• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Preface
 Introduction
 Analysis of sentences and...
 Vocabulary






Title: Yoruba composition
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00016839/00001
 Material Information
Title: Yoruba composition
Physical Description: 96 p. : ;
Language: English
Creator: De Gaye, J. A ( Jules A )
Beecroft, W. S
Publisher: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & co.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: [etc.,etc.] 1923
 Subjects
Subject: Yoruba language -- Composition and exercises   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by J. A. De Gaye and W. S. Beecroft.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00016839
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000388525
oclc - 04796425
notis - ACD1578

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Analysis of sentences and exercises
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Vocabulary
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text



ORUBA COMPOSITION




BY

J. A. de GAYE, F.L.S., F.E.S.
Higher Standard, Yoruba,
Inspector of Schools, Lagos, Nigeria.

AND

W. S. BEECROFT
Headmaster, St. Francis Xavier's School,
Lagos, Nigeria.















LONDON:
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., LTD.,
LAGOS, NIGERIA: C.M.S. BOOKSHOP

1923

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

















PREFACE

The authors can rightly claim this production as the
first of its kind ever published. It has been compiled with
great care, at the cost of much toil and labour.

It should be used in conjunction with the Yoruba
Grammar, by the same authors, by students intending to
read for the Higher Standard Yoruba or for the Yoruba
Matriculation Examination of the Universities of London
and Glasgow.
J. A. DE GAYE
W. S. BEECROFT
LAGOS, NIGERIA
1922












INTRODUCTION

ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.
I. A Sentence is an Assemblage of words conveying a complete
sense or thought.
2. Sentences may be Simple, Compound or Complex.
3. A Simple Sentence expresses a single statement, command
or question. It contains one finite verb only.
Ql9run da aiy6-God created the world.
4. A Compound Sentence consists of two or more simple
sentences, each of which gives, when taken separately, a com-
plete meaning.
0 yinb9n, o si farapam9 sinu igi-He fired a shot and
disappeared into the wood.
5. A Complex Sentence is one which consists of a Principal
Sentence and one or more Subordinate Sentences. Every sub-
ordinate sentence contains a finite verb, but does not convey a
complete sense when taken apart from the principal sentence.
lniti o ba ji ap6 ow6 mi, ji yey--Who steals my purse
steals trash.
Subordinate Sentences may be Substantival, Adjectival or
Adverbial, according as they respectively perform the function
of a noun, adjective or adverb.
6. The Noun Sentence. A noun sentence is that which stands
as the subject or object of the verb in the Principal Sentence.
O da mi l'oju p6 enikeni k6 16 jiyhn r9 yi.-It is evident that
no one can deny this statement. Here, ]nikeni k6 16 jiyan
(rg yi," stands as the subject of the verb da l'oju; it is therefore
a Noun Sentence.
Again, in Mo m nkan t'o nse, I know what you are doing,
" nkan t'o nse," which is the object of the verb m9, is a Noun
Sentence.
7. An Adjectival Sentence is one which qualifies a Noun or
Pronoun. It is introduced by a relative pronoun. Qkinrin t'o
5









wa bi lana nSaishn-The man who came here yesterday is ill.
" T'o wi bi lana," qualifes q9knrin; it is therefore an Adjectival.
Sentence.
Note.-(t'o=ti o ; wa bi=w6 ibi).
.8.. An Adverbial Sentence may be:-
(a) Final, denoting purpose.
He hastened to the spot that he might defend his brother.
O 19 si ibe pqlu ikAnjfi ki on ba 1I dAhbbo arak~nrin r.
(b) Consecutive, denoting result.
I was so frightened that I nearly fainted.
$ru ba mi t6b ti mo fer dkfi.
(c) Temporal, denoting time.
While Aina is bathing, let us go round the lake.
Nigbati Aina ba nw, je ki a 19 yi adigun ka.
(d) Concessive, denoting opposition.
Though it is difficult, I will do it.
Botilejep6 o Soro, emi yio se e.
(e) Casual, denoting cause.
Ajayi will not come back, because you flogged him.
Ajayi ki yio pada wa, nitoripe o ti ni A.
(f) Conditional, denoting supposition.
If you were to do this, I should certainly blame you.
Bi iwg yio ba se eyi, emi iba ba 9 wi dajudaju.
(g) Comparative, denoting comparison.
I will do as I like.
Emi yio se gege bi mo ti f.
9. A sentence may contain the following parts:-
Subject, Enlargement of Object, Predicate, Extension of
Predicate, Object, and Enlargement of Object.
o1. The subject or object may be a Noun, a Pronoun, or a
Noun Phrase.
II. A Phrase is a group of words without a finite verb, which
is used in the place of a part of speech.
12. The Enlargement of the Subject or Object may be an
Adjective, a Noun in Opposition, a Noun in the Possessive Case,
or an Adjectival Phrase.
13. The Predicate is a Finite Verb.








14. The Extension of Predicate may be an Adverb, an Adverbial
Phrase, or an Adverbial Sentence.
ANALYSIS OF A SIMPLE SENTENCE.
15. Mo I~ ri lliti inf ile mi 16j6juim.
I can see you from my house every day.
Subject.-Mo
Predicate.--l ri
Extension of Predicate.-(a) lati inf ile mi. (Place
whence)
(b) 16j6jum9 (Recurrence of
time)
Object.-9
ANALYSIS OF A COMPLETE SENTENCE.
O fer phdinu qmi r nigbati o gbidinw6 lati gbh irt r la.
He nearly lost his life when he attempted to save his friend.
Subject.-O
Predicate.-padanu
Extension of Predicate.-(a) fer (quantity)
(b) nigbati ... 1. (adverbial sen-
tence, denoting time)
Object.--mi
Enlargement of Object.--r
ANALYSIS OF TIE ADVERBIAL SENTENCE.
Nigbati lt.
Subject.-O
Predicate.-gbidanw6
Object.-lati gbi gr9 la (noun phrase).
16. Construction after verbs of saying, thinking, knowing,
feeling, understanding, and the like.
The above verbs are followed by p6, and the Yoruba verb in
the subordinate clause is in the same mood and tense as the
English verb.
Examples :-
The general said that the war will soon be over.
Olori ogun na s9 p6 ogun na yio tate pari.








People think that the summer will be very hot this year.
Aw9n enia r6 p6 igba rifn yio gbond pdp I'9ddin yi.
You know that I came here yesterday.
O mr p6 mo wa sihin lana.
I feel that he ought to be ashamed of himself.
Mo mr p6 o ye ki oju ara r ti i.
I understand that Germany will soon be invaded.
Mo gb p6 a o gbogun w Germany ni lwwliww yi.
I believe that you are right.
Mo gbigb p6 iw9 1'o jare.
Notice.-I promised to do this for him.
Mo se ileri lati se eyi fun u.
I hope to be in the country to-morrow.
Mo ni ireti ati wa ni ilf na 191a.
17. Expressions containing Impersonal Verbs, as: it seems,
it appears, it is manifest, it is plain, it is agreed, etc., follow the
same rule:-
It seems as if you are mistaken.
O dabi enipe o ti Sinh.
It is plain that you do not understand me.
O hin gbangba p6 nkan ti mo sq k6 ye 9.
It is agreed that Cicero is a distinguished orator.
A fim9q9kan p6 Cicero je ol6kiki as9r ni gbangba or alitf
ol6kiki.
18. Note.-Notice the different ways of rendering to say "
in Yoruba.
What do you say ?
Kil'o wi ?
He says that he will come if the weather is fine.
O ni on yio wi bi oju 9j9 ba dara. (That, not translated
after ni.)
Your father said that story very nicely.
Bibi rq sq itan na daradara.
19. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation:-
abo, bag to keep clothes in ; also refuge.
A abo, female.






9

ab6, a tree from the stick of which natives produce fire by
friction.
abg, returning.
abp, half.
ab9, one who adores.
agb9n, coco-nut apa, arhn.
agbyn, wasp. api, mahogany, also a
agb n, the chin. scar.
agbyn, basket. aph, a prodigal.

20. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS:-
Abaiyeje ki iSe ifi idi 9rhn hin.
Secrets should never be told to a busy-body.
Literally :-The world spoiler is not worthy of being shown
the causes of an affair.
Obanij mba ara r9 j.
He who despises another despises himself.
Ohun abapade kb jq ohun ti a ri tel.
An accident is not like an expected result.
Literally:-An accident is not like a thing which we see
beforehand.

EXERCISE I.
I. I see, boys, that you have behaved very well.
2. I know that I shall never go back to my native land.
3. I believe that he meant to accuse me of treachery.
4. He told me that the enemy lost many men in killed and
wounded.
5. He said that he would not do this without your consent.
6. He promised to be here at the appointed time.
7. Many men think that the state was saved by his valour.
8. We all feel that the war cannot last long.
9. It is plain that we must defend our country.
Io. We hope that the enemy will be put to flight.
II. They hoped to recover the losses which they had sustained.
12. We were told that the English have gained a brilliant
victory over the enemy.








13. It was agreed that they faced death with much courage.
14. Who told you that I would not come when you would
send for me ?
15. It was announced that the troops had crossed the river
early in the morning.
16. He said he hoped you would not say anything.
17. Do you believe that your brother will send for him ?
18. Why do you think that you will not be successful ?
19. We all know it is evident that he will not be able to resist
long.
20. The Yorubas believe that when the Harmattan blows,
most diseases are swept away.


THE INEINITIVE MOOD.

21. The Infinitive Mood may be used as: (a) The subject;
(b) the object of a finite verb.
To live a pious life is the duty of a Christian.
Lati wh ni iwa mim je iS ti Kristiani.
Eat to live.
Jeun lati wh.
22. The following verbs are always followed by the Infinitive
Mood with the preposition lati.
To be accustomed, lati fi se iwa; to be able, lati 16 se ; to
prefer, lati yn ; to begin, lati bere ; to dare, lati dd.h.
We are accustomed to rise early.
Awa ti fi se iwa lati md tite ji.
You will not be able to pass your examination, if you do
not work.
Iw9 ki yio 1M k9ja idanwo re bi iw9 k6 ba giS.
I prefer to live a solitary life.
Mo y~n lati wa ni gadamu ara mi or qmi nikan.
He began to address the court.
0 bre9 si isyrg ni ile-ejo.
How can you dare say that you were present when I came ?
Bawo ni iw9 se l~ d~i~ lati wipe iw9 wa nib6 nigbati mo d6 ?








23. TRANSLATION OF THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE,
the Gerund (as noun and verb), the verbal noun in ing,"
i.e.-the word in ing preceded by the definite article and followed
by a preposition-and the Gerundive use of participles.
I saw you laughing.
Mo ri 9, o nrerin. (I saw you; you were laughing.)
While you were playing, your sister arrived.
Nigbati iwg nSire, arabinrin re d6.
Seeing is believing (gerund as noun.)
Riri ni gbigbagb .
He is fond of killing birds (gerund as verb).
On feran ati ma pa eiye.
Knowing that you were away, he departed.
Niwon igbati on mr p6 iw9 k6 si nile, o 19. (Since he knew.)
He is engaged in the careful reading of a book.
Qw r6 di fun kika iw6 les19s9 (verbal noun).
I expect the work being done carefully.
Mo ni ireti p6 iS na yio je SiS6 daradara.
He was pleased at my son's not coming.
Inu r dfn si alaiwd 9m9 mi (gerund).
24. Words which vary in meaning, according to intonation:-
ari, thunder b6, to cover, also to be
ara, body full of leaves
ara, relative b6, to peel
ara, fashion b(, to feed, to drop
b, to skip b9, to adore
b, to beg b, to insert, to return
be, to display
25. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
Bi 9ran ba si okunkun, a b wb li abe.
Should a matter be obscure, get to the bottom of it.
Vniti mb abeiyanu yio ri ohun ti nf gbh 1lwO oluwar.
He who keeps on begging will get what he wants.
Ohun ti a k6 f ki enia k6 m6 li ASe li abtl.
What is not wished to be known is done in secret.
Akuk9 k9, 919 pbSe.
The cock crows, the idle man grumbles.








EXERCISE 2.
I. He was taught reading better than writing.
2. Has James informed you of his coming back this year?
3. The next day, leaving the city at daybreak, he successfully
escaped the pursuit of the enemy.
4. The harvest will depend upon the sowing.
5. It has not ceased raining since my return.
6. They found him weeping at the foot of the tree.
7. Calling the soldiers to arms, the general rushed out of the
city.
8. The tanks have been made ready for the coming rains.
9. Peace having been signed, all the soldiers returned to their
homes.
o1. The boy was ashamed of being beaten by the master.
II. What is the use of running when you are not on the right
road ?
12. A thinking man is always striking something new.
13. It is not our changing circumstances, but our unregulated
desires that rob us of peace.
14. No man is worse for knowing the worst of himself.
15. The cow, having been killed by a lion yesterday, could
not be found.
16. Your safety will depend upon your running away
immediately.
17. My brother told me that you were very clever at teaching
languages.
18. It being discovered that the enemy were giving way, the
general ordered his troops to pursue.
19. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
20. I could not help laughing when I saw how frightened
he was.
FINAL CLAUSES.
26. A Final Clause is one which indicates the purpose of the
principal sentence. It is introduced by ki, or nitori ki in order
that, and nitori ki mI, in order that not.
The chiefs summoned a meeting of the inhabitants, in order
that they might hear their grievances.








Aw9n balogun ijoye p6 aw9n ar ilui si ap&j9 nitori ki nw9n
16 gb6 qdin w9n.
He left the country, in order that he might not be condemned
for larceny.
0 fi 116 sile nitori ki a mi ba da a 1ebi ole-jija.
Note.-When the principal verb in English is followed by an
Infinitive of purpose, the same construction is used in Yoruba.
The king called the chiefs of the country to. deliberate on
important matters.
Qba na p6 aw9n olori il! j9 lati s9 9r phthki.
27. After verbs of fearing, that is translated by p6,
that not by p6 ki
that 'no one by p6 enikeni ki
that nothing by p6 ohunkohun ki.
I fear that he will come.
1ru mba mi p6 on yi6 wa.
I fear that he will not come.
l$ru mba mi p6 on ki yio wd.
I am afraid that no one will do this for me.
lJru mba mi p6 enikeni ki yio se eyi fun mi.
I am afraid that nothing will prevent him from running away.
lru mba mi p6 ohunkohun ki yio 16 da a duro ki o ma sal9.
I fear that we shall never see him again.
$ru mba mi p6 awa ki yio ri i mr lai.
28. Notice the following constructions:-
He is too cruel to be loved.
Iwa ikh r k6 jq ki enia ferhn r.
or
Iwa r k6 dara t6 p6 ki enia ferhn r.
He is worthy of being loved..
0 ye fun iferan or if.
29. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
b9w9, to shake hands d6, to come to, to arrive
b w9, to regard d6, for (prep) ; to bind
bu, to bake, to rot d, to ensnare
bi, to abuse d, to loosen, to ripen
bfi, to take out a portion







PROVERBS.
30. Ipa abre9 li okdn it.
It is the path of a needle which the thread is accustomed to'
follow.
AS9 abilh gbogbo li o li orukg.
Every coloured cloth has its name.
tniti o ba mr idi bran tel on ni ibu abijd ek6.
He who knows a matter beforehand confounds a liar.

EXERCISE 3.
I. I fear that the war will last long.
2. I hope that you are not afraid that he will disturb you.
3. No one will deny that he went away in order to avoid a
quarrel.
4. The master punished the boy in order that he might not
misbehave a second time.
5. I am afraid that the Germans will not be able to resist any
longer.
6. No one who does not regret his fault is worthy of pardon.
7. He is too intelligent to fail in his examination.
8. He is too kind to abandon you in your distress.
9. We can hardly believe that you are worthy of speaking
in the name of your countrymen.
o1. You should read your lesson first, in order to understand
what you learn.
II. He sent his son to England, in order that he might be
taught literature.
12. I wish to address you all that no one may say that he has
not been warned.
13. The French sent an expedition to the island, in order
to punish the inhabitants for the murder of one of their country-
men.
14. He sent for the witnesses, in order that they might
give their evidence.
15. Some men are too proud to be loved.
16. I paid attention to your lessons, in order to profit by
them.








17. After a severe disaster, the enemy sent ambassadors to
sue for peace.
18. I was told he would not come unarmed, but I am afraid
he will.
19. They began their march early during the night, in order
to attack the enemy at daybreak.
20. Soldiers were sent to guard the bridge, in order to prevent
the enemy from crossing.

CONSECUTIVE CLAUSES.
31. A clause, which indicates the consequence or result of
what is stated in the Principal Sentence, is called Consecutive.
The principal sentence contains such words as: so, in such
a way that, instead of, far from, it happened that, and verbs ex-
pressing doubt. The consecutive clause, which in English is
generally in the Indicative or Infinitive Mood, retains the same
construction in Yoruba.
I was so sad that I was not able to speak.
Inu mi baje t6b ti emi k6 fi 1I s9r9.
The attack was so sudden that we had no time to defend
ourselves.
Ik9gl na je ojiji t6b ti awa k6 fi ni ay& lati dAbb6b ara wa.
Who is so foolish as to deny that God is the Creator of all
things ?
Tani ise mug t6b t'o 16 wipe Ql9run kiSe elda ohun
gbogbo ?
He behaved in such a way that no one spoke to him.
O hfwa li 9nk kan ti qnikeni k6 fi 1h ba a sgrp.
I am not the man to do this.
Emi ki ise eniti ise eyi.
There was no doubt that the Germans were confident of
victory.
K6 si iyemeji p6 aw9n Germans ni igbgkhnle p6 nw9n yio
Sgun.
Far from finding fault with what you did, I encouraged you.
S Kka ti emi iba fi wa awawi pelu nkan t'o Se, mo gbh 9
niyinju.








It happened that they were the first to inform us of the
approach of the enemy.
0 w6 je p6 awgn ni eni ti o k< so fun ni p6 aw9n ta mbe
nitbsi.
32. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
&bi, vomit ete, lip
ebi, hunger, journey et6, resolution
6de, language te, leprosy
ed6 or id6, lobster et, disgrace
ede, name of a tree cwu, danger
de, ripe fruit ewid, grey hair
ekg, agidi
ek, teaching
Ek6, Lagos
QUOTATIONS AND PROVERBS.
33. Af6m kb li egbb ; igi gbogbo ni ibatan.
A parasite has no root, it claims relationship with all other
plants.
Agada kb mQ ori aligbede.
The sword shows no respect to the maker of it.
Literally:-The sword does not know the head of the
blacksmith.
Agbhri kb ni mgdunm9dun.
A skull has no brains in it.

EXERCISE 4.
I. I was so confused that I did not know what to do with
myself.
2. You ought to behave in such a way that no one should
find fault with you.
3. Instead of resisting the enemy, they allowed themselves
to be taken prisoners.
4. It happened that no one was present when he met with
his accident.
5. There is no doubt that the days are shorter in winter than
in summer.
6. Far from being angry with you, I approve of your conduct.







17

7. He was so shaken by the news that he almost fainted.
8. The master said that you should work instead of talking.
9. Who doubts that Cicero was one of the greatest orators
of his time?
Io. He answered in such a way that I could see he did not
understand a word of what I said.
II. There is no doubt that on many occasions I assisted
him.
12. The people were so angry after the assassination of the
king that the assassins had to flee for their lives.
13. Why do you speak in such a way that no one under-
stands you ?
14. Instead of rebuking me for my ignorance, you should help
me.
15. Some people are so foolish that it is no use arguing with
them.
16. Instead of listening to my explanations, you were talking
all the time.
17. Far from leaving his friend, he defended him at the risk
of his life.
18. There was no doubt that some of the prisoners were sick
of the war.
19. The battle was raging so furiously that none of us had
time to think of death.
20. The storm was so violent that many houses were blown
down by it.
TEMPORAL CLAUSES.
34. A Temporal Clause is an adverbial clause which defines
the time of the sentence to which it is subordinate.
35. Temporal clauses are introduced by:-
Ak6k6 ti or nigbati, when or while.
ni kete ti, or kete ti, as soon as.
lehin igbati, after.
niw9n igbati, so long as.
nigbakugba ti, as often as.
ki t6, before.
titi di igbati, until;
B








and an English participle which can be turned into when
followed by a finite verb. Example:-Being at Athens, i.e.,
when I was at Athens.
Examples :-
No one can say when the war will be over.
K6 si enikan ti o l~ sq9 k6k6 ti ogun yio pari.
As soon as the Harmattan approaches, most trees lose their
foliage.
Kete ti 9ye ba d6, p0lp ninu aw9n igi ni ima w9 ew6 w9n

You may do it as often as you like.
0 16 Se e nigbakugba o ba f.
Being at Abeokuta, I often went to catch butterflies.
Nigbati mo wk li Abeokuta, emi a ma 19 pa aw9n labalaba
nigbh pfip.
Let us leave before night surprises us.
Je ki a 19 ki ile t'o fi wa.
While we were living at Onitsha, we often went to fish on
the Niger.
Nigbati a ngb6 Onitsha, awa amd 19 peja ni od6 Qya
nigbakugba.
I shall be loyal to you, so long as you are loyal to me.
Emi yio j olQtp si 9, niw9n igbati iwy ba j0 o19t9 si mi.
He enjoyed the confidence of his friends until he was dis-
missed from the public service.
O gbaddn igbekele aw9n r titi di igbati a fi 16 jade kuro
ninu is$ 9ba.

CONCESSIVE CLAUSES.
36. A Concessive Clause is an adverbial clause which denotes
opposition. It is introduced by botiljqep6, although; Sugb9n
nikan p6, provided that.
Example :-
Although he is very clever, yet he is very timid.
Botiljep6 o j 919gb9n pfdp, sib o 16jo gidigidi.








37. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
j9, eight ru, fear
ej matter, dispute rd, handle of a hoe
qekn, cry rii, slave, captive
kfin, leopard eri, burden, cargo
emi, shea-butter rd, a kind of spice
9mi, life, breath
38. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
Agb& ni ije egbin omi, agbalagba ni ijiya ran.
As a calabash receives the sediment of water, so an elder
must exercise forbearance.
Agbeje gbh w9n l ani ki a pa, a ni pdnsd.
After the agbeje has saved men from starvation, it is judged
to be fit to be cut into a calabash.
Cf. English Proverb.-" As soon as you have drunk,
you turn your back upon the spring."
EXERCISE 5.
I. Although the general knew that the enemy were superior
in numbers, yet he accepted to give battle.
2. As long as I live here, I wish to devote myself to the study
of nature.
3. As soon as he saw that his army was giving way, he rushed
into the midst of the enemy.
4. When the inhabitants heard that the enemy were approach-
ing, they immediately fled into the forest.
5. I shall not go for a walk with you until I have finished
my lesson.
6. Although I am your friend, yet I cannot approve of your
conduct in this case.
7. Although I hastened to his assistance, yet I arrived too
late to save his life.
8. After Brutus had killed Caesar, he addressed the Roman
people.
9. I will not do anything for you until you repent of your
behaviour.
o1. Though he is a prudent man, yet he has been deceived
many times.









11. It happened that you were not at home when I called.
12. While you were away from the country, I often thought
of you.
13. He said he would surrender, provided they promised to
save his life.
14. Although he knew he was wrong, he persisted in his mistake.
15. So long as you do not make any noise, you can play
whatever game you like.
16. Being found guilty of murder, the judge condemned
the prisoner to death.
17. After he had spoken for a long time, he said that his case
was closed.
18. When spring comes, all the trees begin to bud.
19. So long as it rains, there is no need for you to go home.
20. Although lions are found in this country, yet I never
saw one in all my travels.
CAUSAL CLAUSES.
39. Subordinate adverbial clauses, which give the reason
for the assertion made in the principal sentence, are called
Causal. The conjunctions introducing such clauses are:
since, because, for, as, all of which are rendered by nitori or
nitori ti.
Examples:-
You will never succeed, because you are idle.
Iw9 ki yio 1M bori lai, nitori ti o 1e.
Since you are so obstinate, I will not discuss with you any
longer.
Nitori ti o j6 alafojudi pfip, emi ki yio ba 9 wadi 9r9 p mn.
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES.
40. A Conditional Clause is one which expresses a condition
depending on something else happening. The principal clause -
is called Apodosis, and the If-Clause, the Protasis.
Conditional clauses are introduced by if, bi; unless, bikosqpe;
and also by the auxiliary should, which is equivalent to if,
in such sentences as: Should you do this," i.e., if you were to
do this. Bi and bikoeppe are followed by ba.








4I. TYPES OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.
(a) If you did this, you were wrong.
Bi iwg ba se eyi, iwq l'ebi.
(b) If you have done this, you have been wrong.
Bi iw9 ba ti se eyi, iwq ti j9bi.
(c) If you used to do this, you were wrong.
Bi iwg ba ti nSe eyi, iw9 l'ebi.
(d) If you do this, you are wrong.
Bi iwg ba se eyi, iw9 l'qbi.
(e) If you do this, you will be wrong.
Bi iwh ba se eyi, iw9 yio l'ebi.
(f) If you were to do this, you would be wrong.
Bi iwg ba ni lati se eyi, iw9 yio l'ebi.
(g) If you did this, you would be wrong.
Bi iwq ba se eyi, iwq yio l'bi.
(h) If you had done this, you would have been wrong.
Bi iwg ba ti se eyi, iw9 iba ti jebi.
Unless, bikosepe. You will not be forgiven, unless you repent.
* A ki yio dariji 9, bikosepe o ba ronupiwada.
Should. Should Aina come here, tell him that I shall be
back in the afternoon.
Bi Aina ba wk ibi, so fun u p6 emi yio pada w& l'9san.

COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.
42. Comparative clauses are such as are introduced by some
adverb of manner, such as: as as, bi ti; like, as,
gegy bi; as if, bi enip6 or gegh bi enip6.
Examples :-
I shall explain to you everything, as it happened.
Emi yio tfim gbogbo nkan fun 9, gege bi o ti S.
My brother is as happy as one can be.
Arak~nrin mi wa li alhfia bi enikan ti 16 wh; or bi enikqni.
The inhabitants ran away, as if the enemy were at the
gates of the city.
Aw9n ara ili s19, gege bi enip6 aw9n 9ta mbh li enubode il6.
The Assyrians came down like the wolf on the fold.
Aw9n ara Assyria s9kale wi gegh bi kbrik6 sinu agbb aguthn.








43. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
esin, shame. f, to love.
qein, horse. f, to breathe heavily.
qein, spear. f6, to fly.
ewa, ten. f, to wash clothes.
ewa, beauty. f, to break.

44. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
Agbb meji ki mu omi ninu akoto kan.
Two rams cannot drink out of the same calabash.
A ki ifi eran ikun gb~n eran agb9nrin nP.
No one will throw away deer's flesh for squirrels.
Akisa aS9 li afi iSu oSuka.
Rags make up a pad.

EXERCISE 6.
I. He dismissed his servants because he was leaving the
country.
2. He was appointed commander-in-chief, because he is known
never to have made a mistake.
3. Since your condemnation is certain, you must plead guilty.
4. The labourers refused to work, because they thought that
their wages were not sufficient.
5. If I chastise you, it is not because I hate you, but because
I have to punish you for your idleness.
6. The crew could not be saved, because the storm was too
violent when the ship foundered.
7. I would not object to your playing, if I knew you could
play properly.
8. Should I conceal the truth, I would certainly be punished
if I were discovered.
9. Why should you be discouraged, since you have so many
friends who feel with you ?
io. If I had not heard of your arrival, I would not have sent
for you.
I1. If I have any news of the war, I shall send it to you.
12. Were he not so busy, he would not be able to bear his
solitary life.








13. If you were to make the same mistake a second time,
both your father and your mother would not be willing to pardon
you.
14. If the Allies had not been so united, the war would have
turned to the advantage of the enemy.
15. Unless you tell me what you want me to do, I shall not
be able to help you.
16. He said that he would be very grateful to you, if you
lent him your rickshaw to-morrow.
17. I shall look after your children, just as if they were mine.
18. Happy are those who live in a foreign land, as if they
lived in their own home !
19. Raising a terrible shout, the enemy rushed on our camp,
as if they had already won the victory.
20. As people sow, so they will reap.

45. The following constructions are all idiomatic. They
should be carefully studied:-
I am ashamed of you. oju re nti mi.
I am wearied of your behaviour. Iwh re si mi.
I regret (followed by an English
participle). Anu Se mi lati .
It becomes an orator,
or 0 ye fun alawive.


It is becoming to an orator.
It misbecomes, or it is un-
becoming to.
It pleases me.
It is lawful to.

It is of importance to you.
It concerns.
It troubles.
It thunders.
It rains.
Evening comes on.
It dawns.


*K6 y fun .
Inu mi dfin, or
O d&n m9 mi.
0 t9, or 0 ye nipa ofin
lati. .
0 je phatki fun 9.
O kin.
O wAh6la.
0 san ara.
Oj6 nr .
Il nsu, or alh nl.
Ile nm .








46. Verbs followed by the preposition fun.
To command. Lati pae fun.
To be harmful, or injurious. Lati palara fun.
To be indulgent to. Lati ni ik fun.
To heal. Lati se iw6shn fun.
To be grateful to. Lati je 9l9p9 fun.
To exchange for. Lati pSipphr fun.
47. Verbs followed by the preposition si.
To obey. Lati se igb9ran si, or lati
teriba fun.
To disobey. Lati Saigb9ran si.
To trust. Lati ni igbekele si.
To favour. Lati ni ojurere si.
To delight in. Lati ni ay si.
48. To be useful may be followed by fun or si. Lati wfil6 si
or fun.
To accuse, lati fishn, takes the accusative of the person,
followed by the preposition fun.
49. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
gbh, to take gb6, to ripen
gba, to sweep iba, a hit
gb6, to move, to lift ibi, fever
gbe, to be contiguous iba, ambuscade
gbe, dry iji, act of waking
gb to sharpen iji, tornado, or fear
gbO, to hear iji, shadow
gbO, to flourish igbin, snail
gbb, to bark igbin, planting
50. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
Eniti'np& 9 k6 dake, iw9 li 6 gb? agb ya.
He goes on calling you, and you pretend to be deaf.
Cf. English proverb:-" None are so deaf as those who
won't hear."
Aigb9ran baba afojudi.
Disobedience is the father of insolence.
Akete kekere k6 gbi enia meji.
A small bed will not hold two persons.






25

EXERCISE 7.
I. He said that he was ashamed of your behaviour.
2. I regret being in such a hurry to leave you.
3. It is unbecoming to an orator to grow angry.
4. It is of great importance to you to warn him not to
do so.
5. It pleases me immensely to hear that you have distinguished
yourself lately.
6. It troubles me when I think that the enemy may at any
time destroy such a beautiful city.
7. As soon as evening comes on, night birds abound in the
road.
8. It concerns the State to look after the safety of the
inhabitants.
9. It makes a great difference to me whether the enemy will
conquer or not.
io. It rained so heavily during the last fortnight that all our
plantations were under water.
. It is lawful to confiscate the property of the enemy in
time of war.
12. When the morning of the I5th of January dawned, the
battlefield was seen to be covered with thousands of dead and
wounded.
13. He said he regretted your being away when the news came
that he had to leave early on the following morning.
14. It troubles me, more than you can imagine, when I think
how you have been wasting your time at school.
15. It thundered for more than an hour, during which rain
fell in torrents.
16. No one should be ashamed of doing what is right.
17. It becomes a good citizen to obey the laws of his
country.
18. I am pleased to hear that the enemy will soon sur-
render.
19. It becomes a good man to resist even his best friend,
when he gives him a bad advice.
20. It is of great importance that the Legislative Council
should discuss the law before the end of the Session.








EXERCISE 8.
i. No one will be able to command unless he knows how to
obey.
2. He never thought he would be in the least injurious to you,
when he thought of preventing you from attacking the rebels.
3. It is the duty of a Christian to be indulgent to his brethren.
4. He was commanded not to do this, but he would not obey.
5. I understand that the Germans desire to make an exchange
of prisoners.
6. Who will believe that the Russians wish to exchange one
of their islands for a number of big guns ?
7. I always trusted you; but I am afraid I put too much
confidence in you.
8. I was informed that you took much delight in the study
of literature.
9. Will you kindly favour me with a loan of 1oo ? I shall
repay you as soon as I can.
o1. I am very grateful to you for the kindness you have
shown to me on that occasion.
II. The information I received from you will be useful to
the cause of the government.
12. The people accused him of treason and asked that he
should be put to death.
13. Children wvho are disobedient to their parents will one
day repent of their fault.
14. Be indulgent to those who have sinned against you;
it is the law of Christ.
15. Trust those who are in command; they will undoubtedly
lead you to victory.
16. It concerns your safety not to be injurious to those who
have surrendered.
17. Favour those who have always been loyal to you.
18. I found that the young man you recommended to me was
very useful to those who employed him.
19. Those who delight in such atrocities will soon find the
punishment they deserve.
20. I am ashamed of you because you advised him to disobey
the good advice his friends gave him.








DIRECT QUESTIONS.
51. Questions may be asked in Yoruba in the following
ways:-
(a) Without the use of any interrogative particle, the tone
of the voice being the only indication.
Oju mi d ? Am I beautiful?
(b) By using the particle "bi" at the end of the sentence.
Ara r le bi? How are you?
(c) By using ha bi.
Iw9 ha ti ri arakinrin mi bi? Have you seen my
brother ?
(d) By means of interrogative pronouns as: tani, who;
kini or kili, what ?
Who is there ? Tani wk nibe ?
Who are you? Iw9 tani?
Whose is this ? Ti tani eyi ?
To whom does he reply ? Tani o da lohun ?
What do you say? Kil'o wi?
What is it? Kini Se?
(e) By means of interrogative adjectives as: which or what,
ewo or wo; of what sort or kind, ti ird or oriSi wo ?
Which book do you wish me to give you?
Iw6 wo ni iw9 f ki ng fun 9 ?
What sort of hat do you like best ?
Ird akegt wo ni iw9 ferhn jhl9 ?
(f) The following interrogative adverbs are also used:-
Why? Nitori kini?
How? Bawo or bawo ni?
When ? Nigbawo?
Whither ? Nibo ?
Whence? Latibwa ?
Where? Nibo?
How much ? Elo ?
How many? Melo?








How great ? Bawo ni o ti tobi t6 ?
How deep? Bawo I'o ti jin t6 ?
How high ? Bawo I'o ti ga t6?
How long? Bawo ni yio ti pe t6 ? (Time).
How far ? Bawo ni o ti jina t'o ?
How broad ? Bawo l'o ti gb6ro t6 ?
How often ? Nigbh melo ?
How long? Bawo I'o ti gun t6 ? (Measure or distance).
52. Alternative Questions.-When a choice between two
things is given.
Whether, or; yAlh, tabi.
We don't know whether he is right or wrong.
Ylk of jare tabi o jebi awa k6 mQ.

53. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
ij6, dance, ball. ily, land, earth.
ijo, leakage. iru, tail.
ij9, day. ird, gadfly.
ij9, assembly, meeting. ird, seed, race, species.
ika, folding. iru, boiling, ebullition.
ika, cruelty ; also act of reading 'iu, a ball.
or counting, isu, yam.
ika, finger. iufi, darkness.
ilk, addition. iw6, book.
ile, house, iwe, washing.
ile, a kind of snare. iw a kind of frog.


54. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
Bi alagbara je 9 niya, ki o fi erin si.
If a strong man ill-treat you, smile at him.
A ri ti eni mO iwi; fi aphdi bb tir m9le.
He who sees another man's fault knows well how to talk
about it, but he covers his own with a potsherd.
]niti o f arqwh, o f iy9nu.
He who marries a beauty, marries trouble.








EXERCISE 9.
I. Looking at her father, the girl exclaimed: Am I not
beautiful, father ?"
2. Will not the war be soon at an end ?
3. What have you been doing with yourself ? I have not seen
you for a long time.
4. Why did you not tell me that you would soon be due for
leave ?
5. Is not the elephant a larger animal than the rhinoceros ?
6. Does not the rainy season generally begin in May ?
7. I was told that you went to dine at Government House
last night ; did you enjoy your dinner ?
8. Who is making such a noise in the room ? I can hardly
go on with my work.
9. Does not dew fall more abundantly on a calm night than
on a windy one ?
Io. To what religion do you belong? I never see you go to
any church on Sundays.
S 1. I found a book lying on the floor.- There is no name
written on it; whose is it ?
12. You said that John was not at home when you went there ;
. to whom did you give my letter ?
13. In the midst of the battle the general, kept on cheering
his men, saying: Go on, lads ; what will they say in England,
if we are beaten ?"
14. He came to enquire whether you desired to go to the
beach this afternoon; what shall I tell him when he comes back?
15. What cowards have I brought up in my court," he ex-
claimed, "that no one will deliver me from this low-born priest ? "
16. What kind of vegetables grow best in Lagos during the
rainy season ?
17. Do you know why you cannot agree with him? Yes,
- because he only thinks of himself.
18. What are the reasons which kept you away for so long?
19. Who is the gentleman who has a farm close to the road
Leading to the railway-station ?
20. Will you please tell me the distance between Lagos and
Calabar ?








EXERCISE 1o.
I. Why is it that so many people should always be finding
fault with what you do ?
2. How did he manage to make such a fortune, when he was
so poor five years ago ?
3. When will the carriers come to carry my loads to the
Customs Wharf?
4. Where are all the books which I told you to bring to my
room ?
5. How much did your grandfather possess when he died ?
6. How many children were present at the entertainment
which was given on Empire Day last May?
7. How deep is the Niger at its deepest point ?
8. How high did you jump when you won the prize at the
last Sports ?
9. How long will you take to finish the work which your master
gave you as a punishment for being late this morning ?
Io. How far is the sun distant from the earth ?
II. How often were you warned not to go near the well ?
Do you wish me to warn you again ?
12. Why should you keep on arguing when you know that
you will never be able to persuade me that you are innocent ?
13. Whether you desire to follow my advice or not is a matter
which concerns yourself.
14. Where do you intend spending your holidays this
year?
15. It is important that we should agree as to our plans.
When do you wish me to meet you at Ikom ?
16. The general did not know whether the enemy would
give battle or surrender.
17. How far do our thoughts carry us sometimes !
18. Why should you allow yourself to be anxious about the
present conditions of the war, when you know that we are.
bound to conquer ?
19. How often did the general tell you not to attack the enemy
before they had crossed the river ?
20. When will you be able to understand that, unless you
study, you will never succeed in getting a promotion ?








INDIRECT QUESTIONS.
55. In the following sentence : I know what you are doing,"
the noun clause, whatyou are doing, which stands as the object
of the verb in the principal sentence, is called a dependent or
indirect question. The interrogative pronouns, adjectives and
adverbs used in asking direct questions are equally used in
indirect questions.
Examples :-
You understand how great are the ties of our friendship.
O mr bi isyr wa wk ti dun t6.
Is there any reason why we should not understand each
other ?
Nje ohun kan wa ti awa ki ba fi gb9 ede ara wa.
Tell me whether your brother has left the country.
S9 fun mi bi arak nrin re ti fi il6 sil .
It is easy to understand how the enemy are hated on
account of their cruelty.
O r9rfn lati mh bi a ti se korira aw9n yt6 nitori iwh ikh w9n.
I know what you are doing.
Mo my nkan ti iw9 nse.
I know what you did.
Mo mr nkan ti o ti se.
I know when you will go.
Mo mQ igbati iwy yio 19.
I knew what you were doing.
Mo my nkan ti iw9 ti nse.
I knew what you did.
Mo my nkan ti o se.
I knew when you would go.
Mo my igbati iw9 yio 19.
56. The following idioms are useful:-
I am inclined to think. Mo f lati ronu.
It is uncertain whether. K6 daju bi.
There may be a chance. B9ya ay& kan 16 wa.
Somehow or other. Li 9na kan tabi 6miran.
Someone or other. Vnikan tabi qlomiran.
Something or other. Ohun kan tabi 6mirin.








57. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
iya, loss k6, to meet, also not
lya, mother k6, to gather
iye, fitness k9, to emit flashes of light
iyv, feathers ko, to learn, to teach
iy, dust of worm-eaten trees 16, may, to be hard
j6, to dance 16, to appear, to exceed
j6, to leak 1l, to replenish, to patch
ka, to count, to read 1e, to be lazy
kA, to reap ; adv. : round 1, to transplant
keke, cry of hen
kgke, gradually
kfke, profound silence
kek, wheel

58. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
Oju oloju kb j9 oju eni.
Another's eye is not like one's own.
VEniti o nsape fun asiwire j6, on asiwire 9kan.
He who claps hands for a fool to dance is no better than a
fool.
Abelese ni ije egbin (na.
The sole of the foot is exposed to the filth of the road.
Agbisi mu Athn gelM.
Continual sweepings make a high dunghill.
Cf. English Proverb.-" Many a small maketh a great."


EXERCISE II.
I. Can you tell me why you always hesitate to express an
opinion ?
2. He does not know whether the war will be over by the
time he is due for leave.
3. Some children do not understand how great are the
sacrifices which their parents make for their education.
4. No one heard what he said on account of the great uproar
made by the crowd.








5. He knew' what a difficult task it would be to dislodge the
enemy from their fortifications.
6. It is uncertain whether hostilities will be resumed before
the arrival of the reinforcements.
7. There may be a chance that the life of the patient may be
saved.
8. I asked him when he would return, but he replied that he
did not know whether there would be a chance for him to do so
before the end of the summer.
9. What reason is there that you should not recommend
me, considering that my application is just ?
io. I am inclined to think that the jury will return a verdict
of not guilty."
II. Who knows whether he will not ruin his career on account
of his obstinacy?
12. On being asked why he did not destroy the mosquito larvae
in his compound, he said he did not know how to destroy them.
13. It is not easy to explain why so few people are contented
with their lot.
14. The question you have to decide, gentlemen of the jury,
is not whether the prisoner was drunk when he committed the
crime, but whether he actually committed it.
15. He asked me to explain to him how it was possible that
an iron vessel should float in water.
16. It is of great importance to me that you should inform me
whether the steamer will sail this week.
17. It is uncertain whether it will be possible to save the ship,
on account of the violence of the storm.
18. There may be a chance that the Allies may come to an
understanding with regard to the conditions of peace.
19. Somehow or other, his proposals seem to have been con-
sidered satisfactory.
20. He asked me whether somebody or other had threatened
your brother with death.

CORRELATIVES.
59. Pairs of words which are mutually and reciprocally re-
lated to one another are called Correlatives.








The principal correlatives are:
Pronouns :-
The same as
such as
he who
some others
the one the other
one another
Adverbs :-
where there
hither thither
whence hence
Conjunctions :-
neither nor

either or
both and
not only but also

though yet


bakannA bi
iri bi
on qniti
qlomiran .lomiran
9kan ekeji
9kan .lomiran


nibiti nib
sibena dehin
latibewa atibel9


kb beni k6; ki ..
beni ki (with future)
tabi bi bkg9
both not translated; and, ati
kiSe nikan sugbgn
pelu
.botilqejep sib


Examples:-
He is not the same as he was.
On kb ri bakanna bi on ti wa ri.
He is not such a fool as you think.
On kite omugg t6b bi iw9 ti nr6.
He who knows how to command knows also how to obey.
Vniti o ba mr ati paWe yio mrg ati teriba.
Some are successful in life, others are not.
Elomiran se orire li aiye, elomiran kb se rere.
The one was a traitor, the other an assassin.
Qkan j 9dMal, ekeji si j apania.
It is one thing to accuse, another thing to prove the
accusation.
Ohun kan ni lati se ifisun, ohun keji ni lati ri idi ifisimn.
Where there is a will, there is a way.
Nibiti ifh ba wh, nib li na wa








Though he has always been zealous and painstaking, yet
he never got on.
Botilejep6 on ama ji onitara ati alap9n, sib on k6 19
siwaju.
60. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
19, to go; also more ogfin, bequest, twenty
10, contrary, lukewarm ogun, sweat
1, 'to grind 6ghn, medicine, poison
mO, to be clean ; again, against ogun, war
m9, to know 6jo, rain
na, already, soon, first, to spend ojo, coward
na, the same, that 9j9, date, day, weather
nh, to flog, to spread 9J9, place, settlement
od6, mortar
odb, river, brook

61. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
Ah9n ni ipinle enu.
The tongue is the end of the mouth.
Eniti o da eru li eru it9.
Ashes fly back in the face of him that throws them.
Eti, gb( ekeji ki o t6 djg9.
Ear, hear the other before you decide.
Ih6le ba 99 enia je.
-Poverty destroys a man's reputation.

EXERCISE 12.
I. It does not follow, because you are intelligent, that all
your children should be the same as you.
2. The enemy are offering such a resistance as they had never
shown before.
3. Where the Benue joins the Niger, there you will attack the
enemy with all your forces.
4. He who never forgives an injury cannot expect forgiveness
at the hands of others.
5. Some of the inhabitants are devoted to agriculture, others
to trade.








6. Both were seriously wounded in the battle; the one
received a wound in the neck, the other was hit a little above
the liver.
7. Though he has been warned several times not to indulge
in drink, yet he will persist in it.
8. Either you trust me or not. If you do, leave the matter
to me, and I am sure you will have no cause for regret.
9. Although it follows from the evidence that the accused
committed the most outrageous crime that was ever brought
before this court, yet you seem to sympathise with his
fate.
io. The general gained the confidence of his soldiers both by
the ability he showed on many occasions and by his undaunted
energy.
II. The prisoner escaped at night fall to the neighbour-
ing village; thence he left for Ibadan, whence he was
expelled.
12. Your father will not only blame you for your misconduct,
but he will also punish you very severely.
13. The enemy adopted such methods of warfare as had never
been used by civilised countries.
14. The rout was so complete that some of the enemy sur-,
rendered, while others fled across the river, where they were
either killed or captured.
15. The Austrians are no longer fighting with the same spirit
as they did at the outbreak of the hostilities.
16. Why is it that you neither visit your friends in
this country, nor keep in touch with those you have at
home ?
17. By surrendering to the British, you will not only receive
good treatment at their hands, but also put an end to all your
miseries.
18. Though you have everything to make you happy, yet.
you do not seem to be satisfied with your lot.
19. He who does not forgive is not worthy of being a
Christian.
20. Some think that the leader of the rebels will be hanged,
others that he will be driven into exile.








COMMANDS AND WISHES.
62. A Command in the second person is expressed by using
the Imperative Mood without any particle as:-
Go there quickly. Lo sib koyakoya or nisisiyi.
63. If a negative command is given, mI or mage is used.
Do not do this. MA se eyi.
Do not think, gentlemen, that the accused will escape justice.
Fnyin bykinni, q mie r6 p6 eniti a fi 9rin mr yio b$ lw<
idajg.
64. If the command is in the first or third person, je ki, or
jy ki ki is used.
Examples :-
Let us return to the country.
Je ki a pada 19 si ili na.
Let him do what he likes.
Jq ki o se nkan ti o f.
Let the child go to his mother.
Je ki om9 na 19 s(d iyd r.
I would have you think that I did my best to save him.
Mo f ki o mQ p6 mo sh gbogbo ipd mi lati gbk A la.
65. Prohibitions are expressed as below:-
Mind you do not lie a second time.
Kiyesi ki o mase puro nigba keji.
Beware of passing by this road at night.
Kiyesara o, mise gbi 9na yi k9ja l'oru.
66. A wish, which may possibly be fulfilled, is rendered oy
Iff inu mi ni (my desire is) ; one which cannot be fulfilled by
ibajqp6.
Examples :-
May those I love always be happy (possible).
If inu mi ni p6 ki aw9n ti mo feran mA wh ni alifia
nigbagbogbo.
O that he had not been killed in action (impossible since
he was killed).
A ibajqep a kb ti pa a ninu ogun !









67. Words which vary in meaning, according to intonation.
oko, farm 6rin, the sun
ok6, lock of a gun 6run, sleep
6ko, name of a disease orin, scent, smell
9k), canoe, boat grun, heaven, sky, cloud
kg9, spear 9run, neck
9ko, hoe 9rin, one hundred
9k9, husband
68. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
Bi a ba gbe aworan, a ki iSa ima fi 9w9r} ti nkan.
However well an image may be made, it must have some-
thing to stand upon.
lyan ni imu ni ije eso igikigi
Famine compels one to eat the fruit of any tree whatsoever.
Vniti k6 gb9 ti ga a li ga npatoto enu.
He who does not understand the palm bird's note complains
of the noise it makes.
Emi abata ni imu od6 iSin.
The influence of a fountain makes a fountain flow.
EXERCISE 13.
I. Do not fail to let him know that I will not see him any more. -
2. Be careful in the selection of your friends, for a bad friend
is worse than an enemy.
3. Go to your brother at once, and tell him that he should
arrange to meet me at the station in an hour.
4. Let me know whether you will be ready to embark when
the signal is given.
5. Mind you don't return to the coast after the expiration
of your leave.
6. Would that I had been near you when the enemy drove
you away from your home !
7. Do not try to make me believe that you will not fight *
for your country, because you are against the war.
8. I only wish I had never left my country and my relatives,
considering that I feel so unhappy far from them.
9. Let the prisoner be informed that he will meet with a
severe punishment, if the charge is proved against him.








Io. Go to your father and ask him to forgive you.
II. Remember, my son, that whatever may be your difficul-
ties in life, I shall always help you if you come to me.
12. Let them go on with their acts of brutality; they will
soon know how bitterly they will be avenged.
13. Let us hasten to rid the country of all the traitors who have
been in it since the beginning of the war.
14. Guard the gates, and take care that no one should enter
the city without a passport.
15. Don't you believe that the enemy will ever risk a
visit to Lagos; the coast is too well guarded by our men-of-
war.
16. Do not do this or even attempt it, for we shall do all in
our power to upset your plans.
17. Beware of all his flatteries, and do not allow yourself to
be caught by them.
18. Let us not hesitate to do our duty, however painful it
may be.
19. Oh that my father had not died so young, for my life
would have been so much happier !
20. Be sure that no terms of peace will be ac cepted other
than those that will be dictated by us.

OBLIGATION AND NECESSITY.
69. An Obligation in Yoruba may be expressed by:-
(1) O ye ki.
You ought to join the army as a good citizen.
O ye ki o j9 9kan ninu egbe ogun bi ara 1l1 rere.
(2) O tO ki.
You ought to have replied to his question.
O t ki o ti fi idahfn si ib&re r.
(3) Must is rendered by ni, to have, followed by an infinitive.
We must obey those who are in command.
Awa ni lati teriba fun awgn ti npaSq.
You will have to work a lot to make up for the time you
have lost.
Iw9 yio ni lati sis p6pu lati Se idipadk ak6k6 ti iwg
ti spnu.








70. It is necessary, there is a necessity, are translated by oy e ki.
It is necessary that you should be present when the master
calls the roll.
O yq ki iwg wa nib nigbati 9ga ba np6 iw&-oruk9.
71. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
ose, club of god of Thunder oye, understanding
ose, name of a tree 9Y, the Harmattan
os, sound with the lips expres- p6, correct, perfect, also the
sing grief conjunction that
9~q, soap p6, to call
6wo, boil pe, to be long, to endure
ow6, money pin, to share, to divide
ow9, hand pin, end
qw broom pOn, to flatter, to ripen, to
Ow9, honour sharpen an instrument
oy&, title of honour ptn, to carry on the back
72. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
Afeju toto k6 mr 9k nrin.
Gesticulation does not prove manliness.
Aslinm9 di et, 6kere ni idin.
Familiarity breeds contempt, distance secures respect.
Ija k6 bim9 ki o r4.
Strife never begets a gentle child.
Oruk9 k6 sd lim,
A man troubled with a cough cannot hide himself.

EXERCISE 14.
I. You must not hesitate to give your opinion when you are
asked for it.
2. You should endeavour to persuade him that no one can
be saved without faith.
3. It is necessary that you should make all your preparations
before setting out for your journey.
4. You ought to consider the matter very carefully before
you take any action.
5. You will have to show much endurance if you wish to suc-
ceed in your perilous undertaking.








6.. The country should spare no sacrifice to bring the war
to a successful issue.
7. You must not believe that the enemy will not resist you
with all their might.
8. It is necessary that you should attack the enemy at day-
break before they receive any reinforcements.
9. We must all die; there is nothing more certain in this
world.
o1. Quarrels must necessarily arise between two friends, if
one refuses to give way to the other.
II. You will have to use much tact, if you do not wish to
offend your adversary.
12. You must admit that the enemy cannot be driven out
without much sacrifice of life.
13. A traitor ought not to forget that he cannot expect mercy
at the hands of the loyal subjects of the crown.
14. When the general was asked whether he ought not to
have resisted longer instead of surrendering, he replied that the
Garrison had had no food for two days.
15. Why should you despair when all the chances of success
are on your side ?
16. One ought to be very careful in the selection of one's
friends.
17. It is necessary that in such an emergency the government
should take steps for the safety of the citizens.
18. Why should you follow his advice, when you know that
he will lead you to your ruin ?
19. Before attacking the enemy, it is necessary that we
should know how great are the forces they have to oppose to us.
20. It cannot be denied that you must be of a strong tempera-
ment to be able to endu::e so many hardships without injury
to your health.

DIFFERENT NOTIONS OF THE LATIN ABLATIVE-HOW EXPRESSED
IN YORUBA.
73. Separation.-Preposition from, kuro.
The enemy were cut off from their supply.
A ti yk awgn otd ni ipa kuro nibi iranl9w .








74. Origin.-Spring from, jade wa lati.
It is said that he is of a very low origin.
O gby p6 lati inu iran rirele li on ti jade wA.
75. Quality with epithet.-e.g., a man of great ability is rendered
by a man who is very able.
The natives report that they saw a man of great bodily
stature.
Aw9n ibil sq p6 nw9n ri 9kynrin kan ti o tobi J9j9.
76. Manner.-e.g., very hastily, with much haste, pelu lyara.
He ran away with the greatest speed.
On sd 19 pelu iyara kankan.
77. Respect.
The inhabitants of West Africa are divided into tribes, which
differ from one another, in language, customs and laws.
Aw9n ara ili ti iwq 6ran Afrika li a pin si yk ti o yvt9
si ara w9n ni Ed6, agS ati ofin.
78. Instrument.-Preposition fi.
The hunter killed a lion with a rifle.
Qde na fi ibon pa kiniun kan.
79. Accompaniment.-Preposition pelu.
It is pleasant to live with you.
O je ohun didara lati wa pelu re.
80. Agent.-(Passive is turned into Active).
The country was saved by the British.
Awgn G~si li o gbh ili na sile.
81. Price.-Verb na followedby the preposition ni.
The war cost this country much money.
Ogun na na i16 yi ni ow6 pfp .
82. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
re, to change feathers r6, to tell, to think
re, to go r6, to sound
r6, to go off ro, to cultivate
r, to shear, to agree ri, to give way, to push.
rT, 3rd pers. personal pronoun, rg, to wither
his, her, it r?, to urge
rin, to sail, to walk, to tickle r9n, to touch
rin, to laugh r n, to masticate
rin, to be damp.








83. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
A ki idi qw 1I ohun ti a kb 1I gb6.
A thing which cannot be accomplished should never be
undertaken.
Iloro li A w ki a t6 w9le.
One must go through the porch before entering the square.
Lhkari baba iwk bi onisfiru ohun gbogbo li o ni.
Patience is the best of dispositions; he who possesses it,
possesses everything.
Ojukbkoro baba 9kanjuk.
Covetousness is the father of unsatisfied desires.
EXERCISE 15.
I. A quarrel between the King of England and the Pope
brought about the separation of the Church of England from
the Church of Rome.
2. An hour spent in your agreeable company is an hour
well spent.
3. The general led his forces out of the camp and hastened
to engage the enemy.
4. He promised the king's servant that he would give him a
thousand pounds if he would kill him with his dagger.
5. People who differ from one another in religion should never
discuss religious matters.
6. Unless you wish to stay at home, I should like to go for a
walk to the beach with you.
7. The news of the victory was brought to England with
increditable swiftness.
8. The question could be settled peacefully, if you would
only yield on minor points.
9. The general had pitched his camp about zoo yards from
the left bank of the river.
10. After the battle of the Three Rivers, the Germans re-
treated with full speed, hotly pursued by the victorious English
and French armies.
II. The victory will be gained, but not without the cost ot
Much blood.
12. The Britons used to clothe themselves with the skins
of wild animals..








13. In ancient times people fought with bows and arrows, as
the use of rifles had not yet been discovered.
14. The conspirator was a man of strong mental and bodily
power, but mean and cruel.
15. The conquerors insisted upon the surrender of the
Capital and the payment of a war indemnity of 400 million
pounds. The enemy never dreamt of peace at such a price.
16. Some of the great men of modern times are said to have
sprung from a low and humble origin.
17. A philosopher said that men could be caught by pleasure,
as fish by hooks.
18. Although I should like to live with you, yet I am inclined
to think that we would not agree very long.
g9. Seeing that they would be cutoff from their line of retreat,
the defeated army resolved to cut through the lines of the enemy.
20. Although every inch of ground was stubbornly contested,
yet the invading army drove back the enemy to the very gates
of the Capital.
THE ABLATIVE.-(continued).
84. Time when. Use li or ni.
The mail will leave early in the morning.
Qk -iw6 yio 19 ni kftukhtu 6wdir.
85. By night. Li oru=l'oru.
At dawn. Li afgm9jum9=-l'Afqmpjum9.
At sunrise. Ni ila B6rn.
At sunset. Ni iw9 6rin.
86. Time within which.
In the course of these few days the Germans lost thousands
of men.
Ninu aw9n ijO melokan w9nyi, aw9n Germans pdAnfi
egbjgberin 9m9-ogun.
87. Length of time before or after an event.
A few days afterwards. Ij9 melokan lehinni.
Three days before. Ni ij9 meta s~ju.
A few days afterwards he returned to the front.
Ij9 melokan 1ehinna on pada 19 si ogun.
The German steamers left Lagos three days before the war.
Aw9n 9k9 Germans fi tk6 sile ni ij9 meta saju ogun.








88. Duration of Time (Latin Accusative).
The struggle for the fortress lasted ten hours.
Ijakadi fun odi na gbh wAkhti mewa.
89. Words varying in meaning, according to intonation.
san, to tie round, to thunder so, to tie
san, aloud s6, to break wind
san, better 6, to be rough ; also adv.;
sn, to cut down bushes mod. words of touching
shn, to flow 6, to slacken
san, glitteringly; mod. verb thn sq, to speak, to throw
s6, to cook s9, to quarrel, to descend
s6, to be shut t6, to be enough
se, to do, to be, to give way t6, to stand in a line
s, to be fulfilled t6to, adv.; clearly; also a
t, to break word expressing humili-
S^, to commence; also gladly ation before the gods
adv.; modifying yO, to re- toto, adv.; mod. f, to dis-
joice tort the face
s, to drop like dew t6t9, in truth
90. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
Bi a bu omi si ori, o nwh es ib .
When water is poured upon the head, it will find its way
down the feet.
Tali o je fi 9be eyi t'o ni je isu.
No one confesses that he has eaten yam with a knife that
is lost.
Ale koko bi 9iSn ; 9gb jina ohun ma jina.
A cutting word is as tough as a bow-string; a cutting
word cannot be healed, though a wound may.

EXERCISE 16.
I. The operations, which had been delayed through the
winter, will be resumed early in spring.
2. Bats are nocturnal in their habits; they are seldom seen
flying during the day.
3. There is always a service in the Church of Rome, at dawn,
on Christmas Day.








4. I went on deck as soon as I got up and walked up and
down for nearly an hour.
5. The party resumed the march at sunrise and reached thet
village at about midday.
6. I was lying on the beach at sunset and saw all the fishing-
boats returning to the lagoon.
7. Within the last few months the weather has been remark-
ably fine.
8. A few days before I set sail, I received information that
war had been declared.
9. Three days after I had landed I was ordered to make
preparations to go to the front.
10. The action lasted several days, after which both sides
were so exhausted that no fighting took place for a fortnight.
II. On the next day, at sunset, the general, having discovered
that strong reinforcements had been sent to the enemy, ordered
a general retreat to the banks of the river.
12. There is so much patriotism in Russia that men of all
ages have volunteered for service; some have even joined
the ranks at the age of 75.
13. Queen Victoria reigned over England for more than
sixty years.
14. It is so foggy in London in winter, that sometimes it is
not possible to see a foot ahead.
15. In the course of a few weeks the Italians and the
Roumanians will join Russia in the campaign against Austria
and Germany.
16. A few minutes after he had entered his room, he was
seized by the throat and murdered.
17. Napoleon died at St. Helena six years after the battle
of Waterloo.
18. In the time of danger all citizens should be prepared
to give their lives for the safety of the Empire.
19. If you wish to catch any butterflies, you must go at eight
o'clock to the river side, where you will see many of different
kinds.
20. In winter many birds migrate to milder climates, whence
they return in spring.








THE LATIN ABLATIVE.-(Continued).
91. Ago.-e.g., Three years ago, is translated by Niw9n 9din
meta shin.
Six years ago I never thought of leaving my country for
West Africa.
Niw9n qd6n meta shin emi k6 ni ir6 p6 emi yio fi ili mi
sil lati 19 si tw 6rBrn ti Afrika.
92. Extent of Space.
Ebute Metta is three miles distant from Lagos.
Ebute Metta si Rk6 t6 mili meta.
The river was 19 feet deep at its mouth.
Odb na je 9s9 m9kandilogun ni jijin li enu r.
The city was surrounded by a wall 30 feet high.
A fi odi ti o t6 iw9n 9gbOn es yi ili na ka.
93. Place Where.
The Germans thought they would winter in Warsaw.
Aw9n ara Germany rb p6 nwgn iba 1 igbh 6t6th wn/'ni
Warsaw.
94. Notice the following Expressions.
At home. Nile.
Abroad. Ni iddl.
At Lagos. Li Ek6.
In the country. ni ili.
At the war. li ogun.
95. Place Whence. Use the preposition lati/or kfrb.
He escaped from Abeokuta after io days' captivity.
O sA lati Abeokuta wd lhin igbekin 9p9 mewa.
O sa kfirb li Abeokuta lehin. .. Motion to a place.
96. Use the preposition si, to.
He has arranged to go to Abeokuta for a week.
O mura lati 19 si Abeokuta fun 9s5 kan.
97. Words which vary in meaning, according to intonation.
wa, to seek for, to come wo, to doze
wa, us w4, to drag, to be bent
wa, to be, to live, to ex't, w, to set (as the sun)
to dig, and to pull a "Joat yA, to be in haste, to hold in
w6, to fell a tree pawn, to be ready
wb, to behold, to see ya, to tear, to rend, to pluck








yin, to yawn yi, to be tough
yan, to choose yin, to move
yan, to walk proudly, to yin, to praise
take y to melt
ye, to be fit, to be lawful yO, to rejoice
y, to praise yo, to pull out
yi, to turn ; also this
98. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS.
QgbdgbA wgl; o kh ati yg.
The pin is driven into the ground; the question is how to
pull it out.
(in ki iSin qnu.
Though a man may miss other things, he never misses his
mouth.
tg6in k6 ba es r.
Thorns do not agree with the foot.
Bi a ti rin, li.a kb ni.
As one is walking, so he is met.
Eghn k6 ni ki oyin m & din
D -preciation does not take away the sweetness of honey.
EXERCISE 17.
I. Five months ago, the Germans thought that they would
enter the Capital of France; but now, they have been forced
back many milo from it.
2. There is no 'hope of reaching the village to-day, for we are
still thirty miles distant from it.
3. During the raiiy season the Niger is as much as 45 feet
deep in certain parts.
4. Some mountains of the world, especially in India and
America, are over four miles high.
5. Useful minerals have lately been discovered in Nigeria.
6. Why should you always spend your leave at home, when
there are so many nice places to visit abroad ?
7. Many people prefer town l'e, and yet it is so agreeable
to live in the country.
8. Mind you do write to me when 'ou return to Nigeria, that
no one should say that you forget your friends.








9. I intended to go to Rome for a fortnight during the holi-
days, but my father's illness prevented me from doing so.
o1. In certain places of the Tropics, rain falls so heavily that
sometimes one does not see the sun for several days.
II. Let us remain at Kano for a fortnight and then return to
Lagos by way of the Niger.
12. A few years ago travelling was very troublesome in some
parts of the country.
13. The general addressed his soldiers saying: Cheer up,
lads, in a few days more we shall reach the goal of our ambition."
14. Don't go any further; I was informed that a few lions
were seen in the neighbourhood.
15. After a great number of soldiers had been slain, the
general ordered a retreat to a village, which was ten miles
distant from the frontier.
16. In some of the up-country districts, cotton grows so
luxuriantly that it is a pity that not more of it should be culti-
vated.
17. When I was at Abo, a few years ago, I hardly spent an
hour a day at home ; almost all my time was engaged in catching
butterflies.
18. When the general informed the legate what the terms of
peace were, he said he would go home to consult his government.
19. We had for a long time been most intimate friends. After
his marriage, however, he went to England and I never heard
from him any more.
20. When Napoleon heard that the enemy had left the town
during the night and had destroyed everything on their passage
by fire, he was bitterly disappointed.

PASSAGES FOR UNSEEN TRANSLATION.
EXERCISE 18.
TORNADOES.
Tornadoes are violent storms caused by the local heating of
the air. They do not extend over a wide area, but give rise to
tremendous blasts of wind, heavy rain, accompanied by thunder
and lightning. The tornadoes of Africa are not so severe as
D








those of the United States. They cause, however, damage to
crops, and it not unfrequently happens that houses are unroofed
by them.
EXERCISE 19.
A great number of birds are remarkable for their song and
plumage. In the singing species of birds, the males are by far
the better singers. When females can sing, there is always some
inferiority in the loudness and pitch of their notes. The song of
the male birds is particularly attractive at the courtship season,
and so is their plumage, which is specially bright at that time.
EXERCISE 20.
THE SPIDER'S WVEB.
Spiders' webs are circular. They are made of two kinds of
threads, one of which is much stronger than the other. The
stronger threads are used for the spokes, and the elastic ones
are connected with them all round so as to form a kind of spiral.
When the web is completed, the creature may or may not
construct a little hiding-place in which it watches the coming
of its prey. A spider's web covers a wide area. It has to
be renewed constantly. When a fly gets caught, the spider
pounces upon it, seizes it with its claws, and quickly renders
it helpless by spinning a broad band of silk round it: It is then
sucked dry of all the juices of its body.
EXERCISE 21.
TERMITES.
Termites are inhabitants of tropical countries. They are
exceedingly useful in uninhabited localities, as they feed on
wood, and greatly assist in the development of forest growths.
In inhabited places, however, they cause considerable damage,
as they attack the woodwork and leave nothing of it but a thin
shell which, when pressed with the finger or otherwise, will
give way and only then disclose their presence. Books also
suffer considerable damage from termites. Although termites
are not ants, yet they have certain habits in common with
them. For instance, both sexes have wings, the soldiers or
workers are apterous. They also live in large colonies and seem
to act in concert like ants.








EXERCISE 22.
THE MOSQUITO.
The mosquito is an insect, and like all insects it has to undergo
several metamorphoses before it becomes an adult. It lays
eggs, which become larvae; those larvae become nymphs or
pupae, and the nymphs perfect or full-grown mosquitoes. The
eggs are laid in water, the larvae live in water, and the nymphs
may or may not live in water. There are several kinds of
mosquitoes, but the three most important ones are :-The
Culex, which carries a disease called Elephantiasis; the
Anopheles, which carries Malarial Fever, and the Stegomyia,
which carries Yellow Fever.

EXERCISE 23.
MARRIAGE CEREMONY AMONG THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLE.
When the girl reaches puberty the father arranges for her
body marks to be made, and the suitor contributes food.
This done, the suitor is entitled to ask the father to give him
his wife. At the same time he sends a present of 200 coco-nuts,
200 kolas, 5 demijohns of palm wine, and a certain number of
cowries. When the girl is taken to her husband the father
Summons members of his family to act as conductors. They
lead the girl to her husband in the evening and receive presents
from him. An essential feature of the reception of the girl
is the washing of her hands. The husband puts 700 cowries,
4 kolas, and a bottle of gin on each of two plates, and brings
water in a basin. A member of the girl's family carries the
basin and washes the girl's hands, then the husband brings a
cloth and wipes them. The towel and the 700 cowries go to
the girl, and her conductors receive the other plate.
NORTHCOTE W. THOMAS.
EXERCISE 24.
POLYGAMY IN YORUBA LAND.
Polygamy exists on a large scale in Yoruba Land. The
,number of wives a man keeps depends entirely upon his position
and wealth. Some men have from two to three wives, and
others sometimes as many as sixty. Chiefs may have more








still, and in the case of a king the number has been known to
be as great as five hundred. The wives have to support them-
selves, and their children as well. This they do by selling
foodstuffs and other material in the markets.
EXERCISE 25.
A KING'S ELECTION IN YORUBA LAND.
The king is chosen by a council of elders from among those
who have a certain blood descent. A curious ceremony pre-
cedes a king's election. His powers of endurance and self-
restraint are tested by the chiefs, who, on the day appointed
for the coronation, go to the king's palace, get hold of him
forcibly, and flog him with a whip. If the ordeal is suffered
without flinching, then the king is crowned; if not, another
king is chosen.
KEY TO THE EXERCISES.
EXERCISE I.
I. Mo ri, enyin 9m9dek nrin, p6 enyin ti hlwh rere.
2. Mo m p6 ng ki yio pada 19 si ilu ti a bi mi si.
3. Mo gbagb6 p6 on ni ir6 ati fi mi sln fun iwa (dil .
4. 0 sq fun mi p6 aw9n (ti padanf enik pfip) nipa pipa ati ,
sisal9gb<.
5. On wipe on ki yio se eyi laisi if6hdnsi tire.
6. O se il6ri lati wi sibi li-. k6k ti a ti yhn.
7. Op(l pP enia r6 p6 a gba shkani ili na silk nipa igboiya r.
8. Gbogbo wa 1'o mn p6 ogun na k6 ni p.
9. O hWn gbangba p6 awa ni lati dab6b6 ild wa.
io. Awa ni ireti p6 a o mu ki awpn (ta sAkurb.
II. Nw9n ni ireti p6 nw9n yio ri fb6 ti nw9n ti se gbW padk.
12. A ti s9 fun wa p6 aw9n G~si ti Sgun daradara lori aw9n Ota.
13. A fim9s9kan p6 nw9n dojuk9 iki pelu igboiya nla.
14. Tani s9 fun 9 p6 ng ki yio w6 nigbati o ba range pe mi ? .
15. A kede r p6 aw9n jagunjagun ti di omi na k9ja ni
kAtUkath bwfrb.
16. O ni on ni ireti p6 iwg ki yio wi nkankan.
17. O ha gbagbo p6 arak~nrin rv yio range p6 6 ?
18. Kini se ti o fi rb p6 iw9 ki yio se rere ?








19. Gbogbo wa 1'o mr p6 on ki yio 16 kgjujhsi wgn p m.
20. Awgn Yoruba gbagb p6 p6pp ninu awyn arfn ni gyy
ima k6 19 nigbati o ba nf.

EXERCISE 2.
I. A ko 9 ni iw6 kikh jli kik9 19.
2. Jamesi ha ti sq ti ipadh wa r li 9d6n yi fun 9 bi ?
3. Ni fifi il6 sil ni ijo keji li afemqjum9 o b 16w6 cwu ti
ilepa awgn Ota pelu alafia.
4. Ik6r6 yio gbarale if6nrugbin
5. Ojo k6 dawgduro lati igbati mo ti padab6.
6. Nw9n ri i, o ns9kin nibi es igi na.
7. Ni pip6 awgn jagunjagun si ij~, olori ogun na sure jade
kuro ninu ilu nla.
8. A ti pi6s awgn ik6bk-omi sil fun 6jo ti mb.
9. Lehin if9w0si iw6 alAfia, awgn jagunjagun padh 19 si ile W9n.
1o. Oji ti 9m9 na, nitoripe Oga r lA 6.
II. Kini awa nsfire fun nigbati awa k6 si li oji 9nh ti o t9 ?
12. Enia onironu ama fi igbagbogbo Se awari ohun titun kan.
13. Kite bi nkan ti nl9 si, bikoSe if wa ti k6 sli i to 1'o ngbi
alafia l'9gw wa.
14. K6 si enikan t'o buru jf fun mim9 nkan t'o buru jfil9
nipa ti ara r.
15. A k6 ri malu na m9 lana nitoripe kiniun ti pa a.
16. Ibgl90w ewu re yio gbarhle isMl9 re nisisiyi.
17. Arak min mi s9 fun mi p6 iw9 li 9gb9n pfip lati k enia
li MdL.
18. Nigbati a mO p6 awgn 9t6 ntfiba, olori ogun pa fun
aw9n 9m9 ogun r lati lepa w9n.
19. Okita ti nyi k6 16 k6 ew6d6 jq.
20. Ng k6 16 se alaima rerin nigbati mo ri bi iberd ti md u t6.

EXERCISE 3.
I. Jru mba mi p6 ogun na yio p.
2. Mo ni ireti p6 ru iyglenu r ki yio ba 9.
3. K6 si enikan ti o 16 se p6 on 19 nitori ki o ba 16 pd ija.
4.. Qgia J 9m9-iwe r niyt nitori ki o m6 ba hf iwa ti k6 t(
nigba keji.








5. ru mba mi p6 aw9n Germans ki yio 16 Se ikgjujasi p mn
6. Enikeni ti kb ba kAnu fun ebi r kb ye fun idariji.
7. 0 ni mim9 t6b ti on k6 fi 16 Subu ninu iddnw6 r.
8. Ind rere r p9 t6b ti on kb fi 1M k 9 sil ninu ip9nju re.
9. O s9r9 fun wa lati gbagb p6 iw9 yq lati s9r9 li oruk(
aw9n ard ili re.
o1. O t9 ki o kh k( re na nitori ki o 1M ni oye ohun ti o nk9.
11. O fi q9m r 9kinrin rinS si il G|si nitori ki a 1I k 9
ni origiriSi 6d&.
12. Mo f lati ba gbogbo nyin s3r9 nitori ki 9nikan mdie wipe
a o kil fun on.
13. Aw9n Franse fi ogun rdn si erekugu na nitori a j
olhgb6 il na niyh fun mimpm9 pa 9kan ninu awqn ara il6 w9n.
14. O rang p6 awgn e91ri nitori ki nw9n ba 16 jqri.
15. Iwa igberaga ti enia di9 kb je ki a feran w9n.
16. Mo fetisi k9 re nitori ki emi 16 jere nipage w9n.
17. Lehin jamba gbigbona na awgn 9ta fi ik9 rdng lat
beb fun alAfia.
18. A s9 fun mi p6 on ki yio wa laimura ijhi ugb9n mo n
iberu p6 on yio wa, or ru mba mi on yio wi.
19. Nw9n tite beresi irin w9n 1'oru nitori ki nw9n 16 k91
aw9n ti li ifgm9jum9.
2o. A fi aw9n jagunjagun rdn lati 9 afarA na nitori
aw9n itd mi 1I da a k9ja.

EXERCISE 4.
I. Idhm md mi t6b ti ng kb mi nkan ti mba fi ara mi e.
2. O ye ki o hawa li 9nf kan ti enikqni ki yio fi ri qbi re.
3. Nigbati o t9 ti nw9n iba kgjujasi aw9n 9td, nw9n y9da I
ki a mu w9n ni igbekhn.
4. 0 wa je p6 enik9ni k6 si nib nigbati o e alabapade si ni
5. Kb si iyemeji ninu p6 aw9n 9J9 kuru nigbh 6btith j6 igb
rdn 19.
6. Kika ti emi iba fi binu si 9, iwa re danm9 mi.
7. Ihin na mu li 9kin t6b ti o fer dakd.
8. Qga wipe iw9 iba SiS ki o si dake.
9. Tani nSe iyemeji p6 Cicero je 9kan ninu aw9n alawiye ti
dara jil9 li hk6kb r ?






55

io. O d6hun li qnf kan ti mo 16 ri p6 k6 l'oye rq kanSoso
ti nkan ti mo s9.
II. K6 si iyemeji ninu p6 mo rhn a 1w nigba pipQ.
12. Aw9n ard il banuje t6b lehin ilupa nik~k ti 9ba na
ti aw9n apania si ni lati sd dsdlh fun emi w9n.
13. Kini se ti o fi nsgrg b ti qnikeni k6 fi gb nkan ti o nwi ?
14. Khka ti iwy iba fi ba mi wi fun aimQ mi, iw9 iba rin mi

15. Enia mirhn g9 t6b ti k6 fi ye ki a mA ba wgn jiyhn.
16. Khka ti iw9 iba fetisi it6mm mi, o nsgr9 ni gbogbo ak6k6
nh.
17. Khka ti on iba fi 9r r sil, o dabobo o nipa fifi qmi tire
sinu ewu.
18. K6 si iyemeji ninu p6 ar ti mu die ninu awgn elwgn
ogun.
19. Ogun na nji pqlu ibinu t6b ti k6 si enikeni ninu wa t'o
ri hy6 lati ronu ik6.
20. Iji na le t6b ti o fi w6 9polp9 ile 1ll1.

EXERCISE 5.
I. Botilejep6 olori ogun na m1 p6 awgn 9t pp gidigidi ni iye,
sib0 o gbh pelu ay9 lati jk.
2. Niwgn igbati mo ba wh nibi, mo f lati fi ara mi si il1
i fun kik iw6-&dA ohunkohun.
3. Ni kete ti o ri p6 egby ogun r nf lati tiba, o sure w arin

4. Nigbati awgn ard il6 gb9 p6 awgn td nsunm9 9dq wgn,
awgn sal9 lojukanna sinu igbo.
5. Emi ki yio ba 9 gbiteggn 19 titi emi yio fi pari k9 mi.
6. Botilejep6 er re li emi iSe, sib iwh re ninu 9rhn yi k6
dhnmp mi.
7. Botilejep6 mo lo lati ran a 1lw pelu ik6nj6, sib mo p
lehin pfip9 lati gbk emi r la.
8. Lehin igbati Brutus ti pa Kesari, o ba aw9n ara Romu s3r9.
9. Emi ki yio se nkankan fun 9 titi iw9 yio fi ronupiwhda
iwa rq.
Io. Botilejep6 o je amoye enia, sibe a ti tan d je nigbk








1I. O wi je p6 iw9 k- si nile nigbati mo wi lati ki 9.
12. Nigbati iwg wa ni idil emi ima nranti re nigba pipQ.
13. O ni on iba thba, ugb9n nikan p6 nw9n yio e il6ri lati
gbh emi r la.
14. Botilejgp6 o mr p6 on jebi, sib o teram9 igina r.
15. Niw9n igbati iwg k6 ba pariwo kan, iw9 1I e erekere
t'o ba f.
16. Niw9n igbati o ti jqbi ipania, onidaj9 da elwgn n lybi
iki.
17. Lyhin igbati on ti s99r fun ak6kb gigfn kan, o ni 9j9 r
ti pari.
18. Nigbati igba iruw6 ba d6 gbogbo igi amA ber~si sO.
19. Niw9n igbati 6jo ba nr9, iwq k6 ni lati 19 sile.
20. Botilejep6 a 16 ri aw9n kiniun ni ili yi, sib ng k6 iti
ri okanyooo ni gbogbo irin ajo mi.

EXERCISE 6.
I. 0 16 aw9n iran1 r1 kuro, nitoripe on nfi ilui sil.
2. A yan A ni olori agbh, nitoripe a m9 p p6 on k6 iti ina ri.
3. Niw9n igbati idalybi re ti daju, iw9 ni lati s9 p6 o jebi.
4. Aw9n alagbage k9 lati i nitori nw9n rb p6 ow6 ie w9n
kb t6.
5. Bi mo ba ni 9, ki!e nitoripe mo korira re, ugb9n
mo ni lati je 9 niyh fun imele re.
6. A kb 16 gbi aw9n egbe atuk9 lI, nitoripe iji na ja
agbara nigbati 9k9 nA ri.
7. Emi iba ti k ere re bi mo ba mo p6 iw9 1I e daradara.
8. Bi mo ba fi otit9 pam9, dajudaju nw9n iba je mi niya
nwgn ba ri mi.
9. Nitori kini iwq iba fi ma fbyh, niw9n igbati o ni re
ti mba 9 kednn ?
Io. Bi ng k6 ba ti gb9 p6 o ti d6, ng k6 ba ti rdin p6 9.
II. Bi mo ba ni irohin ogun kan, ng o fi rdn ire 9.
12. Bi 9W9 r kb di p6ip, on kb ba ti 16 firadi iwa idigb6 r.
13. Bi o ba tune iru iginh kannA nigbh keji, baba ati iya
re ki yio ni if lati dariji 9.
14. Bi aw9n oril Md6 ti mba ara w9n s r9 p9 kb ti wi ninu
is9kan t6b, ogun nt iba ti b9 si anfAni fun aw9n otd.








15. Bikosepe o ba sq nkan ti o f ki ng nre fun mi, ng ki yio
1I rhn 1 lw.
16. O ni on iba dupe 1lw9 re piip bi o ba 1l fi kek re yd
on 191a.
17. Emi yio t9ju aw9n 9m9 re gege bi enipe nwgn jq temi.
18. AlAfia ni fun aw9n eniti ngb6 ilH ajeji, bi enipe nwgn gb6
inu ile w9n papa.
19. Nigbati on kigbe elqrA kan, aw9n td r9gl ibudo wa bi
enipe nw9n ti i.gun nisisiyi na.
20. Bi enia ti nfunrugbin, b~ni nwgn yio ki.

EXERCISE 7.
I. O ni iwa re nti on l'oju.
2. Anu se mi lati fi 9 sil pelu ikanji, or
Anu e mi p6 oj6 nkan mi lati fi 9 sil.
3. K6 ye fun alawiye lati binu.
4. 0 jq pataki p6pi fun 9 lati kil9 fun u p6 ki o mrAe bjh.
5. 0 dun m9 mi gidigidi lati gb p6 o gbk oyi ni titun yi.
6. 0 wTh6lk mi nigbati mo ba ronu p6 aw9n 9td 1I pa ili
el w beh run nigbakugba.
7. Ni kete ti al ba ti nl ni aw9n eiye oru ama wh 19p0lp9
I'oju 9n.
8. O k~n il6 lati bojito igbala ti awgn ara ili.
9. O je iyatO nla fun mi bi aw9n 9td yio Qgun tabi bi nw9n
ki yio 4gun.
Io. Ojo rO pdp9 t6b ni 9s. meji t'o kgja yi ti omi fi b6 aw9n
oko gbingbin wa m01.
ii. O yq nipa ofin lati gbh ohun ini 1wO awgn (ti ii ak6kb ogun.
12. Nigbati il 9J9 k~dogun ti ofi January mO, a ri p6 ibiti
ogun meji gbe pade ijh kin fun qgbegberun 6k6 ati awgn
eniti a al9gb.
13. O ni hnu e on p6 iw9 k6 si nib nigbati ir6hin d& p6 o ni
- lati 19 ni kit6kfit 6wfir ijO keji.
14. O wahal6 mi jf bi iw9 ti lb r6 19 nigbati mo ba mQ bi
iw9 ti nfi ak6k6 re 6fo ninu ile-iw6.
15. O skn ara ji wdkati kan 19 lTrin eyiti 6jo hn agbarA.
16. Enikeni k6 ni lati tiju ive nkan ti o t9.
17. O ye fun ara ili rere lati teriba fun ofin il6 re.








18. Inf mi din lati gb p6 aw9n ta k6 ni p tfiba.
19. O yq fun eni rere kan lati k9jujasi 6r r papa ti o dara
jul9 nigbati o ba nfi imgran buburu fun u.
20. 0 je pataki pfip fun ajy igbim9 ti nge ofin lati tfimi
ofin na ki ijoko ipade t'o pari.

EXERCISE 8.
I. K6 si enikan ti o 1I pae bikosqpe o mQ lati teriba.
2. On k6 r6 ri p6 on yio j ipalara li nhiknk fun 9 nigbati
o r6 ti ati di 9 14w0 kuro ninu ik9ll aw9n 91yt9.
3. I ti Kristiani ni lati je onike awgn arak~nrin r.
4. A pase fun- u p6 ki o ma e eyi, ugbgn on ki yio teriba.
5. Mo gbO p6 awgn Germans nf lati e paSipar9 aw9n l1won.
6. Tani yio gbagb9 p6 aw9n Russians nf lati Se pasipar9
9kan ninu erekuSu w9n pelu die ninu agbA w9n ?
7. Mo gbekele 9 nigbagbogbo, Sugb9n ru mba mi p& igbekele
na np9ji.
8. A s9 fun mi p6 iw9 ni ayO pip9 lati k9 akoj9p9 iw6 ti a
k9 ni oriSiriSi 6d ni ori ohun kan pitaki.
9. J9, ma Sai yA mi ni 9g9rin poun; ng o sAn padh fun 9
ni kete ti mo ba 16 sdn a.
o1. Mo dupe 1w re gidigidi fun inurere ti o fihan mi li
ak6k6 na.
II. Qr9 ti iw9 s9 fun mi yio w616 fun idi grin ti ij9ba.
12. Aw9n ard ild sfin i li qS idhl, nw9n si bere p6 ki a pa a.
13. Aw9n 9m9de ti nSaigb9rhn si awgn 6bi w9n yio krnu
nit6t0 fun ebi w9n ni ij9 kan.
14. Nik fun aw9n eniti o 9 ; ofin ti Kristi ni.
15. Gbekkl awgn eniti npaSe; laisi iyemeji nw9n yio se
am9na nyin d6 igun.
16. O kin iy6 re lati mi j9 ipalara fun aw9n eniti o tfba.
17. Se ojurere si aw9n eniti o ti je o16t9 si 9.
18. Mo ri p6 9d9gmdeknnrin, ti iw9 ti S9rg r ni rere fun mi,
wil6 pfip fun awgn eniti o fun u ni iS se.
19. Aw9n eniti ny9 si iwa buruku b6h yio t6te ri ijiya ti o
t9 si w9n.
20. Oju re nti mi nitori o fun u ni im9ran lati Saigbgran si
imgrhn rere ti awgn cr r fifun u.








EXERCISE 9.
I. Nigbati o w6 baba r6, 9m9binrin na kigbe p6: "Emi k6 ha
1wa bi, baba ?"
2. Ogun na ki yio ha t6te pari bi ?
3. Kini iw9 ha ti nfi ara re e ? ng k6 ri 9 li qj9 t'o p.
4. Kini se ti iw9 k6 s9 fun mi p6 ak6k6 ati gbh isimi rg fer t6 ?
5. Nje, erin k6 ha je eranko ti o tobi ji erin-omi 19 ?
6. Ni ibere os May ni 6jo ima r9 bi ?
7. A s9 fun mi p6 o 19 jgun ni ile 9ba l'oru hna; o gbadun
onjq na bi ?
8. Tani npa iru ariwo beh ninu iyara? O Soro fun mi lati
mi ba i mi 19.
9. Iri ko ha ns l'9pQl p9 l'oru t'o pargrg jA oru alaf fe 19 bi ?
o1. Isin wo ni tire ? Emi k6 ri 9 ri p6 iwg a ma 19 si ile-919run
kankin li 9qj 99s.
II. Mo ri iw6 kan lori il-ile; k6 si oruk9 kankan ninu r ;
ti tani ?
12. O s9 p6 John k6 si nile nigbati o 19 sib ; tani iw9 fi iw6
mi fun?
13. Lirin ogun, balogun na k6 dekun ati ma gbh aw9n enia
r niyanju bayi: E 19 siwaju, enyin 9m9knnrin; kini nw9n
yio wi ni il G~si bi a ba gun wa ? "
14. O wa lati b6re bi iw9 yio f lati 19 si eti okun l'9sin yi;
kini emi yio ha ti wi fun u, nigbati o ba padi wi ?
15. On kigbe wipe: Ird ojo wo ni mo t9 ni agbild mi, ti k6
si enikeni ti yio y9 mi kuro l'9w9 alufa yi ti a bi nip6 ail9la?"
16. Iru f1 wo ni imA h daradara li Ek6 nigbk 6jo ?
17. Iw9 ha m9 idi rn ti o k6 fi 16 ba a fim99kan ? B~ni,
nitoriti ara rn nikan 1'o m .
18. Kini ha ni idi wynni t'o m6 9 p9 tobayi ?
19. Tani bykinni na ti o ni oko kan nitosi oji 9na ati ba 19 si
ibus9 q9k-il ?
S 20. Iw9 ha 16 s9 bi tk6 ti jini si Calabar t6 ?

EXERCISE Io.
I. Kini Se ti 9p919~p enia b fi nwd awawi si nkan ti o ba Se ?
2. Bawo ni o ti 16 se ir6 asiki b6, nigbati o je tilikh t6b
niw9n 9d6n marun shin ?








3. Nigbawo ni aw9n alari yio wa lati ril ri mi 19 si 6bit6
ibode ?
4. Nibo ni gbogbo iw6 ti mo s9 fun 9 p6 ki o mi wa si iyarA'
mi gb6 w ?
5. Elo ni baba rg agbh ni nigbati o ki ?
6. Aw9n 9m9de melo lo wa si ibi ariyd ti a se ni Empire
Day ni oSit May t'o k9ja ?
7. Bawo ni Od6 Qya ti jin t6 ni opin r ti o jin jil9 ?
8. Bawo ni o ti f6 ga s6ki t6, nigbati o jqe re nibi ire sise ti
ikehin ?
9. Bawo ni yio ti p 9 t6 lati pari icS ti giA rg fifun 9 bi
ijiyh fun pip ti o p l'ow6rr yi ?
Io. Bawo ni 6rin ti jinna si aiy6 t6 ?
II. Nigba melo ni a ti kil9 fun 9 p6 ki o mdSe sunm9 kanga
na ? Iw9 ha t6n f ki ng t6n kil9 fun 9 bi ?
12. Kini iwq iba fi ma jiyhn 19 titi fun nigbati iw9 m) p6
iwg ki yio 16 yi iro mi pada lai lati gbagb9 p6 iwg jg alaileyl ?
13. YAl~ o f lati te16 im9ran mi tabi o k6 ff, je 9ran ti o khn
ara rg papa.
14. Nibo ni iw9 ngbir6 lati 19 se isimi re li 9d6n yi ?
15. Nkan pithki ni p6 a fim9y9kan nipati aw9n erg wa;
nigbawo ni iwo f ki ng pade rg ni Ikom ?
16. Balogun na k6 m) bi aw9n Oti yio jagun tabi bi nw9n
yio tfba.
17. Bawo ni aw9n ro wa ti ma mu wa jinna t6 nigbamirn !
18. Kini se ti iw9 fi jyw9 ara re fun aniyan sige niti ipo ti a
wa nisisiyi fun ti ogun, nigbati o mr p6 awa ni lati Sgun ?
19. Nigbh melo ni balogun ti s9 fun 9 p6 ki iwo miAe k9li
aw9n ta Saju igbati nw9n yio ti da od6 na kgji ?
20. Nigbawo ni yio 16 ye 9 p6 bikosepe o ba k0 iwe, iw9 ki
yio 16 ri igb616k6 lai?
EXERCISE II.
I. Iw9 ha 16 s9 nkan t'o se ti iw9 ima Siyemeji nigbagbogbo *
lati mu r6 kan wa ?
2. On k6 mr bi ogun na 16 pari li ak6k6 igbati on yio gba
isimi ?
3. Aw9n 9m9de dig k6 1'oye bi wahalh ti awqn 6bi w9n nSe
lati fun W9n li k9 ti tobi t6.






61

4. K6 si enikan t'o gb ohun t'o wi nitori ti ariwo nla ti 9p9
enia.
*5. 0 m i inira ti yio je lati 16 aw9n tA kfir6 ninu bdi
w9n.
6. K6 daju bi ijh ta nigbangba yio tun bire ki aw9n 9m9
ogun ti yio e iranlw t6 de.
7. B9ya aye kan 1 wa ti a fi 16 gbk emi alaishn n5 1h.
8. Mo bi i ler6 ak6k6 igbati on yio padk wd, ugb9n o dahin
p6 on k6 mr bi hye kan yio wk fun on lati e beh hju ipari
ak6k6 rfn.
9. Kini e ti iwg ki yio fi sq 9qr rere nipage mi, niw9nbi iw6
it9r9 i mi ba ti duro ingin ?
io. Mo f( lati ronu p6 awgn agbAgbk ti a ti yhn lati s9 9til9
9rin na yio mu ipinnu wa p6 k6 jrbi.
II. Tani mO bi on ki yio e iparun ilosi aiye r nitori ti agidi
rg ?
12. Nigbati nw9n bi il 6re p6 kini e ti k6 fi run awgn tanwiji
ninu agbhlA r o ni on k6 m9 bi a ti e 16 pa w9n run.
13. O oro lati tum9 ohun ti o e ti enia diy kiun fi ni itelorin
pelu ipin w9n.
14. ]Ejq ti e ni lati da, enyin agbagbk ti idajg, kite bi e91w n
nh mutiyo nigbati o da 9rin nla na, ugb9n bi l'9t't( ni on da
9rin nla na.
15. O bere itum9 bi 9k9 onirin ti e 16 f6 loju omi 16w6 nu.
16. O je nkan phthki fun mi'p6 ki o s9 fun bi 9k oyinbo na
yio rin li 9ss yi.
17. K6 daju bi a 16 ri aye lati gbk 9k na l1 nitori agbara
ti iji nd fi njh.
18. B9ya hy6 kan.16 wk fun awgn 9ril 6d& ti nSQr p9 lati
wA sinu im9 kan nipati ohun ti a fi 161 fun alffia.
19. Li 9nk kan tabi 6mirrn a ti rb aw9n iddm9rhn r jinl9
bi iwgnni t'o ni itl19rfn.
S 20. O bi mi 16re bi enikan tabi elomiran ba ti fi iki dqerba,
arakinrin r.
EXERCISE 12.
I. Kige nitoripe iw9 je onimimI ni gbogbo aw9n 9m9 r9
fi ni lati je onimimk bi r9.
2. Awgn 9td nfi ird ik9jujasi ti nwgn kb iti fi 19 ri hin.








3. Nibiti od6 Benue gb6 ndhpm od6 Qya, nib ni qnyin
yio kgli awgn ta pelu gbogbo awgn 9m9 ogun nyin.
4. Initi ki iba dari ibaje ji, ko le ni ireti ati ri idariji gbi
1'9d9 elomiran.
5. Die ninu aw9n art il1 fi iS oko si il6 phtaki, elomiran
owo.
6. Aw9n mejeji I'o gb9gb nla li ogun; 9kan gbh 9gb li
grdn, ekeji si gbh 9gb nibi ok6 d6 r.
7. Botilejep6 a ti kil9 fun u nigbh pip9 p6 ki o ma mu 9ti,
sib on yio tyramq mimu r.
8. Ninu ki o gbekele mi tabi k6 mi ri bh ; bi o ba gbekele
mi fi 9grn na sil fun mi, o si di mi loju p6 iwg ki yio k6 abdm.
9. Botilejqp6 nipa eri li a ri p6 arufin na di 9rin ti o buru
rekoja ti a k6 iti mu wa si ile eJ9 yi ri, sib o dabi enipe iwo
ndekAn ori buruku r.
Io. Balogun na di 9niti aw9n jagunjagun re gbekele nipa 9gb n
ori ti on fihAn nigba pipo ati nipa igboiya alainib~rf.
ii. lTlwhn na sail sinu ileto ti mbr li adugbo loru, o si ti
ib& 19 si Ibadan, nibiti a gb6 ti le e jade.
12. KiSe nikan p6 baba re yi ba 9 wi fun iwa ti k6 ve re,
Sugb9n yio je 9 niyh pdp9 pelu.
13. Aw9n 9td yhn ird 9nh ijhgun wQnni ti ili gbogbo ti o
laju k6 16 ri.
14. IJSgun na p6 t6b ti di ninu awgn oti fi tfba niwgn
igbati awgn iyoku fi sal9 nibfbu kgja odb, nibiti a gb& pa w9n
tabi ti a mu w9n nigbekun.
15. Aw9n ara Austria k6 t6n ja mn pelu ird 9kan na ti nwpn
fi ji nipeleS ogun.
16. Kini Se ti iwg k6 19 ki awgn or re ni ilu yi, b~ni ti iw9
k6 si kOw6 si aw9n ti mbe nile ?
17. Nipa itfiba fun aw9n Gssi kiSe kiki ilo rere ni iw9 \io
ri gbi lQwO w9n, sugb9n pelu nwgn yio fi opin si gbogbo aw9n
ir9ra nla re.
18. Botilejep6 iwq ni ohun gbogbo lati fun 9 ni irgra, sib
k6 dabi enipe iw9 ni it~19run pelu ipin re.
19. Vniti k6 ba ndariji k6 ye lati ma je Kristiani.
20. tlomiran r6 p6 a o so aSaju ti aw9n l90t li 9riun pa;
6miran si r6 p6 a o le e jade kuro ni 16.








EXERCISE 13.
I. MAlalai je ki o mr p6 ng ki yio t6n ft lati ri i m(.
2. Ma S9ra ninu yiyan aw9n re, re, nitori 9r1 buruku buru
ju 9ta 19.
3. L9 s~d9 arakinrin r9 19gan, ki o sq fun u p6 ki o mura
lati pade mi ni ibas9 ni wakhti kan.
4. Je ki ng nm9 bi iwg yio ti mura tan lati w9k( nigbati
agbh ba r9.
5. Kiyesi, mase padh wa si etikun Afrika nigbati isimi re ba
pan.
6. Ibaje p6 mo wh nitosi re nigbati aw9n Otd 16 9 jade kuro
ni ild re !
7. MaSe gbidanw6 lati mu mi gbhgb( p6 iw9 ki yio jh fun
ilu re, nitoripe ogun ni lodisi if re.
8. Ibajep6 ng k6 ti fi il ati aw9n ibatan mi sil, ni rir6 bi
alafia k6 ti si fun mi nipa jijinna si w9n.
9. Jy ki elewgn na ki o m9 p6 on yio ba iya ti o mi6n pade
bi o ba jqbi 9rin na.
o1. L9 s8d( baba re, ki o si bire idariji 10w9 r.
II. Rinti, 9m9 mi, p6 ohunkohun ti o ba je inira fun 9 li
aiy6, emi yio ma ran 9 1Qw nigbagbogbo bi o ba wa s d9 mi.
12. Je ki nw9n tyram9 iwa qranko w9n; laipf nw9n yio
mr bi a o ti e igbesan w9n pelu ikor6.
13. Je ki a yara 19 gba il sil 1wv aw9n 9dal ti nw9n ti
wa ninu r. lati ipilse9 ogun.
14. $9 aw9n enu ilekun nla, ki o si e itgju p6 ki enikeni
mhSe w9 i16 nla laisi ivwi ikpja li 9na.
15. M ie gbagb p6 aw9n Ota yio je daSh lati wa si Ek6, a
fi aw9n 9k9 ogun wa 9 eti 6kun r daradara.
16. Mase Se eyi, tabi ki iw9 til gbidanw6 r ; nitoripe awa
yio sh gbogbo agbara wa lati da 9rg r9 ri.
17. Kiyesara o ninu gbogbo aw9n ip~nni r, ki o ma si je
-ki a mu 9 nipaSe W9n.
18. ma je ki a Siyemeji lati se iS wa, bi o ti wi ki o
lap9n ninu t6.
19. Ibajep6 baba mi kb t6te kd, alafia mi ninu aiy6 iba p9 si i!
20. Ni idaniloju p6 k6 si ipinnu ti alafia kan ti awa yio gba
ji iwqnni ti h ba p6 fun wyn lati k9 19.






64

EXERCISE 14.
I. Iw9 k6 gb9d Siyemeji lati mu ero wa nigbati a ba bere
r lwf re.
2. Iw9 iba gbiyanju lati yi pada si iro p6 enikeni k6 1I ri
igbala laisi igbagb.
3. 0 ye p6 ki iwq iba ti pise gbogbo nkan sil ki iw9 t6 mu
9na aj6 re p~n.
4. 0 t9 ki o r6 9rhn na dada, ki iw9 t6 mi nkan ti iw9 yio Se.
5. Iw9 yio ni lati fi iparadh pip9 h~n bi iw9 ba f lati ni
ibori ninu idaw9le re t6 16wu.
6. 116 na ki ba ti k9 irub9 rAr6 lati mu ogun nt pari ni i-gun.
7. Iw9 k6 gbgd9 gb~gb p6 aw9n 9ta ki yio kgjujasi nyin
pelu gbogbo agbara w9n.
8. 0 ye ki iw9 iba k9gl aw9n ti li fem9gjum9 ki nw9n t6
gbi 9m9 ogun ti yio e iranl9w9 w6.
9. Gbogbo wa 1'o ni lati kdi; k6 si ohun mirin t'o daju jia fi
19 ninu aiy6 yi.
o1. Ija k6 16 Se alaiwh larin awgn 9ry meji bi 9kan ba k
lati ma d 9r9g fun ekeji.
II. Iw9 yio ni lati 16 qgb(n plp9 bi iw9 k6 ba f lati 4 9ta5 re.
12. Iw9 ni lati gbh p6 a kb 6 16 aw9n ta pada shin laisi
bfo 9plyp9 ti emi.
13. K9 y- ki 9dMhl kan gbhgbe p6 on kb 16 ni ireti anu 1Id9
aw9n oldsin olt9 ti 9ba.
14. Nigbati a bi balogun 16r& p6 bi k6 t ki on tfb0 j~ die
si i nip6 ti on iba fi tiba, o dahun p6 egbe ologun k6 ri onje
je fun ij0 meji.
15. Nitori kini enyin yio e alainireti, nigbati gbogbo 9na
iSgun mbe ni ihh 9d9 nyin ?
16. O t9 ki enia ni iSgra pdip ninu yiyhn aw9n 9ri r.
17. O ye ki ijgba ninu irt idagiri bih ki o wa 9na fun abo
ti aw9n arH ili.
18. Nitori kini iwg iba fi te16 im9rin r nigbati o mQ p6 on
yio fh 9 19 sinu iparun ?
19. Ki a t6 k9lh aw9n ~ta o t0 ki a mc bi 9m9 ogun ti nwgn
ni lati fi k9jujasi wa ti p9 t6.
20. A kb 16 jiyhn p6 iw9 ni lati jq alagbara lati 16 firadh'
9plop9 inira t6b laisi ibaje fun il6ra re.






65

EXERCISE 15.
1. Iji kan lArin Qba ili Gssi ati Papu I'o mu itika ile Ql9run
ni ti ili G~si kuro ninu ile Qlgrun ti Romu wa.
2. WAkiti kan ti a 16 ninu egbe re ti o wo je wikkti kan ti
a 16 dada.
3. Balogun na 6 am9nh aw9n 9mp ogun kuro ni ibudo o si
fi ikdnju 19 ba awgn otd jh.
4. O se ileri p6 on yio fi egberun poun fun irdnS 9ba bi a
ba fi ida kukuru r pa a.
5. Enia ti o yht9 si ara w9n ninu isin k6 ni lati ma ba ara
w9n jiyin nipa 9rin ti isin.
6. Bikosepe iw9 f lati joko nile, emi iba f lati gbh atggln
19 si okun pelu re.
7. A mu irohin iSgun na wa si ild G~si pelu iyara ti a k6
16 gbhgb9.
8. A le pari 9ran na pelu alhfia bi iw9 yio ba 16 fi ohun k6kWke
sil.
9. Balogun na ti fi ibudo r si iwgn igba 9pa lati 9W9 osi
eti od6 na.
Io. Lehin ogun ti awgn od6 meta, awgn ari ili Germany
fasehin pelu iyara pfpp, awgn egbegun ahSgun ti Gssi ati Franse
si lepa w9n pelu igbona.
II. Awa yio Se ogun na, Sugb9n kiSe laisi ita eje p6p9 sil.
12. Aw9n ara ili Britain a ma fi aw9 awgn eranko igbo w9
ara wgn li a9.
13. Ni igba lailai aw9n enia amh jh pelu grun ati 9fi, nitoripe
a k6 iti se awAri il6 ib9n.
14. 9Qlt na je 9knrin kan ti o l'agbara ti o si l'oye pip9,
sugb9n o je enia ti k6 nilari ti o si nikh.
15. Aw9n aSgun tenum9 itfiba ti old lid a ti sisan egbAwa
9k poun ow6 ogun. Aw9n 9td k6 1llA ri p6 alafia yio je iri
ow6 b.
16. A S9 fun wa p6 die ninu awgn enia nla ti aiy6 idayi li a
bi lati inu idile ti o ni irel wa.
17. Q19gb~n kan wipe a 1M fi ewfn mu enia gege bi a ti nfi
iwg mu eja.
18. Botilejep6 emi iba f lati gb6 pelu re, sib mo f lati
ronu p6 awa ki yio 16 se dede p.
E






66

19. Ni riri p6 nw9n iba ki w9n kuro nibiti egb ogun w9n
gb6 sapadh, egbe ogun ti o ti 9e ipinnu lati fi agbara w arin
egbe ogun ti aw9n 9ta.
20. Botil9ejp6 gbogbo ida mejila oSuw9n esl kan ile li a jh
fun pylu agidi, sib eqgby ti ngb6 ogun w i16 16 aw9n (td padh
shin titi de aw9n ilekun nla ti old ilu na.

EXERCISE 16.
I. Ogun jijh ti a daduro nitori 6tditi, li a o tin b~r ni igbh
iruw6.
2. Loruloru ni aw9n ddin ima f6; 1kand~gbyn ni nwgn
ima f6 lsdn.
3. Isin ama w& nigbagbogbo ni ile Ql9run Katoliki lfem9jfim9
9J9 Krismasi.
4. Mo 19 si 6ke 9k9 ti a fi pak6 t ni kete ti mo dide, mo si
rin s6ke rir s6d6 fun wakati kan.
5. Egbe na tin b~resi irin ni 6w6r9, nw9n si d& ileto na
nigbati 9J9 fer kanri.
6. Mo dubul leti okun ni asale, mo si ri gbogbo awgn 9k
ipeja ti npada 19 si 9sa.
7. Fun iw9n oSi melokan t6 kgja didara oju 9J9 ti je nkan
iyanu pfip.
8. Qj9 melokan Saju iSik9 mi fun ajb li a s9 fun mi p6 nw9n ti
beresi ogun.
9. Qj9 myta lehin ti mo ti gunl li a palaq fun mi p6 ki ng
se imurasile lati 19 siwaju ogun.
Io. Ogun na ja fun 9p QlpO 9J9 lehin na ar mu 9w9 ogun
mejiji t6b ti ija kan kb si fun (s meji.
II. Ni ijO keji li ahale, nigbati balogun na ri p6 a ti fi alagbara
9m9 ogun rang si aw9n tad, o paey p6 ki gbogbo aw9n ologun
fasehin 19 si eti od6 na.
12. If ild eni p9 t6b ni Russia ti enia oniruru 9J9 ori ti fi
if inu w9n W9 is^ ogun; elomiran pelu ti igba ogb6 w9n je
marundil9g9rin dap m9 aw9n 9m9 ogun.
13. Ayaba Victoria j9ba lori ild Gssi ji 9g9ta 9din 19.
14. Ikfik p9 tbb ni London ni igb bt6ili ti kb fi r9rAn lati
ri es kan niwaju nigbamiran.
15. Titi Os melokan aw9n ora Italy ati aw9n ara Roumania






67

yio dap9m9 Russia ninu iSigun si awgn ard Austria ati awgn
ard Germany.
16. Lehin iqju melokan ti o ti wo inu iyara r, a fi agbara
mu u li 9n1 9fun, a si fi mim6m9 pa a.
17. Napoleon kf si St. Helena lehin 9dfn nmfa ti ogun
Waterloo.
18. Li ak6k6 ewu, gbogbo arn i16 iba ti mura tan lati fi qmi
w9n fun ab6 ti il 9ba nla.
19. Bi iw9 ba f pa eyikeyi ninu aw9n labalaba, iw9 ni lati
19 si eti od6 ni agogo mej9 6wir6, nibiti iw9 yio ri 9p0l onirfru.
20. Ni igbi St6tl pil1i p eiye ni ima gigb6 19 si il mirin
ti afgfe r k6 le, lati ib wd ni nw9n ama padk wa ni igbi irfwe.

EXERCISE 17.
I. Li osu marun shin aw9n ara il Germany r6 p6 nw9n
iba wo oli ild ti Franse; Sugb9n nisisiyi a ti fi agbara da w9n
pada kuro nib ni 9pQlp9 mili.
2. K6 si ireti lati d6 ileto na loni, nitori 9gb n mili li awa fi
jinh si i sib.
3. Ni igbh 6jo odb Qya ima jin t6 bi iw9n fsl marundilad9ta
*nibomiran.
4. Die ninu awgn ok6 nla ti aiy6, ni phthki ni India ati
America, ga ji mili merin 19.
5. A ti ri ohun ti o wil6 ninu ohun ti a nwa ninu il ni Nigeria
ni 1 wlwOWw yi.
6. Kini Se ti iw9 iba fi ma 19 isimi re nile nigbagbogbo, nigbati
9pQ1Qp9 16 daradara mby lehin odi lati bewo ?
7. QpQ10pl enia feran lati gb6 inu il6, sib o w9 pfip lati
gb6 inu oko.
8. Kiyesi p6 iw9 yio ma kgw6 si mi nigbati iw9 ba pada
wa si Nigeria, ki enikeni ma 16 wipe iw9 gbagb6 aw9n (r} re.
S9. Mo ti ni iro lati 19 si Romu ni ak6k6 isimi fun 9s9 meji,
sugb9n aishn baba mi k6 j9 ki ng 16 se b.
Io. Ni ild miran ti 6ru mu pfip, 6jo ama r6 lem9lem9 t6b
,ti enikan k6 16 ri 6rin fun 9pplyp9 9J9.
Ir. Je k'a duro ni Kano fun se meji, k'a si gba 9nk ti od6
Qya pada 19 si Ek6.








12. Niw9n 9d6n melokan shin irin ajo niygnu pipi li apakan
ti il6 na.
13. Balogun na ns9 fun awgn jagunjagun p6: "gbiyanyu,
enyin 9m9k~nrin, ni ij( melokan si i, awa yio d6 opin ti 9kinjuwa
wa."
14. t, mAse 19 siwaju m9; a s9 fun mi p6 kiniun die mbe
li ad6gb6.
15. Lehin ti a pa 9p0lp9 jagunjagun, balogun ni pase p6
ki ogun fasehin 19 si ileto kan, eyiti ijinh r si iwaju ogun je
mili mewa.
16. Ninu igberiko die ni il6 6ke 6wdi ama hfi p6p9 t6b ti
Anu fi Se ni p6 a k6 tfib9 gbin die si i.
17. Nigbati mo wa li Abo 9d6n melokan shin, mo fer
mr 16 gb6 inu ile 16j6jdim ni wakhti kan; pfpi ninu Ak6k6 mi
ni mo 16 ni Si#S labalaba j9.
18. Nigbati balogun na s9 fun ik9 bi Or9 ipinnu ti alAfia ti ri,
o wipe on iba 19 si ile lati fi 9rin na 19 ij9ba ti on.
19. Awa ti je 9r timQtim9 li 9nk t6 jin, Sugb9n lehin igbeyawo
r, o 19 si il Gssi, ng k6 si tuin gbir6 r1 mr.
20. Nigbati Napoleon gb p6 aw9n 9td ti fi il6 sil 16ru ti
nw9n si ti fi ind pa nkan gbogbo run li 9na w9n, o banuje gidigidi.

EXERCISE 18.
Iji tabi Efilff nla.
Iji ni aw9n efQfi lile ti igbonA ti afafe ni ild kan ima mu wa.
Nw9n ki ijh d6 alhfo t'o gb6r6, Sugb9n nw9n ama je idi fife
efftf p6ip, bjo wuwo pqlu hrA ati mhnamdnL. Aw9n iji ti
Afrika k6 le t6b bi ti United States; sugb9n nw9n ama fi eso
oko 6bf6 ; o je p6 nigbagbogbo ni nwgn ima i ibori ile kuro.

EXERCISE 19.
Qpplpp iye je ol6kiki fun orin ati iy w9n. Ninu egbe -
ak9rin ti qiye, aw9n ak9 1'o mr orin k9 rek9ja. Nigbati aw9n
abo ba 16 k9rin, iwh ni ipo chin ama farahhn ninu ipariwo ati
iw9n ti ohAn orin wgn. Orin ti awyn ak9 eiye je eyiti nfh ni,
niphtiki li ak6kb ti nw9n ba nfi if ti aw9n abo qiye ati iy
w9n pelu ti o nthn im(l pa.thki li ak6k6 na.








EXERCISE 20.
Owi Alantakin.
Owd alantakfn je rubutu. Origi okAn tinrin kan li a fi Se
w9n ; qkan 1'agbara pdp9 ji ekeji 19. Awgn okin tinrin t'o
1'agbara li a nl6 fun qse kek IwSnni ti a 1'6 li a sopq yika nitori
ki nw9n ba 1 e oriSi iyika leralera kan. Nigbati a ba ran 6wi
na tan, alantakin na 1M se tabi o si 1M ma se ibi-isapam9si kekere
kan, nibiti imha wiwa ti ohun qde r. Owi alantakin b6
alfg9 ti o gb6r6 m1] Nigbati eSinSin kan ba ha sinu 6wd ri,
alantakin a f6 m9 9 lojiji, a kimole pelu ekanna'-r, a si yara
s9 9 di alailera nipa riran 6wd di d gbigb6ro kan yi i ka.
Nigbanh ni yio fh gbogbo omi ti mbe li ara r mu patapatA.
EXERCISE 21.
Ikan.
Ikdn j olugb6 ili ti ipa 9na 6rtn. Nw9n w616 p6pjAi ni
ild ti enia ki gb6 inu r4, nitoripe igi gbigby ni nwyn nje, nwgn a
si ma Se iranl9w9 nla fun imudagbh ti idagbas6kU igbo. Sugbgn
ni il6 ti enia ngb6, nwgn ama j idi 6f6 pfpi, nitori ti nwgn
dojuk9 i igi, nwgn ki si fi ohunkohun sil ninu r, bikoSe
karahun felffl kan ti ima f9 nigbati a ba fun u p9 pelu ika
tabi nkan miran, nigbana nikan ni nwyn ima fi ojfi w9n han.
Ikan ama fi iw6 Sofb p6p9. Botilejep6 ikdn kiSe eran, sib
nw9n ni iwa ajfm9 hfi. Fun ap~re, ya ak9 ati abo wgn ama
ni iy, aw9n jagunjagun tabi oSiS wyn k6 ni iye. Nw9n si
ma gb& p9, a si dabi enipe nwgn ama fi ohun S9kan bi erun.
EXERCISE 22.
Yanmlyanmd.
Yanmiydynmi ni kokoro kan, ati be gbogbo kokoro, o ni lati
farada onirfru iyirapada ki o t6 di nla. O ny6 eyin ti ndi
tanwiji; iwvnni ndi yhnmfyanmfi alainiy; yhnmuyanmd
alainiy ndi oniy tabi agba yanmAyanmf patapata. Nw9n
y6 eyin w9n sinu omi; ninu omi ni aw9n tanwiji ngb6; yanmu-
yanmi alainiy 16 gbe, nwQn si 16 ma gbe inu omi. Oniriru
yhnmuyanmd ni mby; Sugb9n meta t'o je pataki ni: Culex,
ti ima fi arin ti a npe ni Elephantiasis fun ni; Anopheles, ti
'ima fi arin ti a npe ni malaria fun ni; Stegomyia, ti ima fi
arfin ti a npe ni iba oniyey6 fun ni.







EXERCISE 23.
Ilana Igbeyawo Larin Aw9n Enia ti ns9 Edo.
Nigbati 9mgbinrin ba de ipo lati w ile 9k9, baba a w6 9na
ati k9 il1 si ara r ; oluf 9m9binrin na a si mA di onje wi.
Nigbati a ti se eyi tan, oluf ni ni aW lati ber& aya r 1wv
baba na. Lesqkanni a fi igba agb9n, igba obi, sago emu marun,
ati ow6 ey9 die range bi 9re. Nigbati 9m9binrin na n16 si ile
9k9 r4, baba na a p6 die ninu awgn y5 idile r4 j9 lati se bi
am9nh. Nw9n A sin 9m9binrin na 19 si 9dq 9k9 r li agAl,
nwgn a si gbh 9r 1wv r Ohun t6 j, phthki ninu gbigbh ti
9m9binrin na ni wiw ti 9qw r4. Qk9 na a fi qd.gberin ow6 yp9,
obi mrrin ati ig6 jini kan sinu 9kgkan ninu awo meji, a si fi
awo k6t6 kan md omi wA. Iyk idile kan ti 9m9binrin a gb6
awo kbt6 ni dani, a si fi w 9w9 9m9binrin. NigbanA ni 9k9
yio mu aS9 kan wi lati fi nif wgn, a 9 inuw9 na ati qdygbyrin
ow6 ey9 yio j ti 9m9binrin;, awgn amg9n r4 yio si gbh awo
keji.
EXERCISE 24.
Ilobinrin Pfip9 ni 11 Yoruba.
Ilobinrin pfip s@pi ni il Yoruba. lye ava ti 9k f gbarale ip6 ati 9r9 r4. Die ninu aw9n 9k~nrin nni aya
meji tabi meta, elomiran nigbimiran nni t'o 9g9ta. Aw9n
olori 1 ni jf bb 19. Nigbati o ba je 9ba ni, o 16 ni aya ti o p9
t6 qdegbeta. Aw9n aya l'o ni lati b? ara w9n ati 9m9 w9n
bakannh. Nw9n ami Se eyi nipa tith nkan onjq ati ohun
mirin ti a 16 fi oji ri ii 9ja.
Tyan Qba ni II Yoruba.
Aj9 igbim9 ti awgn agbAgbi ni ima yan 9ba lArin aw9n eniti
nwgn ni itan phthki kan ninu (je. Ilana kan ti o se ajeji ami
Saju lyan ti 9ba. Awqn olori ami dan agbara ti ir9ju r4 ati
i4 akoso ara r4 w6. Li q9J ti a yan fun dide e li ade, awqn
olori ama 19 si Afin 9ba, nw9n a mu u dani pqlu agbara, nwgn
a si ni& pelu pa~Sn. Bi 9ba ba farada aje ni lai sun ara ki.
nigbanf nw9n yio de e li ade ; bi bjk9, nw9n yio yin 9ba mirin.












A.
Abandon, v.: fi sil'.
Ability, n.: qgb Able, to be, v.: 16 se.
Abound, v.: wh l1p0lp .
About, adv.: iw9n.
Above, a little: l'okU die.
Abundantly, adv.: 10p Abuse, v.: bi.
Abroad, adv.: ni iddlM.
Accept, v.: gbh pelu ayg.
Accident, n.: ohun abaipid.
Accompanied by: pqlu.
Account of, on: nitoriti.
Accumulation, n.: agbAsi.
Accuse, v.: fi sin, se
ifisfin, sun.
Accused, the: 9niti a fi 9rin
mr.
Accustomed, to be: fi se iwd.
Act, in concert: fi ohun gqkan.
Act, as: e bi.
Acts, of brutality: iwa eranko.
Action, to take: mQ nkan ti se.
Actually, adv.: lotit ni.
Addition, n.: il&.
Address, v.: s9r9.
Admit, v. = to confess: gbh bi
otitK.
Adopt, v.: yhn.
Adore, v.: b9la.
Adores, one who: ab9.
Adult, to become an: di nla.
Advantage, n.: anfAni.
Adversary, n.: tA.
Advice, n.: imyran.
Advise, v.: fun ni imgrhn.
Affair, n.: 9rhn.


Afraid, I am: ru mba mi p6.
After, conj. and prep.: e1hin,
e1hin igbati.
Afternoon, in the: l'9san.
Again, adv.; against, adv. and
prep.: mp.
Against, you are: l'odisi.
Age, at the age of seventy-five:
ti igbh ogb6 je marundi
l9gorin.
Ages, of all: onirfiru oj0 ori.
Agidi, n.: ek9.
Ago, three years: niw9n qdin
meta shin.
Agreeable, adj.: ti o wi.
Agree, with him: ba a fimS-
kan.
Agreed, it is: a fimS kan.
Agriculture, n.: iS oko.
Ahead, adv.: niwaju.
Aina, n.: Aina.
Air, n. : affe9.
Ajayi, n. : Ajayi.
Alike, to be: jq.
All, adj.: gbogbo.
Allies, n.: awgn oril edM ti
mba ara w9n s(r p.
Allow, yourself: fi j wO ara re.
Allow, v.: y9da; followed by
p6.
Almost, adv.: fer.
Aloud, adv.: san.
Already, adv.: nd.
Also, adv.: si.
Although, conj.: botilejep6.
Always, adv.: nigbagbogbo.
Ambassador, n.: ?kanjuwa.
Ambuscade, n.: iba.









Among, prep. : lrin.
Angry, to be, v.: binu, banuje.
Animal, n.: eranko.
Announced, it was: a kede r.
Answer, v.: ddhfin.
Answer, n.: idahin.
Ant, n. : erun.
Anticipation, of another's
words: abijk.
Anxious, to be: fun aniyan
giSe.
Any more, adv.: tin m .
Anything, pr.: nkankan.
Appear, v.: 16.
Application, n.: iw6 itgr9

Appointed, he was: a yan a.
Appointed time, at the: ak6kb
ti a ti yhn.
Approach, v.: d6.
Approach of the enemy: Awgn
?tat mbe nitosi.
Approve of your conduct: iwa
re dfnm9 9.
Apterous, adj.: k6 ni iy.
Area, n.: alifo.
Argue, with, v.: jiyhn.
Arise, v.: wh.
Arm, n.: apa.
Arms, calling to: ni pip .
si ija.
-Army: ni qgbe ogun.
Arrange, v.: mura, wa 9nh.
Arrange to meet: mura la i
pade.
Arrival, heard of your: gbO p6
o ti d6.
Arrive, v.: d6.
Arrow, n.: 9fh.
Ashamed of being, the boy
-was...: oju ti mu 9m9 nA
nitoripe. ..


Ashamed of himself, he was:
oju ti i, or o je itiju fun ara r.
Ashamed of you, I am: oju -
re nti mi.
As, comparison: bi, gege bi.
As, causal: nitori, nitori ti.
As as : bi ti.
As if: bi qnipe, gqge bi enipe.
Ask me: b6r6 l0w4 mi.
As often as: nigbakugba ti.
As long as: ni kete ti.
As to: nipa ti.
Assassin, n.: apania.
Assassination, n.: ilupa
nik k.
Assembly, tn.: ij9.
Assist, v.: ran 10\w.
Assistance, in.: iranlyw~ .
Assyrians, n.: Aw9n ara
Assyria.
At the foot of: nibi qes.
At once, adv.: l9gan.
Atrocities, n.: iwk buruku.
Attack, v.: kqlh.
Attack, n.: ik9lfi.
Attempt, v.: gbiddnw6.
Attractive, to be: fa.
Austrians: Aw9n ara Austria.
Avenge, v.: Se igbesan.
Avoid, v.: pa.
Away, to be: ko si nile.

B.
Bad, adj.: buburu.
Bag to keep clothes in: hbo.
Bake, v.: bu, yan.
Ball (dance), n.: ij6.
Ball, n.: iSu.
Band of silk: 6wli sda.
Bank of a river: eti odb.
Bark, v.: gb6.
Basin, n.: awo kbt6.








Basket, n.: agbyn.
Bat, n.: adAn.
Bathe, v.: w<.
Better than,: san ju.
Between, prep.: lArin.
Beware: kiyesara 0 !; fol-
lowed by mASe.
Big gun: agbd.
Bind, v.: d6.
Bird, n.: eiye.
Bitterly disappointed, he was:
o banujq gidigidi;
Bitterly, how: pqlu ikorb.
Blacksmith, n.: alkgbede.
Blame, v.: ba wi.
Blasts of wind: fifq, ffiffi.
Blood, n.: qj.
Blow, v.: f.
Boat, n.: 9k .
Body, n.: ara.
Boil, n.: 6wo.
Boiling: iru.
Book, n.: iwe.
SBooty, n.: iy.
Both sides (of armies): 6w6
ogun mejeji.
Both and, both (not
translated) and: ati.
Both, adj.: mejeji.
Bottle, n.: ig6.
Bound to conquer, we are:
awa ni lati ?gun.
Boy, n.: 9m9dek)nrin.
Bow, n.: 9run.
Bow-string, n.: 9sdn.
SBrain, n.: m9dunm9dun.
Break, v.: f1, S.
Break wind, v.: s6.
Breath (life) n.: mi
Breathe heavily: f
Brethren, n.: aw9n arak~nrin.
Bridge, n.: afara.


Bright (specially of plumage):
ti o nthn im9lQ pht~ki.
Bring, v.: mu wa.
Bring about, v.: ms q.
Bring before a court: mu wa
si ile jg.
Bring to a successful issue:
mu pari ni iSgun.
Bring up, v.: tO.
British, the: aw9n G~si.
Britons n.: aw9n ara Britain.
Brook n.: od6.
Brother, n.: arak~nrin.
Brutality, acts of: iwh eranko.
Bud, v.: sQ.
Build, v.: m9.
Burden, n.: erii.
Bury, v.: sinki.
Busy, he was so: 9W9 r di
pupp.
But (except) conj.: bikose.
But, conj.: Sugbgn.
Butterfly, n.: labalaba.
By, prep.: nipaSe.

C.
Cackling, n.: kfkt.
Caesar, n.: Kesari.
Calabar, n.: Calabar.
Calabash, n.: agbe.
Calabash, uncut and dry:
pansa.
Calabash, broken: akoto.
Call, v. (pay a visit): ki.
Calling to arms: ni pipe si ija.
Call together: pi j9.
Calm, adj.: t'o par9r9.
Camp, n. : ibfd6.
Campaign, n.: iigun.
Can, v..: lM.
Canoe, n.: 9kf.
Cannot, v.: k6 16.








Capital, n.: olA il6.
Captive, n.: er6.
Captivity, in.: igbekin.
Capture, v.: mi nigbekin.
Care, to take, v.: Se itoju.
Career, n.: ilosi aiy6.
Careful, adj.: pelu iy9ra.
Careful, be: mh S9ra.
Carefully, very, adv.: dida,
tiSgratiSra.
Cargo, n.: eru.
Carrier, n.: alarh.
Carry a disease, v.: fi arun fun.
Carry (loads): ru.
Carry on the back, v.: p n.
Carry (thoughts) : mu wa.
Case of a king, in the: nigbati
o ba j9 9ba ni.
Case, in this: ninu 9rin yi.
Case, to close a, v.: pari ej9.
Catch, v.: pa.
Cause, n.: idi 9rin.
Cease raining, did not: 6jo
k6 daw9duro.
Ceremony n.: ilana.
Certain a.: pithki.
Certainly, adv.: dajudaju.
Certain, more: daju jf.
Certain = some: dig ninu )p>.
Certain, torbe, v.: daju.
Cessation, in.: ekun.
Chance, there may be a:
b9ya hye kan 16 wh.
Chances of success:9nh iSgun.
Changing circumstances: nkan
ti nl9 si.
Change feathers: re.
Charge is proved against him,
if: bi o ba jebi 9ran na.
Chastise, v.: na.
Cheer, v.: gbh niyanjii.
Cheer up !: gbiyanju.!


Chief, n.: balogun, olori,
balogun ijoye.
Child, n.: 9m9.
Chin, n.: agb9n.
Choose, v.: yan.
Christ, n.: Kristi.
Christian, in.: Kristiani.
Christmas Day: Qji Krismasi.
Church, n.: Ile-Ql9run.
Church of England: Ile Ql9run
ti ild G~si.
Church of Rome: Ile Ql9run
ti Romu.
Circular, adj.: rubutu.
Citizen, n.: arA ili.
City, n.: il6 nla.
Civilised, adj.: ti o laju.
Clap the hands, v.: Sape.
Claws, in.: &kanni.
Clean, to be, v.: mi.
Clearly, adv. : t6t .
Clever, adj.: l'9gbn pipQ.
Climate, ni.: afgfe.
Close, v.: ti.
Close a case: pari ejq.
Close to, prep.: nitosi.
Cloth, in.: aSq.
Clothe, v.: fi w.
Coast of Africa: Etikun Afrika.
Coast, in.: eti 6kun.
Cock, n.: akukg.
Coco-nut, n.: agb9n.
Collecting butterflies: ni SiSi
labalaba.
Colonies, to live in: gb6 p.
Comb,-v.: ya.
Come, v.: wiv; d= arrive.
Come back, v.: padh wA.
Come down, v.: s9kale wA.
Coming back, n.: ipadh wA.
Coming, not: alaiwa.
Coming rains: 6jo ti mb.








Command, v.: paS fun.
Commander-in-chief: olori
agbh.
Commence, v.: S:.
Commit a crime: di 9rin nla
kan.
Common, to have in: jfmh hil,
jum ni.
Company, in your agreeable:
egbe re ti o w.
Complete, v.: ran tfin.
Complete, the rout was so:
iSgun na p9 t6b.
Compound, n.: agbild.
Conceal, v.: fi pam.
Concerns, it, v.: o kin.
Concert, to act in: fi ohun
Sgkin.
Condemn, v.: dalebi.
Condemnation, n.: id6lebi.
, Condemn to death, v.: da...
lebi iki.
Condition, n.: ipo.
Conditions of peace: ohun ti a
Sfi lele.
Conduct, n.: iwh.
Conductor, n.: amg9n, alakoso.
Confidence, n.: igbekl6.
Confidence, put too much in:
ni igbfkle6 pfipgsi.
Confident of victory, to be: ni
igbgkinle p6 yio Sgun.
Confiscate, v.: gbi lw .
Confused, I was so: idAmd mfi
mi t6b.
Connect, v.: sopS.
* Conqueror, n.: aSgun.
Consent, n.: if6hinsi.
Consider, v. : r6 jinle, ronu jinle.
, Considerable, adj.: p6ip.
Considering that, conj.:
niw9nbi, ni rir6 bi.


Conspirator, n. : 91lt.
Constantly, adv. nigbagbogbo.
Construct, v. : se.
Consult, v.: fi ygrn 19.
Contented, to be: fi ni
itlg9rfn.
Contest, v.: ji fun pelu agidi.
Contiguous, to be, v.: gb6.
Continual sweepings: agbdsi.
Contrary : 1h.
Contribute, v.: di.
Cook, v.: se.
Coronation, n.: did6 li add.
Correct, adj.: p6.
Cost, v.: nd ; followed by ni.
Cotton, n.: owu.
Council, n.: aj9 igbimo.
Count, v.: kh.
Counting, act of: iki.
Country, n.: 16 ; opposed to
town: oko; in the country:
ni li.
Countryman, n.: arA i1d.
Courage, much: igboiya nla.
Course of, in the: lArin.
Court: ile qej.
Court: agbild.
Courtship season: li ak6k6 ti
ak9 ba nfi if ti aw9n abo.
Cover, v.: b6 m9pl.
Covered with=full of: kin
fun.
Covetousnous, n. : ojuk6koro.
Cow, n.: mhlu.
Coward, n.: ojo.
Cowry, n.: ow6 ey9.
Crow, v.: k9.
Crane, n.: 9$.
Create, v. : dt.
Creator, n.: eledd.
Creature, n.: idd.
Crew, n.: awgn qgbe atuko.








Crops, n.: eso oko.
Cross the river: di omi na
kgja.
Crowd, n.: 9p9 enia.
Crown, v.: d6 li ad&.
Crown, loyal subjects of the:
aw9n olfsin ti 9ba.
Cruel, adj.: niki.
Cruel, he is too: iwh ikh r k6
j ki .
Cry, n.: ek6n.
Cultivate, v.: ro, gbin.
Curious, adj.: .ti o Se ajeji.
Customs Wharf: iEbite ibode.
Customs, n. : hah.
Cut down bushes, v.: Sn.
Cut off, v.: yh.
Cut through, v.: fi agbara w.

D.
Dagger, n.: ida kukuru.
Damage, n.: 6f6.
Damp, to be, v.: rin.
Dance, v.: j6.
Danger, n.: ewu.
Dare, v.: ddah.
Darkness, n.: iSf, 6kfkfi.
Date, n.: 9J9.
Dawn, at: l'afem9pjim9.
Dawns, it: il nmO.
Day, n.: ijO, 9J(.
Days afterwards, a few: ijc
melokan lehinnh.
Day, appointed: qj9 ti a yan.
Days before, three: ni ij9 meta
SAju.
Daybreak, at: l'afem9jj6m.
Day, by: 1'9san.
Day, every: lojj6um9
Days, in the course of a few:
ninu aw9n ij' melokan
wynyi.


Day, next: ni ij9 keji.
Dead, thousands of: egbe-
gberun 6ki.
Dead (of wood): gbigbe.
Deafness, pretended: agb9iya.
Death, n.: ikfi.
Death, condemned to: dalebi
iki.
Death, he was put to: a pa a.
Deceive, v.: tan je.
Decide, v.: ddj9.
Decide, the question you have
to: qJ9 ti e ni lati da.
Deck, on: si 6k6 9k< ti a fi
pdko t.
Declare war, v.: beresi ogun.
Deep, adj.: jin, jijin.
Deepest, adj.: jin jul9.
Deer, n.: agb9nrin.
Defeated: ti a ti S.
Delay, v.: daduro.
Defend, v.: dAb6bb.
Deliberate: S9.
Delight in: ni ay9 si.
Deliver, v. = to get rid of: y9.
Demijohn, n.: sago.
Den, in.: iho.
Denied, it cannot be: a k6 1I
jiyhn p6 .
Deny, v.: jiyin, s.
Depart, v.: 19.
Depend, v.: gbarale.
Depreciation, n.: eqgn.
Descend, v.: sQ.
Descent, : itan.
Deserve, v.: ti o t9.
Desire, n. : if.
Desires, unsatisfied: 9kanjua.
Despair, v.: se alainireti.
Despise, v.: ba j.
Despiser, in.: 9banij.
Destroy, v.: parun, fi run.








Development, n.: imudagba.
Devote, v.: fi is.
Devote myself to: fi ara mi si
il1 phtkki.
Dew, n.: iri.
Dictate, v.: kg.
Die, v.: kU.
Difference to me, it makes a
great: o je iyat9 nla fun mi.
Different kinds of: onirfru.
Difficult, adj.: Soro.
Difficulties, your: inira fun 9.
Dine, v.: 19 jeun.
Dinner, n.: onje.
Disappear, v.: farapamp.
Disappointed, he was: o
banuje.
Disaster, n.: jamba.
Disclose, v.: fi h n.
Discourage, v.: ni f6ya.
Discover, v.: ri, se awari.
Discovered, it being: nigbati a
m9 p6.
Discuss, v.: wAdi 9r9.
Disease, n.: arin.
Disgrace, n.: et.
Dislodge, v.: 16 kuro.
Dismiss, v.: 16 kuro.
Dismiss from,' v.: 16 jade kuro
ninu .
Disobedience, n.: aigb9rmn.
Disobey, v.: aigb9r&n.
Display, v.: be.
Dispute, n.: ej9.
Distance between: bi ti
jina si t6.
Distant, adj.: t6.
Distinguish oneself, v.: gbh
oy6.
SDistinguished, adj.: olokiki.
Distort the face, v.: f ; modi-
fied by toto.


Distress, n. : ip9nju.
District, n.: odo, igberiko.
Disturb, v.: y99lnu.
Disturbance, n.: iy9lenu.
Divide, v.: pin.
Do, v.: se.
Do with yourself: fi ara re se.
Doubt, there is no: k6si
iyemeji ninu p6 .
Doubts who: tani nSe iyemeji.
Doze, v.: wo.
Drag, v.: wO.
Dream, v.: lMlA.
Drink, v.: mu oti.
Drive into exile: 16 jade kuro
ninu ili.
Drive away, v.: 16 jade kuro.
Drop, v.: bO.
Drop like dew, v.: s.
Drunk, to be: mutiyo.
Dry, adj.: gbe.
Dry of all the juices of its
body, suck: fh gbogbo omi
ti mbe li ara r< patdpata.
Due for leave, you are: hk6k6
ati gbh isimi re t6.
Dunghill, n.: Athn.
During the night: l'oru.
During which: larin eyiti.
Dust of worm-eaten trees: iy.
Duty, it is the: j< is.
Dye, v.: re.

E.
Each, adj. and pron.: 9kfkan.
Each other: ara wa.
Ear, n.: eti.
Early, adv.: tte9, kdtuikatA.
Earth, the: aiy6.
Easy, it is: o r9ran.
Eat, v.: je.
Ebullition, n.: iru.









Education, n.: ?k6.
Edo-speaking, adj.: ti ns9 Edo.
Egg, n.: eyin.
Either or : tabi bi

Eight o'clock, at: ni agogo

Elastic, adj.: 16.
Elder, n.: agbhlagbh.
Election, n.: iyan.
Elegance, n.: 99.
Elephant, n.: erin.
Elephantiasis, n.: Elephantia-
sis.
Embark, v.: w9k.
Emergency, n.: idagiri.
Emit flashes of light, v.: k9.
Empire: IlI 9ba nla.
Empire Day, n.: Empire Day.
Employ, v.: fi is fun s?.
Encourage, v.: gbh... niyinjui.
End, n.: ipinle.
End, v.: pin.
End to, put an: fi opin si.
Endeavour, v.: gbiyanju.
Endurance, n.: ifaradh, ir9ju.
Endure, v.: p?.
Enemy, n.: Otd.
Energy, n.: igboiya.
Engaged in, to be, v.: 9wv di.
England, n.: h16 Gssi.
English, the: awgn Gssi.
Enjoy, v.: gbaduTn.
Enough, to be: t6.
Enquire, v.: bere.
Enquiry, to institute an: 19.
Ensnare, v.: de.
Enter, v.: W9.
Entertainment, n.: ibi ariya.
Entirely, adv.: patipatA.
Entitled, to be, v.: ni age.
Escape, v.: b9 l1w ewu, sA.


Especially, adv.: ni pathki.
Essential, adj.: phthki.
Even, adv.: papa, til.
Evening comes on: il nsu, or
al nl.
Evening, in the, adv.: li aSle.
Ever, adv.: k6 iti.
Ever, for, adv.: f6.
Everything: gbogbo nkan.
Evidence, to give: jeri.
Evident that, it is: o da mi
16ju p .
Examination, in.: idanwo.
Example, for: fun apre.
Exceed, v.: 16.
Exceedingly, adv.: koko,
pupOju.
Exchange for, v.: Se phiphrx
fun.
Exchange, n.: iphiphr.
Exclaim, v.: kigbe wipe.
Exhausted, so, adv.: Ar< mu
t6b.
Exile, driven into, v.: le jade
kuro ni ili.
Exist, v.: wk, mbe.
Expect, I: mo ni ireti p6.
Expedition, n.: ogun.
Expel, v.: 1l jade.
Expiration of his leave, after:
nigbati isimi r ba pari.
Explain, v.: tlmp.
Explanation, n.: ittm9.
Express an opinion, v.: mu
er6 kan wa.
Extend, do not: ki ijhde.

F.
Face, v.: dojuk9.
Fail, v.: Subu.
Fail, do not: mdSalai.
Faint, v.: diku.








Faith, n.: igbagb.
Fall as dew, v.: s.
TFamily, n.: idile.
Famine, n.: iyan.
Far, adj.: jina.
Far, by: rek9ja.
Far from, followed by a parti-
ciple: kaka ti iba .
Far from them: nipa jijinna si
w9n.
Farm, n. : oko.
Fashion, n.: ara.
Fate, n.: ori buruku.
Father, n.: baba.
Fault, n.: qbi.
Fault with, to find : fi wd
awawi pelu.
Favour, v.: ni ojurere si.
Fear, n.: ru, iji.
Fear that, I: ru mba mi p6,
I mo ni iberi p6.
Fear that not, I: ru mba mi
p6 ki.
Fear that no one: ru mba mi
Sp6 qnikeni ti .
Fear that nothing, I: ru mba
mi p6 ohunkohun ki.
Feather, n.: iy.
Feature, an essential: ohun t'o
j phtaki.
Feed, v.: b .
Feed on, v.: je.
Feel, v.: mt, f6.
Feel with, v.: ba kedin.
Fell a tree, v.: w6.
Female, n.: abo.
'Fever, n.: ibi.
Few weeks, in the course of a:
larin s melokan.
Few people, so: enia die kiun.
Fight, v.: ja, jagun.
Filth, n.: egbin.


Find, v. : ri.
Find guilty of, v.: jebi.
Fine, adj. (of weather) : didara.
Finger, n. : ika.
Fire a shot, v.: yinb9n.
First, adj.: na.
First, to be: ni qni kini ti o k?.
Fish, n.: qja.
Fish, v.: peja.
Fishing boats: 9k( ipeja.
Fit, to be, v.: ye.
Fitness, n.: iye.
Five, adj. : run.
Flatter, v.: p .n.
Flattery, n.: ipqnni.
Flee across, v.: fi sal9 nibubu.
Flee for, v.: lati sd hsdl.
Flee into, v.: sal9 ninu.
Flesh, n.: eran.
Flight, to put to: mu ki .
w9n sdkir6.
Flinching: sun ki.
Float in water, v.: f6 loj6 omi.
Flog, v.: na.
Floor, n.: ile ile.
Flourish, v.: gb.
Flow, v.: san.
Fly, v.: f6.
Fly, n.: eSinSin.
Foggy, it is: ikfiki.
Fold, n.: agbo agutan.
Folding, n.: ika.
Foliage, n.: ewe.
Follow, v.: tl6.
Follows from, although it:
botilejep6 nipa .
Follow, it does not: kiSe.
Following morning: 6wdrd iji
keji.
Fond, to be, v.: frain.
Food, n.: onje.
Foodstuffs, n.: nkan onje.








Fool, n.: omug9, aSiwere.
Foolish so: omug9 t6bt t6.
Foot, n.: es.
For, prep.: fun, d6.
For, conj. : nitori, nitoriti.
Forbearance, n. : ijiya,
ipam9ra.
Forces, n.: 9m9 ogun.
Force back, v.: fi agbara da
padk.
Forcibly, adv.: pelu agbira.
Foreign, adj.: ajeji.
Forest, n.: igi.
Forget, v.: gbigb6.
Forgive, v.: dariji.
Forgiveness, in.: idariji.
Form, v.: se.
Fortification, n.: bdi.
Fortnight, n.: Os meji.
Fortress, n. : 6di.
Fortune, to make such a: se
ird asiki b .
Forty-five, adj.: Arundiladqta.
Founder, v.: ri.
Four, adj.: erin.
France, n.: I16 Franse.
French, the, n.: aw9n Franse.
Friend, n.: :Or.
Friendship, n.: isr.
Frightened, I was so: ru mba
mi t6bi.
Frightened, how he was: Bi
iberA ti mi u t6.
Frog, n.: iw.
From, prep.: lati, kUrb.
Front, the, n.: siwaju ogun.
Frontier, n.: iwaju ogun.
Fulfilled, v.: se.
Full-grown, adj.: agba.
Furiously so, adv.: pylu ibinu
t6b^.
Further, adv.: siwaju.


Gain a victory, v.: Sgun
daradara.
Gain the confidence, v.: di
gbekele.
Game whatever: erekere.
Garrison, n.: egbe ologun.
Gate, n.: enubode.
Gates, the very: enubode papa.
Gather, v.: k6 .9.
General, n.: olori ogun.
General retreat: awgn ologun
fhsehin 19.
Generally, adv.: ama, ima
Gentleman, n.: bykinni.
Gentlemen of the jury: awgn
agbfgbk ti idajq
Germans, n.: awgn Germans.
Get hold of, v.: mu dani.
Get on, v.: 19 siwaju.
Get up, v.: dide.
Gin, n.: jini.
Girl, n.: qm9binrin.
Give rise, v.: je idi.
Give way, v.: tfiba, r, se, yh.
Gladly, adv.: ; modifying y .
Glitteringly, adv.: SIn; modi-
fying tan.
Go, v.: r, 19.
Goal, n.: opin.
Go away, v.: 19.
Go back, v.: padh 19.
Go off, v.: r6.
Go on, lads !: 19 siwaju
enyin 9m9k6nrin.
Go on with, v.: ma ba 19.
Go to, v.: 19 sOdO.
Go round, v.: 19 yi ka.
God, n.: Ql9run.
Government, in.: ti ij9ba.
Government House, n.: ile
9ba.








Gradually, adv.: kgke.
Grandfather, n.: baba agba.
Grateful, to be, v.: je 91y9p
fun.
Grateful, very, adv.: dupe
l'9w pf6p.
Great uproar: ariwo nla.
Greatest = best: ti o dara jiMl9
Grey hair, n.: ewd.
Grievance, n.: edfn.
Grind, v. : 1.
Ground, n. : il.
Grow, v.: hd.
Grown, full, adj.: agba.
Growth, n.: idagbhs6k6.
Grumble, v.: p6Se.
Guard, v.: 0.
Guilty, adj.: jebi.
Guilty, to plead: sq p6 o jqbi.
Guns, big, n.: agba.

H.
Habit, n.: iwa.
Habitually, adv.: imA.
* Half, adj.: hb9.
Hand, n. : 9wQ.
Hands of others, at the: l'9d9
elomiran.
Handle of a hoe, n.: eri.
Hang, v.: li 9grn pa.
Happened, as it: gege bi o ti
4.
Happened that, it: o wijep6.
Happens, it: o je p6.
Happy, adj.: alAfia, ni irora.
Happy as one can be: alAfia bi
S enikan.
Hard, adj. ek6.
Hard, to be, v.: le.
SHardly, we can: o Sor9 fun wa.
Hardship, n.: inira.
Harmattan: 9Yy.
F


Harmful, to be, v.: palara fun.
Harvest, n.: ik6r6.
Haste, to be in: ya.
Hasten, v.: 19 pelu ikdnjd.
Hastily, very, adv.: pqlu iyara.
Hat, n.: aket.
Hate, v.: korira.
He, pron.: on, o.
He who, prone : eniti.
Head, n.: ori.
Heal, v.: se iw6shn fun.
Health, n.: ilera.
Hear, v.: gb9.
Hear from, v.: gbdr6.
Heating, n.: igb9na
Heaven, n. : 9run.
Heavily, so (after rain) adv.:
puipp t6b.
Heavy rain: 6jo wuwo.
Help, v, : ran 1w .
Help laughing, I could not:
ng k6 16 se alaimd rerin.
Helpless: alailera.
Here, adv.: ibi, sihin, nibi.
Hesitate, v.: Siy6meji.
Hiding-place, n.: ibi isapamgsi.
High, adv.: giga, ga.
Him, pron.: r.
Himself, pron.: ara r.
His, fron.: r, tire.
Hit, v.: gbh 9gb.
Hit, n.: iba.
Hither thither: sibena
dehin.
Hoe, n.: 9k9.
Holiday, n.: isimi.
Home, at: nile.
Honey, n.: oyin.
Honour, n.: Hook, n.: iw9.
Hope, v.: ni ireti.
Horse, n.: eSin.








Hostilities, n.: ijh 9t nig-
bangba.
Hot to be, v.: gbona.
Hotly pursued: lepa pelu
igbond.
Hour, n.: wiktti.
House, n.: ile.
How? adv.: bawo ni ?
How, in indirect questions: bi.
How broad ? : bawo I'o ti gb6ro
t6.
How deep ? : bawo l'o ti jin t6.
How far ?: bawo ni o ti jina t6 ?
How great ?: bawo ni o ti tobi
t6 ?
How great, in indirect ques-
tions: bi p9 t6.
How high ?: bawo l'o ti ga t6.
How long? (time): bawo ni
yio ti p t6.
How long? (measure): bawo
1'o ti gun t6 ?
How many ? : melo ?
How much ? : elo ?
How often ?: nigbh melo ?
However, conj.: Sugb9n.
Humble, low and: ni irql .
Hundred, one: 9g9rOn.
two: igba.
three: (dmn.
four: irinwo.
five: dqgbeta.
seven: dqgberin.
Hunger, n.: ebi.
Hunter, n.: 9de.
Hurry, in a: pelu ikMnj1.
Husband, n.: qkg.

I.
I, pron.: emi, mo.
Idleness, n.: imele.
If, conj.: bi.


If not, conj.: bi bok9.
Ignorance, n.: aimy.
Ill, to be, v.: nSaisan.
Ill-treat, v.: je niyh.
Image, n.: awgran.
Imagine, v.: r6.
Immediately, adv.: nisisiyi.
Immensely, it pleases me: o
dunm9 mi gidigidi.
.Importance to you, it is of: o
je pataki fun 9.
Important, adj.: phthki.
Inch, n.: ida mejila osuwgn
es kan.
Inclined to think, I am: mo f
lati ronu.
Incredible, adj.: ti a kb 1M
gbhgb .
Indemnity (war): ow6 ogun.
Indulge in drink: mu 9ti.
Indulgent, to be: ni ik fun.
Inferiority, n.: iwh ni ipo ehin.
Inform, v.: sq fun.
Information I received from
you, the: 9rg ti iw9 S9 fun
mi.
Inhabited, adj.: ilf ti enia
ngb6.
Inhabitant, n.: olugbe ili nA.
Injurious, to be, v.: palara fun.
Injury, n. : ibaje, ipalara.
Illness, n.: aishn.
Innocent, to be, v.: alailesq.
Insect, n.: kokoro.
Insert, v.: b9, fi b9 inu ohun
miran.
Insist upon, v.: tqnumg.
Insolence, n.: afojudi.
Instance, for: fun ap~re.
Instead of: nigbati o t9 ti, r
kaka ti iba; nip6 ti
iba.









Intelligent, adj. : onimimo.
Intelligent, he is too: o ni
mim9 t6b.
Intend, v.: gbiro.
Intimate, adj.: tim9tim9.
Into, prep.: ninu, sinu.
Invade, v.: gbogun w .
Iron, n.: irin.
Island, n.: erekuSu.

J.
James, n.: Jamesi.
Join, v.: dap m i.
Join the ranks, v.: dap m
aw9n 9m9 ogun.
Joke, n. : qwa.
Journey, n.: irin ajo.
Judge, n.: onidaj9.
Juices, n.: omi.
Jump, v.: fb.
Jury, gentlemen of: awgn
agbagba ti idaj9.
Just, to be: duro Singin.
Justice, n.: idaj9.

K.
Keep away, v.: mu.
Keep on cheering: k6 dekun
ati ma gbh niyanju.
Keep, v. (a wife) : ft.
Kill, v.: pa.
Killed, in: nipa pipa.
Kinds, of different: oriSiriSi.
Kind (too) he is: ind rere r
pO t6b.
SKindly, adv.: j.
Kindness, n.: indrere.
King, n.: 9ba.
SKnife, n.: 9be.
*Know, v.: m .
Knowing, for: fun mime.
, Kola, n.: obi.


L.
Labourer, n..: alagbaSe.
Lad, n.: 9mqk(nrin.
Lagoon, n.: 9sa.
Lagos, n. : k6.
Lake, n.: adagun.
Land, v.: gunl.
Language, n.: ede.
Larceny, n.: ol&-jiji.
Large, adj.: tobi.
Larva, mosquito: tanwiji.
Last fortnight: 9s5 meji t'o
kgja.
Last long : ni p.
Late, too, adv. : p lhin
pdp .
Lately, adv.: ni titun yi, ni
19wl(1w9 yi.
Laugh, v.: rerin, rin.
Law, n.: ofin.
Lawful, it is: o ye nipa ofin.
Lay eggs: y6 eyin.
Lazy man, n.: 919.
Lazy, to be, v.: 1e.
Lead, v.: Se amg9n de.
Leader, n.: asAju.
Lead to your ruin: fi o 19
sinu iparun.
Leak, v.: j6.
Leakage, n.: ijo.
Learn, v.: k9.
Least, injurious in the: ipalara
li 9nik9nk.
Leave= go, v.: 19.
Leave=abandon, v.: fi .
sil.
Leave, n.: isimi.
Leaves, to be full of: b6.
Leaving the city, in: ni fifi ild
sil.
Left, the, n.: qwO osl.
Legate, n.: ik9.









Legislative Council, n.: aj9
igbung.
Leopard, n.: ekin.
Lend, v.: fi ya.
Leprosy, n.: te.
Lesson, n.: k.
Let him know: je ki o mn.
Letter, in.: iw6.
Liar, n.: ek6.
Lie on the floor: dubule lori ile
ile.
Lie, to tell a, v.: pur9.
Life, n.: emi, iwa, aiye.
Lift, v.: gb&.
Lightning, n.: mnim6ni.
Like, v.: fi.
Like to be, v.: jq.
Line of retreat: nibiti egb9
ogun gbe sapadh.
Lion, n.: kiniun.
Lip, n.: ete.
Listen, v.: fetisi.
Literature, n.: oriSiriSi 6de.
Little, adj.: kekere.
Live, v.: wk.
Liver, n.: idt.
Load, n.: eri.
Loan, favour me with a: yd
mi ni.
Lobster: ede, id&.
Local, adj.: ni ilfi kan.
Locality, n.: ili.
Lock of .a gun, n.: ok6.
Long (of time), adv.: p, p
m.
Long, for so: p to bayi.
Long time, very: p.
Long time, for a: li 9J9 t6 p.
Longer, any: p9 mi.
Longer, no: k6 tin mr.
Long after: t9ju.
Look at, v.: w6.


Loosen, v.: de.
Lose, v.: phdinA, ni.
Loss, n. : iya. t
Lot, mn.: ipin.
Loudness, n.: ipariwo.
Love, v.: fPran.
Low, adj.: rirele.
Low-born, adj.: ti a bi nipb
aill9a.
Loyal, to be, v.: je olptt si.
Loyal, adj.: olit.
Lukewarm, adj.: 19.
Luxuriantly, adv.: pfip, t6b.
Lying, I was: mo dubule.

M.
Mahogany, tn.: apa.
Mail, n.: 9kO-iwe.
Make such a fortune, v.: Se
iru asiki b.
Make up for, v.: Se idipada.
Malarial fever: n. ardn ti a npe
ni Malaria.
Male, n.: ak9.
Man, n.: q9knrin, eni.
Man, no: k6 si enikan.
Manage= to be able, v.: 16.
Many, adj.: pfip9.
Many as, as: t6.
March, n.: irin.
Mark, n.: ilh.
Market, n.: 9ja.
Marriage, n.: igbeyawo.
Master, n.: gA.
Masticate, v.: r.n.
Material, n.: ohun.
Matter, n. : 9r9, 9ran.
May, n.: o0S May.
May, v.: l~.
May those I love: If6 inu mi ni *
pi ki .
Mean, v. : ni iro.








Mean, adj.: ti k6 nilari.
Medicine, n.: 6gin.
SMeet, v.: k6, pade.
Meeting, n.: ij9.
Meet with an accident: se
alabapade Si kan.
Melt, v. : y9.
Members of his family, the:
die ninu aw9n yh idile r.
Man-of-war, n.: 9k ogun.
Mercy, n.: anu.
Metamorphoses, n.: iyirapada.
Methods of warfare, such:
irdf 9nk ijagun wqnni.
Midday, n.: nigbati 9qj fer
kanri.
Midst of, in the: Arin.
Might, v.: l~.
Might, n.: agbara.
Migrate, v.: igb6 19.
Milder, adj.: kb le.
Millions, 4oo: egbAwa Ok.
Mind : kiyesi i !
Mineral, n.: ohun ti a wk ninu
il.
Minor, adj.: kekeke.
Minute after, a: lehin iSeju
melokan.
Misbehave, v.: hA iwh ti k6 t6.
Misbecomes, it, v.: k6 ye fun...
Misconduct, n.: iwa ti k6 ye.
Misery, n.: irora nla.
Mistake, n.: iSina.
Mistake, one who makes a:
Sin.
Mistaken, to be, v.: Sina.
Modern times: aiy6 idayi.
Money, n.: ow6.
Mosquito, n.: yanmiyAnmfi.
More, adv.: 19.
Morning, in the : 'owfiro.
Morrow, to-, adv.: 191a.


Morsel, n. :-et.
Mortar, n.: od6.
Moss, n.: ewed6.
Most, adj.: )p9.
Mother, n.: iya.
Mountain, n. : okA nla.
Mouth, n.: enu.
Move, v.: gb&, yin.
Much, adv.: p6, pfip.
Murder, n.: mimlm9 pa.
Must, we: awa ni lati.
My, pron. or adj.: mi, temi.

N.
Name, n.: oruk9.
Native land, my, n.: ili ti a bi
mi.
Natives, the, n.: aw9n ibil.
Nature, n.: iw6 da
ohunkohun.
Near, prep : sunmc.
Nearly, adv.: fer.
Neck, n.: g9rn.
Necessary, it is: o ye ki.
Necessarily arise, must: k6 16
se alaiwa.
Need, no: k6 ni.
Needle, n.: abre9.
Neighbouring, adj.: ti mbe li
adugbo.
Neither nor: k6 .
S bni k6; with future, ki
b ni ki.
Never, adv.: lai, ko ri.
New, adj.: titun.
News, n.: ihin.
Next day: ni ij6 keji.
Nice, adj.: daradara.
Nineteen, adj.: 9kandilogun.
Niger, the, n.: od6 Qya.
Night, n.: oru.
Night, by, adv.: l'oru.








Nightfall: l'oru.
Night, last: l'oru and.
Night surprises us, before: ki
ile t'o su wa.
Nocturnal, adj.: loruloru.
Noise, to make a: patoto,
pariwo.
No one, pron.: enikeni k6.
No one can: k6 si enikeni ti o
16.
No man: k6 si enikan.
None of us: k6 si enikeni ninu
wa.
Not, adv.: k6 ; with future, ki.
Notes (tunes) n.: orin.
Nothing, there is: k6 si ohun
mirn ; k6 si nkan.
Number, n.: pqlu die ninu.
Number in: pO gidigidi ni iye.
Nymph n.: alainiye.

0.
Obey, v.: Saigb9ran si, or
Steriba fun.
Object, v.: k.
Obscure, to be: su okunkun.
Obstinacy, n.: agidi.
Obstinate, so, adv.: alafojudi
pApO.
Occasions, on many: nigbh
pfipg.
Occasion, on that: li ak6ko na.
Of, prep.: ti.
Offend, v.: s^.
Offer resistance, v. : fi ikojujasi.
Often, adv.: nigba pfip.
On, prep.: lori.
One, pron.: 9nikan.
One, adj.: 9kan.
One another: 9kan .
elomiran.
One of: 9kan ninu.


One, the the other: 9kan
.. ekeji.
Only, adv.: nikan.
Only, not but also: kile
nikan ugb9n pelu.
Operations, n.: ogun jija.
Opinion, n.: &ro.
Oppose, v.: kojujasi.
Orator, n.: alawiye, a!fO.
Ordeal, n.: aje.
Order, v.: pas,, palaS.
Order that, in, conj.: ki, nitori
ki.
Order that not, in: nitori ki
ma.
Origin, n.: iran, idile.
Other than: mirhn jfi 19.
Otherwise: bik9se b, bi bjk9,
nkan miran.
O that, not A! iba je
pe.
Ought, he : O ye fun u, o yq ki
o, o to ki o.
Ourselves, pron.: ara wa.
Outbreak, n.: ripilegS.
Out of, prep.: kuro ninu.
Outrageous, adj.: ti o buru
rek9ja.
Over, prep.: lori.
Over, to be: pari.
Overwhelm, v.: b6 m9.
Own home, their : inu ile
w9n papa.

P.
Pad, n.: oSuka.
Painful, however it may be:
bi o ti wu ki o lAp9n ninu t6.
Painstaking, adj.: alapqn.
Paint, n.: &se.
Palace, n.: afin.
Palm-bird, n.: :ga.








Palm wine, n.: emu.
Parasite, n. : hf9m1.
Pardon, n.: idariji.
Parent, n.: 6bi.
Particularly, adv.: ni pithki.
Parts, in certain: ni ipa mirin.
Party, the, n.: qgby.,
Pass, v.: kgja.
Pass, by, v.: gbk k9ja.
Passage, n. : 9nk.
Passport, n. : iw6 ikoja li
9na.
Patch, v.: 1i.
Patience, n.: lIkari.
Patient, n.: alaishn, nisiru.
Path, n.: ipa.
Patriotism, n.: if9 tIIi ni.
Pay, v.: san.
Pay attention to: fetisi.
Payment, n.: sisan.
Pawn, to hold in, v.: yd.
Peace, n.: iw6 alafia, al5fia.
Peacefully, adv.: pelu alafia.
Peel, v.: b6.
People, in.: aw9n enia.
People, some: enia miran.
Perfect, adj. : pe.
Perfect insect: kokoro oniy.
Perilous: t'o lwu.
Persist, v.: teram9.
Persuade, v.: ro lati yipadh
si iro.
Philosopher, n.: 919gbnn.
Pious life: iwa mim9.
Pin driven into the ground:
S 9bgbh.
Pitch, in.: iw9n ti ohin.
Pitch a camp: do si ibudo.
Pity, it is a: Anu se ni p6.
, Place, n.: 9jQ.
Plain, it is: o han gbangba.
Plan, n.: er9.


Plantation, n.: oko gbingbin.
Planting, n.: igbin.
Plate, n.: awo.
Play, v.: sire.
Plead, v.: s9.
Pleasant, it is: o je ohun
didara.
Please!: interj.: j9!
Pleased, I am: inu mi dAn.
Pleasure, n.: ewun.
Pluck, v.: ya.
Plumage, n. : iy.
Point, at its deepest: ni opin
r ti o jin jilA9.
Points, on minor: ohun kekeke.
Poison, in.: 6gin.
Polygamy, n.: ilobinrin pdpp.
Pool, n.: abata.
Poor, so, adv.: tl6akh t6b.
Pope, n.: Papu.
Porch, n.: iloro.
Position, n.: ip6.
Possess, v.: ni.
Possible, it is, v.: seq 1.
Potsherd, n.: apadi.
Pounce, v.: fb m9 lojiji.
Pound sterling, n.: poun.
Pour water, v.: bu.
Poverty, n.: ihdle.
Power, do all in our: sh
gbogbo agbara wa.
Powers, his: agbara.
Praise, v.: y, yin.
Precede, v.: Saju.
Prefer, v.: yhn.
Prepare, v.: mura.
Preparations, to make all
your : pese gbogbo nkan
sil.
Present, n.: Ore, bin.
Present conditions: ip6 ti o
wa nisisiyi.








Present, to be, v.: wh nib.
Presence, n.: oj6i.
Press with, v.: fun pelu.
Prevent, v.: da duro.
Prey, n.: ohun 9de.
Price, in.: lye.
Price, at such a: irf ow6
b.
Priest, n.: alufa.
Prisoner of war, in.: elewgn
ogun.
Prisoners, to be taken, v.: a
mu ni igbekfn.
Prize, n.: are.
Prodigal, n.: apa.
Profit, n.: jere.
Promise, v.: Se ileri.
Promotion, to get a: ri
igbeleke.
Properly, adv.: daradara.
Property, n.: ohun ini.
Proposal, n.: idaim9rn.
Proud, he is too: iwh igberaga
r k6 je ki.
Proved against him, if the
charge is: bi o ba jebi 9rin
na.
Prove an accusation, v.: ri
idi ifisdn.
Prudent, adj.: amoye.
Puberty, n.: de ip6 lati wv
ile 9k9.
Public service, n.: iSQ 9ba.
Pull out, v.: y9.
Punish, v.: jq niyk.
Punishment, n.: ijiya, iya.
Pupa, n.: kokoro alainiy.
Purse, in.: ap6 ow6.
Pursue, v.: lepa.
Pursuit, n. : ilepa.
Push, v.: r9.
Put, v.: fi.


Q.
Quarrel, n.: ijh.
Quarrel, v.: s, ja.
Queen, n.: ayaba.
Question, n.: iber6.
Question, v.: bere.
Question, to settle a: pari
9ran kan.
Quickly, adv.: yara.

R.
Race, n.: iri.
Rag, n. : akish.
Raging so furiously, the battle
was: ogun nA njh pqlu
ibinu t6b.
Railway station, n.: ibfls9
q9k-il.
Rain, n.: 6jo.
Rains, it: 6jo nr.
Rains, the coming : 6jo ti
mbO.
Rainy season, n.: nigbi 6jo.
Raising a terrible shout: kigbe
e919r kan.
Ram, in.: agb6.
Ranks, join the: dapym9 aw9n
9m9 ogun.
Reach, v.: d6.
Reach puberty: de ipo lati
w9 ile 9k9.
Read, v.: kh.
Reading, n.: kikh.
Reading, act of: ikh.
Ready, to be, v.: yA, mura
tin.
Ready, to make: mura sil ;
or pise sil.
Reap, v.: ka.
Reason (intelligence) : 6ye.
Reason (cause) : idi.
Rebel, n.: 9qlte.








Rebuke, v.: ba wi.
Receive, v.: gbh.
Receive good treatment: ri
ilo rere gbh.
Reception, n.: gbigbh.
Recommend, v. : fi sq gr9
rere.
Recover, v.: ri gbh pada.
Red, deeply, adv.: y6.
Reign, v.: j9ba.
Reinforcements, n.: 9m9 ogun
ti yio se iranl9w9.
Refuge, n.: abo.
Refuse, v.: k9.
Regard, v.: b9w9.
Regard to, with: nipati.
Regret, you will have no cause
for: iw9 ki yio k6 hbam .
Regret, v.: kanu.
Regret, followed by a parti-
ciple: anu se mi lati .
Rejoice, v.: y9.
Relationship, n.: ibatan.
Relatives, n.: ara.
Religion, n.: isin.
Religious, adj.: ti isin.
Remain, v.: duro.
Remains, it: o kf.
Remarkable, adj.: olokiki.


Remarkably, adv.: je
iyanu pdp.
Remember, v.: rAnti.
Rend, v.: ya.
Render helpless, so: s
alailera. ,
Renew, v.: sq di tun.
Repay, v.: san padh.
Repent, v.: ronupiwadi.
Replenish, v.: 1i.
Reply, v.: fi iddhun
dRhtn.
Report, v.: so.


nkan



9 di





fun,


Resist, v.: kgjujhsi.
Resolve, v.: pinnu.
Rest, v.: simi.
Resume hostilities: t6n bere
si ja.
Result, expected: ohun ti a ri
tele.
Retreat, v.: fasehin.
Return, v.: pada bb, pada 19,
pada wa.
Returning, n.: ab9.
Rhinoceros, n.: erin-omi.
Rickshaw, n.: kek.
Rid, v.: gbh sil.
Right, adj.: ti o t<.
Right, you are: o jare.
Rifle, n. : ib9n.
Ripe fruit: de.
Ripen, v.: d, gb6, pOn.
Rise, v.: ji.
Risk, v.: diSh.
Risk of his life, at the: nipa
fifi emi tir sinu ewu.
River, n.: od6.
Road, n.: oji 9nh.
Rob, v.: gb 19w(.
Roll, n.: iw6-oruk9.
Rolling, adj.: ti nyi.
Roman people: aw9n ara
Romu.
Room, n.: iyara.
Root, n.: egb6.
Rough, to be, v.: s6.
Rot, v.: bi.
Round, adj.: yikA.
Rout, n.: iSgun.
Ruin, v.: Se iparun.
Run, v.: sure.
Run away, v.: slM9.
Running away, his: isil9 r..
Rush out, v.: sure jade.
Russia, n.: Russia.








S.
Sacrifice of life: 6fo ti Oppl p9
emi.
Sacrifices, n.: wkhl.
Safety, n.: ib91lw ewu.
Sail, v.: rin.
Sail, to set, v.: isikO fun aj6.
Same, adj.: kanna.
Same, the: nA.
Same as: bakanna bi.
Satisfactory, adj.: itl9rdn.
Satisfied with, to be: ni
it(l9rfin.
Save, v.: gbi 1l, gbi
sil .
Say, v.: s9, ni, wi, wipe.
Scale, on a large: spQ..
School, n.: ile-iwe.
Second time, adj.: nigba keji.
Secret, in, adv.: li ab~l~.
Sea, n.: 6kun.
Sediment, n.: egbin.
See, v.: wo, ri.
Seed, n. : irfi.
Seek for, v.: wa.
Seeing, n.: riri.
Seems, it, v.: o dabi enipe.
Seize, v.: fi agbara mu, kim9le
Seldom, adv.: 1~kand(gb~n.
Selection, n.: yiyhn.
Self-restraint, n.: iS akoso ara
eni.
Sell, v.: th.
Send, v.: rAngS.
Send for, v.: rinS p6.
Separate, v.: ya.
Separation, n.: ituka.
Seriously wounded: I'o gb9gb
nla.
Servant, n.: iranS@.
Service, n. (church ceremony):
isin.


Service, n. (in the army): i:
ogun.
Service, public, in.: i(? 9ba.
Session, n.: ijoko ipade.
Set, v. (as the sun): wp.
Set out, v.: mu qnh pfn.
Settlement, n.: 9j .
Seventy-five, adj.: Arundi-
l9g9rin.
Several, adj.: onirfiru.
Severe, adj.: gbigbona, mina.
Severe so, adj.: le t6b.
Severely, very, adv.: pfip9.
Sex, n.: yh.
Shadow, n.: iji.
Shake hands, v.: b O lIwO
Shaken by, so: mu li 9kin
t6bo.
Shame, n.: esin.
Sharpen, v.: gbh, p(n.
Share, v.: pin.
Shea-butter, n.: qmi, ori.
Shear, v.: r.
Shell, n.: karahun.
Ship, n.: q9k.
Short, adj.: kuru.
Should, v.: iba.
Show, v.: fi hhn.
Shown, for the kindness you
have: fun inurere ti o fihan.
Shut, to be, v.: se.
Sick of, to be, v.: art ti mu.
Sides, both: 6w6 ogun mejeji.
Side (of a river) : eti q9d.
Side, on your: ih 9di? nyin.
Sign (peace), v.: fgwgsi.
Signal, n.: agba.
Silence, profound: rerin, qrin.
Silk: ni Sdh.
Sin, against you: s 9.
Since (causal), conj.: nitori;
nitoriti (time) lati Ak6kb w9.








Singer, n.: mc orin kg, ak9rin.
Singing species: egbq ak9rin.
Sister, n. : arabinrin.
Six, adj.: efa.
Sixty, adj.: 9g9ta.
Skin, n. : aw9.
Skip, v.: b.
Skull, n.: agada.
Sky, n.: 9run.
Slacken, v.: sb.
Slain, adj.: pa.
Slave, n.: eri. A *
Sleep, v.: sun.
Smell, n.: orun.
Smile, v.: rerin musen.
Snail, n.: igbin.
Snare, n.: ilU.
So also: ati pqlu.
Soap, n.: 9S9.
Soldier, n.: jagunjagun.
Sole of the foot, n.: atelese.
Solitary life, n.: gadamu ara.
So long as: niw9n igbati.
Some, prone. and adj.: die.
SSomehow or other: li 9nk kan
tabi 6miran.
Someone or other: enikan tabi
elomiran.
Some others : elomiran
l. lomiran.
Something or other: ohun kan
tabi 6miran.
Something, pron.: ohun.
Sometimes, adv. : nigbamirin.
Song, n.: orin.
Soon, adv.: nA, tWte, ni
l w00lwv yi .
Soon as as: ni kete ti.
4 Sound, v.: r6.
So sad, I was: inu mi baj t6b
ti .
So sudden, adv.: ojiji t6b.


Sow, v.: funrugbin.
Sowing, the, n.: ifunrugbin.
Spare no sacrifice, k9 irub9.
Speak, v.: fi s)r9.
Speak to, v.: ba s.r9.
Spear, n.: eqin, k9.
Species, n.: iri.
Spend money, v.: na ow6.
Speed greatest: iyara kankan.
Spend your holidays, v.: 16
isimi re.
Spider, n.: alantakin.
Spinning, by: nipa riran.
Spiral, n.: iyika leralera.
Spirit, n.: 9kmn.
Spokes, n.: es kek.
Sports, n.: nibi ire SiSe.
Spot, n.: ib.
Spread, v.: na.
Spring, n.: igbk iriwe.
Spring from, v.: jade wi lati....
Squirrel, n.: ikun.
Stand in a line: t6.
State, n.: sakani ili.
Statement, n. : r9.
Station: ibfis.
Station, railway: ibis9 9k9
ile.
Stature, great bodily: ti o tobi
J9J9.
Stay, v.: joko.
Steal, v.: ji.
Steamer, n.: q9k oyinbo.
Steps, to take, v.: wk 9nh.
Still: sib.
Stone, n.: okuta.
Storm, n.: iji.
Striped, adj.: abilh.
Strong man: alagbara.
Strong mental and bodily
power: ti o l'agbara ti o si
l'oye puip.








Strike (discover) : e awari.
Struggle, n.: ijikadi.
Stubbornly, adv.: pelu agidi.
Study, n.: kik.
Study, v.: k1 iw6.
Subjects of the crown, n.:
olusin ti 9ba.
Succeed, v., to take the place
of: gbip6.
Succeed, to be successful, v.:
se orire, se rere; also, to be
able: 1~.
Successfully, adv.: pelu alafia.
Such, adj.: iru.
Such as: iru bi.
Sucked dry of all the juices of
its body: fi gbogbo omi ti
mbe li ara r mu patdpatA.
Sufficient: t6.
Suitor, n.: oluf, 9m9binrin.
Summer, n. : rdn.
Summon, v.: pe j9.
Summon to a meeting: pe si
apejo.
Sun, n.: 6rin.
Sunday, n.: qj9 9ps.
Sunrise, at, adv.: ni ila rimn,
ni a~le.
Superior, to be: p9 gidigidi.
Supply, n.: iranlhw.
Support, v.: b.
Sure, I am : o da mi l'oju
pe....
Surrender, n.: itfba.
Surrender, v.: tfba.
Surround, v.: yi ka.
Sustain, v.: se.
Sweat, in.: 6gun.
Sweep, v.: gbi.
Swiftness, n.: iyara.
Sword, n.: agada.
Sympathise, v.: kedin.


T.
Tact, n.: qgbin.
Tail, n.: iru.
Take, v.: gbh.
Take, how long will you?:
bawo ni yio ti p* 9 t6 ?
Take out a portion, v.: bl.
Takes place, no fighting: ija
kan k6 si.
Talk, v.: sQr9.
Tank, n.: ik6k6 omi.
Task, in.: i*S.
Teach, v.: k .
Teaching, in.: qk9.
Tear, v.: ya.
Tell, v.: sq fun, r6.
Temperament, to be of a
strong, v.: jq alagbara.
Ten, adj.: ewa.
Termites, in.: ikdn.
Terms of peace, Or9 ipinnu ti
alafia.
Test, v.: dinw6.
That, conj.: p6, ti.
That, in order: nitori ki orki; in
order that not: nitori kimi.
The, adj.: nh.
Their, pron.: wgn.
Then, adv.: nigbana.
Thing, n.: ohun.
Thing, every: gbogbo nkan.
Thin, adj.: fel1fel.
Think, v.: ri, me.
Thinking man: enia onir6nu.
Think of, v.: rinti.
Thirty, adj.: 9gbQn.
This, adj.: eyi, yi.
Thorn, n.: gi'n.
Though yet: botilejepe
sib .
Thought, in.: ro.
Thousand, one, adj.: qgberun.








Thousands, n.: egbegberdn.
Thread, n.: okun tinrin.
SThreaten, v.: dqerba.
Three, adj.: eta.
Throat, n.: 9nh 9fun.
Through (causal) : nitori.
Throw, v.: sq.
Thunder, n. : ar.
Thunder, v.: sin.
Thunders, it: ard nsin ; or o
sin ara.
Tickle, v.: rin.
Tie, v.: so.
Tie round, v.: san.
Ties (of friendship): idipg.
Time, by the: li ak6k6 igbati.
Time, all the : ni gbogbo
ak6k6 nA.
Time, at any: nigbakugba.
Time, at the appointed: ak6k6
ti a ti yhn.
Time, at the same, adv.:
lesekannh.
Times, many or several, adv.:
nigba piipp.
Time, of his: ti ak6k6 r.
Time, second: nigbk keji.
Time, to have: ri hye.
Time, we had no: awa k6 fi
16 ri aye.
Times, in ancient, adv.: ni igbk
lailai.
Times, in modern, adv.: ti
aiy6 idayi.
Timid, he is very: o I'ojo
gidigidi.
To, prep.: si, lati, sOd.
To-morrow, adv.: 191a.
1t Tongue, n.: ah9n.
STornado, n.: iji.
Torrents, the rain fell in: 6jo
an hgbard.


Touch, v.: r9n.
Touch with, to keep in: kow6
si.
Tough, to be, tv.: yi.
Towel, n.: aS9 inuw.
Trade, n.: ow6.
Traitor, n.: 9dal.
Transplant, v.: 1.
Trash, n.: yey.
Travelling, n.: irin ajo.
Travels, in all my: ni gbogbo
irin ajo mi.
Treachery, n.: iwa Odal.
Treason, n.: idh i.
Treatment, n. : ilo rere.
Tree, n. : igi.
Tremendous blasts of wind:
fife efifi ptip .
Tribe, n.: yk.
Troops, n.: aw9n 9m9 jagun-
jagun.
Tropical countries : il6 ti ipa
9nh 6rdn.
Tropics, n. : ili ti 6ru mi p6p .
Trouble, n.: iypnu.
Troubles, it: o wahilh.
Troublesome, adj.: niygnu.
Trust, v. : ni igbekele si.
Truth, n.: otit9.
Truth, in, adv.: t6t?.
Try, v.: gbidinw6.
Turn, v.: yi.
Twenty, adj.: og6n.
Two, adj.: eji.

U.
Unarmed, adj.: laimura.
Unbecoming, it is: k6 ye fun;
followed by noun or pro-
noun-uncertain, whether,
it is: k6 daju bi.
Undaunted, adj.: alainiberi.








Under water, to be: wa label
omi, omi bb.
Undergo, v.: faradi.
Understand, v.: mr.
Understand, I: o ye mi.
Understanding, to come to an,
v.: wa sinu im9 kan.
Undertaking, n.: oy6, ohun ti
a daw9le.
Undoubtedly, adv.: laisi
iyemeji.
Unfrequently, not, adv.:
nigbagbogbo.
Unhappy, I feel so: alafia kb
si fun mi rAri....
Uninhabited, adj.: ki gbu inu
r .
United, so: ninu iSq9kn t6b.
Unless, conj.: bikoSepe.
Unregulated, adj.: ti k6 si li
St6.
Unroofed, adj.: si ibori kirb.
Until, conj.: titi di igbati.
Up and down: s6ke s6d6
Up-country, adj.: il 6ki.
Upon, prep.: lori.
Uproar, n.: ariwo nla.
Upset, v.: da .. ru.
Urge, v.: r.
Use, v.: 16.
Use, n.: il6.
Use, to be of no: k6 fi ye.
Use of, what is the: kini .
fun.
Useful, adj.: wfil6.
Useful, to be, v.: lati wdl6 si
or fun.

V.
Valour, n.: igboiya.
Value, n.: iye.
Vary, v.: yht9.


Vegetables, n.: f9.
Verdict, to return a: mu
ipinnu wi.
Very hot, adj.: gboni pdp).
Vessel (ship): 9k .
Victorious, adj.: aSgun.
Victory, n.: iSgun.
Victory, to be confident of:
ni igb9khnle pe yio
S(gun.
Victory, to gain a: -egun
daradara.
Village, n.: ileto.
Violence, n.: agbara.
Violent, so: le t6b.
Violent, too: pelu agbara.
Visit, n.: ikini.
Visit, v.: ki.
Volunteer, v.: fi if SiS.
Vomit, n.: 6bi.

W.
Wages: ow6 iS.
Waking, act of, v.: iji.
Walk, v.: rin.
Walk proudly, v.: van.
Walk, to go for a: gbaitqgn.
Walk, up and down: rin s6k6
s6d6.
Wall, n.: odi.
War, n.: ogun.
Wars, at the: li ogun.
Warfare, n.: ijagun.
Warn, v.: kil9.
Wash, v. (hands and body):
w ; (clothes): fO.
Wasp, n.: agbyn.
Waste (time): fi s6fo.
Watch, v.: S9.
Water, n.: omi.
Way, in such a: li 9nh kan.
Way, give, v.: d (rp.








Wealth, n.: 9pr.
Wearied of your behaviour, I
am: iwk re nfun mi li
arq. *
Weather, n.: oju 9qj.
Web, n.: 6owi.
Week, n.: 9s .
Well interj. : t6 !
Well, adv.: daradara.
Well, n.: kanga.
Well, as: bakanna.
Well, too: daradara.
Weep, v.: sgklin.
West Africa: iw9 6rdn Afrika.
Wharf, n.: ebit6.
What, comp. rel. pron.: ohun
ti, nkan ti.
What, interr. pr.: kini or
kili ?
What, interr. adj. : ewo or
Swo ?
Whatever, comp. rel. pr.:
ohunkohun.
Whatever game : erekere.
'What sort or kind, of: ti iru
oriSi wo ?
When ? interr. adv.: nigbawo ?
When, conj.: nigbati, ak6k6 ti.
Whence ? : latibewA.
Whence. thence: latibewa
S. atib 19.
Where? : nibo ?
Where, in indirect questions:
ibiti.
Where there: nibiti .
nib.
Whether or : ydlh .
tabi.
' "Whether, in indirect questions:
\ bi.
Which, rel. pron.: ti.
While, conj.: nigbati.


Whip, n.: pi Sn.
Whither ? : nibo ?
Who? : tani ?
Who, rel. pron.: ti, eniti.
Why ? : kini se ? nitori kini ?
Why, in indirect questions:
idi ohun t'o .e.
Wide, adj.: gb6r6.
Wife, n. : aya.
Wild animals, eranko igbo.
Will, n.: if.
Will, sign of future: yio, 6
Win a prize: jq are.
Win the victory, v.: sgun
daradara.
Wind, n.: qffii.
Windy, it is: afgf? nf?, alafgf?.
Wing, n.: iye.
Winter, n.: nigba 6tith.
Winter, v..: 16 igba 6tditi.
Wipe, v.: fi nd.
Wish, v.: f?.
Wish, n. : if.
With (accompaniment) : pqlu.
With (instrument) : fi.
Wither, v. : r9.
Within the last few months:
fun iw9n oS melokan t'o
koja.
Witness, n.: eleri.
Without, prep.: laisi.
Wolf, n.: korik6.
Wood, n. : igi.
Woodwork, n.: is igi.'
Word, n. : r9.
Work, n.: is.
Work, v.: sis.
Worker, n.: :SiS.
World, n. : aiy6.
Worse, adj. or adv.: buruj6.
Worst, adj. or adv.: buruji 19.
Worthy, he is: o y9 fun.








Would that!: if mi ni p6
(possible wish); iba je p6
(impossible wish).
Would have you think, I: mo
f ki o mp p6.
Wound, n.: 9gbE.
Wounded, adj.: aw9n eniti
a ,al9gb.
Wounded very severely: l'o
gb9gb nla.
Write, v.: k9.
Writing, n.: kikg.
Wrong, to be, v.: jqbi.

Y.
Yam, n.: ipu.
Yards, n.: 9pa.


Yawn, n. : y.n.
Year, n.: 9d6in.
Yellow fever: arin ti a npe ni
yellow fever, ibi oniyey6.
Yes, adv.: b~ni.
Yesterday, adv.: lana.
Yet, conj. : sib.
Yield, v.: fi sil.
Yoruba Land, n.: Il Yoruba.
You, n. case: iwy, o; obj. 9.
Young (early): tetL.
Young man: 9dgmodekknrin.
Young of animals: 9d9.
Your, pron.: re, tire.

Z.
Zealous, to be: j onitara.


Printed in Great Britain by MACKAYS LTD., Chatham.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs