• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Participants
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction














Group Title: Lee County : an area of rapid growth.
Title: Lee County an area of rapid growth
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00016757/00001
 Material Information
Title: Lee County an area of rapid growth
Series Title: The South Florida study
Physical Description: viii, 57 p. : ill., maps (2 col., fold., in pockets) ; 22 x 28cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Mark T ( Mark Theodore ), 1945-
Center for Wetlands
Florida -- Bureau of Comprehensive Planning
Lee County (Fla.) -- Board of County Commissioners
United States -- National Park Service
Publisher: Bureau of Comprehensive Planning
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1976]
 Subjects
Subject: Regional planning -- Florida -- Lee County   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Lee County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 55-56.
General Note: Center for Wetlands, University of Florida, and Bureau of Comprehensive Planning, Division of State Planning, Florida Dept. of Administration, in cooperation with Lee County Board of County Commissioners and National Park Service...
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00016757
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000157303
oclc - 02558296
notis - AAS3603

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
    Title Page
        Front cover 3
    Participants
        Page 1
    Preface
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
    List of Tables
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Introduction
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text




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This public document was promulgated at an annual
cost of $3,275.36 or $6.55 per copy to report the I
research finding and recommendations of land,
economic and energetic relationships in South
Florida for use in future planning.

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The South Florida

The South Florida


Land, Water and Energy Use in Lee County
Recommendations for Best Economic Vitality and a Balance of Man and Nature


Center for Wetlands
The University of Florida
and
Bureau of Comprehensive Planning
Division of State Planning
Florida Department of Administration


In Cooperation With:

Lee County Board of County Commissioners
and
National Park Service
United States Department of the Interior


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PARTICIPANTS


R. G. Whittle, Jr., Director
Division of State Planning


Helge Swanson, Chief
Bureau of Comprehensive Planning


Mark T. Brown: Author, Center for Wetlands


with special contributions by


Dr. Flora Wang:


Molly Feltham:


Hydrology,
Center for Wetlands

Illustration,
Center for Wetlands


Adele Spielberger:


Howard T. Odum:


George Gardner:



Ms. Jean Matthews:


Director,
Center for Wetlands


James Harvey:


Special Assistant to the Assistant
Secretary of Fish, Wildlife and Parks,
U. S. Department of the Interior


Office of the Chief Scientist,
National Park Service


Lead Senior Planner,
Bureau of Comprehensive Planning

Senior Planner,
Bureau of Comprehensive Planning


Don Young: Associate Planner,
Bureau of Comprehensive Planning


Charles Littlejohn:


Associate Planner,
Bureau of Comprehensive Planning


ii


The findings and recommendations in this report do not necessarily represent officially adopted policies of the Department
of Administration or other participating state, local or federal agencies involved in supporting the South Florida Study.








PREFACE


The goal of the South Florida Environmental
Project, Phase 2, was to organize and synthesize
current scientific information concerning South
Florida into a form to aid decision-making. The
study area included all of the Kissimmee-Ever-
glades basin shown in Fig. 1. More detailed
studies were made for a number of county areas
within the region as well. This is a summary of
the Lee County study. Popular reports are also
available for the regional study and for Collier
and Hendry Counties.a

Decision-makers in South Florida are pre-
sently in a dilemma. Florida's economy, popu-
lation, and resource demands have consistently
expanded over the past three decades. During
this period, resources appeared abundant, na-
tional economic prosperity seemed certain, and
the idea of inevitable growth became widely
accepted by planners, politicians, state agen-
cies, and others affecting the state decision-
making process.


aTitles of the four popular reports prepared
during Phase 2 of the South Florida Environmental
Study are:
South Florida: Seeking a Balance of Man and
Nature
Collier County: Growth Pressure in a Wetlands
Wilderness
Hendry County: An Agricultural District in a
Wetlands Region
Lee County: An Area of Rapid Growth


Today, resources no longer appear limit-
less. National affluence is in fact declining,
and forecasts for continued growth in Florida
may no longer be valid. Most decisions, how-
ever, continue to be made within a context of
growth as inevitable.

A decision based on the assumption of con-
tinued expansion becomes erroneous policy when
expected growth does not occur. For example, if
a highway is constructed based on projected
urban growth, but subsequently the traffic load
does not increase, the highway becomes a waste of
resources and an economic liability rather than
a benefit. Society ends up with a highway it
doesn't need at the expense of other things it
needs desperately. Recognizing today's rapidly
changing energy and economic conditions, the
Division of State Planning constantly encourages
and occasionally sponsors studies which explore
new planning concepts which might assist
Florida's decision-makers. The South Florida
Study is one such experimental study.

The purpose of the South Florida Study has
been to develop, refine, and apply ecological tools
and concepts which reflect the realities of re-
source constraints to the myriad of problems
facing South Florida. Because the ideas are new,
many of the conclusions reached and courses of
action recommended are quite different from those
of past planning studies.

The researchers, however, maintain that so-
ciety has entered a new era--the age of resource
limitations--and, as a result, attitudes and life-
styles are never going to be the same again. If
so, a new conceptual framework for planners and
decision-makers is needed. The South Florida
Study may be a vital first step in that direction.
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The South Florida project was undertaken to
present some of the most important information
known about South Florida, selected districts with-
in South Florida, and ecosystems of South Florida
in such a manner that decision-makers could utilize
the information in guiding the future course of the
region and its varied communities.
This report is a summary of parts of the
South Florida Study concerned with Lee County,
Florida, one of the fastest growing counties in
the nation. The report describes new methods of
giving an overview of the county complexity. Lee
County has some 30 municipalities, over 500,000


acres of uplands, swamps, marshes, agricultural
and urban lands, and a population of over 125,000
people that is growing at the rate of some 5% to
6% per year. The author presents information,
suggests alternatives, and lays groundwork for
current governmental channels and democratic pro-
cesses to decide what the best course of action
might be for addressing the issue of growth in an
era of resource limitations. This report is an
overview of a county its parts, and the inter-
actions of energy, money, people and the landscape.
The overview suggestions are made to enhance three
goals of the county: economic vitality, conser-
vation, and the quality of life.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


PARTICIPANTS . . . . . . . . . . .ii


PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . i i i


LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . vii


LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . vii


INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . 1


Growth and Energy . . . . . . . . . 1

Theory of Maximum Power . .. . . . . . . 2

Carrying Capacity and Energy Resources ... ........ . . . . .. 2

Methods of Energy Analysis and Systems Models . . . . . 4

Natural Attractions . . . . . . . . . 4


THE SYSTEMS OF LEE COUNTY . . . . . . . . . 7

The Landscape Overview . . . . . . . . . 7

The Causal Inflows . . . . . . . . . 9











LAND USE . . . . . .
Present Land Use and Why It Exists as It Does . . .
The energy principles . . . . . . .
Growth and development in Lee County . . . .
The shaping of the landscape mosaic . . . . .
The relationship of growth and energy ... . . . .
Natural Systems and Hydrology . . . . . .
Water as an energy source ...... . . . .
The hydrologic cycle . . . . . . .
Simulation of county water budget . . . . ...


The Energy and Money Economies . .
The basis for vital function . .
Energy and money flows of Lee County . .


SOME POSSIBLE FUTURES . . . . . . . . . .
A Model of Lee County . . . . . . .
Description of the model . . . . . . .
Results of model simulation . . . . . . .
A Method of Calculating Carrying Capacity . . . . . . .
Concept of investment ratio . . . . . . . .
Investment ratio calculations for Lee County . . . . .


RECOMMENDATIONS AND ALTERNATIVES . . .
Recognizing Inherent Natural Values . .
Groundwater . . . . .


Marshes, sloughs and cypress swamps as water conservation
Restoration of natural vegetation . . .
Mangroves as natural buffers and bulkheads . .


areas . . . .


Building and Developing Within Economic, Energetic, and Ecologic Realities . . .
Overall environmental concern . . . . . . . .

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . .


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LIST OF TABLES


Page


Important Problems in Lee County . . . . . . . 2

Land Use and Ecosystem Areas in Lee County, Florida; 1900 and 1973 . . .. 23


LIST OF FIGURES


Figure


Page


1 Lee County and the Surrounding South
Florida Region . . . 1

2 Growth Patterns and Carrying Capacity . 3

(a) With a smooth exponential growth,
steady state is achieved with
little or no overshoot and cutback . 3

(b) ...By increasing the rate of
growth, higher overshoot and cut-
back are probable . . . 3

(c) ...And with extreme growth rates,
the overshoot and cutback can be
severe . . . . 3

3 Abundant Local Resources Sustain In-
vestment Into the County from Outside . 4-5

(a) Abundant natural energies act as
a force to attract investment . 4

(b) Energy diagram showing local
natural resources running on local
energies attracting investment
which runs on energies from outside . 5

4 An Overview of the Major Systems of
Lee County . . . . 7

5 Map of Land Use in Lee County, 1973 . Env. 1

6 Map of Land Use in Lee County, 1900 . Env. 2


7 Watersheds of Lee County as Outlined
by the U.S. Soil Conservation
Service . . . .... . 10

8 Wetlands and Water Conservation . .. 11

9 Effects of Drainage Canals on Water
Tables . . . . 12

(a) Primitive conditions . . 12

(b) Channelization . . . 12

10 Estuarine Ecosystems Depend on Flows of
Freshwater . . . . 13

11 All Systems Require Energy for Growth and
Maintenance . . . . 15

12 Historic Energy Consumption in the United
States Showing Renewable Energies and
Non-Renewable Reserves of Fossil Fuels 16

13 Early Settlement Usually Occurs Close
to Major Energy Sources . . .. 17

14 Historic Patterns of Growth and Develop-
ment in Lee County . . .. 18-19

(a) 1910 . . . . .. 18

(b) 1930 . . . . 18

(c) 1950 . . . . 19

(d) 1970 . . . . 19

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Table







Figure


Page


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15 Growth of Urban Areas Depends on Fuel
Energy in Many Forms . . .

16 Local Per Capita Governmental Expenses
Versus Local Population Size . .

17 Example of a Drainage Canal Allowed to
Partially Refill with Vegetation . .

18 Pictorial Diagram of the Hydrologic
Cycle . . . . .

19 Geologic Formations and Depths Under-
lying McGregor Isles, Lee County . .

20 Generalized Model of the Hydrologic
Cycle in Lee County . . .

21 A Detailed Hydrologic Budget of Lee
County . . . . .

22 Major Inflows and Outflows of Water in
Lee County . . . .

23 Computer Simulation Results of Surface
Water Storage in the Caloosahatchee
River Area . . . .

24 Computer Simulation Results of Water
Storage in the Shallow Aquifer . .

25 Groundwater Storage in Deep Aquifer . .

26 The Production Cycle Including the
Interactions with Renewable and Non-
Renewable Resources . . .

27 Estimates of Remaining Reserves of
Fossil Fuels . . . .

28 Concept of Recycling Waste Water
Through Natural Systems . . .

29 More Common Examples of the Free
Energies of Nature . . .

30 Simplified Diagram of Lee County's
Balance of Payments: Inputs and
Outputs of Energy and Money . .


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31 Distribution of Money and Energy in Lee
County . . . . .

32 The Economy of Lee County Showing the
Imports, Exports, and Internal Cycling
of Energy and Money . . . .

33 Simulation Model of Lee County . .

34 Simulation Results Reflecting Decreasing
Fossil Fuel Availability to Lee
County . . . . .

35 Simulation Results Reflecting Leveled
(at today's rate of consumption)
Fossil Fuel Availability to Lee
County . . . . .
36 Investment Ratios and Carrying Capacity
Diagrams . . . . .

(a) United States . . . .

(b) South Florida . . . .

(c) Lee County . . . .

37 Schematic Diagrams of Water Level Manage-
ment Within Lee County . . .

(a) Original conditions . . .

(b) Present conditions (drained) . .

(c) Future alternative of intermediate
water levels favoring a balance of
man and nature . . . .

38 Schematic Diagrams of Development
Patterns . . . . .

(a) Natural conditions . . .

(b) Full development (present) . .

(c) Alternative that takes advantage of
existing natural systems with minor
alterations for flood control . .

39 Plan for Diversified Development of Six
Different Land Uses . . . .


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INTRODUCTION


Lee County (Fig. 1), like many areas through-
out this country and around the globe, is faced
with economic, ecologic, and energetic uncertain-
ties. The uncertainties are so closely related
that it is very difficult to untangle the causes
and effects of many current problems. Local
areas can no longer function separate from these .
global and national uncertainties. The county has
become dependent on the exchange of food, fuel,
and fiber with other regions. Local wellbeing
depends on national and global economics. Con-
sequently decision-making and planning must take
into account ecologic, economic, and energetic IB
thinking on the national, state, and local levels. 'L -D

Some of the current problems are: What can be
done about the decay of our cities? How many ---.
people can Lee County accommodate and still retain
the high resident values it now has? Is there a LEE
way to prevent the loss of good agricultural lands
during the expansion of our cities? Can we provide ---
adequate services, jobs, and quality of life to all
citizens? Will population growth continue to
rise? Will we find adequate supplies of energy?
What kind of life style will follow if energy costs
continue to rise? Table 1 presents a broad list of STUDYAREAOFTHE
current problems. SOUTH FLORIA STUDY

Growth and Energy

Ths list of problems in Table 1 are all as- FIGURE 1. Lee County and the Surrounding South Florida Region.
sociated directly or indirectly with population
growth which is based on expanding energy.
Through 1973 Americans consumed more per capital
than the year before. Thus, while the population
of an area such as Lee County may have increased goods and services consumed by the population
by 6 percent in a year, the demand for total may have risen by 8 or 9%.






Table 1. Important Problems in Lee County
1. Too much water in the wet season, not enough
in the dry season.
2. Pollution of surface waters; saltwater intru-
sion in groundwaters.
3. Increasing unemployment.
4. Increasing governmental costs and decreasing
revenue.
5. Decreasing quality of public school educa-
tion, due to overcrowding.
6. Increasing traffic congestion.
7. Higher costs of living reflected in higher
costs of commodities and energy.
8. The deterioration of older parts of major
cities.
9. Urban sprawl and continued city strip develop-
ment.
10. Loss of prime agricultural lands to urban
development.


Both types of growth add to our problems.
Population growth taxes our city structure, road
networks and the ability of governments to pro-
vide quality services, and requires that more
and more lands be converted from natural and
agricultural lands to housing and commercial
uses. The growth of our affluence requires more
energy to be used to provide us with more goods


and services, causing more pollution as we try
to eliminate the increased wastes.

A major question is how much growth, of what
kind and how fast...
Theory of Maximum Power
One important theory for considering the
future is the principle of maximum power. The
system that can attract and use more useful ener-
gy flow has more resources with which to over-
come limiting factors to growth and develop a
vital economy. The flow of energy per unit time
is called Power, and the plans and alternatives
that develop maximum power are the ones believed
to be successful. When there are new resources
to be developed, power is maximized by fast
growth; however, when resources are already be-
ing used as fast as they flow in, power is maxi-
mized by efficiency and no growth beyond these
resource limitations.
Carrying Capacity and Energy Resources
In considering resource limits we use the term
"carrying capacity," which refers to the capacity
of a particular environment to provide life sup-
port for its population. In the study of natural
ecological systems it is common to observe the
growth and leveling characteristics shown by the
graphs in Fig. 2.
A population exhibits the familiar Malthusian
exponential population growth until the carrying
capacity (the resource limit) of the environment
is reached, at which point there is a leveling off
to a steady state and a resulting balance of pop-
ulation with environmental resources (Fig. 2a).
What is the carrying capacity of Lee County? Many


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(a)


With a smooth
exponential growth,
steady state is
achieved with
little or no
overshoot and
cutback.......




(b)


..... By increasing
the rate of growth,
higher overshoot
and cutback are
probable....




(c)


..... And with
extreme growth
rates, the
overshoot and
cutback can be
severe.







FIGURE 2.


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Growth Patterns and Carrying Capacity.


natural animal populations have built-in control
mechanisms that sense overcrowding conditions and
limit populations automatically. Some, however,
do not, and with these we witness another common
phenomenon known as overshoot and die back. If
the resource is limited it can only support a
particular population. Anything more than that
will cause a die back until the carrying capacity
is again reached as shown in Fig. 2b and 2c.

The overshoot and die back can be harmful to
the entire population depending on the degree of
overshoot: the steeper the growth, the greater
the overshoot and the harder the die back.

The carrying capacity of an environment de-
pends on all its energy sources. Just as one
can raise the carrying capacity of an aquarium
full of fish by adding a subsidy of fish food,
man can increase the carrying capacity of his en-
vironment with subsidies of fossil fuel technol-
ogy based on outside resources. Urban develop-
ment is based on two types of energy sources,
those found locally and those imported.

During the early stages of development in
Lee County, life was mainly based on local re-
sources. As development proceeded from rural
settlements to high energy urban cities, more and
more imported resources were used. The limited
carrying capacity based on local resources was in-
creased by employing complex technology based on
fossil fuels from outside to sustain additional
levels of human habitation. The "green revolu-
tion" in agriculture, tertiary sewage treatment,
solid waste disposal in land fill operations,
aqueducts and pipelines for water are all exam-
ples of methods devised to increase the carrying
capacity of an area by technology based on im-
ported energy.




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