• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Wetlands classification
 Characteristics and values...
 Wetland policy and regulation
 Draft of codes and performance...
 Appendices
 Literature cited






A wetlands study of Seminole County
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00016638/00001
 Material Information
Title: A wetlands study of Seminole County identification, evaluation, and preparation of development standards and guidelines
Series Title: Technical report ;
Physical Description: iv, 284 p. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Mark T ( Mark Theodore ), 1945-
Starnes, Earl M
Diamond, Craig, 1954-
Center for Wetlands
University of Florida -- Dept. of Urban and Regional Planning
Florida -- Dept. of Community Affairs
Publisher: Center for Wetlands, Phelps Laboratory, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Wetland conservation -- Florida -- Seminole County   ( lcsh )
Wetlands -- Florida -- Seminole County   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography : p. 277-284.
Statement of Responsibility: M.T. Brown and E.M. Starnes, principal investigators ; with the assitance of C. Diamond ... et. al..
General Note: "January 1983."
General Note: "Prepared by the Center for Wetlands and Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of FLorida, as consultants to Seminole County under contract with the Department of Community Affairs."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA9235
notis - ABZ2739
oclc - 09856879
alephbibnum - 000354601
System ID: UF00016638:00001

Table of Contents
    Cover
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    Table of Contents
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    Abstract
        Page 1
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    Introduction
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    Wetlands classification
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    Characteristics and values of wetlands
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    Wetland policy and regulation
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    Draft of codes and performance regulations
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    Appendices
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Full Text










A WETLANDS STUDY OF SEMINOLE COUNTY

Identification, Evaluation, and Preparation of
Development Standards and Guidelines



M. T. Brown and E. M. Starnes, Principal Investigators



With the assistance of

C. Diamond, B. Dunn, P. McKay, M. Noonan,
S. Schreiber, J. Sendzimir, S. Thompson,
and B. Tighe



Center for Wetlands

and

Department of Urban and Regional Planning


University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida



Technical Report 41
January 1983



Prepared by the Center for Wetlands and Department of Urban and Regional
Planning, University of Florida, as consultants to Seminole County under
contract with the Department of Community Affairs. The preparation of
this report was financially aided through a grant from the State of Flor-
ida under the Local Government Comprehensive Planning Act Assistance Fund,
authorized by the laws of Florida.



Center for Wetlands
Phelps Labatory
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
(904) 392-2424






















































The focus of this study is on wetlands; it does not intend to imply that
wetland communities are the only environmentally sensitive areas in Semin-
ole County. There are many other communities and areas within the county
that may well be worthy of protection; however, the development of guide-
lines and standards for these areas is beyond the scope of this study.
















CONTENTS



I ABSTRACT......................................................... 1

II INTRODUCTION..................................................... 3

Background..... ............................................. 3
Organization of the Report.................................. 4
Acknowledgments.......................................................... 5

III WETLANDS CLASSIFICATION ..........................................7

Introduction................................................ 7
Wetland Definitions ......................................... 7
Wetland Classification Schemes .............................12
Classification of Wetlands of Seminole County..............20
Guide to the Identification of Wetlands.................... 33
Glossary of Terms..........................................34

IV CHARACTERISTICS AND VALUES OF WETLANDS..........................41

IV-1 Evaluation and Ranking of Wetlands....................41
IV-2 Second Level Evaluation: Evaluation of
Specific Significance................................118

V WETLAND POLICY AND REGULATION.................................123

Federal Wetlands Regulations .............................123
Other Federal Agencies that Regulate Wetlands............. 127
Florida Statutes Concerning Wetlands ......................129
Wetland Policy and Regulatory Functions in Other States...138
Legal Policy and Regulatory Functions.....................140
Review of Wetland Protection Implementation Measures...... 146
Review of Wetlands and Floodplain Case Law................ 162
Outline: Floodplain Regulation & the Courts
(1970-1981): Broad Overview of Cases in the '70s.......163
Judicial Response to Specific Challenges.................. 166
The Taking Issue...........................................175
Federal Wetlands Jurisdicational Case Law: An Overview
of the Last Ten Years..................................180

VI DRAFT OF CODES AND PERFORMANCE REGULATIONS..................... 183

Recommended Changes to the Seminole County Compre-
hensive Plan........................................... 183
A Wetlands Development Ordinance for Seminole County,
Florida................................................. 187
Article I, In General.................................188


__










Article II, Application and Submission Requirements..189
Article III, Wetland Development Permit Procedures...194
Article IV, Standards for Development Permit.........201
Article V, Waivers and Appeals.......................248
Article VI, Enforcement and Violation Provisions.....249
Article VII, Legal Status ............................250
Permitting Process for a Wetlands Development Permit......253

APPENDICES:

A-WILDLIFE ASSOCIATED WITH WETLANDS ......................259
B-CROSS REFERENCE OF MAJOR SOIL ASSOCIATIONS AND
THE WETLANDS OF SEMINOLE COUNTY........................ 271

LITERATURE CITED....................................................277
















I
ABSTRACT



Literature on the structural and functional aspects of freshwater
wetland ecosystems was reviewed. Methods were developed for evaluating
wetland ecosystems found in Seminole County and for determining the com-
patibility of possible development activities with each wetland ecosystem.
Both the Comprehensive Plan and Land Development Code for Seminole County
were reviewed and made consistent with this concern for wetlands protec-
tion. A review of local, state, and federal wetlands policy and protec-
tion measures was made. Recent literature on wetlands case law was also
reviewed. Based on all reviews, the means for regulating development in
wetland areas and areas adjacent to wetlands were developed. A model Wet-
lands Development Ordinance for Seminole County was drafted as the final
task.




r














II
INTRODUCTION



Background


In February 1982, the Center for Wetlands and the Department of Urban
and Regional Planning at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida,
entered into a contract with the Board of County Commissioners of Seminole
County, Florida, to "Identify, Evaluate, and Prepare Development Standards
and Guidelines for the Wetlands of Seminole County."
Financial support for the project was obtained from the Florida De-
partment of Community Affairs as a grant under the Local Government Com-
prehensive Planning Assistance Program.
The bulk of the research and writing was performed from the first of
March through the end of June 1982. During this time approximately ten
and a half person months were required to complete the project. Project
personnel included faculty and students from the Department of Urban and
Regional Planning and scientists and students from the Center for Wet-
lands.
From the outset of the project, an approach to wetlands protection
was desired that would be scientifically defendable, would not severely
restrict development in and around wetlands and thus draw unnecessary
criticism, and would be an approach that was based on functional values of
wetland communities instead of ranking wetlands from most to least desir-
able in terms of protection. The system that has been developed for the
protection of wetlands evaluates nine (9) functional parameters of wetland
communities and determines the impact of an array of development activi-
ties upon each parameter. From this determination, compatibility of each
development activity and each wetland type is determined. Some activi-
ties, because of the degree of impact, are incompatible with some wet-
lands. Some activities, having nominal impact, are compatible; and some
activities, because of the potential for adverse impact, are compatible
subject to the issuance of a wetlands development permit and must conform
to performance standards. A detailed set of performance standards has
3









been written for all activities that are determined to be compatible sub-
ject to the issuance of a wetlands development permit.



Organization of the Report


In Chapter III, a review of wetland classification systems used by
local, state, and federal agencies is presented, and a classification
scheme is developed for the wetlands of Seminole County. A simple field
guide to the identification of wetlands is included to facilitate the
identification of wetland types by developers and county staff. Also, a
glossary of the more technical terms used throughout the report is includ-
ed.
Chapter IV presents a detailed explanation of the methodology used to
determine value of wetland parameters, impact of development activities,
and compatibility of development activities with wetlands. A "second
level" evaluation system is developed that enables the county staff to
evaluate each wetland on a case-by-case basis for special significance.
A review of wetland policy and regulation is included in Chapter V.
A review of federal and other agencies that regulate wetlands and Florida
statutues concerning wetlands is presented, as well as wetland policy and
regulatory functions in other states. Next, a review of wetland protec-
tion implementation measures is presented and, finally, a thorough review
of wetland and floodplain case law.
In Chapter VI suggested amendments to the goals and objectives of the
Seminole County Comprehensive Plan are given. A model ordinance entitled,
"The Wetlands Development Ordinance of Seminole County, Florida," is given
for inclusion in the Seminole County Land Development Code. Also included
in Chapter VI is a diagram and explanation of the wetlands development
permitting process.
Two appendices are included in the report. The first lists wildlife
associated with wetland types found in Seminole County and includes a list
of threatened and endangered species, and the second is a soil association
and wetlands cross reference.









Acknowledgments


We are especially grateful for the help of Joyce Sellen, Principal
Planner, Seminole County Planning Division; Ken Hooper, Manager, and
Sherry Williams, Environmental Specialist, both with Seminole County Envi-
ronmental Services Division; and Paul Magnant, Drainage Engineer, Seminole
County Engineering Division, for their review of the work in progress and
patience as we inched through this new territory.
No acknowledgment for a report of this type would be complete without
acknowledging the work of countless people who have tread the path of
wetland policy and regulation before us and whose work provided much of
the inspiration for this document. We have 'borrowed' ideas liberally,
and we thank you.
Finally, we wish to thank Shawn Tomlinson, Departmental Secretary in
Urban and Regional Planning, and Janie Haulena, part-time Secretary at the
Center for Wetlands, for their very capable typing; and Jenny Cox Carter,
Word-Processing Operator at the Center for Wetlands, for her patience and
endurance through drafts, rewrites, and almost final drafts and for her
organization and ability to finally get this report done under a nearly
impossible deadline.


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i
















III
WETLANDS CLASSIFICATION


Introduction


The difficulty of any task of classification is inversely related to
the ease of defining the boundary around the subject of interest. Wet-
lands are a nightmare for anyone uncomfortable with ambiguity because,
broadly stated, wetlands usually are the boundary between more readily
recognized systems: terrestrial and aquatic. Sudden and dramatic transi-
tions from dry land to water, such as steep embankments or cliffs, are not
as common in the southeastern United States as are very gentle inclines.
Along such inclines one usually finds a very gradual and smooth continuum
of changing moisture conditions and floristic species. The task of wet-
lands classification thus hinges on the reliability with which, in a
subtle transition from dry to wet, one can detect changes that are signif-
icantly related to the generally accepted definition of wetlands. The
practicality of such an ability rests on the rigor with which one can
defend one's definition of the wetlands transition zone and the signifi-
cance of one's criteria. Within the last century, various definitions of
wetlands have proven acceptable at various times with no precedence set
for an overriding standard definition for each type of wetland. This sec-
tion will try to serve the purpose of wetlands classification by giving a
broad background of wetlands definitions, classifications, and supporting
criteria that have proven functional at various times.



Wetland Definitions


The Wetland Protection Guidebook for Local Governments prepared by
the Environmental Law Institute (Kussler, 1979) lists practically the full
spectrum of approaches to wetlands definition. Such definitions can be
based on: (1) tidal action, (2) inundation by surface waters or flood-










waters, (3) vegetation, (4) soils, and (5) horizontal distance from the
high water mark. Since the tidal influence on coastal wetlands is not
pertinent to this study the focus shall be on the criteria of water fluc-
tuation and vegetation. It should be noted that while the matching of
soil to wetland type is still extensively used, it has not proven com-
pletely reliable. Soils are laid down over centuries and can quite accur-
ately reflect the existence of a wetland that has remained such for a con-
siderable amount of time. However, should changes in climate, geological
shifts, or any other mechanism change the water regime in an area to the
extent that it becomes a wetland in form and function, such rapid changes
may not be evident in the underlying soils. Hence, soils may be regarded
as indicators of limited usefulness.
The following are some definitions of wetlands that rely heavily on
the criteria of water regime and hydroperiod.

A wetland is recognized as a site where the water
table is near, at, or above the surface of the
ground for at least some portion of the year.

(Goodwin and Niering, 1975)

...wetlands as areas that are inundated or satur-
ated by surface or ground water at a frequency and
duration sufficient to support-and that under
normal circumstances do support-a prevalence of
vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated
soil conditions.

(President Carter, Executive Order,
May 1977, as per U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers)

A 1978 interagency report, coordinated by The Council on Environmen-
tal Quality (Horwitz, 1978), defined a wetland as "land in which water is
the dominant factor determining the nature of soil development and the
types of plant and animal communities living in the soil and on its sur-
face."

A wetland means areas that are inundated by sur-
face or ground water with frequency sufficient to
support, and under normal circumstances do or would
support, a prevalence of vegetative or aquatic life
that requires saturated or seasonally saturated
soil conditions for growth and reproduction. Wet-
lands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs and
similar areas such as sloughs, potholes, wet


_ __ ___ __ _1









meadows, river overflows, mud flats and natural
ponds.

(Draft Form as yet unapproved
by the St. Johns Water Mgmt.
District)

...a wetland...(is described as)...land where water
is the dominant factor determining the nature of the
development and the types of plant and animal com-
munities living in the soil and on its surface....
the single feature that wetlands share is soil that,
at least periodically, is saturated with water.

(Cowardin et al., 1977)

Wetlands are defined as those areas...where there is
seasonal or intermittent inundation and saturation
with periods of dry exposed soil and which is pre-
dominantly vegetated.

(Proposed revisions to
Florida State Statutes
Chap. 17-3,4 and 6, 3/7/80)

...a term used to designate areas where water perm-
anently covers the land or saturates the soil suf-
ficiently to encourage the growth of moist-soil veg-
etation. These include marshes, sloughs, swamps,
bogs, wet meadows, potholes, ponds, lakes, reser-
voirs, streams and overflow lands.

(Hopper, 1968)

It should be noted that the inclusion of the terms "ponds, lakes, reser-
voirs" in the final citation would not be accepted in most definitions.
Another approach to wetlands is to describe them as biotic communi-
ties, which are defined as follows:

A community is a naturally occurring, mutually sus-
taining, and interacting assemblage of plants and
animals living in the same environment and fixing,
utilizing, and transferring energy in some manner.

(Smith, 1980)

Whereas such abiotic factors as hydroperiod may be crucial in the
interaction of the constituent species of the community, these abiotic
factors are used in classification at a higher level, namely, ecosystems.
Communities are classified based on biotic or species composition, though
the variation in species composition as one proceeds from the aquatic









environment to the terrestrial environment may be just as subtle as the
changes in soil moisture saturation; both may form near parallel continue.
Within the biotic component, plants are far more predictable than animals
in the way that their habitat conforms to the contour of a wetland commun-
ity, and it is the shared characteristics of flora that are decisive in
creating the abstract classes by which wetlands are recognized.
While he notes that there is no single correct way to classify a
community type, Whittaker (1975) does list some of the criteria that have
been used in the classification of communities: (1) Growth-Form Domin-
ance, (2) Species Dominance, (3) Spatial Structure, and (4) Species Compo-
sition.
One of the earliest approaches developed (Humboldt, 1805; Grisebach,
1838; Warming, 1888; Whittaker, 1962) was the "physiognomic" approach. A
community is classified on the basis of which growth form is dominant and
either occupies the highest level or stratum in the community or covers
the greatest area with its structure. Examples of growth forms used may
be leaf shape, plant size, plant structure, and evergreenness. This
effort to characterize without referring to a specific species type is an
attempt to emphasize what are believed to be the more fundamental struc-
tural and functional processes that may be obscured by the sometimes awe-
some numbers and mixtures of species types, which can lead to subjective
errors as to which plant species are important. To be more objective in
this light, quantitative and numerical techniques such as the measuring of
the relative distributional similarity of species or the relative similar-
ity of samples have been developed. The usefulness of the latter tech-
niques and their tendency to require arbitrary choices is still open to
debate.
Another approach to community classification is the "floristic com-
position" approach, developed in part by Braun-Blanquet (1951). This
scheme utilizes the formal classification of the entire plant species com-
ponent of a community as well as species distribution in order to deter-
mine units of classification, which, thereby, express their relationship
to the environment. The underlying assumption is that some species in a
community are more sensitive indicators of plant-soil relationships that
are significant than others. These "diagnostic" species are used to
organize communities into a hierarchical classification that is parallel









in form to schemes used for the taxonomic classification of individual
organisms (Whittaker, 1975).
Another avenue employed in community classification is to examine
the dominant species at each stratum in the community not merely the
uppermost. Community types defined by stratal dominance are termed "soci-
ations." This "synusial" method classifies each stratum or life-form sep-
arately from the others. Life forms, normally considered as trees,
shrubs, or emergents, can also be characterizations of plants based on the
position and protection of the buds. Raunkiere (1935) divided plants into
five groups: (1) phanerophytes (trees, shrubs) where the buds are least
protected and are at least 25 cm from the ground, (2) camaephytes (gras-
ses, sedges) buds are 0-25 cm from the ground, (3) hemecryptophytes, where
the buds are just beneath the soil, (4) geophytes, where the buds are
deeply buried, and (5) therophytes, which depend only on seeds and are
thus best protected from cold, heat, and other environmental extremes.
One initially plausible and widely used approach is the classifica-
tion of communities by their dominant species. However, the many varie-
ties of species that may dominate in but a few segments of a community
make the decision as to which species is dominant quite subjective and,
perhaps, not very meaningful unless dominance is clearly shown.
Overall one could say that the concept of wetlands embraces the
following characteristics:

(1) Elevation of the water table with respect to the
ground surface;

(2) Duration of surface water (inundation);

(3) Soil types that form under permanently or temporarily
saturated conditions;

(4) Various kinds of plants and animals that have adapted to
life in a "wet" environment.


(Cowardin et al., 1977)









Wetland Classification Schemes


National Level

The Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior
has developed a hierarchial classification scheme that provides a chain of
ever narrower characteristics for the identification and description of
any one particular wetland, which should fall into one on the following
five categories:

(1) areas with hydrophytes and hydric soils, such as those
commonly known as marshes, swamps, and bogs;

(2) areas without hydrophytes but with hydric soils-for
example, flats where drastic fluctuation in water level,
wave action, turbidity or high concentration of salts may
prevent the growth of hydrophytes;

(3) areas with hydrophytes but nonhydric soils, such as the
margins of impoundments or excavations where hydrophytes
have become established but hydric soils have not yet
developed;

(4) areas without soils but with hydrophytes such as the
seaweed-covered portion of rocky shores; and

(5) wetlands without soil and without hydrophytes, such as
gravel beaches or rocky shores without vegetation.

(Cowardin et al., 1979)

From broad to narrow the elements of the hierarchial chain are Systems,
Subsystems, Classes, Subclasses, Dominance Types, and Modifiers.
Systems are defined as a complex of wetlands and deep water habitats
that share the influence of similar hydrologic, geomorphologic, chemical
or biological factors. Five systems are used: Marine, Estuarine, River-
ine, Lacustrine, and Palustrine. The boundaries of said systems are still
controversial, and it is safest to assume that in any particular case the
boundary of the system is defined by the practical need of the situation.
The Marine system consists of the open ocean overlying the continen-
tal shelf and its associated high-energy coastline. The Estuarine system
consists of deepwater tidal habitats and adjacent tidal wetlands that are
usually semienclosed by land but have open, partly obstructed, or sporadic
access to the open ocean, and in which ocean water is at least occasion-
ally diluted by freshwater runoff from the land. The Riverine system









includes all wetlands and deepwater habitats contained within a channel,
with two exceptions: (1) wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent
emergents, emergent mosses, or lichens; and (2) habitats with water con-
taining ocean-derived salts in excess of 0.5 parts/thousand. The Lacus-
trine system includes wetlands and deepwater habitats with all of the fol-
lowing characteristics: (1) situated in a topographic depression or a
dammed river channel; (2) lacking trees, shrubs, persistent emergents,
emergent mosses or lichens with greater than 30% areal coverage; and (3)
total area exceeds 8 ha (20 acres). The Palustrine system includes all
nontidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emer-
gent mosses or lichens, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas
where salinity due to ocean-derived salts is below 50 parts/thousand
(Cowardin, 1979).
Subsystems are subdivisions of wetlands based usually on some char-
acteristic of water level fluctuation in the area. Both the Marine and
Estuarine systems are divided into tidal and nontidal subsystems, and the
Lacustrine system is divided into littoral and limnetic subsystems.
The next lower taxonomic unit, the Class, describes the general
appearance of the habitat in terms of either the dominant life form of the
vegetation or the physiography and composition of the substrate (features
recognized without the aid of detailed environmental measurements). If
the vegetation covers less than 30% of the substrate area, then physiog-
raphy and substrate composition are the principal features used to distin-
guish classes. If vegetation covers 30% or more of the substrate then the
class is distinguished on the basis of life form of the plants that con-
stitute the uppermost layer. Life forms (trees, shrubs, emergents, emer-
gent mosses, and lichens) are used because they are relatively easy to
distinguish.
Finer differences of life form are distinguished at the Subclass
level. For example, five kinds of forested wetland might be recognized
(1) broad-leaved deciduous, (2) needle-leaved deciduous, (3) broad-leaved
evergreen, (4) needle-leaved evergreen, and (5) dead.
The Dominance Type is found further down this taxonomic key and is
determined on the basis of (1) the dominant plant species, (2) the domin-
ant sedentary or sessile animal species, and (3) dominant plant and animal
species. The choice among these options is directed by the basis of the
Subclass level. If the Subclass is based on life form, the Dominance Type
is named after the dominant species or the mix of codominant species in


1









the same layer of vegetation used to determine the Subclass. Specific-
ally, an Emergent Wetland (Subclass = emergent) with approximately equal
areal cover of Typha latifolia and Scirpus acutus would be called a Typha
latifolia-Scirpus acutus Dominance Type. The designation for a Dominance
Type comes from the predominant plant or the predominant sedentary or
sessile macroinvertebrate species (regardless of life form) when the sub-
class is based on the substrate material.
A full description of a wetland or deepwater habitat usually
requires the use of a Modifier at the Class level or lower in the classif-
ication hierarchy. A water regime modifier can be used to describe the
timing and duration of flooding. An inland wetland, for example can have
the following types of flooding: "permanently," "semipermanently," "sea-
sonally," "temporarily," "intermittently," and "artificially." "Satur-
ated" is another water modifier used. Water chemistry modifiers may also
be applied on the basis of salinity or pH. Soil modifiers are used to
distinguish "mineral" and "organic" soils that are further broken down
using the soil taxonomy criteria developed by the Soil Survey Staff of the
U.S. Soil Conservation Service (1975).
The U.S Fish and Wildlife classification scheme had the kind of
wide ranging and unifying purpose one would expect from a federal institu-
tion. As the document's abstract states:

This classification, to be used in a new inventory of
wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States,
is intended to describe ecological taxa, arrange them
in a system useful to resource managers, furnish units
for mapping, and provide uniformity of concepts and terms.

Another attempt at a national classification scheme was developed by
the United States Geological Survey (USGS) for the most part as a mapping
tool to supplement and aid ground based identification of wetlands. First
published in 1972, this system relied on remote-sensor data and character-
ized wetlands either as "vegetated non-forested" or "bare non-forested";
forested wetlands were subsumed under the category of forest lands. The
revision of this system in 1976 recognized both forested and non-forested
wetlands on the basis of dominance of woody plants or the dominance of
herbaceous vegetation, respectively. Nonvegetated wetlands fell into the
latter category.









State Level

Several classification schemes have been developed for use in
Florida. Monk (1968) classified communities by forest vegetation types.
He states, "seven major forest vegetation types exist in North Central
Florida: (1) Climax Southern Mixed Hardwood; (2) Sand Pine Scrub; (3)
Sand Hills; (4) Pine Flatwoods; (5) Cypress Swamps; (6) Bayheads; and
(7) Mixed Hardwood Swamps." Of these, three are used for wetlands classi-
fication--Mixed Hardwood Swamps, Bayheads, and Cypress Swamps.
In a classification scheme developed by Craig (1981), wetland areas
were broken down into 11 categories. These include (1) Sloughs; (2)
Freshwater Marsh and Ponds; (3) Pitcher Plant Bogs; (4) Shrub Bogs; (5)
Swamp Hardwoods; (6) Cypress Swamps; (7) Cabbage Palm Hammocks; (8) Wet-
land Hardwood Hammocks; (9) Cutthroat Seeps; (10) Cabbage Palm Flatwoods;
and (11) Bottomland Hardwoods.
Laessle (1942) used associations for classifying vegetation types.
He defines association as, "a characteristic combination of plant species
which is repeated in numerous stands with but little if any change in the
vigor and proportions of its principle components."
Laessle's classification scheme for wetlands included:
I. Hydric Communities Dominated by Trees
1. Bayhead (Gordonia-Tamala pubeslens-Magnolia virginiana Asso-
ciation)
2. River Swamp (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa biflora Association)
II. Herbaceous Aquatic Communities Bordering the River and Its Tidal
Tributaries
1. Submerged Associations (Naias-Ceratophyllum Association and
Vallisneria Association)
2. Floating Associations (Piaropus Association and Pistia-Sal-
vina Association)
3. Emergent Vegetation
A report developed in part by the Northeast Regional Planning Coun-
cil classifies several communities associated with wetland areas. These
include Swamp Hammock, Hardwood Swamp, Riverine Cypress, Cypress Pond,
Bayhead and Bog, Wet Prairie, Freshwater Marsh (shallow and deep), and
Tidal Flat (Jacksonville Area Planning Board, 1977).









Under the aegis of the Florida Department of Administration, the
State Division of Planning, and the Bureau of Comprehensive Planning a
committee was created to increase the efficiency of land use planning by
coordinating the collection, interpretation, and other use of land
resource data. The result was the Florida Land Use and Cover Classifica-
tion System (1976). Inventory of state land resources would be achieved
through the coordination of remote-sensing techniques (including aerial
photography) and ground-based observations. Computer storage of such vast
quantities of information could permit organization of the data in a vari-
ety of ways that would expedite management decisions. Within this scheme,
information from various sensors is organized into various levels of clas-
sification ranging from Level I to Level IV. The levels are summarized as
follows in the technical report describing the classification system:
Level I classification uses satellite imagery with very little sup-
plemental information. The mapping is usually at a ratio of 1:1,000,000.
At this ratio only a general classification based on major differences in
land cover can be made.
Level II classifications are based on high altitude and satellite
imagery combined with topographic maps. The mapping is normally at a
ratio of 1:100,000 and transferable to a 1:24,000 ratio.
Level III classifications are based on medium altitude remote sens-
ing at a scale of less than 1:24,000 combined with detailed topographic
maps and substantial amounts of supplemental information, i.e., field
observation.
Level IV uses low altitude imagery with most of the information
being derived from supplemental sources. (This level is not included
within this document.)


600 Wetlands: (Level I)

Forested wetlands are areas that are subject to permanent or pro-
longed periods of inundation or saturation and/or exhibit vegetative com-
munities characteristic of this hydroperiod.

610 WETLAND-CONIFEROUS FOREST: (Level II). These wetlands have a tree-
crown areal density of 10% or more (crown closure requirement), have a
dominant tree crown of the coniferous species, and are a result of
natural seeding.









611 Cypress: (Level III)
These forested areas are dominated by a crown closure in either
bald cypress or pond cypress. Principal associates are tupelo,
gum, and maple.
612 Pond Pine: (Level III)
These are forested areas dominated by a crown closure in pond
pine. Pond pine dominates wetter flats with low pH, often
associated with the inland reaches of marshes or muck swamps.

620 WETLAND-HARDWOOD FOREST: (Level II). These wetlands have a dominant
tree crown of the hardwood species meeting the crown closure require-
ment and are a result of natural seeding.

621 Freshwater Swamps: (Level III)
River, creek, and lake overflow areas. These communities will
have predominantly one or more of the following species:

Pond cypress, Taxodium ascendens
River cypress, Taxodium distichum
Red Maple, Acer rubrum
River birch, Betula nigra
Black willow, Salix nigra
Coastal plain willow, Salix caroliniana
Blackgum, Nyssa biflora
Ogeechee tupelo, Nyssa ogeeche
Water hickory, Carya aquatica
Water ash, Fraxinus caroliniana
Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis

Bogs and bayheads. These communities will have predominantly
one or more of the following species:

Pond pine, Pinus serotina
Loblolly bay, Gordonia lasianthus
Sweet bay, Magnolia virginiana
Swampbay, Persea palustris
Titi, Cyrilla racemiflora
Sphagnum moss, Sphagnum sp.

Inland ponds and sloughs. These communities will have predom-
inantly one or more of the following species:

Pond cypress, Taxodium ascendens
Black gum, Nyssa biflora
Water tupelo, Nyssa aquatica
Titi, Cyrilla racemiflora, C. parviflora
Black titi, Cliftonia monophylla
Willow, Salix sp.
Primrose willow, Ludwigia peruviana
Pond apple, Annona glabra

630 WETLAND-MIXED FOREST: (Level II). Includes all wet forest areas in
which neither coniferous nor hardwood species dominate. When more
than one-third intermixture of either species occurs, the specified









classification is changed to mixed. Where the intermixture is less
than one-third, it is classified as the dominant type, whether wet-
land coniferous or wetland hardwood.

631 Mixed Forest: (Level III)

These forested areas are a mixture of coniferous and hardwood
wetlands where neither tree type dominates. When more than
one-third intermixture occurs, the mixed classification should
apply.


Vegetative Communities for Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands

640 WETLAND-VEGETATED NON-FORESTED: (Level II). These lands are found in
seasonally flooded basins, meadows, and marshes. Wetlands are usually
confined to relatively level areas. When forest crown cover is less
than the threshold for wetland forest or is non-woody, it will be
included in this category. Sawgrass, Cattail, and Wet Prairie are
predominant communities in freshwater marshes, while Spartina and
Needlerush are the predominant salt marsh communities.

641 Freshwater Marsh: (Level III)

These communities will have predominantly one or more of the
following species:

Sawgrass Marsh
Sawgrass, Cladium jamaicensis
Arrowhead, Sagittaria sp.
Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon
Cattail, Typha domingensis, T. latifolia, T. angustifolia
Pickerel weed, Pontederia lanceolata, P. cordata
Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis
Spartina, Spartina bakeri
Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum

Cattail-Bulrush-Maidencane Marsh. These communities have pre-
dominantly one or more of the following species:

Cattail, Typha latifolia, T. domingensis, T. angustifolia
Bulrush, Scirpus americanus, S. validus, S. robustus
Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon
Spartina, Spartina bakeri
Pickerel weed, Pontederia lanceolata, P. cordata
Water Lily, Nymphaea sp.
Spatterdock, Nuphar sp.
Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis
Bladderwort, Utricularia sp.
Needlerush, Juncus effusus
Common reed, Phragmites communis australiss)

Wet Prairies. These communities will have predominantly one or
more of the following species:










Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon
Cordgrasses, Spartina bakeri, S. patens
Spikerushes, Eleocharis sp.
Beak rushes, Rhynchospora sp.
St. Johns wort, Hypericum sp.
Spiderlily, Hymenocallis palmeri
Swamplily, Crinum americanum
Yellow-eyed grass, Xeris ambigua
Whitetop sedge, Dichromena colorata

A wetlands classification scheme was developed by the U.S. Army
Corps on Engineers (USACOE) primarily to help dilineate the boundaries of
wetlands subject to federal jurisdiction. Specifically a series of eight
preliminary guides to major regions of wetland communities and dominant
plant associations was produced to aid USACOE regulatory personnel to
recognize the critical boundaries of wetlands subject to dredge and fill
permit regulation under Section 404 of Public Law 92-500 (Federal Water
Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972).
One particular guidebook, Preliminary Guide to Wetlands of Peninsu-
lar Florida, serves as a classification key for wetlands south of St.
Augustine. In addition to the key, each of eight wetland types (Salt-
water Aquatic, Saltwater Coastal Flat, Saltwater Marsh, Saltwater Swamp,
Freshwater Aquatic, Freshwater Flat, Freshwater Marsh and Freshwater
Swamp) are dealt with in detail. A brief description of each of the four
freshwater wetlands follows:

a. Freshwater aquatic. Wetlands that are usually dominated by
free-floating or rooted aquatic herbs and are semipermanently or
permanently flooded by fresh water (e.g., floating duckweed
mats).

b. Freshwater flat. Wetlands that have 25% or less vegetative
cover and are occasionally or regularly flooded by fresh water
(e.g., mudflats).

c. Freshwater marsh. Wetlands that have more than 25% vegetative
cover of herbaceous plants but 40% or less cover by woody plants
that are occasionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g.,
cattail marsh).

d. Freshwater swamp. Wetlands that have more than 40% cover by
woody plants and are occasionally or regularly flooded by fresh
water (e.g., cypress swamps).

In addition to a short general description of each wetland based on vege-
tative cover and water regime the abundance and normal locations of the
wetland within the region are described. Growth forms and physiognomy are


__ __ __ __ __ __









described briefly and then shown pictorially in a simplified floristic
profile that contrasts the distribution of "typical" species (those which
generally occur as dominants) and the distribution of "transitional"
species (those generally associated with transition zones). "Associated"
species (those which commonly occur but not in sufficient abundance to be
considered dominants) are also listed (both scientific and common names)
as well as described in their relationships with dominant species. Envi-
ronmental conditions, usually the characteristics of the substrate, hydro-
period, water regime, and water pH, are described in order to highlight
the cluster of conditions that are critical to the distribution of domin-
ant species.



Classification of Wetlands of Seminole County


It is important to note that there are any number of wetlands classi-
fication schemes being used by different agencies of government and indi-
viduals. Many are very broad systems of classification that were designed
for the purpose of classifying all types of wetlands within the continen-
tal United States and thus have little value when applied to a local area.
many are designed to classify wetlands by using only one parameter such as
hydroperiod, and thus are lacking when many different vegetative communi-
ties having the same hydroperiod are classified.
The following set of wetland descriptions represents a compilation
of descriptions and characteristics from several sources including U.S.
Fish and Wildlife, Army Corps of Engineers, the Florida Land Use and Cover
Classification System, and the Soil Conservation Service. The classifica-
tion of wetland communities is not an exact science and consequently the
compilation of definitions corresponding to the classes of wetlands listed
in this document are derived from a number of classification systems.
Several field trips served to refine the descriptions, especially by dom-
inant species, of the wetland communities found in Seminole County.
The classification system reflects the availability of data on param-
eters of community structure and function. Since those physical and bio-
logical functions of each wetland form the basis for the ranking of wet-
lands and determination of compatibility of development activity in and
adjacent to wetlands, it is imperative that the classification scheme be


_I_ _li__l~~ ~1 ~1~1_1









tailored to measured parameters of community structure and function.
Thus, while it is possible to develop a classification scheme that may
have as many as 30 wetland types, the data on measured parameters for each
of the 30 wetlands does not exist; consequently, such a refined scheme has
little utility.
It should be emphasized that the descriptions refer to fairly broad
classes that include a variety of specific wetlands sharing general char-
acteristics such as soil type, hydroperiod, storage capacity, and life
form richness. Cabbage Palm Hammocks are included in the class of Hydric
Hammocks; Bottomland Hardwood Associations, Cypress Swamps (strands), and
Swamp Hardwoods are included in the Mixed Hardwood Swamp category. Bogs,
Shrub Bogs, and Shrub Swamps are varieties of Bayheads. The Shallow Marsh
is comprised of no less than eight marshes and slough types dependent on
dominant species. In addition, most wetland areas are vegetative mosaics
due to the small variations in elevation and soil type found in any
region. Hence it is not unlikely to find combinations and patches of wet-
lands of one type interspersed with wetlands of other types, i.e., Bay-
heads and Cypress Domes scattered throughout a larger Wet Prairie.
The classification scheme that follows is derived from schemes devel-
oped at the Center for Wetlands for mapping of vegetative communities of
Florida and was later adopted by the State of Florida (with some minor
modifications). It is based upon dominant species, hydroperiod, soils,
and water regime, thus making it a true representation of the structure
and function of each community rather than a description of one or two
characteristics. Following the name of each community type, a number in
parentheses (XXX) is given. This number relates to the State of Florida
Classification Scheme (see the Florida Land use and Cover Classification
System [1976]).


Deep Marsh (641)

Deep marshes are wetlands that are usually dominated by free-floating
or rooted aquatic herbs, are usually permanently flooded by fresh water,
and are found along rivers, lakes, and water courses.
The deep marshes and ponds serve as a filter system for rivers and
lakes. This protects the rivers and lakes from eutrophication and pro-
vides the marsh with nutrients that are used in the vegetative growth.










Marshes will retain water during drought, and large marshes also help slow
down water flows at flood times.
Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level and
very poorly drained with coarse-textured or organic surfaces underlain by
clay or sand. The soil is covered with 3-6 ft of water during the growing
season. No Sphagnum is present, instead substratum is soft muck, rich in
decaying organic matter mixed with mineral soil and often silty from
inland (river) deposits.

Plants characterizing this community include:
Grasses and Grasslike: Cutgrass, Leersia hexandra; Watergrass,
Echinochloa sp.; Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon; Cattail, Typha
sp.; Bulrushes, Scirpus sp.; Rush, Juncus sp.
Rooted Aquatic Herbs: Tape grass, Vallisneria americana; Waterlilies,
Nymphaea odorata; Golden Club, Orontium aquaticum; Spatterdock,
Nuphar luteum; Coontail, Ceratophyllum demersum; Hydrilla,
Hydrilla verticullata; Water milfoil, Myriophyllum sp.
Free-Floating Herbs: Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes; Water-
lettuce, Pistia stratioides; Frog's-bit, Limnobium spongia;
Duckweeds, Lemna sp. and Spirodela sp.

Deep marshes and ponds provide excellent habitats for many wildlife
species. Numerous birds and waterfowl use this community for wintering or
year-round. Animals that commonly occur in this community are

Mammals: Otter, raccoon, marsh rabbit, white-tailed deer, Florida
water rat, feral hog.
Birds: Herons, egrets, bitterns, ibis, sandhill cranes, rails, limp-
kins, gallinules, snipe, killdeer, Florida duck, red-winged
blackbirds, marsh hawk, red-shouldered hawk, swallow-tailed
kite.
Reptiles: Turtles (mud turtle, red-bellied turtle, snapping turtle,
chicken turtle), snakes (mud, water, swamp, brown, cottonmouth,
ribbon), alligator.
Amphibians: Sirens, frogs (cricket, pig, leopard).


_ __










Shallow Marsh (641)

The shallow freshwater marsh is a herbaceous community adapted to
prolonged periods of flooding. Many shallow marshes are dominated by one
or several species. The shallow marsh appears as an open expanse of
grasses, sedges, and rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil is usually saturated or covered with surface water for 2 or more
months during the year.
The freshwater marshes serve as filter systems for rivers and lakes.
This protects the rivers and lakes from eutrophication and provides the
marsh with nutrients that are used in the vegetative growth. Marshes will
retain water during drought. Large marshes also help slow down water
flow at flood times. Fire and water level fluctuation are the major fac-
tors affecting these wetland areas. Variations in the water patterns in a
marsh will change the plant diversity and productivity. Marsh systems
will eventually move to a woody community with exclusion of fire or per-
manent and lower water level changes.
Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level and
very poorly drained with coarse-textured or organic surfaces underlain by
clay or sand. The soil is usually saturated during the growing season,
and is often covered with 6 inches or more of water. No Sphagnum is
present. Substratum is soft muck, rich in decaying organic matter mixed
with mineral soil and often silty from inland (river) deposits.
Within Florida, eight major different types of freshwater marshes
have been described. Any one marsh may be composed of sections of differ-
ent major types. There is also intergrading of these types. The types
are

Flag marshes dominated by pickerelweed, Sawgrass marshes, Arrowhead
marshes, Fire flag and other non-grass herbs marsh, Cattail marsh,
Spike-rush marsh, Bulrush marsh, and Maidencane marsh.

Plants that characterize this community (depending on type of marsh) in-
clude:

Grasses and Grasslikes: Blue maidencane, Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum;
Bottlebrush threeawn, Aristida spiciformis; Cutgrass, Leersia
hexandra; Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon; Wild millet, Echinocloa
spp.; Common reed, Phragmites spp.; Cordgrass, Spartina bakeri;










Carex sedges, Carex spp.; Sawgrass, Cladium jamaicense; Flat
sedge, Cyperus spp.; Umbrella grass, Fuirena spp.; Bulrushes,
Scirpus spp.; Rush, Juncus spp.; Spike rushes, Eleocharis spp.;
Beak rushes, Rhychospora spp.; Cattail, Typha spp.
Herbaceous Plants: Arrowhead, Saggitaria spp.; Blue flag, Iris
savannarum; Fire flag, Thalia geniculata; Pickerelweed,
Pontederia cordata; Smartweed, Polygonum spp.; Pennywort,
Hydrocotle spp.

The freshwater marshes provide excellent habitats for many wildlife
species. Numerous birds and waterfowl use this community for wintering or
year-round. Animals that commonly occur in this community are

Mammals: Raccoon, marsh rabbit, white-tailed deer, Florida water
rat.
Birds: Herons, egrets, bitterns, ibis, sandhill cranes, rails, limp-
kins, gallinules, snipe, killdeer, mottled duck, red-winged
blackbirds, marsh hawk, red-shouldered hawk, swallow-tailed
kite.
Reptiles: Turtles (Eastern box turtle, red-bellied turtle, chicken
turtle), snakes (black racer, eastern diamond back, Florida
cottonmouth).
Amphibians: Frogs (leopard, littlegrass, green tree frog), toads.


Wet Prairies (641)

The wet prairie, sometimes called freshwater meadow, appears as an
open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and herbs in varying proportions,
and may also contain scattered shrubs and small trees. The general
appearance of the prairie is that of an overgrown field. The wet prairie
occurs in areas of low topographic relief and receives water from rainfall
and from runoff from higher, nearby areas. It is regularly flooded by
freshwater from 0.5 to 2 feet and remains wet to moist throughout much of
the year.
Soils are commonly mineral and organic alluvial and are nearly level
and poorly drained with coarse-textured surfaces underlain by clay or
sand. There is often a thick organic layer that has high water-holding
capacity. The soil helps slow down water flows, and thereby increases
water quantity and improves water quality. Fire and artificial water










level fluctuations are the major factors affecting these areas. Varia-
tions in the natural sequence of either event will change the slough's
diversity and productivity. With the exclusion of fire or permanent water
level reduction, the plant succession will be to a wooded community.
Grasses are the most common plants found in sloughs. Sedges and
rushes also occur with scattered shrubs in some locations. Plants that
characterize this community are

Shrubs: St. John's wort, Hypericum fasciculatum; Primrose willow,
Ludwigia spp.; Elderberry, Sambucus simpsonii.
Grasses and Grasslikes: Blue maidencane, Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum;
Bluejoint panicum, Panicum tenerum; Forked panicum, Panicum
dichotomum; Low panicum, Panicum, spp.; Sand cordgrass, Spartina
bakeri; Beak rushes, Rhynchospora; Soft rush, Juncus effusus;
Sloughgrass, Scleria spp.; spike rush, Eleocharis cellulosa;
sedge, Cyperus spp.
Herbaceous: Pickerelweed, Pontederia cordata; Sundew, Drosera spp.;
Marsh pink, Sabatia spp.; Meadowbeauty, Rhexia spp.; Milkwort,
Polygala spp.; Yellow-eyed grass, Xyris spp.; spiderlily,
Hymenocallis spp.; swamplily, Crinum americanum.

This community is productive in regards to food for bobwhite quail,
deer, and wading birds. Its low growing vegetative growth provides poor
cover for most wildlife species, but this is often offset by the "edge
effect" of this community when it is located with flatwoods and hammocks.

Mammals: Bobcat, deer, gray fox, marsh rabbit, opossum, cotton rat,
raccoon.
Birds: Bobwhite quail, cranes, egrets, herons, ibis, meadowlark,
red-shouldered hawks, snipe.
Reptiles: Cottonmouth moccasin, eastern diamondback rattlesnake,
pigmy rattlesnake, ringneck snake, yellow rat snake.
Amphibians: Narrow-mouthed toad, green tree frog, greater and lesser
sirens.


Cypress Domes (621)

The cypress dome (sometimes called cypress head) is a still-water
wetland forest occurring in areas where water is present for much of the









year. This community generally occurs in depressions in upland areas of
little topographic relief such as the pine flatwoods. It seldom occurs in
the floodplains. The dominant specie is pond cypress (Taxodium ascen-
dens), with swamp blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora) also often
found. The largest cypress trees generally occupy the zone flooded most
often. Trees become progressively smaller with distance from this zone.
In shallower areas around the edges, competition with other species
occurs, the likelihood of fire is greater, and there are a large number of
seedlings. Smaller cypress ponds tend to be more regular in shape; larger
ponds tend to be asymmetrical and may occur in strands.
This community is poorly drained and water is at or above ground
level a good portion of the year. Cypress domes provide water storage
areas by holding excess water and slowly releasing it into the water
table. Water quality is enhanced by the community, which functions as a
waste treatment plant by absorbing nutrients from the water. Fire is a
stress factor, primarily on the drier portions, but water is important in
all areas. Water enters the cypress dome directly from rainfall or run-
off. The water level is highest in summer and peak productivity occurs in
early spring. Standing water will result in slow tree growth especially
if it occurs during the growing season. Natural regeneration of cypress
requires fluctuation of the water. Flooding during the dry season will
prevent the cypress trees from reproducing. Water must be available to
germinate the seeds because it provides natural stratification. However,
when the seedling starts to grow, its top must be maintained above water.
Both drastic changes in the water level and a stabilized water level may
change the plant community. If the water level is lowered the cypress-gum
swamp can succeed to bay forest.
Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level or
depressional, poorly drained and have loamy subsoils and sandy surfaces.
Taxodium ascendens is found in acidic soils.

Plants that characterize this community are
Trees: Pond cypress, Taxodium ascendens; Swamp blackgum, Nyssa syl-
vatica var. biflora.
Shrubs: Common buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis; Southern wax-
myrtle, Myrica cerifera.
Vines: Laurel greenbrier, Smilax laurifolia.










Grasses and Grasslikes: Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon; Sawgrass,
Cladium jamaicense.
Herbaceous: Cinnamon fern, Osmunda cinnamomea; Fall-flowering ixia,
Nemastylis floridana; Pickerel weed, Pontederia cordata; Royal
fern, Osmunda regalis; Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides;
Stiff-leafed wild pine, Tillandsia utriculata; Sphagnum moss,
Sphagnum spp.

This community is very important for wildlife refuge areas and as a
turkey roosting area. It is well suited for waterfowl and wading birds,
and aquatic animals may be found in large numbers. The permanent resi-
dents of cypress domes are relatively few, but much of the wildlife of the
flatwoods, is dependent on these ponds for breeding purposes. Animals fre-
quently found in cypress domes include:

Mammals: Cotton mice, raccoons, opposum, bats.
Birds: Woodpeckers, towhees, catbirds, yellow-throats, Carolina
wrens, Cardinals, kingbrokers, bitterns, herons, ibises, wood-
storks, common egrets, warblers and sparrows.
Reptiles: Green anole, Florida cottonmouth.
Amphibians: Lesser siren, frogs (green tree frog, squirrel tree frog,
Southern chorus, leopard).


Hydric Hammocks (630)

Areas dominated by broad-leaved trees (mixed deciduous and evergreen)
growing on soils that are poorly drained, but not subject to seasonal or
considered hydric or low hammocks. Such hammocks are generally restricted
to areas between the river swamp and the edge of the flatwoods. Hydric
hammocks often occupy soils that are nearly saturated with moisture due to
seepage of groundwater from higher areas. Topography is low and nearly
level. These hammocks are not flooded for as long a period of time as are
associated mixed hardwood swamps. The mixed hardwood swamp community is
found within depressional areas of the hydric hammock.
Cabbage palm hammocks are included in this category because of hydro-
period and soil similarities. This community occurs on nearly level land.
Water movement is very gradual to and through the natural drainageways,
swamps, ponds, and marshes associated with this community. During the
rainy season, usually June through September, the water table is on or


__










near the soil surface. The natural vegetation of cabbage palm hammocks is
typically scattered pine and cabbage palm with an understory of palmetto
and grasses.
Numerous soil types occur within hydric hammocks. The soils are most
often nearly level, poorly to somewhat poorly drained, and coarse textured
to fine textured in the subsoil. Some parts of the subsoil are calcareous
or neutral to moderately alkaline. The surface and subsurface layers are
coarse textured. The soil is rich in organic matter and consequently has
greater water-holding capacity than the soil of the xeric hammocks. Soils
receive, in addition to direct rainfall, seepage and runoff from higher
areas and have a very high water table.
This community supports a luxuriant growth of vegetation with a
diversity of species. Although supporting plants that are found in both
drier and wetter sites, this community has definite flora characteristics.
Slight differences in plant composition occur depending upon water rela-
tionships. The slightly wetter sites contain a higher percentage of
grasses and herbaceous plants. Although these differences are recognized,
they are not significant enough to delineate as separate communities.
Plants that characterize this community are

Trees: Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Popash, Fraxinus caroliniana;
Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia; Live oak, Quercus virginiana;
Red bay, Persea borbonia; Red cedar, Juniperus siliciola; Red
maple, Acer rubrum; Sweetbay, Magnolia virginiana; Tulip-poplar,
Liriodendron tulipifera; Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua;
Water oak, Quercus nigra; Southern magnolia, Magnolia grandi-
flora; Slash pine, Pinus elliottii; Bluebeech, Carpinus carolin-
iana.
Shrubs: Wax-myrtle, Myrica cerifera; Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens;
Gallberry, Ilex glabra.
Vines: Poison ivy, Rhus radicans; Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus
quinquefolia; Wild grape, Vitis spp.; Yellow jassamine, Gelsem-
ium sempervirens; Smilax laurifolia; Trampet creeper, Campsis
radicans.
Grasses and Grasslike: Panicum spp.
Herbaceous Plants: Cinnamon fern, Osmunda cinnamomea; Royal fern,
Osmunda regalis; Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides.










Hydric hammocks are one of the most productive and diverse wildlife
habitats. This community is good for reptiles and amphibians, being moist
most of the year. Cabbage palm hammocks offer good food and cover to many
species of wildlife. Food value comes from palm and palmetto, fruit, pine
mast, and acorns from associated oaks. Legumes and grasses furnish good
food sources to quail and other small birds. Wildlife species include:

Mammals: Bobcat, deer, black bear, oppossum, gray squirrel and vari-
ous species of mice and rats.
Birds: Hawks, turkey, owls, woodpeckers and numerous songbirds.
Reptiles: Green anole, Southeastern Five-line skink, Florida cotton-
mouth, Dusky pigmy rattlesnake, Eastern coral snake, and other
snakes.
Amphibians: Several species of salamanders, frogs, and toads.


Bayhead (621)

The term "bayhead" designates an association dominated by broad-
leaved evergreen trees that grow in very acid, saturated soils that are
subject to periodic flooding. Bayheads characteristically occur in de-
pressions in the flatwoods or as marginal growths about flatwoods ponds
that are not subject to excessive variations in water level. This commun-
ity occurs on nearly level to gently sloping land or hillsides or in
depressed areas. The shrubs have many stems and thick foliage and often
appear impenetrable. It is common to find this type associated with
swamps bordering streams. They are peat-forming communities.
Bayheads are usually maintained by seepage from higher land. Drain-
age of the bog or immediately upslope will strongly modify or destroy
these environments. Seepage water keeps them almost constantly wet, and
they protect adjoining swamps from fire during dry periods. They act as
small reservoirs by receiving seepage water and metering it out in a small
but steady supply. Where a wide fluctuation of water level occurs, fire
becomes a limiting factor by killing the bayhead type of vegetation during
periods of low water. It is suspected that only small amounts of water
are evaporated or transpired from this community. During dry periods
lightning may start fires that will consume peat to the depth of the water
table.









Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level to
gently sloping, acid, somewhat poorly to very poorly drained, sandy or
loamy soil adjacent to drainageways that are fed by seepage water. The
soil is nearly always moist, with the water table at or near the surface.
Soil moisture during nonstorm periods is provided by groundwater seepage,
usually from higher areas.
Plants that characterize this community are

Trees: Redbay, Persea borbonia; Sweetbay, Magnolia virginiana; lob-
lolly bay, Gordonia lasianthus; blackgum, Nyssa sylvatica var.
biflora; Pond cypress, Taxodium ascendens; red maple, Acer
rubrum; and pond and slash pine, Pinus serotina and P.
elliottii.
Shrubs: Hollies, Ilex spp.; fetterbush, Lyonia lucida; waxmyrtle,
Myrica cerifera; Virginia willow, Itea virginica.
Vines: Muscadine grape, Vitis rotundifolia; bamboo-vine, Smilax
laurifolia.
Grasses and Grasslikes: Panicum spp.; Carex spp.; Cyperus spp.
Herbaceous Plants: Cinnamon fern, Osmunda cinnamomea; Sphagnum moss,
Sphagnum spp.; Virginia chain fern, Woodwardia virginica.

Animal species include:

Mammals: Oppossum, armadillo, cotton mouse, bobcat.
Birds: Red-shouldered hawk, barred owl, tree swallow, Carolina wren,
robin, hermit thrush, warblers, sparrows, cardinal.
Reptiles: Snakes (Peninsula ribbon, Eastern mud, King).
Amphibians: Narrow-mouthed toad.


Mixed Hardwood Swamp (621)

The mixed hardwood swamp ecological community borders rivers and
basins that are either submerged or saturated part of the year, is domin-
ated by deciduous hardwood trees, and is found in strands along many
drainageways and watercourses and areas influenced by seasonal flooding.
Included in this category is the river swamp located extensively along the
St. Johns River, Wekiva River, and associated water bodies. The river
swamp is subject to periodic fluctuations in water level as a result of









seasonal rainfall patterns. Although these mixed hardwood swamps are
characterized by a preponderance of deciduous tree species, they are gen-
erally not dominated by any one species. Such hardwood swamps are vari-
able, with species types dependent upon the size of the waterway, its flow
rate, water quality, and silt-turbidity characteristics. Periodic flood-
ing is essential to maintain this ecosystem and is the dominant factor for
providing needed nutrients. If the system is drained or flooded for an
extended length of time, a new community will result. Water level fluc-
tuation of the system within normal yearly extremes is about 2.5 ft, but
can be as much as 5.0 ft.
Hardwood swamp areas are of great value for maintaining good water
quality and quantity and for wildlife and wilderness values. Water qual-
ity is enhanced through the actions of sedimentation and uptake of nutri-
ents by vegetation. During flood times, when waters reach their highest
elevations, the swamp fringe of lakes and rivers help to reduce suspended
nutrients and organic matter and slow water flows due to the friction of
many trunks, stems, and roots. As waters recede to dry season elevations,
much nutrients and organic matter are effectively "trapped" behind the
natural levee between the swamp fringe and the open water. Water plays an
important part in this community. If the water cycle is maintained, the
community will tolerate disturbance, but if the water table is lowered or
periodic water is not available, the system will change. The community is
highly endangered due to its sensitivity to changes in the water cycle.
Practices such as improper channelization, drainage, and impoundment are
especially damaging. Mixed hardwood swamp forests are natural storage
areas for floodwater. They slow the flow of water, improve water quality
and gradually feed water to the rivers. These areas also assimilate inor-
ganic and organic waste and reduce pollution levels. Oxygen diffusion is
great in the swamp forest because of the large air-to-water surface area.
The slow movement of the rivers and obstructions also help with the dif-
fusion. Downstream systems, including estuaries, receive energy through
detritus from this system.
Soils associated with this community are nearly level, very poorly
drained, dark colored, and have coarse- to medium-textured surfaces under-
lain by finer textured material or are organic. The mixed hardwood sys-
tem, unlike the bayhead, produces little or no peat.









The transition from river swamp to hydric hammock is often broad and
ill defined where the topographic changes are very gradual. Rather exten-
sive areas intermediate between the two associations occur where the peri-
odic flooding is of brief duration.
Plants of the mixed-hardwood swamp include:

Trees: Bald cypress, Taxodium distichum; swamp black gum, Nyssa syl-
vatica var. biflora; water locust, Gleditsia aquatic, water
ash, Fraxinus caroliniana; red maple, Acer rubrum; water hick-
ory, Carya aquatica; cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; and sweetgum,
Liquidambar styraciflua.
Shrubs: Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis; willow, Salix carolin-
iana; bluestem palmetto, Sabal minor; waxmyrtle, Myrica
cerifera.
Vines: Mikania, Mikania scandens; pepper-vine, Ampelopsis arborea;
poison ivy, Rhus radicans.
Grasses and Grasslikes: Sawgrass, Cladium jamaicensis; marsh grass,
Spartina bakeri.
Herbaceous Plants: Royal fern, Osmunda regalis; cinnamon fern, 0.
cinnamomea.

A mixed-hardwood swamp hosts a large variety of wildlife. It is
especially well suited for waterfowl, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals.
Animals found in this community must withstand the flooding that occurs
periodically. Animal species include:

Mammals: Oppossum, gray and southeastern flying squirrel, red fox,
raccoon and bobcat.
Birds: Green heron, egrets, red-shouldered hawk, turkey, chickadees,
titmice, yellow-billed cuckoo, wood duck, limpkin, owls, warb-
lers, cedar waxwing, woodpecker, and wren.
Reptiles: Green anole, ground skink, black racer.
Amphibians: Lesser siren, narrow-mouthed and southern toads, green
and squirrel tree frogs, greenhouse and leopard frogs.

The various species of hardwood vegetation provide good food and
cover for these wildlife species.









Guide to the Identification of Wetlands


The following key is meant to be an elementary field guide, using
easily identifiable characteristics, to the wetland types found in Semin-
ole County and described previously. Consideration has been made for
averaged (expected) conditions for each wetland. Atypical climate (heavy
rains or drought) or recent disturbances (fire or drainage) may render the
key inaccurate. Determination of species present (whenever possible) will
provide a clearer definition of wetland type when compared with the des-
criptions of wetland vegetation given in the Classification Scheme above.
To use the guide, start with item 1 and make choices until a type is
found.
1. Is the community seasonally inundated and/or is the soil primarily
organic peat or muck?
a) Yes, go to 2.
b) No, not defined as a wetland.
2. What season it it?
a) Summer (May to October), go to 3.
b) Winter (October to May), go to 10.
3. Are trees dominant life form?
a) Yes, go to 4.
b) No, go to 8.
4. Is the system adjacent to a river or lake?
a) Yes, go to 7.
b) No, go to 5.
5. Is there standing water?
a) Yes, go to 6.
b) No, Hydric Hammock.
6. Are the dominant trees cypress?
a) Yes, Cypress Dome.
b) No, Bayhead.
7. Is there standing water other than puddles?
a) Yes, Mixed Hardwood Swamp.
b) No, Hydric Hammock.
8. Is the wetland adjacent to a river or lake?
a) Yes, Deep Marsh.
b) No, go to 9.










9. Are there scattered trees or shrubs?
a) Yes, Wet Prairie.
b) No, Shallow Marsh.
10. Are trees the dominant life form?
a) Yes, go to 11.
b) No, go to 15.
11. Is the system adjacent to a river or lake?
a) Yes, go to 14.
b) No, go to 12.
12. Are the majority of trees evergreen?
a) Yes, Bayhead.
b) No, go to 13.
13. Do many of the trees exhibit buttresses
and is there a significant number of
cypress knees?
a) Yes, Cypress Dome.
b) No, Hydric Hammock.
14. Is the community found on a gentle slope with
little to no standing water?
a) Yes, Hydric Hammock.
b) No, Mixed Hardwood Swamp.
15. Is the community adjacent to a river or lake?
a) Yes, Deep Marsh.
b) No, go to 16.
16. Are there scattered shrubs or trees?
a) Yes, Wet Prairie.
b) No, Shallow Marsh.



Glossary of Terms


Any word followed by an asterisk (*) represents a definition that has
been changed from the definition found in the Seminole County Land Devel-
opment Code.

Adjacent Area--In the absence of sufficient information to delineate the
transition zone between wetlands and upland communities the adjacent
area is defined as contiguous lands within 300 feet of the border (or










ecotone) or edge of standing water between wetland and upland commun-
ities and is measured from the border (or ecotone) or edge of stand-
ing water toward the upland community.
Aquaculture-Fish farming. Raising of fish under controlled circumstances
for human consumption.
Berm--(Berming) Any structure (usually earthen) constructed for the pur-
poses of impounding or impeding surface water flow. See Bulkhead.
Biological (biotic) Parameters/Functions (of wetlands)--wetland functions
performed by or referring to living organisms. Wildlife utilization,
life form richness, and gross primary production.
Bulkhead--(Bulkheading) Any structure, partition, retaining wall, or
earthen mound that interrupts, resists, directs, or shuts off the
natural flow of surface water.
Catwalk-An aboveground structure constructed to allow travel in areas
that are often marshy or under water for extended periods. Often
used for nature trails or field experiments in wetlands.
Clear-cutting--A silvicultural system in which all merchantable trees are
harvested over a specified area in one operation.
Community (ecological)--A group of interacting plants and animals inhabit-
ing a given area. Refers to the living components of a (wetland)
system.
Connectedness (of a wetland)--Degree to which a wetland borders terres-
trial, aquatic, or other wetland systems. The greater the extent to
which this bordering occurs (in numbers or linear distance), the
greater the connectedness.
Cultivation-To foster the growth of...improve by labor or care the growth
of selected plants.
Development-380.04, Florida Statutes: "the carrying out of any building
or mining operation or the making of any material change in the use
or appearance of any structure or land and the dividing of land into
three or more parcels."
Discharge--Outflow of water from a project site, aquifer, drainage basin,
or facility.
Drainage--Control of surface flow of water by man-made facilities, such as
canals, ditches, culverts, dikes, or storm sewers. Usually refers to
the artificial lowering of groundwaters.
Dredge and Fill--See "Dredging" and "Fill."
Dredging*-Process of draining, pumping, pushing, removing, displacing,
digging, gathering or pulling out soil, organic matter, peat, or muck


_ ____ ____ ___ ___ ___ __


I


r


--------------










from the ground surface or below the ground surface, within a wetland
or adjacent area.
Easement--Any strip of land created for public or other private utilities,
drainage, sanitation, or other specified uses having limitations, the
title to which shall remain in the name of the property owner, sub-
ject to the right of use designated in the reservation of the servi-
tude.
Ecosystem--Shortened term for "ecological system." The total interaction
of all the living and non-living components of a well-defined region.
Emergent Vegetation-Plants that are rooted under water with structured
parts growing above the water's surface.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)--Assessment of proposed legislative
and "other major federal actions significantly affecting the quality
of the human environment," required of federal agencies by the
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1970.
Erosion-The process by which soil surface is worn away through the
actions of wind and water.
Evapotranspiration (ET)--The combined loss of moisture by evaporation from
land and water surfaces and by transpiration by plants.
Filling*--Deposition, dumping, moving, or relocating of soil, rock, rip-
rap, organic matter, or any other material that results in raising
the ground surface elevation.
Flood Abatement--Refers to the ability of a wetland to reduce flooding
intensity by such inherent characteristics as vegetative cover, land-
scape, soil, etc.
Flooding Frequency-The regularity by which an area is prone to flooding.
Referred to in terms such as "one in five year flood", "one in one
hundred year flood," etc.
Flooding Tolerance (of life forms)--Degree to which plant life can survive
the excess water--both in depth and duration-associated with flood-
ing.
Floodplain (floodway)-Broad, flat land area bordering a river, stream,
or surface water body, and subject to inundation by the normal fluc-
tuation of water level associated with the given body of water.
Floristic Composition-Types and amount of vegetation found in a given
area.
Flow-through System-A wetland system in which water is usually moving,
though often very slowly. River swamps, sloughs, and strands are
examples of wetland flow-through systems.









Food Chain--Movement of energy and nutrients from one feeding group (tro-
phic level) of organisms to another in a series that begins with
plants and ends with carnivores.
Gross Primary Production (GPP)--Total photosynthetic (plant) production,
in which solar energy is converted into organic substances used as
food material.
Groundwater--Water beneath the surface of the ground whether or not flow-
ing through known and definite channels.
Hazardous Material-A material that may cause or significantly contribute
to serious illness or death or that poses a substantial threat to
human health or the environment when improperly managed. It is a
hazardous material, typically, if it is highly flammable, corrosive
of standard materials, reactive, explosive, or poisonous. The State
of Florida exempts power plant ashes, phosphate wastes, and agricul-
tural wastes.
Hydroperiod (of a wetland community)--A measure of the time (usually in
days per year) that water is at or above the soil surface.
Impervious Surface--A layer of material through which water cannot pene-
trate or can pass through only very slowly.
Impound(ment)--An artificial storage that collects and confines water as
in man-made ponds or reservoirs.
Improved Area--Residential or commercial area with significant amounts of
streets, sidewalks, sanitary or storm sewers, parking lots, landscap-
ing, or other "improvements."
Infiltration-Downward movement of water through the soil.
Intermittent Flooding---Periodic inundation (of a wetland) associated with
rainfall.
Landscape Diversity-A measure of the degree to which an area is rich or
lacking in a variety of living organisms and non-living land forms.
Leachfield--Drainage field associated with septic tank systems that re-
ceive liquid overflow from the tank to be absorbed into the subsoil
surrounding the system of pipes or conduit.
Life Form-Designation of the five types of vegetative growth: (1) trees,
(2) shrubs, (3) floating plants, (4) emergent plants, and (5) submer-
gent plants.
Life Form Richness--Degree of presence of varying types of life forms.
Maximum Water Level--Water level attained when a wetland has reached its
maximum storage capacity.
Mean High Water--Average annual high water level.
Mean Low Water--Average annual low water level.









Mosquito Control (Drainage) Ditch--Drainage performed for the expressed
purpose of removing surface waters and thus eliminating mosquito
breeding areas.
Nutrient Loading-Measure of the nutrient concentrations (often expressed
as phosphorous and/or nitrogen) passing into or through a wetland,
either naturally (rainfall, surface flow) or through addition of sew-
age or storm water runoff.
Ordinary High Water---Highest level to which a wetland is normally inun-
dated, given normal year-to-year water level fluctuations.
Outfall--Specific point of discharge of waters from a project, site
aquifer, drainage basin, or facility.
Permeability-Measure of a soil's ability to let water pass through
(infiltraton), often expressed in units of inches/hour.
Physical (Abiotic) Parameters/Functions (of wetlands)--Wetland functions
not associated with living organisms. Water quality enhancement,
storage capacities, recharge potential, and flood abatement are exam-
ples of physical functions.
Potable Water--Water that is satisfactory for drinking, culinary, and
domestic purposes and that meets the quality standards of the Florida
Department of Environmental Regulation, Chapter 17-22, F.A.C.
Rare and Endangered Species--Plant and/or animal species whose existence
is in such limited numbers as to require special protection to avoid
total extinction from the area of designation, as defined by U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered
Plants, State Legislation.
Recharge (of Groundwater)*-The infiltration of surface water to the
groundwater supply.
Riprap-1) Aggregate placed on potentially erodable sites to reduce the
impact of rain or surface runoff on these areas. 2) A foundation or
sustaining wall of stones thrown together without order.
Runoff--Overland water flow, which is a function of amount and intensity
of precipitation and snow and ice melt.
Sedimentation-Deposition of soil particles to one area from another
through the process of water erosion.
Seepage Wetland--A wetland where the main inflows of water are usually
rainfall and groundwater seepage from uplands.
Selective Harvesting-Timber harvesting method in which only a portion of
the tree stand is removed, leaving some vegetative cover and aiding
in erosion reduction. Removal of mature timber, usually the oldest









or largest trees, either as single individuals or in small groups, in
order to encourage continuous reproduction and uneven aged stands.
Septic Tank--Sewage disposal system in which effluent is flushed into an
underground tank and allowed to slowly be absorbed into the surround-
ing soil.
Slough--An open expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area where
the soil is saturated during the rainy season and that is relatively
long and narrow and slightly lower in elevation than the surrounding
landscape. Most serve as drainage ways for water during periods of
heavy and prolonged rainfall.
Storage Capacity (storm storage capacity)-A measure (in volume) of a wet-
land's capacity to store water during a storm event, and thus help
abate flooding.
Structure--Anything constructed, installed or portable, the use of which
requires a location on a parcel of land. It includes a moveable
structure while it is located on land which can be used for housing,
business, commercial, agricultural, or office purposes either tempor-
arily or permanently. Structure also includes fences, billboards,
swimming pools, poles, pipelines, transmission lines, tracks, and ad-
vertising signs.
Submergent Vegetation-Vegetation that is rooted under water and whose
structural parts are also under water.
Succession--Ecological process in which components and structural arrange-
ment of an ecosystem undergo readily recognizable change or transfor-
mation.
Surface Water--Water located above ground. Can be still or flowing.
Superficial Groundwater--Sometimes called groundwater, water table aqui-
fer, or superficial groundwater. Water that exists in the inter-
stices of soil in which the soil is completely saturated, but where
there is no confining layer or aquaclude above the zone of satura-
tion.
Swale--A gently sloping channel designed to transport intermittent runoff
from storm events.
Temporary Blinds--Artificial camouflage area created by hunters.
Transfer of Development Rights (TDR)-A land use management tool involving
the designation of development rights to land, and then the authoriz-









ation to sell or transfer these rights from an area of development
restriction to a "permitted" or "transfer" area.
Upland--Dry terrestrial system found upslope from aquatic, wetland, or
other terrestrial systems.
Utilities--Electrical transmission lines, sewage lines, storm water lines,
and potable water supply lines, and associated access roads necessary
for maintenance.
Water Quality Enhancement-Those attributes of a wetland that contribute
to the purification of water. Nutrients and pollutants can be
removed from water via uptake by plants or absorption into the soil.
Watershed-Total area that can contribute over-land waterflow to a given
discharge point, water body, or wetland.
Water Table-The upper level of the groundwater.
Weir--An overflow structure built across an open channel for the purpose
of controlling water flow.
Wetland--Areas inundated or saturated by surface water or groundwater at a
frequency and duration to support, and that under normal circumstan-
ces do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life
in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands can often be a transition
zone between aquatic and terrestrial communities.
















IV
CHARACTERISTICS AND VALUES OF WETLANDS



IV-1 Evaluation and Ranking of Wetlands


The evaluation of wetlands has been organized into two levels. The
first level is the evaluation of development impacts on parameters of gen-
eral wetland types that occur in the county. This system lists various
wetland parameters with regards to general overall characteristic struc-
ture and function and evaluates impacts of development activities upon
each parameter. When impacts on all parameters are summed, an overall
compatibility of the development activity with each wetland type is deter-
mined.
The second level evaluation is designed for the evaluation of spe-
cific wetland communities and is to be performed by Seminole County staff
directly related to the review of a proposed development in or around wet-
land communities. (See Section IV-2 for a discussion of the Second Level
Evaluation).


First Level Evaluation of Wetland Parameters

In the first level evaluation, nine wetland parameters are evaluated
and ranked within two functional areas. These two areas pertain to Physi-
cal and Biological functions that have significant value and that should
be protected.
The discussion that follows lists the nine parameters and gives the
basis for rating of High, Medium, and Low values associated with any spe-
cific wetland and its characteristic parameter.

Physical functions. Of importance in this category are the functions
that wetlands perform with regards to water quality enhancement, flood
protection, water storage, and potential for recharge of potable water.
Specifically, the parameters to be ranked are as follows:










1. Water Quality Enhancement-This parameter is measured as the
assimulative capacity or nutrient uptake capacity for nitrogen and
phosphorus of the wetlands, expressed as potential percent reduc-
tion in nutrient concentration between input and output waters.
Values are expressed as percent removal under ideal conditions
where secondary treated effluent is recycled through wetlands. It
is important to note that data given are the potential percent
removal under ideal conditions where effluent volume and velocity
do not exceed conditions necessary for efficient uptake. Data are
given in terms of potential percent removal instead of in pounds
per acre since there are many variables that may significantly
effect any particular wetland's ability to immobilize nitrogen and
phosphorus; the most important of which are size of wetland and
quantity and quality of effluent. By utilizing potential percent
removal as a means of ranking wetlands, it is felt that there is
less confusion and less chance of misinterruption of data. The
ratings are as follows:

High Value (90-100%);
Medium Value (60-89%); and
Low Value (less than 59%).

2. Hydroperiod--Related to water quality enhancement, hydroperiod is
the period of inundation of a wetland. Wetland communities are
adapted to varying depths and periods (length of time) of inunda-
tion; some have standing water nearly the entire year, while
others have standing water for only a few months during the wet-
test time of the year. Those wetlands that have long hydroperiods
are generally more evergreen, while those adapted to shorter
hydroperiods tend to have a dormant season that corresponds to dry
times of the year. Communities that are adapted to long hydroper-
iods are more suitable as interface systems that may receive
wastes and runoff from urban lands, since they have greater poten-
tial for year-round nutrient uptake. The ratings are as follows:

Long hydroperiod (300-365 days) = High Value;
Moderate hydroperiod (200-299 days) = Medium Value; and
Short hydroperiod (100-199 days) = Low Value.

3. Evapotranspiration-A major attribute of most wetlands is their
ability to store water and slowly recharge groundwater. Wetlands,









through shading of surface waters and the blocking of evaporative
breezes, reduce potential evaporation from surface water stored
within. Thus wetlands that have lower evapotranspiration conserve
water and allow for greater groundwater recharge. The rate of
evapotranspiration directly affects the availability of surface
water and thus groundwater recharge. Wetlands with high evapo-
transpiration leave less water available as surface water to
recharge superficial groundwaters and to contribute to surface
water flow within a water basin, and their value for water conser-
vation is low. Wetlands with low evaporation rates conserve
water, making it available for longer periods of time into the dry
season and increasing the potential for groundwater recharge;
their value for water conservation is high. The ratings (mm H20
day-1) are as follows:

Low evapotranspiration rate (<4.0) = High Value;
Moderate evapotranspiration rate (4.0-5.6) = Medium Value; and
High evapotranspiration rate (>5.6) = Low Value.

4. Water Storage Capacity-The capacity for surface water storage is
related to two parameters of importance. The first is the normal
storage capacity during wet season when waters accumulate and are
stored, providing for potential recharge and holding water tables
higher. The second is storm water storage, providing flood pro-
tection. Thus this function has two aspects.
4a. Normal water storage capacity is the depth of normal water
during average rainfall years. The ratings are as follows:

High storage capacity (>0.5 m depth) = High Value;
Moderate storage capacity (0.2-0.5 m depth) = Medium Value; and
Low storage capacity (<0.2 m depth) = Low Value.

4b. Storm water storage. For short periods, much deeper inunda-
tion is possible for the purposes of storm water storage for
short duration. The depth and duration of storm water storage
are different for each type of wetland, depending on tolerance
of vegetation to flooding. The ratings are as follows:

High inundation potential (>2.0 m depth) = High Value;
Moderate inundation potential (1.0-1.9 m) = Medium Value; and
Low inundation potential (<1 m depth) = Low Value.









5. Recharge Potential-The potential for recharge of deep aquifiers
from wetland communities is relatively small; however, it is be-
lieved that recharge is an important function of wetlands as they
store water during the wet season and slowly recharge the super-
ficial groundwater systems during dryer periods. Thus, they con-
serve water and through their slow recharge functions maintain
higher superficial groundwater levels than would be possible with-
out the presence of wetland communities as an integral part of the
landscape mosaic. The ratings (m3.m-2.yr-1) are as
follows:

High recharge potential (>0.7) = High Value;
Moderate recharge potential (0.3-0.7) = Medium Value; and
Low recharge potential (<0.3) = Low Value.

Biological functions. Biological functions are those functions that
contribute to wildlife values either directly as in the case of food chain
support and habitat or indirectly as in the case of life form richness.
There are three such functions or values of importance for the ranking of
wetlands.
1. Wildlife Utilization-Utilization is measured as the species rich-
ness of wildlife that is characteristic of each community. It is
the summation of the number of amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and
birds commonly found in each wetland community. The ratings are
as follows:

High species richness (>80 species) = High Value;
Moderate species richness (50-79 species) = Medium Value; and
Low species richness (<50 species) = Low Value.

2. Life Form Richness--Life form is the physical structure or growth
habit of a plant. Height, branching pattern, and leaf shape are
major features contributing to form. )Five life forms and 18 sub-
forms are recognized. The forms represent obvious divisions of
vegetation: trees, shrubs, emergents, surface plants, and submerg-
ents (see Figure IV-1). Many studies have shown that differences
in life form are more important than differences in plant species
when analyzing wildlife habitat. Each wildlife species is adapted
primarily to one or a complex of life forms and, as a result,
wildlife diversity in an area is closely related to life form
diversity. The ratings are as follows:












LIFEFORMS


0-


0





-r-
II





DECIDE
TRE
SUBFORMS



LIFEFORMS


SURFACE SUBMERGENTS
PLANTS


TALL SHORT ROBUST NARROW-
MEADOW MEADOW EMERGENTS LEAVED
EMERGENTS EMERGENTS MARSH
EMERGENTS


SUBFORMS


BROAD- SUB-
LEAVED SHRUBS
MARSH FLOATING
EMERGENTS PLANTS
FLOATING-
LEAVED
PLANTS SUBMERGENTS


Figure IV-1.


Illustration of wetland plant lifeforms and subforms. The five
lifeforms are: trees, shrubs, emergents, surface plants, and sub-
mergents. Generally, the more lifeforms present in a community
the more suitable the community as habitat for wildlife (from
Gelet, F. C. 1981. Wildlife wetland evaluation model. In J. S.
Larson (ed.) A guide to important characteristics and values of
freshwater wetlands in the Northeast. Water Resources Research
Center, University of Mass. at Amherst. Publication #32,
reprint).


TREES


SHRUBS


VE LIVE DEAD TALL BUSHY LOW LOW AQUATIC DEAD
IUOUS EVERGREEN TREES SLENDER SHRUBS SPARSE COMPACT SHRUBS SHRUBS
ES TREES SHRUBS SHRUBS SHRUBS


EMERGENTS









High life form richness (4-5 forms) = High Value;
Moderate life form richness (3 forms) = Medium Value; and
Low life form richness (2 forms) = Low Value.

3. Gross Primary Production-The gross primary production of a com-
munity is a measure of the total sunlight "fixed" as plant matter
during the growing season that may become food for consumers of
all types. Since gross production is the first step in the food
chain, higher gross production leads to longer and more complex
the food chains. The ratings (grams organic matter/m2-day-1)
are as follows:

High gross production (>50.0) = High Value;
Moderate gross production (21-49) = Medium Value; and
Low gross production (<20) = Low Value.


Wetland Values

Given in Table IV-1 are data for the various parameters (functions)
associated with each wetland type. The basis for determination of high,
medium, and low values as given previously is the range of values for each
parameter given in Table IV-1. In other words, wetland values are derived
using data for wetland systems only and do not include values from other
ecological systems. The parameters chosen for the determination of value
are characteristic functions of wetland communities, and, as such, the
ranges used for the determination of high, medium, and low values should
reflect only the range of values that are characteristic of wetland com-
munities.
The data given in Table IV-1 is derived from a review of pertinent
literature. While much is known about some wetland and their characteris-
tic structure and function, there is still much to be learned about
others. The values given in Table IV-1 reflect the state of the knowledge
concerning wetland ecosystems. In the absence of measured values for some
parameters, estimates are given based on a qualitative understanding of
the structure and function of wetland communities. The notes to Table
IV-1 indicate which values are estimates and the basis for each.


Wetlands Ranking

Since the overall ranking of wetlands may or may not give sufficient
detail as to which aspects of each wetland type are critical or which









Table IV-1. Characteristic values for parameters of importance.


Mixed
Hydric Hardwood Cypress Wet Shallow Deep
Hammock Swamp Dome Bayhead Prairie Marsh Marsh


Water Quality Enhance-
ment, % Removal
Phorphorus
Nitrogen

Evapotranspiration
(mm/day)

Hydroperiod (days)12

High Water (m)13

Low Water (m)14

Maximum Level (m)15

Recharge Potential
(m3/m2/yr)

Peat Depth (m)23

Life Form Richness 24

Wildlife Utilization 25

Gross Primary Pro-
ductivity (g or-
ganic matter/m2/
day) during growing
season 26


40 1
40


4.8 8

100-150

0.10

0

0.30


0.1 16

0-0.2

3

86


90 2
98


5.8 9

200-250

0.60

0

1.50


0.1 17

0-0.5

4-5

71


98 3
92


3.8 9

250-300

0.50

0

1.50


0.84 18

0-0.5

4-5

56


85 4
85


3.0 10

200-250

0.30

0

1.00


0.6 19

0.5-3.0

4-5

32


40 5
60


5.4 11

150-200

0.50

0

1.50


0.37

0-1.5

2

74


98 6
97


5.6 11

365

0.70

0

2.00


20 0.68 21

0.5-3.0

3

84


52.1 25.3 20.0


30 7
30


5.6 11

365

1.00

0.20

2.00


0.1 22

0-1.0

3

84


23.9 19.6 54.5








iLow value assigned (in comparison to mixed hardwood swamp) since by comparison to mixed hardwood swamp this
community has little to no peat, shorter hydroperiod, and occurs along slopes.
2From Boyt (1976), p. 60.
3From Dierberg (1980), p. 244.
4A value slightly lower than cypress domes and hardwood swamp assigned to bayheads even though it is a deep
peat wetland, the hydroperiod and mean water depth could potentially reduce loading rate of effluent.
potential for water quality enhancement reduced by short hydroperiod and lack of significant depths of peat.
6From Zoltek et al. (1979), p. 249.
7Potential for water quality enhancement limited by riverine situation.
8Evapotranspiration in hydric hammock assumed to be greater than that in cypress dome, but less than that in
hardwood swamp.
9From Brown (1981), Table 13.
10Evapotranspiration in bayheads assumed to be less than that in cypress domes due to high reflectance of
incoming solar radiation by vegetation.
llBased on evapotranspiration values from Dolan (1978) (Table 9, p. 56) for freshwater marsh in central
Florida. It is assumed that all three nonforested wetlands would have similar evapotranspiration rates.
12Data for hydroperiod derived from information in Wharton et al. (1977) on average hydroperiods for Florida
wetland ecosystems. Ranges were established by the flooding tolerances of selected species normally found in
each wetland type (Taskey et al. 1977).
13Mean high water levels are based on community descriptions (see section III) and on field observations
made in Seminole County. Hydric hammocks tend to be saturated, sloped systems with standing water only during
intense storm events. Domes and bayheads will have water depths typically only as deep as the depressions
they occupy. Bayheads, being deep peat wetlands, are less deeply flooded than domes and the woody species in
bayheads are less tolerant of deep flooding. Hardwood swamps will have high water marks associated with
stream and river overflows onto the floodplain.
14Mean low water levels are zero for each system except for the deep marsh which will always have standing
water (by definition) except during extreme drought. Shallow marshes tend to drawdown to saturation while
each of the other systems may experience dry surface conditions during the year.
15Storm storage capacity ceiling of 2 meters was used because this depth is used to define the limit of wet-
land habitat with depths greater than 2 meters considered aquatic (Cowardin et al. 1979). Capacity is limited
to short-term storage, i.e., storm surge abatement, with an implied duration of up to 3 days. While domes and
hardwood swamps can handle high water for extended periods impoundmentss) the intention here is to describe
the high water mark for 10-year storm events. Hammocks tend to be on slopes and at higher elevations and less
likely to be under sheet water. Hydric hammock species also have lower flood tolerances. The values for
domes, swamp, and bayheads are based on field experience. It is assumed that marshes and prairies can receive
the maximum quantity of water without irreversible system impact.
16Hydric hammocks occur along slopes in zones of groundwater discharge, hence, have a low potential for
recharge.
17From Boyt (1976), Fig. 12, p. 55.
18From Brown et al. (1975), Vol. IV, Table F.2.7.








19Recharge potential in bayheads reduced (relative to cypress domes) because typically receive some inflow
of groundwater, hydroperiod is shorter than in cypress domes (83% of cypress domes).
20Hydroperiod in wet prairie is only 55% of that in marsh. An approximation to recharge then is 0.55 x
marsh recharge (0.68 m3/m2-yr) x 0.55) = 0.37 m3/m2.yr.
21From Brown et al. (1975), Vol. IV, p. F-86.
22Deep marshes in Seminole County are primarily associated with rivers and streams. Riverine systems are
more often groundwater discharge areas than groundwater recharge areas.
23Peat depths based on Table 11-19 and discussions (pp. 86-96) in Davis (1946).
24Life form richness based on community descriptions and field observations in Seminole County.
25Wildlife utilization based on information compiled in Appendix A.
26All figures derived from Brinson et al. (1981; Table 1). Deep marsh was presumed to be the same as
riverinee marsh." Shallow marsh was taken as an average of value given for "littoral pond" and "mixed species
marsh." Bayheads have low evapotranspiration, which correlates with gross primary productivity in terrestrial
systems and therefore was labeled with the lowest likely productivity. Hydric hammocks have the greatest
range of life forms and species which has a known correlation with gross primary productivity hence the high-
est likely figure. Bayheads have the lowest range of species utilization and also the lowest evapotranspira-
tion of wooded systems and therefore was given the lowest likely figure for wooded systems.









require special procedures for their protection, the ranking of each
parameter allows for designing protective measures for attributes rather
than general wetland types. In this way, development activities can be
tailored to each wetland community by assessing the impacts of each activ-
ity on each parameter. Adverse impacts on parameters with high value may
cause severe disruption of valuable wetland functions, while the same
impact on parameters with moderate or low values may not be of great
concern.
Combining the data for all parameters of each wetland with the ranges
discussed in the previous section, Table IV-2 is derived. The ranking
given in Table IV-2 ranks each wetland parameter on the basis of high (H),
medium (M), or low (L) value.


Impacts of Development Activities

The ranking of wetlands by physical and biological characteristics
allows for the comparison of one wetland with others and for the compari-
son of individual functional characteristics between wetland communities,
as in Table IV-2. Basing the overall value of a particular wetland type
on its "score" derived from Table IV-2 may not reflect special values for
individual functions that are important in maintaining a diverse high-
quality landscape mosaic or reflect functions that are of special impor-
tance because of the potential "services" performed.
Instead of ranking wetlands from most desirable to least desirable
with respect to preservation, the ranking can be used to indicate which
characteristics (functions) for each wetland are important and thus which
functions should be protected. In this manner, functions are protected no
matter what overall "value" the wetland may have. By listing potential
development activities and the parameters affected by such activities,
Table IV-3 is produced. Table IV-3 shows the impacts of development
activities on the nine biological and physical parameters of importance
and whether they have adverse effects (A), moderate effects (M), or nomin-
al effects (N). In addition, the impacts of activities in areas immedi-
ately adjacent to wetlands are also given.
The impacts of activities in areas adjacent to wetland communities
are of importance. Because of the nature of wetland communities as runoff
and seepage basins, and because water levels within wetlands can be nega-


_ __ __ _










Table IV-2. Correlation matrix of physical and biological functions with wetland type.


Mixed
Hydric Hardwood Cypress Wet Shallow Deep
Hammock Swamp Dome Bayhead Prairie Marsh Marsh


PHYSICAL FUNCTIONS

Water Quality Enhancement L H H M L H L

Hydroperiod L M M M L H H

Evapotranspiration M L H H M M M

Normal Water Storage L M M M M H H

Storm Storage Capacity L M M M M H H

Recharge Potential L L H M M M L

BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS

Wildlife Utilization H M M L M H H

Life Form Richness M H H H L M M

Gross Primary Pro-
ductivity H H M L M L H


H = High Value
M = Medium Value
L = Low Value








Table IV-3. Correlation matrix of activities with parameters.


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Production of Agri-
cultural or horti-
cultural crops

Harvesting of timber
and wood products

Cultivating naturally
occurring agric. or
hort. products

Scenic, historic, wild-
Life, or scientific
preserves

Maintenance (minor) or
emergency repair to
existing structures
or improved areas

Removing natural prod-
ucts of wetlands in
the process of recre.
or comm. fishing,
aquaculture, hunting
or trapping and cre-
ation and maint. of
temporary blinds

Cleared walking trails
having no structural
components

Timber catwalks and
docks <4 ft wide

Timber catwalks and
docks >4 ft wide

Establishing plantings

Substantial restoration
or reconstruction or
mod. of existing
structures


N A


M M


M N M N


N N


A N


A N



M N


N N


N N N N N N N N M N N N M N N N N


N N


N N


N N


M N


N N


N H


M N


N N


N N



N N


N M N


N M


N N N


M N


M N


M N


N M N


N M N M N M N M N M


M N M M M N M






















Table IV-3. (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction or mod. of
mosquito control or
"drainage" ditches

Operation of motorized
vehicles including
airboats

Expansion of existing
structures or im-
proved areas

Dredging of any kind other
than for mosquito control
or drainage ditches

Discharge of domestic, agri-
cultural, or industrial
waste (persuant to DER
permit) or the discharge
of storm runoff waters
from adjacent land

Bulkheading


N A M A M A


M M


N N N N A M N N N



M M M N M M M N M


M M


A M A M A


A M A M


N N N M N M N

A M N A A A A


A M


filling other than in con-
junction with construc-
tion of permitted struc-
tures or improved areas
and/or >10% of the wet-
land area within property A

Use of any pesticide
or herbicide A

Installation of utilities A

Filling <10% of wetland
within property in con-
junction with the con-
struction of permitted
structures M


M A


M N

N A


M M


A M


N M


M M M


M M M M


M A N A


M A M A

N M N M


M A M

N M N


M N


Clearing of vegetation in
conjunction with con-
struction of permitted
structures


M M M N M N M N


M N


N M

M M


M M M


M M M M







Table IV-3. (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction of permitted
structures M N M N M N M N M N M N M N M N M N

Installation of septic
tanks A M M H N N M N M N M N M N M N M N

Installation of storm
water retention
basih A M A M A N A M A M A N A N A N A N

Storage, use, or disposal
of any hazardous mater-
ial A A N N N N N N N N A A A A M M A M

Solid waste disposal A A A A A N A M A M A M A M A N A N


A = Adverse impact;
M = moderate impact;
N = nominal impact.









tively affected through drainage of surrounding areas, it is important to
establish a buffer zone around wetlands where development activities can
be controlled to insure that negative impacts are minimized. As an exam-
ple of the possible effects that activities in areas adjacent to wetland
communities can have, Wang (1978), in studies of the effects of drainage
canals on wetlands, has shown that drainage canals can lower surface water
levels at a distance of up to 1 mile in the surrounding landscape.
There are three classes of activities in adjacent areas to wetlands
that are of concern. The first class is activities that cause a lowering
of groundwater levels such as drainage canals and other deep excavations.
The second class is activities that alter surface water flows either by
impeding flows or by increasing the quantity of surface water flow.
Included in this class of activities are bulkheading, deposition of fill
or spoil, and paving that increases runoff. The third class is activities
that alter the quality of runoff waters. Included in this class are the
use of pesticides, herbicides, and other toxic chemicals, and land uses
that have the potential to significantly alter the quality of surface run-
off, such as industrial land uses.
The area adjacent to a wetland community (or transition zone from
wetland to upland) where development activities need to be controlled is
variable. It depends on the magnitude of the activity, the topography,
the type of wetland community affected, and on the particular set of sur-
face water and groundwater conditions present. The determination of areas
surrounding wetlands that should have some controls, by all rights, should
be on a case-by-case basis where extensive field measurements and surveys
are conducted. In the absence of sufficient information to delineate the
transition zone between wetland and upland the adjacent area will be
defined as the contiguous lands within 300 feet of the border (or ecotone)
or edge of standing water between wetland and upland communities and is
measured from the border (or ecotone) toward the upland community.
An explanation of each of the activities listed in Table IV-3 and the
associated impacts on each parameter follows.

Production of agricultural or horticultural crops. The production of
many agricultural crops within wetlands requires the alteration of water
levels and the removal of naturally occurring vegetation. In most cases,
water levels must be held at levels below the soil surface to facilitate


_ __ __


~









the growth of plants that are not accustomed to the wetland conditions.
In some cases, soils, because of their high organic matter content, are
most suitable for cultivation but oxidize away when exposed to air;
further drawdown of water levels is usually required.
The production of many agricultural crops within wetlands affects all
wetland parameters adversely except recharge potential. The ability for
water quality enhancement is lost since waters no longer flow through veg-
etation with subsequent uptake and removal of nutrients. The hydroperiod
is adversely affected when wetlands are drained. With the loss of vegeta-
tive cover, the drawdown of water, and the planting of agricultural crops
that have higher evapotranspiration rates, evapotranspiration is increas-
ed. Normal and storm water storage capacity is adversely affected, since
water levels must be held artificially low to accommodate agricultural
crops. With lowered water tables and loss of storage capacity, recharge
potential can be moderately reduced. All three biological parameters are
adversely affected with the loss of naturally occurring vegetation. Wild-
life that depend on the vegetation for food and cover must seek these
elsewhere. Both life form richness and gross primary production are lost
with the removal of vegetation.
The production of agricultural or horticultural crops in areas adja-
cent to wetlands has moderate effects upon water quality enhancement,
since runoff from agricultural areas may carry high nutrient loads; hydro-
period, since drainage in adjacent areas can both decrease and increase
normal and storm water runoff flows; and wildlife utilization because of
loss of habitat, noise, and alterations of hydroperiod associated with
drainage in surrounding lands.

Harvesting of timber and wood products. The harvesting of timber
from wetland communities usually has only moderate effects on parameters
of importance. Generally, adverse effects of machinery are relatively
temporary, unless major drainage and the building of tramways or elevated
roadways are done within the wetland. Wherever possible, the harvesting
of timber should be carried out with a minimum amount of heavy machinery,
and no drainage of the wetland should be allowed prior to harvesting. The
only communities that have enough commercially viable timber are cypress
wetlands, some hydric hammocks, and some mixed hardwood swamps. If selec-


__









tive harvesting is done within these systems, then enough vegetation
remains after harvesting to carry on important functions.
If clear-cutting of timber is done, effects are more adverse and
total disruption of functions is possible. Thus the effects in Table IV-3
are given for selective harvesting. Since selective harvesting leaves
much vegetation to carry out important functions, and since the disrup-
tions during the harvesting activity are only temporary, moderate effects
result for water quality enhancement, hydroperiod, and evapotranspiration;
other parameters show nominal impacts. Wildlife utilization is adversely
affected as wildlife for the most part leave the area after harvesting.
Life form richness is adversely affected with the cutting of dominant tree
species and the "trampling" of understory vegetation. Gross primary pro-
duction is adversely affected, since some vegetation is harvested and much
is trampled.
The harvesting of timber and wood products in areas adjacent to wet-
lands has moderate impacts on water quality enhancement, since vegetative
cover is removed and runoff is increased, carrying higher loads of sedi-
ments, organic matter, and nutrients; on hydroperiod, due in part to
increased runoff; and on wildlife utilization, since the removal of vege-
tation surrounding a wetland may cause disruption of feeding, breeding,
and other activities of wildlife that may utilize these adjacent areas.
Of particular importance when harvesting in adjacent areas is the
practice of pushing the debris left after clear-cutting into windowsw" or
piles that surround the wetland. These windows or piles, when pushed up
so as to surround wetland, inhibit surface water flows, altering hydroper-
iods and water storage, potential for recharge, and biological parameters.

Cultivating naturally occurring agricultural or horticultural prod-
ucts. The cultivation of naturally occurring vegetation requires that
most wetland parameters remain in an unaltered condition, since the vege-
tation to be cultivated is native to these conditions. However, water
quality enhancement may be moderately affected, as are hydroperiods, since
cultivation within wetlands by necessity may limit these two parameters.
Normal storage capacity is generally little affected, but storm storage
capacity may be limited, since the storage of storm water runoff may con-
flict with cultivation in wetlands. Soil matrix is generally unchanged;
thus, recharge potential is little affected. Evapotranspiration rates are









not affected. Wildlife utilization, richness of life forms, and gross
primary production are moderately affected, since some vegetation is
removed and frequent presence of people may interfere with wildlife use.
There are only nominal impacts associated with cultivating naturally
occurring agricultural or horticultural products in areas adjacent to wet-
land communities.

Scenic, historic, wildlife, or scientific preserves. The use of wet-
land communities for preserves has no adverse effects on parameters of
importance. However, there may be some moderate effects concerning storm
water storage capacity, since high water levels associated with storm
water storage may conflict with intended use as a preserve. Wildlife
utilization may be moderately affected due to the continual presence of
people or high volumes of people that are associated with scenic and his-
toric preserves.

Maintenance (minor) or emergency repair to existing structures or
improved areas. The presence of existing structures or improved areas
within a wetland community may have had adverse impacts, but these prev-
ious impacts are not considered here. However, any repairs or additions
to existing structures and their associated impacts are considered.
Minor repairs and/or emergency repairs are activities where use of
structures does not change and/or there is no addition to the structure or
improved area. Such activities will have little adverse impact beyond
those impacts already experienced due to the presence of the structure.
No effects are predicted with exception of the possible impact on wildlife
utilization. Wildlife use may be moderately affected if repairs require
construction equipment, since the noise levels associated with construc-
tion activity may result in wildlife leaving the area.

Removing natural products of wetlands in the process of recreational
or commercial fishing, aquaculture, hunting or trapping, and creation and
maintenance of temporary blinds. The use of wetland communities for the
above is regulated by other agencies of the federal, state, and local
governments, and, as such, generally has very little adverse impacts on
the parameters of importance. An exception is the use of the wetland com-
munity by desirable wildlife. Since these activities generally create
conditions that are not conducive to the long-term utilization of the com-
munity by wildlife, and since some wildlife are hunted, trapped, or










caught, communities that have very high wildlife values should be consid-
ered for protection, thus the wildlife utilization parameter has a moder-
ate impact associated with it.

Cleared walking trails having no structural components. Cleared
walking trails have a nominal impact on all parameters of wetland communi-
ties, since the area of cleared vegetation is minor when compared to the
total area of the wetland community. If filling, bulkheading, or the con-
struction of catwalks is necessary as part of a walking trail system, one
should reference these activities separately.

Timber catwalks and docks less than or equal to 4 feet wide. Most of
the impact associated with catwalks is a result of construction activities
disrupting wetland structure and function. The trampling of vegetation
and the disruption of normal wildlife activities are the most serious
impacts during construction. Once construction is complete, small cat-
walks have only nominal impact on overall structure and function. Moder-
ate impacts are shown for all three biological parameters, since construc-
tion activities may have impact causing wildlife to leave, altering life
forms present and reducing gross primary production through trampling and
shading.

Timber catwalks and docks greater than 4 feet wide. The potential
for negative impact increases as the size of catwalks increases. The lar-
ger a catwalk or dock the greater the construction activity. More equip-
ment, bigger foundation systems, heavier timbers, etc. all have the poten-
tial for greater disruption not only during the construction phase but
after. Thus large catwalks and docks impede water flow, having moderate
impact on water quality enhancement and evapotranspiration. The founda-
tion systems required to carry large catwalks and docks have greater
potential to impact recharge, since they must spread over greater area to
achieve bearing or have driven pilings, either of which will have negative
impact. Biological functions may be moderatley impacted from both con-
struction activities and the long-term presence of a large structure with-
in the habitat.

Establishing plantings. The planting of non-native wetland species
requires that most wetland parameters be changed to accommodate plant
species that cannot tolerate wet and/or submerged conditions. Thus, such
plantings have the potential to moderately affect all physical parameters


~ ~









except recharge potential. In most cases, the planting of non-wetland
species is accomplished by depositing fill material so that root systems
are above water levels. If the plantings are to be wetland species, then
the degree of impact is related to the areal extent of planting. Biologi-
cal parameters show moderate impact, since the activity may cause wildlife
to leave, alter life form richness, and change gross primary production.
One is referred to The Production of Agricultural or Horticultural Crops
for associated impacts when areal extent of plantings is large.

Substantial restoration or reconstruction or modification of existing
structures. The presence of existing structures of improved areas within
a wetland community may have had adverse impacts in the past, but these
previous impacts are not considered here. However, any major repairs or
modifications to existing structures and their associated impacts are con-
sidered.
Major repair, modification, or restoration is defined as a change in
use, or modifications, repairs, etc., that cost at least 10% of the physi-
cal value of the structure and do not increase the area of structure or
improved area. Such activities may have adverse impact beyond those
already experienced due to the presence of the existing structure. Since
the magnitude of impact is related to the degree of modification, restora-
tion, repair, or reconstruction and the eventual use of the structure, the
magnitude of impact on all parameters is designated as moderate. One is
directed to all specific activities associated with restoration, recon-
struction, or modification and the use or intended use for the determina-
tion of specific impacts.

Construction or modification of mosquito control or "drainage"
ditches. The construction of mosquito control and drainage ditches is
specifically intended to lower water levels within wetland systems.
Whether ditches are constructed within the wetland community or adjacent
to the wetland, the net result is the same but may differ in magnitude-
all physical parameters are adversely affected as is wildlife utilization
and gross primary production. Life form richness is moderately affected,
since drainage may result in succession to a more terrestrial community
with subsequent changes in types of life forms and gross primary produc-
tion.









A recent study (Odum and Brown 1976) suggests that the construction
of networks of ditches to drain wetlands and thus control mosquitoes may
in reality do just the opposite. Drainage does lower water tables, but
usually only during dryer times. Sufficient waters still accumulate in
adequate quantities to breed mosquitoes, but without high waters to insure
the survival of predator fish, populations of mosquitoes are larger. Not
only will drainage have the likely effect of increasing mosquito popula-
tions, but it will disrupt other valuable functions of wetlands as well.
The drainage of wetlands for any reason should be discouraged.
Drainage ditches constructed in areas adjacent to wetlands alter
quantity and quality of surface water flows, thus all physical parameters
except evapotranspiration are moderately affected. In addition wildlife
utilization may be moderately affected, since the presence of heavy equip-
ment and extensive alterations of physical parameters may drive wildlife
from the area.

Operation of motorized vehicles including airboats. The operation of
motorized vehicles within wetlands can have a major impact on wildlife,
depending on the frequency of occurrence. Continual disturbance caused by
high noise levels may drive wildlife from the area and interfere with nor-
mal breeding, feeding, and other activities. Even in areas adjacent to
wetlands, if noise generated by motorized vehicles is sufficient, wildlife
can be adversely affected. Oil contamination of waters from exhaust of
motorized boats can be significant, causing a degradation of water quality
(the potential for moderate effect) and stress to water fowl.
The airboat is a special threat to marsh structure and function as is
the all terrain vehicle (ATV) to all wetlands. Since airboats can tra-
verse many marsh wetlands, the effects on wildlife, life form richness,
and gross primary production can be severe in high traffic areas, and
ATV's driven within wetlands can have major impacts on biological param-
eters. However, the permitting of recreational activities may be especi-
ally difficult for local governments, and since the population of airboats
and ATV's has not reached such critical levels as to represent a substan-
tial threat to wetlands, the effects on life form richness and gross pri-
mary production remain nominal in the activity impact matrix.
The operation of motorized vehicles in areas adjacent to wetlands can
have moderate impact on wildlife, since high noise levels in these adja-









cent areas can interfere with normal breeding, feeding, and other activi-
ties.

Expansion of existing structures or improved areas. The presence of
existing structures may have had adverse impacts in the past, but these
previous impacts are not considered here. However, any expansion of
existing structures or improved areas is considered to be new construction
having present and possible future impacts, and thus those impacts are
considered here.
Expansion of existing structures is defined as any addition to struc-
ture that represents an increase in total enclosed floor space, roofed
floor space, uncovered decks, or slabs in excess of 10% of the existing
floor space or that cost a total of at least 10% of the physical value of
the existing structure, whichever is lower. The expansion of improved
areas is defined as any activity such as the deposition of fill material,
new road work, dredging, impounding, or the clearing of vegetation that
represents an increase in area of "improvement" of at least 10% of the
area presently in the "improved state."
Such activities may have adverse impact beyond those already experi-
enced because of the presence of the existing structure or improved area.
Since the magnitude of the impact is related to the present and intended
use of the structure or improved area and specific construction activi-
ties, the magnitude of impact is designated as moderate, and one is dir-
ected to the specific activity and/or intended use for the determination
of specific impacts.

Dredging of any kind other than for mosquito control or drainage
ditches. Dredging is defined as: to dig, gather, or pull out soil, organ-
ic matter, peat, or muck from the ground surface or below the ground sur-
face within a wetland or adjacent area. As already discussed under "con-
struction of mosquito control or drainage ditches," dredging of material
from a wetland community has an overall adverse impact on all parameters
by lowering water tables, interrupting surface water flows, reducing
potential recharge, and altering hydroperiod. In addition, depending on
the degree of dredging, wildlife, life form richness, and gross primary
production are adversely affected.


__ __ __ ___









Dredging in areas adjacent to wetlands has moderate impact on all
parameters, the degree of impact depending on the magnitude of the dredg-
ing activity, topography, and groundwater conditions present.

Discharge of domestic, agricultural, or industrial waste (persuant to
DER permit) or the discharge of storm runoff waters from adjacent land.
The discharge of sewage effluent into wetland communities has been tried
on an experimental basis for approximately 7 years. Generally, the test
results of this means of wastewater disposal are favorable. However, the
discharge of effluents into wetland communities is still considered to be
experimental by the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, and
special permits from DER are required (see section IV-3 of Implementation
Strategies). Further, it is felt that any discharges of sewage effluent
should be permitted by the local government agency as well, since there
are moderate impacts associated with such actions. All physical param-
eters except evapotranspiration are affected with the increase of water
levels due to the quantity of water released and the increased nutrient
load. Biological parameters are also affected, since increased nutrient
loading generally increases gross primary production, changes types of
life forms present, increases the utilization by wildlife, and may change
species of wildlife attracted to the wetland.
The discharge of wastes in areas adjacent to wetland has nominal
impact upon all parameters, unless the discharge requires extensive alter-
ation of the area in which case, one is directed to all associated activi-
ties for the determination of specific impacts.

Bulkheading. Bulkheading is defined as the construction of any
structure, partition, retaining wall, or earthen mound that interrupts,
resists, directs, or shuts off the natural flow of surface water. Bulk-
heads can be used to accomplish either of two tasks, impound water or
restrict the flow of water, and either task has an adverse impact on most
physical parameters of importance. The net result of bulkheading is an
alteration of the quantity of water flow and water storage, thus adversely
affecting water quality enhancement, hydroperiod, and storage capacities.
Impoundment results in too much water, lengthening hydroperiod, reducing
potential water quality enhancement, and affecting evapotranspiration.
Deeper water and longer hydroperiods will severely stress some wetland
vegetation not adapted to such conditions because each wetland community









type has very specific water depth requirements and hydroperiods. All
biological parameters are moderately impacted, since bulkheading will not
necessarily kill the community completely but only cause shifts in floris-
tic and wildlife species.
Bulkheads in areas adjacent to wetlands can reduce the total volume
of surface water flow received, having an adverse effect on hydroperiod
and storage capacity with moderate effects on water quality enhancement
and potential recharge. In the same manner, biological parameters are
moderately affected, since reduced surface water flows will cause shifts
in species composition to species that are more tolerant to the drier con-
ditions.

Filling other than in conjunction with construction of permitted
structures or improved areas and/or greater than 10% of wetland area with-
in property boundary. Filling is defined as the deposition of soil, rock,
riprap, organic matter, or any other material that results in raising the
ground surface elevation. The net result of filling wetlands is the
alteration of hydrologic conditions to such an extent as to create upland
conditions (i.e., dry land) where wetland conditions prevailed. Thus the
impact is adverse on most physical parameters. Water quality enhancement,
hydroperiod, storage capacity, and recharge potential are adversely
affected, since ground levels are raised and wetland vegetation is elimin-
ated. Moderate effects are shown for evapotranspiration, since in some
cases evapotranspiration may be increased due to changes in vegetation.
Adverse effects are shown for all biological parameters, since vegetation
is eliminated and most physical parameters have been changed.
Filling in areas adjacent to wetlands has moderate impact on all
physical parameters, since quality and quantity of surface water flows may
be altered. The impacts associated with filling in adjacent areas on bio-
logical parameters are shown to be nominal, since this activity may have
only indirect effects on these parameters.

Use of any pesticide or herbicide. Pesticides and herbicides have
negative impact on the biological components of wetland communities.
Wildlife is adversely affected from the actions of pesticides, and life
form richness and gross primary production are adversely affected from the
actions of herbicides. With the adverse effects of herbicides on plant
life, there is a corresponding adverse effect on evapotranspiration and









water quality enhancement. An adverse impact is shown for recharge poten-
tial, since the recharge of waters contaminated with pesticides and herbi-
cides represents a serious threat to health safety. Other parameters show
only nominal impacts.
The use of pesticides and herbicides in areas adjacent to wetlands
may have adverse to moderate impacts depending on the runoff characteris-
tics of these surrounding areas, thus impacts for water quality enhance-
ment, evapotranspiration, and biological parameters are given as moderate.

Installation of utilities. Utilities used in this context refer to
electrical transmission lines, sewage lines, storm water lines, potable
water supply lines, and associated access roads necessary for maintenance.
Generally, such utility systems in themselves cause moderate impact to
wetland communities. Transmission lines have minor structures that touch
the ground thus impact is relatively small. Other utility systems that
are below ground have impact during construction since there is much dig-
ging; however, once in place and vegetation and original contours reestab-
lished, little long-term impact is realized. The major problem with util-
ity systems traversing wetland communities is the access road that must
accompany the system. Usually fill material is dug directly from either
the wetland site or an adjacent site and deposited to develop a roadbed.
The digging and filling can cause major impact in itself and have long-
term impact through impeding surface water flows, impounding waters, and
altering hydroperiods. In this respect, the roads are much like bulk-
heads.
Water quality enhancement is adversely impacted, as is hydroperiod
and storage capacity. Evapotranspiration and recharge potential are mod-
erately affected, since vegetation is not severely altered, and the wet-
land can still act as a dry season recharge system.
All biological parameters are moderately impacted, since the roads
are like bulkheads, not killing the community completely, but causing
shifts in the floristic and wildlife composition of the wetland.
The roads that accompany utility systems and the system itself, when
constructed in areas adjacent to wetland communities, generally do not
impede surface water flows, thus have nominal impact. For the most part,
roads on these dryer lands do not act as bulkheads, since they are not
constructed specifically to surround a wetland community, and can be


_ __ __ __ ___ __ ____ __









designed and constructed with culverts of sufficient size and quantity to
insure that waters are not impounded or impeded.

Filling less than or equal to 10% of wetland area within property
boundary. Filling is defined as the deposition of soil, rock, riprap,
organic matter, or any other material that results in raising the ground
surface elevation.
If the area of fill is kept at 10% of the area of wetland, if every
precaution is taken to minimize disturbance of surrounding unaltered
areas, and if roads and filled areas are designed so as not to impede,
interrupt, or otherwise negatively affect surface water flows, impacts
associated with filling are moderate. The stress associated with a 10%
reduction in wetland community area will be moderate concerning all param-
eters as long as secondary impacts are minimized and great care is taken
to insure that there is no long-term degradation of a larger area of the
wet and.
Filling in areas adjacent to wetlands has moderate impact on all
physical parameters, since quality and quantity of surface water flows may
be altered. The impacts associated with filling in adjacent areas on bio-
logical parameters are nominal, since this activity may have only indirect
effects on these parameters.

Clearing of vegetation in conjunction with the construction of per-
mitted structures. The clearing of vegetation within wetland communities
where the area of clearing is not greater than 10% of the wetland within
the property boundaries will have moderate impacts on all parameters for
the community as a whole. A loss of 10% of the structure of any community
will have some impact on physical and biological parameters, but in the
long run the associated stress will not be of sufficient magnitude to dis-
rupt functional values completely. It is imperative, however, that the
area of clearing not be greater than 10% and that the sum of all disturbed
land, whether filled, cleared, or otherwise altered, not be greater than
10% of the wetland area within the property boundary.
Great care must be taken to insure that disruption of surrounding
unaltered vegetation be minimized and that the clearing operations do not
leave debris spoil or other matter that will negatively impact surface
water flows in surrounding areas of the wetland community.










Clearing in areas adjacent to wetlands will have moderate impact on
physical parameters, since the quality and quantity of surface water flows
may be altered. The impacts associated with clearing in adjacent areas
are nominal, since this activity may have only indirect effects on these
parameters.

Construction of permitted structures. Permitted structures are those
outlined in the Seminole County Land Development Code (SCLDC) and include
all structures listed as permitted uses under the following zoning classi-
fications:


AC Agricultural Development & Conservation District
A-I Agricultural
RC-1 Country Homes District
R-l, R-1B, and R-1BB Single-Family Dwelling District
R-1AAA, R-1AA, and R-1A Single-Family Dwelling District
R-2 One- and Two-Family Dwelling Districts
R-3 and R-3A Multiple-Family Dwelling District
R-4 Multiple-Family Dwelling District
RM-1 Single-Family Mobile Home Residential District
RM-2 Single-Family Mobile Home Park District
RM-3 Travel Trailer Park and Campsites
PUD Planned Unit Development
UC University Community District
PLI Public Lands and Institutions
RP Residential Professional
OP Office District
CN Restricted Neighborhood Commercial District
C-l Retail Commercial District
C-2 Retail Commercial District
C-3 General Commercial and Wholesale District
CS Convenience Commercial District
M-1A Very Light Industrial District


Art. # SCLDC

V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
XVIII
XIX
XX
XXI
XXII
XXIII
XXIV
XXV
XXVI
XXVII
XXVIII


The zoning classification M-l, Industrial District (Art XXIX, SCLDC),
is a conflicting use because of the magnitude of construction activity,
building and improved area size, and potential long-term adverse impacts


__ __ ___ __ __ __


_~i_~









associated with the types of industrial operations permitted under this
zoning classification.
The construction of permitted structures will have moderate impact on
all parameters, depending on the magnitude of construction activity.
Impacts may be greatly reduced if structures are elevated on pilings
rather than situated on filled lands. Associated improved areas that must
be filled are the main source of negative impact. Long-term impact as a
result of the maintenance of improved areas and runoff from lawns and
parking lots can be minimized if filled areas are kept to a minimum. At
no time should the area of filled roads, access drives, docks, catwalks,
decks, and all other disturbed areas be greater than 10% of the wetlands
within the property boundary.
The construction of permitted structures in areas adjacent to wet-
lands has nominal impact on all parameters. However, all other develop-
ment activities associated with construction may have moderate to adverse
impact, and each development activity should be consulted separately.

Installation of septic tanks. The use of septic tanks in wetlands
can have adverse impact on the ability of the wetland to enhance water
quality if concentrations of sewage are too large or if the vegetation and
drainage characteristics of the wetlands are altered to such an extent
that vegetation can no longer serve the function of nutrient uptake. This
can occur either by vegetation removal or by channelization of water flow
through the wetland. Other parameters are moderately affected, with the
degree of impact related to the size and density of septic tank.
Septic tanks in adjacent areas to wetlands have only nominal impact
upon wetland parameters, with the exception of water quality enhancement
and hydroperiod, which may be moderately affected because of increased
nutrient loads and water inputs.

Installation of storm water retention basins. Because of the
increased volume of water, and because of the loss of vegetation and the
dredging necessary to install such systems within wetlands, there is an
adverse impact on all parameters. Most wetland communities act as "nat-
ural" storm water retention areas and filters, but these functions can be
severely impaired if altered through dredging and/or channelization to
"improve" water holding capacity or flow.









The most advantageous system is to construct retention basins adja-
cent to wetlands to collect runoff waters and then release them slowly
to the receiving wetland. The impacts associated with the installation of
such storm water systems in adjacent lands are for the most part nominal
if runoff waters are not seriously degraded in quality such as those that
may come from some industrial and commercial land uses. Water quality
enhancement and hydroperiod are moderately affected with the increased
quantity of water and accompanying nutrients and other pollutants.

Storage, use, or disposal of any hazardous material. Because of the
nature of wetlands as interface systems between uplands and both surface
water and groundwater, the potential for serious impact resulting from
hazardous materials use, storage, or disposal within wetlands is very
great. Adverse impacts are shown for water quality enhancement, potential
recharge, wildlife, and gross primary production. Nominal effects are
shown for other physical parameters, since these activities do not impact
them directly. Life form richness is shown as moderately affected, since
such activities may cause loss of vegetation depending on the specific
activity and material involved.
The use, storage, and/or disposal of hazardous materials in areas
adjacent to wetlands is shown to have the same impacts as these same
activities within the wetland, since hazardous materials tend to have long
life and great mobility when released in the environment.

Solid waste disposal. The use of wetland communities and adjacent
areas for the disposal of solid wastes can have obvious adverse effects on
the structure and function of these communities. The deposition of poten-
tial hazardous material within or adjacent to wetlands, as discussed in
the previous activity, can have severe impact upon surface water and
groundwater systems. In addition, dredging for landfill purposes destroys
all wetland functions when done within the wetland, and can have adverse
impacts on physical parameters when done in adjacent areas. Lowered water
levels, loss of surface water supplies (in some cases), and increases in
surface water runoff (in other cases) all contribute to adverse impacts.
Since the materials deposited in solid waste disposal areas are not
entirely made up of hazardous materials, the impacts associated with the
use of adjacent areas as waste disposal sites are not as severe as men-
tioned concerning the disposal of hazardous materials; as a consequence,










moderate impacts are shown for recharge potential and wildlife utiliza-
tion. Moderate impacts are shown for normal and storm water storage
capacity, as the activities of dredging and filling in adjacent areas may
increase surface water runoff and/or decrease groundwater flows.


Development Activities and Wetland Compatibility

The compatibility matrices given in Tables IV-4a through IV-4g are
for each wetland community and indicate potential development activities
and whether they are compatible, incompatible, or compatible subject to
restrictions (compatible with permit) for each wetland parameter. This
information is drawn from the ranking matrix (Table IV-2) and based on the
likely impact of each development activity on the various functions as
given in Table IV-3.
In addition to effects associated with activities within wetlands,
the compatibility matrix (Tables IV-4a through IV-4g) lists the compati-
bility of activities in immediately adjacent or surrounding areas for each
wetland. Compatibility associated with adjacent areas rests with the
secondary effect an activity in these areas may have on the functions of
each wetland. For instance, dredging in areas adjacent to seepage wet-
lands like hydric hammocks or bayheads can negatively impact the amount
and quality of groundwater available, thus having a deleterious effect.
On the other hand, dredging in proximity to wetlands that receive little
groundwater inflow or surface sheet flow may not have such a negative
effect.
To determine which development activities are incompatible, compat-
ible, or compatible with restrictions, the values associated with each
wetland function affected are determined from the ranking matrix (Table
IV-2) and compared with effects in Table IV-3. High values that are
adversely affected are associated with incompatible uses, median values
are associated with compatible uses subject to restrictions, and low
values are associated with compatible uses.
There are nine combinations of values (high, moderate, and low) with
potential development impact (adverse, moderate, and nominal). The deter-
mination of compatibility with each of the biological and physical param-
eters is as follows:


I _


~























Table IV-4a. Compatibility matrix: DEEP MARSH.


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Production of Agri-
cultural or horti-
cultural crops

Harvesting of timber
and wood products

Cultivating naturally
occurring agric. or
hort. products

Scenic, historic, wild-
life, or scientific
preserves

Maintenance (minor) or
emergency repair to
existing structures
or improved areas

Removing natural prod-
ucts of wetlands in
the process of recre.
or comm. fishing,
aquaculture, hunting
or trapping and cre-
ation and maint. of
temporary blinds

Cleared walking trails
having no structural
components

Timber catwalks and
docks <4 ft wide

Timber catwalks and
docks >4 ft wide

Establishing plantings

Substantial restoration
or reconstruction or
mod. of existing
structures


CP CP C


C C CP CP CP


C C C C C


CP CP C


C I CP CP


C C CP C C C C C CP C C C CP C CP C CP


C C CP C C C C


C C


C C C C C


C C


C CP C


C C


C C C CP C C C C


C C


C CP


C C C

C C CP


C CP

C CP


C C


C C C C


C CP C CP


C C C CP C CP C CP


C CP C CP C C C CP C CP


C CP


C CP C CP C C C CP


C CP CP CP


C CP C CP C








Table IV-4a. Compatibility matrix: DEEP MARSH (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction or mod. of
mosquito control or
"drainage" ditches

Operation of motorized
vehicles including
airboats

Expansion of existing
structures or im-
proved areas


CP C


CP I C I CP


C C


C C CP CP CP


C CP


I CP CP


C C


CP CP C


C I CP CP


I C


CP C C C C


C CP CP CP


Dredging of any kind other
than for mosquito control
or drainage ditches CP

Discharge of domestic, agri-
cultural, or industrial
waste (persuant to DER
permit) or the discharge
of storm runoff waters
from adjacent land C

Bulkheading CP

Filling other than in con-
junction with construc-
tion of permitted struc-
tures or improved areas
and/or >10. of the wet-
land area within property CP

Use of any pesticide
or herbicide CP

Installation of utilities CP

Filling <01t of wetland
within property in con-
junction with the con-
struction of permitted
structures C


Clearing of vegetation in
conjunction with con-
struction of permitted
structures


P CP CP


C CP C C


I I CP C I


CP CP CP


C C C CP CP C


C I C CP


CP CP


CP CP CP


C C C CP C C C CP C CP C CP C


I I I C C CP CP CP CP CP CP


CP CP C


C CP C


I C


C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP C


C C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP


CP CP C


CP CP CP


C CP C CP C CP C





C CP C CP C CP C




C CP C CP C CP C


C CP C























Table IV-4a. Compatibility matrix: DEEP MARSH (continued).


Activity


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction of permitted
structures C C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C

Installation of septic
tanks CP C CP CP C C CP C CP C C C CP C CP C CP C

Installation of storm
water retention
basin CP C I CP CP C I CP I CP CP C I C CP C I C

Storage, use, or disposal
of any hazardous mater-
ial CP CP C C C C C C C C CP CP I I CP CP I CP

Solid waste disposal CP CP I I CP C I CP I CP CP C I CP CP C I C


C = Compatible;
CP = Compatible with permit; and
I = Incompatible.








Table IV-4b. Compatibility matrix: HARDWOOD SWAMP.


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Production of Agri-
cultural or horti-
cultural crops

Harvesting of timber
and wood products

Cultivating naturally
occurring agric. or
hort. products

Scenic, historic, wild-
life, or scientific
preserves

Maintenance (minor) or
emergency repair to
existing structures
or improved areas

Removing natural prod-
ucts of wetlands in
the process of recre.
or comm. fishing,
aquaculture, hunting
or trapping and cre-
ation and maint. of
temporary blinds

Cleared walking trails
having no structural
components

Timber catwalks and
docks <4 ft wide

Timber catwalks and
docks >4 ft wide


Establishing plantings CP


I CP CP CP CP


CP CP CP CP CP



CP C CP C C



C C C C C


C CP


C C



C C



C C


C CP C C C CP CP I


C C CP CP


C C CP C CP C CP C



C C CP C C C C C


C C C C C C C C C C CP C C C


C CP C


C C



C C


C C


C C

C CP


C CP


C C C


C CP C CP C CP C


C CP C CP C CP C

C CP C CP C CP C


Substantial restoration
or reconstruction or
mod. of existing
structures


C CP C CP C C C CP C CP C CP


CP C CP CP C























Table IV-4b. Compatibility matrix: HARDWOOD SWAMP (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperlod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction or mod. of
mosquito control or
"drainage" ditches

Operation of motorized
vehicles including
airboats

Expansion of existing
structures or im-
proved areas


CP CP CP CP


CP C C


CP CP CP CP


C CP CP CP CP CP


C C



C CP


C C


CP CP C


C CP CP CP


C C CP CP


C CP CP CP


C CP C


Dredging of any kind other
than for mosquito control
or drainage ditches

Discharge of domestic, agri-
cultural, or industrial
waste (persuant to DER
permit) or the discharge
of storm runoff waters
from adjacent land

Bulkheading


I CP CP CP CP


C CP CP CP CP CP


CP C CP C C C C


CP CP CP


Filling other than in con-
junction with construc-
tion of permitted struc-
tures or improved areas
and/or >10% of the wet-
land area within property I CP CP CP C


Use of any pesticide
or herbicide


Installation of utilities I


I CP


C CP


C CP CP CP CP







C CP CP CP CP


C CP


C C CP C CP C


C CP CP I CP I


C CP C CP C CP

C CP CP CP CP CP







C CP CP CP CP CP


C CP CP I CP I


C CP


C CP


C CP C


Filling (10% of wetland
within property in con-
junction with the con-
struction of permitted
structures

Clearing of vegetation in
conjunction with con-
struction of permitted
structures


CP CP CP CP C




CP CP CP CP C


C CP CP CP CP C




C CP CP CP CP C


C CCP C CP C




C CP C CP C CP C








Table IV-4b. Compatibility matrix: WRDWOOD SWAMP (continued).


Activity


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction of permitted
structures CP C CP C C C CP C CP C C C CP C CP C CP C

Installation of septic
tanks I CP CP CP C C CP C CP C C C CP C CP C CP C

Installation of storm
water retention
basin I CP CP CP C C CP CP CP CP C C CP C I C I C

Storage, use, or disposal
of any hazardous mater-
ial I I C C C C C C C C CP CP CP CP CP CP I CP

Solid waste disposal I I CP CP CP C CP CP CP CP CP C CP CP I C I C


C = Compatible;
CP = Compatible with permit; and
I = Incompatible.


Table IV- b. Compatibility matrix; HARDWOOD AHP (continued).
























Table IV-4c. Compatibility matrix: CYPRESS DOME.



Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Production of Agri-
cultural or horti-
cultural crops

Harvesting of timber
and wood products

Cultivating naturally
occurring agric. or
hort. products

Scenic, historic, wild-
life, or scientific
preserves

Maintenance (minor) or
emergency repair to
existing structures
or improved areas

Removing natural prod-
ucts of wetlands in
the process of recre.
or comm. fishing,
aquaculture, hunting
or trapping and cre-
ation and maint. of
temporary blinds

Cleared walking trails
having no structural
components

Timber catwalks and
docks <4 ft wide

Timber catwalks and
docks >4 ft wide


I CP CP CP I


CP CP CP CP CP



CP C CP C C


C CP C CP C CP C CP CP


C C C C C C C CP CP


C C CP C


C C


C CP


C CP


C CP C CP C CP


C CP C


C C C


C CP C C C C C


C C


C C C C C C CP C


C C C C C C C


C C C C C C CP C CP C CP C


C CP C C C C C CP C CP C CP C CP C


Establishing plantings CP


Substantial restoration
or reconstruction or
mod. of existing
structures


C CP C CP C CP


CP C CP CP CP


C CP C C C CP C CP C CP C





C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C


C CP








Table IV-4c. Compatibility matrix: CYPRESS DOME (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction or mod. of
mosquito control or
"drainage" ditches

Operation of motorized
vehicles including
airboats

Expansion of existing
structures or im-
proved areas

Dredging of any kind other
than for mosquito control
or drainage ditches

Discharge of domestic, agri-
cultural, or industrial
waste (persuant to DER
permit) or the discharge
of storm runoff waters
from adjacent land

Bulkheading


CP CP CP


CP C


CP CP CP


C C



CP CP


C CP CP CP CP I CP CP CP CP


C C


C CP


CP CP CP


CP CP CP I CP CP CP CP CP


CP C CP


C CP CP C



C CP CP CP


CP CP CP


C CP C



C C C



C CP C



CP CP CP


C C C C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP


CP CP CP CP C CP CP CP


CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP


Filling other than in con-
junction with construc-
tion of permitted struc-
tures or improved areas
and/or >10% of the wet-
land area within property I CP CP


CP CP CP CP CP CP


Use of any pesticide
or herbicide I

Installation of utilities I


CP C


CP CP CP


C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP


CP CP CP


C CP C CP


Filling (10% of wetland
within property in con-
junction with the con-
struction of permitted
structures

Clearing of vegetation in
conjunction with con-
struction of permitted
structures


CP CP CP




CP CP CP


CP CP CP CP CP CP


CP CP CP CP


CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP


C CP C CP C




C CP C CP C


CP CP


C CP























Table IV-4c. Compatibility matrix: CYPRESS DOME (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction of permitted
structures CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C

Installation of septic
tanks I CP CP CP C C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C

Installation of storm
water retention
basin I CP CP CP I C CP CP CP CP I C CP C I C CP C

Storage, use, or disposal
of any hazardous mater-
ial I I C C C C C C C C I I CP CP CP CP CP CP

Solid waste disposal I I CP CP I C CP CP CP CP I CP CP CP I C CP C


C = Compatible;
CP = Compatible with permit; and
I = Incompatible.








Table IV-4d. Compatibility matrix: BAYHEAD.


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Production of Agri-
cultural or horti-
cultural crops

Harvesting of timber
and wood products

Cultivating naturally
occurring agric. or
hort. products

Scenic, historic, wild-
life, or scientific
preserves

Maintenance (minor) or
emergency repair to
existing structures
or improved areas

Removing natural prod-
ucts of wetlands in
the process of recre.
or comm. fishing,
aquaculture, hunting
or trapping and cre-
ation and maint. of
temporary blinds

Cleared walking trails
having no structural
components

Timber catwalks and
docks <4 ft wide


CP CP CP


CP CP CP


CP I


CP CP


CP C CP C C


C C C


C CP


CP C CP C CP C


C C C C C


C CP C


C CP C C C C



C CP C C C C


C C


C CP C C


C C


C C C C C C C


C C C C C C


C C C C C


C C


C C


C C


C C CP


Timber catwalks and
docks >4 ft wide


C C CP


C C C C C CP


C C CP C


Establishing plantings CP


C CP C CP C CP


CP C C C C C CP


Substantial restoration
or reconstruction or
mod. of existing
structures


C CP C CP C CP C C C CP C


C CP


C CP


C C


C C


CP C CP CP CP























Table IV-4d. Compatibility matrix: BAYHEAD (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction or mod. of
mosquito control or
"drainage" ditches

Operation of motorized
vehicles including
airboats

Expansion of existing
structures or im-
proved areas

Dredging of any kind other
than for mosquito control
or drainage ditches

Discharge of domestic, agri-
cultural, or industrial
waste (persuant to DER
permit) or the discharge
of storm runoff waters
from adjacent land

Bulkheading


CP CP CP CP


C C


CP CP CP CP CP C CP



CP CP CP CP I CP CP







CP C CP C C C C


C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP


C CP C CP C


C C CP C C C C C


CP CP CP


C C C CP


CP CP CP CP CP CP







C CP C CP C C


CP CP CP CP CP C CP CP CP CP CP CP C


C CP


C C C



CP CP C







C C C


C CP CP


Filling other than in con-
junction with construc-
tion of permitted struc-
tures or improved areas
and/or >10% of the wet-
land area within property CP

Use of any pesticide
or herbicide CP

Installation of utilities CP

Filling (10% of wetland
within property in con-
junction with the con-
struction of permitted
structures CP


CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP


CP


CP C


C CP C CP C CP C CP


CP CP CP CP CP CP


C C CP CP CP


r CP


C I C CP C


C I CP CP C


C C CP


CP CP CP CP CP CP C CP C CP C


Clearing of vegetation in
conjunction with con-
struction of permitted
structures


CP CP CP CP CP CP CP


CP CP CP CP CP CP


C CP C CP C








Table IV-4d. Compatibility matrix: BAYHEAD (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction of permitted
structures CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C

Installation of septic
tanks CP CP CP CP C C CP C CP C CP C C C CP C C C

Installation of storm
water retention
basin CP CP CP CP I C CP CP CP CP CP C CP C I C CP C

Storage, use, or disposal
of any hazardous mater-
ial CP CP C C C C C C C C CP C C CP CP CP CP CP C

Solid waste disposal CP CP CP CP I C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP C I C CP C


C = Compatible;
CP = Compatible with permit; and
I = Incompatible.























Table IV-4e. Compatibility matrix: HYDRIC HAMMOCK.


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperlod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Production of Agri-
cultural or horti-
cultural crops

Harvesting of timber
and wood products

Cultivating naturally
occurring agric. or
hort. products

Scenic, historic, wild-
Life, or scientific
preserves

Maintenance (minor) or
emergency repair to
existing structures
or improved areas

Removing natural prod-
ucts of wetlands in
the process of recre.
or comm. fishing,
aquaculture, hunting
or trapping and cre-
ation and maint. of
temporary blinds

Cleared walking trails
having no structural
components

Timber catwalks and
docks <4 ft wide

Timber catwalks and
docks >4 ft wide

Establishing plantings

Substantial restoration
or reconstruction or
mod. of existing
structures


CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C


C C CP


C I CP CP


C I C


C C C I CP CP


C C C C C C C C C C CP


C C


C C









C C


C C


C C C C C


C C


C C




C C


C C


C CP


C CP C CP


C CP


C C


C CP C C


C C C CP C C


C C C C


C C C









C C C




C C C


C C C CP C CP C CP


C C C C C CP C CP C CP


C CP C C C C C





C CP C C C C C


C CP C CP C CP





C CP C CP C CP








Table IV-4e. Compatibility matrix: HYDRIC HAMMOCK (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction or mod. of
mosquito control or
"drainage" ditches

Operation of motorized
vehicles including
airboats


CP C CP


C C


C CP C CP


CP C CP


I CP CP


C C C C C I CP C


Expansion of existing
structures or im-
proved areas C

Dredging of any kind other
than for mosquito control
or drainage ditches CP

Discharge of domestic, agri-
cultural, or industrial
waste (persuant to DER
permit) or the discharge
of storm runoff waters
from adjacent land CP


Bulkheading


C C C CP C C



C CP C CP CP CP


C C CP CP CP


CP C CP


C C C C C C C C


CP C CP CP CP


C CP CP CP CP C


C CP C


CP CP CP


C CP C CP C CP C

C CP CP CP CP CP CP


Filling other than in con-
junction with construc-
tion of permitted struc-
tures or improved areas
and/or >10% of the wet-
land area within property CP

Use of any pesticide
or herbicide CP

Installation of utilities CP

Filling <10% of wetland
within property in con-
junction with the con-
struction of permitted
structures C


C CP


C


C CP CP C


C CP CP CP


C CP C CP


C C


C CP CP


C C


CP C CP C


CP C


C I

C CP


C C C CP


C CP C


CP CP CP I

C CP C CP


C CP


C CP


Clearing of vegetation in
conjunction with con-
struction of permitted
structures


C C C CP C CP C CP C


C CP CP C C























Table IV-4e. Compatibility matrix: HYDRIC HAMMOCK (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction of permitted
structures C C C C CP C C C C C C C CP CP CP C CP C

Installation of septic
tanks CP C C C C C C C C C C C CP C CP C CP C

Installation of storm
water retention
basin CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C I C CP C I C

Storage, use, or disposal
of any hazardous mater-
ial CP CP C C C C C C C C CP CP I I CP CP I CP

Solid waste disposal CP CP CP CP CP C CP C CP C CP C I CP CP C I C


C = Compatible;
CP = Compatible with permit; and
I = Incompatible.








Table IV-4f. Compatibility matrix: SHALLOW MARSH.


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Production of Agri-
cultural or horti-
cultural crops

Harvesting of timber
and wood products

Cultivating naturally
occurring agric. or
hort. products

Scenic, historic, wild-
life, or scientific
preserves

Maintenance (minor) or
emergency repair to
existing structures
or improved areas

Removing natural prod-
ucts of wetlands in
the process of recre.
or comm. fishing,
aquaculture, hunting
or trapping and cre-
ation and maint. of
temporary blinds

Cleared walking trails
having no structural
components

Timber catwalks and
docks <4 ft wide


CP CP


CP CP CP CP CP



CP C CP C C


C C


C C C


C C



C C


C C


C C


C I C CP C


C C CP C


C CP C


CP CP C CP


C I CP CP C CP C



C CP C CP C C C


C CP C C


C C C C C C C C C CP C


C CP


C C C C C


C C C C C C C


C C


C C C C C CP C CP


Timber catwalks and
docks >4 ft wide CP

Establishing plantings CP


C C C CP C


C CP


C CP


C CP C CP C CP C CP C C C CP


C CP


C C C


C CP C C C


Substantial restoration
or reconstruction or
mod. of existing
structures


CP C CP C CP C CP


CP C CP CP CP


C CP
























Table IV-4f. Compatibility matrix: SHALLOW MARSH (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction or mod. of
mosquito control or
"drainage" ditches

Operation of motorized
vehicles including
airboats

Expansion of existing
structures or im-
proved areas

Dredging of any kind other
than for mosquito control
or drainage ditches

Discharge of domestic, agri-
cultural, or industrial
waste (persuant to DER
permit) or the discharge
of storm runoff waters
from adjacent land

Bulkheading


Filling other than in con-
junction with construc-
tion of permitted struc-
tures or improved areas
and/or >10% of the wet-
land area within property I

Use of any pesticide
or herbicide I

Installation of utilities I


Filling (10% of wetland
within property in con-
junction with the con-
struction of permitted
structures

Clearing of vegetation in
conjunction with con-
struction of permitted
structures


CP CP


CP C C


CP CP CP CP CP


CP CP CP


CP C CP C


CP I


C I CP


CP CP CP


CP CP


C CP


C C C C C I CP C


C CP C CP CP CP


CP CP CP


C CP


I CP C I


CP CP CP


CP C C CP CP C

C I C CP C I


CP CP CP CP CP





CP CP CP CP CP


C CP


C CP CP CP


C C C


CP CP CP CP


C CP C CP


I CP CP CP CP CP CP


CP I CP CP CP I


C C C CP CP I


C CP C CP C


CP CP CP CP


C CP C CP C CP C


CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP





CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP


C CP C


C CP C C C








Table IV-4f. Compatibility matrix: SHALLOW MARSH (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction of permitted
structures CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C

Installation of septic
tanks I CP CP CP C C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C C C

Installation of storm
water retention
basin I CP I CP CP C I CP I CP CP C I C CP C CP C

Storage, use, or disposal
of any hazardous mater-
ial I I C C C C C C C C CP CP I I CP CP CP CP

Solid waste disposal I I I I CP C I CP I CP CP CP I CP CP C CP C


C = Compatible;
CP = Compatible with permit; and
I = Incompatible.
























Table IV-4g. Compatibility matrix: WET PRAIRIE.


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Production of Agri-
cultural or horti-
cultural crops

Harvesting of timber
and wood products

Cultivating naturally
occurring agric. or
hort. products

Scenic, historic, wild-
Life, or scientific
preserves

Maintenance (minor) or
emergency repair to
existing structures
or improved areas

Removing natural prod-
ucts of wetlands in
the process of recre.
or comm. fishing,
aquaculture, hunting
or trapping and cre-
ation and maint. of
temporary blinds

Cleared walking trails
having no structural
components

Timber catwalks and
docks <4 ft wide

Timber catwalks and
docks >4 ft wide

Establishing plantings

Substantial restoration
or reconstruction or
mod. of existing
structures


CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP CP CP


C C C



C C C


C C


C C C C


C CP



C C


C C



C C


C C C C


C C C C


C C C NA CP CP


C CP


C CP


C CP C C C CP


C CP




C CP


C C C C


C C CP C C C


C C C C


C C


C C C C C


C CP

C CP


C CP C C C CP C


C CP C CP C


C C

C CP


C CP


C CP C C C CP


C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C C C CP








Table IV-4g. Compatibility matrix: WET PRAIRIE (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction or mod. of
mosquito control or
"drainage" ditches

Operation of motorized
vehicles including
airboats

Expansion of existing
structures or im-
proved areas


CP C CP


C CP C CP CP CP C CP CCP CP CP C


C C


C C C C CP C CP C CP CP CP


C CP CP C



C CP CP C


C CP


C C C


C CP


Dredging of any kind other
than for mosquito control
or drainage ditches CP

Discharge of domestic, agri-
cultural, or industrial
waste (persuant to DER
permit) or the discharge
of storm runoff waters
from adjacent land C


Bulkheading


C CP


C C


CP C CP CP CP


Filling other than in con-
junction with construc-
tion of permitted struc-
tures or improved areas
and/or >10% of the wet-
land area within property CP


C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP


C CP


C CP C CP


C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP C


C CP C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP


Use of any pesticide
or herbicide CP C C C CP CP C

Installation of utilities CP C CP C CP C CP


Filling (100 of wetland
within property in con-
junction with the con-
struction of permitted
structures

Clearing of vegetation in
conjunction with con-
struction of permitted
structures


C C




C C


C CP CP







C CP C

C CP CP


C CP C CP C


C C CP CP CP CP CP

CP C CP C CP C C


C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP




C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP


C CP CP

C CP C


C C C CP


C CP C























Table IV-4g. Compatibility matrix: WET PRAIRIE (continued).


Water Quality Evapotrans- Normal Storage Storm Storage Recharge Wildlife Life Form Gross Primary
Enhancement Hydroperiod piration Capacity Capacity Potential Utilization Richness Production

Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj. Adj.
Activity Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area Within Area


Construction of permitted
structures C C C C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C CP C

Installation of septic
tanks CP C C C C C CP C CP C CP C CP C C C CP C

Installation of storm
water retention
basin CP C CP C CP C CP CP CP CP CP C CP C CP C CP C

Storage, use, or disposal
of any hazardous mater-
ial CP CP C C C C C C C C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP

Solid waste disposal CP CP CP CP CP C CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP C CP C


C = Compatible;
CP = Compatible with permit; and
I = Incompatible.












Value of Parameter Potential Impact Compatibility
(Found in Table IV-2) (Found in Table IV-3) (Found in Table IV-4)


High Adverse Incompatible (I)
Moderate Compatible with Permit (CP)
Nominal Compatible (C)

Moderate Adverse Compatible with Permit (CP)
Moderate Compatible with Permit (CP)
Nominal Compatible (C)

Low Adverse Compatible with Permit (CP)
Moderate Compatible (C)
Nominal Compatible (C)



Use Guideline Matrix: Determination of
Activity/Parameter Compatibility

The Use Guideline Matrix (Table IV-5) lists the compatibility of
potential development activities with respect to each wetland type. The
table represents a summation of the compatibilities of activities with
each wetland parameter from Tables IV-4a through IV-4g for activities that
occur within wetlands and activities that occur adjacent to wetlands.
The determination of compatibility of development activities within
wetland types is based on the summation of compatibilities for parameters
for each wetland and is as follows:
1. Incompatible Activity ()--At least two activities/parameters des-
ignated as incompatible.
2. Compatible with Permit (CP)--One incompatible activity or a major-
ity of activities/parameters having compatible with permit (CP)
designation. (Since there are nine parameters, a majority will
constitute at least five parameters.)
3. Compatible Activity (C)-A majority of activities/parameters hav-
ing a compatible designation and no incompatible activities/param-
eters.
The determination of compatibility of development activities in areas
adjacent to wetlands is based on the summation of compatibilities for
parameters affected by activities in adjacent areas and is as follows:


__ 1























Table IV-5. Use guideline matrix.


Deep Marsh Mixed Hardwood Swamp Cypress Domes Bayheads Hydric Hammock Shallow Marsh Wet Prairie

Activity Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area


Production of Agri-
cultural or horti-
cultural crops

Harvesting of timber
and wood products

Cultivating naturally
occurring agric. or
hort. products

Scenic, historic, wild-
life, or scientific
preserves

Maintenance (minor) or
emergency repair to
existing structures
or improved areas

Removing natural prod-
ucts of wetlands in
the process of recre.
or comm. fishing,
aquaculture, hunting
or trapping and cre-
ation and maint. of
temporary blinds

Cleared walking trails
having no structural
components

Timber catwalks and
docks <4 ft wide

Timber catwalks and
docks >4 ft wide

Establishing plantings

Substantial restoration
or reconstruction or
mod. of existing
structures and im-
proved areas


C CP C


C CP


CP C CP C


NA C


C C CP


C C


C C


C C C C C C C C C C C C C C


C C



C C


C C


C C C

C CP C


C C


C C


C C C


C C

CP C


C C

CP C


CP C CP C CP C


CP C CP







Table IV-5. Use guideline matrix (continued).


Deep Harsh Mixed Hardwood Swamp Cypress Domes Bayheads Hydric Hammock Shallow Harsh Wet Prairie

Activity Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area


Construction or mod. of
mosquito control or
"drainage" ditches

Operation of motorized
vehicles including
airboats

Expansion of existing
structures or im-
proved areas

Dredging of any kind other
than for mosquito control
or drainage ditches


I CP I CP


CP CP CP


C C


I CP CP C



CP C C C


CP C CP C CP C C C CP C CP C


I CP I CP I CP I CP


CP CP CP


Discharge of domestic, agri-
cultural, or industrial
waste (persuant to DER
permit) or the discharge
of storm runoff waters
from adjacent land CP

Bulkheading I

Filling other than in con-
junction with construc-
tion of permitted struc-
tures or improved areas
and/or >10% of the wet-
land area within property I

Use of any pesticide
or herbicide I

Installation of utilities I

Filling <10% of wetland
within property in con-
junction with the con-
struction of permitted
structures CP

Clearing of vegetation in
conjunction with con-
struction of permitted
structures CP


C

I


C CP

CP CP


CP CP CP


I CP

CP C


C I*

CP CP


CP C


CP C C

I I CP


CP CP C


I CP

I C


CP C CP C CP C C


CP C


C CP C CP C CP C C


CP C CP C























Table IV-5. Use guideline matrix (continued).


Deep Marsh Mixed Hardwood Swamp Cypress Domes Bayheads Hydric Hammock Shallow Marsh Wet Prairie

Activity Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area Within Adj. Area


Construction of permitted
structures CP C CP C CP C CP C C C CP C CP C

Installation of septic
tanks CP C CP C CP C CP C C C CP C CP C

Installation of storm
water retention
basin I C I C I C I C I C I C CP C

Storage, use, or disposal
of any hazardous mater-
ial I I I I I I CP CP I CP I I CP CP

Solid waste disposal I CP I CP I CP I CP I C I I CP CP


C = Compatible;
CP = Compatible with permit; and
I = Incompatible.


Criteria: >2 I:1; 1 I:CP; >5 CP:CP; >5 C:C (unless 1 or more I).


*I = Five of the six physical parameters for this wetland are "low" (see Table IV-2). The discharge of effluent or excess surface runoff requires that physical parameters be
"moderate" or "high." With the large volume of water associated with the discharge of effluent, and high nutrient load, this wetland community would be under considerable
stress. With low water quality enhancement potential, few nutrients are taken up, requiring a much greater area for "treatment." With low hydroperiod, storage capacity, and
recharge potential, this community cannot effectively accept the large volume of water associated with waste discharge, or excess surface runoff.









1. Incompatible Activity--At least two activities/parameters desig-
nated as incompatible.
2. Compatible with Permit-One incompatible or a majority of activi-
ties/parameters having an incompatible or compatible with permit
designation.
3. Compatible Activity-A majority of activities/parameters having a
compatible designation.
The Use Guideline Matrix (Table IV-5) lists development activities
and whether these activities are compatible, compatible with permit, or
incompatible with each wetland type. Incompatible (I) uses are those uses
that adversely affect at least two physical or biological functions. Such
uses disrupt the normal functioning of wetland communities and can cause
increased pollution of surface water and groundwater, increased flood
risks, destruction of fish and wildlife habitat, and increased erosion and
subsequent downstream sedimentation. Development activities that are
designated as compatible (C) affect physical and biological functions in a
nominal manner, and no permits are required. Those development activities
that are designated as compatible with permit (CP) have the potential to
affect physical and biological functions in an adverse manner if these
activities are not subject to constraints that will limit their impact.
The Use Guideline Matrix should be consulted for each activity that
is associated with a potential development. For instance, if a proposed
development is to build a road through a wetland, material for the roadbed
will be dredged from the wetland, and channels will be dug to facilitate
storm water runoff, then "Dredging," "Filling," and "Drainage Ditches"
should be consulted separately to determine the overall compatibility of
the proposed road with the wetland affected.
If the designation for the proposed activity is incompatible (I), the
activity should not occur within the wetland in question. If the designa-
tion is compatible (C), the proposed activity may proceed. If the
designation is compatible with permit (CP), the proposed activity may
proceed subject to the issuance of a wetlands development permit. The
issuance of a wetlands development permit is subject to the proposed
development meeting a set of performance criteria. Each activity that is
designated as compatible with permit has a set of performance criteria
that is designed to minimize potential adverse impacts upon the wetland in
question.




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