Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 President's message
 An overview of the ACCP: Its mission,...
 ACCP membership profiles
 Paying tribute
 Justice and governance
 Regional and international...
 Co-operation, team-work and...
 Dealing with violence and...
 Officers' welfare and safety...
 Focus on Trinidad and Tobago
 ACCP notices
 Back Cover

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United against crime : Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP)
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020154/00001
 Material Information
Title: United against crime : Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP)
Physical Description: Book
Publication Date: 2004
Copyright Date: 2004
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UF00020154:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    President's message
        Page 3
    An overview of the ACCP: Its mission, objectives and values
        Page 4
        Page 5
    ACCP membership profiles
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Paying tribute
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Justice and governance
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Regional and international crime
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Co-operation, team-work and partnerships
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Dealing with violence and aggression
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Officers' welfare and safety initiatives
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Focus on Trinidad and Tobago
        Page 47
    ACCP notices
        Page 48
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP)

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Table of Contents

United States Ambassador's Remarks 2
President's Message 3
An Overview of the ACCP Its Mission, Objectives and Values 4
ACCP Membership Profiles 6
Paying Tribute 8

Justice and Governance
The Fundamental Principles of Policing by Commissioner Matthias Lestrade 13
CARICOM & the Contemporary Crisis of Government in Haiti by Dr. Tyrone Ferguson 14
The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) and the CARICOM Single Market Economy-The Core Issues 17

Regional and International Crime
Combatting Terrorist Financing The International Standards by Fitzroy Drayton 20
Confronting Illict Maritime & Air Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs by Nout van Woudenberg 22

Youth and Gender Issues
Youth in Crisis? Or is it a Moral Panic by Commissioner William Harry 25
A perspective on Education in the Caribbean by Raymond s. Hackett 26
Gender and Small Arms: Raising Women's Voices by Folande Mutora 28

Co-Operation, Team-Work and Partnerships
Partners Make Perfect by Commissioner Elton Lewis 31
Inter Agency Co-Operation Challenges and Prospects by Keith Renaud 32
Transatlantic Law Enforcement: A study of Developements in the Caribbean Region by Prof. Benjamin Bowling 34

Dealing with Violence and Aggression
Corporal Punishment Sowing the Seeds of Violence by Heather Stewart 38
The Royal Cayman Islands Police Battling Domestic Violence by Superintendent Denzie Car.er 39
Police in Schools Crisis Intervention or System Failure? by Samuel Lochan 40

Officers' Welfare and Safety Initiatives
Law, Loyalty, Loss A Police Officer's Dilemma by Ms. Deiann Sobers 42
Maximising Performance while Minimising Risks: A Manufacturers Point of View by Mr. P. Jadoul 43

Focus on Trinidad and Tobago
Article by Commissioner Everald Snaggs 47

ACCP Notices 48

United Against Crime is published by the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP)
Editor in Chief: Keith Renaud
Design and Layout: Paria Publishing Co. Ltd.
Cover by: Herman Li.
Printing by: Caribbean Paper & Printed Products (1993) Ltd.
Produced in the Republic of Trinidad & Tobago 2004


Message by Mrs. Mary Kramer,
United States Ambassador, Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean

N MY EARLY MONTHS in the Caribbean, several things
have become apparent to me. First, the people of the
Caribbean offer generous and unflagging hospitality. A
wonderful experience. Second, each island is unique unto itself.
In addition, the true regional collaboration that exits
among the various law enforcement agencies crosses both
agency boundaries and national boundaries. It is a remarkable
example of public servants who share a common mission,
working together to carry out that mission. Citizens in the
Caribbean can be assured the public safety is well served when
such regional collaboration exits. The spirit of collaboration,
so publicly visible, is surely a deterrent to those who wish to
carry out illegal actions.
My first goal as the Ambassador of the United States is
included in my letter of mission from President Bush. It says,
look after the safety and well being of American citizens, at
home and abroad. Of course, this goal is most emphatically
served by local and regional law enforcement agencies in
collaboration with US services here in the Caribbean and
around the world. This goal also includes protection of our
borders from acts of terrorism and from the trafficking of
illegal drugs. To accomplish this goal, it is absolutely necessary
to continue our work with local law enforcement in all of the
seven countries I represent, as well as within the rest of the
Caribbean which is represented by my colleagues. Many great
relationships already exist. I hope to maintain and improve
these relationships.
Much training, technical assistance and equipment have
been shared by the US government with our friends here in
the Caribbean. I have participated in two handovers of Rigid

...it is absolutely necessary to continue
our work with local law enforcement in
all of the seven countries I represent, as
well as within the rest of the Caribbean
which is represented by my colleagues.

I can assure you that under my leadership
the US Government will continue to be a
strong supporter of the Association of
Caribbean Commissioners of Police
(ACCP) and its goals and objectives...

Hull Inflatable Boards (RHIBS) during my short tenure. In
each case, these "go fast" boats, combined with the airborne
surveillance of the C-26 reconnaissance program have already
netted several seizures of boats and illegal narcotics and
resulted in arrest of many individuals.
The US Government remains committed to continue to
assist with training, technical support, maintenance training
and assistance and operational support of these boats while
they are carrying out their activities. We appreciate the efforts
of these local law enforcement personnel who risk their lives
in carrying out these missions.
While there are other very important goals to be
accomplished during my tenure as US Ambassador, none is
more important or more critical to the well being of US
citizens and citizens of the Caribbean nations than the public
safety. In that regard, I can assure you that under my
leadership the US Government will continue to be a strong
supporter of the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of
Police (ACCP) and its goals and objectives. The ACCP's
overall regional strategy toward public safety in the region is
key to the public safety of each of our individual nations and
the twenty-four police forces to which the leadership of the
ACCP Police Commissioners represent.
I recognize the difficulties and challenges that each Police
Commissioner around the world faces on a daily basis,
especially in these troubling times. Working together, I truly
believe we will always be more successful in meeting these
challenges than as any single nation or law enforcement
agency working alone. U








Mr. Francis A. Forbes
Commissioner of Police Jamaica, President, ACCP

Once again I have the pleasant duty and distinct honor to
contribute a few remarks to this the fourth publication of the
Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP)
annual magazine.
In the best traditions of proactive and enlightened
leadership the ACCP has chosen to place much needed
emphasis on the issues facing our young people. In the main
they are victims and perpetrators of many of the infractions
which are experienced in societies everywhere.
These infractions of the law are varied and many. They
range from petty crimes, social disorder, youth crime and
delinquency and drug abuse; to firearms trafficking, money
laundering, human smuggling, cyber crime and state
In the international sphere the current focus is on the
global war on terrorism which has eclipsed the attention paid
to trans-national crimes such as money laundering, firearms
trafficking and human smuggling. This is not to say that these
crimes are of lesser importance but it brings attention to the
fact that the resources available to the law enforcement
community must be stretched to meet ever-increasing
Here in the Caribbean the situation is hardly different as
law enforcement and security officials, are being called upon
to perform an increasing number of tasks for which they are
not always adequately trained nor otherwise equipped. In the
mist of all this is the constant erosion of societal values which
continue to destroy the moral fabric of our societies thereby
creating untold challenges to the principles and concept of
peace, order and good governance.
In terms of the ACCP's 19th Annual Conference the theme
is Youth in Focus and the forum is intended generally to:
Acknowledge the positive contributions made by young
people to the development of themselves and their
Obtain the views of young people regarding the challenges
and obstacles they face in society.
Share the expertise and experiences of individuals,
organizations and agencies involved with addressing the issues
of young people.
Educate law enforcement, corporate and service


Despite the many negative images and
perceptions being held of young people,
the majority are respectable, law
abiding and ambitious...
organizations officials about the role they can play in youth
development, crime prevention and community relations.
This theme has been selected because the association, quite
rightly, believes that the time is right to obtain from the key
stakeholders their views on how the law enforcement
community can provide them with a much better quality
service.More significantly, the ACCP would also like to pay
tribute to the many young people who have continued to
maintain wholesome personal and community values which
are vital to peace, order and stability in society. Despite the
many negative images and perceptions being held of young
people, the majority are respectable, law abiding and
ambitious. We therefore feel obligated to emphasise this fact
very forcefully.
We as adults cannot absolve ourselves from the
responsibility of nurturing and guiding the youth in our
communities. Many are in need of a helping hand or a
listening ear, and we should always ensure that one or two are
always readily available. It is a responsibility which we must
accept with the full knowledge that to do otherwise would be
to contribute to the wanton indiscipline, chaos and disorder
which will continue to pervade our landscape.
I will be failing in my duty, as President of the ACCP, if I
do not urge my fellow commissioners and other individuals,
organizations and agencies in civil society to continue to build
alliances that will help promote peace, order and good
governance. I know that for many years the ACCP has been
advocating to its members the establishment of community
partnerships as a critical element of our community policing
strategy. However, it cannot be over emphasized that the goal
of this relationship must be focused on improving the socio-
economic and cultural conditions of our communities. These
partnerships must always be characterized by mutual respect,
openness, trust and commitment to the general welfare of the
community at large. E
May God Bless us all in these endeavours!

An Overview of the ACCP -

Its Mission, Objectives and Values

. ,, '-

T HE ASSOCIATION of Caribbean Commissioners of
Police (ACCP) has its genesis at a conference of Regional
Police Commissioners, which was held in Port of Spain,
Trinidad in 1972. At the conference it was agreed that they
should meet on an annual basis to discuss matters of interest
to policing in the region.
However, it was not until after several failed attempts to
convene another meeting, that in 1986 in Kingston, Jamaica,
nine Commissioners from the English speaking Caribbean
met and passed a resolution calling for the establishment of an
Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police. It was also
agreed that the Commissioners would seek the support and
approval for this initiative from their respective Governments.
Consequently, in the following year (1987) in Castries, St
Lucia, at a meeting of the grouping, a resolution was passed
on 20th day of August officially establishing the Association.
It's stated objectives were to promote, foster and encourage:
Regional cooperation in the suppression of criminal
activities in such areas as narcotics, terrorism and
organized crime;
The exchange of information in criminal investigation
The sharing of common service which may include
training, forensic analysis and research; and
The effective management of law enforcement agencies.

In the year 2000 the organization re-defined it mission
and objectives in order to be relevant to its current aspirations.
These are identified in its Constitution and Bye-laws as stated
hereunder :
The Mission of the ACCP is to be the principal regional
organisation for promoting and facilitating:
Collaboration and co-operation in the development and
implementation of policing strategies, systems and
* The professional and technical skills development of police
officers and proactive measures to prevent crime and
improve police community relations."

The Objectives of the Organisation are to :
* Develop and maintain a professional organisation
committed to the improvement of policing in the Region;
* Promote foster and encourage high professional and
ethical standards in pursuit of policing objectives;
* Support and advance the just and reasonable interest and
aspiration of its members;

Influence the development of laws, procedures and
practices that will advance the effective of policing in the
Negotiate and secure funding from individuals and
organizations supportive of the goals of the Association;
Engage in formal relations with any organizations ;
institution or state agency for the welfare and benefit of the
Association and/ or its members ;
Take an active interest in the promotion of the
development of young people regionally and
Arrange conferences, workshops and seminars for the
purpose of sharing information and experiences of benefit
to law enforcement;
Pursue all necessary steps to ensure that the Association is
adequately funded in order to discharge its obligation and
to ensure that the funds are effectively managed and
properly accounted for.

The ACCP has also adopted the under-mentioned core
values which embodies its ideals and philosophy:
Commitment to Quality Service creating an ethos of
quality service delivery to all our clients.
Collaboration and Co-operation acknowledging the
benefits of and utilizing greater team-work and co-
operation for more efficient and effective law enforcement.
Professional and Ethical Standards striving for
efficiency and effectiveness while maintaining a keen sense
of fairness and integrity.
Community Partnerships continually seeking the
support and consent of the community for policing
Respect for Human Rights engendering protection for
the fundamental rights of every individual regardless of age,
sex, ethnicity, religious belief or social status.
* Gender and Cultural Sensitivity recognizing and
respecting gender and cultural differences and the
sensibilities associated with such differences.

During the relatively short period of its existence the
ACCP has made significant strides in its development and has
been able to establish itself as a focal point for developing and
co- ordinating regional law enforcement and related activities
in civil society. The Organisation will continue to grow from
strength to strength. N

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Anguilla Keithly Benjamin
Enlisted in the Royal Anguilla Police Force in 1979 and was
appointed Commissioner in February 2003. He spent most of his
service at the Criminal Investigation Department where he
distinguished himself. He is the holder of a Bachelors of Law
Degree and a Certificate in Legal Education. Commissioner
S Benjamin was called to the Bar in November 2001. He has attended
numerous professional training courses in the United Kingdom,
S the United States and the Caribbean.

Aruba Roland Berdina
Enlisted in the Dutch Antilles Police Force in Curacao in June
1969. He has the distinction ofworking as a police officer in all the
Dutch Caribbean Islands. He is the holder of a Masters Degree in
Dutch and Aruba Law from the University of Aruba and is also a
graduate of the Netherlands Police Academy and the FBI National
Academy. H e was appointed Head Planner of the Coast Guard
Department in 1999 and Acting Commissioner in March of 2003.
He was appointed Commissioner of Police in November 2003.

Barbados Darwin Dottin
Enlisted in the Royal Barbados Police Force in October 1971. He
is an Attorney-at-Law having graduated from the University of the
West Indies in 1990. He also holds a Diploma in Applied
Criminology and Police Studies from the University of Cambridge.
He has attended training courses at Federal Bureau of Investigation
National Academy, Police Staff College, Bramshill, England and
has participated in several other professional courses in Canada,
United Kingdom and the United States. He was appointed
Commissioner of Police in September 2003.

Bermuda -Jonathan D. Smith
Enlisted in the Bermuda Police Service in 1979. He is the holder of
a BSc. Degree in Management Studies from the University of
Maryland and a diploma in Applied Criminology and Police
Studies from the University of Cambridge. He has attended a
number of professional training courses and conferences in Canada,
United Kingdom and Caribbean Countries. He has worked in the
Criminal Investigation Department and was the Head of the
Training Department and Central Division. He is also the holder
of the Colonial Police Medal (CPM).

Cayman Islands Buel Braggs
Enlisted in the Royal Cayman Islands Police Service in March of 1976.
He worked in various departments within the service developing a
wealth of knowledge and experience. Mr. Braggs attended a number of
professional training courses and conferences in Canada, United
Kingdom, U.S.A., and the Caribbean. He is the recipient of the Royal
Victorian Medal (RVM), which was bestowed upon him by Her
Majesty the Queen during the Royal Visit in 1983. He is also the hold
of the Colonial Police Medal (CPM). He was appointed
Commissioner on 8th September, 2003.

Dominica Matthias D. Lestrade
Joined the Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force in 1968. He
brings to the job a wealth of knowledge and experience gained
during his various postings within the organisation. He has
attended a number of professional training courses in the USA,
Canada, United Kingdom (UK), Panama and within the
Caribbean region. He is also the recipient of his country's
Meritorious Service Award.

Guyana Winston Felix
Enlisted in Guyana Police Force in October, 1970. He is the holder
of Bsc. in Public Management and a Diploma in Public
Management from the University of Guyana. A graduate of the FBI
National Academy in Quantico, Washington, Commissioner Felix
has attended numerous training courses in the U.SA., Canada,
United Kingdom, Central America and the Caribbean. He served in
various command positions and prior to being appointed to the
post of Commissioner of Police on February 16th 2004.


Antigua/Barbuda Elton W Martin
Enlisted in the Royal Police Force ofAnrigua and Barbuda in 1962.
During his distinguished career he has worked in various
departments within the Force and attended several overseas courses,
seminars and conferences in the United Kingdom, United States
and Canada. He was the Commandant of the Police Training
School, Antigua, during the period 1982 to 1991. He is also the
recipient of the Queens Police Medal (QPM). He was appointed
Commissioner of Police in October, 2003.

Bahamas Paul H. Farquharson
Enlisted in the Royal Bahamas Police Force in December, 1966. He
attended numerous international professional training institutions
in the United States and the United Kingdom where he underwent
training in Strategic Command, General Police Duties, Public
Order Management, Crime Prevention. Company Law and
Criminal justice Administration and Principles of Management. He
is a recipient of the Queen's Police Medal (QPM).

Belize -Jose Carmen Zetina
Enlisted in the Belize Police Force on July 1st 1968 and was
appointed commissioner of Police in May 2002. He worked in a
number of sections in his force including Criminal Investigation,
Traffic, Training and Immigration. He has attended numerous
professional training courses and conferences in the United States,
United Kingdom, South and Central America and the Caribbean.
He was awarded the Governor General Distinguished Service
Medal in May, 2001.

British Virgin Islands Barry Webb

Joined the Royal Virgin Island Police Force in October 2001. He is
the holder of a Bachelors of Laws Degree (Hons). Mr. Webb was
Head of the Metropolitan Undercover Unit, Hostage Negotiator
System, Protected Witness and Informant Programme. He served
in key area of the Metropolitan Police and prior to his assignment
to the Royal Virgin Islands Police Force, was responsible for
creating the Metropolitan Police Murder Review Group and
provided advice in this area nationally and internationally.

Curacao Julien Willems
Joined the Dutch Antillean Police Force in 1974. He graduated at
the Police Staff College in Holland in 1974 and at the F.B.I.
National Academy in 1987. He was appointed Chief of Police of the
Police Force of Curacao in 1994. In 2002 he took office again as
Chief Commissioner of the Police Force of Curacao. He attended a
number of professional training courses and conferences in the
United States, Central and South America, Holland and the

Grenada FitzRoy FA. Bedeau
Enlisted in the Royal Grenada Police Force in 1968. He was appointed to the
post of Commissioner in January 1998, having held other senior executive
positions within the Force. He also served in several departments within the
Royal Grenada Police Force which included: CID as officer in charge, and
officer in charge of the Western and Central Divisions. He has attended several
local, regional and international training programmes and seminars in the UK,
Cuba, USA and the Caribbean. He has also received several local awards and
commendations for his outstanding performance. He was awarded the Queen's
Police Medal QPM) in 2000.

Montserrat -John B. Douglas
Has been appointed Commissioner of Police of The Royal Montserrat
Police Force. He is an officer with thirty five (35) years experience, having
joined the Organisation on February 1, 1967. He was exposed to several
overseas training in the United States of America, The United Kingdom
and the Caribbean. In 1993 Mr Douglas attended the Police StaffCollege
in Bramshill, UK. He succeeds Mr Alexander Elder, bringing him to be the
eleventh (11th) person to head the Police Force, after it became
autonomous on February 27, 1967. Prior to his promotion he served as
Superintendent in charge of Operations".

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Jamaica Francis A. Forbes, (President)
Commissioner Francis A Forbes joined the Jamaica Constabulary Force in
1970. He was appointed Commissioner in October 1996. He is the holder
of a Bachelor of Laws Degree (Hons) and a Certificate in Public
Administration from the University of the West Indies (UWI). He has
attended a number of international professional training programmes in
Canada, United Kingdom and United States of America. He was awarded
National Honours for Meritorious Services in 1993 and 1998. Commissioner
Forbes is a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police
(IACP) as well as Interpol. He is currently serving his second term as
President of the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP).

ST Kitts/Nevis -J Calvin Fahie
Enlisted in the Royal St. Christopher and Nevis Police Force in
August, 1967. He attended a number of international professional
training programmes at the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
(RCMP) Staff College, Jamaica Constabulary Staff College, the
National Police Training School at Bramshill, United Kingdom and
the University of the West Indies.

Trinidad & Tobago Everald Snaggs
Joined the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service on 6th May, 1963.
He is the holder of a BSc Degree (Hons) in Government and a
Certificate in Management Studies from the University of the West
Indies, St. Augustine. He is also a graduate of the Joint Services Staff
College and the Canadian Police College. He has attended a
number of professional training courses and conferences in the
United Kingdom, U.S.A., Europe, Latin America and the
Caribbean. He has served in various command positions before
being appointed Commissioner in July, 2003.

Turks and Caicos Islands Paul Harvey
Joined the Royal Turks and Caicos Islands Police Force in April,
1971. He was appointed Commissioner of Police in 1995. He
attended professional training courses at regional and international
police training institutions including, Hendon Police Training
College and Bramshill Police Training Centre in the United
Kingdom (UK). He also attended an Executive Development
Training Course in Canada and a Senior Command Training
Programme in Jamaica. He is a recipient of the Colonial Police
Medal (CPM).


Missing: French Antilles Boris Duchniak; Suriname Delano Braam (Ag.)


The ACCP wishes a healthy and enjoyable retirement to the following members who vacated office since the
last publication of the ACCP Magazine:

Aru.a Commissioner 0 lwin Nectar

Commissioner Grantley Watson

4 Cama Isad Comsione Dai Thrfi

erF nch Antilles

Commissioner Claude Destamps

TryandadadTao Commissioner Hltond Guynal




St. Lucia Ausbert Regis
He Enlisted in the Royal St. Lucia Police Force on 2nd August 1983. He
attended and lectured in a number of international professional training
programmes. He was appointed Commissioner of Police on the Ist
January, 2004. He attended the Police Staff College in Bramshill, in the
United Kingdom as well as the College of Arts Science and Technology,
Jamaica Police Staff College, Jamaica where he obtained a certificate in
Police Studies. He was the Team Leader for the National Joint
Headquarters Review team in 2003.

St. Maarten Derrick E. Holiday
Enlisted in the Dutch Anrillean Police Force in 1981. He entered
the Dutch National Police Academy in Holland in 1989. He
graduated in 1992 after three years of studies. He also received
professional training at the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Academy in Virginia, USA in 1993. He holds a Diploma in
Mathematics and English from Arnhem College, Holland.

St Vincent/Grenadines William J. Harry
Joined the St. Vincent and Grenadines Police Force in September, 1969. He
is the holder of a BSc. Degree in Criminal Justice and a Masters degree in
criminology from the University of Leicester. He has attended numerous
professional training courses and conferences in the United Kingdom, United
States, and Canada and various Caribbean countries. He is also a graduate of
the F.B.I National Academy. He was Head of Special Branch and
Superintendent in charge of operations in his Force before being appointed
Commissioner in June 2001. In 2004 Commissioner Harry was awarded the
Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the Queens New Year's Honours.

US Virgin Islands Elton Lewis
Joined the Virgin Islands Police Department on January 16,
1973, as of patrolman. He is a 1971 graduate of the St. Croix
Central High School and received his Associate of Arts Degree in
General Studies at Central Texas College in 1982 while serving in
the U.S. Army. He later received his undergraduate degree in
Criminal Justice from Roger Williams University. He is currently
pursuing a Master's Degree in Organizational Management
through the University of Phoenix.

Trinidad and Tobago

Commissioner Hilton Guy

StY W4 -' ,/i H-u

Officers' Ac

Assistant Commissioner (ACP)
Delano M. A. Christopher

Joined the Royal Police Force
of Antigua and Barhuda in
March, 1969. She has attended
numerous professional training r. ,
courses in the United States and
the Caribbean. She was the staff .
officer to the Commissioner of
Police and the Head of the Force Domestic Violence Unit.
She has the distinction of being the highest ranking Female
Police Officer in the Force. In March 2003 Ms. Christopher
created history by becoming the first female to head the
largest and most challenging Police Division in Antigua. In
June of the same vear she achieved another first when she was
elevated to the rank of Assistant Commissioner, as the first
female officer to hold such a position.

Ag. Assistant Superintendent
Margaret Sampson-Browne: '9

Margaret Gwevneth Sampson-
Browne enlisted in the Trinidad and
Tobago Police Service on I-th
August 19"0. She is the holder of a
Bachelor of Science Degree (Hons) ,
in Social Work from the University .
of the \Vest Indies, St. Augutine, "
Trinidad. She attended numerous professional development
courses and served on several committees inclusive of a
Cabinet-appointed Committee on Youth Crime and Ju\enile
Delinquency 1991-199-1 and an Inter-Ministerial
Committee to develop a training manual for police officers in
the investigation of Domestic \ violence reports. \is.
Sampson-Browne has also participated in many professional
training seminars and has provided sterling leadership in
coordinating and managing the Trinidad and Tobago
Community Policing programme. She is currently pursuing
studies for her Masters of Philosophy in Gender and
Development Studies at the University of the \Vest Indies,
St. Augustine.


Assistant Commissioner (ACP) -
Maureen Leslie

Enlisted in the Belize Police
Department in July, 1973. She
attended professional training
programmes in the United
Kingdom (UK). USA, the
Netherlands. Central America
and the Caribbean. She has the
distinction of being the first female officer to hold the post of
District Commander as well as Commandant of the National
Police Training Academy. She is the recipient of awards for
Devotion to Dury. Long Service and Good Conduct. and in
1999 she was awarded the British Empire Medal (BEM). She
was promoted to the post of Assistant Commissioner of Police
(ACP) in April 2003, the first female officer to hold that rank
in the Belize Police Force.

of Police on Nlav 1st 2003 and is inI
charge of the Administration and
Support Portfolio. She has worked in .. .
many areas of policing including:
general duties, community relations,
administration and training. She is the holder of a Bsc (Hons)
Degree in Management Studies from the University of the
West Indies and a Masters Degree in Criminology from the
University of Leicester, England. She also holds a Masters
Degree in Human Resource Management from the University
of the \est Indies. She has attended a number of regional and
international training courses in the UK, Austria and the
In October, 2000 she was awarded her country's Medal of
Honour for Meritorious Service.
Deputy Commissioner Bent has the distinction of being
the first woman police officer to hold the rank of Deputy
Commissioner in the Caribbean region.

r *

V ~ ~

. .. .. ..... ......

nt ... r. i

oie ; --" : ........
:..-_ .. 4 : ;.-. -.i._s

Paying Tribute to Officers Deceasedste,
The ACCP akes this opportunity to pay tribute to all law enforcement

|execution of their duties.
The task for law enforcement o-ers has become more critical, more

Dangerous and more demanding. Never before have been the responsibilities of
S* llaw enforcement officers so varied, complexed and precarious; demanding
Tremendous courage, determination and commitment.

It is against this backdrop the ACCP feels duty-bound to acknowledge the
Contribution made by the under-mentioned deceased officers and their families,
Sp H 1& J ra for their commitment and support provided over the years to their respective
T Services, their Countries and the Law Enforcement profession as a whole:
Sfti e Mr. Brian Bernard aFormer Commissioner Roal St il ia Police Force

i r. T tk f wMr. Sydney Augustus Charles Former Commissioner -Roal Montserrat Police Force
iMr. Ciuthbert Ezekiel Chapman- Cons able USVI Police Department

Mb. Mr. Cuthbert Ezekiel Chapman Constable USVI Police Department
officer who pssed aay; an -:~~~~~ijt~ in atclrt hs h idwiei h
exctino terduis
Th ak o a efreen fier a bcm or rtcamr

trmndu courage deeriato and commitment.~:-::i;

Mr.lftii Cu~l~tbetEeelCa an-Cntle-UVPoieDpren

A Distinguished Caribbean Achiever

Minister of State for the Criminal Justice System and Law Reform

T HE RT. HON THE BARONESS Scotland of Asthal
QC became Home Office Minister of State for the
Criminal Justice System and Law Reform in June 2003 and is
spokesperson for the Department for Trade and Industry on
Gender and Equality Issues in the House of Lords.
Previously she was Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State
at the Lord Chancellor's Department from June 2001 until
June 2003; and Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the
Foreign and Commonwealth Office from 1999 to 2001.
She was an Alternate UK Government Representative of
the European Convention from 2002 to 2003.
Born in Dominica in 1955, Patricia Scotland migrated to
the United Kingdom, where she attended university and
distinguished herself as a lawyer before entering the political
arena. In 1991 she made legal history becoming the first black
female QC (Queen's Counsel) at the age of 36. She was made
a Bencher of the Middle Temple in 1997, becoming a judge
in 1999, and was raised to the Privy Council in 2001. In 1997
she was created a peer as Baroness Scotland of Asthal, in the
County of Oxfordshire.
Baroness Scotland is member of the Bar of Antigua and the
Commonwealth of Dominica; was appointed an Assistant
Recorder in 1994, a Recorder in 2000 and is approved to sit
as a Deputy High Court Judge of the Family Division. She is
a former member of the Commission for Racial Equality and
served as a member of the Millennium Commission from
1994-99. She married in 1985 and has two sons.
Baroness Scotland has received numerous awards and
commendations including an honorary degree from the
University of Westminster for services to law, government,
social justice and international affairs. Among her other
accomplishments are: Chair of HMG Caribbean Advisory
Group; Dominican Representative of the Council of British
Commonwealth Ex-Services League; Member of the Lawyers'
Christian Fellowship; Member of the BBC World Service
Consultative Group Lifeline (Trinidad & Tobago); Honorary
Fellow of Wolfson College, Cambridge and Cardiff
University; Member of The Millennium Commission; Patron
of the Women and Children's Welfare Fund.
She has specialised in family and public law and has chaired
and represented parties in a number of major inquiries
relating to Child Abuse, Mental Health and Housing.

Baroness Patricia Scotland of Asthal QC

At the Home Office Baroness Scotland has overall
responsibility for reform and modernisation of the Criminal
Justice System, building confidence in the CJS, narrowing the
justice gap and oversight of all Criminal Justice issues.
She has particular responsibility for:


' ----

Community Policing Award Project Winners

introduced in 2002 with clear objective to promote the concept ot
Community Policing for effective policing. The award is specifically intended to:
* Serve as a catalyst for police officers to embrace the philosophy of
Community Policing
* Encourage members of the communiry- to work with the police to prevent crime
and improve the quality otcommunity life
* Highlight the major benefits that can be derived from the implementation of the
Community Policing Concept
Help promote the concept of "partnership" as an indispensable clement of
Community Policing
Provide an incentive for corporate organization to actiely participate in
Community Policing Initiatives
The winners are as stared herrunder:

First Place:
Bermuda Police Service
Project Title: Schools Intervention Project
Lead Police Officer: Constable Mark Proctor
I cad Community Member: Mrs. Linda Parker

Second Place:
Aruba Police Force
Project Tide: Sint Nicholas Community Project
Lead Police Officer: Sergeant Major Kenneth Phillips
Lead Community Mlcmber: Mr. Virgilio Kingsale

First Place:
Jamaica Constabulary Force
Project Title: Payne Avenue Project
Lead Police Officer: Senior Superintendent Lindberg Simpson
Lead Community Member: Mr. Linval Annakie

(..on lMark Proctor

N;1r. NMai~jr Kcnncri

Si nip~ti0

NMr. 1 inda Parker

M rr.Virgi!o Kingpa!

Mlr. Unvd-~ rinakic
Jamais a

LPlease note that [he first place %viineirs in each category (police officer and community~ members together witih their
whtre [hey %%III recei\-r their awvard.

Second Place: Ms. S~apher Maycrs
Trinidad and Tobago Police Service .Trinidad & Tonbago
Project Title: Morvant Community Project
Lead Police Officer: Corporal Wiffliam Shepherd
Lead Community Mhember: Nis. Sapher X-leyers

CAorrp"ral W;illiam
'Trinidad &- Tobago

"The Mind, once expanded to the Dimensions of

forger ideas, neuer returns to its original size"

PHYSICIAN (1 809-94)







PO. Box 872E Geddes Grant Building.
Whitepark Road, St. Michael,
Barbados, West Indies
Tel (246) 431-5600
Fax: (246) 427-6089
illuminat bb@ILLUMINATnm.com

PO. Box 554 61-63 Edward Street.
Trinidad. West Indies
Tel: (868) 625-1204
Fax: (868) 623-5426

PO. Box 33, 38 St. Mary's Street,
St. John's,
Antigua, West Indies
Tel: (268) 462-0697
Fax: (268) 462-0696
illuminat.ag@ILLUMINATnm corn

28 Balmoral Avenue,
Kingston 10,
Jamaica. West Indies
Tel: (876) 926-3490-9
Fax: (876) 926-2065


j--N-L-Y c Irr u

The Fundamental Principles of


By Alartl/ias Letrade, Conissioemr of Police, Dominica "

T HE WORD "POLICING" means generally the
arrangement made in all civilised countries to ensure that
the inhabitants keep the peace and obey the law. The word also
denotes the Force of Peace Officers employed for the purpose.
Sir Robert Peel (1788 -1850) founded the modern police
force on nine principles. These principles are as pertinent
today as they were then:
* The basic mission for which the police exist is to maintain
law and order, prevent crime and disorder.
* The ability of the police to perform their duties is
dependent upon public approval of police actions.
Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in
voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and
maintain the respect of the general public.
The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured
diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of
physical force.
The police seek and prevent public favour not catering to
public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute
service to the law.
The police use physical force to the extent necessary to
secure observance of the law or to restore order when the
exercise of persuasion, advice and warning are found to be
Police should always direct their attention strictly towards
their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the
The test of Police efficiency is the absence of crime and
disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing
with it.
The Police at all times, should maintain a relationship with
the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the
police are the public and the public is the police. The police
being only members of the public who are paid to give full-
time attention to duties which are incumbent on every
citizen in the interest of community welfare and existence.
In attaining these objectives, much depends on the
approval and cooperation of the general public; and these
have always been determined by the degree of esteem and
respect in which the police is held. Therefore, every member
of any Police Organisation must remember that it is his/her

duty to protect and help members of the public, no less than
to bring offenders to justice. Consequently, he/she must look
on himself as the servant and guardian of the general public
and must treat all law-abiding citizens, irrespective of their
race, creed or social position/status with unfailing patience
and courtesy.
Many Police Forces in the Caribbean today (if not all) were
founded on the sound principles enunciated by Sir Robert
Peel. These countries have undergone major social and
economic development over the years yet, the tenet of
policing have largely remained unchanged.
The strength of Sir Robert's principles must be given daily
meaning by all police officers who have sworn to uphold the
law. To properly adhere to these principles the command
structures of the Forces have inculcated in the men strong
ideals by which they are to be guided in the discharge of their

Force Values: Officers of the Force must embrace and
practice the core values needed to engender public trust and
confidence in the Police. These important elements should
shape the character of every police officer. One should clothe
oneself in the core values of honour, courage and
commitment The Force espouses, to gain and maintain public
trust and confidence.

Honour: The value that finds every police officer to
exemplify the ultimate in ethical and moral behaviour to
never lie, cheat or steal; to abide by an uncompromising code
of integrity; to respect human dignity. It is the quality of
maturity, dedication, trust, commitment and dependability
that should compel a Police Officer to act responsibly; to be
accountable for his actions; to fulfill his obligations.

Courage: Courage is the mental, moral and physical strength
that is ingrained in each police officer. It carries one through
challenges and helps overcome fear. Likewise, it is the inner
strength that enables police officers to do what is right; to
adhere to a higher standard of personal conduct and to make
tough decisions under stress and pressure.

*. ._:',- -: .-,. -

Commitment: Commitment is the spirit of determination to It speaks of loyalty, which entails bearing true faith to country,
be found in police officers. It leads to the highest order of force, seniors peers and subordinates.
discipline for individuals and the force. It is the ingredient
that enables (24 x 7) twenty-four seven dedication to force An officer's every word, every action must reflect loyalty, it
and country. It inspires the unrelenting determination to is that which say to leaders never criticize your unit, your
achieve a standard of excellence in every day endeavour, seniors or your peers in the presence of subordinates. N

CARICOM and the Contemporary

Crisis of Governance in Haiti

By Dr. Tyrone Ferguson, Senior Lecturer, Institute of International Relations, U. W.I.

The Caribbean Community and Common Market
(CARICOM) has been centrally involved in the most recent
crisis of governance that beset Haiti in early 2004.
CARICOM's involvement in this instance was not
exceptional; it has been implicated in Haiti's political destiny
for the better part of a decade, starting in the early 1990s. Its
involvement has been driven by several considerations,
including Haiti's geographical and political identity as a
Caribbean country and the fact of its membership in the
regional integration movement dating formally from 2002 as
well as its evolving practice of interventionism in cases of
governance crises affecting any of its members.
Haiti's contemporary governance crisis has brought to the
fore the persistent challenge of democratization with which
the country has been struggling for nearly two decades since
the end of the Duvalier dynastic dictatorships in 1986. It is a
multidimensional crisis of governance, relating to its non-
democratic political culture, its endemic economic
maladjustments and excessive high levels of poverty, its
extensive environmental degradation and the inequitable and
fragile justice system with which it has been plagued for much
of its modern history.
This analysis pays particular attention to the justice
dilemma in Haiti, arguing that it not only represents one of
the historical root causes of the peculiar Haitian tragedy, but
that any sustainable solution to the governance crisis is
fundamentally premised on an effective dealing with the
extant flawed justice system. In this regard, moreover, the
analysis briefly looks at CARICOM's position on Haiti's
rocky path to democratization and the contribution that it
could make in the near future to a programme of durable
democratic construction, including justice system reform.

The contemporary Haitian governance
crisis in summary perspective
In reality, Haiti has been mired in perpetual governance
crises for much of its modern history. Specifically with regard
to the political dimension, the key feature of the country's
political culture is its non-democratic essence. Its historical
political landscape has been characterized by dictatorship,
military coups, the long era of Duvalierism and an embedded
culture of political violence.
Traditionally, moreover, political contention has revolved
around internecine struggles for power by segments of the
dominant elites. Predatory in nature, the military has
traditionally played a basic role of facilitating elite dominance
and periodically stepped in to assume the reins of
government. Another distinctive feature of the country's
political tradition is the role of non-formal armed groups -
the most infamous of which were the "tonton macoutes" of
the Duvalier era as brutal enforcers of elite preferences. It
has essentially been an elite-focused political system. The vast
mass of the Haitian population has been a subjugated and
brutalized majority, with minimal access to the Haitian justice
system at any defined historical moment.
The other notable feature of Haiti's historical political
experience is the external factor and, more precisely, external
intervention. American military intervention and occupation
decisively influenced the course of Haitian politics in the first
half of the 20th century and American military intervention
was once again decisive in 1994 in ending the military regime
that had overthrown the democratically elected Aristide
government in 1991. While the resolution of the
contemporary political crisis involved American intervention,
it was not a military intervention.

; "eq,,

':4B i


The recent manifestation of the governance crisis has its
most direct origins in the controversial 2000 parliamentary
and local elections in Haiti. The repercussions involved the
cutting of donor assistance, on which the basic economic
survival of Haiti is critically premised, plunging the economy
into dire straits and severely complicating Aristide's political
management task. Faced with economic isolation and an
intransigent political opposition who sensed the gathering
weakness of the Aristide presidency, Aristide himself reverted
to some of the distinctive traditional practices of the inherited
political culture. A democratically elected President, Aristide
began to embrace such non-democratic governing
instruments as informal street gangs and armed groups and
repressive tactics vis-a-vis his political opponents and other
vocal civil society groups.
When former members of the disbanded Haitian military
reappeared on the political scene, mobilizing an armed
uprising against the incumbent government, the inadequate
and demoralized national police quickly collapsed, leaving
Aristide nakedly exposed. It was in this context that
CARICOM's intervention was undertaken in early 2004. In
the event, it was the American intervention that resulted in
the controversial demitting of office by Aristide that has
opened another chapter in the peculiar Haitian tragedy.

Justice sector reform in the context of
democratizatiolr in Haiti
A key element of Haiti's post-1994 democratisation project
related to its human rights situation. Historically, Haiti has
had an exceedingly poor human rights record revolving
around its formal security (the military and police) and justice
systems and the unofficial enforcement groups linked to the
ruling elites, and obviously encouraged by the governing
elites. Dramatic improvement in the enjoyment of basic
human rights, therefore, as an indispensable requirement of
democratization is based on fundamental and meaningful
reform of the country's justice system.
In briefly assessing Haiti's justice system, we are here
talking about two specific sectors: the judicial and the security
(more precisely, the police force in the latter regard). It is well-
recognised that a robust, independent and well-functioning
judicial system is an indispensable institutional component of
a democratic polity. Its functions include, crucially, the
enforcement of criminal and civil law on a basis of equality, as
well as the resolution of conflicts between private individuals
and the state. Its functional importance is well-summed up in
the view that: "No political system can work well without a
judicial system that preserves social order, fosters voluntary
exchange, redresses complaints against the government, and
contributes to the lawmaking process."
Domestic security has been a primordial concern in any
national community and traditionally it has been a primary

Lit-fi's contemporary gorternance crisis
I,;:i- ,1.o)(ght to the fore the persistent
challenge of democratization with
which the country has been struggling
for nearly two decades...

state responsibility. In this regard, the central state institution
concerned with the provision of domestic security is the
police force. In its protective and law enforcement functions,
as an integral part of a democratic ethos, the police force is
intended to provide its services without exception to the
entire national population.
As Haiti moved in the direction of democratization in the
late 1980s, the gross inadequacy and dysfunctionality of these
two justice sectors in the project of democratic construction
became increasingly evident. This is why justice sector reform
was a major programmatic focus of international assistance in
the aftermath of the 1994 UN-supported military
intervention under American leadership that restored Aristide
to the presidency. It signaled a clear-cut recognition that the
beneficiaries of the existing system represented a small section
of the Haitian population and that the overwhelming
majority poor masses were simply not catered for in this
regard. It thus aimed at their overhaul to make them integral
parts of a new Haitian democracy.
The diagnosis of these two critical justice segments
indicated their pervasive politicization and lack of
independence, as well as their glaring infrastructural and
personnel deficiencies. Both institutions were largely
perceived as inefficient, ineffective and corrupt and virtually
alienated from the provision of justice services, except for the
elite and privileged groups in Haitian society.
As a 2001 UNDP report summarized it in describing the
weaknesses of the justice sector, it portrays "a lack of access to
justice, inefficacy of the system, endemic corruption, lack of
independence of the judiciary, interference by political
authorities and an urgent need for training of justice
personnel" With regard to the police force, the summation
of its condition indicates that it has "major deficiencies and is
considered by many U.S. and other donor official as a largely
ineffective law enforcement body. According to these officials,
the police force suffers from organizational weaknesses,
shortages of personnel and training, shortages of vehicles and
equipment, and limited investigative capabilities."
In the post-1994 period, the international community
provided significant assistance to the priority task of building
a credible justice system in Haiti, befitting a democratic
polity. The main such programme was the American one, but
Canada and France, as well as the UN also provided financial
and technical assistance to justice system reform. The
American programme aimed at "developing a professional



civilian police force, enhancing the effectiveness of existing
judicial organizations and improving the Haitian people's
access to justice."
With the return to constitutional government as reflected
in the re-installation of the Aristide government in 1994, the
Haitian military was disbanded and the creation of a new
civilian-controlled national police force was undertaken. The
new police force represented an attempt to create a wholly
new justice culture at the level of formal security institution-
building with a national orientation.
However, the international assistance programme for
justice sector reform lasted a mere six years. It was terminated
following the controversial elections in 2000. While the
international programme may have had its successes, the
consensual assessment is that it has basically failed: "There is
almost a unanimous agreement in the international
community that development assistance in the rule of law
sector since 1994 has failed to produce tangible results."6
Once the short-lived experiment ended in 2000, the rapid
deterioration of the police force was predictable in the
circumstances. A reversion to the worst practices of the
previous era became evident death squads and violent street
gangs meting out summary justice, and an unreliable
police force.

The vast mass of the Haitian
population has been a subjugated and
brutalized majority, with minimal
access to the Haitian justice system at
any defined historical moment...

This weakening and ultimate collapse of the national police
force opened the way for the reappearance of former members
of the disbanded Haitian military in opposition to the
Aristide presidency. Some of the leading figures were
discredited perpetrators of acts of gross injustice against the
Haitian people during the previous brutal military regime. It
is apposite to note the clear CARICOM position in this
regard: not only that CARICOM will not condone a change
in government by violent means, but importantly that
CARICOM leaders were not prepared to sit around the same
table with individuals whose ascent to political power was
illegitimate and based on the use of force.
In the context of a police force that he could not depend
on, President Aristide reverted to the traditional Haitian
mechanism non-official armed groups in this case,
protective street gangs (the chimeres) with all the
implications flowing from their practice of street justice,
meted out particularly to perceived opponents of the
government. Another important factor is the relatively small

size of the national police which numbered around 5000
officers to cater for a population of more than 8 million
Haitians. It simply did not have the manpower to deal with
well-organised threats against the democratically elected

CARICOMs role in Haiti's democratization
It is broadly accepted that CARICOM has a role to play in
any meaningful international contribution to the resolution
of the Haitian governance crisis. That role derives from its
past involvement and Haiti's membership of CARICOM.
But, crucially also, it derives from the fact that CARICOM
has to be mindful of the consequences of another
interventionary episode that places the fate of the Haitian
people in the big powers alone the US, France, Canada and
the like. Their past involvement has clearly not been good for
Haiti, nor has it been conducive to sustainable good
governance and their eventual exit inevitably leaves the
country in a worse dilemma than when they entered. In terms
of an ongoing and meaningful involvement of CARICOM in
the Haitian governance challenge, several constraints must
first be surmounted before a substantive programme of
engagement could be undertaken. The major problem is the
bad feeling that exists between the interim Haitian regime and
CARICOM governments, on the one hand, and the strong
stance that the latter took with respect to the controversial
departure of Aristide.Additionally, there is the other decisive
factor of CARICOM's own severe constraints with respect to
available human, financial and technical resources for any
credible assistance programme that CARICOM could extend
to Haiti.
It is evident, however, that CARICOM is committed to
remain firmly engaged with Haiti. This was explicitly stated
by CARICOM Heads at their March Inter-Sessional meeting
in St. Kitts-Nevis. On that occasion, they reaffirmed Haiti's
membership of the regional integration movement. At the
same time, the fundamental bases for Caricom's engagement
were clearly spelt out:Haiti's "return to constitutional and
representative democracy and its essential elements of respect
for human rights and fundamental freedoms"; and its
unpreparedness to take any action that would legitimize the
rebel forces.
Crucially also, they agreed to a series of mechanisms that
could facilitate a future Caricom engagement. They include
the reconstitution of the Core Group of CARICOM Prime
Ministers on Haiti, the designation of a Special Envoy as an
adjunct to the Core Group to, inter alia, "advance
CARICOM's interests on issues related to Haiti" and the
establishment of a Task Force to "co-ordinate CARICOM's
assistance to Haiti in those areas where it has the capacity."
It is significant to note that, beyond the institution of
CARICOM itself, the Caribbean has also been granted
another important role at the international level. United


.. 4 ,,
.', -5.

United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan has
appointed the Caribbean national, Reginald Dumas as his
Special Advisor on Haiti. This initiative could obviously serve
to facilitate a greater coherency of approach between the UN
and CARICOM on Haiti.
CARICOM can contribute on various levels. First, it can
help in a more proper diagnostic of the governance challenge
facing Haiti. With its overall excellent democratic credentials,
CARICOM undoubtedly has an important role to play in this
regard. The fact is that poor diagnostics has been recognized
as a major contributory factor to the failure of justice sector
reform in the first phase of reform under democratization in
the mid-1990s, leading naturally to sub-optimal solutions.
Second, and related to any such diagnostic, CARICOM
has to clearly articulate and advance the notion that
democratization not only requires focused and concerted
international assistance, but that it is a long-term endeavour.
International engagement must therefore be prepared for a
protracted and sustained effort.
A third crucial area in which CARICOM can make a
measurable contribution is in the unfinished, but urgent
business of justice sector reform and more precisely in the
security domain. CARICOM has already signaled its

preparedness to contribute personnel to help in security
stabilization in Haiti as it did in the post-1994 period. But,
CARICOM should explore the possibility and feasibility of
various types of assistance within its capabilities for any
recommended project of police sector reform within the larger
ambit of justice reform and on the basis of a sensitive
assessment of the reasons for the failure of the previous
initiative. A good starting-point in the latter regard is the
previously referenced UNDP 2001 insightful evaluation of
that experience. N

1. Before this, Haiti had held associated membership of CARICOM dating from
the 1990s.
2. Shahid Javed Burke and Guillermo Perry, eds., Beyond the Washington
ConsensusInstitutions Matter, Wash. D.C., The World Bank, 1998, p, 109.
3. UNDP, An Analysis and Lessons Learned of Rule of Law Technical assistance
in Haiti: Executive Summary, http://www.undp.org/erd/pubinfo/transitions/2001
06/rol haiti.htm p. 3.
4. "Lack of Haitian Commitment Limited Success of U. S. Aid to Justice
System", http://usinfo.state.gov/regionallar/islands/haiti22a.htm, p.4.
5. Ibid., p. 1.
6. UNDP, An Analysis and Lessons Learned of Rule of Law Technical Assistance
in Haiti, .7.
7. See Statement on Haiti Issued by the Fifteenth Inter-Sessional Meeting of the
Conference of [leads of
Government of the Caribbean Community, 25-26 March 2004.

Caribbean Court ofJutice & CARICOM Single

Market and Economy The Core Issues

Securing Caribbean Nationhood: The creation of a
new court is one of the most fundamental and important
decisions for a State. For the Caribbean Community
(CARICOM) States, it is the most dynamic step in securing
their sovereignty and undoubtedly preserving the rights of
their citizens. Furthermore, with the advancement of the
regional integration movement and by extension the thrust
towards the creation of a single market and economy, there are
certain attendant rights and corresponding obligations placed
upon both state and citizen. It is therefore necessary for a
regional judicial institution to authoritatively and definitively
pronounce on those rights and obligations.
Preserving the Caribbean Citizen's Rights: The proposed
Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) is intended to be the final
Court of Appeal from civil and criminal decisions of the
Courts of Appeal of the Member States of the Caribbean
Community (CARICOM) who opt to so utilize it.
There are some situations where an appeal to the British
Privy Council is not automatic, and leave of the Court of
Appeal in the State or special leave of the Privy Council is
required. The citizen will be able to appeal to the CCJ instead
of the Privy Council, as of right, with leave of the Court of
Appeal or with special leave.

Upholding Caribbean Social Identity: The CCJ will be an
itinerant court and will be located in Trinidad and Tobago.
However, as is necessary, the Court will travel from State to
State to conduct its business. This mode of operation
represents a vast reduction in expenditure against what would
normally be incurred in taking a case through the British
Privy Council.
Caribbean Integration Benefits: The proposed Court will
also function as an international tribunal, hearing disputes
arising from the interpretation and application of the Revised
Treaty of Chaguaramas under the CARICOM Single Market
and Economy (CSME).
The rights and obligations created by the CSME are so
important and extensive, relating as they do to the
establishment of economic enterprises, the provision of
professional services, the movement of capital, and the
acquisition of land for the operation of businesses that there is
a clear need to have a permanent, central, regional judicial
institution to authoritatively and definitively pronounce on
those rights and corresponding obligations. The CCJ is
intended to be such an institution.

L~k 4*-

Freedom of movement includes the
freedom to leave and re-enter any
Member State of their choosing and also
to have access to property either for
residential or business purposes...

Caribbean Single Market and Economy:
The notion of a Caribbean Region without barriers,
strengthened by its collective resources and opportunities, has
been a shared vision that inspired the commitment of
integrationists from the early days. When the Caribbean
Community (CARICOM) conceived and agreed on the
CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) it was in
recognition of challenges posed by the increasingly globalised
economy and the need to increase competitiveness of the
goods and services of the Region for regional and
international markets.
There is also recognition that to unlock the richness of
these initiatives, the business community and other
stakeholders must clearly understand the CSME process and
cross-border issues. This document therefore seeks to inform,
advise and guide the CARICOM beneficiaries producers,
traders, service providers towards the opportunities created
by the CSME. It is hoped that the information serves to
further enlighten this group of stakeholders on the
relevant issues.
Free Movement: The ability of the factors of production -
goods, services, capital and people to move freely across
Member States of the Caribbean Community, providing for
efficient and competitive production of goods and services for
both regional and international markets, means that our
Region's people can maximize their talents and resources,
thereby leading to greater efficiency and increased profits.
By removing barriers to trade in goods and services and
opening up new opportunities for over six million
CARICOM nationals, (14 million if Haiti is included) the
CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) will
stimulate growth and add to the potential for international
competitiveness of the CARICOM Member States.
Free movement of Services: Under the CSME, Member
States will be required to remove any impediment, which
could restrict one's right to provide Services. Individual
Member States will have to ensure that nationals from other
Member States have access to land, buildings, and other
property on a non-discriminatory basis for the purpose, which
is directly related to the provision of services.
Free movement of Goods: There are no import duties on
goods of CARICOM origin. Tariffs and quantitative

restrictions in all Member States are removed. The treatment
of intra-regional imports will be different from those coming
from the rest of the world. In addition, there will be agreed
regional standards for the production of goods throughout the
Free movement of People: This is an essential factor in an
ever-closer union among the people of CARICOM Member
States. The Treaty on the CSME abolishes discrimination on
ground of nationality in all Member States. Under the CSME,
the free movement of persons across the Region entails the
removal of work permits for University Graduates, Media
Workers, Sports Persons, Musicians, Artists, Managers,
Supervisors and other service providers. These persons will be
able to travel to Member States with only a travel permit and,
in some cases, an Inter-Caribbean Travel document complete
with photograph.
Workers in these categories can now move freely to another
Member State and enjoy the same benefits and rights as
regards conditions of work and employment as those given to
national workers. Freedom of movement includes the
freedom to leave and re-enter any Member State of their
choosing and also to have access to property either for
residential or business purposes.
Free movement of Capital: Citizens will be able to transfer
money to another country through bank notes, cheques,
electronic transfers, etc. without having to obtain prior
authorization. No new restriction can be added and the
restrictions that already exist will be removed.There will also
be the equal right to buy shares in any company in any
Member State and the right to remove your capital from one
Member State to another.
Envisaged under the CSME are the easy convertibility of
our Region's currencies and the coordination of exchange and
interest rate policies. The free movement of capital will allow
firms to have access to a wider market for raising needed
capital at competitive rates, thus allowing for the productive
sectors to become more competitive both regionally and
internationally. The free movement of capital will allow
investors to diversify portfolios regionally and to share in the
best performing firms (only if these firms have gone public)
across the Region. The movement of capital across the Region
will result in increased investment opportunities and will
promote investment.
Envisaged under the CSME, too, is the development of a
regional capital market which would facilitate the free
movement of capital. This will increase the attractiveness of
the Region as an area for investment both by regional and
non-regional investors.
Excerpt from CARICOM Information Booklets entitled The Caribbean Court of
Justice (CCJ) and CARICOM Single Market and Economy published in 2003.



-1 i1rl


Combatting Terrorist Financing:

The International Standards

By Fitz-Roy Drayton, Legal-JudicalAdviser, Caribbean Anti-Money Laundering Program (CALP)

FOLLOWING THE EVENTS of September 1 th in the
United States, there has been a worldwide focus on the
financing of terrorist organizations. This paper will examine
the international standards.

The United Nations Convention for the
Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism

Terrorist Offences
Offences are committed under "The Convention" if a
person provides or collects funds with the intention that they
should be used or with the knowledge that they are to be used
to carry out an act that constitutes any offence listed in the
United Nations Treaties.
This also includes any other act, which is intended to cause
death, or serious bodily harm to a civilian or to any person not
taking part in hostilities in a situation of armed conflict.
The purpose of the act whether by its nature or context
must be to intimidate a population or compel a government
or an international organisation to do or to abstain from
doing any act.

The purpose of the act whether by its
nature or context must be to intimidate
a population or compel a government or
an international organisation to do or
to abstain from doing any act...

Terrorist Funds
In "The Convention" funds means assets of every kind,
tangible or intangible, movable or immovable, however
This definition includes legal documents or instruments in
any form whether electronic or digital. Such assets include,
but are not limited to bank credits, travellers' cheques, bank
cheques, money orders, shares, securities, bonds, drafts, letters
of credit.
In the same Article "Proceeds" are described as any funds
derived from or obtained directly or indirectly through the
commission of an offence specified in article 2 of "The

"The Convention" shall not apply where the offence is
committed within a single state, the alleged offender is a
national of that state and is present in the territory of that
state and no other state has a basis to exercise jurisdiction.
Countries will also have jurisdiction to prosecute those
offences which are committed in the state, or on board a vessel
flying the flag of the state or on an aircraft registered under
the laws of the state. Jurisdiction will also apply to an offence
committed by a national of a state.

Investigation, Freezing and Forfeiture
Countries will be obliged to put in place measures to
identify, detect, freeze and seize any of the funds used or
allocated for the purpose of committing offences under
Article 2 for the purposes of possible forfeiture.

If a state does not extradite it shall prosecute without delay.
The decision to prosecute shall be taken as in the case of a
grave offence under the law of the state. "The Convention" is
to be the basis for extradition in the absence of a treaty.
There is no obligation to extradite if there are substantial
grounds to believe that the purpose is to punish a person on
account of race, religion, nationality, ethnic origin or political

Mutual Legal Assistance
State parties are required to give greatest assistance in
connection with criminal investigations.

Preventative Measures
Domestic legislation is to be adapted to prevent the
commission of offences within or outside their territories and
measures to prohibit in their instigation, organisation or
engaging in the commission of offences.
Amongst the preventive measures financial institutions are
to utilize the most efficient measures available for
identification of their usual and occasional customers. They
must pay special attention to unusual or suspicious
transactions and report transactions stemming from criminal
Regulations are to be put in place for the opening of
accounts to verify the identity of the real owners. Proof of

V; B

identity is to be obtained and regulations to be imposed on
financial institutions to report all complex, unusual large
transactions and which have no apparent economic or
obviously lawful purpose. This must be without fear of
assuming criminal or civil liability.

Security Council Resolution 1373
The United Nations Security Council issued Security
Council Resolution 1373. This Resolution called on all States
to work together to urgently prevent and suppress
terrorist acts.
It was decided that all States shall:
* Prevent and suppress the financing of terrorist acts
* Criminalise the willful provision or collection of funds
by their nationals with the intention that the funds should
be used to carry out terrorist acts.
* Freeze without delay funds and other financial assets or
economic resources of persons who commit, or attempt to
commit terrorist acts and of entities owned or controlled by
such persons and entities, including funds derived or
generated from property owned or controlled by such
persons and associated persons and entities.
* Prohibit nationals and persons from making funds,
financial assets or economic resources available for the
benefit of persons who commit or attempt to commit
terrorist acts, or of entities.

It was also decided that all States shall:
* refrain from providing any form of support to entities or
persons involved in terrorist acts, including by suppressing
recruitment of members of terrorist groups and eliminating
the supply of weapons to terrorists.
* take steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts
including early warning by the exchange of information
* deny safe haven to those who finance, plan, support, or
commit terrorist acts, or provide safe havens.
* prevent those who finance, plan and facilitate or commit
terrorist acts from using their respective territories for those
purposes against other States or their citizens.
* ensure that any person who participates in the financing,
planning, preparation of terrorist acts or in supporting
terrorist acts is brought to justice and ensure that in
addition to any other measures against them, such terrorist
acts are established as serious criminal offences in domestic
laws and regulations and that the punishment duly reflects
the seriousness of such terrorist acts;
* afford one another the greatest measure of assistance in
connection with criminal proceedings relating to the

Amongst the preventive measures
financial institutions are to utilize the
most efficient measures available for
identification of their usual and
occasional customers. They must pay
special attention to unusual or
suspicious transactions and report
transactions stemming from criminal

financing or support of terrorist acts, including assistance
in obtaining evidence in their possession necessary for
the proceedings
prevent the movement of terrorists or terrorist groups by
effective border controls on issuance of identity papers and
travel documents, and through measures for preventing
counterfeiting, forgery or fraudulent use of identity papers
and travel documents

The FinancialAction Task Force
8 Special Recommendations
The Financial Action Task Force held a special meeting in
Miami in October 2001 to address the problem of Terrorist
Financing and formulated eight recommendations to address
the problem of terrorist financing.
The recommendations are as follows:
Take immediate steps to ratify UN instruments
Criminalise financing of terrorism, terrorist acts and
terrorist organizations
Freeze and confiscate terrorist assets
Report suspicious transactions linked to terrorism
Provide the widest possible range of assistance to other
countries law enforcement and regulatory authorities for
terrorist financing investigations
Impose anti-money laundering requirements on alternative
remittance systems
Strengthen customer identification measures in
international and domestic wire transfers
Ensure that entities, in particular non-profit organizations,
cannot be misused to finance terrorism.

It is recommended that the following websites be
referred to for further information regarding the
international standards. U

Confronting Illicit Maritime & Air

Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs

By Nont tan W\bondenberg, Legal Counsel, Dutch llinistry of'Foreign Aff irs

Agreement concerning Cooperation in Suppressing Illicit
Maritime and Air Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and
Psychotropic Substances in the Caribbean Area.
Past, Present and Future.

In the 1980s and early 1990s, the international community
started to realise that international and regional cooperation
and coordination were vital to tackle the problem of drugs. In
the Caribbean, a Regional Meeting on Drug Control
Cooperation was set up to coordinate national counter-
narcotics activities in the region, which ranged from demand
reduction to measures against drug trafficking. The meeting
was organised by the United Nations International Drug
Control Programme in Barbados in May 1996 and resulted in
the Barbados Plan of Action, which lists 87 specific
interventions and includes 11 paragraphs on maritime

The text of the regional agreement as
approved in Aruba goes a step further
than the procedures ofArticle 17 of the
1988 Vienna Convention...

Consequently, in 1997 a group of experts, including
delegates from the Dutch Ministry of Defence, drafted a
regional agreement for the Caribbean region based on Article
17 of the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit
Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (the
1988 Vienna Convention), which is the international legal
basis for maritime counter-narcotics cooperation and
encourages States inter alia to enter into bilateral and
regional agreements.
Recognising the importance of a maritime agreement for
counter-narcotics operations, the Kingdom of the
Netherlands undertook to organise informal consultations on
the draft agreement. After three years of consultation, the first
round of negotiations on a the draft agreement took place in

San Josd, Costa Rica, in November 2001. Subsequently, in
April 2002, the second and final round of negotiations took
place in Oranjestad, Aruba. The meetings were co-chaired by
Costa Rica, CARICOM and the Kingdom of the
Netherlands. Close to a hundred legal experts and maritime
counter-drug officials from countries and organizations from
the wider Caribbean region took an active part in
the meetings.
A combination of good will and hard work resulted in the
final text, which has been signed on the 10th of April 2003 by
nine States, namely Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic,
France, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, the Kingdom of the
Netherlands, Nicaragua and the United States of America. As
Depositary, Costa Rica organised the signing ceremony. On
the 15th of October 2003, Jamaica signed the Agreement,
and more States are expected to sign in the foreseeable future.

The text of the regional Agreement as approved in Oranjestad
goes a step further than the procedures of Article 17 of the
1988 Vienna Convention. It offers a wider legal framework
for cooperation in law enforcement operations and a basis for
further operational and legal agreements. It aims to promote
optimal cooperation between the Parties in combating illicit
maritime and air traffic in and over the waters of the
Caribbean area, to ensure that suspect vessels and aircraft are
detected, identified and continuously monitored. If there is
evidence that a vessel is involved in illicit traffic, the
Agreement allows the competent law enforcement authorities
to detain it.
The Agreement is entirely consistent with prevailing
international law and does not infringe on the sovereignty of
any State. Several articles offer a range of options, allowing
States to decide whether, and to what extent, they are
prepared to allow foreign law enforcement officials to operate
in their territorial waters or aboard their vessels within the
context of cooperation and assistance under this Agreement.
The object is to improve cooperation and assistance. This
operational slant combined with the new legal framework
gives the Agreement an added value vis-t-vis the 1988 Vienna


Convention referred to above. However, this is not to say that
the Agreement, which was concluded specifically for the
Caribbean region, could serve as a blueprint for similar
agreements in other parts of the world. The geography of the
region was an important factor in determining the form and
purport of the terms of the Agreement.
One of the main provisions is Article 16, which deals with
the procedures that law enforcement officials of a Party must
follow when boarding a suspect vessel of another Party on the
high sea. The article presents three options, allowing Parties to
decide how much further they want to go than the basic
principles for boarding laid down in Article 17 of the 1988
Vienna Convention. Article 16.1 of the Agreement lays down
the basic rules for boarding. It states that when law
enforcement officials of one Party encounter a suspect vessel
claiming the nationality of another Party on the high sea, the
Agreement constitutes authorisation from the claimed flag
State Party to board and search the suspect vessel and its cargo
and question any persons on board in order to determine
whether the vessel is engaged in illicit traffic.
Although this generic authorisation is the basic rule, States
may notify the Depositary upon signing, ratification,
acceptance or approval of the Agreement that the actions
referred to above may be performed only with the express
consent of the claimed flag State Party. In practice, this
procedure corresponds to the procedures allowed under
Article 17 of the 1988 Vienna Convention. The third option,
which can also be notified to the Depositary upon signing,
ratification, acceptance or approval of the Agreement,
provides that, if a claimed flag State Party does not respond
within four hours to a request for verification of nationality
(as referred to in Article 6) or is unable to confirm or deny the
nationality of the suspect vessel, the Party requesting
verification may be deemed to be authorised to board the
suspect vessel.
Under both the second and the third options, the claimed
flag State Party may seek assistance from the Party requesting

The geography of the region was an

important factor in determining the
form and purport of the terms of the

verification of nationality and authorise actions necessary to
prevent the escape of the suspect vessel other than boarding it.

...the Agreement offers more scope for
tackling illicit maritime and air

trafficking in narcotic drugs and

psychotropic substances in the
Caribbean area.

If the nationality of a suspect vessel cannot be determined as
is often the case with go-fasts the boarding Party may
assimilate it to a vessel without nationality, in accordance with
international law.
Other relevant provisions of the Agreement concern the
facilitation of cooperation, verification of registration,
assistance by vessels or aircraft to suppress illicit traffic, and
jurisdiction over offences or vessels.

As noted above, the Agreement offers more scope for
tackling illicit maritime and air trafficking in narcotic drugs
and psychotropic substances in the Caribbean area. Though it
represents an important landmark, it is not an end in itself.
Unless implemented effectively, any international legal
instrument is merely a piece of paper.
Some examples of steps that need to be taken are:
proper implementation of the provisions and principles of
the Agreement in the national laws and regulations of the
State Parties, such as the establishment of jurisdiction over
the offences covered by the Agreement, and the
appointment of officials with like powers to those of
domestic law enforcement officials to enforce this
Agreement in territorial waters with the consent of the
State concerned
the designation of an authority or authorities to receive and
respond to requests under the Agreement, such as requests
to determine the nationality of a vessel or requests for
authorisation from the flag State to take appropriate
measures against a suspect vessel
the designation of qualified law enforcement officials to act
as law enforcement officials on board vessels of another
Properly implemented, the Agreement provides a new
instrument of cooperation in the fight against drug
trafficking. Cooperation is indeed the key. It makes it possible
to take a stand against the problem & hence the many
provisions on cooperation. Because together we are strong! N


"''i at'n Patienti -:

Onei: ~T~r~

One isa Nws

is ati~naiy

1 w Tl



Youth in Crisis! or is it a Moral Panic?
by William Harry Commissioner of Police, St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Y OUNG PEOPLE make up the vast majority of the world's or more ago? Perhaps what adults did suited that period. Have
population. They occupy the centre stage in development adults stopped to think whether or not those values that we
issues. They are seen more often at sporting, cultural and other cherished were in fact good values that should be perpetuated
major events. Young people occupy much prominence in ad infinitum? I suggest that adults need to take a hard look at
national affairs such as education, sports, health, housing, the issues of the day and assess whether or not young people
culture and arts. They are also the talking point in crime and are not placed in a 'crisis cocoon' and that adults are being
violence debates. It is for this crime and violence matter that I driven by a moral panic.
ask the question; are the youth in crisis or is it a moral panic? In many parts of the world, it is the
Commercial activity thrives on the desires of young people
for attention, food, entertainment, challenges and experience, behaviour of the youth that adults
Educational institutions are fashioned by the perception of tolerate, bec tey
adults, who determine what is good for young people. cannot tolerate, because they are
However it is true to say that the way most national systems regarded as rebellious, delinquent,
educate the youth is a reason for the situation being regarded
as 'a crisis confronting the youth'. For example, agricultural deviant, unruly, violent and ill-
based economies have very few institutions geared towards disciplined and the list in inexhaustible.
shaping young minds on methods that will aid young people
to survive in such agricultural environment. Instead they are Youth behaviour is classified based on the adult's value
given only a formal education, which really does not set them system. They often regard youth behaviour as rebellious, ill
for life. disciplined and violent. But it is the violent behavior that is
The commercial landscape is shaped and fashioned by what cause for concern for most of the adult population. However,
the market place dictates and the marketplace is created by the it may not be accurate based on statistics, to brand youths as
same commercial enterprises. The advent of television to most more violent than adults. The fact is that the youth attract
western communities has created a vision for the youth. It is more attention from the social worker, the politician, teacher,
yet to be seen whether or not the formal education system can pastor and policeman. It is also a fact that because of the very
keep pace in satisfying the youth that the process, of grandiose lifestyle of the youth, their obvious activities will cause them
achievements as portrayed on television, is only by way of to gain the attention of the adult. Adults may be generally less
hard work. active than young people.
The portrayal of personalities in different disciplines for Adults enact more stringent legislation to curb the youth
example, football, basketball, rap artistes among others, so-called violent behaviour and very often they are treated as
displaying their immense wealth tantamount to an invitation adults. There are very few court systems for young people; they
to young people to achieve fame and fortune without any are processed through the adult court. In a number of
formal education. On the other hand, the visible rise to fame jurisdictions there are no prison facilities for young people.
and fortune of known drug barons, who very often are the Studies have shown that youths processed through the adult
icons of some young people, is reason for concern. But it is the criminal court have significantly higher rate of re-offending
adults and not the youth, which are creating these avenues of and a greater likelihood of committing subsequent serious
distortion of value systems, crimes than youths who are processed through a juvenile
In many parts of the world, it is the behaviour of the youth criminal system. Youths who are also processed through the
that adults cannot tolerate, because they are regarded as adult criminal court are more likely to be victimized physically
rebellious, delinquent, deviant, unruly, violent and ill- and sexually. Youths that are abused are more likely to become
disciplined and the list in inexhaustible. Very often adults violent in later life.
would say, "In my days at school, I could not do this or that". Youth violent behaviour has attracted more reporting
But why do we expect young people to do what we did decades because adults have become less tolerant to undesirable youth

behaviour. The increase school crime reports have been as a more scientifically tested, for the reasons stated above for the
result of a zero tolerance policy by teachers and educational apparent increase in reporting before we lay the blame on the
authorities. Yet there are a number of teachers who fail to youth as the major perpetuators of violence. Also, that they
report incidents for fear of reprisals by students. The number comprise the majority of the prison population is not enough
of young persons reaching the court is as a result of the to show that young people are more violent than adults. It is
attitude of the police to charge more young people for crime, obvious that if the police have the propensity to charge more
This is brought about by the intolerance of adults to youth young people for crime, then there is a likelihood of more
violent behaviour. young people ending up in prison. Moreover, since the late
As a result of the foregoing, it may appear that youth crime nineteenth century, policing of social space and public order
and violence is increasing, which in fact may not be so. It is no has been more targeted at young people. The street policing
different than the issues of domestic violence among adults, episodes of the sixties and seventies in the Caribbean in
which saw a drastic increase in reporting as a result of particular in connection with student protest is worth noting.
legislative enactments. Hence what was regarded, as a normal The youth are the future leaders of our civilization;
domestic matter now becomes a matter for the court and not therefore we need to provide them with a good environment
one to be settled by the grandmother or grandfather or senior to develop. They occupy areas of national importance in many
citizen in the village. disciplines and must be given support and direction. That the
There is no doubt that violent crime has been on the youth are the majority in the prison system may be a wake up
increase in the Caribbean region in the past five years. It is also call for the leaders and society to take stock of society's value
accepted that a large percentage of offenders are young people, system, which the youth presumably cannot adhere to. The
We have seen equally, more attention being paid by the media present perception in the region points to 'Youth in crisis'. It
regarding violence; hence more focus is being paid to youth is my submission, in the absence of scientific data that there is
violence and less to adult violence. The statistics need to be a 'Moral panic'. U

A Perspective on Education in the

t Caribbean
By Raymond S. Hackett, School of Education, U. W

P ROE CARL CAMPBELL, in his book, "Colony and Jamaica. The survey sought to explore the perceptions of
nation: A short history of Education in Trinidad and ordinary citizens, business persons, parents, and officers of
Tobago, 1834-1986", pointed out that by 1981 the education teacher associations.
system in Trinidad and Tobago was the best in the English- First of all, it should be noted that all Caribbean countries
speaking Caribbean. He also noted that, at the same time, a have more or less the same problems. Young people, like their
peculiar malaise had begun to set in-a persistent decline in parents, continue to be ideologically confused and not truly in
student academic achievement. As we settle down in the new tune with the political system. Unemployment continues to be
millennium, the concern has gone beyond failing student a chronic problem. A substantial number of our Caribbean
academic performance. Cries of an education system in crisis, youth now look outward for economic salvation. Socially and
and rampant indiscipline and violence in schools have now spiritually, our societies are disorganized. The only order among
become the order of the day, and policymakers in the Ministry most of our youth seems to be the consensus of their musical
of Education are frantically seeking solutions. Also, many tastes and the aping of negative aspects of American culture. All
national observers and researchers are wondering how best they seem mesmerised by rock and Jamaican dance-hall music, as
can address our mounting educational problems.In this respect, well as by imported hairstyles, garments, and jewellery.
it might be instructive to examine the experiences of other Technologically, digital games and the downloading of music
countries in the region. In an attempt to evaluate the perceived occupy centre stage. Generally, no emphasis seems to be placed
effectiveness of the education systems in the Caribbean, I on creativity, innovation, and invention.
recently conducted a survey in Barbados, Grenada, and


Yot an Gede Isue

Cries of an education system in crisis,
and rampant indiscipline and violence
in schools have now become the order of
the day, and policymakers...are

frantically seeking solutions...

In Barbados, few of those interviewed believed that there was
a crisis in the education system. Almost all respondents felt that
talk of male underachievement was irrelevant, and that the
system was working to the benefit of all those who wish to
succeed. Almost all interviewed supported the official view that:
(a) education should be seen as a means for both personal
opportunity and national development, (b) each child matters,
(c) emphasis on only academic achievement tends to
marginalise those who are talented in domains other than the
cognitive, and (d) the real power of education reform lies in
new teaching methodologies and the development of a new-
style teacher.
Chief Education Officer, Wendy Griffith-Watson, speaking
about EDUTECH, the latest educational reform initiative in
Barbados, summarised the Barbadian perspective as follows:
"We will always place a high value on academic excellence in
our schools, but our entire education system cannot be geared
only to producing scholars. We cannot cater only to the top end
and ignore those who are not going to be doctors and lawyers.
We also have to focus on creating as many future citizens as
possible who have the knowledge, skills and attitude to be
productive in our society and our economy."
The situation in Grenada was different. While, generally, the
feeling was that the education system was quite effective, many
maintained that educational development plans made excellent
reading, but failed reality checks. Reform emphasis was found
to focus on: (a) placing computers in schools, (b) making
universal secondary education a reality in the near future, (c)
providing leadership training for school administrators, (d)
developing a curriculum which emphasises technological
studies and technical-vocational training, and (e) promoting
the community college model.
Male underachievement was perceived to be a serious issue in
Grenada. The President of the teachers' union believes that its
causes can be traced to: (a) the dominance of female households
in Grenada, (b) too many female teachers, and (c) the
perception in Grenada that the financial rewards of teaching
"does not make a man feel as a man."
In Jamaica, public perception was that the education system
was serving only a few; that boys in particular were not

performing as expected. The Jamaica Teachers' Association
(TA) insists that schools are not provided with the resources
for them to respond effectively to students' needs and
government's reform initiatives. Most importantly, it should be
noted that secondary education is not free in Jamaica. Parents
still have to engage in what government euphemistically calls
cost sharing.
Like other Caribbean islands, Jamaica is intensely concerned
with promoting information technology in schools and the
community college model for lifelong learning. Through the
HEART Trust/NTA, attempts are also being made to ensure
that technical-vocational training is provided for young school

...it should be noted that all Caribbean
countries have more or less the same
problems. Young people, like their
parents, continue to be ideologically
confused and not truly in tune with the
political system.

Clearly, educational problems in individual Caribbean
islands are not radically different. Also, the islands do not
seem to be responding convincingly to the increasingly
turbulent environment. Perhaps the time has come for us to
sit down as a people with a common heritage and destiny to
brainstorm a way out of our predicament. There is no doubt
that we in Trinidad and Tobago, as the Jamaicans say, have the
money. I am not too sure, however, that we have the vision,
will, and expertise to effectively cope with our problems.
The following insights were gained from the survey: (1)
education systems in the Caribbean would be more humane
and effective if they provided tangible evidence of the value
they place on their workers; (2) education systems cannot be
effective if provisions are not made for promoting more
meaningful parental involvement and consciousness; (3) more
attention needs to be paid to early childhood care and
development, primary education, and special education
projects in the Caribbean; (4) we cannot continue to cater
only for students with visual and auditory learning styles;
students with other learning styles must be recognized; (5)
governments need to give serious attention to the views
expressed by stakeholders; and (6) education reform must be
linked to the rising employment and social problems among
young citizens. U

Gender and SmallArms:

Raising Women's Voices
By Folade Mutota, Women's Institute for Alternative Development (WINAD)

S IMPLY PUT, small arms are weapons that can be fired, It is a well known fact that the great majority of victims of
maintained and transported by one person and a light gun violence are men, more especially young men, but on
weapon is used by a small crew and transported in a light closer examination one recognizes that women's lives are
vehicle. Examples of small arms are pistols, assault rifles, threatened and destroyed also because of the multiplicity of
machine guns, grenade launchers, roles and responsibilities that women have for balancing the
The United Nations Programme of Action focuses on the society and additionally, women face gender based violence
need for States to, among other things, act to stem the tide of both within the sanctity of their homes and on the streets.
the transfer of weapons from the legal to the illegal markets In South Africa for example, 40% of the women who are
and for tracing and monitoring the transfer of arms. UN killed by their partners are killed with guns.
studies estimate that approximately 300 manufacturers in
over 70 countries globally are producing small arms and light Throughout the Caribbean, the upsurge
weapons. An estimated 500,000 to 700,000 lives are lost each
year by the use of small arms. These figures represent an in gun violence is threatening our
average of 1,700 deaths per day or one person dying every personal sense of security and order in
minute. The ready availability of firearms lead to violent
crimes, domestic violence, sexual violence, suicides and the society...
firearms accidents.
In a March 2, 2004 statement on the violence in Haiti, Pregs Govender, former ANC Member of Parliament in
women of the Caribbean and of Caribbean descent, reminded South Africa recently told a meeting of researchers from around
Caribbean people that, as is true everywhere, it is women and the world that 'women' are disproportionately impacted by gun
children who pay the highest price for the violence, including violence in areas both in conflict zones and in countries that are
the violence of poverty, corruption and greed. They called on supposedly at peace. Mothers weeping on the front page of the
the people of the region to, condemn acts of violence against daily newspapers all over the Caribbean is common. They are
the people of Haiti, where as in any armed conflict, women in grief because a son has been killed or is accused of being the
and children bear the highest price, including sexual violence, perpetrator. A son has been incarcerated for possession and/or
Throughout the Caribbean, the upsurge in gun violence is trafficking drugs. A daughter is before the courts because she's
threatening our personal sense of security and order in the been used as a mule for transporting drugs across borders.
society. In Trinidad and Tobago police statistics reveal that Children have lost their parents because the father executed the
guns have been used increasingly to commit murder, mother and then committed suicide. These children very often
robberies and for wounding. A similar trend is reported in become destitute and often times are abandoned by the State
Jamaica. Between 1999 and 2003 eighty thousand one and neglected by all of us.
hundred and eighty (80,180) serious crimes were recorded in The illegal use of guns and drugs is wreaking havoc in some
Trinidad and Tobago. communities leaving residents virtual prisoners in their own
In 2003, the Trinidad and Tobago Police seized two homes. Throughout the region, the reality is the same.
hundred and thirty-nine (239) firearms. For the same five year Communities are under siege. There is a dis-connectedness
period (1999-2003) in Jamaica, the number of reported between the reality and the response to the reality. The
murders committed using firearms showed a fluctuation; with response is based on fear and an unwillingness to examine the
the highest number occurring in 2001 (789 out of a total of root causes so the intervention is reprisal, blaming, temporary
1139 reported cases) and the lowest incidence in 2003 (298 work programmes and training for everything else except how
murders out of a total of 429). In 2000 there was a slight to manage the feelings which lead to the build up of anger and
decrease in the number of firearm related murders, 536; while hopelessness that militate against perpetrators even wanting to
in 1999 this figure was 549. resolve conflict peacefully and with respect for people's
human rights.

Yout anene Issue

It is a well known fact that the great
majority of victims of gun violence are
men, more especially young men, but on
closer examination one recognizes that
women's lives are threatened and
destroyed also because of the multiplicity
of roles and responsibilities that women
have for balancing the society...

This dis-connectedness leads to social exclusion so that a
large percentage of our people, particularly our young males
find the gun and drug culture attractive and gravitate toward
the lifestyle and the temporary benefits. The result is pain and
mayhem and a country and region so socially, politically and
economically ruptured that real development is not pursued.
Another response is an increase in the number of private
security agencies as business people and home owners try to
protect their properties and families. Combined police and
army patrols on major city streets and communities
considered "trouble spots" suggests that the State is prepared
to respond to the problem with force.
For women, access to firearms and the use and abuse of
such weapons impose stress related illnesses on women. It is
not just those women who are injured or killed by guns or
who lose family members to gun violence who are affected.
The presence of guns in the household leads to intimidation
and abuse even if the guns are not actually fired. As a result,
stress related diseases also become part of these women's lives.
There is another dimension to this assault on our security
and sanity caused by the proliferation of guns and gun
violence in our society, and that is the need for women's
physical protection against attack. Gun violence erodes
women's agency leading to fear and inertia. Violence against
women is quite common in Trinidad and Tobago and
throughout the Caribbean. This impacts on women's sense of
personal security. Women are violated in the most
reprehensible ways. Walking the streets is now a pre-planned
exercise in vigilance and agility.
Ironically, women are called upon to manage and correct
the fallout from the increase in gun violence. The state re-
directs money from the social sector to the security sector and
rely on women to fulfill one of their many assigned
reproductive roles of providing the social safety net.

Members ofWINAD in discussions on the issue of gun violence in the region,
The difficulty in this approach is that women are not
invited to be part of the decision-making processes which
produce the strategies in response to the violence. Resolution
1325 which was passed in the United Nations in 2000, states
that women should be included in all peace-building activity.
The resolution is relevant to the Caribbean as we seek ways to
rid ourselves of the plague that is the misuse of small arms.
The call for women's meaningful inclusion in decision-
making is further strengthened by the demand of the
International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA)
Women's Network for governments to, "put their money
where their mouth is and consult women properly before
imposing inappropriate solutions to gun violence in
their countries".
The issues associated with gun violence are issues related to
masculinity. Violence is a demonstration of the gendered
ideology of "manhood". This manhood is very often
synonymous with brawn and victory. Our men are taught
they have to be in charge and in control. There is a power
associated with guns that men are taught to pursue from
childhood. We need to question our customs. Customs which
make us glorify guns and gun users in the media and in our
communities. And in so doing we must challenge ourselves to
provide our young men with alternatives that would
encourage them to respect people's human rights.
We need to examine how various mechanisms which guide
the society contribute to the social phenomenon of violence
in our society, particularly gun violence. For instance, why are
young urban male so involved? What are the connections with
illegal drugs? Do we have a proliferation of guns across class
but the misuse of guns within one class? What is the cost to
health and social services in the country and region? We want
to begin to answer these questions or at least find out if they
are relevant. 0



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VICTORIA PARK ROAD TEL: 456-1725/457-2745
FAX: 809-456-2191 -


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Partners Makes Perfect

By Elton Lewis, Commissioner of Police, USVI

'M NOT A CLOCK-WATCHER, and never have been,
but as the months gallop towards my first anniversary as
Commissioner, and I reflect on all that we have accomplished
in the Virgin Islands Police Department (VIPD), it reminds
me of something the old folks used to say, "Make hay while
the sun shines." Well, without sounding too boastful, we're
basking in the rays of a beautiful new dawn.
There's no way that I could take all, or even half of the
credit for what's been accomplished within the Virgin Islands
Police Department in such a short period. I believe that the
key to the success of all of history's greatest and most enduring
accomplishments has been that of partnership. Without
strong and unified alliances and teamwork, we have nothing.
I have set the somewhat lofty goal of creating and building
partnerships. To that end, I am pleased to report that we now
have initiatives in place and have made significant progress on
each initiative. These initiatives range from strengthening the
police force and enhancing collaborative strategies with the
private sector.
Over the last nine months, we have worked very closely
with the private sector to promote cooperation and
understanding, to join forces in bringing about sweeping
changes, and to speak collectively concerning the crime
situation and ways and means of curtailing the crime wave.
The VIPD has also been working closely with the Offices of
the Virgin Islands Attorney General and the United States
Attorney, essentially strengthening bonds with all local and
federal law enforcement agencies operating in the Territory.
The by-product has been wide-ranging joint initiatives that
are ushering positive change.
Unifying communities across the Virgin Islands, the
broader Caribbean region, and globally for that matter was
another initiative. One of my priorities for the VIPD has been
to revive our relationship with every regional police
commissioner through the Association of Caribbean Police
Commissioners (ACCP). After the Virgin Islands Police
Department's conspicuous seven-year absence, I felt it was
imperative that we re-establish dynamic links with
commissioners across the entire region. Open dialogue,
mutual aid, and cooperative missions are necessary precursors

to ensuring a safer Caribbean Basin. To that end, the VIPD
eagerly anticipates hosting the Association of Caribbean
Commissioners of Police (ACCP) Annual Conference in May
2005 on St Croix.
The horror of September 11, 2001 serves as a constant
reminder not to take anything for granted, especially the
preparedness of our frontline of defense our police and peace
officers. So, in an effort to enhance proficiency and
standardisation, I am committed to re-energising plans to
construct a Territorial Law Enforcement Training Academy.
Not only will we seek to promote a greater level of efficiency
and expertise throughout our ranks, we also aim for the
proposed Virgin Islands Territorial Law Enforcement Training
Academy to become recognized as the region's premiere
training center of its kind, where local, federal and regional
forces can be trained under one roof. Now that's unity!
By establishing partnerships between private sector
businesses, communities, local and federal law enforcement
agencies, and regional police forces based on mutual respect,
understanding, trust, and the sharing of information and
ideas, I envision that there will be unlimited benefits for the
people and communities we serve. I am proud to serve one of
the regions most dedicated law enforcement agencies, and I
look forward to playing a significant and visible role in our
region's future.

Inter-agency Co-operation -

Challenges and Prospects

by Keith Renaud, ACCP Secretariat Manager

The Oxford Dictionary defines co-operation as: "Working
together to the same end". From this definition it can be
gleaned that there are two essential factors that constitute the
notion of co-operation; (a) a working relationship and; (b) a
common goal. A working relationship, in the sense that two
or more agencies must have established the mechanisms by
which functional co-operation is facilitated. A common goal
in the sense that the co-operating agencies have a mutual
interest in the eventual outcome of their co-operative efforts.
In practical terms, therefore, inter-agency co-operation can be
defined as the various ways in which the agencies involved in a
particular system of governance, work together to maintain and
improve their individual levels of effectiveness and efficiency, as
well as that of the total system in which they function.
All agencies are inter-dependent. None could effectively
achieve its goal without the support, co-operation and
collaboration of other agencies. The state prosecutors need the
police, the police need the prisons, the prisons need the
probation department and they all need each other in varying
ways. This is a very stark reality which is not easily identified,
understood and accepted by most agencies involved in
particular systems of governance. Examples abound at every
level of organisation life on every continent in the world. It is
a sad irony that is all too prevalent in our experiences in the
criminal justice systems in which we are all involved.

In the criminal justice system, inter-agency co-operation is
of particular importance, having regard to the pervasive
nature of the values of justice and governance in the socio-
political arrangements to which we subscribe. In fact the
justice system is the foundation of the many rights and
freedoms which we all enjoy. In respect of the criminal justice
system inter-agency co-operation can be used to achieve one
or more of the following:
* Improve the relationship of individuals involved in inter-

agency functions.
Improve adherence to constitutional standards.
Reduce delays in the administration of justice.
Improve the standard of criminal investigations and case
Decrease incidence of overcrowding in prisons.
Develop strategies to mitigate inter-agency policy conflict.
Improve the systems and procedures for gathering and
exchanging information.
Strengthen advocacy for legislative/policy changes.
Identify subject areas for joint training programmes.
Develop measures of crime prevention and community
Build inter-agency trust, confidence, efficiency and
Engender public trust and confidence in the justice system.

The factors which restrict inter-agency co-operation are many
and varied. These include what may be called the seven (7)
core progenitors:
Parochial perspective: A narrow view of the agency's role
in the context of the total system.
Personality clashes: Conflicts based on individuals persona
and their interactions with others.
Perceptions of superiority/inferiority: A real or imagined
sense of power /powerlessness with regard to the inter-
agency relationship.
Petty Jealousy: Feelings of resentment or envy usually
based on known or perceived organisational rivalry/status.
o Powerful organisational culture: A dominant
organisational value which does not readily subscribe to the
notion of collaboration and co-operation.
Political ambivalence: The lack of clarity from the political
directorate in terms of inter-agency collaboration and
SPolicy imperative: Adherence to agency policy


Policy imperative: Adherence to agency policy
which forbids/restricts inter-agency collaboration and

In order to facilitate inter-agency co-operation at all levels
of an organisation it is necessary to have information
accessible to all participants. The nature and extent of the
information, expertise and best practices to be shared among
agencies must be determined by the agencies themselves
through specific agreements and administrative arrangements.
Some of the more useful mechanisms for communication
among agencies include, but is not limited to:
Meetings: This is the most obvious and simple way to
foster inter-agency co-operation. However, the major set-back
will be in identifying the agency to take the lead in convening
and chairing these meetings.
Visits: Another mechanism is the joint visit or inspection
tour. These can be visits to the working environment of the
various agencies involved in the criminal justice system, e.g.
the prisons, police stations, court houses, remand facilities etc.
The visits can serve to improve each others knowledge of the
working conditions and the problems they face in their
The major set-back that may be encountered when
organising joint visits is the means and costs of transportation
and accommodation. In some instances it can be problematic
to pool resources either because of the rank or status of
participants or the perceived impropriety of joining certain
parties. E.g. should a judge travel in a police car?
Workshops: This is another means by which inter-agency
co-operation can be promoted. Regular workshops can be
arranged with the stakeholders so that participants can
identify specific objectives for inter-agency co-operation or to
evaluate activities and address issues and problems which are
negatively affecting efforts to promote inter-agency co-
The major challenge here will be for participants to be
truthful in sharing negative information about their agencies.
It is a known fact that most individuals will be reluctant to be
critical of their organisation in an open forum such as a

Informal Contacts: This is a very popular and useful
mechanism for promoting co-operation among agencies.
However it is not a very reliable means of engaging in co-
operative efforts since it is heavily dependent on the
relationship between particular individuals who may not
always be readily available.

Associations: An over-arching consideration for the
promotion of inter-agency co-operation and collaboration is
the establishment of formal associations of interests. Such
mechanisms can provide the basis for generating the collective
views and positions of particular agencies involved in the
criminal justice system. These views can inform policies to
improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall system
of justice.
While associations of interests can be effective mechanisms
for improving inter-agency co-operation and collaboration,
they can nonetheless be very difficult to establish and
maintain in terms of; obtaining commitment from agency
members, identifying and selecting appropriate officials
and/or funding the activities and programmes of the

Underlying the factors which contribute to the
unwillingness for agencies to co-operate and share important
information, is the issue of confidentially. Again, this brings
into focus the human factor in the process. We must admit
that there is always a risk that one or more individuals
involved in a particular system may, at one time or another,
reveal vital information to others, in circumstances which can
undermine the integrity of the very process of co-operation.
In one moment, an inter-agency relationship which may
have taken months or years to build, could be destroyed 'in a
flash' by the unethical behaviour of one or more of the parties

therefore, that in some instances the failure to engage in
meaningful inter-agency co-operation is constrained by
feelings of mistrust and a lack of confidence between and
among agencies. The establishment of strict codes of conduct
among the parties will be necessary to address the ethical
questions which are certain to arise from time to time.
It is crucial, therefore, that the issues of integrity,
confidentiality, trust and confidence are all factored into any
discussions on inter-agency co-operation at an early stage.
Very often, however, these concepts are used as excuses for not
engaging in the process. They provide the basis for very
convenient arguments for agency officials to resist efforts at
co-operation and collaboration.

The issue of inter-agency co-operation is a fairly simple
concept whose practical application is completed, varied and
personality-driven. No matter what systems and mechanisms
are put in place they will never achieve the necessary results
unless the human element is an integral and fundamental
factor of the equation.
The stories and experiences of the failure to establish and
improve co-functional relationships among agencies operating
within the same system, are many. If the doctors, nurses,
pharmacists, orderlies, medical clerks do not work together
the noises of death, disease and human suffering will be loud
and clear. If the magistrates, prosecutors, police officers,
prison officers, probation officers, the court clerks etc do not
work together, the noises of injustice, social disorder and
instability will most certainly continue to be
heard everywhere.

Transatlantic Law Enforcement:

SA study of Developments in the

Caribbean Region

By Prof Benjamin Bowling, King's College, London

O-OPERATION between law enforcement officers
located at strategically important points on the northern
shores of the Atlantic Ocean can be traced back to the origins
of modern policing in the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries.
In the last few decades, however, cooperation between
police in Caribbean islands, North American cities and
Britain has increased markedly. Evolving incrementally,
coordination and information sharing has focused on
immediate operational matters, though proactive,
'intelligence-led', approaches to transnational organised crime
have also been developing rapidly. It is now commonplace to
find police officers posted overseas working alongside their
local and foreign counterparts, sharing information,
coordinating joint operations and, in a more general sense,
'thinking globally' about crime.
As so often is the case, operational policing defines the
cutting edge, leaving academic analysts struggling to keep up

with new developments. There has been little research or
public discussion about the legal, political, practical and
ethical issues that arise from such developments. In an era of
anxiety about globalisation and the insecurity of transnational
organised crime, we know too little about new forms of crime
and policing which transcend national boundaries but still
affect people in the communities in which they live. After all,
'global' crime and law enforcement has to happen somewhere!
Someone's bank is laundering dirty money and the suspected
child pornographers arrested in coordinated dawn raids
around the world were someone's next door neighbours.
Transnational organised crime is emerging as one of the
most pressing concerns of the late modern age. Capital and
business are becoming increasingly internationalised and the
potential for international clandestine activity is growing.
Skeptics warn us that the globalisationn debate' over-simplifies
a set of complex economic, structural, political and cultural
developments. They caution that some advocates of the 'new

world order' have hidden agendas that will have negative
consequences for less powerful players on the international
stage. Nonetheless, as Ethan Nadelmann points out in his
excellent Cops Across Borders, with the steady growth of
communication technologies, international capital markets
and world trade, "one need only assume that the criminal
proportion of overall transnational criminal activity has
remained constant to conclude that the overall magnitude of
transnational criminal activity must have increased

In recent years, increasing concern has been expressed
about organised crime groups and their involvement in drug
trafficking, money laundering, murder, extortion, and the
corruption of public officials. To this familiar list, we can add
such new transnational 'folk devils' as environmental
polluters, nuclear-waste smugglers, computer hackers,
netcriminals, 'people traffickers' and international terrorists.
The scale of the money involved in transnational organised
crime is making economists sit up. For example, the
International Monetary Fund (IMF) has estimated that the
laundering of dirty money accounts for somewhere between
two and five per cent of the world's gross domestic product.
Using 1996 statistics, the IMF concluded that this accounts
for somewhere between 590 billion and 1.5 trillion US
dollars. The lower figure is equivalent to the value of the total
output of an economy the size of Spain. Although it seems
intuitively sensible that global crimes need a transnational
response, some have wondered whether this doesn't constitute
a transnational 'moral panic'. The skeptic will, at least, wish to
scratch beneath the surface of the newspaper headlines to find
out how great a threat such crime really is and what can be
done about it.
Perhaps the greatest area of concern certainly where most
activity is focused within the Caribbean region is on the
international trade in prohibited drugs and the crime that is
associated with it. As the West Indian Commission put it,
"Nothing poses greater threats to civil society in [Caribbean]
countries than the drug problem, and nothing exemplifies the
powerlessness of regional governments more". In this context,

the Caribbean is important because the islands represent key
points in routes connecting Western Europe, North America
and South America making them uniquely placed in the illicit
trade across the North Atlantic. The Caribbean Drug Control
Coordinating Mechanism estimates that 460 metric tonnes of
cocaine crossed the Caribbean Sea in 1999, 170 tonnes of
which was destined for US markets and 175 tonnes for
European markets.
Concern about the globalisation of crime has given new
impetus to the development of transnational police
organizations. Interpol and the International Association of
Chiefs of Police have existed for decades (90 and 110 years,
respectively) and there are many other examples of
organizations set up to share information and create networks
among police officers. In the UK, the National Crime
Intelligence Service (NCIS) and the National Crime Squad
(NCS) were set under the 1997 Police Act to co-ordinate a
response to national and international serious and organised
crime. Since 1996, the security and intelligence services (Mi5
and Mi6) have also identified transnational organised crime
part of their raison d'etre. Police Chiefs from around the
world have called for unprecedented levels of international co-
operation to respond to transnational organised crime. The
importance of organised crime has been underlined by the
United Nations Convention Against Organised Crime, signed
in December 2000, in Palermo, Italy.
Within the Caribbean region there are numerous
international law enforcement initiatives. There are various
mechanisms to facilitate communication and collaboration
among Caribbean police agencies. The Association of
Caribbean Commissioners of Police, established in 1987, has
a permanent secretariat in Bridgetown, Barbados. It holds
formal meetings of the region's Commissioners twice a year,
provides a communications hub, as well as developing
training courses, the sharing of good practice and policy
development for law enforcement agencies within the region.
The United Nations Drug Control Programme has supported
initiatives within the region as has the Caribbean Ministerial
Conference on Regional Law Enforcement. The Regional
Security System provides links between the region's
paramilitary Special Support Units that can be coordinated to
respond to a range of civil emergencies. A CARICOM Task
Force is examining ways in which crime can be more
effectively responded to within the region.
The region also hosts a number of overseas police officers
including the US Drugs Enforcement Agency (DEA), the
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Treasury Department,
UK Customs Drug Liaison Offices (DLOs), Royal Canadian
Mounted Police (RCMP), among others. These officers,
operating bilaterally and multi-laterally share information and

intelligence using several communication systems as well as
participating in joint operations within the region and with
countries in North America, Europe, North Africa and
elsewhere. As transnational policing strategies develop,
coordinated operations are becoming more common and
increasingly ambitious. For example, in November 2000 the
US Drug Enforcement Agency announced the success of
Operational Libertador, a three-week counter-narcotics
operation launched simultaneously in 36 Caribbean basin
countries and resulting in nearly 1,000 arrests. A number of
other similar operations have followed.
While globalisation proceeds apace, there has also been a
powerful new emphasis on localisationn', focusing on the
needs of specific localities. Maureen Cain, for example,
describes the development of 'interactive globalisation'
wherein people act in ways that are "indigenous-yet-globally-
aware". Contemporary police commanders are required to
deliver 'community safety' to their divisions (and indeed to
particular 'hotspots' within it), and at the same time to remain
conscious of the impact of global forces on that locality. For
example, divisional commanders in central London need not
only to be aware of the nature and extent of drug markets on
their patch, but also how these are linked to the international
supply and distribution networks that feed into it. Recent
operations such as Metropolitan Police Operation Trident,
targeting so-called 'Yardie' gangs have involved collaboration
with the Jamaica Constabulary Force as part of a local crime
reduction strategy.
At present, we know too little about the extent and nature
of cooperation between law enforcement agencies on the
North Atlantic rim. Neither has sufficient thought been given
to the practical, legal, political and ethical questions that arise
from these developments. To meet this challenge King's
College London has initiated a study of transatlantic policing.
This will involve interviewing strategically placed officers in
the Caribbean region, Britain and the USA. Interviews with
operational officers and those responsible for strategic
development, international co-ordination and liaison will
illuminate how police organizations communicate, co-operate
and collaborate with each other and identify their guiding
principles. The interview data will be supplemented with
analysis of documents relating to the formulation of
transnational policing strategies and the legal, political
managerial and ethical frameworks within which they
operate. The aim will be to describe and explain strategic,

tactical and operational linkages between police agencies and
to answer questions such as:
On what forms of crime does transatlantic cooperation
focus? How does the globalisation of crime impact on local
communities and local policing practices?
What is the extent and nature of cooperation among police
agencies in Caribbean countries, the USA and UK? To what
extent is this cooperation short-term tactical and operational,
and to what extent long-term and strategic?
How, and by whom, are emerging structures and processes
resource? What is the role of the private security sector in
providing human, financial and technical resources? What
research and professional knowledge informs and drives
strategic development and operational practice?
How are the activities of emerging systems of global police
co-operation regulated by national and international law? To
whom are commanders of transnational policing operations
accountable? What mechanisms are in place to ensure the
integrity, legality and accountability of such operations?
At its most speculative, the study will consider the form
that transatlantic police co-operation could, or should, take in
the future. In one scenario, local and national police forces
will remain central. In that model, transnational operations
will remain subservient to local policing, destined to be
reactive, short-term, patchy and limited in scope.
Alternatively, however, we might see increasingly integrated
transnational policing with officers having an extra-territorial
mandate, wide geographical mobility, an extensive
intelligence capacity as well as coercive and intrusive powers.
If we are moving, however slowly, towards a global, or even
regional, policing system, we need to ensure that not only
contributes to the creation of a safer society, but is
democratically accountable and protects fundamental human
rights and freedoms.

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Corporal Punishment -

Sowing the Seeds of Violence

by Heather Stewart, Project Officer, UNICEF Caribbean Area Office

A CROSS THE GLOBE, violence against children is a reality
and international media coverage of such incidences, starkly
highlights the human tragedy that can result. Reading and
listening to the reports is often unsettling. The violence can be
found in homes, schools, children's homes, juvenile detention
centres, and the streets. Violence touches the lives of thousands of
children each year.
Right here in the tranquil Caribbean region, violence is also a
growing problem for and among children, especially adolescents.
A quick scan of media and other reports confirms this. A five-
month old baby dies from injuries to the head, sustained during
a domestic dispute between his parents. An eleven-year old girl is
lashed with a bamboo rod by a male teacher, and forced to receive
medical attention at a hospital's emergency department. A
school-boy fight turns deadly when one succumbs to stab
wounds inflicted by his colleague. A school girl is brutally gang-
raped by a series of men and left for dead in a deserted area.
Conversely, reports are also showing increasing trends in the
number of adolescents who carry weapons to school or elsewhere,
who belong to a gang, or who threaten or attack teachers.
So while the family and school are often portrayed as safe social
spaces for children, a significant amount of the violence is taking
place within their four walls. We know that this violence is caused
by the way in which some persons learn to express their anger. We
know that others may have character and personality factors that
account for their abusive behaviour. We know that violence may
be rooted in the traditional power relations between males and
females; the rage caused by exclusion of varying kinds; through
the absence of primary caregivers; mounting stresses caused by
poverty and unemployment; or through cultural practices that
are not protective or respectful of children.
Yet, as a social policy concern, the full realm of violence against
children appears to exist only at a subliminal level of public
consciousness for most violence leaves no visible marks.
Moreover, children and adults are often socialized into accepting
acts of violence as justifiable and necessary chastisement like
corporal punishment. We want to ensure that our children are
well-disciplined and ordered, but fail to consider the irony of
using physical force to bring about a positive change in behaviour
in children. We encourage the teaching of non-violent, conflict
resolution skills in schools, but fail ourselves to practice these
skills and demonstrate to our children how these skills can and do
work. We acknowledge that families need help, but have only
offered parenting education, without the vital parenting support.

We desire our young people to have respect for authority, yet we
blatantly flaunt our arbitrary use of power.
Many views for and against corporal punishment are debated
in region. If we are to conform to the international standards for
the treatment of children, the practice must be outlawed. This
position in no way suggests that children should function in
permissive environments. Where discipline is to be maintained, a
clear set of behavioral boundaries and sanctions for overstepping
those boundaries, is required, but the use of appropriate sanctions
must be used in evenhanded and just ways.

.... We encourage the teaching of non-violent
conflict resolution skill in schools, but fail
ourselves to practice these skills and
demonstrate to our children how these skills
can and do work.
Internationally, the Convention on the Rights of the Child
(CRC) upholds children's right to protection from "all forms of
physical and mental violence, while in the care of parents and
others." Furthermore, the Committee on the Rights of the Child,
the highest authority for interpretation of the Convention, has
consistently ruled that there is no compatibility between the
Convention and the legal and social acceptance of corporal
punishment of children. The Committee has admonished
Caribbean and other governments to look to the positive
examples of those countries whose explicit ban of corporal
punishment, pre-dated the Convention.
As Caribbean countries must live up to the obligations
enshrined in the Convention, the fact must be faced corporal
punishment is one of the existing social norms that illustrates a
degree of tolerance for a form of violence against children. They
must also face the fact that today's society cannot simply resign
itself to management of the violence that crosses the legitimate
line. Rather the aim must be to eradicate all forms of violence,
against all people. This position challenges the existing cultural
practices that condone forms of violence against children, such as
'lashing', 'smacking', or 'spanking' forms of violence that are no
longer tolerated against adults. The region must seek to ensure
equality of human rights for ALL of its citizens. Are you willing
to rise to the challenge? U
This article first appeared in the Children in Focus, Vol 2, 2003 published by the
UNICEF Caribbean Area Office, Barbados.

The Roya

(RCIPS) like, so
Caribbean and else whe
incidents of domestic
accepted premise that a
he could subject his v
reinforce his control ar
perceived general accep
who are predominately
to make a complaint. I
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done wrong and the pe
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and the options availab
the effects of domestic
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and an increase in
government and non-go
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of Domestic violence:
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financial abuse of one
been in a personal relate
may be between p:
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d Cayman Ilan


ds Police Battling

domesticc Violence

by Superintendent Denzie Carter Royal Cayman Islands Police Service
AYMAN ISLANDS Police Service The Caribbean Regional Domestic Violence Intervention
many other police services in the Training, which was initiated with the support of the
re, in the not too distant past policed Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police, has been
violence with the widely socially a successful tool in sensitizing police officers and other front
man's home is his castle. Accordingly, line workers such as social workers, teachers, pastors,
vife/partner to violence in order to members of the judiciary and members of the medical
id authority. In light of the public's profession to the insidious and cyclical nature of domestic
tance of domestic violence, victims, violence and the devastating effects it has on its victims, the
female, were reluctant to come forth entire family unit and society as a whole.
n the event that they did muster the
*rest was seldom effected, even when The creation of a dedicated...Family
support such an action. The frequent Support Unit in August 2001, which is
saints was for them to be closed "No
e victim was made to feel that she had housed in a purpose-designed facility,
rpetrator was justified in resorting to also provides victims of domestic
marily perpetrated against the victims violence with a comfortable,
because of the victims' trepidation of confidential environment in which to
iety and being ignorant of their rights
le to them. Confronted with some of seek assistance...
violence such as frequent sick leaves,
financial assistance from government, Since the commencement of the domestic violence
ty, an increase in juvenile delinquency training in September 2000, more than one third of the
dysfunctional homes, prompted officers of the RCIPS, including senior officers, have taken
,vernmental agencies to recognize that part in the training sessions, which has resulted in an
s social ill is vital in order to bring increased adherence to the Service's 'Zero Tolerance' approach
attitudinal change towards such and to its comprehensive and detailed Domestic Violence
Policy as manifested by an increase in arrests and a decrease in
IPS adopted the following definition repeat victimization. This training is now a component of the
Basic Recruit Training syllabus. Ongoing training sessions
is the physical, sexual, emotional or continue to be offered to other front line workers and those
person by another, who is in or has individuals, who can assist victims of domestic violence.
tionship with them. The relationship The creation of a dedicated RCIPS Family Support Unit in
partners or ex-partners or other August 2001, which is housed in a purpose-designed facility,
also provides victims of domestic violence with a comfortable,
adopted a 'Zero Tolerance' approach confidential environment in which to seek assistance. The
lem, which requires officers to arrest Unit is staffed with specialist-trained detectives, whose
e is evidence of a crime having been mandate is to investigate incidents of domestic violence, child
is approach had marginal success as physical and sexual abuse and neglect. These officers
i or no appreciation or understanding collaborate with various agencies such as the Department of
domestic violence, consequently they Children and Family Services, The Employee Assistance
tims would be reluctant to assist in the Program, the Legal Befrienders Program and the Cayman
tract their complaints. Crisis Centre, to ensure that the victim has a much needed

support network, is aware of her rights and knows the options
available to her. The Unit is also responsible for maintaining
a data base of victims and perpetrators of domestic violence in
order to identify repeat victims and persistent offenders.
It is not possible to say that incidents of domestic violence
are actually on the decline or on the increase, however, since
these initiatives were implemented in 2000, there has been a
significant increase in the number of incidents reported to the
police and an increase in convictions in comparison to
previous years statistics.

Encouraged by these figures, the fight against domestic
violence will continue to be waged. Vigorous public awareness
campaigns on domestic violence, the sensitization of police
and front line workers on the intricacies of domestic violence
and a multi-agency cooperative approach will continue for the
betterment of victims, their families and our entire society.
The embracing of such a holistic, collaborative strategy, it is
hoped, will continue to strengthen the resolve of victims to
break their silence against domestic violence. U

Police In Schools:

Crisis Intervention or System Failure?

By Samuel Lochan, Ministry of Education, Trinidad & Tobago

V VIOLENCE IN SCHOOLS is an increasing
phenomenon all over the world today. Throughout the
Caribbean there is evidence of increasing violence in schools.
In Trinidad and Tobago the Ministry of Education has been
dedicating resources towards the reduction of school violence.
A new unit has been formed to manage a range of
intervention strategies to build a culture of peace in schools.

The very presence ofpolice in schools suggests
that the children of that school are not
inherently good It sets up a situation of
distrust between teachers and students and
diminishes the authority of teachers and

A range of negative incidents has been on the increase.
These include: attacks on teachers, violence among students,
increased incidence of bullying, violence among gangs within
the same school and between gangs from different schools.
These incidents at times have involved the use of weapons,
and recently a number of school children have been taken
before the courts in Trinidad and Tobago.
In some instances police have been brought into schools
and in some schools teachers have been asking for a
permanent police presence to keep order. Recently, in
Trinidad and Tobago there were some very chilling images in
the media of policemen doing uniform checks on students
entering a secondary school.

As a society we have to check on ourselves very carefully at
this stage. While it is the duty of the police to enforce the laws
of a country, police officers have to be thinking professionals,
more so, the leaders in the police service. Leaders in the police
service must be able to read into the social changes unfolding
before them in order to be able to anticipate the demands
which will be made on their services. If this occurs, then the
leaders in the police service will be able to equip their officers
with the appropriate mindset and skills required for the task
at hand. In addition, if the leaders of the police service
understand the issues they may be able to determine the
conditions for intervention in certain situations in which they
never had to intervene before.
The socialization of our youth is an immense problem
today. Throughout the world today the socialization power of
the key primary institution-the home- has been reduced.
Family is not a closed institution able to shape individuals in
an autonomous way. Loss of employment and poverty on the
part of parents, destruction of community as well as loss of
local cultural traditions make socialization of the young an
extremely problematic affair in developing countries. In
addition there is also the drug and porn culture.
The young are strongly socialized by the media. And the
media and even the school have always operated on the
premise that the basic character formation of the young took
place in families. However, this task is not easily achieved by
families today. The effect of media on the lives of children is
all pervasive and begins from early infancy. Children are
indiscriminately introduced to ideas about life, death,
pleasure, pain, sex, etc without the emotional charge the



Senior officers must demand that there

be in place some overall educational

strategy for dealing with the problems
at a school as a precondition for the
intervention ofpolice in any continuous

and systematic way...

intimacy of the family provides. In this new information order
parents (even wealthy and educated ones) have difficulty with
the upbringing of their children.
In such a climate as exists today a lot of our institutions,
school in particular, have to be re-invented to serve the
purpose of educating the young. It is not simply that schools
must do what they are doing better, but the goals of schooling
may have to change. We have not been responding well to this
In addition our particular culture of schooling in Trinidad
and Tobago and the wider Caribbean has not been child
friendly. We have all achieved universal primary education
and are now aiming at universal secondary education but we
are not geared to dealing with a variety of needs, backgrounds
and learning styles. Some children in our school system
experience violence of all sorts from a very early age, violence
of neglect, verbal and non-verbal violence, harsh physical
punishment, feelings of deep inadequacy and failure. These

children eventually respond with violence. Schooling
therefore in our context generates its own violence since we
are unable to meaningfully engage our young.
I wish to argue that the solution to school violence and
indiscipline has to be an educational one. The problem of
indiscipline and violence in any school has to be dealt with by
the teachers, administrators and parents of that school. While
some schools are very difficult and require police support,
teachers and administrators have to come up with strategies
for building a school culture and environment to reduce the
extent of indiscipline and violence. Of course the Ministries
of Education must provide schools with the necessary support
systems, especially those schools that are most disadvantaged
and where the problem is most pronounced.
The very presence of police in schools suggests that the
children of that school are not inherently good. It sets up a
situation of distrust between teachers and students and
diminishes the authority of teachers and administrators.
While I agree that some schools have reached the point of
helplessness and need police support, such support should be
for short periods of time and police presence in any school
should be phased out as soon as possible. Senior officers must
demand that there be in place some overall educational
strategy for dealing with the problems at a school as a
precondition for the intervention of police in any continuous
and systematic way. Teachers and administrators of any school
must be seen as the ultimate authority. They cannot renege on
that responsibility. U

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Law, Loyalty, Loss:

A Police Officer's Dilemma

by Deiainn Sobers, llinistry of Social Traiusforrmation, Barbados

DURING WORLD WAR II, a young Corporal whose
assignment it was to raise the flag at sunrise proceeded to
fulfill that task on a very cold morning.
However, upon awakening he decided to postpone emptying
his bladder until he had his right of duty. Of course we can
imagine any change in the environment caused our body
functions to alter all plans. Well, he decided to answer nature's
call outside the barracks, and upon doing so he heard an
Officer's clear, crisp command "Attention" and with an
immediate response he raised his hands to stand erect and salute.
His country's flag fell to the ground, his private part exposed in
the cool morning air, he did as he was ordered. Then, with anger
in the Officer's voice he shouted, "Flag it Corporal". In shock
and fear the young man responded "Which Flag Sir".

.... The ethos of the profession suggests that
duty comes first. The disadvantages suggest
that buffer systems be put in place to assist
the officer to cope with his private and
public challenges in order that he can live
a balanced life.

It is said that the human brain has a built-in mechanism that
forces us to hear all commands by natural reflex. However, out
of fear of punishment we may carry out the majority of tasks -
but with resentment that can build-up into bad stress.
On the other hand, when orders are given in a calm and safe
environment, the tendency to obey is higher and the resentment
towards the one giving the order is usually minimal. It follows
therefore, that in an embarrassing situation the choice to obey is
compromised by shock and fear. We panic numbness occurs,
and our ability to adjust and move on becomes harder when
asked to make a decision through a direct order.
For example, the Soldier's immediate response to his
traumatic situation: "The fear of being disciplined: being the
joke in the barracks or in the Officer's mess", requires the
support and understanding of his colleagues.
I am a member of a Police Force I'm a Cop. I'm a person
who is expected to be a parent. I'm expected to be a law-abiding
citizen. I'm supposed to maintain the role as a mother, father,

lover, counselor, friend and a committed and faithful colleague.
I'm an employee who is expected to respect the "Rights" of every
There may be a youth who one day will come at me with a
double-barrel shotgun aim it at my face and call me names. But
at that very moment I'm asked to remember his troubled past,
his present living conditions and other experiences that led to his
dysfunctional behaviour. In this split second situation if my
partner or me "takes this young man out", the Internal
Investigation apparatus must be satisfied that his "Rights were
not violated. That's the LAW.
I'm an empathetic person who is expected to provide care and
support to the family of this youth who made the choice to be
deviant and rob members of society of their "Rights". And then
within the same tour of duty may be expected to provide the
same support for another family without being afforded the
opportunity to express my feelings about the previous traumatic
I'm the Cop who is expected to be strong and leave all these
challenges of the "streets" -"my job" and go home and be a lover,
a parent and play the roles day in day out with a smile. My
family is expected to be somewhat understanding of my
irritability my non-communication skills my mal-adjusted
ways of handling the every day pressure. I dare not bend under
the weight of these overwhelming duties. I must remain faithful
to my task, out of a sense of duty, LOYALTY!
I'm a Cop today "my choices" "my flags", must be guided by
persons who choose to assist me being understanding about my
errors and reward my achievements. Discipline can be dispensed
with empathy and not with potential shame. As a youth my
challenges were either faced with punishment or rewards. My
losses were experiences of never-ending pain and hurt. But, then
someone cared and gave me guidance that helped me to hoist
the right flag.
I'm an "officer-of-the-law" a human being. I need a chance
to talk about my feelings and my actions when obeying the law
- being loyal to my country. I feel the need for someone to help
me acknowledge the natural "right" to hurt when a colleague of
mine has died or is seriously injured. I must be able to shed a tear
when telling a loved one that their relative has suddenly died. I
should be taught to give the news with patience, tact and
discretion always speaking the truth yet being loyal to the
"Force" and my professional responsibilities.

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I need help to cope with my challenges at home especially
when I'm told "Don't bring your problems on the job in my
home. I need help to promote an understanding of the youth
who hangs out under the street light, under the trees, on the
block hopefully "shooting the breeze". I need to reach out to
your children my children, that future cop, that sad child that
I'm running after who through the hurts and pain of his losses -
has unresolved grief issues that at times need only an
outstretched hand and listening ear.
I have medical and financial problems. I'm not committed to
anything. I'm feeling the trauma of"aloneness". But am I trained
to cope with these situations? I'm going through a series of sleep
disorders absent-mindedness. If I share these "flags" I'll be
exposing my inner self which could be most damaging to my
public image and fragile ego. I continue to suffer in

Post -Traumatic Stress Syndrome
This experience I have shared with you is an example of the
potential symptoms that can lead to many physical and
psychological challenges for our officers.
The ethos of the profession suggests that duty comes first.
The disadvantages suggest that buffer systems be put in place to
assist the officer to cope with his private and public challenges in
order that he can live a balanced life.

As Cops they should not be expected to struggle alone or seek
help from outside. They are part of a unique team. Their
physical, social psychological and spiritual well-being must be
sourced with the correct support. These special individuals carry
a brand name that has been manufactured by society. It separates
them from the world. Therefore, our portfolio for care
should manifest a uniqueness "Made only for a Cop",
"Which Flag Sir?"
Our Officers most times encounter situations of trauma both
in private and public life. They include: Abuse, Accidents,
Domestic Violence, Fires, Injury and Death. Therefore, the flag
of strength that they show on the outside will not, cannot and
should not be judged as their true feelings. Our authorised
protectors should be given the chance to fly the flags of their true
emotions: Hurt, Tears, Sorrow, and Anger if need be. However,
provision should be made for the support to be given in the
confines of the organisation, without fear of these challenges
being used later towards their disadvantage.
"I'm a Cop" Listen to me. Review your programmes and
policies that will help us remain tough yet gentle, (LAW)
upholding principles yet understanding, (LOYALTY). Allow us
to grieve in order that we may move on (LOSS)
"Which Flag Sir?" U

Maximising Performance while Minimising

Risks: A Manufacturer's Point of View

By P Jadoul, Marketing Manager FN Herstal

Law Enforcement mission requires to stop an aggression
utilising the appropriated response level while minimising
collateral risks especially to third parties.
Modern Law Enforcement agencies material need to
address the dangerous gap which exist in the range of use of
force tools generally available to police officers. Historically,
the most common use of force tools, the baton and firearm,
were found to be too weak or too strong in many response
situations. Thus, officers may have to choose an unnecessarily
strong response for lack of an effective alternate weapon.

Between Baton and Firearm:
the FN303 Less Than Lethal system
To answer to this specific need, FN Herstal has developed
an less-lethal system can be viewed as an alternative to deadly
force and as an effective tool designed to subdue subjects with
little or no harm: the FN303.
The FN303 can be used in a number of rolls such as
controlling target specific situations, and riot control
situations. Target specific situations include barricaded
subjects, suicidal subjects, and the arrest of some violent
subjects armed with knives or other non-firearm type
weapons also commonly referred to as domestic violence.

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Finally, this less-lethal system may be used to arrest subjects
brandishing firearms in a non-threatening manner. In riot
control situations, the FN303 may be used to disperse a
crowd, deny access to an area, and discourage looting. The
FN303 may also be used to target a specific individual who is
providing motivation or otherwise instigating civil disorder.
The FN303 is completely different and far more refined
than other systems.

The FN303: the LTL projectile
The FN303 projectiles are designed to break up at impact,
not to penetrate the body, and to deliver sufficient energy
level to have the subject complying by the order. In addition,
unlike traditionally designed paint balls other less-lethal
systems use, the FN303 projectiles are rifled and fin stabilised
to enhance accuracy. The FN303 uses ballistically superior
.68" gauge type projectiles capable of very accurate impact out
to operational range of 50 meters (maximum range 100m).
The exterior of the projectile is clear plastic and the interior
contains a weighted nose containing non-toxic Bismuth (used
in pharmacy or cosmetic products) with a payload housed
directly behind. The projectile weighs 8 to 8 1/2 grams which
is significant when compared to other paint ball type
projectiles. Projectiles come in four different types, all with
the same ballistic, of course: impact, marking washable,
marking indelible dye, OC.

The FN303: the launcher
The FN 303 system operates off a compressed air bottle
mounted on the right side of the polymer made launcher. The
constant accuracy is secured by a special valve guaranteeing
identical energy level is delivered from the first shot to the last
shot. The capacity of the 2.5cu in air bottle is 95 shots,
equivalent to 6 magazines, with a maximum of 110 shots. The
air bottle is refilled through a specific interface named yoke
filler- connected to a common diving bottle or an air
compressor, commonly used by fire department. It is a semi-
automatic operation system, very controllable and accurate
avoiding the problem of "hosing a perpetrator and perhaps
adjacent non-combative personnel".
The FN303 is 74cm long and weights 2.3kg in its L.E
dedicated version, called stand-alone. It comes in traditional
black color but has been recently developed in orange color,
orange becoming the color in use to differentiated less lethal
system, generating both operational easy identification and
external media effect, also known as "CNN effect" -
Additionally, the FN303 uses a very rugged, quick change,
15 round drum style magazine suspended in the underside of
the platform's receiver. The drum style magazine will not

easily break off, spill rounds onto the ground or interfere with
weapons handling techniques.
Finally, the FN303 model is easily operated and
maintained and is supported by accessories such as Tactical
vest, Tactical sling, Air Bank( quick refill system for riots
control) FN Herstal has also developed for special missions
an under barrel version to be mounted under conventional
rifle, e.g. M16.
In conclusion, no department is immune to potentially
tragic consequences of the misapplication of force. Too much,
too soon is as inappropriate as too little, too late. Thus, the
FN303 is designed to fit legally and socially acceptable
concepts of the appropriate use of force. When properly used,
the FN303 should provide an answer to reduce injuries to
officers and subjects. Wherever the legal frame is even more
constraining, the FN303 should reduce the cost of liability
associated with the use of force, reduce personnel complaints
and associated disability pensions costs, and improve the
public image of the concerned agency.
More than 1,000 FN303 haven been sold and
operationally used with positive result and without major
concern confirming the FN303 is an appropriate means to
meet today's requirements.

Last intervention resource: the 5.7 system.
In the event of firearms use, traditionally used rounds in
Law Enforcement are the 9x19mm standard NATO and the
5.6x45 mm standard NATO rounds (used in most army rifles
such as the M16, also referred to as .233R by civil). Both
rounds can no longer meet modern Law Enforcement
requirement: minimising risks and securing maximum
The 9mm, developed prior 1914, as well as the 5.56mm,
developed in mid 70's, present high risks of over penetration.
Last developments being hollow point or soft point do not
guarantee this risk is 100% contained at each shot. Very high
risks of ricochets are a known fact with 9mm. If risk of
ricochet is less with a 5.56 mm than a 9mm, it simply is
because it does penetrates most material and therefore creates
another type of risks for third parties by even penetrating
through most material used inside a construction (e.g.
wooden partition or plaster partition). Both bullets have a
lethal range that is a very high multiple of the average Law
Enforcement intervention range. All those facts multiply the
risks of injuries if not incapacitation of third persons.
To respond to these requirements, FN Herstal has
developed a family of small arms to meet this requirement:
the 5.7 system. This 5.7 system is based on the company's new
5.7 x 28mm round and consists of the P90 Tactical
Submachine Gun and the Five-seveN Tactical pistol, each
using the new ammunition.

The ammunition: the 5.7 x 28mm.
The philosophy of the design, starting from a small rifle
cartridge not a large pistol cartridge like the 9mm, has enable
FN Herstal to deliver outstanding performance while
reducing risks.
Upon penetration, the 5.7mm round is safer to use. The
standard round has been designed to maximise energy
transference on impact. The 5.7mm round tumbles after
penetration at each shot due to a physical combination of a
specific centre of gravity and cantilever effect at impact. No
conventional cloth material can interfere in this physical
effect. Its incapacitation effect is certain at each shot.
Compared to 9mm, ricochets are minimised to its lower
level due to the design of the bullet. Lethal range is less than
a third of the 9mm and less than five times of a 5.56mm.
Due to its design delivering a flat trajectory with high
velocity, precision and accuracy are better than a 9mm.
Muzzle velocity is 715m/s in the P90, 650m/s in the Five-
seveN. It compares very favourably with that of 390m/s from
a typical 9mm pistol. The new round also has a flatter
trajectory, which, together with higher velocity give quicker
time to target, increasing hit probability.
Recoil is 40% less than a 9mm, not to mention a 5.56mm.
Recoil generated by the new round is measured at 1.95Kg/ms,
that of the 9mm is 3.2kg/ms, resulting in much less muzzle
In the event the target is behind a windscreen or a car door,
the projectile still delivers its incapacitation effect and
tumbles. Last but not least, would the target be protected by
soft body armour, the 5.7 tip steel allows the projectile to
penetrate this type of protection and secures the officer
intervention. It basically acts like a needle and goes through
the soft body armour.
The 5.7x28mm ammunition family current comprises four
ammunition types: the SS190 standard ball round; the SS192
designed to reduce Backstop Damage, the Sb193 subsonic
round and the L191 Tracer visible from 20-200m with a
trajectory matching that of the SS190.
The SS190 ammunition weighs half of that of 9mm (12
grams or 186 grains), 5.7x28mm weighs 6 grams or 93 grains
and with a significant reduction in volume. Projectile weight
is 2.02grams versus 8 grams for 9mm pistol.

The P90 Tactical
The P90 Tactical Submachine gun is designed for
compactness and ease of use. It is compact with dimensions of
50cm x 21cm using a design philosophy of rounded contours.

Rounds are carried in a 50 round horizontally mounted
magazine. The magazine is translucent, allowing users to
monitor remaining ammunition easily and effectively (cfr:
Ammo check). This 50 round magazine is only slightly longer
than existing 30 round 9mm magazine. The placement of the
magazine generates intrinsic weapon balance allowing users to
operate it with one hand, if necessary.
The P90 Tactical Submachine gun is ambidextrous with a
magazine, front sling attachment and cocking handle placed
on both sides of the weapon. The firing selector is
immediately below the trigger, ensuring ease of operation.
The P90 Tactical Submachine gun specifically includes
additional mechanical iron sights for back up. It offers up to
three M1913 Picatinny rail mounts on the top and sides for
mounting current available visible or infrared laser sight and
tactical light. Variants exist with integrated visible or infrared
laser. Further accessories include a sound suppresser, a case
collecting pouch and a tactical sling.

F'i -, ,'.V Tactical
In some cases a pistol will be the optimum means of
meeting the personal side arm requirements. The Five-seveN
Tactical pistol completes the weapon around the 5.7mm
The reduced volume of the new round has enabled a 20
round magazine to be used. At 744g fully loaded the Five-
seveN Tactical is roughly 70% of the weight of most 9mm
pistols. As for the P90 Tactical, there is a M1913 Picatinny
rail on the pistol allowing mount of visible laser or tactical
light available from the market. A safety switch is featured on
both sides of the pistol. The Five-seveN Tactical is
manufactured in either Single Action or Double Action
Tactical, Duty and Concealed holsters are available from
well-known manufacturers.
The P90 Tactical Submachine gun and the Five seveN
Tactical pistol were developed with feedback and input from
well-known special interventions units. The system has
already been sold to dozens Law Enforcement agencies world-
wide, Federal or National Police, Local Police, and is under
evaluation by many others.
By offering both systems, FN Herstal addresses the
requirements of a modern Law Enforcement agency:
maximising performance while minimising risks. FN Herstal
distributes those products, the FN303 system and the 5.7
system, exclusively to Law Enforcement agencies and
the Military. M




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maximum of effects on impact
Dedication to less-lethality
User-friendly compressed air system
easy to use, little recoil
allows faster reaction under stress
Better Accuracy
Effective range = 50 meters
Maximum range = Up to 100 meters
Perfect for crowd and prison control

contact: steven.descamps@fnherstal.com
for an overview of the complete range of FN products
please consult our website WWW.fnherstal.com

19th ACCP Conference -

Yonulthe in Fnrlcus I"

he annual Conference of the Association of Caribbean
Commissioners (ACCP) will be hosted by Trinidad and
Tobago from 19th -25th May 2004 at the Trinidad Hilton
and Conference Center. As host Commissioner I warmly
welcome all our delegates, spouses and visitors to the warm,
vibrant and hospitable twin -island State that is Trinidad and
Tobago." It is the stated objective of the Conference to
address some of the major issues facing young people in the
region; their achievements, challenges, risks and prospects for
the future. Despite the deviant behaviour of a few, young
people are respectful, law abiding, non-violent and obedient
to the rules of the home, school and community.
Across the Caribbean, governments are crafting policies
and dedicating programmes in support of our youths. Here in
Trinidad and Tobago, our 2004 Social and Economic Policy
Framework seeks "to empower people to become healthy,
well-informed and productive citizens who can meaningfully
participate in problem-solving and decision- making at all
levels of the society." The National Youth Policy also aims to
"provide support systems and mechanisms for young people
to be able to play an active role in altering their conditions."
The legislators, peacekeepers, elders and civil society recognize
young people's role in their own development. They're also
keenly aware, sometimes painfully so, of youth "at risk," and
the need to refocus them towards becoming well-balanced
individuals on their way to responsible adulthood.
The ACCP has therefore provided a forum for our young
people to talk among themselves and to us, to factor their
perspectives on issues impacting their development. Over the
five (5) days of the Conference, vibrant and informed
discourse is expected, that will help shape the development
of policy to address the issues of young people.

Topics include Juvenile Justice in the Caribbean- Issues and
Challenges; Reforming the Criminal Justice System in the
Region, The Role of Correction Agencies Punishment or
Rehabilitation? Restorative Justice Principles and Best
Practices and Dispute Resolution/Community Mediation.
Participants are urged to reap optimum benefits from
interaction with hand-on experts, experienced professionals
and noted researchers as they share experiences, and best
practices on the social psychology of youth gangs; the

phenomenon of violence and indiscipline in schools. Explore
the real world of missing and exploited children, child labour,
street children, and children in institutions and come face to
face with the realities of children living with HIV/Aids.
What are your thoughts on Gender Equality? How do your
preferences affect interpretation of youth development
prospects? What's the role of the corporate community in
supporting youth development initiatives? Offered for our
deliberation, as well as emerging issues of Caribbean
Governance are the CARICOM Single Market And
Economy (CSME), Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) and
Safety and Security Initiatives. Other issues that will be
addressed will include the Caribbean's attempt to explore our
fullest potential in Tourism, cricketing ambitions (World Cup
2007), disaster responses, and immigration challenges of the
new economy. In addition to public matters, time is set aside
for crucial discussions of the ACCP's business, where issues
such as strengthening strategic partnerships and expanding
information and intelligence sharing capacity and kidnapping
for ransom will be high on the agenda.
Trinidad and Tobago is unique this side of paradise. Ample
time has been reserved for socializing and entertainment. The
spouses' programme offers very interesting and exciting
opportunities to visit beauty spots, historical sites, shopping
malls, beaches and a tour to a world-class cosmetics
Certainly, we guarantee a choice of delectable cuisine and a
rich cultural experience. I invite to enjoy every minute of your
stay with us.

Conference Executive Team:

Commissioner Everald Snaggs Conference Host
Deputy Commissioner Trvor Paul Conference Chairman
Assistant Commissioner Kathleen Weekes Conference Co-ordinator
Ag. Sergeant Sharon Alfred Conference Secretary

Contact: Conference Secretariat (Trinidad and Tobago)
Phone/fax: (868) 624-9589
E-mail: accpconf2004@ttps.gov.tt

ACCP Intercessional Meeting and Conference

1-3 December 2004- Barbados Amaryllis Beach
Resort Barbados

ACCP 20th Annual General Meeting and Confep nce

18-2-i May 2005 United Stares Virgin Islands.
Proposed Conference Theme: "Proiecting Our Tourism
Background: Tourism has been identified as the
"lifeblood" of most countries in the Caribbean. It means
therefore that tourism as an economic product must be
afforded the highest level of protection from the elements
which can seriously jeopardize its growth and
development. In that regard the ACCP 20th Annual
General Conference is expected to serve as a forum to:
* emphasis the key role of tourism to the sustainable
development of the countries in the Caribbean region.
* highlight the strategic value of safety and security to
the attractiveness and viability of the tourism product.
* engage the various stakeholders in discussions for the
improvement of the safer and security aspects of
* share the expertise and experience of different agencies
involved in tourism security regionally and
* inform participants of emerging tourism trends and
the challenges posed to regional safety and security.
* sensitise participants to the critical importance of law
enforcement and security to the region's economic
growth and development.
a identify nmulri-agency strategies to protect secure and
enhance the tourism product in the region.
* promote the ACCP as an agency committed to the
enhancement and protection of the region's most vital

Contact Information:
Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police,
Ground Floor, Parravicino Office Complex,
Hastings, Christ Church, Barbados.
Tel: (246) 435-8224
1Im: 12-t0i -i35-824-3
E-mail: admini'.-accpolice.org

ACCP 21st Annual General Meeting and Conference

17-23 May, 2006 St Kitts/Nevis.
Proposed Conference Theme: "Meeting the Security
Challenge Cricket World Cup 2007."
Background: The West Indies has won the right to host
the International Cricket Council (ICC) Cricket World
Cup Tournament in 2007. This tournament will be the
most significant event ever to be held in the region in
terms of international interest, regional promotion and
the massive influx of visitors to our shores. The event is
one which will also have tremendous economic benefit for
the region both in the short and long term.
It is expected therefore, that the conference will serve as
a forum to:
* bring together the key stakeholders responsible for
providing a safe and secure environment for the
* provide insights into the nature and scope of security
arrangements being planned for an incident-free
event.highlight the significance of the event to the social,
political and economic development of the region.
* promote the concept of visitor safety and security as a
joint responsibility of all stake-holder organizations and
individual citizens..
* emphasize the importance of inter-agency co-operation
and collaboration in making the event a success.
* heighten public awareness of the indispensable role
they must play in promoting and supporting the safety
and security aspects of the tournament.
* facilitate discussions among regional and international
security experts on the pertinent issues relating to the
efteL tie management of the event.
* engage the media as a strategic partner in highlighting
and promoting the security arrangements for the
* affirm the ACCP as an organization committed to
ensuring the safety and security of citizens of, and visitors
to the region.
The ACCP wishes to express its profound gratitude to
the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
for hosting the 19th Annual Conference. We look
forward to fruitful and productive deliberations at our
formal sessions and a rich and scintillating cultural
experience during our social events and activities.



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In Focus


Motorola congratulates the winners of the
2004 Caribbean Community Policing Award
As a corporate citizen, Motorola continues its commitment to improving the communities
in which we live. As part of fhi, commitment, Motorola is proud to once again join the
ACCP to support community policing programmes -irouijjnhiii the Caribbean.

Today, Motorola is honoured to present the 2004 Caribbean Community :,lii:;.ii Award,
recognizing those pfIroi:r.limTi:. police officers, and citizens that have made a lifi-rri i,..
in the lives of our youth and in the Caribbean communities in which they live. By
promoting the partnership of citizens and law enforcement in our communities, we help
to create the bond where our eijgl Itl:rli:,-ln our children and our families will :':'

MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are trademarks of Motorola, Inc. Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners 2004 Motorola, Inc. All rights reserved

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