illustrations.

A book on somewhat similar lines in English would be the ideal way for many of
our"roadors to learn Russian in a relatively painless way. However, unless such a
work had a wide sale, its selling price would be high due to technical problems
involved in setting the book up.

INNOSTRANITES.I RUSSI(E ORDENA DO 1917 GODA ("Foreign and Russian orders up to the
year 1917") by 'I.G.. Spasski. Published by the Hermitage Printery, Leningrad 1963,
in an edition of 10,000 copies. ..Contains 196 pages, including 42 large plates of
orders and insignia in natural colors. Price 2 rubles.
SThe author of this book is now known to our'-readers on account of his excellent
investigations of the Cbnstantine ruble of 1825. The material in this .present work
is based on the holdings of the worl-famous Hermitage WMseum, which have been on
permanent display there since 1956 Mr. Spasdsi includes an astonishing amount of
information on orders and their insignia from most countries of the world, including
a specialized treatment on those from Russia, tho Daghestan Wars and the..Khanato
of .Bukhlra. His reserches have helped clear up many misconceptions ubout the orders
from Bukhara and in general he has "Uidboded -in combining new and old facts to pro-
duce a highly useful and readable work.

A.short resume in English is included, all the orders are indexed, there is a
comprehensive bibliography in several languages and the book is well bound and fi
nely'printed on good quality paper, the colored plates alone.being worth much more

No. 69 Page 67

than the very low published price. As a result, the book sold out in a flash and
it has already become a rarity.

of place-names of Central and Eastern Europe during the 19th and 20 Centuries) by
Henryk BatowsTi. Published by Panstwowe Wydawnictwo NauVowe, Warsaw 1964 in an
edition of 2750 copies. Contains XLV plus 86 pages and priced at 34 zlotys.

Although intended primarily for the Polish reader, no other Slav will have dif-
ficulty in following this work. After a preface describing the criteria applied
in compiling the dictionary so as to cover all Central and Eastern European states
as far as the Urals, the author gives a concise historical outline of the entire
area under treatment from the beginning of the 19th Century with'notes on the change.
of national boundaries and at the end of this chapter, all the regions and countries
are indexed for easy reference. This is followed by a classification of the 24 lan-
guages in which the various place-names appear, including some newly literate ones
such as Macedonian and Moldavian, a survey of the variants of the Latin and Cyrillic
alphabets, technical notes and a listing of the current official names of each re-
gion or country both in Polish and its own language. All the foregoing tare up
the first 45 pages.

The next 86 pages are occupied by the dictionary itself, being a detailed and
cross-indexed listing of place-names with all their variants given in the proper
language. The names include district centers, the more important railroad stations,
seaports, towns of over 10,000 inhabitants, smaller places of historical interest,
border points, etc, etc. The wealth of information given in this section is unbe-
lievable and even our English-spealing members will not find it difficult to follow.
In fact, it is a postal historian's dream, since it also gives him the dates and
extent of each foreign administrationn or occupation and thus saves hours of delving
into many reference books. Our Ball-an, Baltic, Czechoslovak, Finnish, Hungarian,
Polish, Russian, Ukrainian and other enthusiasts will all find it extremely useful.

(The Estonian SSR Administrative and Territorial Divisions as at Jan. 1, 1964).
Issued by the Estonian State Publishing House, Talinn 1964, in an edition of 5,000
copies as a brochure of 78 pages plus two maps. Price 23 kop.

This work' is really two booklets bound in one, with the Estonian portion coming
first and followed by a similar Russian version plus separate Estonian and Russian
maps of the country. It is a very detailed listing of Estonian provinces, districts
counties, cities, towns, and village councils as they are presently constituted.
It is of great interest to the Estonian postal historian, since even the footnotes
contain much information. Among other facts, the distances from specific places
to the nearest railroad station are given and also the years of foundation of the
cities. From the latter, we see that quite a"few Estonian cities have been in exist
ence for a long time and some date as far bacir as the 12th Century. The brochure
is recommended for reference purpose.;.

GODA. ("USSR-Administrative and Territorial Divisions of the Union Republics as
at January 1965"). Published by '"IZVTTsr', Moscow 1965 in edition of 100,000
copies, contains 704 pages and priced at 2 rubles.

On somewhat-the same lines as the Estonian work reviewed above, but not as do-
tailed, the book give territorial subdivisions for each republic, down to the rayo :.
or district level and including all important cities, towns and villages, with

Page 68 No. 69

distances to the nearest railroad stations, etc. Following upon all this, all the
place-names are then cross-indexed, population figures quoted and a great number of
name changes listed. This latter could have been very useful, but unfortunately it
S is either comprehensive, nor are the dates given when the changes took place. The
work ends with survey of changes in territorial subdivisions throughout the country.
All in all, the book is a good reference primarily for postmark collectors:.

time of Vasil Levski") by D.N. Minchev. Published in the Izvestia V (XI) for 1965
of the National "Cyril and Methodius" Library, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Our noted contributor has written a fine study of the secret postal system or-
ganized by the Bulgarian liberation movement between 1869 and 1872 in the l1st years
of the national hero Vasil Levski, when the country was still under the Turkish
yoke. Of special interest to students of Balkan history, the author"gives a well-
documented treatment of his subject, with many references to the worls of our be-
loved S. V. Prigara, the Russia Uieod Abroad series of W.S.E. Stephen & S. D. Tchilin.
ghirian and articles from the "Philatelic Progled" about the Russian consular posts,
which .have been also published in "Rossica". This is an excellent way to present
philatelic facts to a non-philatelic readership.

Mr. Minchev has recently been elected to membership of the Bulgarian Historical
Soc. & after reading the above wor, we can well understand why.


British Journal of Russian Philately Ho. 36, March 1965 edited by P.T. Ashford,
79a Victoria Rd., Warminster, Wilts, England.

S Editor Ashford is to be congratulated for the excellent issue dealing with the
Postal History of the Allied Intervention in North Russia 1918-1919. The special
subject of-the journal covers the British Army P.O. in North Russia 1918-1919 by
Adrian Hopkins, the North Russian Campaign 1918-1919 by C.D. Brennor, Army T.P.O.
Operating in North Russia by Norman Hill (T.P.O. Travelling Post Office), From
France to North Russia with the Army Postal Service by Tij. J. Haig-Smith and Notes
on the Use of the Russian Adhesives during the occupation period by the editor.
All are well illustrated.

The journal likewise has "Outstanding Covers" by M. Liphschutz and H.F. Bldase,
Early Postal Information from Miosiatzoslov for 1833 by V. von Rychter, a "70 k."
Imperial Postal Forgery by H.G. Fletcher and W. P. Fletcher, the Zomstvo Gazeteer
by Fred W. Spoors, etc., etc. Rossica members are urged to read this outstanding

Gibbons Stamp Monthly Oct. 1965 391 Strand, London WC2 Contains "Poland No. 1
Combination Use with Postal Stationory 1860-1865 by our member MI.A. Bojanowicz.

Postal History Journal-June 1965 lLO-'Elmwood Ave., Norwood, Pa. has "Latvian Love
and Postal History are Interwined': by our member A. Engel of Philadelphia.

The Ameridan Philatelist May 1965 .?u- 1965 J. Chemi 5932 N. 14th Place,
Phoenix, Arizona, 85014, has "A Postal History Study Field Post of Czechoslovate
Siberian Legions" by Jaroslav J. Verner.

June Issue Russia: Commemoration of Lenin's Death, 1924 by J. N. Sousa, Jr.

No. 69 Page 69