Map and Imagery Library's rare...
 Map preservtion lasts for several...
 Map digitization and restoration...
 Smathers donates $1 million to...
 A message from the director


Chapter one
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00017068/00007
 Material Information
Title: Chapter one a newsletter for friends of the University of Florida Libraries
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Libraries
Publisher: University of Florida Libraries
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 2002
Publication Date: 1990-
Frequency: semiannual
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1990)-
General Note: Title from caption.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001597710
oclc - 23251451
notis - AHM1844
lccn - sn 91022786
System ID: UF00017068:00007

Table of Contents
    Map and Imagery Library's rare and antique maps are a treasure to discover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Map preservtion lasts for several hundred years
        Page 4
    Map digitization and restoration by the Digital Library Center
        Page 5
    Smathers donates $1 million to libraries
        Page 6
        Page 7
    A message from the director
        Page 8
Full Text


Map and Imagery Library's Rare and

Antique Maps are a Treasure to Discover

by Helenjane Armstrong, Ph.D.
Head, Map and Imagery Library

id you know that Gainesville
had a Spanish moss gin in
1884? Is it true that all roads
lead to Rome? How does one go to
Timbuktu? And just where DID
Columbus first land in the New World?
To find the answer to these ques-
tions, one may seek assistance in the
University of Florida Map & Imagery
Library. With over 750,000 maps,
aerial photographs and atlases, this

1772 map
of Africa. .
Jeffreys, .. .
London: '
T. Salmon.
A New
Geograph- ,. T
ical &

library is one of the five largest
academic map libraries in the United
States and the largest in the Southeast.
The majority of the maps are from
the 20th and 21st centuries; however,
the most alluring items are in the
library's collection of antique maps.
These beautiful items resemble paint-
ings but contain a wealth of informa-
tion as to man's early perceptions of
the world.
By studying maps of an area such
as Africa through the centuries, one
can picture the history of the conti-

nent and political interactions of
European countries. Over time rivers
are discovered and blank spaces once
filled with exotic animals contain
villages and physical features. The
16th century was the height of schol-
arship and prosperity in Timbuktu,
and it figures prominently on maps of
that time period. On later maps other
areas are stressed, place names change
and attitudes towards the indigenous
population can be seen through words
such as ivory factory, gold factory, and
(Continued on page 2)

c 3 Upcoming
< 4 Map Preservation Lasts for
Several Hundred Years
< 5 Map Digitization and
Restoration by the DLC
<~ 6 Smathers Donates $1 Million;
In Memoriam: C. Farris Bryant
c< 7 Desiderata
< 8 A Message from the Director

Map and Imagery Library (Continued from page l)

slave factory. Researchers have found
17th-century African maps that
indicate the staging areas for slave
trade as well as maps of the Atlantic
Ocean (Ethiopian Sea) depicting ship
departure points, routes, and landings
in the New World.
As with Africa, early maps of South
America and the Caribbean stimulate
the imagination. Exploration of the
Amazon Basin is observed on rare
maps much as the source of the Nile is
speculated upon on early African
maps. The University of Florida's
collection of Caribbean rare maps is
considered to be one of the best in the
United States. Books such as The
Journal of Don Francisco Saavedra de
Sangronis... 1780-1783, contain
reproductions of a number of the
library's antique Caribbean islands
maps that assist in understanding the
geographic relationships of the peri-
od. Those Caribbean maps on the
Map and Imagery Library's web page
- http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/maps/ -
are popular and along with the Holy
Land maps, have generated many
e-mail questions.
Page 2 c- Chapter One

1607 copper
engraving of
the Holy
Land by
Jodocus of

One of the most significant rare
maps is the Peutinger Tables (Tabula
Peutingeriana.) The Romans had
sophisticated road systems and in the
4th century A.D., the first road maps
were drawn for travel within the
Roman Empire. A road system from
India in the east to Britain in the west,
almost 70,000 miles, was drawn on a
papyrus roll 21 feet long and one foot

wide. The fragile papyrus roll did not
survive, but in the Middle Ages monks
reproduced it on a vellum scroll. In
the 1590s a scholar saved it and
arranged for a printed version. The
Map and Imagery Library has a rare
1660 Latin edition. It is an invaluable
research tool for historical scholars as
well as researchers using the Holy
Land map collection. The collection of
Holy Land maps that began with a
generous gift by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons has now been doubled
through library purchases. The oldest
maps in the library are from the
Simmons Collection, and are dated
1493. These are the earliest European
maps of Jerusalem and were printed
in the Liber Chronicarum Commonly
called the Nuremberg Chronicle it is
considered the most important illus-
trated book of the 15th century. Only
the Gutenberg Bible ranks higher.

Access to Rare Maps
Access to the rare maps has provid-
ed exceptional opportunities for UF
classes. A typical example was an art
course in print design. The class was
able to hold in their hands 15th-cen-

Antique Maps of the Holy Land
A cartobibliography of maps of the Holy Land in the Maps and Imagery
Library is available in a limited edition for sale. The 1999 Smathers Libraries
publication focuses on antique maps donated in 1997 to the University of
Florida by James C. and Adina P. Simmons in honor of their parents, Levy and
Zina Pevzner and Eugene and Irma Simmons.
The Simmons collection of nearly seventy rare maps documents five
centuries fifteenth through nineteenth of Holy Land cartographic record
and reflects the donors' care in research, selection, and documentation.
The cartobibliography includes full-color reproductions of fifteen of these
beautiful maps. Copies of the publication are $40 each, which includes sales
tax, and shipping and handling. Make checks payable to the University of
Florida Foundation and send to the Administrative Office, George A. Smathers
Libraries, University of Florida, PO Box 117001, Gainesville, FL 32611-7001.
The cartobibliography is also for sale in the Smathers Library Bookstore.

tury woodcut maps of the Holy Land
and Africa. They could compare the
design elements of the elaborate car-
touches' biblical figures with those of
natives and wild animals. Observing
change over time in different art styles
and artists' work proved invaluable.
Furthermore, the rare maps have been
used for seminars in African and
Latin American History. The Center
for African Studies and the library
have offered an Africana bibliography
course for several years. Students are
given the unique opportunity to study
changes in Africa by inspecting over
60 rare maps from 1535 to 1900.

Sanborn Maps
The most popular rare map collec-
tion in the library is a collection of
19th-century city maps of Florida
called the Sanborn Maps. They were
drawn for fire insurance purposes to
aid agents in assessing properties. The
maps are extremely accurate and show
the size, shape, and construction
materials for buildings. By comparing
maps from different dates, one can see
the architectural changes to a build-
ing. These rare maps of Florida were
published from 1884 to 1928 and
there are only two copies in existence.
Persons wishing to have buildings
placed on the National Register of
Historic Buildings use them extensive-
ly. Sanborns also are used to study the
history of a town. For instance in 1884
Gainesville had a Spanish moss gin,
which produced fiber for covering fur-
niture. Jacksonville also had a Spanish
moss gin, which burned down in
1901, destroying a large portion of the
business area. The library's Sanborns
have been used to learn what existed
on that site before the fire. From an
environmental standpoint, the
Sanborns have been used in locating
old gasoline stations to remove under-

ground fuel tanks and prevent them
from leaking into the aquifer.
By their nature, pre-19th-century
maps are fragile. Some were made
from woodcuts before the invention
of the printing press. These maps are

often difficult and expensive to
obtain. Cooperative purchases and
gifts have been instrumental in the
development of the collection.
Response from patrons has shown
the expense and care have been
worth it. cx-

The University of Florida Map & Imagery Library will soon add the 500,000th map to its collec
tion. The library would like to honor the occasion with a very special item. We have compiled a
list of maps which would be momentous gifts. For more information or to make a donation,
contact Sandra Melching, director of development, at (352) 392-0342.
Secunda Etas Mundi. SCHEDEL, H. [Nuremburg, 1493] (The Known World As Columbus Sailed)
$22,000-24,000. First edition of one of the earliest obtainable world maps, and visually one of the
most evocative of its period. Published just 40 years after the invention of printing.
Typus orarum maritimarum Guineae, Manicongo, & Angolae ultrap promontorium Bonae spei...
(South & Western Africa.) Linschoten, J. Van/Langren, A. Amsterdam, 1599. $7,500-$8,000.
With its large and intricate strapwork cartouches, exquisite calligraphy and other ornamental
flourishes, this is one of the most richly engraved maps of early cartography.
Africae nova descriptio..African Continent. Willem Janszoon Blaeu. Amsterdam, 1647.
$5,500 $6,500. The most decorative and popular of all early maps of Africa with side borders of
double costume figures and a top border of vignette plans of nine of the principal cities
Pas Kaart Van de Golif van Mexico... Keulen J. Van/ Vooght, C. J. (Sea Chart of Texas/ Gulf Coast
from Florida to Yucatan) Amsterdam, 1684 $5,850 $6,500. The most sophisticated rendering of
the coast then available from a Sea Atlas. Accurate and detailed.
Venezvela, cum parte Sustrali Novae and Andalvsiae. Blaeu, Willem / Blaeu, Joannis. Amsterdam,
1650 $1,900-2,100. Decorative map of an important region of South America during an active
period of exploration.
Habessinia Seu Abassia, Presbyteri Johannis regio... Hiob Ludolf Amsterdam, after c. 1683
$700. Earliest available printed map to show the true course and source of the Blue Nile.

Homecoming Through the Years Exhibit

Saturday, November 16, 2002
21/2 hours before homecoming football game kickoff
Homecoming Alumni BBQ Stephen C. O'Connell Center

University of Florida archives exhibit with Carl Van Ness, university archivist,
Department of Special and Areas Studies Collections
and Sandra Melching, director of development, George A. Smathers Libraries

For ticket information, contact the University Box Office at (352)392-1653
For further information about the BBQ, contact the UF Alumni Association at (888)352-5866

Chapter One c Page 3

Map Preservation Lasts for

Several Hundred Years

by Cathleen Mook
Head, Preservation Department

he preservation of maps from
the libraries' collections pri-
marily consists of protecting
the item from damage while allowing
it to be used. Unprotected maps are
easily damaged. Sliding them in and
out of drawers abrades the paper sur-
face and may tear edges or wrinkle
and fold the paper. Use of a map, even
if carefully handled, may soil or dam-
age the image and abrade the paper
surface. Appropriate conservation
treatment helps to minimize the wear
and greatly extends the life of maps.
Once cataloging and scanning for
digital preservation are completed,
the maps are sent to the Conservation
Unit of the libraries' Preservation
Department where they are examined
and their condition assessed. The
paper surface may be gently cleaned
with brushes to remove any dust and
loose particles. Old labels and tape are
removed if possible, and old mends
may be removed or replaced. Tears are
mended with Japanese tissue and
starch paste and the map may be
humidified and flattened if there are
obvious folds. Next the pH of the
paper is tested and the item is deacid-
ified only if needed. Deacidification
neutralizes the acids in paper, which
cause it to turn brown and brittle. This
treatment, performed in-house, is
needed for almost every map printed
after 1850. There was a change in
paper manufacture from cotton to
Page 4 c4 Chapter One

wood pulp resulting in weaker paper
with a decreased life expectancy. The
deacidification treatment also adds an
alkaline buffer to the paper to protect
it from a future drop in pH. Maps
printed before 1850 may not need to
be deacidified depending on how they
have been stored in the past.
After testing pigments for stabili-
ty, heavily soiled or stained maps may
be washed in deionized water or treat-
ed with other solvents for stain removal.
Washed items may need to be resized
and dried on a suction table to ensure
even drying and minimal paper stress.
Following these treatments the
map is encapsulated. Encapsulation is
the enclosing of the item within a
polyester envelope. The envelope is
sealed on all four sides using equip-
ment that produces sound waves to
seal the edges of the polyester. A label
with information about the map and
an identification tag of the holding
library is enclosed in a separate pock-
et. Encapsulation protects the item
from humidity, water, insects, and
handling. It also allows the map to be
safely stored flat in map drawers
without fear of damage.
All of the treatments performed
are completely reversible. The map
can be safely removed from the
envelope by cutting the seams. The
stability of the enclosed item after
treatment is estimated to be from
200 to 300 years. c-

: .. -..P _:,-_

.. ..e ,.

^ -* ? -.-a 1 -.

Do not fold. Folding and unfold-
ing breaks and stretches paper
Store flat if possible.
If map is framed, use archival
quality matting materials. UV
filtering Plexiglas also helps
reduce breakdown.
Be aware of the environment.
High heat and humidity speed up
paper degradation.
Cooler and drier is better.
Do not hang framed items in
direct sunlight or under heating
or air conditioning vents.
Rapid temperature and/or humid-
ity changes stress paper.
Do not use any kind of tape or
adhesive for home repairs. Better
to leave it alone than to use dam-
aging materials.

Map Digitization and

Restoration by the

Digital Library Center

by Mike Bond and Erich Kesse
Digital Library Center

Digital map imaging at the
Digital Library Center is a
combined art and science.
The process begins with the science of
digitally photographing the original
map under carefully balanced light-
ing, with settings optimized for the
particular map. Photography's tradi-
tional darkroom is replaced by soft-
ware, yielding control of image quali-
ties to computer experts with special
training in digital graphics. Digitized
maps are produced to reflect the intel-
lectual intent of the map as it left the
cartographer's hands, both to faithful-
ly capture the original and to optimize
for an aesthetically reliable reproduc-
tion, as viewed both in print-from-
digital and on computer monitors.
The digitization process continues
with "on-screen" assessments of both
the original map and the digital repro-
duction. The world of difference
between print and computer display
media leaves much room for interpre-
tation and criticism. Print media is
reflective light bounces from the
map to the eye, whereas computer
display media is transmissive light
is transmitted from the monitor to the
eye. A digitized map must faithfully
reproduce the original and look good
in both print and on screen. The
process is driven by mathematical for-
mulas that examine color "translation"
from print to digital, together with the
opacity and "reflectance" of paper and

inks. The process also is quantified in
the measurement or retention of fine
details in the digital map.
The science and art of digital
restoration lay beyond reproduction.
Digital restoration is reversible and
does not risk the health or longevity of
the original. Here, sometimes it helps
to remember, though maps are often
comparable to great works of art,
almost magical in appearance, maps
are organic materials in nature. These
spectacular works have been subject
to physical influences such as humidi-
ty, UV degradation, and anthropogenic
destruction over periods of time, in
some cases hundreds of years. A map

Above and page 4: Extracted detail from
digitized and restored map, "Occidentalis
Americae parties..., 1594 Dutch map by
Theodor de Bry published in his book
"Grand Voyages"

T "

Chapter One c- Page 5

in our collection today is rarely seen
as it was intended. A digital version of
the map as seen today is archived, and
the next process in the digiti-
zation chain begins.
Digital restoration
is founded upon
information about the
original map.
S Knowledge of particular
methods of papermaking, engraving,
printing, coloring, and storage inform
the process and reduce error. These
are a set of factors unique to each
individual map. There are no universal
techniques that can be described
presently for the balancing of effects
caused by the combination of environ-
ment and time. But, color saturation,
fading, paper yellowing and accretion
often show aging effects that can be
dealt with similarly. By correlating
time of production, type of paper, and
opacity and reflectance of inks and
papers, correction algorithms may be
employed to combat these effects,
restoring the map to its original look.
Most challenging, rewarding and
subject to criticism is attention to
anthropogenically-induced artifacts
found in these maps. Caused by
people, these artifacts are both unin-
tentional fingerprints, food and
drink stains, etc. and intentional -
ownership stamps, price markings,
repair attempts, etc. Either may reflect
the "provenance," the heritage of the
map itself. And, digital restoration
requires an assessment of the value of
each to preserve that heritage.
Comparison of the as-seen and
restored digital maps is the last stage
of the process. A team of Center staff,
including a biochemist and early
printed materials specialist, evaluates
each image to ensure that outcome
matches original production intent. c

Smathers Donates $1 Million to Libraries

With great excitement, the
Smathers libraries has just received
the first $1 million of George
Smathers' pledge. These funds, part
of the most important gift in the
libraries' history, are to be used for
the libraries' greatest needs.
Dale Canelas, director of UF
Libraries, said "the gift will enable the
libraries to be flexible in responding
to changing information formats, new
student initiatives, and academic
priorities. It will strengthen our role
as a center for learning and research,
where the past is preserved and the
present documented for the future."

Senator Smathers' first gift to the
University Libraries came in 1989
with a $1.9 million real estate gift,
which was combined with a 100%
match from the state, to rehabilitate
Library East. The library building,
which is listed on the National
Register of Historic Places, was
rededicated as the Smathers Library
and became the new repository for
the libraries' special collections.
Senator Smathers' papers are part
of the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida
History, housed in the Smathers

In 1991 Smathers made a deferred
gift to the University of Florida for the
library. In honor of the endowment,
the University Libraries were renamed
the George A. Smathers Libraries of
the University of Florida.
In making his gift, Senator
Smathers reiterated his life-long love
for the university and his continuing
commitment to support his alma mater.
"A library is the heart and central
nervous system of any university. To
build and maintain the University of
Florida as a great national university,
we have to build and maintain a great
library system," Smathers said. c

In Memoriam: C. Farris Bryant

C. Farris
Bryant, Florida's
34th Governor,
University of
Florida graduate,
and benefactor of
the George A.
Libraries, died
March 1, 2002. Bryant contributed
$300,000 to assist the libraries in
establishing a digital laboratory for
the Farris and Julia Bryant Great
Floridians project
Along with the funding, Bryant's
collection of papers covering his
political and public career from 1942
to 1970 was donated to the P.K. Yonge
Library of Florida History in the
Department of Special and Area
Studies Collections.
The gift made possible funding for
digitization lab equipment to better
preserve and widely disseminate the
Page 6 c Chapter One

Bryant papers and those of other
20th-century political leaders. The
Bryant collection contains 30 boxes of
manuscript papers, 15 scrapbooks,
and 350 reels of motion picture film.
Bryant received his business admin-
istration degree in 1935 from the
University of Florida and a law degree
from Harvard Law School in 1938.
He began his political career in
1941 when he was elected a state
representative from Marion County.
After enlisting in the U.S. Navy in
1941, he resigned his office. Following
the war, Bryant returned to practice
law in Ocala and was again elected the
county's state representative. He was
voted the "Most Outstanding Member
of the House of Representatives" four
times and was Speaker of the House
in 1953. He headed the Florida delega-
tion to the Democratic National
Conventions in 1952 and 1956.

Elected governor in 1960, he led
Florida to establish four universities
and numerous junior colleges; found-
ed the Florida Council of 100; initiated
and secured passage of the bonding
program that has provided over ten
billion dollars in capital funds for
higher education; expanded the inter-
state, primary, and turnpike road
systems; and secured passage of a
program for the acquisition of unique
lands to preserve Florida's environ-
ment for future generations.
After his term as governor, Bryant
served under President Lyndon Johnson
as Director of the Office of Emergency
Planning and on the National Security
Council. Bryant founded and served as
chairman and president of Voyager
Insurance Companies, Inc. until 1986.
He then resumed his business activities
and continued his counsel relationship
with the law firm of Bryant, Miller
and Olive. c-,

Students, faculty, and librarians are always looking for the perfect resource to
complement their research. While we do our best to be responsive to special needs,
there are always a few titles or equipment needs that lie beyond our grasp. If you are
interested in helping the Smathers Libraries acquire any of the following, please contact
Sandra Melching, director of development, at (352) 392-0342.

The Rare Book Collection has been fortunate in the past year in acquiring two more
titles printed by the Cuala Press, managed by Elizabeth Yeats. This press and its prede-
cessor, the Dun Emer Press, under the editorship of W.B. Yeats played a vital role in the
Irish literary renaissance. This brings the total of Dun Emer and Cuala Press imprints
to 68 out of 77 numbered titles. To view the titles owned by the libraries, and those not
owned, see the website at: http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/rarebook/cuala/cuala.htm.
Titles range from $250 to $500

Japanese Biographical Archive, from sources dated 1646-1998. Approximately 400 micro-
fiche, representing an accumulation of 87 biographical reference works on Japan, cover-
ing 65,000 persons from all periods of Japan's history who shaped Japanese politics,
economy, science, religion, and culture. 25,000 of the 85,000 entries are in English, the
remainder in Japanese, German, French, and other Western languages. $11,100

History ofEducation: Major Themes. Anthology of writings by leaders in the education
field. Multi-country comparisons. Four volume set: $622

K-12 Textbooks Collection Development to build and develop a current collection.

Curriculum Test Collection Development. This essential collection is expected of a
research level library. $5,000 per annum

of the Libraries

City State Zip
Home Phone Business Phone
Yes. I/we wish to support the George A. Smathers Libraries with a gift of $ Make
checks payable to the University of Florida Foundation, Inc. and mail to Dir. of Development,
George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, P.O. Box 117001, Gainesville, FL 32611-7001.
To pay by credit credit card fill out the following: MasterCard Visa
Credit Card No. _Exp. Date_
Cardholder's Name
Cardholder's Signature
Your gift may be eligible for a charitable contribution deduction.

0 N L! N6'

Giving to UF is now
just a click away


Visit our new online giving
Web site and find out how
simple it is to support
the Smathers Libraries

Please use my gift for the following:
_Smathers Libraries Purchase Fund
_ Special & Area Studies Collections
Latin American Collection
-Price Library of Judaica
Africana Collection
P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History
Baldwin Library of Historical
Children's Literature
Belknap Performing Arts Collection
Rare Books
_ Architecture & Fine Arts Library
_ Education Library
_ Journalism and Communications Library
_ Map and Imagery Library
_ Music Library
_ Marston Science Library
_ Digital Library Center
Please send information about
making a planned gift/bequest

Chapter One c-- Page 7

Dale B. Canelas
Director of University Libraries
Martha Hruska
Director for Technical Services
John Ingram
Director for Collections
Stephen Shorb
Director for Support Services
Carol Turner
Director for Public Services
Sandra Melching
Director of Development

Chapter One is published quarterly and
distributed to friends of the Libraries
and selected institutions. Questions
and comments should be addressed to
the editor, Barbara Hood, Public
Information Officer, George A. Smathers
Libraries, University of Florida, P.O. Box
117001, Gainesville, FL 32611-7001,
(352) 392-0342. Email: bhood@ufl.edu
Smathers Libraries Web address:


Chapter One
University of Florida
George A. Smathers Libraries
PO Box 117001
Gainesville FL 32611-7001

A e age fro th Direto

he library outlook for 2002-03
is somewhat less rosy than it
has been for the past two
years. In the library resources budget,
the legislature withdrew all non-recur-
ring funding for this fiscal year and
cut the recurring funds by 5%. The
result is a 22% reduction, more than
$1.6 million dollars from
$7,533,500 to $5,879,500. The univer-
sity has worked to offset the reduction
by allocating $1 million in non-recur-
ring funds for this fiscal year. In the
meantime, electronic resources and
journals continue to increase in cost
substantially above inflation.
During the past year the library
joined the LibQUAL+ program, a
research and development project to
define and measure library service
quality across institutions and to
create user based quality assessment
tools for local library planning. This
group of 164 libraries, of which some

60 are research libraries, administered
their third annual survey this spring.
Among the 78,000 respondents was a
sampling of University of Florida
faculty, graduate students, and under-
graduates. The data was processed
nationally and UF's results were
compared to the national average. The
UF faculty see the library as deficient
in complete runs of journal titles and
in comprehensive print collections.
Faculty also expressed some unhappi-
ness with convenient access to the
collections. The national average
shows that faculty nationally see their
libraries as deficient in complete runs
of journal titles and in comprehensive
print collections. We will be evaluat-
ing the data over coming months and
trying to improve our performance in
line with user expectations.
Progress on the addition to
Library West has slowed as architects
found serious facility deficiencies that

need to be
corrected in the
current build-
ing. The cost of
these repairs
has reduced the funding available for
the addition and forced a 50% reduc-
tion in additional space. Over the next
two months, library staff will be work-
ing on reprogramming the facility that
will provide services and collections
to support faculty and students in the
humanities and social sciences. We
will continue to make every effort to
improve user space and to more close-
ly integrate electronic, print and
multi-media information.
Dale Canelas
Director of UF Libraries