I 1 t: 1?^y
ADULT MISSIONARY SOCIETY PROGRAMS
Suggestions for missionary gatherings
and society study groups
Missionary Society Director
PILGRIM HOLINESS CHURCH
230 East Ohio Street
U. S. A.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
JAMAICA-THE QUEEN OF THE ANTILLES (And its
dependency, Grand Cayman) ........................ 6
NORTHERN ISLANDS NEIGHBORS (St. Kitts, Nevis, Saba).... 13
A LOOK AT THE LEEWARDS (Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat). 19
BARBADOS-LITTLE ENGLAND............................. 28
ST. VINCENT-GEM OF THE ANTILLES ................... 34
CURACAO-THE DESERT ISLAND......................... 44
TRINIDAD-ISLAND OF THE TRINITY ................... 52
BRITISH GUIANA-THE LAND BELOW THE SEA (Coastal
District) .......................... ........... 57
BRITISH GUIANA-A COUNTRY OF CHALLENGES (Interior
Work,-Paramakatoi) ............................... 65
AMONG THE AKAWAIOS (British Guiana Interior)............ 72
SURINAM-LAND OF THE BUSH NEGRO .................. 81
CARIBBEAN QUESTION BOX .............................. 94
IDEA EXCHANGE............ .......................... 96
MISSIONARY POEMS................................... 99
MISSIONARY CHORUSES .................................. 101
POSTER PICTURES......... .......................... 105
The Caribbean Area of the Pilgrim lHoliness Church consists of the
missionary work Ibcingi carried on in the islands of St. Kitts, Nevis, Saba,
Antigua, Barbuda, Monltserrat, St. Thomas, St. (roix, Barbados, St.
Vincent, Trinidad, Tobago, (uracao, Jamaica, and Grand Cayman, and
in the South American countries of British (uiana and Surinam, formerly
called D')utch (Guiauna. It is this portion of our missionary work which
shall be presented for study in this hook.
St. Thomas, St. (roix, Grand Cayman, St. Vincent, Surinam, and
the interior work of British Guiana, having the status of unorganized
districts, fall under the direct supervision of the Field Superintendent.
The remainder are organized districts with their councils and district
Climate in the Caribbean Area is, as a whole, quite healthful for
Europeans and Americans, especially during our winter months. During
this time, the northeast trade wind blows, making very pleasant con-
ditions. The latter half of the year is known as the rainy season, while
August, September, and October are hurricane months.
The West Indies owe their name to the fact that Christopher Colum-
bus believed he had reached India by a western route when, actually,
he had discovered this island chain. They cover a distance of more
than 1600 miles, varying in size and shape, and extending from the
coastal tip of Florida to the northern shores of South America. The
table of distance given will doubtless be of interest to you.
B. W. I. TABLE OF DISTANCE
935 ) St. Kitts
S947 | 12 1 Nevis
S994 59 | 47 Antigua
1032 | 97 1 85 38 Montserrat
S1129 194 182 135 97 Dominica
1211 276 264 217 1791 82 St. Lucia
1326 3911 379 332 294 | 197 ] 115 Barbados
1422 487 | 475 428 1 390 1 293 1 211 96 I St. Vincent
S1496 1 561 549 502 464 367 1 285 174 74 Grenada
S1593 1658 646 1599 1 561 1464 382 | 271] 191 97 Trinidad
S1957 1 1022 1 1010 1 963 1 925 I 861 | 746 635 555 461 364 1 British Guiana
Geologically, most of these islands are of volcanic origin, though
some are of coral formation. According to geologists, these islands are
peaks of a submerged range of mountains which formerly connected
North and South America and are known as the Caribbean Andes. This
has been proved by the discovery in Georgia and the Carolinas of fos-
silized remains of animals still existent in South America, as well as by
the similarity of tribal habits and customs of the Guianese Indians to
those of North American Indians.
This book has been prepared that you might become better ac-
quainted with our work and workers in this area. However, the sug-
gested outlines of presentation are not mandatory. The program chair-
man, president, or whoever might be in charge of the various studies,
should be directed by the Holy Spirit and conduct the presentations ac-
cording to His leadership. No specific point in the outlines was given
to the offering. This is left to the leader.
You might find that some of the chapters are too lengthy for one
service; others not long enough. It is desired that these be adjusted to
local circumstances and time allotment. Any current information which
you might have available concerning these fields at the time of the
study of them should be incorporated with that given in these pages.
Also, you are not obligated to study the Caribbean islands in the
sequence in which they are given. Each study is a unit within itself,
and the order in which they are studied will not alter their effectiveness.
PILGRIM MISSIONS IN THE CARIBBEAN AREA goes forth
with the prayer that as you, and those of your society, make use of this
material, you will realize a deeper, more definite missionary vision and
burden. May the words of the following lines challenge each one to
greater assistance in reaching the fields which are out before us with
the message of salvation.
The fields are out before us;
They are lands to be possessed
By a faith that stands undaunted
And a zeal that will not rest
Until strength has gone its limit,
Until courage climbs the crest
Of impelling, inward vision
Planted deeply in the breast.
The fields are out before us;
There they stand in perfect view,
That every consecrated Christian
To that vision might be true,
And, obeying Christ's Commission,
Will not only see but do
All he can to help possess them.
Can the Master count on you?
JAMAICA-THE QUEEN OF 'THE ANTL MILES
(And its dependency, Grand Cayman)
I. Missionary songs by the group
III. Missionary choruses from the back of this book
IV. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary
corrections and approval
V. Devotional period. Scripture reading, Proverbs 11:30, "He that
winneth souls is wise."
A. He is wise because of the occupation, that of winning souls.
It is a divinely appointed and approved occupation. It deals
with the most valuable possessions known to mankind-the
souls of men.
B. He is wise in choosing this occupation because of the trans-
formation which he helps to bring about. Through his efforts,
lives are changed as well as hearts. Heathenism gives way to
the power of the gospel. People become new creatures (II Cor-
C. He is wise because he helps to change men's destination. Instead
of a fearful shrinking from the monster of death, there is con-
fidence and trust in the Master of death. He helps to change
from helplessness to hopefulness. The grave becomes a door-
way for meeting the Saviour.
VI. Excerpts interestingly and enthusiastically given from missionary
letters, should any have been received since the last meeting
VII. Field study
JAMAICA-THE QUEEN OF THE ANTILLES
This study might be given by one person, using a world map or map
of the West Indies to point out the island; or it may be given by three per-
sons, each discussing one of the points.
The Land And Its Location
Jamaica is called The Queen of the Antilles. It is the largest of
the British West Indian islands. The name Jamaica (originally Xay-
maca) means "well watered and wooded." It is located in the northern
Caribbean Sea about 90 miles south of Cuba. The island is 148 miles
long. Its breadth varies from 212 to 52 miles.
Jamaica is very mountainous. It was discovered by Columbus on
May 3, 1494. In describing it to Queen Isabella, he took a piece of
paper in his hands and crumpled it up. As it lay on the table, the
island's peaks and valleys were well represented. The main ridge of
mountains runs east and west, but spurs extend to the northwest and
southeast. The highest peak of this ridge is called Blue Mountain. It
extends to an altitude of 7,402 feet.
The island has many bays and harbors. Four well-known ones
are Port Antonio at the east end, Montego Bay at the west end of the
northern coast, and Old Harbour and Kingston, both of which are on
the south side. Kingston Harbor is known to be the finest in the West
Indies. It is about 16 square miles in area and has a depth of from 7
to 10 fathoms. The harbor is protected by a ledge of sand, called the
Palisades, which is 72 miles long. The airport is located on this strip.
Rapid rivers and streams characterize Jamaica, also. The Black
River, which is famed for its Maggotty Falls, is navigable for a distance
of 25 miles. There are at least 15 mineral springs as well.
Jamaica is divided into three counties, Surrey in the east, Middle-
sex in the center, and Cornwall in the west. There are 14 parishes.
The Queen of the Antilles lies almost directly in the path of the
Trade Winds. As a result, the temperature averages 78 degrees at sea
level and 65 degrees in the higher areas.
A few of the high lights of the history of this mission land are:
1494-The discovery of the island by Columbus. The island
was quickly colonized by the Spaniards, who started
growing sugar cane, raising cattle, and establishing towns.
1655-The island was captured by the British. Colonization
continued, and Jamaica became, at one time, one of the
richest of Britain's colonies.
1692-The destruction of Port Royal on June 7 by an earth-
quake. This had formerly been the headquarters of the
buccaneers and the mart of their ill-gotten gain. The
capital of the island was then established at Kingston.
1782-The Battle of the Saints, in which the French fleet was
defeated and Jamaica's status as a British colony was
1838-The abolition of slavery on the island, the objects of
which form the bulk of the island's peasantry.
1944-The grant of a new constitution for the island. This led
to full internal self-government within the British Com-
1956-The creation of the British West Indies Federation, of
which Jamaica is a principal unit.
The People And The Products
The population of Jamaica, together with its dependencies, the Cay-
man, Turks, and Caicos Islands, was 1,550,000 according to the 1955
census. The majority of the people are Negroes; but the population
includes some East Indians, Chinese, and a few British and Americans.
A large number of elementary, vocational, and teacher training
schools are sponsored by the government. Government financial aid
is also given to secondary and high schools which are operated by re-
ligious groups. In 1948 the University College of the West Indies was
opened just a few miles from downtown Kingston, the capital. It serves
ail of the Caribbean British colonies and has quite a largo enrollment.
Being a "lush tropical gardenn" Jamaica boasts a wide variety of
food, fruit, and flowers. Among the foodst,ulfs are plantain (a member
of the banana family, the fruit of which is used as a vegetable, either
boiled or fried), bananas, potatoes, yams, cassava, cocoa, peas, beans,
lettuce, calaloo (spinach), turnips, carrots, rice, and corn. Their fruits
include a variety of native :Ipp le. -il-i:rd apple, star apple, golden
apple, and rose apple-plus pineapples, avacados, papaya, mangoes,
grapes, swectsop, and soursop. Gorgeous orchids, scarlet hibiscus, and
flaming poinsettias adl(l dignity and color to the green grandeur of the
island's tropical foliage.
Agriculture, industry, and commerce go hand in hand to make
Jamaica an island of progress. Sugar is the leading agricultural export,
having taken the lead from bananas. Jamaica's sugar production reached
271,580 tons in 1950. Rum figures high on the list, but the high import
duty into the United Kingdom has hampered its production. Con-
centrated citrus juices, cocoa, coffee, honey, spices, and logwood are
The leading industries are the three bauxite companies in operation
and a local cement manufacturing enterprise.
Jamaica's businesses are varied to include modern stores, groceries,
hotels, filling stations, automobile sales and service concerns, and typical
West Indian craftsmanship, products of which are found on sale in the
The Church And Its Challenge
Missionary work on the island of Jamaica opened to us when a
Cuban, Rev. J. R. Figueroa, went there after a period of training in a
Bible school in the United States. It was in January of 1919 that he
opened a mission in Kingston, and from there reached out into the
The first Pilgrim missionaries sent to Jamaica arrived on the island
in 1924. Mrs. Margaret Hankins, currently serving as deputational
worker and missionary evangelist, together with her husband, arrived
at Kingston on January 6 of that year. The following is an account of
those early days, as recalled by Sister Hankins.
"After five days of seasickness, we were happy to get on land again.
We knew no one on the island, so the only thing to do was to go to a
hotel. As soon as possible, a house was found and we moved in, but
with very little furniture. Several weeks later, after much looking for
a better place, we rented a four-room house at the end of the Constant
Spring car line. This served as our mission home for some time.
"In the course of time, it seemed the will of the Lord that a piece
of land be purchased because rent was so high. After much praying and
seeking the will of the Lord, the way was opened for us to buy a large
piece of ground on Mannings Hill Road, which was not far from where
we were living at that time. This is the same property on which the
mission is located at the present time.
"There was an old native-style kitchen and a small cottage on the
property when we bought it. This was replaced during the first year
with a mission home. We worked hard on the building, and moved into
it before the doors and windows were in. Some thought that thieves
would carry off everything we had, but the Lord seemed to watch over
us. Nothing was taken or harmed. We bought windows and doors
as the money came in. It was a great day when the porch was put on
and proper partitions erected. The entire endeavor was by faith; for
we had no regular support on which to depend, or funds from which to
"Our first services were held in a little rented hall on Slipe Road in
Kingston. At first, the crowd inside was small; but what a crowd out-
side the building, looking in and listening to the message! There were
other churches, but very little real gospel holiness was being preached
on the island. Some of the people who prayed through in that hall
still are walking with God and are faithful Pilgrims today.
"After a time, the hall had to be enlarged. We were renting the
place, but the owner gave us the privilege of removing more partitions,
thus doubling the size of the hall.
"The weather was very hot, and we were not very wise in the amount
of work which we did. The result was that some of us began to go down
physically. We all felt that a change to the mountains, where it would
be cooler, would be a big help. We began praying for direction as to a
spot which would be a little cooler, and yet not too far away. At New
Castle we found such a place.
"Though going for a rest for our bodies, we felt that we should also
be reaching some of the lost there. Services were started in the open
air. Then a bamboo booth was built. And later my husband erected
a church for the people.
"In one of the revivals held there, the Lord poured out his Spirit
in a wonderful way. People walked for miles across the mountains to
the services, and sought and found the Lord. At the close of the meet-
ing, they begged for a missionary and a place of worship. This was not
possible right away, but in time they got both. Today there stands a
nice church in the village of Mahoe as a testimony of what God can do.
"Every day one could see the people, large crowds of them, going
past our mission home in Kingston. We felt burdened for these peo-
ple. But with pastoring the church, riding the street car for a few miles
and walking the rest of the way to the church to save money (the city
was zoned, as they are in this country, and beyond a certain point meant
another fare), it seemed impossible to begin a new work for them. But
God moves in mysterious ways that people might have the gospel.
"So much walking in the hot sun proved to be too much for me; and
again there was a missionary unable to reach the church regularly, be-
cause of illness.
"When I knew that I would not be able to go to Slipe Road for serv-
ice, I began thinking more and more about all of the people who passed
our mission home. On Saturday, I had my chair taken down close by
the gate. When children came by, I told them that I was having Sun-
day school the next day and asked if they would come. At the ap-
pointed time the next morning, we had a good crowd of 50 or more. I
was unable to stand; but with the help of one of our Christian girls, I
played my guitar and taught the children a chorus or two, had prayer,
and then taught them a lesson.
"That was the first service at Constant Spring; and we continued as
we were able. Sometimes our meetings were out under the trees. When
we got the porch built on the house, we met there. A year later my hus-
band had the church completed, and it was dedicated. The present
church on that same spot is the largest Pilgrim Holiness church on the
"The Lord richly blessed this work, and other preaching points and
Sunday schools were added. However, a time of financial difficulty
arose, a change of missionary personnel took place, and it was deemed
best to sell the Constant Spring property and put the time and money
into the work in the country. When our beloved mission home and little
church were to be sold, the Lord sent a wonderful Christian woman to
buy the property. She moved into the home and carried on the services.
The church never was closed.
"When the time of financial struggle was relieved and the Foreign
Missions Department felt that they could carry some of the load again,
the mission home was bought back, and one of our own local Christians
became the superintendent of the district. During these trying periods,
the church did not gain much; but God helped them to hold their own.
"In the course of time, Reverend E. E. Phillippe and his wife were
sent to the island of Grand Cayman, and later were transferred to Ja-
maica to take over the work, Brother Phillippe becoming the new
"The Lord called many of our fine young men and women as workers
in helping to spread the gospel, but they needed to be trained. Thus,
it was decided by the missionaries of the Caribbean Area that a Bible
training center was a necessity. This Bible school was started on Ja-
maica. Since our property was large, more buildings were added for
the beginning of the school.
"Our first student body consisted of several young people from
Grand Cayman and two from Jamaica. After that first year, students
came from other islands.
"As the school grew, more buildings had to be added, and the place
fairly hummed with activity. Then, with the coming of more and more
students from other islands, it seemed that the school should be more
centrally located. Thus, it was decided by the board in the homeland
to move it to its present location in Barbados.
"Through the years, many churches have been added. Some, in
poorer areas, had their beginning out in the open, and later moved into
a bamboo booth. (Bamboo is used for many things. But what always
impressed me were the church benches, which are made by driving two
forked sticks into the ground and then laying a piece of split bamboo
in the forks! I have seen people sit through long services, and then beg
for 'one more song;' or ask, 'Won't you tell us a little more?' before
"God gave us many souls in Jamaica, and we believe that many are
in heaven today because Pilgrim missionaries went to the island. His
hand of blessing still remains on this field, as our missionaries invest
their lives there in the interest of souls."
The challenge to the church is vividly portrayed in the following
incident related by Reverend Ray W. Chamberlain.
A Memorable Tragedy
Another June day had dawned in the tropics. To be exact, it was
June 7, 1692. Another day with its wickedness, at Port Royal, located
on the tip end of an extremely narrow peninsula which protrudes several
miles westward from the southern coast, helping to form the beautiful
Kingston Harbor. This was where the pirates held sway. Indeed, they
boasted that Port Royal, the center of buccaneering and the cesspool
of iniquity, was the nearest place to hell in the world, and they intended
to keep it that way. A writer and witness of such sinfulness described
the place as "a mere Sodom."
But before noon on that day, the picture suddenly changed. At
11:30 a.m. a series of terrible earthquakes occurred. The earth literally
opened to swallow its inhabitants. All homes and places of business
were either demolished or buried. Two thousand persons lost their lives
in a few minutes. John Wesley declared that it was the greatest single
stroke of God's judgment in modern times.
One survivor lived to tell a strange, yet true, story. His name was
Lewis Galdy, and he had been born in France. He was swallowed by
the earthquake. Then, immediately afterwards, another upheaval cast
him out of the jaws of the earth into the ocean, where he was rescued
by a ship's crew. He became a successful merchant and lived to be 80
years of age. In appreciation of his marvelous deliverance, he built a
church at Port Royal, which still stands. On June 7, 1955, Galdy's
body was reinterred in the churchyard at Port Royal.
A witness to the tragedy of 1692 wrote to England a few days after
the incident, saying, "But the drinking, swearing, and whoreing con-
tinues in these parts as much as ever, for they did not stop one day."
Surely, sin is ever the same, and not even the judgments of God arrest
most people. The only answer is the true gospel of Jesus Christ. Sin
continues, but the Saviour can conquer if we, his people, will be faithful
in our task of spreading gospel truth. Your prayers and interest will
help your missionaries and the national workers, who pastor the 13
churches on the island and who labor in countless other ways, to win
Grand Cayman. This great challenge to the church is represented
also by the island of Grand Cayman, a dependency of Jamaica. It is
a small island, only 17 miles long and 7 miles wide, lying some 156 miles
to the northwest of Jamaica. Being a flat sand-and-coral island with
very little vegetation, the majority of the male population have found
work as seamen and turtle fishermen. Fifty-three of the 5100 persons
living on the island are members of the Pilgrim Holiness Church, at
either West Bay or North Side.
According to Rev. E. E. Phillippe, Field Superintendent of the Car-
ibbean Area, who served as missionary on Grand Cayman for four and
one-half years (he went there in 1937), the work was begun about the
year 1925. Some interesting incidents connected with those early years
were carried in the PILGRIM HOLINESS ADVOCATE in March, 1933.
It seems that a woman approached a Pilgrim missionary on the
street in Jamaica one day and pleaded, "Brother, won't you please come
to my island and preach this gospel to my people? They want the truth
of holiness. When I left my island six years ago, my people made me
promise that, if I ever came across it missionary who preached the full
gospel I would send him to our island." This lady had been attending
services at the Pilgrim mission, and seemed determined that her people
should have the same messages. She prayed and fasted and continued
to plead for her people until the missionary promised to pay a visit
to Cayman, and plans were made to that end. The sister told the cap-
tain of a schooner to notify the people of (Crand (Cayman that she had
found a missionary! (There were no cable alnd wireless stations in those
days to bear important messages.) Later, the captain approached the
missionary and offered him free passage if lie would go to the island and
After several months of delay, the captain informed the missionary
that the people were disappointed when he arrived each time with no
missionary aboard. He was to make the return voyage in a week, and
he urged the missionary to go with him.
"Nine o'clock in the morning was to be the time of our departure,"
wrote the missionary of the experience. "We were at the wharf at eight
so as to be ready to sail at nine. But there was no wind. We could not
start. Ten o'clock came, and we were still on the wharf. We waited
in the hot sun until one in the afternoon before the first breeze began to
blow. Shortly afterwards, the captain ordered us aboard. The wind
blew gently, and we moved slowly away from the shore. But before
the sun went down that night, we had more wind than we needed! It
was blowing a gale. The waves were mountainous, and the schooner
was tossed like a cork in the angry sea. Undoubtedly, Satan tried his
best to sink the vessel and keep the missionary away from the shores
of that isolated island.
"Through the long days, and longer nights, I lay on the deck of
that vessel clinging to the hatch while the angry waves swept over me.
Drenched with salt water, seasick enough for death, I longed for the sight
of land. This voyage (of a fraction more than 150 miles) took longer
than the one from New York to Jamaica.
"As we came nearer and nearer to the low coral island, we could
distinguish trees, then foliage, and at last people running up and down
the sandy beaches. The village was called East End. We discharged
the cargo for them, and then continued to a larger village called George-
town. Here we dropped anchor and went ashore in small boats. A large
crowd was there to greet us with a hearty welcome. We remained and
preached until convinced of their eagerness for the gospel and the pos-
sibility of a great work on the island."
Personnel has changed through the years, but God's blessing has
remained on the Cayman work. We have two nice church buildings and
two mission homes. Three branch Sunday schools have been started
recently (April, 1958), and a wonderful spirit prevails in the services
at both churches. Miss Ruth Bowman pastors West Bay, and makes
frequent visits to North Side. The work on this field, as it is carried
on now, is entirely self-supporting. Be sure to pray for our work on this
NORTHERN ISLANDS NEIGHBORS
(St. Kitts, Nevis, Saba)
I. Prayer (present all missionary requests at hand, and have a good
season of prayer for these)
II. Congregational singing of missionary songs
III. Missionary poem from the back of this book
IV. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary cor-
rections and approval
V. Devotional period
FACTORS IN THE GREAT COMMISSION
Whether we ponder it in its source, in its spirit, or in its sphere,
the Great Commission fills the mind with wonder and holy admiration.
The Great Commission was not over-spoken, mis-spoken, or carelessly-
It is rightly called the Great Commission. Coming not only from
the lips but from the heart of the Son of God, it is great because of its
origin. It is great because it includes every nation and every individual
of each succeeding generation. It is great because it wills only good to
all, without respect to race, color, nationality, human attainment, or
lack of human attainment. It has never been rescinded or modified.
The world mission of the church was first given to the ten bewildered
apostles when assembled behind closed doors in a house in Jerusalem
on the first day of the resurrection (John 20:19-23). It was repeated
to the eleven a week later (Mark 16:14-17; Luke 24:36-48). Matthew
records another occasion when Christ met his disciples on a mountain
in Galilee and renewed the charge (Matthew 28:16-20). The final ut-
terance of the Commission took place on the Mount of Olives, just out-
side the village of Bethany at the time of the ascension (Acts 1:8-11).
This final commission is clear and distinct. It is short and definite.
It is stated in simple language. There is no reason for doubting or
questioning what the Saviour meant. He meant what he said, and
he said what he meant. Repetition is not necessarily essential in empha-
sizing divine truth, but the fact that this final word of Christ to his
church is uttered five times commends it to the thoughtful and serious
attention of the entire body of Christ.
The importance of this commission is further emphasized by its
association with the greatest events in history.
The resurrection of Christ. Christ chose, for the occasion of its first
utterance, his first post-resurrection appearance. He thus would have
his disciples know that no power on earth could stop the onward march
of his church or defeat his own purpose. He was victor over death and
triumphant over the grave.
The crucifixion of Christ. Next, this final commission is associated
with his death on the cross. "He showed them his hands and feet."
Pointing to those wounds, he opened their understanding, that they
might understand the Scriptures. Then he said to them, "Thus it is
written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead
the third day: and that repentance and remission of sins should be
preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem."
The ascension of Christ. Standing on the summit of Mount Olivet,
perhaps within sight of the spot where he was crucified, and not far
from the place where he raised Lazarus from the grave, he again repeats
the words of his commission. Scarcely had the sound of his voice faded
away when they saw him begin to ascend. His last words were, "Ye
shall be witnesses unto me loth in Jerusalem, and in all Judaca, and in
Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth." How could they
The promised return of Christ. Within a few minutes after their as-
cending Lord disappeared, and while his last words were still resounding
in their ears, suddenly two angelic beings appeared, saying, "This same
Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like
manner as ye have seen him go into heaven." Thus, his final charge
is associated with the promise of his return. "Blessed is that servant,
whom his Lord when he cometh shall find so doing."
The coming of the Holy Spirit. The enduement of power and the
baptism with the Holy Spirit are essential to one's ministry. The com-
ing of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost was to qualify them for
their enlarged ministry. Therefore, the church has no excuse for delay-
ing the task which has been committed to her.
VI. Field Study
NORTHERN ISLANDS NEIGHBORS
(St. Kitts, Nevis, Saba)
Let this lesson be presented in the form of a missions class in a Bible
school. For the presentation, four persons will be needed, and each will,
of necessity, have to be previously prepared and well versed on his subject.
If possible, have some West Indian curios, or drawings depicting West
Indian life, conspicuously displayed.
Teacher: Our lesson today is going to be in the form of reports
of research work about our Northern Islands neighbors. As you know,
we formerly had what was known as the Northern Islands District.
This was composed of Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis, Barbuda, Montserrat,
and Saba. These have been divided now, and our reports today will
deal with the islands comprising the St. Kitts District. The student
who was assigned St. Kitts will now give a report of that field, please.
Student One: My study revealed that the island of St. Kitts ac-
tually goes by a nickname! The real name of the island is St. Christopher.
It is of volcanic origin and is, therefore, quite mountainous. It is 23
miles long, with a total area of 68 square miles, much of which is very
fertile. The early Carib Indians called St. Kitts "Liamuiga," which
means Fertile Island. This is proved to one's complete satisfaction
when he views from the air the patchwork design of countless fields
of sugar cane, cotton, eddoes, sweet potatoes, and other kinds of vege-
tation stretching from the beaches to heights far up the mountainsides.
St. Kitts was discovered by Columbus on his second voyage to the
new world in 1493. Since that time, its history has been dotted with
changes in rulership. The Caribs fought long and hard against the
English, French, and Spanish settlers, and the governments changed
several times. It was finally restored to England again in 1782, and has
been a colony of that crown since. However, St. Kitts has in recent
years become a part of the West Indies Federation, an organization of
the British West Indian islands which gives them the status of a unified
state made up of those various islands.
It was about 1900 that a Rev. and Mrs. Dunnell, with some single
lady missionaries, went to the island from the United States to put forth
every possible effort to win St. Kitts for Christ. Then, in 1902, Rev.
C. O. Moulton, who was a prominent figure in the establishing of mis-
sionary work in several of the islands, went to St. Kitts to join the
Dunnells. However, the name of Miss Jessie Purdy stands out radiantly
in the hearts and minds of the islanders, as well as in the history of our
work there. For more than 40 years she labored fearlessly to win Kit-
titians (Kit-tish' uns) to the Lord and the church. A number of those
years she spent alone, our only representative. Her eyesight is now
gone, but Miss Purdy refuses to return to the United States, preferring
to die with "her people."
Basseterre is the capital of the island, and in that town we have
a lovely church building which serves as the spiritual home of between
125 and 150 Pilgrims. There are three other organized churches, St.
Paul, Sandy Point, and Dieppe Bay, as well as several preaching points.
Missionary work is not left entirely to those who are paid to do the
job. A young high school teacher, a member of the Basseterre church,
got a place called Old Road on her heart. The village needed the mes-
sage of salvation. The people needed a place of worship. So this young
lady rented a building and began having Sunday school plus regular
evangelistic services. God blessed her efforts, and her Sunday school
average one month in 1957 was 114. All of this she does because of the
love she has in her heart for the Lord and souls. She does not get a
cent for her work as preacher and teacher-yes, missionary-to that
The Harold Colen family is stationed on St. Kitts. We should all
pray earnestly and regularly for this family, the national workers, and
the entire population of some 30,000 souls living on that tiny island,
many of whom have yet to receive the experience of the new birth and
Teacher: We appreciate this good summary of the work on St. Kitts.
Now we will hear about Nevis.
Student Two: Nevis, a small island of only 50 square miles, and
lying very near to St. Kitts, seems to have had more than its share of
disaster. From a distance, the island looks like one huge volcanic cone,
rising to a height of 3,596 feet. Since Columbus discovered it in 1493,
Nevis has felt the blow of earthquakes, hurricanes, blight, and fire.
The town of Jamestown, with its entire population and their possessions,
was completely submerged in the Caribbean Sea by an earthquake and
tidal wave. The islanders say that on clear days one can see the build-
ings and debris of Jamestown at the bottom of the sea. About 27
years after this catastrophe, a large portion of the island was bared by
another earthquake. A hurricane followed that, and did terrible damage
to what remained.
These calamities did noi, stop other colonists from corning in to
make uise of the fertile portion of the island which remaiiied. All went
well for a time; and then aI blight, evidently caused by gases from the
old volcano, destroyed vetation andll vega left the island bare. Racial
trouble, as well as war between the lritish and the Flrench, added to
the plight of Nevis.
Twice in the previous century Charlestown, the capital, has been
almost completely destroyed by fire. More recently, our church and mis-
sion home were cracked in several places as a result of earthquakes.
In the midst of all this, God has seen fit to raise up five Pilgrim
Holiness churches on the island, with a total membership of 265. The
major part of the credit for these accomplishments is due to the efforts
of Irene Blyden Taylor. Concerning those early days, Mother Taylor,
as she has become known to many, recently wrote:
"After I left God's Bible School, I traveled with a group who had a
camp meeting tent which they pitched in a suitable spot to reach the
masses. However, I went on to Saba, while the remainder of the group
stopped in St. Croix. When they got to St. Kitts, they wrote for me
to join them there. God came down in a mighty way on the souls of
men. At this time, the work was connected with God's Bible School.
"During the time that the evangelistic party was in St. Kitts, folks
from Nevis asked that we go to Nevis. That was not in the original
plan, however. Then Brother James Taylor said, 'Irene, we'll send you
over.' I told him that I would have to pray about that. They were
very much inclined to hold me in the West Indies. But I had begun to
make plans to go to Africa, and my mind was that way. After talking
to God about it, he assured me that it was all right to go to Nevis. So,
Jamison, his wife and son, Brother Ford, and Irene Blyden went to Nevis.
"A boat was chartered, and our group went across to Nevis. We had
an eventful time, and once even despaired of our lives or of saving the
boat. The wind and sea were terrible. But in God's mercy we reached
"We did not know if we would find a place to hire (rent) so that we
could remain. But as we walked off the wharf, a little old lady came
up to me and said, 'Me dear, where you come from?' I told her, 'We
have come over to hold evangelistic meetings.' Then I asked her if
she knew of a house which we might rent. She said, 'Sure, there is a
a good-size house on the main road, shut up for ever so long. I'll take
you to the woman in charge.' So we went first to see the house, and
left our things by it with some of the party, while Brother Jamison and
I went to bargain for the house. We got it to rent.
"There was a good-size hall downstairs and four rooms upstairs. The
men went to the store to buy boards to make seats. Sister Jamison and
I tried to clean the rooms. Bats had made the attic their home for a
"We got all set up for Sunday. In the afternoon we had an open-
air service, and in the evening we had meeting in the hall. There was
hardly standing room. We carried on for the week.
"It was then about time for the evangelistic party to leave St. Kitts
and go on south. But the Lord came upon the people with such convic-
tion and saving power that I wrote to Brother Taylor telling him that it
would be wisdom for them to move over to Nevis-tent and everybody!
They felt God's leading and came, remaining for about three weeks.
"There was no mission work being done here. There were Anglican
and Methodist churches, but the people felt their need of being saved.
There had been no plans for anyone to remain; but the people in bulk
said that they wanted the mission work to go on. This was in January,
"After a conference together, it was decided that Sister Blyden would
stay. But here I was with the burning desire to go to Africa! I told
them that I would remain until someone could come. Later on, the
Lord made it clear, 'Here is your Africa.' So I made preparations for
gathering the lost in Nevis. There are now seven churches on this island,
all the work being carried on by national workers. There were 22 per-
sons baptized on Sunday, May 18, 1958.
"When I decided to stay in Nevis, Brother Jamison said that there
was a young lady in St. Croix who was anxious to work for the Lord
and would be willing to come and help spread the gospel. As soon as
arrangements could be made for her to get here, she came.
"Miss Alice Coulter was a great asset to the work of Christ. She
was completely surrendered for service and sacrifice. We often walked
seven miles to where we would have service, get back home at midnight,
sleep soundly for the rest of the night, and be up and going early the
"In a village three miles away, where we held open-air meetings
(Brown Hill), a man got under conviction. He walked into Charlestown
for us to pray with him. When he reached town, we had gone to Ginger-
land, four miles away, for an open-air meeting. So he walked back past
his village, reaching us in time for part of the service. When the invita-
tion was given for those who wanted to accept Christ as their Saviour,
he was the first in the ring. He died in the faith of Christ his Saviour
only six years ago.
"In the village of Brown Hill, many persons got saved. By the help
of friends abroad, we were able to build a church there. A few Sundays
ago I was there for meeting and was delighted to see the many very
fine young people in Sunday school. Praise be to God!"
Though feeling the brunt of unpredictable and unexpected calam-
ities, the people of this island are not overwhelmed by their lot, but rather
rejoice in that they have an opportunity for a gospel which will bring
peace amid every circumstance. They, too, are pressing on toward the
prize of the high calling of God.
Teacher: Thank you for this good review of the work in Nevis.
And now for our last report in today's study. This time we will learn of
the work on the beautiful volcanic island of Sata.
Student Three: Of all the West Indian islands, Salta is one of the
most unique. It rises abruptly from the sea to a height of some 2800
feet, and is sheer rock in its makeup. It is called the Switzerland of the
West Indies. Although covering an area of five square miles, it is said
that there is not so much as 50 square feet of level ground on the entire
island. Eighty per cent of the population, which numbers between 12
and 15 hundred, is women, and most of them are white. The men are
seamen, or have gone elsewhere to seek employment, and return only
occasionally. There are some colored people there, descendants of slaves
brought in by the Dutch, together with some immigrants from other
islands. They have never intermarried with the whites, however; and,
in some instances, they are much better off financially than many of
the white people.
Boat building is of importance in Saba. The boats are built in the
highlands and are slid into the sea when they are ready to be launched.
Next to boat building, the chief industry is the cultivation of potatoes.
The women add their bit by making beautiful lace articles for sale.
Saba is an extinct volcano, and it abounds with hot springs. At
least one spot, and possibly more, on the island belches a continual stream
of hot air from between the rocks. This gives the impression of a safety
valve for the fires beneath the rocky depths of the island. A sulphur
mine is near by, and it produces some of the purest sulphur in the world.
Saba's houses are built of lumber and are flanked by beautiful
flower gardens, all neatly fenced. The water supply comes from more
than 200 cisterns, which store the rain water.
Should visitors desire to go to Saba, they would find that some im-
provements have been made during the past few years, though reaching
it is as uncomfortable as ever! Heavy seas still toss the small craft like
corks as they make their way from St. Kitts to the rocky landing spot of
some few yards in size. However, jeeps now traverse a stony roadway
from the bay to "The Bottom," as the main village is called, even though
it is located at the top of the cone, whereas the distance formerly had to
be traveled by foot up some 538 steps.
The founding of the church on this island brought about consider-
able opposition and persecution. Yet God honored the efforts of his
people, and in 1920 the work which had been started there some time be-
fore merged with the Pilgrim Holiness Church. Most of our missionary
work has been done by national pastors. We have one organized church
We here in the homeland need to remember these Pilgrims when we
pray, as well as those whom they aie trying to icach for Christ. Although
we hear little about this field, God is greatly concerned that the people
there become personally acquainted with his Son and learn to walk in
Teacher: We certainly appreciate these interesting reports, and I
am sure that all of us in the class are more concerned about these places
than we have been heretofore. Let's close this class with a good season
of prayer for our Northern Islands neighbors.
A LOOK AT THE LEEWARDS
(Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat)
I. Missionary choruses from the back of this book
II. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary
corrections and approval
II. Congregational singing of missionary songs
[V. Excerpts from letters received from missionaries, presented in an
V. Devotional period
A. Look backward-a practical look to what you have been saved
from, Isaiah 51:1. Such a personal inventory makes one
appreciate, even more, the benefits of grace. A comparison of
the past with the present also makes for a deep sense of hu-
mility and a desire to le of service to Him who wrought such
a great change.
B. Look forward-a promising look to the prize which is set before
us, Philippians 3:14. This should be a keen incentive for all
believers to remain true and to be faithful in the tasks of
Christian service, that they might be counted worthy of such
a promising eternal future, that of the "prize of the high call-
ing of God."
C. Look inward-a personal look to keep oneself in the love of
God, in the true faith, in fellowship with others, and in the
habit of practicing the presence of Christ, II Corinthians 13:5.
D. Look outward-a pitying look to see the needs of the world,
John 4:35. Compassion, as manifested by Christ, should be a
part of the very fiber of Christian living. To look upon the
needs around us and in the world at large in the light of eter-
nity should bring about an indescribable burden for unsaved,
eternity-bound, groping humanity, and not an air of scorn.
The gospel of Jesus Christ is the only answer to the conditions
of our world.
E. Look upward-a powerful look for help in utilizing every avail-
able means in reaching souls, Philippians 4:13. This is the
source of suggestion as to what each individual can do, of
strength to act upon the suggestion, and of supply as the ac-
tion is taken. We cannot reach the lost through our own
strength and abilities; but the scope is unlimited if we main-
tain these five looks, and especially this last one.
A poem from the back of this book
A LOOK AT THE LEEWARDS
This study takes in three of the Leeward Islands which make up the
Antigua District. They are, Antigua, Barbuda, and Montserrat. The pre-
Ncntalion could be in the form of a mother reading to her child about mission-
ary work and workers. Or, it could be divided into three parts with a person
appointed to present information about each island. The use of a map of
the West Indies in necsary.
Antigua, pronounced An-tee'gah, is an oval-shaped island which is
very beautiful as one looks down upon it from an airplane. Its three very
distinct areas present an interesting view. It seems peculiar that the
south and southwest is very mountainous and volcanic, and the north
an(d northeast is of coral formation, while the central part is quite flat and
is made up of clay. The many lovely white beaches look cool and invit-
ing from the air, but even these places of retreat feel the touch of the
"A place without water" is what the word Antigua actually means.
There is comparatively little rainfall there, and the island cannot boast
of streams of any consequence. Rain water is collected in large reservoirs
and then piped to the capital city of St. Johns and nearby villages. Some
of the larger, better homes have their own cisterns.
This lack of water has caused the progress of the island to be hin-
dered from the very beginning. Numerous attempts were made at settle-
ments, from the time it was discovered by Columbus in 1493 until 1632,
when a permanent settlement was made by the English of the neighbor-
ing island of St. Kitts under the leadership of Sir Thomas Warner.
Raids by Carib Indians on those early settlements, together with in-
vasions by foreign forces, wrought additional hardships to the Antiguans
of those days. However, through recent years peace has reigned.
The people of Antigua are predominantly Negro, a result of the early
slave days which started in 1481 by the introduction of the lucrative
slave traffic by the Portuguese at the expense of the freedom of native
Africans. These slaves suffered terribly en route, for they were crowded
like cattle in the hot, unventilated holds of ships. Many of them died,
and those who survived became keenly embittered because of this cruel
treatment. Slavery was abolished, however, in 1834. The population
as reported in 1954 was 45,611.
The raising of sugar cane is Antigua's main source of income. Local
industries process the cane juice into coarse crystals, varying in degrees
of whiteness, and these are shipped to England for advanced refining.
Because of the lack of water, the cultivation of fruits and vegetables
has not progressed. Thus, it is almost impossible for a resident to obtain
a properly balanced and healthful diet.
Heat and hurricanes are common on Antigua, as in all of our Carib-
bean fields. The months of August, September, and October are known
as hurricane season. During this period, the people live in a state of un-
easiness; for those storms have frequently destroyed numbers of homes
and done extensive damage to crops and shipping. As companions to the
hurricanes come torrential rains and frequent earthquakes. A jingle,
common to all West Indians, gives a key as to what to expect:
June, too soon;
July, stand by;
August, a gust;
October, all over!
Amid hardships of varying types and intensity, God has raised up a
strong, aggressive work under the banner of the Pilgrim Holiness Church.
It began in 1909, when the Faith and Love Mission was organized on the
island. This group joined forces with the Pilgrim Holiness Church in
1912. Those early warriors of the cross encountered innumerable odds in
the form of sin, ignorance, superstition, and spiritual darkness.
Resulting from earnest prayer, perseverance, and hard work, a nice
two-story frame building was purchased in 1915. This served as both
mission home and chapel until the erection of the St. Johns church in
1923. In the May 31, 1923, issue of the PILGRIM HOLINESS ADVOCATE,
Rev. and Mrs. O. L. King, who served a number of years on this field,
wrote of the dedication of this church, as follows:
"Revivalist Tabernacle is the name of the new Pilgrim Holiness
church just dedicated in the town of St. Johns on the island of Antigua.
"Just a few words as to how it came to pass before we tell you of the
dedication day. When we first began to talk of a church building for
St. Johns, little enthusiasm was manifested. It is true that the people
said'Amen;' but their hopes had been raised so high so many times, only
to be dashed to the ground, that it was a rather hopeless and faithless
"But one day Sister Knapp (Mrs. Martin Wells Knapp) visited An-
tigua and saw a real need-the crowded Sunday school and the stuffy
little hall. She went back to the U. S. A. with a burden for that new
church. She told it everywhere she went. She felt, with us, 'It must
come to pass.'
"March 11 will be a day long remembered by the St. Johns people-
a day when faith and hope became a reality and they gathered for the
first time in their own church building.
"The dedication had first been announced for February 11. When
it seemed that our hopes were about to be realized, a dreadful thing hap-
pened. There was an outbreak of alastrim-modified smallpox. The
church was locked up for more than a month. Missionaries from the
other islands could not come to us. No steamers would take passengers.
Our big plans were laid aside. We said, 'Amen; glorify thyself, O Lord.'
Then the day arrived.
"The saints and workers gathered from the country villages. Strang-
ers and friends from various parts of the city and other denominations
gathered with us. Despite the fact that many were sick from vaccina-
tion and that there were special services in two other churches the same
day, the building was nearly full at the morning service. We had won-
dered how we would manage the crowd on dedication day, but alastrim
settled that for us!
"In the afternoon we met in the basement for Sunday school. There
was such a crowd that we could do but little more than sing a few songs,
have prayer, give out the cards and papers, and tell people to come back
the next Sunday to reorganize and enroll.
"At the night service, the house was packed. Extra benches were
brought from the basement. We were sadly in need of some folding
chairs. The doors were filled with those who could not get a seat. The
service began at six with a testimony service, in order to give the folks
from the country places a chance to have a part in the services of the day.
Definite testimonies were given to the power of Jesus Christ to save and
keep. Words of thankfulness were spoken also for the various mission-
aries who had been sent to 'open their eyes and turn them from darkness
to light.' The workers sang, and Mr. King preached from Matthew 1:21.
It was a wonderful opportunity to witness to that great crowd that Jesus
came to save them from the things that were ruining their lives and damn-
ing their souls.
"Only four souls knelt at the altar on dedication day, but we fol-
lowed with a week's services, having five o'clock morning services which
sometimes lasted until nearly noon. These morning services were greatly
owned of God as Mr. King preached to the people, mostly professed
Christians, of the 'little things' that make or hinder the Christian life.
At times it seemed the whole church was an altar, with folks everywhere
praying and crying for deliverance and victory over 'the little foxes'
that eat up the vines. Startling confessions were made, and it was a
time of'looking inside.' "
Sister King also wrote, in that same ADVOCATE, concerning the Sun-
day following dedication-March 18, 1923:
"We are now getting down to work in earnest in the new building.
Dedication is over. The visitors from the country villages have returned
to their homes. We have had a blessed week in the Lord. There was a
good crowd at the morning service, with souls at the altar.
"In the afternoon, we began to try to bring order out of chaos in the
Sunday school. We divided the Sunday school and sent all who could
read to the auditorium upstairs, appointing an organist, superintendent,
and secretary. Then classes were formed in the basement. We found
that we had 211 scholars downstairs with 13 teachers, and 116 scholars
with 6 teachers upstairs. We had a total that day of 346. Four classes
marched out into the yard in the shade to recite. Some classes are too
large. Other teachers must be found. A special workers' meeting was
announced for the following Thursday. We are already thinking of add-
ing some classrooms.
"With this new building giving us an opportunity for service which
we never have had before in St. Johns, pray that we may have physical
strength to push the work and be endowed with a double portion of Eli-
jah's God to meet the prophets of Baal."
Many souls found God down through the years at the altar in the
St. Johns church. The patting of hundreds of feet and the swaying of the
congregation to the rhythm of their songs of victory, together with the
weight of nearly a thousand worshipers Sunday after Sunday caused the
floor to sag. Braces were erected in the basement to support the floor.
However, because of a weakened building and a growing congregation,
it was necessary to build a new St. Johns church. Rev. R. G. Flexon,
General Superintendent (then Secretary of Foreign Missions), wrote the
following concerning the second St. Johns:
"It was March 24, a day long looked forward to by the Pilgrims on
the island of Antigua. It was the day for the dedication of the lovely
new church at St. Johns.
"For many, many years there had been need of a new building at
this place. The old one, built by Rev. O. L. King, had served its day. It
was built to seat about 450 people. In this building they were trying to
have a Sunday school which averaged around 800; and the preaching
services averaged around 500 in attendance. The writer was there two
years ago (1955), and on the last Sunday of the conference there were 250
men in the Sunday school and 926 women and children. On the last night
of the meeting they tried to get 1200 people into the church, built to care
for 450. It was then so eaten by termites that they had to prop it up all
along the sides with large poles and brace it a great deal underneath to
keep it from falling down.
"Since we usually do not build in foreign lands until we have all of
the money in hand, or in sight, we have dragged along with this condition
for a number qf years while trying to raise the money to build.
"Then the day came when we could say, 'Go ahead.' At once they
proceeded to take down the old church and remove the parsonage to an-
other location, to provide space large enough on which to build the new
church. Rev. E. B. Nelson and Rev. E. E. Phillippe gave direction to
the building work.
"They found a place to worship temporarily in a school auditorium
which would seat only about 250. This curtailed their Sunday school
"It took many months to erect the new church, for building work
goes much slower than in our country. As the people saw the new church
going up, they kept up their spirits and pressed on spiritually. However,
they longed for the day when they could get into their new home.
"At last the day had arrived. And what a day it was!
"At 10:30 a.m. a crowd of 1000 people had gathered outside the
church, in the yard, and on the street. Brother Phillippe (Caribbean
Area Field Superintendent) gave a wonderful message on laying a foun-
"At two o'clock in the afternoon the church doors were opened, and
the people poured into the church like a rushing stream. There were
about 2500 in attendance, to try to get into a church built to seat 2000.
It was a glorious dedication service. Many of the leading business men
and officials of the island were there. They contributed heavily in the
At night there were 1800 in the service, by count, with between 70
and 80 seekers at the altar that first night in the new church.
"They had insisted on my staying for a week's meeting, which I con-
sented to do.
"That week was a veritable Pentecost in miniature. Each morning
a fine group of the saints gathered in the church at five o'clock and prayed
for an hour, or sometimes two hours, for God to come. There was a
group of about 30 good workers to whom I had given instructions on do-
ing personal work and altar work.
"Each night the large church was filled; and people stood at each of
the three doors, with many on porches and in the yard. In the one week
God gave about 1000 seekers at an altar of prayer. On the last Sunday
night there were three altar services, without any preaching, and nearly
300 seekers came for help. Many, many new people sought God in this
meeting, and the workers selected to do so got the names and addresses
of all new seekers, so that some worker could visit their homes and try to
get them into the converts' class before the enemy would have a chance
to discourage them.
"The wonderful foundation, laid for this church by Rev. and Mrs.
0. L. King, still stands firm; and it seems that all the storms the devil has
.sent against it have not been able to shake it."
One of the factors which has helped in the progress of the work in
Antigua, as well as other West Indian islands, has been the great change
evidenced in the lives of people who have found God. Our missionaries
have taught that faith in Christ must be shown by holy and righteous
living. Converts have quit stealing and lying and have gone back to
make restitution. They have set their home lives in order, and have
reared their children in the fear of God. As a result, the Pilgrim members
have been in great demand as domestic servants, clerks, etc., because they
could be trusted. They can be found in practically every field, from har-
vest hands to government officials.
The exemplary conduct of our Pilgrims here does not just happen.
To become a member in the first place is not easy, and strong discipline
of members is a prominent feature of the work. (More will be given re-
garding converts' classes and membership in another chapter.)
This field has been an area of great blessing and soul winning for
many years. However, Antigua, with its 12 organized churches, still
stands in need of the prayers of God's people, that new victories will con-
tinue to be won. Please add it to your daily prayer list.
Barbuda is a small island with an area of only 62 square miles. It
lies directly north of Antigua, and is extremely flat, its highest point
being only 205 feet above sea level. The reefs which surround the island,
together with the strong currents, prove a constant menace to sailing
In the eighteenth century, the island was granted to the Codrington
family, who used it as a stock farm for the supplying of animals to their
estates in Antigua. It was also a "shooting estate." This family stocked
the island with fallow deer, but these are not so numerous now as they
were. What animals are left are difficult to reach because of the thick
bush which covers much of the island. Guinea fowl, pigeon, and doves
are fairly plentiful, as are wild duck and other fowl. The hunting of wild
pigs has been quite a sport in Barbuda for some years.
There is excellent fishing all around the coast. These fish, including
shark, barracuda, snapper, parrot fish, and grouper, provide good sport
as well as representing one of the island's industries. Live turtle, turtle
shell, and dried fish are objects of trade with Antigua. Lobsters are also
in abundance in Barbuda.
An interesting thing about Barbuda is the fact that it has only one
village, Codrington, which has about 1500 inhabitants. They are, for
the most part, descendants of the slaves who were introduced there by
Colonel Codrington. The majority of the houses are of a primitive type,
being built of wattle (mud and sticks) and plaster, with thatch roofs.
Each house being enclosed with its own little stockade gives a typically
African appearance to the village. However, these conditions are rapidly
changing. Many of the islanders are emigrating and, upon returning
with better financial standing, build substantial houses of wood or stone,
using galvanized iron for the roofs.
A British writer, in discussing the people of Barbuda, says that the
villagers are fine, upstanding individuals, many of the men being over six
feet tall. Conditions being as they are, these men are not good as me-
chanics, and they take little interest in machinery; but they are fearless
sailors, excellent swimmers, and keen fishermen. The women are in the
majority on this island, because of the men leaving for other islands in
search of work.
There are no shops in Codrington Village. Purchases of grocery
items and other commodities have to be made in Antigua. However,
two bakers supply the populace with bread two or three times a week.
Chickens, turkeys, and kerosene oil are the extent of local purchases.
An account of a trip to this island by one of our former missionaries
gives some interesting side lights into life on the island. Rev. Robert
"Can you visualize a town where there is no doctor? Where there
is no hospital? In this one there is one nurse and one dispenser, or drug-
gist, as we would call him. If anyone gets seriously ill, he must get into a
small boat and be driven by the wind to Antigua for medical aid. Usually
seasickness adds to the suffering and discomfort of the patient. But this
is the lot of the people of Barbuda.
"There is one school on the island, toward which there is a bit of
opposition, for the people do not like for their children to be disciplined
by the teacher.
"I was amazed at the intelligence of the animal life on Barbuda. In
the morning, goats and sheep gather together and, walking in ranks,
leave the village for the pasture beyond. They are gone all day; and as
the sun begins to lower in the evening, they can be seen coming in from
the pasture. What a drove, as they come toward the village! But they
know their homes-three stop at this gate, a couple pause on the other
side of the road, six pass through yonder entrance, and so on until all
have passed into their folds for the night. It is a very interesting sight.
Our pastor has three goats, and one overslept one morning. The others
left him behind, and he cried all day long until the setting sun brought
the others home!
"There is no plan to the village-just a house built here, and one
there. These are separated by large rock walls or brush fences. There
are no streets, only paths and roads which are almost impassable during
the rainy season. There are no cars on the island, so travel is by foot."
The Pilgrim Holiness Church is one of four churches on the island.
Our membership there is about one hundred, the work having been
brought into the Pilgrim Holiness Church in 1917 when a group of people
of the Christian Mission asked to become a part of our church.
A service with Barbuda Pilgrims was described by Rev. Armor Pei-
sker after he visited the field several years ago. It is typical of what you
would find were you to make a trip there now.
"I scanned the crowd of some 400 people which filled the Barbuda
church that night, in an effort to find the captain who, during that day,
had piloted our little vessel from Antigua. Finally, in the none-too-
brightly-lighted building, I located him. But I had to look a second time
to assure myself. No longer dressed simply in khaki shirt and shorts
(which were more appropriate for manning the single-masted sloop over
the rough channel waters), he looked so differently lHe was now fully
attired in shoes, dark trousers, an immaculate white coat, a nicely laun-
dered shirt, and a tie neatly arranged. lie sat right up front and enthu-
astically played a large guitar while joining lustily in the hearty singing.
"As the service progressed and the singing increased in fervor, a
spirit of joyous gratitude was very much in evidence. Some of the wor-
shipers, with happy, shining faces, (lapped their hands, while still others
(among them our captain, still playing his guitar) rose to their feet and
rhythmically walked or quietly danced about. The( cares of the day were
forgotten. The limitations and privations of their very circumscribed
lives seemed no curb to their happiness. They were in church, in the
house of their God. As children of the King, they sang victoriously of
their redemption from sin's bondage, and of the royal home which they
would some day share.
"There was no organ or piano, and several of the stringed instru-
ments played by the young men were home-made affairs which they,
themselves, had manufactured from native wood of the little island. But
I doubt if more acceptable praise has ever been offered, even by highly-
trained choirs accompanied by the perfect tones of costly instruments.
"As one sees the West Indian Pilgrims in church and enters into the
spirit of their services, he cannot but be impressed with the fact that the
sustaining joys of life do not come from the things which one possesses,
nor is worship made more real by the dramatic use of expensive and color-
A more recent bit of information was received from the national pas-
tor there, Brother Esdaille. He wrote of a wedding.
"We have a group of young people who are very energetic in the
work of the Lord. Two of our young people were united in marriage
October 8 (1957). Brother and Sister George Beazer had a beautiful
"Perhaps you would like to know a bit of how our weddings are car-
ried on. There are no autos or buses to bring the people, so they walk.
A great crowd gathers, lined on both sides of the road for a long distance.
This leaves a wide passage in the middle. The crowd stands patiently
awaiting the appearance of the bridal party. When they come, they walk
two by two, carrying umbrellas. Coming first is the bridegroom, then
the guests, the bridesmaids, the chief of the bride, and the bride herself,
who is walking slowly.
"After the party reaches the church, the choir sings lustily. One can
hear a pin drop as this God-ordained institution is being solemnized. We
rejoice with them as Christian homes are established."
Brother Esdaille closed his interesting letter with this word of en-
"The Lord is blessing our Sunday school and children's work. Sister
Esdaille works very hard in this section of the work. We crave your
prayers as we carry on in this great warfare for King Emmanuel."
Montserrat-the Erin of the West Indies, or as some refer to it, the
Emerald Isle of the West! That is because the Irish brogue is upon the
lips of every inhabitant of Montserrat. Also, such strictly Irish names as
O'Hara, O'Grady, O'Toole, Finnegan, Duffy, Murphy, and a host of
others are common among the people of that small island of some 32
square miles. Why? Here is the reason.
During the time of Oliver Cromwell, in England, numbers of dis-
senting Irishmen were banished to Montserrat. Others went freely of
their own accord in order to escape Cromwell's fury. The first of these
arrived in 1630. Finally, between two and three thousand of them found
refuge there, and almost entirely peopled the island. These Irishmen
intermarried with the Africans who had been brought there originally as
slaves by the British.
Montserrat is a beautiful mountainous island with a present popula-
tion of some 15,000. It is entirely volcanic, and the highest of its three
mountains reaches 3,002 feet. The hills rise in steady slopes from the sea,
and are being cultivated to a height of 1500 feet. Quite different from
Antigua, this island has a number of streams.
Because of an abundance of rain, this island is agricultural, the prin-
cipal crops being limes and sea island cotton. The raw juice is extracted
from the limes locally and then sent to England. There it is used in pre-
paring citric acid and other products of considerable commercial value.
Another important crop is tomatoes. These provide export trade with
It was in 1493, on his second voyage, that Columbus discovered this
beautiful little island, and he named it after a mountain near Barcelona,
Spain. However, it was not until the work of the Bible Home and For-
eign Missionary Society united with that of the Pilgrim Holiness Church
in 1924 that the island was brought into keen focus with Pilgrims in
America. From that time until now, the work has been maintained by
national ministers who have worked under the supervision of American
missionaries who were stationed on Antigua. We now have two churches
in Montserrat. Pray for our faithful Pilgrims as they press the battle;
for, though they are amid the beauties of God's handiwork in nature, yet
sin abounds and souls need Christ.
BAllRADIOS LITTI EiNGLANI)
I. Congregational singing of missionary songs
11. Missionary poem from the back of this book
Ill. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary
corrections and approval
IV. Missionary choruses from the back of this book
VI. Devotional period. Scripture reading, I Chronicles 4:10.
In the midst of a lengthy list of genealogies, we find a short but po-
tent prayer which ascended from the lips of Jabez. It is a prayer which
lends both sweetness and challenge to the open-hearted believer.
Divine enrichment. We are always in need of a fresh touch of God
upon our lives. Like Jabez, we should earnestly pray, "Oh that thou
wouldest bless me." How wonderful that God has new and fresh bless-
ings for us, and that heaven is not famine-stricken as are some fields of
the world. There is an abundance of supply for every need in return for
petitions. There is spiritual blessing, new inner strength, and power for
triumphant life and activities as we seek daily the divine enrichment
which has been made available to us.
This divine enrichment is needed to take away our self-centeredness,
to wipe out the inroads of materialism, and to keep others in proper focus
in the light of eternal values. As the song writer has so beautifully said,
prayer is the key.
Divine enlargement. The prayer of Jabez mentioned the request that
God "enlarge my coast." Isaiah requested an enlargement of the place
of thy tent, a lengthening of thy cords, and a strengthening of thy stakes.
The request for enlargement must be properly motivated to insure
an audience with the God of the skies. Large companies plan and work
that their business interests might expand, all for a monetary gain. Our
purpose for such a prayer should be the advancement of the kingdom of
God, the spreading of the gospel, and the salvation of souls.
The urgency of these days demands greater committal to the task,
enlarged vision to reach the unevangelized, and new surrender of our
wills to the desires and plans of God. As we place ourselves more com-
pletely at the disposal of Christ, our lives will be expanded in the service
Divine encouragement. The portion of the prayer, "that thine hand
might be with me," carries a great weight of encouragement with it.
First of all, because it is God's mighty hand-the one which flung worlds
into space and can measure the waters of the seas in its palm-which is
sought, and available. Too, it is his great hand which can guide our lives,
direct our paths of choice, and provide those things which we need for
The second encouraging thing about it is that not only is it God's
hand, but that the hand of the Almighty might be with me! Insignificant
as we are, God offers his mighty hand to aid us in whatever point we
might be in need. He drives away the enemies which would defeat our
souls. He offers assistance when every other means has failed. He is our
encouragement within himself by his very presence. No wonder the mis-
sionaries can meet innumerable odds with the courage of a lion-their
dependence is not upon human encouragement, but rather upon Him.
VII. Field study
The material in this study might be presented in the form of a skit.
A tape recorder should be displayed and allowed to run during the program.
Two or three persons, in an excited manner, should hover over the recorder as
a fourth one places the reel of tape on the machine. Impromptu comments
concerning the privilege of hearing a tape about missionary work should be
You may wish to actually record the program and present it by means
of the tape, or have someone do the speaking from behind a curtain or par-
tially opened door.
Part of the information is taken from an article written by Rev. Edward
Boone concerning his visit to Barbados in January, 1958. Therefore, a man
might be chosen to read the script. The singing of a chorus in a spicy tempo
would add much to the introduction of the tape; for Barbadians sing well
and with meaning, but definitely not slow. Hand-clapping with the singing
would make it more realistic.
Greetings, friends! I would like to introduce you to the island of
Barbados by means of this tape. The singing which you have just heard
is typical of that which enlivens every service here. I am sure that you
Barbados is the most easterly of the Caribbean islands. It is located
about 500 miles south of Puerto Rico and 190 miles northeast of Trinidad.
The size is about 14 miles wide and 21 miles long, but the population is
some 230,000! About 120,000 of these people reside in Bridgetown, the
capital and only major city. It is next to China in density of population,
for statistics show that 1300 people per square mile is the average here.
Four-fifths of the land is under cultivation, so that means that the houses
must be built very close together. The majority of the homes are ex-
tremely small, and especially so for families with several children. I was
told that some children 10 to 12 years of age never have slept in a bed.
The population is predominantly colored, one out of every 23 persons
Sugar cane is the main product grown on the island. Over 200,000
tons of sugar is refined from the splendid varieties of cane grown. The
best sugar cane in the world is raised here, and Barbados supplies much
of the new varieties grown elsewhere in the world. The government em-
ploys hundreds of men on its experimental farms to produce better cane
for the various types of soil.
Fishing, too, is a big industry, with 600 boats used to catch the fish
in the Caribbean Sea. Most of these are sailboats; but the government
has some kind of an arrangement whereby the men can buy motor-pow-
ered launches and pay for them on the installment plan. The flying fish
have added to making Barbados popular with seafood lovers. These fly-
ing fish have wings like a bird, and are quite interesting as well as being
delicious. They are sold on the streets; and constantly, almost, you can
hear peddlers cry, Feesh! Feesh!" as they pass the door. Women also
are seell stlllliiig in advantageous places with large boxes on their heads.
These boxes are filled with fish. When they make a sale, they reach into
the box without removing it from their heads. These women carry loads
of 300 pounds or more, when they have help in getting them placed on
their heads. I saw women carrying baskets, boxes, large bags of potatoes,
and bundles of sticks for fuel for their coal pots. Many others, however,
cook with kerosene, while the wealthier class use gas that comes from
the wells of Barbados.
The drinking water comes from deep wells, and it is very good. It is
piped all over the island. The majority of the people carry it to their
homes from faucets found at convenient places near the streets. No
charge is made except where it is piped into the houses.
In Bridgetown, the bathroom facilities are connected with a septic
tank, while the wash water flows down the open sewers along the streets.
This is equally true on the main streets. I saw soapy water, resembling
milk in color, empty into the river from these drainage ditches.
Barbados has no radio system, but it does have what is known as
rediffusion. This is similar to our public address systems in large build-
ings. The programs are carried to homes all over the island-to those
whose occupants can afford to pay $2 per month. This is government
controlled. However, those who are fortunate enough to own a good
radio can tune in to the stations on Trinidad and Puerto Rico. On clear
nights they can get Del Rio, Texas; Nashville, Tennessee; and other
Most of the cars are English makes and are built so that the drivers
must sit on the right-hand side and drive on the left side of the street, just
the opposite from ours. This was very confusing, and especially when
passing a car on the right-hand side. I was a good passenger, and under
the strain I said nothing; but I prayed a lot! The streets are very narrow,
and in Bridgetown there are few sidewalks. So men, bicycles, donkey
carts, and cars dart in and out at the risk of many lives. It is a wonder
that more people are not injured or killed.
The Anglican Church is the state church. It is supported by the
government. Each of the eleven parishes (we call them counties) has an
Anglican church (always referred to as "The Church"), a police station,
a fire department, and other offices necessary to carry on its parish affairs.
In those parishes where there is only one cemetery, and that one Anglican,
the priest requires that a second funeral be held under his supervision and
in his church before the body can be buried. So some people of other
faiths must have two funerals before the body is disposed of. In Bridge-
town, however, this is not true; for there is a public cemetery. When
people are unable to on, n their own lot, they are buried in separate graves.
Every five years these graves are reopened to receive other bodies. We
saw bones which had teen removed from graves as preparations were be-
ing made to bury other corpses. Bodies are not embalmed, and therefore
must be buried within 24 hours. The funerals are announced over rediffu-
sion at a cost of $5. All hardware is removed from the caskets at the
graveside, and is used for other funerals. The caskets are lowered by
ropes into the coral soil, which reminds me of cinders. No wooden box
or vault is used for burying these less fortunates; for every penny must be
saved for food and clothing for the members of the family who remain. No
artificial grass or lowering devices are used to help relieve the sorrow. A
few armfuls of grass is sometimes provided by a friend or neighbor to
cover the casket before it is lowered and covered with coral dirt. But,
thank God, that is not the home of the soul of the redeemed. They are
departed "to be with Christ; which is far better" (Phil. 1:23).
This island no longer has any railroads. Buses have taken over.
There are not too many buses in proportion to the population; so they
are extremely crowded. It is a matter of first come, first served. The
seats go across the entire width of the buses, and passengers board them
from a running board which runs the length of the buses, but on one side
only. I watched the people at the terminal as they scrambled for a seat.
Outgoing passengers were hanging on the buses before they came to a
standstill. The incoming ones had to squeeze their way past the passen-
gers already hanging on the running board. They go to all parts of the
Recently, the government imported several modern buses which
were built in Germany. If the venture proves profitable, they plan to
buy out the privately-owned companies and operate the entire system.
I was surprised to find a Woolworth, a General Electric, and a Sing-
er Sewing Machine company, plus a few other American concerns, in
Bridgetown, but very little merchandise from the United States.
Wages in Barbados are very low, while prices soar quite high. A
condition such as this makes living difficult. This accounts for the pov-
erty which is prevalent, as well as the stealing which is engaged in.
The velvety green slopes have a suggestion of England, to whose
crown the Barbadians have been unceasingly loyal since the beginning of
the seventeenth century. And so it is that this, the oldest of the British
colonies to have had no other rule, accepts with pride the title "Little
'X The history of Barbados has been rather uneventful in comparison
to that of others of the Caribbean islands. It was, for the most part,
passed up by pirates and foreign fleets in their raids of the new world. No
one seems to know just who discovered the island, but some think that
Portuguese sailors came upon it about 1535. It was claimed for the Brit-
ish crown in 1605 when an Englishman came to its shores in his search for
British Guiana. Colonization began in 1626. Negro slaves were intro-
duced by their captors who transported them from Africa; but they all
received their freedom in 1834.
Pilgrim Holiness Church history reaches back to early in 1891, when
a Rev. Samuel H. Bayley conducted a full-salvation meeting on the is-
land. He organized the Immanuel Mission in 1892, and carried it on un-
til his death. The work was continued by a national minister in his place.
Meanwhile, Rev. and Mrs. C. O. Moulten, our first American mis-
sionaries to the West Indies, arrived on Barbados. His work, which be-
gan in 1902 and was carried on until his death in 1907, was greatly blessed
of the Lord. The Faith and Love Mission was organized under the efforts
of Evangelist J. M. Taylor, and this work was turned over to us in 1912.
Then, in 1923, the Immanuel Mission also united with the Pilgr:m Holi-
Our first place of worship in Bridgetown was in an upstairs room over
a rum shop. In 1917 the White Park tabernacle was erected, and the
congregation moved from the hill. Through the years, from this begin-
ning, God has smiled upon the missionary work in Barbados, until now
there are 39 organized churches, with a total membership of 2320. Much
of the success of the work must be attributed to the untiring, sacrificial
efforts of the national ministry, many of whom pastor several churches.
Some continue with their daily jobs in stores and fields and then give
their evenings and Sundays to the preaching of the gospel, without any
pay whatsoever other than the satisfaction coming from seeing souls pray
through at altars of prayer.
Days toward which every Barbadian Pilgrim looks are the quarterly
meeting Sundays. These fall at the beginning of each calendar quarter
unless the coming of a visitor to the island makes changing the date ad-
visable. In reality, these are one-day camp meetings. People come from
all over the island, filling the large White Park tabernacle to overflowing.
At times there are between two and three thousand at these meetings.
The day's activities include a baptismal service at a beautiful spot along
the leeward side of the island in the blue waters of the Caribbean Sea,
testimony meetings, worship service, reception of members, Sunday
school, communion, and an evangelistic service. These prove to be
mighty times of refreshing and salvation.
The missionary quarterly meeting, however, is one of the extra ex-
citing times. For several months prior to that date, Pilgrims over the is-
land bend every effort toward a great missionary offering. They are
given mite boxes and envelopes into which sacrificial gifts are placed at
every possible chance. Even the people in the almshouses and the lepro-
sarium share in this offering. Though their gifts do not total as much as
some others, God looks upon their hearts and counts the offering in the
language of love rather than by the pennies and shillings.
Each local church has a special missionary service, at which time the
members bring in their offerings. The missionaries stationed on Barba-
dos visit the different churches on these nights and challenge the people
with the Great Commission.< Such activities have paid off in financial
benefit in the interest of spreading the gospel as well as in sending a mis-
sionary family from their midst to the island of St. Vincent. $This na-
tional worker's support is paid each month by the Barbados District.
Then, on missionary quarterly day, everyone is tense with expecta-
tion to see which church in each group will receive the banner for having
the largest offering. The churches are listed according to membership,
and the one having the largest missionary offering in each group receives
this coveted award. In 1958, the missionary offering totaled $1,575. So
all of the work and sacrifice is not on our end of the line, is it?
The Caribbean Pilgrim College is located in Bridgetown. The J. W.
Lashbrooks have done a marvelous piece of work, with both the grounds
and buildings in addition to that with the students. June 23, 1958,
marked the completion of the three-year course for the majority of the
student body, and 20 were graduated. The baccalaureate service was
held in the White Park church, with Rev. Dean Phillips, missionary to
Trinidad, as the speaker. Commencement exercises were held on the
Monday night following. The students are now on their respective fields,
which represent nearly all of the islands and countries in the Caribbean
Area. Pray much for these new workers as they enter the field of active
regular service for the Master.
Before we come to the end of this tape report of our work in Barba-
dos, I would like to remind you that this is a 100 per cent missionary so-
ciety island. Every church has a society, plus prayer and fasting leagues.
From the little which they have, these Pilgrims give, that the gospel can
reach other fields. They also work, and recently they sent children's
clothing to both Paramakatoi and Pelgrim Kondre in South America.
Many of these items were made from pieces of their own clothing which
they could manage without. Others saved until they were able to buy a
piece of cloth from which to make a garment.
We trust that you have enjoyed learning a little about this field, and
we trust that God will continually impress upon your heart the need
of praying for Pilgrim missions and missionaries in this portion of the
great whitened harvest field.
It would be well to close with a good season of prayer, making mention
of the missionaries serving on this island. Your missionary address sheet
will give you the names of those there at this time.
ST. VINCENT-GEM OF THE ANTILLES
I. Congregational singing of missionary songs
II. Missionary choruses from the back of this book
IV. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary
corrections and approval
V. Special song, "Speak, My Lord"
VI. Devotional period. Scripture reading, Isaiah 6:1-8.
A. Woe (verse 5). This word, spoken by a man, Isaiah, describes
the condition of all humanity when once God in his holiness
comes into view. Then, we see ourselves in our actual status,
undone and unclean. This takes us beyond reputation to
basic character principles, and proves anew that without Him
we are nothing.
B. Lo (verse 7). This is a word of awakening spoken by an angel
and results from the touching of the unclean with fire from off
the altar of God's holiness. It is amazing the change which
comes about when our lives are brought into proper relation-
ship to God.
C. Go (verses 8 and 9). This word was presented in the form of a
question by God himself, and has challenged the sincerity and
consecration of every believer. It is only after experiencing
the "woe" and the "lo" that one is really prepared for the
"go," regardless of natural inherent abilities and educational
advantages. All three are needed for successful evangelization
of the world. Everyone must go in one or more of these ways
-in person, through prayer, with provisions, or by proxy. We
all have a place to fill, a task to perform, and a God to glorify.
VII. Field study
ST. VINCENT--GEM OF THE ANTILLES
This program is given in question-and-answer fashion. You may use
just the portions of this lesson which you feel will be of interest to your group.
It might be presented by a panel who question someone chosen to represent
Miss Eubanks. Or, if desired, they might be asked of someone who is to have
read extensively concerning the beginning of the work in St. Vincent. Those
participating should be seated at a table. Behind the table, or to one side,
should be displayed a map of the West Indies.
Panelist One: I know that the West Indian islands are between the
United States and South America. But where is St. Vincent located?
What is it like?
Eubanks: St. Vincent was discovered by Columbus in 1498. It is
one of the British islands of the Caribbean and is located 97 miles almost
due west of Barbados, and 158 miles north of Trinidad. Let me point
these places out on the map for you. That always makes it clearer than
just hearing of a location.
What is it like? It is a very beautiful mountainous island, though
very small. It is only 11 by 18 miles. The mountains, viewed from the
air, remind me of a backbone with ribs projecting toward the sea. The
highest point is Mt. Soufriere, the volcano, which towers to 4,048 feet.
This volcano had a history of erupting every 50 years, but its last activity
was in 1902. Barbados owes most of its topsoil to the ashes carried that
long distance by the wind. I was extremely happy, however, that Sou-
friere broke its record instead of its top in 1952, for I was too near for
comfort! Nearly 2000 lives were lost, as well as extensive property dam-
age, in the 1902 eruption. Large volcanic boulders are all over the island.
Hardened lava has left rippled rock-like formations in certain areas as
grim reminders of the past.
On the northeastern side of the island there is what is called Dry Riv-
er. This is the major path which the volcanic lava took. Vegetation re-
fuses to grow there. It is an area of black wasteland, which is recessed
like a river bed.
The mountain ribs spurring to the sea provide many valleys of rare
charm, each boasting a wealth of lush tropical foliage. Small streams,
called rivers, make their way through these valleys to the sea.
Panelist Two: With no missionaries of our denomination there be-
fore you, what did you do about a place in which to live?
Eubanks: Rev. L. L. Miller, then superintendent of the Barbados Dis-
trict," spied out the land" for us. We spent nine weeks in orientation on Bar-
bados, and during that time Brother Miller took a boat to St. Vincent.
He went to the Layou village, where lived a woman who had previously
lived in Trinidad. She had been a member of our Port-of-Spain church.
She acquainted him with that village and others near by. She volun-
teered to rent part of her house to us. It was not built of wattle (mud,
sticks, and thatch) as many of the houses are, but was what the Vincen-
tians (that is what the people of St. Vincent call themselves) term a wall
house. Forms are set up and concrete poured into them. The roof was
of corrugated iron and really made the music when the heavy rains beat
against it. The partitions did not reach to the ceiling. There were little
posts about one and one-half inches square which extended from the
partition to the ceiling. There were spaces about two or three inches be-
tween the bottom of the partitions and the floor, too. (We had to tie the
kitten to keep her out of all the house!) The purpose of this was to allow
ventilation, for the temperature is very hot. We were grateful for such a
When we first went down, there was no electricity and no running
water in the house. We had been there several months before water was
piped in. The pressure was low, at its best; and when people lined up at
the public water spigot to take water to their houses in the village, we
had none. To have to wait for 10 or 15 minutes for the water to begin
trickling wasn't fun! Electric lines were not run to the village until 1957.
We used kerosene lamps at the house, but pressure lanterns for the
church. They gave good light, and plenty of heat!
Panelist Three: What about the language? Being a British colony,
do they speak English?
Eubanks: Yes, the language is English; but it is a native English!
Many of their words have different meanings from ours; and I think this
is true in most, if not all, of the islands. Cookies are biscuits, pop is
create, better means well, an object is new brand rather than brand new.
When someone says that his hand is hurt, the injury may be anywhere
from his shoulder to the tip of his fingers. One's foot extends from his
hip to his toes. A garage is where the car sleeps."
The Vincentians speak in a rather high-pitched monotone. The
more excited a person is, the higher pitched becomes his voice, and the
faster his speech. Village quarrels are really something to hear!
When we first went down, I realized that not only did I have difficul-
ty understanding the Vincentians; but, also, they did not understand me
very well. I told them from the start that if we did not understand each
other, we should ask again, for we might say yes to the wrong thing some
time! It was necessary for me to do just that during a believers', or
testimony, meeting one night. Here is what happened.
One of the sisters in the Buccament village stood to testify. She
said, "I praise de Lawd dat since Jesus come into my heart, I don't rough
no more on Sunday."
"Just a minute, Sister," I said. "Since Jesus has come into your
heart you don't do what any more on Sunday?"
"Rough, Rev'rent, rough," said the woman.
Again I quizzed her, for I wondered if she meant that she didn't
fight any more.
A noteworthy characteristic of Vincentians is that they are always
ready to help one another, whether it be in the field, or when someone
gets "stuck" for want of a word while praying, or when the missionary
can't understand. Others joined her in trying to explain what she meant.
She then took a rag which she used for a handkerchief and began squash-
ing it between her hands. With this she said, "Rough, Rev'rent. You
know, go to the river and rough."
Then I knew. Since she had been converted she did not go to the
river on Sundays to do her washing.
Panelist Four: You spoke of this testimony meeting. That makes
me wonder just how you went about having services in a new village.
Would you tell us about that?
Eubanks: Since we lived in the Layou village, we began having
meetings there first. There was a public hall near the center of the vil-
lage, and we rented it to serve as a meeting place. We started in with a
revival, taking turns in preaching. We took along a folding organ, as
well as Miss Harbert's accordion and my guitar. It was not a problem
to get crowds, but rather what to do with the crowds which came. They
could not believe that people from America would come to their village
to live, so they had to come and see for themselves.
We had nothing to offer but salvation, for our benches were far from
comfortable. They were backless ones placed as close together as pos-
sible. The crowded conditions and the kerosene pressure lanterns added
to the already terrific tropical heat; but none of these seemed to discour-
age the people, or the missionaries. We preached as simply as we could
the message of Christ's deliverance from the bondage of sin. Before long,
some were bowing at the bench which served as an altar. It is encourag-
ing to know that some of those who were saved in that first revival meet-
ing are holding steady yet today.
Sunday school was begun in this village, too. Our hour was 9:30,
which was strange to the people; for the other churches there (the Angli-
can and English Methodists) had theirs at three in the afternoon. We
did this so as not to interfere with them.
From that beginning, we moved into other villages with open-air
meetings and Sunday schools under the mango trees. Buccament Bay
was the next village added to our list. There was no church at all in that
village, and had not been for more than a hundred years, so we were more
than welcome there. When the rainy season began, we had to seek shel-
ter in preference to discontinuing our weekly meetings, so we rented a
very small wooden house. It was built high from the ground, and the
space beneath it served as a meeting place, with the tiny rooms upstairs
being turned into Sunday school rooms. This did not prove too satisfac-
tory, so eventually we moved to the "basement" (as the space under
these houses is called) of another house. It was owned by the husband of
one of the women who had been saved at our meetings, though he, him-
self, had nothing to do with us.
One meeting led to another, and the people begged for "more of dis
sweet teaching." So we found ourselves dividing up, Sister Harbert tak-
ing the Layou work, and the Buccament work becoming mine; though we
did exchange pulpits occasionally to offer variety!
In the meantime, we had obtained a nice combined house and store
building in the Layou village for our services. Our auditorium was only
about 17 x 24 feet, but it was much better than the other public place. We
had to move our organ, pulpit, etc. nearly every week to make way for
some magician who had come from Trinidad for a show, a dance, or some-
thing while there. The upstairs of this store building, which had been in-
tended for living quarters, made nice Sunday school rooms, too. The
building was used for our meetings until the Layou church was erected in
April, 1955. It now serves as the living quarters for the national pastors,
who have been sent by the Barbados District and who are supported by
the missionary societies of Barbados. The man and his wife pastor both
the Layou and Buccament churches.
Panelist One: What did you do besides have these Sunday schools
and preach on Sunday nights?
Eubanks: We supervised the running of our house, did our laundry,
marketed once a week, and did calling in the villages, taking along a lit-
tle suitcase of medicines, such as aspirin, merthiolate, zinc oxide oint-
ment, alcohol, bandages, and band aids, for we never knew when we
would meet someone who needed some of our inexperienced medical help.
God helped us to bring relief to many, and folks' friendship was won
through this means. Thence, they became regular attendants at our
services and, in course of time, some were saved. We are grateful for this.
We had Sunday morning worship services, youth programs, Bible classes,
and special children's meetings. Converts' classes were held, and we had
classes for teaching reading and writing. Books had to be kept and cor-
respondence not let lag. We conducted funerals and weddings, bundled
the used clothing into packets for distribution, and sorted the used liter-
ature for use in our Sunday schools, which numbered four when I left the
field in December, 1953.
Panelist Three: What are converts' classes? I have heard several
missionaries mention them, but I never quite understood just what they
Eubanks: Converts' classes are like catechism classes. We teach
the new converts the cardinal doctrines of the Christian faith, such as
the meaning of salvation, sanctification, second coming, etc.; what is ex-
pected of Christians; and the rules of the Pilgrim Holiness Church. They
are taught what we believe, and why. If, after taking such a course,
which lasts no less than six weeks, one night a week, these converts still
desire membership in our church, they are quizzed by the church com-
mittee, equal to our church boards here. Their personal lives are delved
into in an effort to guard against any possible hidden sin being kept cov-
ered. Satisfactorily passing the converts' class and the questioning of the
committee makes a person eligible for baptism and fellowship in the
Panelist Two: Some people feel that missionary life is one of ease,
with servants to do all of the work. Would you please give your opinion
along this line?
Eubanks: I suppose missionary life can become what one wishes to
make it, though I cannot understand how anyone would be able to allow
himself to live at ease while so much sin, superstition, and spiritual ignor-
ance prevail around him, with people begging for the gospel, and with
Christless graves being filled every day.
It is true that many of our missionaries have nationals working for
them, but it is far from making it possible for the missionary to have an
extended holiday. In answer to one of the questions you asked me a
while ago, I told what we did besides teaching Sunday school classes and
preaching at night. At first, we tried doing all of our own cooking and
housework. But to spend hours a day doing that when we could get help
for such a reasonable rate did not seem wise. So, we hired a girl to help
us, thus giving us more time to be out among the people, repairing lan-
terns, or what have you. We found this girl's salary well worth the extra
work we were able to do for the souls around us.
Panelist Four: Did this girl know how to take over the running of
your house from the start?
Eubanks: I am afraid not. She lived in an entirely different "ar-
rangement" from ours. Her food was cooked in a pot on a coal pot,
which is a round, iron bowl-like affair having a neck like a goblet, into
which the ashes fall from the grate above. Her dishes never were washed
in hot water, but rather rinsed out with a splash of cold water. It seemed
unnecessary to her for us to use several pans for cooking food, when all
could be placed in one pot and cooked at one time. But the hardest
thing we had to teach was the making of a bed.
Many of the Vincentians had no beds except some rags on the floor
of their little houses. Others had some poles from the wall forming a bed-
stead, boards acting as springs, and rags thrown across them serving as
mattresses. Sheets were few, and bedspreads were not found among the
general run of the peasantry.
We showed the girl, step by step, how to make our bed. She said
she understood; but the next morning we went into the bedroom to find
all of our bedclothes hanging out the windows! (There are no screens
there, for they keep out too much air, and the salty atmosphere causes
them to rot.) "But that is the way we does it," she explained. We kept
trying, day after day, assuring her that we did not think it was necessary
for ours to be done that way. And the bedspread, that unnecessary evil,
never could seem to find its way back on the bed straight.
However, after quite some time of patient instruction, our bed was
made properly; our dishes were washed in warm water (it took a while
to convince her that we were not trying to scald her hands), and were well
rinsed, dried, and neatly placed in the "larder," as the small china cabin-
ets are called there; and little by little, American type food was prepared.
It was not easy to teach all of this, but we enjoyed every bit of it. Even
our moments of exasperation proved good for us!
We changed girls a few times. But when I left in 1953, our girl
could go to market, prepare the foods which we liked the way we liked
them, and serve the table, without our having to plan each meal and su-
pervise its preparation. When we were unusually busy, we did not even
know what we were going to have until we sat down at the table. Such
wonderful helpers are greatly appreciated when every minute counts for
souls' eternal welfare.
Panelist Two: Food in foreign lands is something that I have won-
dered about. Please tell us about some which differ from ours, whether
you liked it, and that sort of thing.
Eubanks: In St. Vincent there were some foods just like we have
here. There were tomatoes, string beans (though more strings than
beans!), bananas, oranges, and grapefruit. However, we were soon being
introduced to items native to the island. One day I saw a lady coming
around the house with a basket from which were protruding what ap-
peared to be stiff striped snakes! My visitor told me that she had brought
some chicherah (chi'cher-ah) for us. Upon examination, I found that in-
stead of snakes I was being given a vegetable (pronounced veg'e-tabble).
When cut and boiled, this food is slick, like okra. This I did not like.
Another joke on me was when I thanked a boy very profusely for the
lovely big bananas, only to have him laugh heartily and reply, "But Sis-
tah, dey isn't bananas; dey is maughfaughbaugh (pronounced maw' fah-
bay)!" They looked like bananas to me, though. I learned to enjoy
them fried. They have somewhat of a sweet taste.
"The Lord makes things grow here which you need when you live
here," I was told by one sweet old lady. "What you need when you live
in America grows there; but now that you are here, you must learn to eat
what we eat," she said. "You are one of us now."
That seemed good logic; but I was made to question its truth when
I was called to the door very early one morning. There by the steps I saw
a woman with a bucket on her head. "I did bring something to give
you," said the woman. I inquired as to what she had, and she told
me, "I did bring some tre-tres to give you." My question as to what tre-
tres were brought this reply.
"You ain't know what is tre-tres? Look, I gon show you." Down
from its perch on her head came the bucket, off came the rag which served
as a lid, and I looked at what appeared to be about a half gallon of mag-
gots! "You gon love dem; too sweet, mum!" exclaimed my visitor. But
I had different opinions!
"How do you use them?" I inquired. Thinking it was wonderful to
be able to t(,ll us snomncthiiig lbotitt Vicentiaii delicacies, the woman pro-
ceeded with ardent gesticulations.
"You does put salt and poppah and flowah (flour) in it,; and if you
does have egg, you does put egg in it, and ."
"Wait," I interrupted, "how do you clean them?" For I could ima-
gine myself setting about,, with razor-blade precision, to clean the niinia-
ture objects, which turned out to be fish rather than maggots!
"' ut you doesn't clean dem, you know!" And my friend stifled a
laugh because of the new missionary's extreme ignorance of Vincentian
methods. I gulped and continued to listen to the recipe.
"You does mix ldem all up toget hah and make cake in your hands.
You pat it out flat, flat, flat, and then you does put it, in the pan."
Again I interrupted. But how do you kill them?"
"Oh, Sistah," replied the amused Vincentian, "you doesn't kill dem.
You just mix it all togethah, make the cake, put it in de hot pan, and de
hot grease does kill dem! You gon love dem, Sistah. They sweet!"
I had my doubts. But I had learned not to refuse a gift. So, as
kindly as possible, I thanked the lady for her thoughtfulness (however, I
did ask her to repeat the recipe, just in case I had missed some step!), and
took the rare gift into the house. If we don't like them, I thought, the
cook will like them, anyway.
We went about our work of calling. That day took us high into the
jungle area above the Layou village. We were as hungry as could be,
when we returned to the mission home for lunch. As we walked into the
dining room, there in the center of the table was a large platter filled
with tre-tre cakes. They looked like salmon patties from a distance. But
one cannot stay at a distance and eat lunch, so we sat down at the table.
I do not remember another thing we had that day, for some strange
reason. After we had prayed, I passed the dish to Sister Harbert, prac-
ticing my religion which teaches "In honor preferring one another," and
let her try first. Then it was my turn. I took a cake on my plate; and
the more I looked at it, the more eyes I saw. I got to thinking-suppose
the grease was too hot and the cakes browned quickly on the outside be-
fore the inside was done! Sister Harbert took a bite of hers, but I cannot
prove that she swallowed it; for I was having too great a battle with my
stomach to pay much attention to her.
That is an amusing little incident; but it represented great sacrifice
on the part of the person who brought the tre-tres to us. She had awak-
ened very early that morning, had gone far up the valley, and had seined
the first catch of the whole season, bringing her catch as a love gift to the
missionary. There were enough to feed her entire family, but she pre-
ferred to bring them to us. This kindness we deeply appreciated.
Panelist Four: Back to the spiritual side again, what was the size
of your Sunday schools?
Eubanks: Our first Sunday school session at Layou had some 50 in
attendance, while there were near the same number at Buccament Bay.
However, in reading over some of the records, I found that we promoted a
contest between the two main Sunday schools, beginning in July, 1951.
The first Sunday showed 192 present at Layou and 272 at Buccament. On
March 8, 1952, the records showed 323 at Buccament, 237 at Layou, 170
at Camden Park, and 148 at Questelles (Key-tells'). Our record attend-
ance for the entire field during our term was 331 at Buccament Bay.
Camden Park and Questelles are outstation Sunday schools.
We worked for perfect attendance, as well as for numbers. One year
we gave 105 awards for annual perfect attendance. These people walked
for miles, over blistering pathways and stony roads as well as through
torrential tropical downpours, that they might receive a Bible at the end
of the year.
Panelist One: Of all of the conversions, is any more outstanding to
you than the others?
Eubanks: Every conversion is wonderful, no matter who or where,
and I could cite several which would prove extremely interesting. There
was Mr. Reed, who was saved through the gift of a used necktie; Mrs.
Baker, who was past 70 and on what everyone thought to be her death-
bed, and whom the Lord raised up, that she "might have one chance to
know this real salvation," as she testified later; and then the case of Edna
and Louie. I think I shall tell you about the last one.
I was preaching to a packed house at the Layou mission one Sunday
night. To my right, I noticed a very light-skinned woman whom I had
not seen at our meetings before. A large altar service followed, and I did
not think much about her until the next morning, when a call came at our
back door. There stood the woman, just as she had appeared the night
before, the same sad look on her face.
"I did at the meeting last night," she said. I told her that I saw her
there and was glad that she had come. She proceeded, "You said that
Jesus could take away the load of sin. Do you really mean that?" I
assured her that it was true. "But you don't know how bad I've been,"
she went on. "I does all kind of bad tings. I has plenty children for dif-
ferent men. Can Jesus really save me?" The words, "Though your sins
be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crim-
son, they shall be as wool," were quoted to her, and she was invited into
"Tell Jesus all the bad things which you have done," we instructed
the seeker. "Tell him that you have lied and stolen, and everything else
that you can think of that was wrong. Don't keep back anything; for if
you do, Jesus can't forgive you. The Scripture says, 'If we confess our
sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from
all unrighteousness.' "
A time of sincere praying and confessing followed. Then, suddenly,
the woman stopped praying. She lifted her head and was smiling.
"Has Jesus saved you?" we asked.
"When I come, my heart does feel heavy, heavy," she replied. "Now
I does feel light like feather, that I can fly away."
From that testimony, and the witness of the Spirit to our hearts as
well, we felt confident that the work had been done. But the story does
not end there. It concludes like this.
The next day another call came at the door, and there was our friend,
though this time she was accompanied by a tall, robust man who was just
opposite to her in color. He was timid, and kept his head down.
"This is Louie," she said. "Can Jesus save him, too?"
We assured her that there was no sin too great for Christ's blood to
When I goes home yesterday, I tells Louie that Jesus done save me
down by the ladies' house. lie must let Jesus come in his heart, too, or
he must get out of my house! So Louie done come for Jesus to save he,
We again went into the study. All of us knelt, but Edna took over
the situation. She began telling Louie the very same things which we
had told her the day before. "Pray, man, pray," she said. "You must
not keep back even one little, little sin; 'cause if you do, then Jesus ain't
gon forgive you." She had had one lesson in personal evangelism, she
being the object, anld had heard one full gospel message. Now she had
brought another to Christ and was helping him to get saved.
After a time of weeping and praying, Louie's head was raised and a
big smile wreathed his dark face. He, too, gave definite testimony to
deliverance from sin.
Although they were living together without being married, as many,
many West Indians do, they knew that it was wrong. Plans were made
for their marriage. But, in the course of time, several complications
arose. Louie felt that he would have to change the date because they
had not earned sufficient money by working in the forest, cutting lumber,
and in the cotton fields to buy new clothing for both.
"We does have the tings for Edna, but tings are hard with us. Me
ain't got neither shoes yet, and dey does be dear in the shops. So we
must change the date," advised the young convert.
With shoes costing from $12 to $17 a pair, I knew that it would take
them a long, long time to earn that much money, making only about 72c
a day, each. Then I made a proposition to him. "Louie," I said, "Did
Jesus save you?" "Yes, Sistah," he replied. "Well, if he could save you
in the first place, don't you think he is big enough to help us now, if we
will pray?" He hadn't thought of anything but working hard from sunup
to sundown to earn his money. "Let's try praying about it," I urged,
"before we change the date." He agreed.
God often hears prayers before the words are put into audible tones,
and has the answer on the way before we are aware of it. Such was the
case this time; for only about two weeks later some packages were re-
ceived from the States. Upon opening one I found at the top some men's
clothing. There was a suit, shirt, bright red tie, and even a pair of shoes.
(The shoes were about the largest I'd ever seen, and they needed to be, to
fit him. Everyone in the islands cannot afford shoes, and some die hav-
ing never owned a pair. Thus their feet grow very large.)
We sent for Louie and Edna. When they arrived, we sent Louie into
another room to try on his clothes, for we felt confident that they would
fit. When he came out, he looked as though someone had had his meas-
urements and knew that he needed a wedding suit, even though the pants
and coat did not exactly match. What a time of rejoicing we had; for
God had not only saved them, but he had answered their prayers and
now they could get out of sin.
As week was added to week, Louie and Edna became ardent Sunday
school promoters. Each Sunday there would be a string of little villagers
following them down the trail from the mountain village to the mission
Panelist Three: As the last question, I would like to know who re-
placed you when you returned to the States, and if you have had any
recent news from there?
Eubanks: In October, 1953, the Dean Wade family from Kansas
arrived. Miss Harbert had had to return to the States for medical atten-
tion in March, 1953, so the Wades were more than welcome. They had
two little girls and a darling baby boy just four months old when they
arrived. Another boy and girl have been added to their number since
they went to St. Vincent.
As to recent news, I received a letter saying that our third church on
the island is under construction, that in the village of Camden Park.
The villagers were donating their labor during the dry season and work
was going well.
The Wades are at home now, having been replaced by the M. L.
Peterson family, who served one term as superintendent on the island of
Barbados. Pray much for these workers and the very needy field of St.
CU RACAO)-T 11l DES 1EIT ISLAND
I. Opening prayer
II. Congregational singing of missionary songs
III. Poem from the back of this book
IV. Leading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary
corrections and approval
V. Special song
VII. l)evotional period. Six persons should be prepared to speak on
the following Scripture verses. A blackboard should be displayed,
and the word GOSPEL printed vertically at the left side. As
each speaker begins discussing his portion, he should write the
remainder of his verse beside the initial letter.
A. Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel, Mark 16:15.
Here is given the command which indebts us to humanity. It
is all-inclusive, for the ye here is the same as that when Christ
said, "Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden."
The object of all Christian labor should be that of spreading
the gospel, the life-giving potion for perishing souls.
B. One soweth, and another reapeth, John 4:37. The task of
sowing is equally as important as that of reaping, though the
reaping seems to present more of a sense of satisfaction. How-
ever, no reaping could be possible without the laborious task of
sowing. Our tasks may seem insignificant, but they are essen-
tial, that the missionaries on the fields might reap. Also,
while they reap, they also sow gospel seed which some other
missionary will visualize as harvested grain.
C. Send portions unto them for who nothing is prepared, Nehe-
miah 8:10. We have enjoyed the bountiful blessings of God
for many years. We owe the advancement of our nation to
the fact that it was founded upon Christian principles. Yet,
in our world and in our generation there is only about one
third of the population who have heard of Jesus Christ. Noth-
ing has been prepared for their spiritual hunger, while others
enjoy an abundance. While some are called to go, others are
just as definitely called to send. This includes money, cloth-
ing, literature, Bibles, medicine, and many kinds of equipment.
D. Prepare ye the way of the Lord, Matthew 3:3. Human beings
are the co-workers of the Lord. One's human understanding
must be enlightened before spiritual truths can make impres-
sions. Missionaries win people to themselves and then to the
Lord, for a confidence in leadership is necessary.
E. Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish, Luke 13:3. Re-
pentance follows a consciousness of sin, and it is a prerequisite
to forgiveness and salvation. God has one plan of salvation,
one highway to heaven, and all must go that way or be dis-
appointed at the end of the journey. Color, creed, or tongue
does not lessen the import of this declaration. All literally
F. Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields, John 4:35. The eyes
of one's spirit can see beyond the physical limitations and
view continents and islands containing millions of unevange-
lized souls. They can see them as men of Macedonia beckon-
ing for help from those who are most capable and able to of-
fer that which they desperately need. A look at the fields will
give birth to a burden and a desire to help remedy the situa-
tion which exists.
VIII. Field study
CURACAO-THE DESERT ISLAND
On a table at the front of your meeting room have a large but very shallow
cardboard box filled with sand. In the center of the miniature sand pile place
a can of motor oil. Have some small cacti and thorn bushes "growing" from
the sand. Display a map of the West Indies. Pin or scotch tape a large
paper or cardboard arrow on the map, letting it point to Curacao. The name
of the island might be printed on the arrow. The lesson could be presented by
one speaker, who can make reports seem alive, or else divided into sections,
with various speakers.
The Town of Willemstad
Whether one has plenty of time on hands and makes a cruiser voyage
of several weeks, or whether traveling by air, the arrival on Curacao
(pronounced Cure'ah-so) offers pleasant experiences and unexpected sur-
prises. Visitors by plane are thrilled at the view of the fantastic illumina-
tion of Curacao's main source of prosperity, the busy plants of the Cura-
cao Petroleum Industry Company, and the beautiful ultra-modern air
terminal, Hato Airfield.
The spectacle awaiting the visitor by sea is that of the pontoon
bridge, Emma Bridge, which spans the St. Anna Bay entrance. Jumping
from wave to wave, bustling little motorboats bring pilots out to meet
incoming vessels. When a green ball is hoisted on the mast of the harbor
office, high on top of the mountain beyond the town, ships turn toward
the flag of Fort Amsterdam. Then a shrill siren sounds above the noise
of the busy street. In a matter of minutes, all vehicles have cleared the
bridge and floating Emma swings open, breaking the link between the
two parts of the town of Willemstad, Punda (the Point) and Otrabanda
(the Other Side). As vessels steam past, the Netherlands flag atop the
fort is dipped in salute. Thus, passengers find themselves still aboard the
ship, yet in the middle of downtown Willemstad.
Above the offices, warehouses, and store buildings, which are bright-
ly painted in much pink, blue, brown, and white and preserving their own
style buildings with the well-known Dutch architecture, hundreds of
flags and pennants ripple from countless masts of schooners and barks
which have berthed along the waterfront to unload their cargoes of fruit
and vegetables. Long queues of cars and trucks wait for the bridge to
swing back, while swarms of shoppers, some balancing their purchases on
their heads with remarkable grace and skill, wend their way over the nar-
The throbbing of many small craft engines, the thunder of rolling
anchor chains, the icre.fching of winding winches, and the groaning of
giant cranes add their bit to the harbor symphony. So, visitors to this
fourth busiest port of the world find themselves enthralled by it all.
A point of keen interest is that, although millions of barrels of oil are
shipped from Curacao to all parts of the world, not a single drop of it is
won from the soil of that island! Crude oil is imported from abroad and
is manufactured into many finished products. These are the life line of
Curacao, and no one seems to mind the slow smears of soot and smoke
which drift from the many towering stacks. They are the proud banners
of Curacaolean prosperity!
Now let's take a quick look around Punda. In the Governor's Pal-
ace, adjoining old Fort Amsterdam, a sentry guards the entrance gate to
historical Fort Square. Passing through a narrow alley between the
Government Secretariat and the Post Office buildings, we come out on
Wilhelmina Square, where the statue of Her Majesty Queen Wilhelmina
stands in the middle of a well-kept piece of greenery. Looking down the
long rows of parked cars, which barely leave space for the buses of the
town and Kunuku (country) services, one sees the Raadhuis, or town
hall, assembly halls, and police headquarters. Schools, warehouses,
shops, office buildings, and a church flank the town hall. And beyond
these one funnels his way amid the dense traffic into the Pietermaai Boule-
vard, which is lined with stately old Curacao mansions, many of which
now serve as Government Department and Public Service offices. They
are quite a contrast to the ultramodern white building of the Department
of Education, which is usually called the Cultural Center.
Those interested in the picturesqueness of old houses with shaded
patios would be thrilled at a view of those in Scharloo, one of the fashion-
able residential districts. Stately stairways lead up from immaculate
gardens to richly ornamented shade facades of the villas. It is beautiful
Some of the streets present a miniature view of the Netherlands as
pictured in books of days gone by. Entire blocks have solid fronts, as
house joins to house from one corner to the next. These are built so that
one may step from his front step right onto the sidewalk.
In a word, one could say that to traverse the streets of Willemstad
gives a thrill which might be compared to a walk through a storybook
The Oil Center on the Isla
We have already seen that the whole life of Curacao, either directly
or indirectly, is very closely linked to the oil industry. This has been true
since, toward the end of 1914, oil magnates recognized the value of quiet
Curacao's magnificent natural harbors in relation to their business. Day
and night, around the calendar, tankers come in to be relieved of their
cargo of crude oil from the seeming inexhaustible fields of Venezuela.
Within a few hours, the enormous pipelines have drunk up their loads,
and the ships vacate their berths to make room for others riding at anchor
in the bay awaiting their turn.
From the shore tanks, the oil starts on its long journey through many
stages of refining and processing. It will eventually find its way again
into the holds of ocean tankers, but in the form of gasoline, kerosene, gas
oil, fuel oil, lubricating oil, asphalt, or some other of the many by-prod-
ucts of the industry, that the wheels of modern machinery might keep
turning in various parts of the world.
Should one be privileged to make a tour through the refineries, many
interesting things would be brought to his attention in the process of
changing crude oil into usable products. He would learn that the crude
oil is pumped from the shore tanks through a complicated system of pipes
towards certain plants, the distillation towers, where it is heated to be-
come a mixture of liquid and vapors which, by very careful maintenance
of temperature, are separated into different products. The residue left
behind in condensers is distilled again into various lubricating oils by
more heating in vacuum cylinders. The remainder from that process is
liquid asphalt, some of which is exported, and some used as fuel within
the refineries themselves.
By superheating in a special process, the fuel oil can be made into
petrol, or gasoline. Further refining grades the liquid into further near-
ideal high octane aviation fuel, of which Curacao supplied about half of
what was needed by the Allied Air Forces during World War II.
It is interesting to know that the fantastically high pressures and
temperatures in these processes are all automatically regulated and re-
After sunset, every part of the vast installation is electrically lighted,
and presents from a distant view a piece of breathtaking beauty, appear-
ing as a sparkling fairyland.
Housing estates have been erected to care for the hundreds of em-
ployees necessary to keep such a thriving industry alive. However, not
nearly all of the workers live in these places, for in the early morning and
late afternoon, the countryside is buzzing with buses, cars, and bicycles
as workmen make their way to and from their jobs.
Into the Kunuku
Although Curacao is not too richly blessed with beautiful scenery,
there is much to see on the 40 by 3- to 9-mile strip of land. The Kunuku,
the name of the bare and barren, uncultivated, and for the most part un-
cultivable, land which stretches from the suburbs of Willemstad to the
sea, provides many points of interest. Scientists think that Curacao is
something like a slightly oblique mushroom-like plateau in the Caribbean
Sea which, at many places, reaches a depth of up to 20,000 feet. The
whole island is made up of very old volcanic stratified rock. In the
course of time, and during many geological and climatic changes, lime-
stone deposits grew on top of this, particularly along the coast. Only
here and there in the valleys, where the rainwater stagnates a little long-
er, could a layer of humus be formed and did trees and plants have a
chance to develop. But the rest of the Kunuku is rocky, dry soil where
both man and beast can find hardly anything to eat or drink. This makes
it clear why there is no vegetation of any significance on Curacao and
foodstuffs must be imported.
With conditions prevailing as they are, the countryside is dotted
with many varieties of the cactus plant and the gnarled, thorny, and often
twisted trunks of the divi-divi, pronounced doevy-deevy, or fantree. The
tops of these trees look frayed and untidy like worn-off brooms. They
all bend toward the southwest under the pressure of the never-relenting
northeastern trade wind.
There are countless hordes of wild goats and many wild donkeys in
the area. The goats are dreaded by all who have managed, by ingenuity
and incessant work, to get some sort of greenery to grow. There are also
some wild rabbits, parakeets, multicolored hummingbirds, and several
kinds of pigeons in Curacao. In the caves along the coast there are mass-
es of bats and quickfooted lizards. The most amazing reptile, however,
is the iguana, a lizard-like animal which sometimes grows to the size of a
dog. This creature is considered a delicacy in many Curacao kitchens.
Young people often set out at the crack of dawn with ropes to snare one
of them for a delicious soup or roast for dinner!
The sea around the island abounds with many kinds of edible fish,
turtles, shrimp, and lobster, and provides aids to both livelihood and
Most of the dwellings of the country people are very simple and
primitive. As a general rule, it appears that little attention is paid to the
outside appearance of the dwellings and that building materials have
been chosen at random from whatever happened to be handy. Roofs are
made from limestone, clay, palm leaves, or flattened gasoline cans. Hedges
of cactus surround the separate yards and also serve as clotheslines. It
is amusing to see, parked alongside such homes, one of the latest American
automobiles, and inside, such luxuries as a very expensive radio and
sparkling white refrigerator. Rain is almost unknown there, so the peo-
ple worry little about the exterior of their houses.
Pilgrims In Curacao
With such a mixture of the past and the present, what part does the
Pilgrim Holiness Church play? Such a question would naturally arise in
the minds of interested persons. It began like this.
Many men and women from over the Caribbean area have migrated
to Curacao because of the offer of work, both as laborers in connection
with the refinery and as servants, etc., in the homes of the wealthy busi-
nessmen of Willemstad. Among those finding their way to the island
have been some of our Pilgrims from other islands. Finding no place of
worship to compare with their beloved churches "back home," these
Christians began meeting in the home of a Barbadian man for services.
This led to Sunday school for the children. Converts were gained, and
the attendance continued to grow, thus necessitating a church building.
Rev. L. L. Miller, then Caribbean Field Superintendent, went to Curacao
in 1952, and in December of that year he completed a beautiful building
for them. Then, on September 28, 1953, the first missionary of the Pil-
grim Holiness Church arrived on the island to relieve the national layman
who had served as pastor in addition to his regular job at the refinery.
Rev. E. K. Purcell wrote of their arrival on the island as follows:
Taking Up Work on a New Field
As the special plane motors began to race, we looked for the last time
at our friends who had accompanied us to the airport in Surinam. (The
Purcells were transferred from Surinam to Curacao.) There was a slight
moment of quiet, then again a racing of motors, and we were off. We
sped across the field and were soon air borne. The day was beautiful,
and we thanked God as we soared a circling course about the airport.
Like a honey bee as she leaves her hive to gather honey, we turned and
made a straight line for the northwest and for Curacao.
We watched our beloved Surinam, where we had spent almost two
years for God and for the people, as the plane soared over her jungles and
swamps and skirted her shore line. We watched her rivers unfold, like a
spool of murky thread running through a bolt of bright green cloth.
As we sailed on, we passed the great Orinoco River and her some six
hundred mouths, all emptying into the Caribbean from the heart of Vene-
zuela-another of the marvels of God's wonderful nature.
Soon darkness began to enfold us, and it was as though we were being
carried to our destination by the flick of an unseen magical hand; for it
seemed only a few minutes until the steward came and told us that if we
wanted to see a beautiful sight, we should watch for the lights of the oil
city of Willemstad. Only a moment proved him right. We circled low
over the Shell Oil Company oil refineries and city lights; and never has
man been able to produce a more beautiful sight than Willemstad pre-
sents from the air at night. Hundreds of refinery fires, burning bright
red against the black sky, and millions of factory lights, form a view of
Only a few minutes more, and we were circling the great Hato field,
coming in for a perfect landing, to meet new friends and find a new home.
As we alighted from the plane and were directed into the fine, large
air depot, we saw, waiting on the other side of the customs room, a-
bout 20 people whom we recognized immediately as Pilgrims. These
people had been praying and begging for a missionary for a long time.
Now they were seeing their missionary at last, and they were happy.
Their missionary had for some months been in the process of packing,
meeting schedules, making out papers, and going through all sorts of red
tape, and he also was happy at last to see the people with whom he would
be working for some time.
After the preliminary customs and immigration inspection, we met
our new friends and soon were off to our new home, which was being rent-
ed until we could own one.
The people had been very thoughtful. Upon our arrival we did not
find, as we had expected, an empty house. Each one had loaned a piece
of furniture, or some pots and pans, or some dishes; and some had bought
a few groceries. So when we arrived we found a livable and spotlessly
clean house in which to live until we would be able to get settled. Our
new friends did not stop there, but insisted upon cooking our meal and
cleaning up all the dishes after we ate. Finally, after a good time of pray-
er together, they departed; and we retired to our beds, very worn, but
Upon awaking the next morning, we had our first reminder that one
never leaves the gate open in Curacao. We looked out and saw not one
but seven goats under our bedroom window, scavenging for food. Since
there is no vegetation grown here, they must live on paper, cactus (which
grows in abundance), and anything else they can get. Our next sight was
soon to become commonplace-a water vendor, with his little donkey and
water cart, selling water at one cent for a half gallon, ten cents for five
gallons. Curacao is a desert island, and there is nothing to keep the peo-
ple here except the great oil company, which employs thousands of people.
On Tuesday night, after our arrival on Monday, a welcome service
was held for us. I have no way of knowing how many people were pres-
ent, but there was a capacity crowd inside and dozens outside looking in
at every available window and door. We had a great time in the Lord;
and such singing I never before had heard.
We soon set about to obtain furniture. By buying some second-hand
furniture and some new, and by making some, we were able to furnish
the new district home.
We felt the need of a revival soon after our coming, and conducted a
two-weeks' meeting. There were seekers every night, and the last Sun-
day night produced a church full of hungry hearts. I preached a simple
message on the subject, "Set thine house in order." Before we started to
sing, folk began running to the altar from all over the building. Soon
there was no room at the altar, or at the front row of seats, or the second.
After praying with those who had knelt, we gave the second altar call,
and again saw the altar filled. Counting as best we could, we were able
to see 78 souls seeking God in that one service.
Papiamento, which is of Spanish origin, is the language of the popu-
lace. Dutch is the official language, but it is not spoken so much. We
have been taking Papiamento lessons, and are beginning to speak the
language some. We had learned, fairly well, the Taki-Taki language of
Surinam, and had partially learned the Dutch; and now we must con-
tinue with the Dutch, and also learn the Papiamento. Sometimes we
have our family worship in four languages. Confusing at first, yes, but
needful. The other day I went to buy some food from the vendors sitting
along the street, and at the boat market (a special spot where produce,
fish, etc. is sold from the boats). Before I had purchased all we needed,
I had spoken all four of the languages, trying to get my ideas across to
the food vendors.
All food is shipped in here, either from the U. S. A., on ice, or from
Venezuela by sailboat. The wares are sold over the bows of the boats at
terrifically high prices. Food prices run as follows: eggs, over 10 cents
each; oranges, over 10 cents each; milk, when one can get it fresh, over
40 American cents per quart. Fresh vegetables are just out of the ques-
tion for the missionary.
We have services almost every day. On Sunday there is Sunday
school in the morning, and regular Sunday morning worship. On Sunday
afternoon we have Papiamento Sunday school, and sometimes open-air
services. Then there is evangelistic service on Sunday night. On Mon-
day night is prayer service; Tuesday night, two cottage services; Wednes-
day night, youth service; Thursday night, open-air service; Friday night,
service at a preaching point; and Saturday afternoon, Sunday school, and
sometimes preaching as well, at an outstation. Then on Sunday we start
all over again. So you can pray for Curacao any day, knowing that we
are having services.
Curacao is not heathen, as some fields are; but the people are as
needy and much more hungry than those of any other field we have had
the privilege of being on. Pray that there might be a great ingathering
of souls on Curacao.
In 1954, Mrs. Purcell wrote very interestingly concerning the work,
and we give part of her article as follows:
"The work of the Pilgrim Holiness Church on Curacao has gone for-
ward in spite of various great obstacles. The last of the cement blocks
were laid last week for the district parsonage, marking the end of a
strenuous and hard task for Mr. Purcell, who did the majority of the la-
bor alone. Further work is proceeding, and there is the prospect of our
moving into the mission home before long.
"There was a great crowd at the opening of the new church at Mon-
tagne. The total attendance was 156. The church was organized in the
face of great difficulties, even to the last moment. It had been planned
to open here for some time; but it seemed to take long before every diffi-
culty could be righted for the opening. After the little woven-brush,
cow-dung plastered building had been rented, it was a matter of some five
months before it could be claimed for use. Then it took some hundred
guilders of repairs to be made on it before it could be used as a church.
It seemed that Satan and his forces fought at every move of this project.
At times, the move ahead was made on bare faith.
"The Pilgrims were stoned at an open-air service lately, and it is to be
expected that there will be a certain amount of stones thrown at the new
church. But the Pilgrims have no fear, for their God is greater than
Satan. People are darkened by their false religion, and Satan is stirred
when they are enlightened.
"One night, in a Papiamento service, after two anointed testimonies
and no preaching, Mr. Purcell felt led to give an altar call. He wondered
at several young men getting up and leaving the service. The building
never has held more than half the crowds; so he did not see what was
happening when the young men began to question some of the English
Pilgrims. They said, 'The Reverend asked us to come to Jesus, and he
said that today is the day of salvation. But we do not know what we are
supposed to do to get Jesus.' After explaining the best they knew how,
the Pilgrims led these young men back into the church and right up to
the altar-all eight of them. It thrilled the hearts of the people to kneel
and help these boys find the Jesus whom they sought."
Curacao now has two organized churches, with a membership of 83,
and three preaching points with Sunday schools. The Purcells are home
on furlough, being replaced by the Paul Downeys, who went directly to
the island from their pastorate in Ohio. These new workers, with their
three small children, need your prayers. Be sure to remember them and
the work on Curacao, for the prospects are bright in this part of the great
vineyard of souls.
TRINII)AD) ISIANI)D OFI T'IIE l'ITINITY
I. Co( ogregational singing of missionary songs
III. Missio(airy choruses from the bIack of this book
IV. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary
V. Special song
VI. Devotional period
THE GREAT COMMISSION
Responsibility, the sense of a task, often motivates missions. A
more impelling force may be discovered in privilege, as declared in the
Great Commission (Matthew 28:18-20).
I. Jesus' commission rests on the greatest possible compulsion. "All
authority is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go." Only the
Biblical conception of the Lord Jesus can validate this claim and com-
mand. If Christ is not what he claimed to be, let us stay at home; for
then other religions are good enough. But if he is incarnate God, sinless
humanity, ministering example, authoritative teacher, dying redeemer,
rising Saviour, and heavenly king, let us make haste to go; for then there
is no other name given whereby men may be saved.
II. His commission opens up the greatest possible field of endeavor.
"Teach all nations." All nations! No tribe, people, or nation omitted.
Yet today nearly a thousand tribes do not have the gospel in their native
tongues. Why should some hear the gospel again and again before all
have heard it once? There is no excuse for failure in this work; for modern
means of travel, communication, language study, and equipment facili-
tate the undertaking. Africa, Palestine, West Indies, South America,
Philippines, and all the other fields are calling, "Come over .. and help
III. The commission defines the greatest possible task. "Teaching
.. baptizing ... discipline." What are we to teach? That which the
Lord Jesus committed to the apostles and which is found in the New Tes-
tament-repentance toward God, faith toward Jesus Christ, and recep-
tion of the Holy Ghost-all centered in the cross of Calvary, where God
reconciled sinful men.
How baptize? In the name of the Triune God-Father, Son, and
Holy Ghost. All lesser theologies invalidate our missionary effort.
Why disciple men? Men must teach them what Jesus taught. This
means a new morality, social outlook, and international responsibility-
the crux of a changed world.
IV. The commission declares the greatest possible assurance of suc-
cess. "I am with you always What more could one ask? In sickness of
tropical fever, under burden of heavy tasks, in loneliness of desert islands,
or in any conceivable condition, Christ is with us.
VII. Field study
TRINIDAD-ISLAND OF THE TRINITY
This lesson might be presented in dialogue fashion. For its presenta-
tion you will need 5 speakers. This type of program necessitates a good deal
of preparation and practice, but it proves quite interesting and informative.
Your characters are: a returned missionary; a family, including father,
mother, college-age son, and teen-age daughter. The presentation should be
quite casual, and given as from the sitting room of a modest home.
Father: It is a real privilege to have you with us today. We have
read much of your work on the island of Trinidad, and we have been
looking forward to talking with you about the island and your experiences
Missionary: Thank you. It is very kind of you to invite me here.
Everyone treats me, and my family, as though they might have known
us for many years. We appreciate that more than we can say. I will be
glad to tell you all that I can about my field, but I don't promise to be
able to answer everything.
Mother: I have heard that there are many different nationalities of
people in Trinidad, and that each seemed to bring a different religion.
How many different nationalities are there?
Missionary: Well, it would be hard to say exactly, but there are
many black and colored (mixed blood) of African descent, families of
English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese extraction, and many Chinese.
About one-third of the populace is of East Indian origin, being immigrants
from Calcutta, and their descendants. The total population in 1956 was
reported as 743,000, but this number included those on the adjoining pro-
tectorate island of Tobago.
Religiously speaking, most of the Trinidadians are Roman Cath-
olics. However, the majority of the East Indians (persons from, or de-
scendants of those from, India) are either Hindus or Mohammedans,
more properly called Moslems. There are a number of temples and
mosques of these groups over the island where religious rites and cere-
monies are performed. Obeahism, or witchcraft, is practiced to some ex-
tent. But to the evangelical missionary, almost every village represents
a very challenging opportunity for the gospel.
Daughter: When did we start missionary work there? Do we have
much of a work since there are all of these other religions?
Missionary: Our work was started on Trinidad in 1912 by Rev. J.
W. Coone. He, with his family, opened a work in the capital city of Port-
of-Spain in a mission. From this point, they began branching out into
the rural areas. A number of missionaries have come and gone, down
through the years, each adding his bit to the development of this district
of the work.
Maybe you would be interested to know that now, less than 50 years
later, we have 12 strong churches, the largest being the Belmont, which
has replaced the old Edward Street church, and that we have more than
400 members on the island. Consecrated, sacrificial national workers
have also added much to the advancement and establishment of our work
Son: Geography and history are both very interesting subjects to
me, and I would appreciate a little light on Trinidad from these angles.
Missionary: Trinidad is very interesting in that respect, too. Colum-
bus sighted the island oin July 31, 1498. As they teared the spot of land,
the weary mariners noted the three sister peaks of the southern mountain
range pointing their majestic heads from the mist. To Columbus, these
seemed a striking emblem of the Trinity, into whose care he had placed
himself at the beginning of his third voyage across the Atlantic. There-
fore, he called it La Trinidad, which is Spanish for The Trinity, and it
has borne that name ever since.
Adventuresome Spaniards followed Columbus to Trinidad, and their
reputation was far from admirable. They were men of the criminal class,
and wickedness seemed the theme of their lives. Their only objective
was to plunder and spoil, it seemed. They kidnapped many of the Indians
of the island, seized their homes, and otherwise wrought havoc over the
The actual colonization of Trinidad did not begin until 1530. In that
year, the royal treasurer of Puerto Rico obtained permission to colonize, f
and he was appointed governor and captain-general. He was disliked,
however, and died of poisoning administered by a native slave woman.
Then, in 1584, a rich and upright man went to Trinidad from New
Franada in search of the mythical land of gold, El Dorado. His plan was
to use Trinidad as a base for entering South America in pursuit of the
fabulous riches of El Dorado.
However, it was not until 1777 that much was accomplished on the
island. A Frenchman saw the great agricultural possibilities there, and
through his influence the population made a rapid climb.
Trinidad came under the British crown in 1797, and has remained so
to the present, though it is now a part of the West Indies Federation, an
organization combining the British West Indian islands into one state.
Now, to answer your inquiry about the geography. Trinidad is rec-
tangular in shape, and at each corner there is a peninsula. The west
coast is deeply indented by the Gulf of Paria. This is a large landlocked
basin, accessible by the Dragon's Mouth in the north and the Serpent's
Mouth in the south. The island is mountainous in the north and some-
what hilly in the center and south. There are three mountain ranges
stretching across Trinidad from east to west. The whole island is well
drained by numerous beautiful streams.
If you are interested in forests, you would revel in the great expanses
of tropical woodlands which abound in the largest forms of plant life.
Timbers, cabinet woods, gum-producing woods, and fuel woods are all to
be found there, as well as tall ferns, tree-like grasses, and towering bam-
Father: You mentioned a bit ago that the Frenchman recognized
the agricultural possibilities there. What are some of the things produced?
Missionary: Since the soil is varied and rather fertile, one finds
numerous rice paddies being cultivated by East Indians and Chinese, pri-
marily. However, the chief crops are sugar cane, cacao, and coconut.
Flowers grow in abundance, too.
Daughter: Quite some time ago, in one of our classes at school we
studied a little about the West Indies. I remember something about a
pitch lake being there. Tell us a little about that, please.
Missionary: Pitch Lake, which is about 51 miles from the capital
city, Port-of-Spain, is one of the wonders of the world. It covers 114
acres. The surface is hard enough and the pitch thick enough to support
the large trucks which are daily driven over it, even after they have been
filled with tons of asphalt which has been dug with picks from the ever-
abundant supply. Nothing and no one should remain stationary for a
long period of time, however. This lake reminds me of the grace of God;
for no matter how many tons of asphalt are taken from it daily, it has not
run out. The holes from which the pitch is dug fill back in three days,
and that so completely that one cannot tell where the holes have been.
The lake is said to be fed by underground springs. American scientists
have endeavored to determine the depth of the lake, but it is deeper than
their instruments could record. It is estimated that there are 6,000,000
tons of material in the lake.
Asphalt from Trinidad's Pitch Lake is shipped all over the world.
Possibly some of the streets which we traveled this evening were made
with some of it!
Son: What of the economic situation?
Missionary: Well, Trinidad is a land of extremes. It has both the
extremely poor and the extremely wealthy. About two-thirds of the
populace are poor, however, and live in conditions far from pleasant and
healthful. Business and professional men, of course, have wealth and
palatial homes. Conditions have been improving, though, in recent years.
Mother: Do they have good roads? How do the people get about?
Missionary: The highways in Trinidad are comparable to the best
in the States. The U. S. had quite a large military base there, so high-
ways were built to shuttle big American car traffic. Too, one can see
about as many American cars on the island as British or other foreign
As to how the people get about, one can see every conceivable mode
of transportation there-automobile, bus, train, airplane, bicycle, and
carts pulled by donkeys or oxen. Many people walk, too!
Father: Back to the spiritual side again, what would you say the
prospects are for the gospel in Trinidad?
Missionary: I would say that they are as bright as the promises of
God! There are many pagan religions, it is true; but there are also count-
less hungry hearts. Shrines and gods are everywhere, but not one offers
peace and relief for the souls of men; and that is what the people are
The spiritual blindness is heartbreaking. One day we were making
a trip, and we stopped to view some gods in a yard along the way. A
young man came out of his house and asked us to come within the yard
so we could see them better. He pointed out a particular one, and said,
"This is the all-powerful one!" This startled us, and we asked if he really
thought this piece of stone, plaster of Paris, or whatever, was really pow-
erful. He could not be swayed in his belief that it really was the all-
powerful one, even though he admitted having made it with his own
We praise the Lord that some have received spiritual light and have
given their hearts to the real All-powerful One. It isn't the easiest way
to choose, either, when one breaks family custom and tradition to walk
with Christ. One girl was threatened with having to leave home if she
did not renounce Christ. But she told her parents, Well, if that is what
it will mean, theho I will go; for I am not going to turn back!" She comes
to meeting with a radiant smile and a glowing testimony. (od is using
her, though only in her tons, to win others to the Lord.
Opposition is keeci, it is true; but if Christ be for us, then who can be
against us and cause too much defeat? We are trusting in a great God,
and are also depending on the prayers of our folks back home.
(It would be well to incorporate in this lesson any current informa-
tion concerning Trinidad which you might have obtained from the mis-
sionary publications. Close with special prayer for the work in Trinidad.)
BRITISIH ( UIANA -TIE LAND BEILO)W THE SEA
1. Congregational singing of missionary songs
II. Excerpts from missionary letters given in an interesting manner
III. Special song
IV. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary
corrections and approval
VI. Missionary choruses from the back of this book
VII. Devotional period. Scripture reading, II Timothy 2:15.
Introduction. The widespread indifference of the church in general
to missions must somehow be overcome. Indispensable in this
process is that the church should become and be kept intelligent
with regard to the activities and accomplishments of missionary
workers. Christ calls upon his followers to lift up their eyes and
look on the field. In other words, to arouse themselves and study
A. Study, that we may pray aright. No specific answers to prayer
are realized by praying in generalities. Specific praying
brings specific answers. For a member of one's family to be
ill does not bring about a desire to pray for the entire family
with all of its connections, in a general way, but rather for the
person who is in immediate, definite need of God's help. To
know of a person's particular need prompts definite praying.
This is also true of the needs of a perishing human race. We
cannot pray for missions as we should unless we know some-
thing concerning the conditions and needs. Mission study
helps us to know, that our praying might be pointed and
B. Study, that we may work efficiently. Unplanned, spasmodic
work, no matter in what field the efforts might be centered,
accomplishes little. An understanding of the task at hand and
the ultimate objectives is necessary for any task to result in
much more than a space of time filled with wasted effort. If
efforts for the human require understanding, goals, and effec-
tual labors toward a desired accomplishment, so much the
more should God's great assignment of reaching the world with
the gospel have a plan and a purpose. This deserves our best.
C. Study, that we may give adequately. For one to spend recklessly
for the work of God is not likely. Usually one's giving for the
spreading of the gospel is not the primary item in the personal
or family budget. However, when we do give, we want to.
know that it will go to the particular point where it will accom-
plish the most good. No one wishes to spend money unwisely..
A personal study of the challenges of hungry souls to the mis-
sionaries of our church will result in a personal vision and bur-
den for the needs of the work and a deep inner urge concerning
the particular need toward which that individual's gifts should
be channeled. Records prove that, on the average, a soul is
seeking God somewhere in Pilgrim mission lands every ten
minutes, day and night, around the clock and around the cal-
endar. Giving with eternity's values in view will result in
souls credited to our accounts at the end of life's journey.
Heaven's bank is the only really reliable one!
Conclusion. Only the knowledge that finds expression in
appropriate action is of the highest value to men. If one has
his mind persuaded through study, and his heart touched
through prayer, but fails to make the proper response through
his will, it is a serious question whether he is not injured rather
than helped. Let this not be true of any of us.
VIII. Field study
BRITISH GUIANA-THE LAND BELOW THE SEA
This lesson could be presented by impersonations. Another title to it
might be, "Let The People Speak." With previous study and preparation,
let a person impersonate each of those mentioned as providing material for
the study, viz., a young Guianese student; an elderly member of the George-
town church; a national pastor; a young convert; a former Hindu priest; Rev.
and Mrs. C. J. Knupp, the superintendent of the Coastal District.
A young Guianese student: I would like to tell you about our coun-
try of British Guiana. We who live here like it very much; and, could you
all pay us a visit, I am sure that you would find our land very interesting.
Georgetown, our capital, peculiar as it may seem, lies six feet below
sea level! This being true, a massive sea wall has been built for many
miles along the seacoast as a defense. The early Dutch settlers also
worked out an elaborate system of diking and draining, similar to that
used in the Netherlands. The sea wall, with its floodgates, keeps the
flood tides from covering the low coastal plain, while the dikes prevent
the surface water on the land side from draining into the low area. There
are also numerous drainage ditches, which are used as canals in the sugar
estates. These carry off, by means of pumps, the excessive surface water.
The water from these drainage ditches is pumped into the ocean through
the floodgates at low tide.
Being so near the equator (between latitudes 10 and 90), the climate
of British Guiana is tropical. We have two wet and two dry seasons in
our coastal regions. The long wet one lasts from April to August; and it
is followed by the long dry season, which runs up to the middle of Novem-
ber. This is followed by an alternate short wet and dry season.
B. G., as everyone in the general area terms our country, has about
270 miles of coast line and many large rivers and tributaries. Some of our
rivers are the Essequibo, Courantyne, Berbice, Demarara, and Pomeroon.
All of these are studded with numerous rapids, cataracts, and falls. Kai-
eteur Falls (Ki-e-toor'), called "God of Waters" by the Indians, is 350
feet wide and has a total drop of 822 feet. It is, therefore, nearly live
times as high as Niagara, and is known over the world for its beauty and
Having such a waterfall makes one know that all of our country is
not below sea level! In fact, British Guiana affords a very great contrast
in scenery. Beginning with the mud-flat coast lands, one is greatly im-
pressed, as he travels into the interior, by the tropical vegetation, lofty
trees, tangled jungles, graceful hills, elevated plateaus, extensive savan-
nas, and curiously-shaped mountains which tower to almost 9000 feet.
Most of our population, which numbered 499,000 in 1956, lives on
the coast. It is made up of those of African descent; mixed, or colored,
which is the second largest group; Amerindians (the aboriginal Indians of
the jungle areas); Portuguese; Europeans (other than Portuguese); and
The production of cane sugar, with its by-products, is our principal
industry. Rice is also climbing in its rating, and the West Indian islands
look to B. G. for their entire rice supplies. They rely on rice as the
Americans do on potatoes. Other agricultural products are coconuts,
limes, Liberian coffee, and various citrus fruits.
In the interior, gold, diamonds, and bauxite, from which aluminum
is made, are found in commercial quantities. Timber of many kinds is
exported, including greenheart, mora, wallaba, crabwood, and red cedar.
These woods are famous for use in waterway locks, as railway sleepers,
and as telephone poles.
Our country has an interesting history. It was one of the first in
which Englishmen attempted to settle. In 1498, while on his third voy-
age, Columbus passed the mouth of the Orinoco. In the following year
Amerigo Vespucci coasted along Guiana. The Spaniards, however, never
settled here because of the hostility of the Indians; but other Europeans
managed to win their friendship. In 1595 Sir Walter Raleigh visited B.G.
in search of "El Dorado," the mythical City of Gold. The earliest actual
settlement was made in 1620. Both Dutch and English were prominent
in those early days. In 1831 the three colonies, Essequibo, Demarara,
and Berbice, were united under the name British Guiana, and those
colonies are now counties.
The language of the major portion of the populace is English, though
many dialects are spoken by the Indians and other jungle people. Should
you pay us a visit, you would have no difficulty with the language, even
though we may give a little different inflection to some words.
An elderly member of the Georgetown church: The Pilgrim Holiness
Church is dear to my heart, and it has been for many years. The work
here was begun in 1902 by Rev. and Mrs. C. O. Moulton. They labored
with considerable success until his death in 1909. About the time of his
death, the work was organized into the Faith and Love Mission, and in
1913 it became a part of the Pilgrim Holiness Church. A number of
workers followed, through the years, each adding to the size and effective-
ness of our work. New preaching points were opened, churches were
built, and a mission home was purchased. The government provided a
chapel at the leper asylum for the use of different denominations, so serv-
ices were begun there; and our missionaries still visit this house of living
death in the interest of the souls of the inmates. How those poor people
do enjoy reading the Sunday school papers, tracts, and such things. They
have so little to make their lives pleasant.
It has been a joy to watch the Pilgrim Holiness Church grow in
British Guiana. God has blessed, and we now have 21 churches in our
coastal district. Many of those who helped press the battle in days gone
by have long since been taken to their reward. Others who were little
Sunday school boys and girls are now pastoring churches or living for the
Lord and letting their lights shine in the places where they work. We all
appreciate the wonderful gospel and want to thank those who had a part
in any way in helping us to receive it.
We do not expect our precious Pilgrims in America to shoulder all of
this great load. We do our best with our tithes and offerings, even though
our wages are very, very low. Once a year we have a special missionary
offering. Everyone works in every way possible to bring in as much mon-
ey as he can so others can hear this wonderful news of salvation, too. The
children and young people make plaster of Paris objects, wooden plaques,
and other things to sell for this. All of the money is given in the big mis-
sionary offering. We want to do our part.
We also have Prayer and Fasting Leagues in our churches. Every
member of the League fasts at least one meal each week. The money
which we would have spent on food is given for the spreading of the gos-
pel. It is brought in at our monthly missionary society meeting. Some
of our people have very little, and their income is meager, yet it is counted
a joy to be able to sacrifice a little of this earthly food, that others in our
world might have the Bread of Life. God's people have sacrificed for us
in the past, and we are ready to prove our appreciation to them and to
the Lord by doing for others as they have done for us.
A national pastor: I was born in Georgetown on the 17th day of
February, 1915. As my parents were both saved, they endeavored to
bring me up in the fear of the Lord. I don't remember when I started to
attend the Pilgrim Holiness Sunday school, but I remember that I was
not quite four years old when my father died. It didn't mean very much
to me at that time. We were three in the family, two girls with me in the
midst of them. In about another year, my youngest sister died. This
brought me much grief, as she was a playmate; but this made me more
attached to my mother. It was shortly after that when I gave my heart
to the Lord. I may have been about six years old then. With Mother's
encouragement, things went well until we changed our residence and I
got mixed up with the wrong crowd and lost my experience.
At 19 years of age I finally came back to God and joined the church.
Associated with a few other zealous ones, I had a busy, happy time in my
new experience. We attended open-air meetings, young people's meet-
ings, and every other church service.
Later I got work as engineer and captain's boy on a small cargo
steamer which plied between Georgetown and New Amsterdam. This
made my church attendance very irregular; but at the same time it made
church very precious. I attended whenever I came into port. Many
days I went aboard the little vessel grieved because I had to forego an
open-air or night service. This dissatisfaction led to earnest prayer and a
final change of occupation, this time serving as a prison officer.
It was in 1943, while under a tremendous burden and pressure, that
I volunteered for full-time ministry. The following year I was married.
Seven years were spent in my first pastorate, during which time I
had the privilege of holding meetings in almost every church on our dis-
trict. My second pastorate began seven years later, and I learned that
the people of that first pastorate had become like my relation. 'Ihe part-
ing was hard. Then, in 1949, I became a member of the district council.
Brother R. (. Flexon ordained me in 1950.
My present pastorate is in the Christiansburg village, which is just
across the river from Mackenzie, where there is a large bauxite plant.
Because of this, people from many parts of the colony, as well as the rest
of the West Indies, come here. I am in love with the place and the peo-
ple. (God is helping us, and the prospects seem bright. Pray for us here
in B. (. Some of us labor in mosquito-infested areas; some where poison-
ous snakes are a constant danger; some where living conditions are not
the best; but we are laboring for the Lord we love, because we love him
and appreciate what he has done for us.
A young convert: I do not know too much about some things; but
this one thing I do know. Jesus has washed away my sins, which were
many, and I am now his child. The things I used to do, I do them no
more. A great change has come since I was born again. I want to serve
the Lord for the rest of my life, and I want to be a member of the Pilgrim
Holiness Church. To become a member, I must go through the converts'
class. Let me tell you about it.
The class is made up of those who have been saved and who want to
join the church. The teacher is the pastor of the church. We meet once
a week and study from the converts' class book, which was written by
Rev. L. L. Miller, who was formerly our field superintendent.
Our class book is only about 44 by 512 inches and has 30 pages; but
this book tells us about God, Jesus, the Holy Spirit, salvation, sanctifica-
tion, the second coming, baptism, the Lord's Supper, what happens to
people after they die, and what is expected of a church member. The
Scripture is studied, along with the book; for many, many references lead
us to what the Bible says about these matters. We learn why people
should be Christians, we learn the duties of Christians to the church and
to the Lord, and we study the Church Covenant. This book makes clear-
that to break the rules of the Lord and of the covenant brings a reproach.
upon the cause of Christ and also upon the church, and that those doing
so will be dealt with by the committee, or church board. We learn that
we are expected to attend every service of the church unless we are provi-
dentially hindered, and that when we cannot attend on covenant meeting
night, we are to send a written testimony. Covenant meeting is when all
of the members are expected to tell of their standing in the grace of God.
The church roll is called at these meetings, and if a member fails to an-
swer his name at three consecutive meetings, his name is dropped from
membership. To be reinstated, such person must make written applica-
tion to the committee. The reason for this is because every person should
feel his responsibility as a member toward every service and should do
his best to make it a success.
I have enjoyed the converts' classes, especially when we were study-
ing about regeneration, how it may be obtained, and the results of it.
After the entire book is studied, each candidate for membership is
called before the committee for questioning. All kinds of questions are
asked, for we want our churches to be kept clean, and filled with deeply
spiritual people. If we are not strict regarding those who become mem-
bers, then worldliness and many other things can easily creep in. If we
feel that the church covenant is too strict and that the requirements for
church members are too strenuous, we have a chance to change our minds
and refuse membership. But I cannot see how anyone could find a reason
for not wanting to be a Pilgrim. A real Christian should not have any
trouble living up to our church rules, for they are based on the Bible.
I would like to speak for the youth of British Guiana and tell you
that we have a determination to serve the Lord, no matter what others
A former Hindu priest: Both of my parents came from India in the
year 1909. They were both Hindu worshipers. I was born November 12,
1914, on the west coast of the Demarara River in British Guiana. Then,
in 1934, I was married according to Hindu rites.
My father returned to India in 1949, and while residing with his
brother in 1950, he died. My mother, a well-known Sadhuian for about
30 years, still lives with us.
I can read Hindi, a little Sanskrit, and English. I loved to read reli-
gious books and all saints' life histories; but I scorned the Holy Bible very
much, and also scorned my fellow Indian Christians. I was one of the
biggest enemies to Christianity.
In the Phagwa season (Indian New Year) I used to drink plenty of
rum, sing chowtalls and kabirs (cursing songs) and dance. It happens
up to now in the Hindu religion when the Phagwa season comes. I used
to compose a lot of the chowtalls and bhagans (hymns). I also used to
sing Ramayan and was a headman for the Ramayan gole, or gang.
However, although a Hindu, I did not love the way of the Hindu
religion caste system-the high, low, and untouchables. I was seeking
love, peace, and equality. So myself and some others were invited to at-
tend a religious meeting at Windsor Forest, on the west coast of the
Demarara. We all had to walk about five miles in the night to listen to
the preacher, who was an Aryan high priest. He preached and said that
none is high and none is low. He preached on many more subjects, and
got me converted.
Then, on August 21, 1945, I joined the Arya-Samaj. Many times I
preached with my Aryan brothers in the open air. In the afternoons I
visited several homes to talk to people about the Aryan religion. Several
families were converted to that religion, and I was given the title of
Pandit. Severe criticism came from the Hindu party, saying that this
religion was not good, but that I had run away from the coffin and fell
into the grave.
Following those experiences, I began to buy books and read them
very carefully; but I got no peace and felt no equality. I was constantly
searching for peace and rest, and for a Saviour.
One day Rev. Samuel Harrichand gave me a Bible, and said, Broth-
er, take it, free of cost, and have a good read." I refused, because I was
an enemy of the Bible. I scorned to hold it. He endeavored to get me
to accept it.
Finally, I took it, and I read it every night. But before going to bed,
I placed it under my table and put all the other books on top of it. When-
ever I read the Bible, I always took notes so as to be able to criticize and
to carry debates against the Christians.
When I went to pray, my enemy, who was Jesus Christ, always flash-
ed across my mind. Also, when I went to sleep, I had dreams of the Lord
Jesus Christ. I did not prefer such dreams, for he was my bitterest enemy.
Then one night, before going to bed, I prayed again. In the prayer
I said, "Whoever is the true and living God, come and let me have a
dream. 0, Lord Krishna, Lord Rama, 0 Lord true Saviour of the Uni-
verse, come and give me your dream. 0 Lord, I need rest, peace, and to
be saved." And that night I dreamed that the Lord Jesus Christ came
before me, opening his arms above my bed. He seemed to be about twelve
feet tall. In the dream I said, "My dear Saviour, forgive me and bless
me." He said, "I will give you a blessing, peace, and rest."
My dear friends, Rama and Krishna did not give me their dreams;
but the Lord, who is Jesus, who was my bitter enemy and whom I was
scorning so much, became my good Saviour. I was converted. I accept-
ed Jesus Christ as my personal Saviour.
I began thinking of joining a church, but I did not know which one
to choose. For two weeks, I went to the Hague Roman Catholic Church.
Several times I went to the Christian Church. And several times I visited
the Canadian Mission.
On November 4, 1954, I came to live at Greenwich Park; and a while
later I made a place under my house for a Sunday school to be carried on.
A Pilgrim Holiness minister met me several times and told me about the
doctrine of his church, so I loved that doctrine. I have to say millions of
thanks to God that I have found a good church.
Then, when I was praying on a Good Friday morning, I said in my
mind that it was time enough for me to be baptized. I was baptized on
the sixth of October, 1957. My son, too, accepted the Lord, and he was
baptized. Both of us were baptized by Rev. C. J. Knupp in the Pilgrim
Holiness Church in Georgetown. Thank God, I accepted him as my per-
(This is the actual testimony of Pandit Shiwpersaud, of British Gui-
ana, and represents what is being accomplished through the presentation
of the Word of God to hungry souls. Pray and give, that others, like
Pandit, might have a chance to "have a read" in the Scriptures.)
Mrs. C. J. Knupp: I would like to speak a word regarding the many
items which come to us from the missionary societies back in the home-
land. We have a room in our mission home which is devoted to used
clothing, first aid supplies, shoes, and the like. When packages come,
they are taken to this room and the contents are sorted. Then when we
learn of a specific need, it is easy to go to the particular shelf or drawer for
the item which is needed. This makes it easier, too, to prepare bundles
for our pastors to take back to their churches for their people.
Our basement has been partitioned off so we can have a storage place
for literature. There are shelves on all sides of the room. We try to keep
the different kinds of papers grouped according to date so our Sunday
schools can have consecutive literature and not run the risk of constant
duplications. This takes quite a bit of extra work, but it is beneficial and
necessary for our schools. Therefore, I would like to express special
appreciation to those who have been sorting the papers and quarterlies
and tying them in bundles. This has been a big help to us.
Another item which deserves sincere appreciation is concerning our
national pastors. We can never thank you too much for the wonderful
way in which you have stood behind them, and us as well, with your
prayers, support, and interest. The Native Workers' Christmas Fund has
been a wonderful blessing. We are quite busy around Christmas time
buying shirts and dress material, ties and toys, but it gives us a thrill to
be able to help our faithful workers, who sacrifice much more than any of
us can readily realize, to have a happy Christmas.
Our Christmases, as well as birthdays, have been wonderful, too, be-
cause of your kind thoughtfulness. We pray that God will give each one
a very special blessing, for it is through your help and encouragement that
we are able to press forward for the Lord in the interest of the lost.
Rev. C. J. Knupp, the District Superintendent: Not only are our
ministers working and sacrificing for the sake of the gospel, but our lay-
men are pressing forward with marked fervor. They have special days
for visitation in homes, hospitals, and almshouses. Many outstation
Sunday schools are going full speed ahead through the efforts of our laity.
One Georgetown member has been burdened for the children in a new
housing project. She has three schools every Sunday, each in a different
area of this new housing district. This is being done with the thought of
beginning a church as soon as the zoning authorities approve the location
for churches in each of the three areas. When approval is given, a church
will be built and these three groups united into one large Sunday school
at the central location. Each of these Sunday schools averages around 100
in attendance. God is blessing this work, and we ask an interest in your
prayers. Pray also for our 21 organized churches and our 42 unorganized
ones. We want to be found busy at the job of soul winning when our
Lord makes his appearance. For everything which you have done to help
the missionary work in British Guiana, we say a hearty "Thank you, and
God bless you."
BRITISHI GUIANA-A COUNTRY OF CHALLENGES
I. Opening prayer
II. Congregational singing of missionary songs
III. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary
corrections and approval
IV. Missionary choruses from the back of this book
VI. Excerpts from missionary letters received, if any, given in an in-
VII. Special song
VIII. Devotional period. Scripture reading, John 4:35-38.
Introduction. Christ knew the tendencies of the natural man far
better than did anyone else. He knew that the interests of hu-
manity usually are centered in themselves. Here the Lord calls
for a far-sighted look; one away from ourselves and to the world
which he sees definitely in need of his salvation.
A. Missionary interest needs to be started. It should start the mo-
ment a person is saved, when Christ takes up his abode in the
human heart. At that very moment should his interest in the
salvation of others begin. Christ spoke of one field, the
world; and every soul in that field, whatever his color or con-
dition, is looking for peace within his heart. No one can be
a genuine Christian and not have a missionary vision.
B. Missionary interest needs to be stirred. That is why we have
missionary conventions, missionary speakers, and missionary
publications. What we hear of most, we are most interested
in. Knowing that the salvation of the world is the reason for
the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ should make us
want to be stirred more, that we might do more. Had we
never heard of a plan whereby we might have peace of heart
and soul, we would want others to be stirred in our behalf.
C. Missionary interest needs to be sustained. Prayer is the power-
house behind Christian endeavor. To be stirred should result
in the wholehearted prayer, "Lord, what wilt thou have me to
do?" A praying Christian is a promoting Christian. He pro-
motes everything which lends itself to the building of the
kingdom of God. And what does this more than reaching
souls with the gospel? Christ has no one upon whom he may
depend for the propagation of his salvation except those who
have tasted its goodness. Regular, united small efforts always
accomplish more than isolated, spasmodic large ones.
IX. Field study
BRITISH GUIANA-A COUNTRY OF CHALLENGES
The following information is given by Mrs. Arthur Ferryman, wife of
our missionary pilot, who, with her family, went into a backward area of the
Guiana interior with the message of full salvation. It would be well if this
lesson were given by one person who can put expression into a presentation
and make it live to those who listen.
Life for those who live in a land of spiritual darkness is beyond what
most of us can imagine. The only way one can think to describe it is by
comparison with animals roaming about looking for food and trying to
keep up an existence. I think of the children, from the time they, as
babies, are barely old enough to get out of the wineck (a sling affair fast-
ened around the mother's neck and shoulder in which the baby rides),
playing about on the mud floor of the native hut. There is no toy of any
description for them to enjoy, and little attention is paid them. Then,
when the child gets to the age of five or six, he must go with the mother
to the farm each day and learn to help with the work there. No one can
live in jungle areas who is not willing to work for his food. Life there is
It was into such a section as this that our missionaries went in 1946.
But, first of all, let me explain how contact ever was made with these peo-
ple so far away from civilization.
There had been a murder back in the interior, and the government
officials had brought an Indian woman out to Georgetown, on the coast,
so she could interpret for them at the trial. This Indian woman had been
brought up in a mission operated by the Church of England, but had left
it after marrying a man of the Patamona tribe.
After the trial, the woman rose to her feet and asked the group in the
courtroom if anyone knew of a missionary who would go into the interior
and help her people. The message was sent to Rev. J. Maxey Walton,
then superintendent of our British Guiana work on the coast. The woman
visited his home, asking if he could do anything for these people living
only about 180 miles away, but who never had heard of his Christ. Of
course, the missionary's heart was stirred; but at that time he did not see
a way clear to do anything about this great challenge of the interior.
The Indian woman went back to her home. However, she did not
give up; for about a year later she came to the mission home again. With
her was her husband. Again came a plea for someone to be sent as a mis-
sionary to their people. The fact that this couple had walked to George-
town (180 miles), a trip taking many days of hard mountain climbing,
added to the urgency of their appeal. This time the promise was given
that the missionary would do his best to get something done for the peo-
ple of the Patamona tribe. This couple were Toushow (Chief) Williams
and his wife, Chief of Paramakatoi Village!
Plans were immediately formulated for making a trip far back into
the deep jungles of British Guiana to this tribe of spiritually hungry peo-
ple. The trip would be partly by foot and partly by boat, a boat which
could hold together over hidden rocks and through strong, tumbling cur-
rent waters. A crew had to be found, food and other supplies had to be
obtained, and many, many details carefully checked before such a danger-
ous journey as this could be undertaken. God was definitely in the expe-
dition, and bit by bit things were put in readiness.
Along with Brother Walton on the trip were Rev. C. F. Berg, then
pastor of the Georgetown church, a national pastor, and eleven crewmen.
It was June 17, 1940, that the long, wearisome, yet gratifying, trip was
begun. The hardships experienced and dangers encountered by this
group of courageous men were many.
When the missionary party found the people of the interior, they
were to learn all the more of their need for a missionary. They were dirty
sick, naked, and unhappy. They know nothing about the world outside
their jungle surroundings, and they were living just one step above ani-
mal life. Nothing at all had ever been heard of One who had died to give
them a better way of life.
They were superstitious and had great fear of the witch doctor, who
was also their religious leader. He was the one to whom they went if
they were hurt or sick. Many times they had to give him such gifts as
teeth of a lion, the skull of some animal, food, or one of a number of other
things which the witch doctor demanded for his services. He performed
a faked ceremony, and the poor people went on their way, hoping for the
The Indians always felt that the witch doctor was a very strong being
and that their lives were in his hands. He was much feared, for he could
bring good or evil. In years gone by it has been said that the witch doc-
tor hired men to kill those who did not bend to his command, thus mak-
ing the people believe that evil spirits which he called in had taken a hand
and wrought the deaths.
Those persons acting as witch doctors were able to live without
much work, for they lived off the gifts demanded from the people. They
also asked for a daughter of someone whom they doctored. Thus, the
witch doctors usually had several wives.
As to their remedies, these were crude makeshifts and only added to
the infection, fever, or illness already present.
The witch doctor also headed up the religious feasts which, in reality,
were times of drinking and indescribable sinfulness, and which lasted for
several days. This did nothing to relieve the heavy hearts of the people.
Neither did it help to elevate their standard of living.
After this first trip into the interior, the next step was to locate a
teacher and a nurse who would be willing to go back into this remote,
backward area to live and endeavor to help this tribe. Miss Nota Hig-
gins, of Springfield, Ohio, was the nurse who was willing to offer her life
and services to the Patamonas. Her companion was Mrs. Ethel Carew,
a very efficient government school teacher and also a member of the
Georgetown, British Guiana, Pilgrim Holiness Church. Mrs. Carew
wrote this of the people and of their arrival at Paramakatoi:
"They were waiting and longing for missionaries to come, and they
keenly desired a school for their children. For some time after our arrival,
we were besieged with constant visitors. Everything we unpacked was
taken up, examined, and carefully replaced. The knife and fork we placed
on the table, on trying to get a meal, were taken up, put in someone's
mouth, and then returned to the table. It was a very difficult period to
live through. To have any privacy at all, we had to rise early and dress
before the crowd gathered in.
"We had to get our work begun, so we announced through our inter-
preter that school would open. On the first day 40 children came, and by
the next week there were 60 enrolled. The ages ranged from 7 to 21.
"The first lesson given was how to take a bath. We had brought a
good supply of soap with us. The parents of the children all were stand-
ing around looking on, so I caught hold of a boy about three years old.
With a basin of water, soap, and a towel, I gave him a good scrubbing, in
spite of his protesting screams.
"When it was finished, the child was so transformed that the faces of
the onlookers broke into smiles of satisfaction. Then Sister Higgins took
a baby, gave it a bath, and gave its head a good cleaning. We always keep
soap, towels, combs, and such in the school, and each child is checked
each morning before classes are begun."
The missionaries had learned that most of the children from five
years on had been given tobacco to smoke. After the children are above
five years, the parents take no care of them, and they must bathe them-
selves, wash their own clothes, and learn to plant a little plot of ground.
Distended stomachs were very common, especially among the children.
A strong odor of alcohol was always noticed on the children, also. This
was due to the heavy drinking of cassiri, a fermented drink made from the
cassava plant and human saliva.
Patamona women are expected to carry heavy loads of firewood, which
is placed in a basket affair, called a washi, which hangs from the shoul-
ders. They also carry large quantities of farm products the same way,
while the husband walks along with a gun or an ax. The women do most
all of the farm work, while the men take care of the hunting. When
building a mud house, the entire family must work. Ofttimes they
carry leaves from afar, so as to have a good roof on their house. The
children tramp with their feet in the mud mixture which is used for the
side walls of the building.
At the time the first missionaries went into this village, there were
only 20 houses; but all of these had many, many hammocks hung at
night, and several families lived in the same dwelling. Because of this
condition, diseases were very prevalent and they spread rapidly.
Little difficulty was encountered in opening the Pilgrim Holiness
mission, as far as cooperation from the people was concerned. They
were very willing to have a school, church, and medical help. They
were happy that someone had come to help them, and they said so
many times. Although their helpfulness was limited, they were willing
to help in every way that they could. They accepted the gospel and
all of its teaching with hardly a question, even though many times it
meant adjusting their entire way of life. Men who had several wives
began to see that they had a big problem of adjusting and finding the
right way to live. Children who had been the responsibility of no one
before were going to have to be cared for. However, little by little, this
group of people changed. Habits of cleanliness alone made a great dif-
ference. Sickness was brought under control and was lessened to a great
extent through the efforts of the nurse. Gospel light was breaking
through, and life was taking on new meaning, a wonderful new meaning
to those who had waited so long.
In the course of time, Rev. C. F. Berg moved into the interior with
his family. A revival meeting was held, in which many found the Lord.
Confessions of murder, adultery, theft, lying, witchcraft, and many
other things were made publicly. Heavy loads of sin began to roll away,
and folks really found the Lord to be the faithful One who could do what
the missionaries ha h ben telling them that he could do. People came
in from other villages as well, and folks still point back to that meeting
as the time when they found satisfaction for the need of their souls.
A great investment had been made in starting the work among the
Patamonas, both by the missionaries and the Foreign Missions Depart-
ment, but some wonderful results were beginning to be seen.
Brother Berg gave an account of those early days to Miss Eubanks
when she was in British Guiana in November, 1957. lie told her:
In the beginning, all of the children were naked. The
grownups wore either loincloths, beaded aprons, or rags. Near-
ly everyone was dirty.
It was while on a trip to the interior in 1949 that we
picked out a spot for a compound. We laid out a place for the
building and made arrangements for the Indians to build it.
Our first service after we moved to Paramakatoi was in
the church which the Indians had built for us. The people sat
on poles and on the floor. Though minus clothing, the people
were covered with heathen jewelry. Today even souvenir
jewelry is scarce. They just don't wear it!
Revivals are not uncommon at Paramakatoi. I witnessed
the biggest revivals of my lifetime at this station. One remark-
able one broke out during the watch night service at the close
of 1953. About time for the meeting to close, someone stood
and testified. Others followed; and at two o'clock, New Year's
morning, there was a great rush to the altar. A real revival
Another sweep of spontaneous revival occurred in De-
cember of 1955. Folks rushed to the altar, weeping and con-
fessing about every sin possible to man. One young woman
came to the platform. While wringing her hands, she told the
congregation that her life had been filled with jealousy over
her husband's former record. She said she hated the girl who
had stolen her husband's affection. She wept bitterly, and
prayed with the same earnestness as she had hated. One boy
said, "When my brother became a Christian, I used to beat
him, and I have never asked his forgiveness." He was all broken
up and in tears. Another young man confessed to having
hatred in his heart for another. An old grandmother confessed
to getting angry and killing her neighbor's chicken because it ate
her corn. One young man confessed that he had gotten angry
and had broken a water pot. And a young woman even con-
Everything wasn't easy, but it was worth everything that
we put into it.
Let us look a bit now on the mission as it is today, and the daily
routine at the Paramakatoi mission. One can hear prayers ringing out
from little native homes very early in the morning as precious Christians
lift up their voices asking for divine help for the day. They pray for
their leaders, for their neighbors near and far, and for the Americans
far away who have been so kind and interested in them as to send the
precious gospel their way. It is wonderful to hear them. At times
of revival, or at Easter or Christmas, these folks have weeks of prayer
meetings at the church, meeting at sunrise.
When the school bell rings every day, the children and teachers
are seen coming by the many paths which lead in all directions to the
school-church building. After a worship period, books and slates ap-
pear, and most of the day is spent in reading, writing, and arithmetic.
The classes are conducted in English. Thus, all of the children and
young folks are now speaking a written language, which they were
not able to do a short time ago.
Some handcraft is taught, for it would not be wise for the young
folks to forget the art of making some of the necessary utensils of their
country. Sewing and woodcraft are also among their classes; and a
farm program is carried on to help feed the school children and at the
same time to teach them to raise new products.
When the students appear at school in the mornings now, they are
clean and neatly dressed-so different from what they were a few years
ago. Many times they come in carrying books which they have been
studying at home by the firelight the evening before.
About half of the students at Paramakatoi walk a long distance
over mountain paths each day to reach school. Others stay in the
village all week, working hard between school hours to raise their own
food. Despite the hardships involved, very few absences occur, for
the boys and girls are eager to learn. In fact, our school took first prize
last year among all government schools in British Guiana for having
the highest average attendance according to the enrollment. The stu-
dents are more capable of learning now, for tobacco and alcohol have
completely vanished from the village. It is a pleasure to work with
such alert, eager students.
The village of Paramakatoi is also a pleasant place to be on the
Sabbath day since a mission station has been set up. As soon as the
church bell rings, many feet are turned toward the church. Sunday
school is carried on much the same as it is here, and the people are eager
to learn more and more from the Bible. Morning worship is attended
by the villagers one hundred percent, unless someone is sick. It is most
interesting to hear them sing, for many of the Indians have lovely
voices. Some of the songs which they enjoy singing are, "The Things
I Used to Do, I Do Them No More," "When We All Get to Heaven,"
and "The Old Rugged Cross." It blesses one's heart to hear them sing
and to know that they feel and understand what they are singing about.
It is nothing short of a miracle of God; for when the missionaries found
them, they had no song of any kind. Weird chanting was all they knew.
It was in the summer of 1954 that Mr. Arthur Ferryman was sent,
with his small airplane, so that this work might reach out into the sur-
rounding area, that new villages could be contacted. There is no
method of travel in this mountainous country other than by plane or
by foot. Walking has been done quite a bit by our missionaries, but it
is very dangerous. At times it is almost impossible, due to the rains;
and at other times because of the extreme heat.
God was very faithful in helping Brother Ferryman as he learned
to navigate the little mission plane over the dense jungle and locate
several new villages. Services were held in these, and many of (uiana's
neglected ones heard the name of Jesus for the first time.
Some of our converted Patamona Indians from Paramakatoi mani-
fested a keen missionary vision and asked to go into these new areas and
tell the story which had become so dear to them. They were taken and
left for a few days at a time to work among these new friends and( tell
them all they could of the gospel.
Their hearts burn to be able to tell the gospel story more effective-
ly; and as a result of this zeal and burden, a Bible school has now been
started to train these people who have been so recently, yet so thorough-
ly, transformed by the grace and power of God.
An interesting letter from Rev. E. E. Phillippe, Caribbean Field
Superintendent, gives an insight into the genuineness of the conversions
of the Indians. He wrote:
"It fell my lot to bring the morning message. We had 299 present
for Sunday school, and that many or more for the morning service.
"Since I had baptized the first eight converts at Paramakatoi in
January, 1952, and received them into fellowship, the thought possessed
me to ask the congregation if those original eight were present and still
serving the Lord. Seven of them stood to their feet, their faces shining,
and some of them started to testify. I was informed that the eighth
one was across in Brazil, with another young man, doing missionary
Another compound has been opened at Phillipai, among the Aka-
waio tribe, and it is proving equally as promising as Paramakatoi. A
day school and a church are going strong; and God's definite approval
and blessing are on this work.
The challenge of the interior of British Guiana and its nearby area,
northern Brazil, opens wide to Pilgrims the opportunity of having re-
peated over and over again the wonders which were wrought at Para-
makatoi. This work needs your prayers, as do the workers. Keep in
touch with its progress through our missionary periodicals, that the
missionary interest which has been started might be continuously stirred
and sustained. Souls are counting on you.
AMONG THE AKAWAIOS
(British Guiana Interior)
I. Missionary choruses from the back of this book
II. Excerpts from missionary letters interestingly given
IV. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary
corrections and approval
V. Congregational singing of missionary songs
VI. Poem from the back of this book
VII. Devotional period
A. A global God. "Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends
of the earth: for I am God, and there is none else" (Isaiah
45:22). Gods of wood and stone, or objects of worship found
in nature, are of no avail in the light of eternity. To look
to anything or anyone else is futile, for there is one God, and
none else. This being true, we are under obligation to warn
the world of the error of their worship if it does not center
around the God of heaven, the Almighty Creator.
B. A global guilt. "Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into
the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all
men, for that all have sinned" (Romans 5:12) and "There-
fore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men
to condemnation" (Romans 5:18). Also, "For as many as
have sinned without law shall also perish without law: and
as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the
law" (Romans 2:12). God's Word is the first and final
authority on all subjects, and nothing can be made plainer
than this fact that "all have sinned," as stated in Romans
3:23. Guilt came by Adam, and has been transmitted to
the entire human race.
C. A global salvation. "For God sent not his Son into the world
to condemn the world; but that the world through him might
be saved" (John 3:17). The purpose of Christ's coming into
the world was the salvation of mankind, who had come
under the condemnation and curse of Adam's fall. This
great plan of salvation is explained in the familiar passage,
John 3:16: "For God so loved the world, that he gave his
only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should
not perish, but have everlasting life." However, "How
then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed?
and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not
heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?" (Ro-
mans 10:14). This places the entire responsibility of the sal-
vation of the world in the laps of us who have had a preacher,
heard the message, and believed unto salvation. It is a great
salvation, but the world ca(' ot accept it unless we Send the
news of it.
VIII. Field study
AMONU TIl'Iu AKAWAIOH
(British Guiana Interior)
This study givs an insight into the opening of the new field of activity
in British Guiana, the work among the A kawaio Indians. Its presentation
may be dealt with as an actual study, with someone having previously as-
similated the material given here and any current reports taken from mis-
sionary publications or letters. Or, serrral persons ma!y be chosen well in
advance of presentation time and given oppirliuiill- to read and discuss
the material, with the program itself being in the form of a round-table
I discussion. Make sure that the entire coni,'i .no.',.; is informed as to the
location of British Guiana. A map of South America is available from
the Foreign Missions Department for 50c.
The major portion of the information given here is from the pen of
Rev. C. F. Berg who, with our layman missionary pilot, Mr. Arthur Ferry-
man, opened the way for the gospel to be given to the Akawaios.
The great Mazaruni Indian Reservation, located in western British
Guiana, is the home of the Akawaio (Ack-ah-way'o) Indian nation.
Here, living among the natural splendors of mountain and forest, wind-
ing rivers and towering cliffs, they have made their simple homes of
bark and leaves, have hunted, lived, and died, with little contact with
the outside world.
Their temporal needs are few. Some have worked outside for some-
one in a government post, in mining camps, or in bleeding balata, and
have returned with clothes and a smattering of English. But, for the
most part, loincloths and beaded aprons are the standard wearing ap-
Socially, they differ perhaps but little from the primitive people
found anywhere else in the world. Polygamy is an accepted practice.
Child marriages are not uncommon.
The main social event is the spree. Great quantities of fermented
drink are prepared from cassava and from sugar cane. The people from
several villages walk many miles to gather at the host village. Being
f misguided, the social urge leads only to all the ills of intemperance.
It is also a great means of waste, as huge quantities of staple foods are
consumed during these events.
As to their religious life, the village is built around the large round
House of worship. Here the people gather to chant, dance, and drink.
Prayers are offered to God, to the Holy Ghost, to the Virgin Mary, and
to the sun. Often their worship is carried on from Saturday night until
Monday morning. Nor are their prayers confined to the church. Many
times one is awakened in the night to hear someone chanting prayers.
On the river, paddling against the current, one often hears the young
witch doctor praying.
At their great religious festivals, young and old participate in the
endless chanting and dancing, while consuming huge pots of drink pre-
pared for the occasion. At the close of such a festival, the crowd often
marches in procession to a nearby stream, where they bathe to wash
away their sins.
The first missionaries to their field, one an American and the other
an Indian, were murdered. This was less than 25 years ago. The
American was killed while asleep in his hammock. A grave was dug be-
neath the hammock, the ropes cut, the body allowed to drop into it,
and the hole covered over.
This region is in almost complete isolation. It is nearly 100 miles
to mail or plane connections. Being an Indian reservation, no one can
come in without a permit from the Department of the Interior, which
means no outside visitors, and no one coming and going at will.
The following is a first-hand, first-person account by Brother Berg
concerning the beginning of the work.
"It was while stopped at the village of Kuracubaro (Cure-ah-cue-
bar'o), en route to another village, that I first came into cantact with
the need of this area. Let me tell you how it happened.
"Into this same village where I had paused to rest came an Indian
from Venezuela who had come on a journey of many days to trade cas-
sava graters for clay pots. He told me that he had come through the
Kukuy (koo-koo'ee) River area and found many people who were with-
out either school or church. I made a number of inquiries, and located
the general spot on a map, before going home on furlough in 1951.
"After I had returned to British Guiana following the furlough, a
soil expert from New Zealand came and was surveying the soil of this
area. He stopped at Paramakatoi, as many such individuals do when
going and coming from farther in the interior. He told me that he had
been through the part of the country where the Akawaio Indians lived,
and proceeded to describe a great group of people without churches or
"This man had two Indian boys with him as druggers, or carriers.
We made arrangements that when he was finished with them, he would
take them to Georgetown and leave them at the Indian hostel.
"Brother Ferryman had arrived with the plane at this time. We
flew into Georgetown according to our former arrangements and flew
the Indian boys over the Akawaio country. As we neared the reserva-
tion, we asked them if they recognized the country. Soon they sighted
a familiar spot and told us where an airstrip was located. This airstrip
had been made by the United States Army. At one time, the District
Office of that part of the country was located at that old airstrip. Their
planes still use it once or twice a year during dry weather.
"On this first trip we made contact with the village of Chinawing
(Chin'ah-wing). Brother Ferryman, having blood poison in his arm,
stayed at Chinawing with the plane while I took guides and started
walking to Amakokopi (Am-ah-ko'ko-pi), the headquarters of the
'Hallelujah Religion,' which includes dancing, chanting, and drinking.
"Ahead of me lay a day's journey over a rough mountain trail, with
many streams to cross. Large roots and fallen trees made progress
"In late afternoon we stopped for the night at a small village, and
the next morning we were off through swampy bush. After an hour or
so we arrived at our destination.
"The village is nicely situated ii a cleared spot, oi ground almost
surrounded by mountains. The people had gathered to welcome me,
and did so with many handshakes.
"I showed the people pictures from an old S(ripture text calendar.
Most of them knew nothing of Jesus.
"From the time I arrived until noon, a heathen service was in prog-
"On the outside I carried on a conversation with the priest-chief.
Who was I? Where (lid I come from? What did I want? Surely I had
come to introduce a new religion. Did I dance 'Hallelujah'? 1 told
them we would not ask them to leave anything without offering them
something better. lie flatly refused to let us come to his village.
"At this juncture, not having been introduced, I inquired, 'Are
you not the chief?' Following his affirmative reply, I said, 'I have a gift
for you.' After the presentation of a shaving mirror, we resumed talk.
Said the chief, 'Many years ago we were told that no white man could
come here without a letter from God.' I replied that I had it, and
produced my Bible. Then he inquired, 'How did He write it?' His
next demand was for a letter from the Governor. At last he said, 'You
may build your school in a small savanna away from the village. We
will send our children. But they must come back on Sunday to dance
"Having requested permission to tell the chief a story, I was invited
inside after dinner, during a break in the dance. The chief was silent
until I told of the death of Jesus. 'Who,' he inquired, 'killed him'? I
answered, 'His own people.' He made no reply.
"When it came time to leave I was so loaded with gifts of fruits and
vegetables that it was necessary to hire another carrier. An English-
speaking villager promised to make us a landing strip in a nearby savan-
na. Many inquired, 'When will you return?' Some of the young men
were anxious to return with me to Paramakatoi. We left about 3:00 p.m.,
and walked several miles, to sleep in another village on the trail.
"After a seven-hour walk the next day, we arrived at Chinawing,
and found Brother Ferryman and the plane. His experiences had been
similar to mine, though he had been asked to vacate the building so they
could carry on their worship. He had slept in the plane. The chief of
this village was anxious for a school.
"The 45-minute flight back to Paramakatoi brought us over some of
the highest peaks in the country. To walk the entire distance would
have taken us at least ten days each way. This trip, and another similar
one, was made in late 1954, the first one being on November 10.
"However, I believe our most fruitful visit into this area was at
Easter time, 1955, when our chief of Paramakatoi, Francis Williams, and
I visited six Akawaio villages. On this trip we saw whole villages seeking
the Lord, and the people begged us to return soon. While in one of the
villages, we met a young man from Brazil who begged us to go to the
villages of the area where he lived, telling us that he was sure that he
would be a Christian if he could hear the gospel for a little while.
'In July, 1955, at a meeting with the District Commissioner and
the various Indian chiefs of the Akawaio area, the chiefs of two villages
agreed to build dwelling houses and schools for us if we would establish
work in their villages. Another chief offered to move his village in order
to combine his efforts with those of one of the other villages.
"Later, we made a 16-day overland trip to this same area. There
we found one dwelling built, so we laid out the site for a school. These
were temporary buildings, but they served well until more permanent
structures could be built.
"The location of this new compound-in-the-making was within
easy access of three Akawaio villages, Amakokopi, Chinawing, and
Phillipai, though nearer to Phillipai. Our school and church could be
attended by people from all three, as well as those from other, smaller
villages in the area."
On March 4, 1956, after visiting the new compound to check on the
progress being made on the buildings, a blinding tropical rainstorm caused
a near-fatal crash of 1-6 Charlie, the missionary airplane. The mission-
ary wives and families back at Paramakatoi received no response to
their repeated attempts to contact the men by means of the short wave
radio. They did not know what had happened. Hours went into days,
and yet no word from Brothers Berg and Ferryman. The families
feared the worst, yet hoped and prayed for the best. Someone was be-
side the receiving set almost constantly, awaiting some kind of message.
While the families waited tensely, almost frantically, at Paramaka-
toi, the two men were cutting their way through an unknown jungle in
an effort to find a village so contacts could be made for their rescue.
There was food enough on board the plane for one man for one day, so
before their journey ended on the twelfth day, they were keeping alive
with edible berries and weeds. They took the plane's compass to help
guide them aright, and some cutlasses which were needed in cutting
their way through the jungle as well as in felling small trees from which
to make a raft. Rope from the plane was used in tying the pieces of
wood together. It took three days before the men could make the raft
After twelve gruelling days of traversing 200 miles of dense jungle
terrain, Brother Berg had lost 18 pounds and Brother Ferryman 10
pounds. They were worn, footsore, and dirty when they arrived at the
village of Kamarang (Kam'ah-rang). From there they were able to
get word to the authorities in Georgetown and to their families as to
their whereabouts and condition. A government plane was sent to
take them on to Paramakatoi.
An American miner in British Guiana was contacted a few weeks
later. He took Brother Ferryman to the spot where the crashed plane
lay. While the other pilot returned to Paramakatoi for plane parts,
a hunter, who turned out to be an Akawaio Indian witch doctor, came
by and agreed to help clear a larger spot for the take-off of the plane,
once it was repaired. Concerning this incident, Brother Ferryman
We had our evening meal, and knelt to give thanks for
the happenings and blessings of this day. Then I discovered
that the hunter was an Akawaio witch doctor. He began to ask
many questions; and I prayed, "0 Lord, direct my words; and
send the Holy Spirit to apply them to this man's mind and
We worked the next two days on repairing the plane and
fixing the airstrip. Then we waited two more days for the rains
to let up. All the time the witch doctor was as king questions.
"How can I be saved?" "Hl)ow do we know about this Jesus?"
"Hlow call I know him?" Andl he knelt and prayed each time
that I did. I saw his interest grow each dlay, and I felt a special
pull toward him. I covet this man for .Jesus. Please remember
him in prayer. His name is J.ames Williams.
Over Saturday and Sunday we had three services at (Chin-
awing, with John Simon, one of our Patamona Indians, as in-
terpreter. 'There were over 100 people in each service who knelt
to pray, asking how to be saved. (od(l came in such a mighty
way that we both thanked him for the privilege of telling these
hungry ones about Jesus. Our friend, the witch doctor, said he
hoped to come to Paramakatoi to learn more about Christ.
Thus we see our missionaries taking advantage of every opportunity
to reach souls with the gospel.
It was on November 13, 1956, that Brother Berg took two national
teachers to Phillipai to open our first mission station among the Indians
of the Akawaio tribe. The teachers were both from our Paramakatoi
station, one being the daughter of the toushow, or chief, of Paramakatoi.
Concerning this momentous occasion, Brother Berg wrote:
"Accompanied by the two teachers, I left Atkinson Field, George-
town, bound for our new field among the Akawaio Indians. As there is
no landing field near Phillipai large enough to land the C-47, we came
down several days' journey from Phillipai on a strip called Imbaimadai
(Im-bam'ah-die). Here we waited several days for another plane to
arrive with our goods.
"We left Imbaimadai in a 30-foot corial (dugout canoe), driven by
an outboard motor. At the village of Joalipai (Jo'lee-pie), at the mouth
of the Kukuy River, we were told that we could not get through because
of low water and fallen trees. I made the boatmen agree to see that we
got through and not leave us stranded along the way.
"At some places it seemed as though we could go no farther; but by
pulling, we got the boat over the obstacles.
"I was feeling rather downhearted-wet with rain and little prospect
of getting through-when before us suddenly loomed two woodskins.
It was Toushow Williams, of Paramakatoi, and his wife Agnes (our
interpreter), and the baby. They had flown across from Paramakatoi
in the mission plane and had come down the river to meet us. I could
scarcely hold back the tears.
"We arrived safely and got things under control. However, not
many came to school at the start. Many were waiting until after the
heathen festival. Some grown men are in our school trying to learn to
read and write.
"There is much eye infection about, and the teachers have given
many treatments for this and other things.
"Most of the little girls of the area wear only beaded aprons. Many
of the children have awfully dirty faces.
"Two hundred air miles from Georgetown and my family, the plane
brought letters from home telling of the death of my beloved oldest
sister. My co-laborers, Chief Williams and his wife, came in and prayed
that God would comfort me. A little while ago they were pagans. Now
they were my nearest human comfort.
"After a week at our mission at Phillipai, we made a trip to take
mail out. This took us many miles down a crooked river, overflowing
its banks and creating whirlpools in its sharp bends. The log canoe
was small, and there were several of us, plus considerable baggage.
The water lapped my hand, over the rim of the canoe. For hours I sat
holding the throttle of the outboard motor, strained in every muscle,
trying to balance the flimsy craft. It rained, and water ran down into
my shoes. We stopped at night at a small Indian village, where we dried
our clothes over open fires and swung our hammocks under a leaf roof.
"The heathen festival was well attended. About 10 days were spent
drinking, dancing, and chanting. This was kept up day and night. The
people paint their faces with strange designs for these special occasions,
and look very weird. An angry witch doctor was threatening to kill
someone. I had remonstrated with him over taking one of the school
girls for his third wife (the others both living).
"With the festival over, the crowd came back to Phillipai. There
were 165 present, with many forward for prayer, in the evening service.
Several admitted that their old religion gives them no peace.
"By this time 54 pupils had enrolled in school. Many of them came
naked; but they were given clothes, after having a bath in the creek.
The change was almost startling.
"Since some of the children come from a distance of two days' jour-
ney, it will be necessary to run a boarding school."
Circumstances made it necessary for the original workers to be re-
placed. These new recruits were also British Guiana nationals, one be-
ing Sister Carew who had been so instrumental in the beginning of the
work at Paramakatoi, and the other a coastal girl who had been trained
in our Caribbean Bible school and had labored very successfully as a
pastor on the coastal district. Her name is Iris Griffith.
Part of Brother Ferryman's job was keeping a line of supplies going,
as needed, to this new field. In October, 1957, he wrote the following
concerning the missionary supply line.
"After we planted an outpost at Phillipai and manned it with sea-
soned soldiers of the cross, our next great job was to see that these soldiers
had supplies, medical needs, and moral support.
"Several weeks had passed when I stopped with supplies, which were
greatly needed. The welcome was more than I could bear without shed-
ding tears of joy.
"The trip over goes like this: Paramakatoi to Kato, where British
Guiana Airways leaves our supplies which have been purchased on the
coast at Georgetown. Loading the five to six hundred pounds of freight
marked 'Phillipai,' and with an eye on the weather and checking the
gas and oil, we tie down the load and are ready to go.
"The weather in the area of Phillipai changes quite rapidly, due to
surrounding mountain ranges of 5000 to 7000 feet, and another of 9000
feet close by. In times past, I had learned of a valley which is far off
the regular course, but much safer.
"The trip takes about 40 minutes, plus a few circles over the village
of Phillipai to let the people know that supplies have once more arrived.
The workers walk to the airstrip, about a mile; and they come, rain
or shine, mud or water, looking for news from the outside. The school
children and folks from the village come along to carry the supplies the
last lap of the journey.
"It takes a courageous group to man a fort in such isolated conditions.
Rewards for faithfulness lie at the end of the way, praise the Lord!"
In November, 1957, Brother Berg returned to Georgetown, after
having been at Philippai for several months, during which time the epi-
demic of Asian influenza hit that remote area. It struck mercilessly
everywhere --the native huts, the students, the teachers, and the pastor
alike. The workers kept going as long as they could, dispensing what
little medicine they had. Brother Berg went from hut to hut and from
village to village, lending aid as he was able. At places there were as
many as 15 lying in hammocks, all too sick to move, coughing, spitting,
and fever-ridden. As some grew better, they tried to cool the fever of
others by removing the covers and splashing them with cold water.
This resulted in numerous cases of pneumonia. Many people died.
Some became fearful of the missionary's medicine and spread the alarm
that he was killing the people; yet he kept praying and doing his best
A son of one of the deceased shot a labba, an edible rodent, which
weighed about 18 pounds. Brother Berg bought it for the students, only
to find that they would not touch it, since it had been killed by a relative
of the dead and thus was "dead meat."
The missionary felt strongly moved upon that the Lord was ready
to stop the plague if the people would ask him. So he called upon the
students to have special prayer. Never, he said, had he heard any
group pray more earnestly; and immediately the people began to im-
Amid all of the fear and superstition, most of the people remained
loyal to our workers. Not once during the epidemic did the witch doc-
tors receive a call to invoke the spirits. Thus, the old pagan worship
seems to be losing ground to the gospel.
God is giving to our church the hearts of the people. During this
period of trial, an offer came to the men of the village to go and work
for an aluminum company for good wages, more than they had ever been
offered. Brother Berg read the letter to the group in the church and
left them alone to make their decision. The chief and his counselors
concluded that they needed the mission more than they needed the
big wages apart from the mission, and they rejected the enticing offer.
In Brother Berg's words, "They turned down a short cut to civilization,
that they might hear the gospel!"
Some of the progress of the work at Phillipai is noted in a recent
report from Miss Iris Griffith, the national pastor there. She wrote:
"The services this last term have been very good. One night the
chief expressed his desire to serve Jesus. Brother Berg, who was preach-
ing, seized the opportunity and asked him if he would like to pray now.
He came forward, and many of the older men and women came with
him. They never had come to an altar of prayer before, even though
they had come regularly to church. It was wonderful to see and hear
"As we came from church, it seemed to me that the moonlight and
nature in general could not have been lovelier. I do hope and pray that
a great awakening will take place here and usher in many, many precious
"A converts' class has been started, and there are 22 names enrolled,
representing various ages. The results are very good. Not only those
whose names are down come to the class, but many villagers as well.
Sometimes there are as many as 60 present. I find that I must revise
a lot, because I want them to know the truths and fundamentals of the
Christian religion. I ask lots of questions and have some sessions of
discussions. I enjoy teaching.
"By the close of our school term, the attendance of our Sunday
services had reached over 100, our highest number having been 132.
The priest of the old religion has been in the services a few times. He
seems rather interested and has been asking questions."
A concluding point of interest is this. At one time the Indians from
the Akawaio tribe were sending missionaries of their Hallelujah Religion
to Paramakatoi. Our workers found it abounding there when the Para-
makatoi station was started. Now the Indians of Paramakatoi have
embraced the teachings of Christ, have accepted his plan of salvation,
and have been converted and sanctified; and they, in turn, are sending
missionaries from among their own number to spread the gospel to the
Akawaios. Pray much for them and for their leaders in this great
SURINAM --IAND) ()' Till, B11T11 NIlIO()
I. (Choruses chosen from the back of this book
II. Poem chosen from the back of this book
IV. Congregational singing of missionary songs
V. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting, with any necessary
corrections and approval
VI. Special song
VII. Devotional period. Scripture reading, Matthew 21:28-32.
Introduction: As the two in the Scripture lesson were called to
go work in the vineyard, so the Lord is calling today for help in
the great world-wide vineyard of humanity. Let us think about
four of the words of this lesson.
A. Son. This husbandman was not giving orders to a slave or a
servant, but rather to a son. A slave works because of the
penalties resulting should he not work. A servant works for
the pay which he will receive. Not so, however, with a son.
He works because he loves his father and desires to obey his
B. Go. This word of command was clear and easily understood.
A loving and obedient son should not need a lengthy explana-
tion, but rather an expressed desire which gives birth to ac-
tion. This order came from one in authority, thus deserving
respect. The order was imperative. Evidently the servants
and hired workers could not save the crop alone. Thus, all
the help possible was enlisted.
C. Work. The thought of the hour was not concerning one's
rank and station, but only that of saving the crop from ruin.
The chief labor in this instance was physical. However,
heaven's Husbandman is seeking physical, mental, and
spiritual assistance. There is a place of service for everyone.
Age or inability need not hinder one's work for the Master.
There is a sphere suited to each one.
D. Today. This is the only day of which we are sure, and we
do not know how long it will be for us. Therefore, we should
use it, not abuse it. Today is one of privilege because of
grace, of responsibility because of the spiritual need of others,
and of opportunity because doors of service stand wide open.
You may not be able to work tomorrow, so take advantage
VIII. Field Study
SURINAM-LAND OF THE BUSH NEGRO
The following program takes the form of excerpts from actual letters
from the missionaries who pioneered our work in this country, the Leonard
W. Leitzels. They were written from Paramaribo, except where otherwise
stated. Choose several of your group to represent visitors to an old lady
who has corresponded with missionaries for many years. She has given
permission to the missionary society to meet at her house and read these
letters, to become more acquainted with the work and workers. However,
many other adaptations are possible with the material given.
The program should be very informal. Portions of the letters which
you desire to use should be written or typed and placed in used envelopes.
These could be neatly arranged on a table or placed in a box. Be sure
to choose those who can read distinctly and loudly enough to be heard by
everyone is attendance. Use as many or as few of the excerpts as you feel
time will permit. Be sure to have a rehearsal, if possible. Make sure that
strange foreign words are pronounced properly. Ad-lib comments about
the letters would make for more interest.
April 4, 1945
We stopped overnight at Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, on the way down,
arriving there about 4 p.m.
We are deeply impressed with the need of a work here in Paramaribo.
There must be many thousands who never attend a church service,
thousands who have never actually heard the gospel and the saving power
of Christ. Also, we have seen the Bush Negroes who come into town.
There certainly must be a great need among them, and I trust that we
will be used of the Lord to reach them. This is a great field.
Arrangements have been made for a house, but it will not Le
vacated until May. We plan to move in June 1. Brother Walton
searched several days before we got here, and this is the only thing that
is available, as far as we know. It is a nice house and has a yard and
garden suitable for the children.
In the meantime, we will go to British Guiana with Brother Walton.
This will cost less than having to live in a hotel here until the house
is vacated, and it would be better for the children, too. It will also
acquaint us with missionary work and better fit us to go ahead here.
We are going to have to learn the Dutch language before we can do
much real work. Most people have some knowledge of English, tut
Dutch is their language. We have study books already which will give
us the fundamentals. When we have a basic knowledge of the language,
we expect to have a tutor to teach us.
In Christ's service,
Leonard W. Leitzel
May 17, 1945
Dear Friends at Home:
We have finally taken up residence in Paramaribo. Our address is
Jessurunstraat 1A. House numbers come after the name of the street
This morning I was walking about town when I saw a Bush Negro
man enter a store. I followed, pretending to be looking around. I spoke
to the shopkeeper and she introduced me to the Bush Negro. I could
not speak to him, but we shook hands and I learned that his name is
Konissi. I asked the shopkeeper to tell hin that I was coming to see
him some time. She did, and I bade them good-by and went on.
I had not gone far when Konissi passed by me, walking last. Soon
he stopped, and wanted to know my name. lie wanted me to write it
down, I said I did not have a pencil, so he took me to the place near
by where he stays while in town. lie introduced me to "Papa," another
Bush Negro, w\ho had marks all over his face. I don't know if "Papa"
was his father, his Chief, or what.
Soon XKnissi gave me a pencil and paper, and I wrote my name
Near t,y wele more Bushr Negroes, and we shook hands with them
all. They were friendly, I ut could speak only through an interpreter.
The city has provided a place for them to stay while they are here in
town. It is here that we will make contacts and form friendships that
I am sure will prove invaluable in beginning a work among them later.
They come to town scantily dressed. I believe they go naked in their
own country; but the government has ordered them to put some clothing
on when they come to town.
We are strangers in a strange land with a strange language; I ut we
find that where people cannot understand our language, they all re-
spond to a smile.
This is the rainy season in Surinam and the air is heavy with water.
Mold forms on our clothing, and some days we have to dress in awfully
damp clothing. It's a great life!
Yours in His service,
Leonard and Pauline Leitzel
June 12, 1945
One day, while I was on the outskirts of the city, I spied a hearse
moving slowly down the road ahead of me. The hearse was a black
one-horse wagon, badly in need of paint; and it carried a crude, rough-
board coffin. Five men were following the wagon. Soon they turned
off the road into the cemetery.
Seeing it was a crude affair, and being very curious, I asked per-
mission to join them at the grave. Then I learned that the dead man was
a Bush Negro who had come down the river from his village to die.
There were three mourners at that funeral, two Bush Negroes and I.
They said that the dead man was their friend. It was sad to me.
Graves in the Guianas are holes dug in the mud, and they soon fill
up with water. After bailing the water from the grave, the coffin was
lowered into the mud. I helped lower the coffin; and then I offered a
prayer that we might soon reach the Bush Negroes and see them turn
from their idols to serve the true and living God.
I told one of the Bush Negroes that I was going to visit him in his
village some day; and when I was taking my departure he called out to
me, "You come to see me." I assured him that I would.
Several days ago, while Sister Leitzel and I were walking down one
of the streets, we saw several flags raised on bamboo poles in front of
one of the homes. We knew what they were, but for further information
we asked several boys standing near by what they were. One boy
spoke up and said, "They are our gods." When I asked him if they
prayed to them, he replied, "Why yes, we must pray to them. They
are our gods, you know." These flags are placed in front of the homes
to appease the gods and keep away the evil spirits.
Many of Paramaribo's streets are lined with beautiful mahogany
and royal palm trees. They are some of the most beautiful we ever
have seen. Many of the people of the city are very superstitious. We
are told that voodooism is very prevalent and that more than one strong
man has withered away and died under the spell of voodoo of some
brother whom he offended. Within a mile of the city can be seen some
of the most heathenish dances, where men dance in fire and broken
glass and climb thorned trees, without apparent harm.
On another day I saw one family's god standing on the porch of
their home. It was made of mud and had bead eyes. One hand was
raised toward heaven and the other was placed over the heart. These
people prayed to their god, which they called "Mummi." Such dark-
ness! Praying to a mud idol!
Now, in the language of the Bush Negro, I say, "Mi moe taki joe
adjosi. Tan boen!" (I must tell you good-by. May it go well with
In the Master's service,
Leonard W. Leitzel
P. S. I have been able to find only one worm-eaten New Testament in
Paramaribo thus far. No complete Bible.
July 25, 1945
Greetings from the Leitzels:
We are all well, and happy to find ourselves interested in the study
of Taki-Taki lingo, the language of the Bush Negroes of the interior.
We have recently been able to get a New Testament in this language.
Galatians 1:3-5 reads like this:
"Gnade moese de nanga oenoe, en vrede vo Gado, da Tata, en vo
wi Masra Jezus Kristus, Disi ben gi hem srefi abra vo wi zondoe hede,
vo a verloesoe poeloe wi na ini da ogri kondrefasi vo disi tem noja,
nanga da wani vo Gado, wi Tata, Disi moese habi glori teego alatem.
Many different languages are spoken in Surinam, because of the
mixed population. Although Dutch is the official language of the coun-
try, Taki-Taki is the common language of the people. All of them know
it, but all of them do not know Dutch. Yet, all church services, except
among the Moslems and Hindus, are in Dutch.
We see a great need but can not do much about it, because we do
not know the language of the people well enough. For instance, yester-
day Mrs. Leitzel and I were in the market place when a Bush Negro
walked up and greeted us, telling us that he was from far up the river
near French Guiana. He had more to say, but we could not understand
him and no one was there to interpret for us. We felt like crying as he
Yesterday a Bush Negro man, named Anomissi, visited us. I won
a deep place in his heart when I gave him a coat of mine. He said that
the next time he comes down the river he will bring me a present. He
told me that if I would come to his village li would show me around,
and that if 1 begin a church he will attend, lie said that he prays to
the river god whenever he begins a journey, so that he may "waka boon"
(walk good). lie never cuts down a silk cotton tree, for it is here that
the kromanti spirit, the spirit of rebellion, lives.
Some time ago we were in a section of Paramaribo where there were
quite a few poor people living. They told us, as we visited among them,
that they would like for us to come and give them the gospel. A nice
building stood near by that we hoped to rent, and were told that we
could. We were very happy about it all until we went to rent the
building, only to be told very politely that it belonged to a group of
Hindus and that they would not rent it to us for use as a Christian
church. They will rent it for any other purpose but that. We are plan-
ning to have services in that section, regardless-maybe under a small
thatch roof building standing there.
Leonard W. Leitzel
October 24, 1945
Dear Friends in Christ:
The housing situation here is the worst I ever have seen. We have
been looking for months for a place in which to conduct services. It
seems that there are fifty people waiting for every house that is to be
vacated. We have had at least ten people house hunting for us, and
also have asked several real estate men.
Up to this time, what work we have been able to do has been done
in our home. No open-air services of any sort may be held in this city
by any church until they have established themselves in a permanent
One hundred and fifty-five different Bush Negroes have been to,
our home already. We no longer think the Djukas are proud and
haughty, for we have found that every one of them responds to love
and is friendly. At least every one we have met. We have prayed with
them, sung to them, and read the Bible to them. They have shown great
respect. One Djuka told me this: "If all the rest of the people in my vil-
lage feel the same way that I do about you and your religion, they will
want to know more concerning it."
We appreciate your prayers in our behalf.
Yours in His service,
Leonard and Pauline Leitzel
November 15, 1945
Greetings in Jesus' name!
We have rented a place for meetings! It is a corner building in a
section of the city where many people live. The owner of the building
is a widow whose husband died four months ago. She runs a store in
town. She now lives above our place, but she would like to move closer
to her business place. If she can move, she has told us that we may
move into her rooms above the church. This would be wonderful, es-
pecially during the rainy season, and more especially since it would
solve the housing problem for us. We could rent the house we are now
in for only one year.
Yours in His service,
Leonard W. Leitzel
December 24, 1945
Greetings in Jesus' name:
We are eager to write to you this morning, for we have some good
things to report. First, we are now having regular meetings in our mis-
sion hall. And, second, we have met Atoedendoe, the Granman (Grand
Man) of the Surinam River Bush Negroes.
Our service last night was attended by about two hundred and
seventy-five people. Not all of these were inside the building, for there
were not enough places to seat all of them. Brother Van der Kuyp, our
national worker, acted as my interpreter. God blessed the service, and
we feel encouraged.
Last week we met Granman Atoedendoe, who is the ruler of about
nine thousand Bush Negroes. Some months ago I sent a message to
him and invited him to visit me at my home whenever he came to Para-
maribo. He received my message and sent his greetings to me. Last
week we heard he was in town, so we went to see him. I did not tell
him who I was; but he soon asked me if I was the "American domine"
(the American preacher). When I told him that I was, he said, "Mi
hongri vo si joe" (I have been hungry to see you.) I told him that I
had been hungry to see him, too.
We had a nice visit; and before he left he told me I should pray to
God that he would become well, for he was sick. He also told me that
he was coming to see me at my home.
We had been told that the Granman does not like any religion other
than his own, which, of course, came from Africa two hundred years
ago. We are hoping that he will give us an invitation to visit him in his
village. No one may visit the Granman without his permission.
Your daily prayers for us are appreciated very much.
Yours in His service,
Leonard W. Letizel
March 26, 1947
Our work here is progressing, with the help of the Lord. On Sunday
night two women sought and professed to find salvation. These people
seldom have heard standards like ours preached, and some are slow to
walk in the light; but God is giving us some who are taking the way and
are going through with him. Praise the Lord! There is much to be
encouraged about. But the battle is not always easy.
Our schedule of meetings at present is as follows: On Sunday
morning there is Sunday school at the mission, which is followed by the
morning worship service. At three o'clock in the afternoon another
Sunday school is conducted, in another part of the city. On Sunday
night the evangelistic service is at the mission. We have a children's
meeting on Monday afternoon. This is conducted about a mile from
Paramaribo. Tuesday afternoon is the time for the women's prayer
band to meet; and on Tuesday night, we have a class in Bible doctrines
and other subjects. There is an evangelistic service on Wednesday
night, while a teacher training class is conducted on Thursday night. A
Bible study is held on Friday night. We are busy and happy the
busier, the happier.
We applied to do work among the Bush Negroes we have visited,
but we were refused. The people of the bush want us, but I think it is
the very strong influence of another religious body which is keeping us
out. Ilowever, we feel that the Lord is going to open the way for us.
The people are eager that we come to stay with them. One old village
chief tcld us that it was hard for them to remember the gospel story.
He said we must come and stay with them and tell it over again. Then
they would remember. Pray with us that God will open the door to
work among the Djukas.
We love our work and think this is a wonderful field in which to
We have many mosquitoes in Paramaribo. Doctors tell us that forty
to fifty percent of the people have filaria. Except for a few colds, we
have been in good health, for which we are thankful.
Yours in His service,
Leonard W. Leitzel
August 8, 1947
Greetings in Jesus' name!
We have met the District Commissaris of the district in which we
would like to do work among the Bush Negroes. He told us to apply
in letter form. When we did so, he told us we were to apply again to
another official, but that he felt it was useless. This was the second time
we have been refused. But we are not discouraged. We will get to the
Recently one of the Djuka Granmen died. We had met this man
and gave him one of the Scripture text calendars with pictures of the
life of Christ. He was quite young to be a Granman, and seemed to be
When word reached town that he had died, I carried the message
to some of his tribesmen. They told me that it was undoubtedly "wissi"
(some sort of black magic) that brought about the death. They told
us that there was a dispute on, among the Bush Negroes of the French
Guiana side of the river and those on the Dutch side, concerning a strip
of land lying between the two tribes. The men told us that they, too,
would use wissi to kill the Chief of the other tribe. They said there
would probably be fighting with guns and knives.
The Granman's body will not be buried for 30 to 40 days. Some of
the boys told us the stench becomes terrible, and that great birds fly
overhead looking for a chance to get at the corpse. There is dancing
every night, all night long, until the body is buried. The grave is dug
very deep, probably fifteen feet, and then about fifteen feet to the side
of the bottom. The grave diggers must be careful not to sweat; for if
a drop of their sweat drops into the grave, they fear that they, too, will
die. Here the Granman's body is laid in a box of rough boards. In the
box are placed a hammock and clothes for his spirit to use. By the
coffin is placed a small table, and on it are beer and coffee for the
Most of these people have heard the name of Jesus mentioned at
some time or other; but probably not one of them knows anything of
the salvation which Jesus came to purchase for them. They are ignor-
ant of the gospel. Their spiritual condition is even darker than the jun-
gle night. When the gospel is given to them, it seems that they do not
comprehend. It takes much repeating of the precious truths before
the light begins to break through.
We do not feel that it has been a sacrifice for us to come to Surinam.
Yours in His service,
Leonard W. Leitzel
November 1, 1949
Greetings in Jesus' name!
Few Americans realize how important a part Surinam has played
in their lives. Few of them realize that some of the aluminum pots in
which their food is cooked had their origin in the hills of the interior of
Surinam. Aluminum is made from bauxite ore, and Surinam supplies
the United States with 60 percent of its bauxite.
Concerning the climate, we have four seasons. May, June, and
July comprise the heavy rainy season, when it rains a part of almost
every day. August, September, and October are the months of the hot,
dry season. Temperatures run from 95 to 120 degrees or more in the
sun. One minds the heat here more because of the high humidity.
Each day, from one to three o'clock, most of the business places close
and much of the population takes an afternoon rest. It is too hot for
anything else. There is also a light rainy season and a light dry season.
It is hot during all of these seasons, however, and the continual perspir-
ing is hard on clothing.
The homes here are built with plenty of windows. There are com-
paratively few glass windows in the homes of Paramaribo. Instead, we
have shutters, which can be thrown wide open, and which can also be
closed in such a way as to allow air to circulate through our houses. The
nights are comfortable, and during the rainy parts of the year they are
What the potato is to the people of America, rice is to the people
of Surinam. Thousands of bushels of rice are grown every year. This
represents considerable more work than one might think, for they have
not learned what mechanized farming is. Instead, the whole task of
sowing and reaping is done by hand. Rice is grown in fields that are
flooded with water. There are some varieties that are grown in dry
ground. How would you like to look out over a ten-acre rice field and
know that you had to plant every stalk of rice by hand? I never have
offered to help anyone!
But we raise more than rice, and I am glad of it. We eat it one meal
per day, but we would prefer potatoes. No potatoes are raised here.
Sometimes the ships bring them in from Holland. The price is usually
quite high. Sometimes apples, pears, and grapes come in from Holland,
too, but the price of such is so high that we can only look at them in the
windows. Among the other foods are all sorts of beans, sweet potatoes,
pumpkins, cabbages, cucumbers, tomatoes (so small you could use them
for marbles), eggplant, and several native vegetables. Among the fruits
you would recognize are bananas, pineapples, oranges, lemons, limes,
tangerines, watermelons, cantaloupes, and coconuts--if coconuts are
Concerning the customs of the people -well, that is a big subject,
and one on which we could write many pages. The population of Suri-
nam consists of different races. There are Negroes, East Indians from
India, Javanese from Java, Jews, Portuguese, Syrians, Holland Dutch,
Bush Indians, Chinese, and Bush Negroes.
Much of the population are slaves to their supersititions. They say
a sleeping child must never be held with its face over one's shoulder.
The reason is because it may wake up and see its own spirit walking
behind it. The people believe that when a person is sleeping, his spirit
leaves the body.
The other day we were returning from an afternoon Sunday school
when we saw an odd sight. Coming down the road was a funeral pro-
cession. No one seemed to be sad. Instead, they were singing and
laughing aloud, and the six men who carried the coffin on their shoulders
danced part of the way and sang snappy religious tunes. The mourners
followed the coffin on foot.
Another odd sight which is frequently seen is the big game hunt. To
take part in one of these hunts no gun is required, but rather a keen eye.
The hunt is usually staged on the doorstep of the home during the cooler
afternoon hours. The "big game" is just the tiny louse that infests so
many heads in the tropics. Many have been the times when we have
seen someone delousing another's head. This is the game hunting we are
talking about. They are not a bit embarrassed to have others know
they have lice.
What would you think if, when walking down the street some day,
you should hear someone talking loudly behind you, and upon turning
around should see that the person was talking only with himself? That
is common in Paramaribo. The women walk the streets talking to them-
selves of all their sorrows and joys. Then they wonder why everybody
knows all about their business!
The chief mode of transportation here is the bicycle. There are
thousands of them. One can see boys and girls, middle-aged people,
and old people riding along on their bikes. We have a preacher in British
Guiana who once carried his wife, a banjo, a suitcase, himself, and a pig
in a bag, on his bike, all at the same time!
Most of the East Indian and Javanese women smoke cigarettes.
The Negro women often smoke pipes and cigars. They also have de-
veloped the peculiar habit of washing their teeth with tobacco. You can
see them several times a day washing their teeth with a wad of tobacco.
I think they say it kills the pain, in case they get a toothache, too.
Divorces are not so prevalent here as in America. The reason is
not because marriages are more successful, but because about 50 percent
of the couples don't bother to marry. This is one of the great problems
we meet in missionary work.
The policemen who patrol the streets here wear white helmets, and
each one carries a revolver, a club, and a sword.
I hope this will give you a little picture of our field of labor. Its
spiritual needs are great. Pray for our work, that many souls may be
won to the Lord.
Yours in His service,
Leonard W. Leitzel
December 1, 1949
We are able finally to report that we have purchased the property
we have mentioned in other letters. The deal was finished yesterday.
There is a house at the rear of the lot in which three families live. We
asked the tenants to look for other houses, but it is almost impossible
to find houses these days. It may be months before we can take posses-
sion of the property.
Yours in His service,
Leonard W. Leitzel
May 12, 1950
Greetings in the name of Jesus:
Last week we tore down a small building on our church lot. Next
week we will put up a new fence on three sides of the lot. That is all
we have been able to do, since we cannot get the tenants out of the
houses. I have offered a reward of money to the first family that moves,
if they move by the end of May. Two families have told us they expect
to be gone by that time. As soon as they vacate, we will tear down their
houses. We have the plans for the church drawn up. We hope to build
something like the church at Constant Spring, Jamaica. I have a copy
of the plans of that church.
Yours in His service,
L. W. Leitzel
January 26, 1951
This is to let you know that yesterday the first block of our new
church building was laid and our building program is now on (the last
family moved out on January 11). It will be 30 by 50 feet in size. The
contractor is expecting to finish the job in 90 working days.
In His service,
L. W. Letizel
July 5, 1951
On the first day of July the Negro population of Surinam celebrated
the 84th anniversary of the abolition of slavery. The people seemed
to make more of the day this year than any year since we came to Suri-
nam. There was dancing, feasting, and drinking; and many a horrible
tale of slave days was retold. It is hard for them to forget the experiences
of their ancestors at the hands of brutal men who thought more of gold
than of human lives.
A favorite story seems to be that of a mistress who was traveling
by boat to Paramaribo with one of her woman slaves. An infant be-
longing to the slave began to cry. The mother did everything in her
power to quiet it, hut it cried on. The exasperated mistress called out,
"Let me have that child. I'll show you how to quiet it." At this she
grabbed the child and held its head under water until its life was gone.
Then she handed the lifeless form back to its mother.
It has also been told that slaves were sometimes punished by hang-
ing them from a tree by a meat hook stuck through the ribs.
We all agree that these people have a right to rejoice at the freedom
given 84 years ago. But while we think of that freedom, we cannot
forget that they, with millions of others around the world, are yet
slaves to a taskmaster whose delight is in damning their souls eternally.
What a privilege is ours "to preach deliverance to the captives."
Yours, seeking souls in Surinam,
December 20, 1951
Mr. Leitzel is up at Patamacca doing gospel work this week. He
will be returning to our town Christmas Eve. We are thrilled that he
can be there during this Christmas season, telling those poor, darkened
people of Jesus' love for them.
One belief of theirs that grips my heart, especially at this Christmas
season, is that on the night of December 24, all the powers of darkness
are supposed to be let loose in the jungles around their homes and that
they are in danger of becoming victims of those cruel powers. They do
everything in their power to try to protect themselves from harm on
that night, not knowing that over 1900 years ago a Saviour was born
who is able to drive back those evil forces from their homes and set them
free from the chains of fear and torment that bind them. While we who
have gospel light are rejoicing and singing songs of praise as we think on
the birth of our Saviour, there are hundreds cowering in fear back in
Thank God, we now have the permission at last to go to them with
the Bread of Life. Pray with us that those who go in through this open
door to the Patamacca Bush Negroes may see many precious souls saved
from a Christless grave.
Yours for the lost in Surinam,
February 5, 1952
Greetings in the name of Jesus:
The Purcells arrived here safely on January 26. We have been very
busy ever since with preparations to go to the interior. But there have
been some extra delays. We are expecting the final signature any hour,
and are prepared to leave with our boat within an hour after receiving
The government has granted us 12312 acres of land at a cost of one
guilder per year. That is about 55 cents, American money! The ground
is ours as long as we pay the 55 cents.
We have a boat with an outboard motor which we plan to take up
the river with us when we go. It will be about a hundred-mile trip. The
boat was used only two months before we purchased it, and we made
a good buy-just exactly what we needed for the work.
I don't know how soon we will be able to open the school for the
Bush Negro children. Maybe in two months or less. There is much work
to be done. There are many expenses, some that I had not planned on,
such as putting down a well. The Bush Negroes stand in the same water
in which they wash dishes at the riverside. While one woman washes
dishes, another is washing clothes, and children are swimming! We
need a well to protect the health of our workers.
We wish you could visit the Bush Negro country some time soon.
We have nine villages within easy reach.
Yours for the Bush Negroes,
Leonard W. Letizel
May 30, 1952
This is to let you know that we are scheduled to leave here on June
7. We are to fly to New York, where my brother will meet us. We
planned to leave on the 28th of May, but we could not book passage for
In His service,
Leonard W. Leitzel
The Leitzels returned home for furlough in 1952. Their second term
in Surinam began in 1953, and their entire time has been spent in the in-
terior among the Djukas. Several regular preaching points have been es-
tablished, in addition to the organizing of a church on the compound at
Pelgrim Kondre (Pilgrim Country), as our station is named. A thriving
day school has been in operation; and now a Bible school has been started.
The Charles Wiley family were sent to the field in 1957 and will be manning
the station during the Leitzels' second furlough, which began in mid-1958.
This last letter gives an up-to-date report of the work.
Pelgrim Kondre, Moengo
Surinam, South America
December 2, 1957
I have just returned from teaching a class in our Bible school.
Sister Wiley (Mrs. Charles Wiley) is there now, teaching a class on the
life of Christ. The Bible school opened on November 18. There are
18 students, of whom 15 are Bush Negroes. Several are boys of 12 and
15 years who feel called to preach, and they are some of the best stu-
dents. These boys live on the compound. Sister Wiley is head of the
Bible school and also of the day school. She will be doing more teaching
when she learns the language. She has been having classes for the day
school teachers and the missionaries. These teacher training classes
have been very helpful. Our day school is becoming a much better
school. Together we are settili i up a teacitlhili plan for all subjectts that
are taught in the (ldy school. We aro running much higher ill attiondaneo
than any year so far. I think the highest attendance has been 67. This
includes a kindergarten class.
We feel that the Lord is blessing the work and that our native Chris-
tians are growing in grace. Some of them have beenn goi lg out illto the
villages and holding services.
Sincerely yours iln Christ,
Leonard W. Leitzel
The Leitzels are again home on furlough, having arrived in August,
1958. Pray for them in their deputation work, as well as for the Wileys
who are liir;,,,i. faith ,llf i at Pelgrim Kondre, deep in the jungles of
CARIBBEAN QUESTION BOX
This lesson shall constitute a review of PILGRIM MISSIONS IN THE
CARIBBEAN AREA. To add spice to the entire meeting, it is suggested
that the presentation be impromptu by means of slips of paper on which
are typed or written questions concerning the fields which have been
studied. Other slips of paper should bear the various parts of the pro-
gram. For instance, one slip should instruct the bearer to direct the con-
gregational singing of a certain missionary song, another to lead in pray-
er, etc. Have each person take a slip of paper when entering your place
of meeting and either do what it says or give the question with its answer.
The following items are given by way of suggestion, though you
may wish to vary this in keeping with your own tastes as leader of this
1. Lead the congregation in singing "We'll Girdle the Globe With Sal-
2. Read the poem, "On With the Message," which appears in the back
of this book
3. Give the names of four Pilgrim missionaries who are now laboring
in the Caribbean Area
4. Lead the congregation in singing "All For Jesus"
5. Give any requests for prayer which you know of, and then lead in
a good season of prayer
6. Give your favorite missionary Scripture, either from memory or by
7. Name three islands in the Caribbean Area
8. Point out on the world map the two countries in South America
which are part of our Caribbean Area of missionary activity
9. What is the largest island of the West Indian group? (Jamaica)
10. Which is the most eastern island in the West Indies? (Barbados)
11. Under what flag, or nation, is most of our Caribbean work? (British)
12. What island has a village called The Bottom but which is actually
at the top of a volcanic cone? (Saba)
13. Give your favorite missionary Scripture, either from memory or by
14. Lead the group in singing your favorite missionary chorus
15. Where is the Bible school for the Caribbean Area located, and what
is its name? (Caribbean Pilgrim College, located on Barbados)
16. What island is called the Switzerland of the West Indies? (Saba)
17. Which island was named after the Trinity? (Trinidad)
18. What is the language spoken in St. Vincent? (IEnglish)
19. Where is the work among the Bush Negroes located? (Surinam)
20. In what country is Paramakatoi Mission located? (British (lianb(a,
21. What island has the least rahifall but the most oil refineries?
22. Lead the group in singing "We'll Work Till Jesus Comes"
23. Where would one go to find the Pitch Lake? (Trinidad)
24. What island is known for the pontoon bridge? (Curacao)
25. What is Jamaica's leading crop? (Sugar)
26. What is the purpose of converts' classes? (To teach the doctrines
of the church; what we believe and why we believe it)
27. On what island would one find the St. Johns church? (Antigua)
28. What is a quarterly meeting? (A one-day camp meeting which is
held the first Sunday of each calendar quarter throughout the West
29. Lead the group in singing your favorite missionary chorus
30. Call on the secretary to read the minutes of the last meeting, and
then have the congregation stand while you pronounce the benedic-
Several societies have used unique ways of raising missionary offer-
ings. Some of these ways are:
Mrs. A. F. Weikert, Phoenix, Arizona, gave miniature aprons to
the girls and women, and socks to the men and boys. A member of the
society there wrote a poem to introduce the project, as well as one to
accompany each apron and each sock.
Mimeographed copies of these poems were made. Everyone received
a copy of this introductory poem.
This, friends, is a poem letter,
So that everybody knows
About our mission project,
And where the money goes.
Our missionaries are called of God,
And serve with all their hearts
But what of their own children,
And their sacrificial parts?
They often study, play, and live alone,
None close from their own land;
And their education's hampered,
Unless we lend a hand.
They have to study different
From what the native children do.
It calls for separate classes;
Separate books and papers, too.
So use those socks and aprons;
Fill them full, so we can send
Supplies for the education
Of a little missionary friend.
The poem which was written to accompany the socks is as follows:
"Take me and fill me up,"
Said the little sock;
"Full of pennies, dimes, and nickles;
Make me heavy as a rock.
We'll show those sissy aprons
What the men and boys can send.
All goes for books for the child
Of a missionary friend."
Here is the one written to be given with the miniature aprons:
Most everybody knows
That girls and ladies are the best;
It's proved time and time again
When there's been a real test.
So take this little aproti,
Fill the pockets to the top;
Then a missionary child's education
Won't, come to a sudden stop)!
Others have also used the lproln plan. Mrs. Noel Taylor of Con-
nersville, Indiana, suggested using left-over sewing scraps and odds and
ends of rickrack or bias binding to make the miniature aproiis. She
used pinking shears to cut pieces of material 4i/ inches wide by 5 inches
long for the aprolns. For the belts, cut pieces one by seven inches. One
and one-half inch squares should be cut for the tiny pockets. The poem
which she used with her offering aprons is tas follows:
We're sending you this apron gay;
Please do us a favor this very day.
Measure your waistline and note the inches,
(Don't pull the tape measure till it pinches!);
Then for each inch, please count one cent,
And send us the sum of your measurement.
With the cents you give, for our project we'll pay;
So the money you "waist," we'll salvage this way!
(Sign with your society's name)
Regarding novel presentations in your public meetings, why not
try a game on the order of Twenty Questions? Prepare cards bearing
missionaries' names. On the back, put information from the booklet,
OUR PILGRIM MISSIONARIES, about the particular ones you have
chosen. Have a master of ceremonies and a panel, the latter guessing
regarding the missionary whose name appears on the card chosen by
the master of ceremonies. Only he and the congregation should be al-
lowed to see the name of the missionary in question.
We have missionaries on our foreign staff whose last names begin
with every letter of the alphabet except eight (E, I, O, Q, U, V, X, and
Z). Have a game on the order of a spelling bee, with first one side and
then the other giving a missionary's name, following the alphabet.
Have various individuals impersonate missionaries, giving clues
as to his or her identity, until someone has guessed the person being
represented. OUR PILGRIM MISSIONARIES will help with this.
STAFF AND STATIONS
Have two sides take part in this review of our staff and the stations
on which they labor. Work it on the order of a spelling bee, one person
on one side giving the name of a missionary, with one on the opposite
side responding with the name of the mission station where that worker
is currently working.
ON WITH THE MESSAGE
On with the message! On with the light!
On to the regions still shrouded in night!
On to the nations which never have heard!
On with the life-giving, soul-saving Word!
On with the message! Message of power!
Message to meet every need of the hour!
On with the message o'er land and o'er sea!
On with the truth that can set sinners free!
On with the message! Carry it on!
Millions in darkness still pray for the dawn.
Millions for whom Christ's own blood did atone
Die in their darkness, unreached and alone.
On with the message! Haste thee away;
Soon cometh night; haste on while 'tis day.
On with the message, by love's passion stirred!
On till each creature of Jesus has heard!
On with the message! Strive more and more!
Soon will the days for proclaiming be o'er.
On to all lengths, where none have yet gone-
On with the message! On, ON AND ON!
When we think of countless millions
Living in darkness across the sea,
With no gospel light to guide them,
They will be lost eternally;
It should make us all to wonder
If we have really done our part
To save their souls from that darkness
And put Christ's joy within each heart.
So when our last day here is finished
And our life's race has been run,
Will the Saviour stand beside us
And sweetly say, "My child, well done"?
-Marlene Thomas, Foreign Missions Dept.
WHAT WILT THOU HAVE ME TO DO?
Dear Lord, I have seen thy great harvest field,
Gazed on the well-ripened grain;
But where are the reapers to garner its yield
Over the mountain and plain?
"My child, I will answer the question you ask;
Others are like unto you,
Failing to offer themselves for the task,
And do what I want them to do."
Is that why the grain has been wasting long-
Neglect of the souls of men?
How many sheaves from among the throng
Could have been garnered in!
How can we sit any longer il case,
Dreaming from day unto day,
Seeking ourselves and our children to please -
While millions are passing away?
Here is the life thou hast, given to me;
Lord, I now yield it to you;
Answer the question I now ask of thee:
"What wilt thou have me to do?"
Whato'er the task-be it lowly or great-
Why should it matter to me?
Mine but to do it and patiently wait,
If it is done unto thee
Give me thy grace as my strength and my store,
Come and my courage renew;
Then shall I humbly ask thee once more:
"What wilt thou have me to do?"
-Mary V. Harris
WHAT HAVE WE DONE TODAY?
We shall do much in the years to come,
But what have we done today?
We shall give our gold in a princely sum,
But what did we give today?
We shall lift the heart and dry the tear,
We shall plant a hope in the place of fear,
We shall speak the words of love and cheer
But what did we speak today?
We shall be so kind in the afterwhile,
But what have we been today?
We shall bring each lonely life a smile,
But what have we brought today?
We shall give to truth a grander birth,
And to steadfast faith a deeper worth;
We shall feed the hungering souls of earth.
But whom have we fed today?
We shall reap such joys in the by and by
But what have we sown today?
We shall build us mansions in the sky
But what have we built today?
'Tis sweet in idle dreams to bask,
But here and now-do we do our task?
Yes, this is the thing our souls must ask
"What have we done today?"
-Rev. J. M. Mead
"And ye my flock, the flock of my pas-
ture, are men, and I am your God, saith the
Lord God" (Ezek. 34:31).
"There were ninety and nine that safely lay,"
But after the count was told,
The Shepherd missed the one weak lamb
That had wandered afar from the fold.