• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The early Britons and their Saxon...
 Our Danish and Norman kings
 The Plantagenet kings of Engla...
 The houses of Lancaster and...
 The Tudor monarchs of Great...
 Our sovereigns from James I. to...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Group Title: Cassell's family picture books
Title: The Picture history of England
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00016220/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Picture history of England in forty beautiful engravings ; accompanied by an historical summary, suited to the capacities of youth
Series Title: Cassell's family picture books
Alternate Title: Pictures in English history
Physical Description: 96 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pearson, G. ( George ) ( Engraver )
Cassell, Petter & Galpin ( Publisher )
Publisher: Cassell, Petter, and Galpin
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1869
Copyright Date: 1869
 Subjects
Subject: History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Printed boards (Binding) -- 1869   ( rbbin )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1869   ( local )
Bldn -- 1869
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Printed boards (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
General Note: Baldwin Library copy: some illustrations are hand-colored, probably by young owner.
General Note: Some illustrations engraved by Pearson.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00016220
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA8751
notis - ALG4826
oclc - 50034728
alephbibnum - 002224560

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Frontispiece
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
    The early Britons and their Saxon kings
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Our Danish and Norman kings
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    The Plantagenet kings of England
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    The houses of Lancaster and York
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    The Tudor monarchs of Great Britain
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Our sovereigns from James I. to Victoria
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Back Matter
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Back Cover
        Page 99
        Page 100
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THE


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THE EARLY BRITONS AND THEIR SAXON
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OUR DANISH AND NORMAN KINGS.

II I.

THE PLANTAGENET KINGS OF ENGLAND




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- TIlE TUDORI MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN.

V I.

OUR SOVEREIGNS FROM JAMES I. TO
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.








PAGE
THE DRUIDS INCITING THE BRITONS TO OPPOSE THE LANDING OF TIE OMANS 3
THE LANDING OF JULIUS CAESAR 5
BOADICEA'S BATTLE WITH THE ROMANS 7
SAXON LEADERS AND ENGLISH KING 9
ALFRED THE GREAT. 10
KING ALFRED IN THE COTTAGE 11
EDGAR TIE PACIFIC ROWED DOWN THE DEE BY EIGHT PRINCES .. 13
ASSASSINATION OF EDWARD THE MARTYR. 15
CANUTE REPROVING HIS COURTIERS 19
THE NORMAN THANKSGIVING AFTER THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS. 21
WILLIAM I. AND HIS SON ROBERT 23
RUFUS AND THE SOLDIER 25
DEATH OF WILLIAM RUFUS. 27
SHIPWRECK OF PRINCE WILLIAM, SON OF HENRY I. 29
FLIGHT OF MATILDA FROM OXFORD 31
PASSAGE OF A BECKET THROUGH FRANCE. 35
JOHN BEGGING FORGIVENESS OF RICHARD. 37
HENRY III. AND THE BARONS 39
FRENCH AND ENGLISH CAVALRY IN THE PASSAGE OF THE SOME 41
QUEEN PHIILIPPA INTERCEDING FOR THE BURGESSES OF CALAIS. 45
SURRENDER OF KING JOHN OF FRANCE .. 47
EXECUTION OF THE ARCIIISIHOP OF YORK. 51
HENRY V. AND DE HELLY AT AGINCOURT 53
RECEPTION OF SIGISMUND 55
FUNERAL PROCESSION OF HENRY V. 7
DEATH OF TIE EARL OF SHREWSBURY 59
QUEEN MARGARET AND THE ROBBER OF HEXIIAM .
TYRRELL VIEWING THE MURDERED PRINCES .63 4








viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
AGE

BATTLE OF SPURS 67
SURRENDER OF FRANCIS I. AT PAVIA 69
ARREST OF ANNE BOLEYN 71
EDWARD VI. ENTERING LONDON 73
QUEEN ELIZABETH ACKNOWLEDGED BY THE BISHOPS 7
SURRENDER OF MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS, AT CARBERRY HILL 77
QUEEN ELIZABETH KNIGHTING DRAKE 79
CROMWELL REFUSING TO ACCEPT THE CROWN .. 83
LANDING OF WILLIAM . 87
ERECTING THE STANDARD OF THE YOUNG PRETENDER 89
DEATH OF NELSON 93
CHARGE OF rfIE LIFE-GUARDS AT WATELOO 95













THE EARLY BRITONS AND THEIR


SAXON KINGS.






EFORE its invasion by the Romans, Britain was very
little known to the rest of Europe. Merchants from
France-then called Gaul-sometimes crossed the
Channel for trading purposes; and it is said that
the pearls which they procured on our coasts first
tempted Julius Caesar to come over and take possession of
it for his own Romans, who were a very mighty people
indeed.
Casar expected an easy conquest, for the Britons, in his days,
were little better than savages. They lived in miserable huts,
feeding on the milk of their flocks, and on beasts taken by hunting,
whose shaggy skins served for such slender covering of their bodies as
they cared to have. It was very little, for their sinewy arms and legs
were left bare, and painted blue, by way of ornament. They wore
their hair long, hanging down upon the back, but cut off their beards,
with the exception of that which grew upon the upper lip. In fight,
they were terribly fierce fellows, not only spearing their enemies with
great dexterity, but driving in among them with war chariots, whose
[1 3
1






THE EARLY BRITONS AND THEIR SAXON KINGS.


axles being armed with short, stout scythes, cut right and left
in the most dreadful manner. They were, of course, heathens;
and one of their religious ceremonies consisted in the sacrifice of
human beings.
Their priests were called Druids, and notwithstanding the
dreadful sacrifices they offered, they were acquainted with a vast
amount of knowledge, and acted both as the instructors and judges
of the people. They formed a distinct community, living in the
remote depths of the forests, where they celebrated their gloomy rites,
and instructed the young men who were to become priests. Their
temples were not like our churches, but were constructed of huge
stones, set up in the recesses of the mountains or in the open plains.
The most remarkable of the Druid temples in England are those of
Stonehenge and of Abury, the former consisting of no less than one
hundred and thirty-nine enormous stones.
The cities of the ancient Britons were formed by enclosing a
number of their rude huts within a deep ditch, as a means of defence.
They also constructed fortified camps of stones, without mortar or
cement, yet so strongly built that their remains exist to this day
But though they were strong and brave, they were not a united
people. They consisted of a great number of tribes, who were nearly
always quarrelling and fighting amongst themselves. The people, in
short, were as savage as the wilds in which they dwelt.
Such were our British ancestors, and such were the rude people
against whom the highly-disciplined legions of Rome were now to
turn their arms.
This invasion by the Romans took place fifty-five years before the
birth of Christ. Caesar assembled a fleet of eighty vessels on the
French coast, and filling them with his soldiers, crossed the Channel in
the night-time. The landing took place next day near Dover, where
1[ 2]









THE DRUIDS AND THEIR TEMPLES.








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THE DRUIDS INCITING TIE BRITONS TO OPPOSE TIE LANDING OF THE ROMANS.


[3


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THE EARLY BRITONS AND THEIR SAXON KINGS.


the water was too shallow to admit of his war-galleys discharging
their freight upon the beach itself; but a standard-bearer, seizing the
Roman eagle, sprang with it into the sea, bidding his comrades
follow him. These heavily-armed men dashed in after their leader,
and, plunging and scrambling through the surf, flung themselves
furiously upon the Britons, who, with clubs and spears, and such rude
weapons, clustered upon the cliffs to oppose their landing. Both fought
well, but the Britons were at last driven back; and thus the Romans
first planted their mailed feet upon our shores, centuries elapsing
before they, too, in their turn, were forced to give way to others.
They had not quiet possession, however. The Britons, though
broken, were not subdued; and they had some brave, patriotic spirits
among them, who, from time to time, struggled to throw off this
foreign yoke. One of their most eminent leaders against the world-
conquering Romans was a woman !
Boadicea, our ancient British heroine, was the widow of one
of the many chiefs, or kings, who divided the island of Britain among
them. Her husband was called King of the Iceni; and when he
died, by way of preserving some portion of his little kingdom to his
daughters, he divided it between them and the Roman emperor,
Nero. The Roman governor, however, not content with a joint
heirship, seized the whole; and, when the widowed Boadicea pro-
tested against this injustice, he ordered her to be brutally whipped
like a slave, and inflicted other indignities upon the daughters for
whom she pleaded.
Such outrages were not to be borne. The whole nation flew to
arms, making common cause against their oppressors; and Boadicea, a
beautiful woman, with all the daring of a man, was soon at the head of
two hundred and eighty thousand savage warriors. The Romans
went down in all directions before the headlong onslaught of this
[4]













THE INVASION BY JULIUS CAESAR.


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THE EARLY BRITONS AND THEIR SAXON KINGS.


determined band. At length they summoned fresh forces, and a
decisive combat took place between the two. On this occasion,
Boadicea, appearing among her troops in her war chariot, exhorted
them to avenge her wrongs and their own, assuring them that that
day she herself would either die or be free.
The Britons were brave and infuriate; but they could not
stand before the trained veterans now opposed to them. They were
defeated with dreadful slaughter; and Boadicea, poor wretched
woman, put an end to her life by taking poison. That was wrong;
but, as she was a heathen, she did not know this.
The Romans were now masters of Britain. But they, too, in
time, were compelled to yield their places to others; and the last of
them departed, after they had been on British soil rather more than
four hundred years. This was about the year 448.
The Britons were not particularly pleased to lose them, for their
neighbours in the extreme north of the island, Scotland, with whom
they had never had any intercourse, were becoming very trouble-
some to them, by frequently making fierce incursions into the south.
They used to sail over the Frith of Forth in small boats of basket-
work, covered with leather, to make them float; and were, to the
full, as wild and uncivilised as the Britons were before their four
centuries spent side by side with the Romans. Kindly feelings had
sprung up between the Britons and their conquerors; and, in taking
their last leave of the island, the latter had done what they could to
assist in its defence against that northern horde. But it was not
enough; and, in their distress, the Britons made overtures to a very
warlike German people, called Saxons, to come and help them against
those murderous Picts and Scots who were pouring into their *
country.
There were two valiant Saxon brothers, named Hengist and
[6]









































































BOADICEAS BATTLE WITH THE ROMANS.
c i7







THE EARLY BRITONS AND THEIR SAXON KINGS.

Horsa, to whom this appeal of the harassed Britons was made.
Nothing loth, they accepted the invitation, bringing over with them
fifteen hundred of their followers. The strangers uniting with the
Britons soon drove the Picts and Scots back again to their own
savage country. But it is rather dangerous to ask very powerful
neighbours to take up your quarrels. The Saxons liked what they
saw of our island so well, that they began to come over by tribes and
swarms, and formed settlements of their own; until, before long,
they got almost the whole of Britain into their power ; expelling and
murdering its native population with great ferocity. Wales was the
place of retreat of such as were left, and there the Britons held
their own.
About the year 560 these Saxons, who were savage idolaters,
were made Christianaby the teaching of St. Augustine. The Pope-
that is, the Bishop of Rome-sent him on this good errand; and
that which moved him to do so was, it is said, his being struck with
the beauty of some Saxon children whom he saw in the slave-market
at Rome, and touched with pity when he was told that such lovely
creatures had never heard of the God who had made them.
The various little Saxon states were formed into one kingdom
under Egbert, in the year 827. He was the first King of England.
The most distinguished of this line of Saxon kings was he whom
we call Alfred the Great. Before he came to the throne, in the year
871, the kingdom had been dreadfully harassed by the Danes, a
fierce, piratical people, from Denmark and Norway; and Alfred, as
his brother's general, had fought some very successful battles against
them. When he became king himself, he was 'so hardly pressed by
them, that there was nothing but fighting for him; he fought eight
pitched battles in the course of one year. Numbers, however, over-
powered valour; and at length the young king was so thoroughly
[8]















LANDING OF THE SAXONS.


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THE EARLY BRITONS AND THEIR SAXON KINGS.


beaten, that, with his people dispersed and flying in all directions,
there was nothing for him but flight and concealment also. He
wandered about in various places, and in various disguises. On one
occasion he took shelter with a farm servant of his own, who tended
cattle, remaining in his hut several days. Fearful for the safety of


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ALFilEDl THE GREi1AT.


his royal guest, the man would not tell even his wife who that
meanly-clad fellow was, that lounged about so strangely. So, one
day the good wife, tired, no doubt, of seeing him idling, as she
thought it (for he was only shaping a bow and some arrows), rather
sharply bade him look to the baking of some bread, which, according
[ 30 ]







THE REIGN OF ALFRED THE GREAT.


to the custom of the times, was placed upon hot coals on the hearth;
and, having set him his work, she departed to look after her own.


KING ALFRED IN THE COTTAGE.


Oppressed by the cares of a ruined kingdom, poor Alfred, as may be
imagined, thought no more about the cakes entrusted to his care;
so that, when the woman returned, she found them burned to a
[ 11 ]






TIE EARLY BRITONS AND THE1R SAXON KINGS.


cinder. And a pretty scolding the monarch got, for not attending
better to that herdman's bake-stove !
Alfred was one of the most wonderful men either of that time or
any other. He succeeded in ridding his kingdom of the Danes, in so
far as they were enemies. Some of them he permitted to settle in
his dominions on condition of their becoming Christians; for he
thought that, if such daring fellows could be tamed down, they might
become useful and brave subjects; and these he treated with great
kindness and favour.
The ravages made by long warfare in England were repaired
with great zeal and address by this good king. Having built a large
fleet to protect his shores from fresh incursions, he gave himself up to
the instruction and improved government of his people; and when
he came to his grave-too early, for he was only fifty-two-there was
no sovereign throughout Europe more admired, respected, and
beloved than he. In an old English chronicle, the epithet affixed to
the name of Alfred is that of The Truth-teller."
Alfred was succeeded in the throne which he had filled so
worthily by his second son, Edward. Other princes of the Saxon
line followed him, and were all, like the illustrious Alfred, sadly
tormented by the barbarous Danes. There needs not to make out a
catalogue of their names: fighting and quarreling make up the
history of that period. So much so was this the case, that one of
these kings is distinguished from the rest by the name of Edgar the
Peaceable." He was the younger brother of the preceding king, who
from his complexion, was called Edwy the Fair."
It has been said that the best Peace Society is a large standing
army; and here lies the secret of Edgar's quiet reign. He kept up
so great an army and so powerful a fleet, that the Danes dared not
attack him.
[ 12]






SUBJUGATION OF THE WELSH PRINCES.


The freedom from foreign enemies which he enjoyed enabled him
the more successfully to contend with enemies at home. The Welsh
had been rather troublesome neighbours, and the sovereign of the
little Isle of Man, also an independent state, was disposed to make
common cause with them, for the purpose of teasing the powerful


EDGAR THE PACIFIC ROWED DOWN THE DEE BY EIGHT PRINCES.


Saxon. But the Danes being kept at bay by Edgar's vast pre-
parations to meet them if they came, left him at leisure to menace
these Welsh and Manxmen so effectually that, without fighting a
single battle, he forced them to acknowledge him as their superior
lord. It was in token of this superiority, as we suppose, that he once
compelled eight of these Welsh princes to take each an oar, and rowr
[ 13 j







THE EARLY BRITONS AND THEIR SAXON KINGS.


him in his boat down the river Dee, when he was minded to pay a
visit to the abbey of St. John the Baptist, at Chester. Not par-
ticularly pleasant, one thinks, for those eight fiery Welshmen; but,
when people are thoroughly subdued, they are sometimes obliged to
do very unpleasant things; and it was far better that these eight
crowned heads should each pull an oar for King Edgar, than that they
should have been tearing each other and him to pieces-spilling the
blood of their own subjects and his.
This prince was fond of hunting, and he turned his liking for the
chase to good account. The uninhabited, uncultivated state of great
parts of England caused it to be infested by wild beasts, as the desert
places of some European countries are still. Edgar himself gave these
creatures no peace. Many condemned criminals, also, were liberated
on condition of their bringing in, within a fixed time, a certain
number of wolves' heads ; and the tribute which his brother Athelstan
had compelled the Welsh to pay, he ordered should in future be
brought him in wolves' heads-three hundred of theIm yearly. Such
hunting and chasing of wolves as these two wise regulations pro-
duced speedily put an end to the whole race in England.
Edgar was considered a good king. But he, unfortunately, died
early, leaving the kingdom to his son Edward, a boy of fourteen.
This Edward is called the Martyr, though, from the manner of his
death, the Murdered would have been the proper title. There were
quarrels about the succession: his step-mother, Elfrida, thought that
her son was the right heir to the throne. But, as his father had
named Edward for his successor, and a large number of the nobles,
together with Dunstan, the archbishop, were determined that Edgar's
will should be complied with, Elfrida was obliged to withdraw her
claim; and the young Edward was duly crowned. He was an
amiable, good youth ; but, though he treated his step-mother with all
[ 14 ]








KING EDWARD THE MARTYR.0


tenderness and affection, horrible feelings towards him rankled in her

mind.

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ASSASSINATON OF EDWARD) THE MARTY.

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THE EARLY BRITONS AND THEIR SAXON KINGS.


cup was at his lips, by command of the vile Elfrida, one of her
servants struck his dagger into the king from behind. Feeling the
thrust, Edward put spurs to his horse, but, speedily fainting with the
loss of blood, fell; one foot stuck fast in the stirrup, and, being
dragged along in this sad condition, life was soon extinct. Blood-
marks along the path which the horse had taken guided his servants
to the lifeless body of their unfortunate master, who was already
beyond their help.
His people mourned for him very sincerely ; and, according to the
superstition of those days, imagined that miracles were wrought at
the tomb of one so innocent and so injured.
The detestable Elfrida escaped the punishment that she deserved.
But she had remorse instead, and died in a convent, where her
tormented conscience led her to inflict upon herself many severities,
in the vain hope that they would make amends to God for the great
crime of which she had been guilty.


[16 ]












OUR DANISH AND NORMAN

KINGS.





ANUTE, the Dane, who came to the throne in 1017,
was a conqueror; but he was wise enough to try to
make himself agreeable to his new subjects. He
was a great king, and such, at times, receive out-
rageous flattery from those about him. Some of
Canute's silly courtiers sought on one occasion to
recommend themselves to their sovereign, by representing to
him that his power was without limit, and that all things must
submit to him. To reprove their folly, the king ordered his chair to
be placed on the sea-shore, and then authoritatively commanded the
rising tide to approach no nearer, nor wet the foot of its lord and
master. On splashed the waves in response to this address, till one,
spreading further than the rest, drenched the royal feet. Turning to
his courtiers, who stood wondering what all this meant, Canute bade
them understand that there was one God and Ruler of all, and that
to Him alone men and things were entirely subject.
There were two more Saxon kings-Edward the Confessor and
Harold-before the Saxon rule was for ever extinguished in England.
Harold's right to the throne was violently disputed by William, Duke
2 [17]






OUR DANISH AND NORMAN KINGS.


*
of Normandy, afterwards called the Conqueror, who, finding that
the English nation clung to their own native sovereign, prepared to
enforce by arms what he considered his claims to the crown. He
raised a very large army for this purpose, with which he landed at
Pevensey, near Hastings, in the autumn of 1066. Stepping on shore,
the Duke tripped and fell-an accident that rather alarmed his
superstitious followers. He re-assured them, however, by a joke;
remarking, as he picked himself up again, that he had already taken
possession of the soil.
On hearing of his landing, Harold sent messengers to William
with proposals of peace. These were rejected; and as Harold did
not submit to the terms offered by the Duke, the two armies
prepared to engage.
This important battle took place on the 14th of October, 1066.
The previous night was spent by the English in drunken rioting; by
the Normans, in prayers to God for success. The battle was fierce
and protracted, but ended in the entire defeat of the English.
Harold was slain, and there was no one to dispute the crown with
Duke William.
As the Normans had prayed for success in their enterprise, they
now, on the field, offered up a devout thanksgiving to God for their
signal victory.
William had now his heart's desire. He was king of England,
and was solemnly crowned in Westminster Abbey.
At first, he seemed disposed to treat his new subjects kindly;
but, before long, gave way to excessive severity in his government.
The English were oppressed and discountenanced; even their lands
were taken from them, and given to his Norman followers.
But though William made himself so great abroad, he had not
much comfort at home. His three sons took to quarrelling among
[ 18]








CANUTE, THE DANE.





CANUTE REPROVING HIS COURTIERS.


r 19 ]






OUR DANISH AND NORMAN KINGS.


themselves; and Robert, the eldest, being offended by the other two
(the foolish lads threw water upon him as he passed), broke out into
the most violent anger against them. Their father in vain endea-
voured to appease him: Robert quarrelled with them all, and, leaving
the castle, got up an insurrection against his father's authority.
Robert was not, in the main, a bad fellow; but it was a dreadful
thing to make war against his father. In order to put down Robert
and his friends, William was obliged to draw forces from his newly-
conquered England. The young prince shut himself up in the castle
of Gerberay, and William laid siege to it with as much zeal as though
it had not been his own son with whom he was contending; Robert,
on his part, fought with equal insensibility. In one of the many
encounters that took place before the walls of this castle, father and
son met in deadly conflict. The faces of both being concealed by
their helmets, neither knew the other, until one of them, being
wounded and unhorsed, called out for assistance. To his horror,
Robert recognized his father's voice, and, filled with remorse, threw
himself on his knees before him to ask forgiveness. His petition was
answered by a curse from his incensed parent, who rode away on
Robert's horse, which the prince had helped him to mount.
They were afterwards reconciled, and Robert fought the Scots in
his father's army.
William died on the 9th of September, 1087, leaving the crown
of England to his second son, William Rufus.
Robert and William were soon quarrelling again, after their
father's death. Robert, as the elder, thought that he had the best
claim to the English crown, and many of his Norman barons thought
so too. If father and son could fight against each other, of course
brothers could; and both of them took up arms to settle the point.
They made both England and Normandy into their battle-field; and
[C20 ]













THE LANDING OF WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.


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[ 21 ]


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OUR DANISH AND NORMAN KINGS.


when the king of France made peace between them, Robert and
William cemented their newly patched-up friendship by carrying on
a skirmishing contest with their brother Henry.
Henry shut himself up in a strong castle on the Norman coast;
and his brothers blockaded him there so strictly, that the garrison
were in the utmost distress for want of water. Robert,like a good
natured fellow, as (with all his faults) he was, allowed some of them
to slip through in order to fetch water, while he himself sent wine
to his brother. William was very angry at this; but Robert, with
much feeling, replied to him, Where.shall we get another brother
when this is dead?"
The king's own life was in danger during this siege, though not
in the same way as that of his brother, whom his hard heart would
have left to die of thirst. Riding out alone one day to reconnoitre,
two soldiers, who were prowling about, set upon him. Two to one
was more than even a king could withstand, and William was
presently unhorsed. Before he could recover himself, a rough, strong
hand was laid upon his shoulder, and the dagger of one of the men
gleamed over his head. Another moment, and the question about
the English crown would have been closed for ever between Robert
and William; but, seeing his danger, Rufus cried out, "Hold, knave !
I am the King of England !" Down dropped the blade; the
frightened soldier, with all reverence, raised the prostrate monarch,
and it is said that Rufus showed his gratitude to him by liberal
presents, and giving the man a place in his own service.
The reign of William Rufus was marked by the beginning
of a series of most extraordinary warlike expeditions to Palestine.
They were called the Crusades, and were undertaken for the
purpose of re-taking the city of Jerusalem from the Turks, who
then possessed the country, and who exceedingly ill treated such
[ 22 ]














WILLIAM I. AT THE SIEGE OF GERBERAY.


II III A %1.1 :
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WILLIAM I. AND HIS SON ROBERT,






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OUR DANISH AND NORMAN KINGS.


Christian people as travelled thither to see the tomb of our
Lord.
But though thus fiercely disposed towards the cruel and in-
sulting Turks, the zeal of these Crusaders for one of the relics of
their Lord-the place where He was laid when His sacred 'body had
yielded up its very life for mankind-caused them to be more
merciful towards each other. Europe had been full of wars and
bloodshed,. but now a universal peace was proclaimed among
Christians; and the "Truce of God" (so it was named) was pre-
served unbroken for a considerable time, while preparations were
being made for this vast enterprise in the East.
Kings, princes, with nobles and knights innumerable, took the
cross on this occasion, and among them was Robert of Normandy,
who, in order to obtain money enough to carry him and his followers
on that long and difficult journey, sold his Norman inheritance to
Rufus, that king being glad to get it on any terms. Another French
prince did the same with his dominions, and William was just pre-
paring to sail over and take possession, when an accident put an end
to his worthless life.
He was hunting one day in the New Forest, a forest which his
father had created with so much cruelty to the inhabitants of the
district, driving them with violence from their homes, in order to
make a home for beasts of chase, whom, as an old writer tells us, the
Conqueror loved, as though he had been their father." And in this
lonely wilderness, a fleet stag came within bow-shot of him. William
let fly his arrows one after another in vain, and then, with his own
quiver empty, he called out impatiently to Sir Walter Tyrrel, one
of his companions, to shoot the creature for him. Sir Walter drew
his bow-string smartly; swift flew his arrow towards its mark, but,
alas! it glanced aside, and, instead of, slaying a deer, pierced the
[ 24 ]












WILLIAM II. IN DANGER.


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OUR DANISH AND NORMAN KINGS.


very heart of the unfortunate king, who instantly sank lifeless to the
ground.
Clapping spurs to his horse, Sir Walter fled in terror, leaving
the dead body of his master lying sadly there in the forest. It was
afterwards found by some poor charcoal-burners, who came thither
to ply their trade, put into a cart, and carried to Winchester, where
it was buried with little ceremony.
The poor oppressed people of England thought that the fate of
William Rufus was God's judgment upon the son, for the crimes
committed by the father in that place. William, however, had sins
enough of his own to answer for.
Robert and William had made an engagement that the one who
outlived the other should succeed to the English throne. But when
William died, Robert was far away in the Holy Land. So their
younger brother Henry, who happened to be in England at the time,
immediately seized the kingdom for himself. He was called Beau-
clerc, or the Good Scholar; because he had more learning than was
common among great people in those days. The clergy were almost
the only learned men; lords and knights could rarely even write
their own names.
The people of England were quite content to have Henry for
their king; so that when Robert returned from Palestine, after the
city of Jerusalem had been taken by the Crusaders, there was no
chance of his recovering the kingdom. Perhaps if Robert had not en-
joyed himself so excessively in Italy on his way home, he might have
arrived a little earlier, and so have had a better chance of securing
what was his own. As it was, he was content to receive a yearly sum
of money in place of a kingdom; and being an easy, pleasure-loving
man, that, most likely, made him much happier than all the state of
royalty, accompanied by its cares, would have done.
[ 26 ]






DEFEAT OF ROBERT.


The two brothers remained friends for a tir, after this; but
disputes sprang up between them; and, under prence of governing
Normandy better than Robert did (which was bav enough), Henry
led an army into his brother's dominions, and mle war upon him.
In a gallant encounter between the two, Roberfighting with his


DEATH OF WILLIAME RUFUS.


usual reckless bravery, was suddenly deserted y one of his best
knights, who galloped off with his whole dision in the very
midst of the battle. This ruined Robert, whcafter a desperate
struggle, was made prisoner, together with manpf his bravest fol-
lowers.
It was not in Henry's nature to be generous The unfortunate
[ 27-]







OUR DANISH AND NORMAN KINGS.


Robert was brought to England, carried across the country to the
wild hill-country of Wales, and there shut up in Cardiff Castle.
His imprisonment was not at first very severe: he had liberty to
go about in the neighbourhood. But, attempting one day to make
his escape, he was retaken, dragged back again, and cooped up closely
in that dismal castle, where he spent the remainder of his life-
twenty-eight long, long years-in captivity. What a change for poor
pleasure-loving Robert !
Some say that Henry was cruel enough to destroy his brother's
sight, in order to prevent his escaping a second time. That was a fine
return for Robert's generosity in sending him wine, when he and his
garrison were near perishing of thirst in that castle of his.
The hard-hearted king, however, had his own troubles. He
dearly loved his only son, Prince William; and, as he was heir to the
crown, he took him, when he was eighteen years old, to Normandy, that
the Norman barons might acknowledge him as Henry's successor.
All this was done satisfactorily, and then the royal party prepared to
return to England.
The king and prince had a large retinue, and the fleet that was
to convey them was moored at Barfleur. Just as the king was on the
point of embarking, Fitz-Stephen, the captain of one of the vessels,
approached him, saying, "'My father, Stephen, served thy father by
sea all his life. He steered the vessel that carried Duke William to
the conquest of England; I pray thee to let me have the same office.
I have, a good ship here, called 'La Blanche Nef'" (that is "The
White Ship"); and he would fain have had the king sail in it with
him. But the king told him he could not do so, as the vessel in
which he was to sail was already fixed upon. His son, the prince,
and his daughter, together with their attendants, amounting to a
hundred and forty persons, he would, however, intrust to the "White
[ 28 ]






DEATH OF PRINCE WILLIAM.


Ship," and the care of him whose father had so faithfully served their
grandfather.
With this Fitz-Stephen was well pleased, and the young prince
ordered three casks of wine to be distributed among the crew. But,


SHIPWRECK OF PRINCE WILLIAM, SON OF HENRY I.


alas they got drunk upon it; so that, when they set sail, fine, and
calm, and moonlight though it was, they ran among some rocks upon
the coast. The vessel struck, filled, and was at once on the point of
sinking. Fitz-Stephen immediately lowered a boat, in which he
placed the prince, and then bade the sailors row for their lives to the
shore, which was not far off. Their strong, willing arms would soon
have landed him in safety; but, hearing the cries of his sister, who
[29 ]







OUR DANISH AND NORMAN KINGS.


had been left in the sinking vessel, the prince commanded them to
row back again and rescue her. The boat reached the ship's side, but
then such numbers sprang in, that it was instantly upset, sending the
prince and every one of them to the bottom. The White Ship"
itself went down directly afterwards, and nothing of her was left
save a floating spar, to which two men still clung.
Fitz-Stephen rose again to the surface after that fearful plunge,
and, struggling with the waters, eagerly asked these men what had
become of the prince. They answered, that he and all with him were
lost; upon which, groaning out "Woe is me!" the unfortunate
captain, reckless of his own life, sank again to rise no more. One
only out of near two hundred persons in that ill-fated vessel was
saved, and he was a poor butcher of Rouen.
The king, meanwhile, sailed on pleasantly, in utter ignorance of
this dreadful shipwreck. The cry, indeed, of those drowning wretches
had been heard on board his vessel, distant as they were; but none
knew what it was, and no one heeded it.
It was soon known in England that the poor young prince and
his companions were all lost, but none dared tell the king of it. At
length, those about him ventured to send a little boy into the royal
presence, who, kneeling before the monarch, simply informed him
that the "White Ship had gone down, and that all on board were
drowned.
The miserable Henry fainted away when the child had ended his
brief but dreadful tale, and, though he lived fifteen years longer, was
never again, as historians tell us, seen to smile. He died in 1135, at
the age of sixty-six, and was buried at Reading Abbey, which he had
himself founded.
After the death of his son, Henry caused his daughter Matilda,
who had married the Emperor of Germany, to be acknowledged as
F 30 ]
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THE EMPRESS MATILDA.


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FLIGHT OF MATILDA


FROM OXFORD.


[ 31 ]


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OUR DANISH AND NORMAN KINGS.


his heir. But, at the time of the king's death, she was in France; so
Stephen, Henry's nephew, took advantage of her absence, and seized
the crown for himself. The English people willingly received him as
their sovereign, and King Stephen was rather popular than otherwise.
Matilda, however, was not going tamely to yield up her rights to
a usurper. In 1139 she landed, with a small company of knights, on
the Sussex coast; and numbers flocking to her standard, enabled her
to overthrow Stephen and recover her own kingdom. But she did
not retain it long, for she had no abilities for government, and her
people,' discontented with her, replaced Stephen on the throne.
This was not accomplished without an obstinate struggle.
Matilda had all the- spirit of a king's daughter, and she fought it out
with Stephen as long as possible. She threw herself with her
followers into Oxford; but the city surrendered almost immediately
to Stephen, and the Empress was obliged to withdraw into the castle,
which, as it was of great strength, she hoped to hold against him. A
three months' blockade, however, exhausted all their provisions; and
then, to save herself, one snowy, winter's night, Matilda, with four
knights-all, like herself, wrapped in white mantles, to escape
observation-stole out of the castle, crossed the frozen Thames, and,
now on foot, now on horseback, reached Wallingfqrd, where her son
and the Earl of Gloucester had assembled an army for her relief. But
their efforts were fruitless; and at length, to put an end to the civil
war (between the partizans of Stephen and Prince Henry, Matilda's
son) which from time to time afflicted England, it was agreed upon
by the'two that Stephen should retain the crown for the rest of his
life, and that, upon his death, Henry should succeed him.
Stephen died very soon afterwards, and then Henry quietly took
possession of the kingdom, of which his family had been unjustly
deprived for a period of nineteen years.
32 ]
















THE PLANTAGENET KINGS OF

ENGLAND.






... ATILDA, daughter o( Henry I., was twice married
-first to the Emperor of Germany, and, after
his death, to Geoffrey Plantagenet, Earl of
Anjou. Henry II., who now came to the
throne, was the son of this Geoffrey, who
received his name of Plantagenet from his custom of
wearing a sprig of broom (called planta-genista) in
his helmet, in place of the long, waving feather with which
S some surmounted their steel head-pieces. He was joyfully
S welcomed by his people when he came to take possession
of his dominions; for the English remembered that, through his
mother, he had Saxon blood in his veins, while the Normans prided
themselves on his father's pure Norman descent; and so every one
was satisfied.
Henry at first showed himself a good, vigorous king. He ruled
his people wisely and kindly, and he was very powerful abroad also,
C 33







THE PLANTAGENET KINGS OF ENGLAND.


A whole third of the kingdom of France belonged to him; for, besides
his Norman dominions, a large portion of the south of France was
now attached to the English crown, in consequence of Henry's
marriage with Eleanor of Guienne.
During this reign lived the great Chancellor and Archbishop of
Canterbury, Thomas a Becket.
The reign of Henry was a long and successful one. During its
course the Welsh were repulsed, and the Irish thoroughly subdued-
Ireland being made a part of the dominions of the kings of England.
Scotland was also rendered a tributary kingdom.
But it was not a very happy reign to the king himself. His
three sons, Henry, Geoffrey, and Richard, broke out into open revolt
against their father, and their mother actually encouraged them in
doing so. Henry's grief of mind at the disobedience of his sons threw
him into a slow fever, of which he died in the castle of Chinon, in
Normandy, at the age of fifty-seven. He was succeeded by his son
Richard, surnamed, on account of his bravery, Cceur de Lion, or Lion
Heart. Richard was handsome, athletic, an undaunted warrior, of a
genial disposition, and great abilities; and his people both loved and
were proud of their famous king.
When he first came to the throne, in 1189, he seemed desirous of
making amends for his past misconduct.
But the Crusades immediately tempted Richard from his own
home and people. His fiery valour soon distinguished him in the
East. The city of Acre, which had withstood a two years' siege,
surrendered within one month to the united forces of Richard and
Philip of France. Other conquests followed; and at length he
fought his way to within a few days' march of Jerusalem. But there
quarrels among his brother Crusaders compelled the Christian
armies to retreat. During this retreat, the indignant Richard
[ 34 ]








REIGN OF HENRY THE SECOND.


PASSAGE OF *A BECKET THROUGH FRANCE.


[ 35






THE PLANTAGENET KINGS OF ENGLAND.


learned that the city of Jaffa had been re-taken by the Turks; he
hastened thither, and, with his formidable battle-axe in hand, led a
successful attack upon the enemy.
Disappointed in the hope of taking Jerusalem, whose capture
was the object of the Crusades, a truce was agreed upon with
Saladin, the celebrated sovereign of the Turks, and then Richard
returned home. But as he passed through Germany, the Duke of
Austria, who had been one of his brother Crusaders, and to whom
Richard had given deadly offence before Acre, laid hold of him, and
disgracefully threw him into prison. It is said that a wandering
minstrel at last found him out, and then joyfully sped to England
with the good news.
The Emperor refused to let Richard go, unless a very large sum
of money was given to him. But so eager were the English people
to get their king back again, that they not only brought, money for
his ransom, but gladly melted down their gold and silver plate, to
swell the amount.
Prince John had behaved very badly during Richard's captivity,
and usurped his sovereignty. After Richard's return, John was
anxious to make submission to him, and, at the intercession of their
mother, Richard frankly forgave the kneeling traitor. "I forgive
him," said he, "and hope I shall as easily forget his offences as he
will my pardon."
After his release from that German dungeon, Richard went to
war with Philip of France, who had acted towards him in a very
dishonourable manner. Laying siege to the castle of one of his own
refractory vassals, he was wounded in the shoulder by an arrow from
the walls. Bad surgery made the injury fatal; and, after pardoning
the man who had slain him, Richard died in Normandy, in 1199, in
the forty-second year of his age.
[ 36 ]











RICHARD C(EUR-DE-LION.


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JOHN BEGGING FORGIVENESS OF RICHARD.



[ 87 ]







THE PLANTAGENET KINGS OF ENGLAND.


John, who succeeded him, was a poor exchange for the generous,
though violent Richard. He had been a bad son and a bad brother,
and he was now going to be a bad king.
His nephew Arthur disputed with him the succession to the
crown of England; and, it is said, was murdered by him.
This was a horrible beginning of John's reign.
John at last proved so violent and tyrannical a sovereign, that
his people would no longer endure it. The great lords of the kingdom
met together and forced him, at Runnymead, to sign the renewal of
an important charter (or written engagement) given by Henry I.,
and a confirmation of the good laws of Edward the Confessor. The
promises which he thus solemnly made are called Magna Charta, or
the Great Charter; because they contain so many things essential to
the just liberties of Englishmen.
John sealed this readily; but he broke his promises quite
as readily And then, once more, there was that wretched
thing, a civil war, in England. It was carried on with excessive
violence; the king, marching from Dover to Berwick, laid waste
everything before him; and the northern barons fled in dismay, to
seek refuge in Scotland.
John's misdoings, however, were nearly at an end. He died at
Newark on the' 18th of October, 1216, after a miserable reign of
seventeen years.
It is to be doubted whether anything good can be said of John:
he was both a bad man and a bad king.
His son, called Henry of Winchester, because he was born there,
succeeded him. He was only ten years old when he was crowned
King of England.
But, though he grew up a good and amiable man, he was not at
all fit for the difficult post of a monarch in those old, old times.
[ 38]









KING HENRY THE THIRD.


HENRY III. AND THE BARONS.


39 1







THE PLANTAGENET KINGS OF ENGLAND.


There had been dissensions between Henry and his barons for
some time, and at length the storm burst.
The king had called a parliament together; and when he sat in
state to receive them, to his surprise, the barons presented them-
selves armed and in their coats of mail. In great alarm, he asked
them what they meant ?-were they going to -make him a prisoner ?
They answered, No; they were going to make him more completely
king, by compelling him to rule according to the laws. The barons,
however, soon became so intolerable to the people, that they at
length entreated the king's son, Prince Edward, to assist them in
getting rid of such odious rulers. They were glad to have the king
back again; having experienced what it was to be governed by those
barons.
Edward was a fine fellow, of twenty-two; brave, and of great
abilities; altogether as different from his father as possible. But at
first, he was unwilling to do what was required of him. He was
afraid of making bad worse.
But as Henry had now resumed his royal authority, the barons
made war upon him; and then there was something for that valiant
Edward-to do. The Earl of Leicester headed the insurgent nobles,
and Prince Edward was unfortunately taken prisoner, nor could he
obtain his release until his father had promised to let these men have
as much power again as they already had abused. This was done;
but, after all, the barons broke faith with the king, and then both
parties again took up arms. Dreadful battles were fought between
the royalists and rebels: in one of them, at Lewes, in Sussex, the
poor old king was made prisoner by Leicester, and Prince Edward
was obliged to give himself up, to rescue his father. He managed,
however, one fine mourning, to make his escape, by outriding his
guards. On rejoining his friends, he soon found himself at the head
S[40o ]














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FRENCH AND ENGLISH CAVALRY IN THE PASSAGE OF THE SOME.






THE PLANTAGENET KINGS OF ENGLAND.


of a fine army, with which he gave battle to Leicester and such of the
barons as still adhered to him, at Evesham.
In this battle, the Earl of Leicester, together with a hundred and
sixty knights, and many others of lower rank, lost their lives; and it
put an end to the civil war that had so long raged in the kingdom.
Now that peace was secured, Edward's soldierly spirit led him to
join the Crusades, and he and his wife Eleanor, of Castile, left
England with a large army for the Holy Land. The Prince was
wounded by a poisoned arrow, and would, it is said, have died, but
that his loving and heroic wife sucked the poison from the wound,
and so saved her husband!
The old king did not long survive this departure of his son to
the East. He drooped, and died, in November, 1272, after a reign of
fifty-five years.
The news of Henry's death reached Edward when he was in
Italy, on his way home from the Holy Land. This brave prince was
a good son, and grieved sincerely for his father, as for a loss that
could never be replaced.
The chief events of this king's reign were his entire subjugation
of the Welsh, and his long wars with Scotland.
Edward died at the age of sixty-nine. He was a very great
king, and, to his own subjects, a good one. He is celebrated, not
only for his warlike doings, but for having given his people many
wise laws.
His son, Edward of Caernarvon, who succeeded him, was a poor
creature, who soon disgusted his people, by selecting for his favourites
persons quite unfit to be so distinguished, and upon whom he heaped
honours, and riches, and power, till they became intolerably pre-
suming and overbearing.
A civil war between the king arid his barons was the conse-
[ 42 ]







KING EDWARD'S FRENCH CAMPAIGN.


quence; and this was renewed with various fortune, until at last the
king himself was taken prisoner, and the Parliament resolved that
Edward should no longer be allowed to reign, but that his son, a
S youth of fourteen, should be declared king.
Poor Edward was, after undergoing much ill-usage, cruelly put
to death, at Berkeley Castle, on the 22nd of September, 1327.
Edward III. was, like his grandfather, Edward I., a warlike
prince; and his son, the Black Prince, was.almost more celebrated as
a warrior than he. Very soon after he came to the- throne, he began
those famous wars of the English in France which ended in the
almost total subjugation of that kingdom-a wonderful success, which
was, however, very short-lived, for, before his death, Edward lost
again almost all that he had gained.
King Edward landed in safety on the coast of Normandy, in the
year 1346, and marched within a few miles of Paris itself, whose
suburbs he insulted; but as King Philip had raised an enormous
army to oppose him, Edward found it needful to retire towards the
north again. In attempting this, lie found himself stopped in, all
directions, by the bridges over rivers being broken down, until, on
approaching the banks of the Somme, he found not only the bridges
destroyed, but a large French force, under Sir Gondemar de Faye,
awaiting him at the other side. As the King of France, with more
than three times his own number of men, was now close behind him,
Edward was in a dreadful difficulty. At this juncture, however, a
French peasant was bribed to show him a safe ford over the river.
It was reached while the tide was low; and, dashing into the water,
horse and foot splashed through, cutting down the Frenchmen, who
rode into the stream to oppose them, and afterwards chased them to
some distance. The English got over only just in time, for Philip
came upon their rear, but was prevented following them by the rising
[ 43]






THE PLANTAGENET KINGS OF ENGLAND.


tide. Philip and his army had to go round by the bridge of Abbe-
ville, and this gave Edward a little breathing time. The two armies,
however, soon came again in sight of each other, and, greatly dispro-
portioned as they were, a battle was unavoidable.
Edward chose his ground with great judgment, near Crecy, in
Ponthieu; and, drawing up his little army in three lines, the first
of which was commanded by the Black Prince (then a boy of
sixteen), assisted by two experienced generals, quietly awaited the
attack.
The victory was complete, and this huge French army was
utterly defeated, with dreadful loss.
From the glorious field of Crecy, Edward passed on to lay siege
to the town of Calais. This was sad work, for it took nearly a
twelvemonth's close blockade before sheer famine compelled its
surrender. Edward was induced to spare its inhabitants only on
condition of six of the most important ones giving themselves up,
bareheaded, and with ropes round their necks, for him to do with as
he pleased.
Six citizens were found willing to sacrifice themselves; and,
spite of the entreaties of his son and other officers, Edward ordered
them to instant execution. But the good queen Philippa, his wife,
fell on her knees before him, and pleaded so earnestly with him to
spare their lives, that he could not refuse her; for he loved his wife
very much. And so these brave fellows were kindly entertained by
the queen, and sent on their way in safety.
Ten years afterwards the Black Prince led a very small but
victorious army, from the English possessions in the south, right
into the heart of France, and ravaged the country frightfully. On
his return to Bordeaux, however; he found that John, who succeeded
his father Philip as King of France, was close at his heels, with a
[ 44 .











THE SIEGE OF CALAIS.


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QUEEN PHILIPPA INTERCEDING FOR THE BURGESSES OF CALAIS.


[ 45 ]


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THE PLANTAGENET KINGS OF ENGLAND.


force seven or eight times as large as his own; and, considering that
he had no chance of success if he risked a battle with him, he was
willing to accept any reasonable terms of peace between them. But
John's demands were so extravagant-among other things, he
required that the prince should give himself up as a prisoner-that
the young hero, vowing that England should never have to pay his
ransom, broke off all further negotiations, and began to make the best
preparations that he could for a battle near Poictiers, where he was
encamped.
Wonderful to relate, this mere handful of English and Gascons
routed the French host, consisting of all the great nobles and knights
of the kingdom; and King John himself fighting desperately, with
lhs youngest son Philip by his side, was taken prisoner on the field.
He was led away to the tent where the young prince was resting
after that dreadful day, and who, on perceiving the captive king's
approach, came out to meet him, with the utmost courtesy and
kindness, carried him to his tent, gave him drink with his own hands,
and at supper waited upon the king, who sat at table, while his
conqueror stood before him.
The prince afterwards conducted his royal prisoner to England,
where. John was received with equal consideration by King Edward
himself.
The Black Prince died in 1376, lamented and honoured, not in
England only, but in France also. His sorrowing old father only
survived him one year; and Richard of Bordeaux, son of the prince,
succeeded to the crown when he was eleven years old.
It was in the reign of Edward III. that the first beginning of
what is called the Reformation in England took place. John
Wycliffe first translated the Bible in this reign.
The early part of Richard's reign was marked by a violent insur-
[ 46 ]
















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THE PLANTAGENET KINGS OF ENGLAND.


reaction of the lower orders of the people, under a man called Wat
Tyler. The insurrection was, however, speedily quelled.
Richard, although very promising as a youth, proved a pleasure-
loving, luxurious monarch, and lost the respect of his people, who
had been at first disposed to love him, no doubt for his father's sake
as well as his own.
As a king, Richard was guilty of many faults, but his treat-
ment of his uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, must be looked upon as a
crime, not a fault. The duke had been a turbulent subject; and
Richard, weary of being plagued with him, determined to put an end
to his annoyance. So, pretending to be friendly, he paid the duke a
visit at his house in Essex, where Gloucester, suspecting no wrong,
came out, with his wife and daughter, to meet the king. At that
moment the treacherous Richard commanded the duke to be seized,
had him hurried to the beach, where a boat was waiting for him, and
put him on board a vessel, which sailed directly for Calais. There
the duke was thrown into prison, and presently murdered, it was
believed, by the king's order.
Richard, however, was to suffer bitterly for his faults. The
discontent against him grew so general, that at length his cousin, the
Duke of Lancaster, dethroned him, and had himself crowned as Henry
IV., in his room.
Richard was imprisoned, first in the Tower of London, and then
in Pontefract Castle, where he came to a violent end-people did not
know how; but no one doubts that Henry IV. was the author of
this bad deed.
Richard II. was the last of the Plantagenet kings.


[ 43 ]















THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER

AND YORK.






ENRY OF LANCASTER, who deposed his unhappy
Cousin, soon found that it was no easy matter to
\W be a king. He had got the crown by foul means
and he must take the consequences. An insur-
0 reaction at home, in which the king was victorious,
was followed by another in Wales, headed by the
celebrated Owen Glendower; while the Scots, taking advantage of
these disturbances, poured over the borders, and did all sorts of
damage in the northern counties.
One boay of these Scots was so signally defeated by Percy, Earl
of Northumberland, that. the spot was afterwards known by the
melancholy name of Slaughter Hill. Eager to avenge this defeat,
Archibald, Earl of Douglas, one of the greatest of the Scottish lords,
assembled a large body of knights, archers, and spearmen, and made
an impetuous rush into Northumberland, devastating all before him.
The plunder that he and his followers secured, consisting of droves of
4 49






THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK.


cattle and flocks of sheep, was so immense, that they were obliged to
turn back again to their own country in order to get it safely home.
Accordingly, the marauders wheeled round, and, fearing nothing,
drove their spoils leisurely along the road. At a place called
Homildon Hill, however, they were unexpectedly met by a strong
force of English, under the Earl of Northumberland and his son
Henry Percy-known, on account of his fiery valour, as Harry
Hotspur. An engagement took place here, with fatal results to the
Scots, many of whose greatest chiefs were killed or taken prisoners.
A usurper must not expect peace. Two years afterwards there
was another insurrection in the North, supported by Hotspur's
father, Scroop, Archbishop of York, and other great people. The
general who commanded Henry's forces on this occasion went to
work cunningly. He sought an interview with the rebel leaders,
and talked fairly and softly to them, until they, trusting to his
sincerity, caused their followers to disperse. When this was done,
he seized the archbishop, and hurried him off to his palace at
Bishopsthorpe, where the lord chief-justice, Gascoigne, was required
to pronounce sentence of instant death upon him. The upright
judge refused to do this; prisoners, he said, were entitled by law
to a proper trial. A more accommodating judge was soon found,
who at once did what was required of him, and the archbishop was
immediately beheaded.
The last days of the king were very sad ones. He suffered from
oppressive illness; his mind was tormented by remorse for his
crimes; and he was jealous of his son ; fearing that, as he had stolen
the kingdom from his cousin, so his son would be tempted to steal it
from him. He died at Westminster, on the 20th of March, 1413, in
the forty-seventh year of his age.
Within a year of his accession Henry V. led an army into
[ 50 ]











































































EXECUTION OF THE ARCHBISHOP OF YORK.






TIHE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK.


France, with the old object of securing, by arms, that which the
kings of England believed to be theirs by inheritance-that is, the
crown of that kingdom. The strong town of Harfleur surrendered
to him in six weeks; but his army was at the time so reduced by
sickness, that he was obliged to make the best of his way home
again, immediately. He accordingly marched on towards Calais;
but, on approaching that town, found his passage barred by a great
French army, which was drawn up on the plains of Agincourt.
Advance or retreat were alike impossible; so the king drew up his
forces in the best possible manner, and then with a cheerful con-
fidence, that put heart into those hunger-bitten and enfeebled men,
calmly awaited the result. The French also prepared for action;
and the two armies sat down on the ground, face to face, with their
weapons by their side.
At this juncture three French knights came within Henry's
entrenchments, to offer him a free passage to CalaiS, on condition of
his giving up Harfleur, and resigning for ever all claim to the French
throne. These terms were indignantly refused; and the knights
were about to be hastily dismissed, when one of them, the Sieur de
Helly, who, having formerly been a prisoner in England, had dis-
graced himself by breaking his parole, had the impertinence to
propose a duel between himself and any knight who might dare to
charge him with that mean crime.
Sir knight," said the kiig, shortly, this is no time for single
combats. Go, bid your comrades prepare for battle; and doubt not,
that, for the breaking of your word, you will a second time lose your
liberty, if not your life."
To this stinging speech De Helly answered, passionately-" That
he should receive no orders from Henry; Charles was their sovereign;
and his Frenchmen would fight for him, whenever he thought fit."
[ 52 ]
















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THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK.


Henry bid him begone; and then, stepping forward, gave the
order-" Banners, advance !"
Brave old Sir Thomas Erpingham, in answer to this, spun his
baton into the air, as he repeated the king's command; and the
English archers then poured in on the enemy their customary fatal
flight of arrows. The battle was long and bloody ; but ended in the
total overthrow of the French. Those Frenchmen could not stand
before us English in the olden time Ten thousand of them were
slain; fourteen thousand taken prisoners; while not more than
sixteen hundred fell on the side of the English.
Passing over the field of battle, accompanied by the heralds of
both countries, Henry inquired what castle that was-pointing to
one in the distance. The castle of Agincourt," was the reply of the
principal French herald. "Then," rejoined the king, let this battle
henceforth be called the battle of Agincourt."
Soon after Henry's arrival in England, where his people received
him with great joy, the Emperor Sigismund, of Germany, paid him
a visit. On this occasion a singular scene was exhibited. When the
Emperor's vessel cast anchor at Dover, the Duke of Gloucester and
other nobles, mounted, armed, and with drawn swords, splashed into
the water, and demanded to know'whether the Emperor came simply
as a guest, or as one claiming any authority in the realm. On its
being answered that he came only as their master's guest, the
swords were sheathed, and he was welcomed with all the respect and
cordiality due to so distinguished a visitor.
In about two years after Agincourt, Henry again invaded
France. The result of his prowess during this second attempt was,
that he married the Princess Catherine, daughter of the imbecile old
French king, and was himself declared next heir to the throne.
He did not live long to enjoy his new honours. He brought his
[ 54 ]









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THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK.


queen home to England, where she was crowned with great state in
Westminster Abbey. Some more fighting in France followed; and
then, just when he seemed to have reached the height of worldly
grandeur, came the time for him to leave it all.
At Paris, where he had celebrated the birth of his son (after-
wards Henry VI.) with stately rejoicings, he was seized with illness.
Physicians four hundred years ago were not much to be trusted, and
it soon became apparent that the king must die. All the pride of
his youth, and beauty, and strength, and valour could not save him.
He bore his doom with manly fortitude; settled the affairs of his
kingdom, appointed his brother John, Duke of Bedford, to be regent
of France during the young Henry's childhood; and then, being told
that he had not more than two hours to live, gave himself up to
devout prayers. He died on the 31st of August, 1422, deeply
lamented by his own subjects, and respected for his humanity and
justice by those whom he had conquered.
His dead body was conveyed with extraordinary pomp to Calais,
attended by a vast concourse of mourning nobles. From Calais the
long procession crossed over to Dover, and thence followed all that
was left of the hero of Agincourt, to his last resting-place in
Westminster Abbey.
He had only lived thirty-five years, and reigned nine.
Henry VI. was only nine years old when he became King of
England; in two months after, he became King of France also, being
crowned in Paris on the 17th of December, 1431.
The whole of France must have fallen before the English but for
the interference of a poor country girl, known as Joan of Arc, who
gave the French fresh courage to resist their conquerors; herself
leading them on from victory to victory, until the fruitless siege of
.- Oleans gave something like a finishing blow to English dominion in


.F-, ]













































































FUNERAL PROCESSION OF HENRY V.







THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER, AND YORK.


France. Poor Joan was at length taken prisoner, and most cruelly
put to death in the market-place of Rouen.
The English, however, did not gain anything by the destruction
of Joan. Bad as their affairs had become, after she had so heroically
roused the spirit of her countrymen, they became still worse and
worse after her death; until, at length, the only spot in all France
remaining to them was Edward III.'s conquest of Calais. Even their
king's hereditary possessions in the south were lost; and, though
some of the inhabitants of Guienne, desirous of returning to their old
allegiance, offered aid to Henry, it was all of no use. The Earl of
Shrewsbury, a brave old knight, more than eighty years old, joined
these Gascon lords, with a force of eight thousand men, and at first
they obtained some successes; but, hastening to the relief of one of
the towns taken by him, and which was now besieged by the French,
he had to attack their strong camp, which was defended by several
hundred pieces of artillery. Charging gallantly, his rear was set
upon by a body of French troops; the fight grew hot, and, his horse
being killed under him, fell upon his rider, whose leg was broken in
consequence. Crippled and helpless, he was brutally speared as he
lay on the ground; his son was slain in a vain attempt to rescue
him; and his army was entirely routed. The close of that year,
1453, saw the end of English rule in France ; save in Calais, and the
marshes about it.
Henry had grown up an amiable, but weak-minded man-much
governed by those about him, whomsoever they might chance to be;
and this want of self-reliance led to serious dissensions at home.
There was an insurrection of the lower orders, under Jack Cade, who,
at the head of a rough sort of army, numbering twenty thousand
Kentish men, encamped on Blackheath, near London; and marching
thence, took possession of the city, where, committing some violence,
[ 58ss ]







THE WARS OF THE TWO ROSES.


the inhabitants rose up against them, and repulsed them with great
slaughter. Then there were more alarming contests about the
throne; for the descendants of the Duke of York, elder brother of
-_ ...._.. -. --..

~'~~~ 71--~~~~ _~~__ _~T~----: --flOct ~~f. I.:
6XD


DEATH OF THE EARL OF SHREWSBURY.


the Duke of Lancaster, whose family had seized the crown, asserted,
and in arms too, their superior claim to it. This was the beginning
of the Wars of the Two Roses, which ravaged England for thirty
[ 59 ]






TIHE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK.


years. Those who supported the House of York adopted a white
rose as their badge, the Lancastrians a red one; and so their
contests are known as the Wars of the Two Roses.
Poor, weak old Henry lost and regained his throne several times
in the course of these sad and sanguinary doings. His wife, Margaret
of Anjou, had far more spirit than he, and struggled desperately to
retrieve her husband's fallen fortunes-but in vain. At Hexham, in
Northumberland, a great battle was fought on the 15th of May, 1462,
between the rival factions, and it ended in the total rout of Henry's
army. The old king was hotly chased from the field, and managed to
elude his bloodthirsty pursuers. Margaret, with her young son and
a few followers, fled for safety into the forest at hand, hoping to
make her escape into Scotland; for there was small mercy dealt out
on either side. In her flight she was set upon by a band of robbers
(there were plenty of them in that wild district), who dragged her
and her son from their horses, and speedily dispossessed them of the
gold and jewels which they had concealed about them. While the
thieves were quarrelling over the division of their spoil, the queen
and her son stole away, unobserved, and wandered aimlessly on, until,
as the light of the moon broke forth, to their terror, they saw before
them an armed figure, whom they took to be one of the gang from
which they had just escaped In her agony, expecting nothing less
than death, Margaret bade the man observe, that even the outer
garments of herself and her child had been stripped off by the heart-
less set they had just encountered; and, fancying that she perceived
on his countenance some signs of compassion for them, she boldly
threw herself on his mercy. Drawing her boy towards him,
"Friend," said she to the robber, save the son of your king! I
charge you to protect his innocent life. Take him, and give him a
hiding-place from those who seek his blood !"
[ 60 ]







THE ROBBER OF HEXHAM.


Touched by her confidence in him, and by the helplessness of the
young prince, that rough outcast kneeled before them', and vowed to
protect their lives with his own. Then, taking the child in his arms



































QUEEN MARGARET AND THE ROBBER OF HEXHAM.
he led the way to his cave, where he sheltered them for ten days, in
which time he succeeded in finding one of the queen's friends, better
able to afford her protection than was the robber of Hexham.
[ 61 ]






THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK.


Poor Henry skulked about for some time in the North, was
imprisoned in the Tower, and then regained his crown for awhile.
The fatal battle of Tewkesbury again consigned him to the Tower;
and there, as it is believed, he was murdered. Queen Margaret, whose
spirit remained undaunted to the last, did her utmost to retrieve the
fallen fortunes of her house, but in vain. After some desperate
adventures, she crossed the Channel, and spent the remainder of her
days in obscurity in France.
The death of Henry rendered the House of York triumphant
in the person of Edward IV, He had, indeed, been proclaimed king
ten years before; but, as we have seen, his throne was not secure
until the king was out of his way. Edward died the 9th of April,
1483, in the twenty-third year of his reign.
Edward V. was only thirteen years old when he was proclaimed
king. On account of his youth, he was committed to the care of his
uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who was also appointed Protector
of the kingdom. Richard was a wicked man, and had no sooner got
his nephew into his power, than he determined on seizing the poor
boy's inheritance for himself.
Having the young king secure in the Tower, it was necessary, for
his plans, to lay hold of the younger brother also. The queen, Elizabeth
Woodville, had, after the death of her husband, taken sanctuary
in Westminster, with the young Duke of York; but was persuaded
to give up the young duke quietly, on the pretence that he was only
wanted as a playmate for the young king. His mother gave him up,
clasping him tenderly in her arms, as she kissed and bade him farewell.
When Gloucester got hold of the young duke, he made believe
to be delighted to see him, caressing him, and saying, "Now wel-
come, my lord, with all my very heart !" And then he was placed
with his brother in the Tower.
[ 6G ] 3















THE MURDERED PRINCES.


TYRREL VIEWING THE MURDERED PRINCES.


[ 83]


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THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK.


Having the king and prince quite safe, the next thing that
Cloucester did was to persuade people that the two youths were not
the right heirs to the throne; and he contrived his wicked plans
so cleverly, that he very soon got the crown bestowed upon himself.
And the next thing he did was to have the two princes most bar-
barously assassinated.
Richard did not long enjoy his ill-gotten greatness; the Duke of
Buckingham, who had helped him to it, soon picked a quarrel with
the king, and, by way of revenge, conspired with others to dethrone
him, and raise Henry, Earl of Richmond (grandson of Catherine,
Henry V.'s widow) in his place. The next year Henry left France,
where he had found refuge, with an army of about two thousand
men, and landed at Milford Haven, in Wales, on the 7th of August,
1485. Richard had taken his post at Nottingham, with a force far
outnumbering that of his rival; and the two armies came in sight of
each other at Bosworth, in Leicestershire, on the 22nd of August.
The attack was begun by the archers of both armies; and a
fierce one it was. Richard three times brought up his cavalry to the
charge. The third time he had nearly reached his rival, when
Stanley, pressing forward with his troops, pressed him so closely,
that he was borne down, and perished on the field.
His dead body was speedily stripped of its armour and regal
ornaments; and the crown being placed on Richmond's head, he was
saluted on the field by loud cries of Long live King Henry 1"
Henry afterwards went in state to St. Paul's, where a Te
Deum" of thanksgiving was sung ; and the three standards captured
on Bosworth Field were solemnly deposited on the altar.
With Richard ended the brief rule of the House of York.


C 64














THE TUDOR MONARCHS OF

GREAT BRITAIN.





ENRY VII. was the grandson of Owen Tudor, a Welsh-
man, who married the widow of Henry V. This king
was descended from the Duke of Lancaster; and as
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV., became his wife,
the two Houses of York and Lancaster were'united
k in them. He was an able and sagacious prince, but
not particularly popular.
In the second year of his reign a youth, named
Lambert Simnel, the son of a baker at Oxford, was trained to
represent the son of that Duke of Clarence who was murdered in
the Tower, and, as such, to lay claim to the crown. Simnel, who was
a fine, clever lad, played his part so well, that many believed that he
really was Edward. The Earl of Warwick warmly supported his
cause.
Some years afterwards a second attempt was made to dethrone
Henry, by bringing forward Perkin Warbeck to represent the young
Duke of York, who, with his brother, had perished in the Tower.
But this insurrection also was finally crushed; and though
Warbeck's life was spared, a second attempt that he made led not
[65]
5






THE TUDOR MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN.


only to his own execution, but to that of the unhappy Earl of
Warwick also.
Henry loved money; he loved it so much that he oppressed his
people in order to get it. When he came to die he repented of this;
and, in his will, ordered recompense to be made to those whom he
had injured. He died at Richmond, in 1509, after reigning nearly
twenty-four years.
His son, Henry VIII., was welcomed very sincerely by his
subjects, who were tired of their old, harsh, money-loving king. The
new sovereign was young, handsome, sprightly, and well-educated;
and his conduct, on coming to the throne, was such as to win the
affections of his people.
He soon found himself engaged in a war with France, in which
the English had the best of it. One defeat that the French
sustained from them was a very droll one. Henry had ordered up
some troops to check the advance of a large body of French cavalry;
and when the two came in sight, the Frenchmen rode at the English
with great spirit, but, being seized by a panic, rode away again quite
as rapidly. They were chased; but pursuit only added wings to
their flight: faster and faster fled those redoubtable cavaliers, spur-
ring away as if they were mad, and leaving a handful of their
astonished and confounded leaders to the mercy of the enemy.
Henry could not help laughing when these were brought before him:
he praised the fleetness of their steeds, and the Frenchmen thought
it best to laugh too, saying it was a "Battle of Spurs," for they
were the only weapons that had that day been used.
Henry's French war ended by his making old King Louis
marry his young sister Mary. Poor girl! she did not like it; but
princes and princesses are often obliged to do what they do not like.
Henry had a taste for magnificence as well as for fighting; and
[ 66 ]







HENRY VIII. AT WAR WITH FRANCE.


a meeting between himself and Francis, the new king of France, gave
him a fine opportunity for displaying it.


I


BATTLE OF SPURS.


He left England in May, 1520, attended by a splendid retinue of
nobles, and by Cardinal Wolsey also, whose train almost rivalled
that of his sovereign. The place of meeting was near Calais, where
[ 67 ]






THE TUDOR MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN.


an imitation stone palace, made of wood, had been put together
for Henry's reception, and adorned within and without in the most
sumptuous manner. Francis was of course not outdone in magnifi-
cence by his brother sovereign.
When the two kings met on the Field of Cloth of Gold, they
embraced each other in the most cordial manner ; then dismounting,
they entered, arm-in-arm, a tent prepared for their reception. Each
day they paid each other stately visits; till at length Francis, who
was of a frank, open disposition, put an end to ceremony. Leaving
Ardres, where lie had taken up his abode, with only a few attendants,
he rode right into Henry's quarters at Guisnes; and, saying merrily
to the guards-" You are all my prisoners, carry me to your master,"
was at once conducted to the astonished and pleased Henry, who,
taking a valuable jewel from his own neck, placed it on that of
Francis, assuring him that he had played him the most agreeable
trick in the world. Francis, in return, presented Henry with a
bracelet; then he helped him to dress, and finally rode off, in the
briskest spirits possible, after his pleasantry. One of his courtiers
scolded him well, for being so foolish as thus to trust himself to the
English; but the good-humoured monarch only laughed it off.
Feasts and tournaments followed: and then the two kings
parted, apparently well satisfied with each other.
All this friendliness, however, did not mean much. In about a
twelvemonthh after, Henry joined the Emperor, Charles V., in making
'war upon his former brother Francis. This war was carried on in
Italy, and with various fortunes to the combatants, until 1524, when
things went ill with the French. Their best knight, the Chevalier
Bayard, was slain on the field of battle; and, on laying siege to
Pavia, they were not only routed, but had their king taken prisoner.
Francis had his horse killed under him; and, himself wounded
[ 68 ]

















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in the face and hand, was compelled to surrender to the enemy. The
Viceroy of Naples, kneeling, received the king's sword, which Francis
gave him in token of surrender ; and, respectfully kissing the gaunt-
leted hand that held it, presented his own in return, saying, that it
did not become a monarch to appear unarmed in the presence of
a subject.
Henry was so exceedingly delighted when he heard that his old
friend Francis was taken prisoner, that he ordered public thanks-
givings at St. Paul's for the happy event. He would very much
have liked to have Francis committed to his keeping; but the
Emperor knew better than to part with his prize. So Henry, in a
pet, changed sides; and, through Wolsey, did all he could to procure
the liberation of the French king, which was accomplished in about
six months.
Henry now began to show all his bad qualities. He married, and
got rid of his wives, one after another, as fast as he got tired of them.
Two of them he brutally beheaded. The first of these was Anne
Boleyn, one of the attendants of his former wife, Queen Catherine.
The king appeared much attached to her, but, speedily finding out
that he liked Jane Seymour better, had little difficulty in getting
Anne out of his way.
One day, when the poor queen was at dinner, in the palace of
Greenwich, a number of officials, among whom was the lieutenant of
the Tower, entered her apartment. Trembling with apprehension of
the king's anger, she inquired their errand; and was answered that
they came, by his command, to conduct her to the Tower. She
quietly submitted herself to them; then, rising up, was instantly,
without even changing her dress, placed in the barge awaiting her,
and swiftly rowed to the Tower; exclaiming, as she entered it-" O
Lord, help me as I am guiltless of that laid to my charge."
[ 70 ]











I


ARREST O0 ANNE BOLEYN.


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THE TUDOR MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN.


Anne was brought to trial for crimes of which she was innocent,
of course found guilty, and was beheaded within the Tower walls, on
the 19th of May, 1536.
There was much blood shed on the scaffold in this reign; and
Henry rendered himself particularly infamous by putting to death
Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, and the excellent Sir Thomas More,
who succeeded Wolsey as chancellor.
Towards the close of his life he became more disagreeable and
tyrannical than ever, and breathed his last on the 28th of January,
1547.
He was succeeded by his son, Edward VI., the only child of Queen
Jane Seymour. Edward was but ten years old when his father died,
but had always shown himself so good and studious a little fellow,
that his people were at once prepared to love him.
His reign was short. But in that short time he gave proofs of
goodness that made his people only the more regret his untimely
death. He founded Christ's Hospital, in London; a school for the
maintenance and education of boys. You may see the lads belonging
to it playing about in the grounds, dressed in their long blue coats,
with yellow breeches and stockings. He also founded St. Bartholo-
mew's Hospital, where the sick poor are received. Those are two
good establishments, for which we have to thank the boy-king.
Five years after coming to the throne Edward's health failed
seriously; and, being put under the care of a pretentious old
woman, his illness soon proved fatal. After having, in his feebleness,
been induced to set aside his sisters Mary and Elizabeth, and leave
the crown to his cousin, Lady Jane Grey, the young king afterwards-
expired at Greenwich, in the sixteenth year of his age.
The Duke of Northumberland, who persuaded Edward to leave
the crown to Lady Jane Grey, little thought he was destroying his
[ 72 3

































































EDWARD VI. ENTERING LONDON.


[ 73 ]


Jwrt~







THE TUDOR MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN.


own son and daughter-in law. Jane was proclaimed queen, but few
heeded it. The Princess Mary, eldest daughter of Henry, was almost
universally acknowledged as queen; and a few days saw the unfor-
tunate Jane a prisoner in the Tower, whence she only came to be
beheaded, together with her equally young husband, Guildford
Dudley.
Mary, who had been harshly treated, both by her father and
brother, seemed at first disposed to be a just ruler of her people.
But, after marrying Philip of Spain, she became a dreadful per-
secutor; and, horrible to relate, both men and women, in great
numbers, were burned alive, because they did not believe as those
did who belonged to the Church of Rome.
Archbishop Cranmer was laid hold of, and committed to prison,
because he would not change his faith at the bidding of those cruel
persecutors. They threatened to put him .to death; and in the
dreadful prospect of death by fire, his courage failed him, and he
promised to believe anything they liked. But, after all, his enemies
were malicious enough to take his life; and then the archbishop,
bitterly repenting the wrong to which alone the fear of such a death
had tempted him, boldly avowed the truth.. He was hurried off to
the stake; and, as the flames rose around him, he thrust his right
hand into them, exclaiming-" This hand hath offended !"-for, to
save his life, he had written that which he did not believe to be true.
He soon perished in those awful flames, raising his eyes to heaven,
and saying-" Lord Jesus, receive my spirit."
Mary's chief fault was her bigotry, and in suffering others, who
were far more bigoted than herself, to lead her to those cruel deeds
of which she bears the blame.
She died on the 17th of November, 1558, in the forty-second
year of her age, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
[ 74 -

























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[ 75 ]


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THE TUDOR MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN.


The Princess Elizabeth, who was seventeen years younger than
her sister, succeeded Queen Mary.
She was living at Hatfield when Mary died; and, two days after
that event, the lords of the council went thither, and with much state
proclaimed her queen, at the gates of Hatfield House.
On the 23rd of November, the new queen, attended by a magni-
ficent train of nobles, and vast numbers of the common people, set
out for London. When she reached Highgate, the bishops came
forth to meet her, and, on their knees, tendered their allegiance. She
received them very graciously, and all were permitted to kiss the
royal hand, save Bonner, Bishop of London, who had been foremost
in the late persecutions; from him she turned away, with marked
disfavour; and that cruel man had to bear this public and deserved
slight as he best could. On entering the Tower, she knelt down, and
gave God thanks for having delivered her from so many dangers; for
she had once been a prisoner within its walls.
She was crowned at Westminster, on Sunday, the 15th of
December; and very gracious was she to the thronging multitudes
who witnessed her procession from the Tower. She suffered any of
them, however humble, to speak to their sovereign; and a poor
woman having presented her with a sprig of rosemary at the Fleet
Bridge, the queen carried it in her hand all the way to Westminster.
Elizabeth, however, did not feel her throne quite secure;
because some people thought that Mary of Scotland had a better
right to it than she had. Mary, at an early age, was married to
Francis, afterwards King of France; and, being widowed at eighteen,
returned to her own kingdom, where the turbulent nobles and people
involved her in continual troubles, which Elizabeth delighted to
aggravate. At length, open war broke out between Mary and one
portion of her subjects, who, having got possession of her son, a mere
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SURRENDER OF MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS, AT CARBERRY HILL.


[ 77






THE TUDOR MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN.


baby, set him up as king, in opposition to his mother. The royal
forces, and those of the insurgents, met at Carberry Hill, near Edin-
burgh, and a battle was about to take place, when Mary, perceiving
that her troops were rapidly deserting her, was prevailed upon to
give herself up to her rebel subjects. She was received with
apparent respect; one of their leaders kissing her hand, and then
leading her horse to their camp. She soon, however, found that she
was only a prisoner; and, being placed in close captivity in Lochleven
Castle-a fortress in the middle of a lake-was compelled to resign
her crown to her son. She made her escape a few months after-
wards, and her people rallying round her, she made one more effort
for freedom. But at Langside, near Glasgow, her army was utterly
routed; and then she ventured to throw herself on the compassion of
Elizabeth, hoping to find shelter in her dominions.
Never did any one make a greater mistake than did Mary
Stuart, in trusting herself to Elizabeth of England. Beginning with
professions of friendliness, she kept Mary a captive for nineteen
years, and then completed her baseness by having the Scottish queen
beheaded in Fotheringay Castle.
The reign of Elizabeth was distinguished for naval adventure
and prowess. Hawkins, Drake, and Frobisher were the most cele-
brated English heroes on the seas at this time. Drake was the first
Englishman who ever sailed round the world. He accomplished this
in safety; and having, by the way, done a great deal of mischief to
the Spaniards, with whom the English were on bad terms, Elizabeth
was so delighted, that she did him the honour of dining with him on
board his ship, the "Golden Hind ;" and afterwards-by one gentle
touch of a sword on his shoulder-of converting him from plain
Captain Drake into Sir Francis.
The new knight did his country good service ; for eight years
[ 78 ]







QUEEN ELIZABETH ON BOARD THE GOLDEN HIND."


QUEEN ELIZABETH KNIGHTING DRAKE.


afterwards, when the Spaniards threatened to invade England, Drake
was beforehand with them; and, sailing boldly into the harbour of
[ 79 ]






THE TUDOR MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN.


Cadiz, destroyed such quantities of their shipping, as delayed the
sailing of the Armada for a twelvemonth.
The "Armada" consisted of a hundred and thirty vessels, carry-
ing between three and four thousand brass guns, and having twenty
thousand troops on board; while such was the zeal of the Spaniards
on this occasion, that among the numerous crew that manned the
fleet were to be found two thousand gentlemen, who gave their
services in the humble capacity of common seamen.
On, at last, came the "Invincible Armada," as the Spaniards
proudly named it. But, between tempest and our valiant seamen,
it was speedily knocked to pieces; only a few vessels out of that vast
multitude escaping, miserably, to Spain again. Not content with the
destruction of the "Armada," the English must needs send an expedi-
tion to Spain, for the purpose of still further punishing the Spaniards.
This expedition was under the command of Essex, the queen's new
favourite, who not only behaved very gallantly in his attack upon
the enemy, but so humanely also, that even the Spaniards themselves
gratefully acknowledged his noble conduct.
Essex, though brave, was a vain and foolish man; sometimes he
was very impertinent to his sovereign; and Elizabeth, in her old age,
getting tired of his wilfulness, at last suffered him to be put to death,
for a conspiracy into which he had entered against her.
But the regret which she afterwards felt hastened her end. She
died at Richmond, on the 24th of March, 1603, in the seventieth year
of her age, and the forty-fourth of her reign.
Elizabeth had many faults; but she was a great queen.


[ 8s j















OUR SOVEREIGNS

FROM JAMES I. TO VICTORIA.





LIZABETH'S successor was James Stuart, the sixth
king of that name in Scotland, and the first in
England. He was the son of Mary Stuart, whom
Elizabeth beheaded; and under him the two king-
doms were first united.
James had not been long on the English
Throne when the horrible conspiracy known as the Gunpowder
SPlot was entered into, for destroying the king and the mem-
bers of both Houses of Parliament.
James's eldest son, Henry, a youth of great promise, died
in 1612, and his brother Charles then became heir to the throne.
Charles married the Princess Henrietta Maria, daughter of
Henry IV. of France. Before this took place, however, King James
died, in the fifty-ninth year of his age, and the twenty-third of his
English reign.
Very soon after the accession of Charles I. to the throne, he
found himself involved in disputes with the House of Commons.
At length the Royalists and Parliamentarians took up arms
[ 81 ]







OUR SOVEREIGNS FROM JAMES I. TO VICTORIA


against each other. The king's party were at first victorious; but
they were afterwards defeated at Marston Moor by Oliver Cromwell,
and were so completely routed at Naseby, in Northamptonshire, on
the 14th of June, 1645, that the king had to fly for safety, leaving
all his military stores behind him.
Poor Charles vainly sought refuge in Wales; and, after more
unsuccessful fighting, shut himself up in Oxford, where Sir Thomas
Fairfax, one of the Parliamentary generals, laid siege to him.
Charles, having no means of defending the city, resolved to make
his way quietly out, and throw himself upon the people of Scotland,
,who, though they had been rebellious enough, still seemed milder in
their demands than the English had become. The Scots did not,
however, merit Charles's confidence; for they eventually delivered
him to the English army, by whom he wajs kept in custody at
Holmby Castle.
Oliver Cromwell had by this time become a man of great im-
portance. He acted with an independence and energy which con-
vinced all men of his talents to govern, and was soon made supreme.
The king was removed from prison to prison; sometimes very
harshly treated; and having the dreadful fear of assassination before
his eyes. Although Charles would not acknowledge the power of
his subjects to try him, his enemies paid no heed to his opposition,
but brought the king to trial in Westminster Hall, and he was
sentenced to be beheaded.
Charles was led out to execution in the street before Whitehall;
on the 30th of January, 1649.
An attempt was now made, first by the Irish, and then by the
Scotch, to place Charles II., the son of Charles I., upon their
respective thrones; but both projects were utterly defeated by the
energy of Cromwell. Charles then threw himself upon his English
S82 ]


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CROMWELL REF USING TO ACCEPT THE CROWN.


[ 83 1


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OUR SOVEREIGNS FROM JAMES I, TO VICTORIA.


friends, and with an army of fourteen thousand men hazarded a
battle at Worcester. The royalists were routed, and Charles II. was
compelled to fly for his life.
Having dismissed the Parliament, the Protector of the Common-
wealth (for that was the title Cromwell bore) called together a new
Parliament, and for a while governed the kingdom in conjunction
with them. In time they proposed to him to accept the crown, and
call himself King of England, but this he declined. Already he had
as much power as any sovereign, and he soon proved this by the
dismissal of the new Parliament, when he found, them unwilling to
devote themselves to the public business for which they were called
together. After this he ruled without a Parliament, and his power
was as much dreaded abroad as at home.
Oliver Cromwell died on the 3rd of September, 1658, at
the age of fifty-eight, and in the ninth year of his Protectorate.
Richard, his son, was nominated to succeed him as Protector.
Richard, however, was an amiable man, who loved a quiet life, and
finding his high position not a very comfortable one, he soon gave it
up, and Prince Charles II., who had taken refuge in Holland, was
implored to return. He embarked at Scheveling on the 24th of May,
1660, and a two days' sail brought him to Dover, where he was
received by an enthusiastic crowd of the nobility and gentry, who,
dissatisfied with a Commonwealth and a Protector, were glad to have
a king once more.
The new king pleased his subjects very much at first. Bis
manners were affable and winning; he chose his ministers discreetly;
and all seemed to go well.
But Charles II. proved anything rather than a wise and
good monarch. He was mean enough to receive a yearly
pension from Louis XIV. of France; and some of his subjects,
[ 84 ]






FALL OF JAMES II.


who pretended to call themselves patriots, were content to do
the same.
In this reign the Plague broke out in London, and destroyed in
one year ninety thousand people. The next year was almost more
terribly signalised by the Great Fire of London, by which no less
than eighty-nine churches and more than thirteen thousand houses
were totally destroyed.
Charles died, after a fit of apoplexy, on the 6th of February,
1685, in the fifty-fifth year of his age, and the twenty-fifth of his
actual reign, and was succeeded by his brother James.
James was a brave man, but being of a harsh, severe temper, he
was not much liked. The Duke of Monmouth's insurrection was the
first important event in the short reign of King James. It was
subdued and punished with great cruelty: the Duke himself, though
he was the king's nephew, lost his head for it.
James was a Romanist, and showed his favour to those of his
own church in ways forbidden by the law. He tried to coerce the
bishops, and make them break the law, in order to gratify him.
They were firm in their resistance; and he sent seven of them to the
Tower for trial. This threw the nation into a ferment, and the
bishops were acquitted. To get out of their difficulties, the people
determined, at last, on inviting over William, Prince of Orange (who
had married James's eldest daughter, Mary), to help them to send
away James, and place Mary upon the throne instead.
The Prince at once fitted out a small fleet and army, with which
he landed in Torbay, on the 5th of November, 1685. He was, on the
whole, well received; and James found himself deserted by almost
all his friends, including his daughter Anne, and her husband Prince
George. James now fled with his young queen, and her infant, the
Prince of Wales, safely out of the country.
[ 85 ]






OUR SOVEREIGNS FROM JAMES I. TO VICTORIA.


The people of England were content to have William and Mary
for their sovereigns, the Irish were not, and there was some hard
fighting in Ireland before James was driven out of that country also,
and reduced to live, for the rest of his days, a melancholy exile
in France. William was not a popular monarch, and towards the
close of his reign he was frequently at variance with his Parliament.
Queen Mary, unfortunately, died early, in 1694; and as she died
childless, her sister, the Princess Anne, became heir to the throne after
William. To prevent the succession of James's son, the Parliament
made a fresh arrangement, according to which the crown, after Anne's
death, was to go to the Electress Sophia of Hanover, and her family.
William's end was now fast approaching. He became feverish
and ill, and gradually sank till the 7th of March, when he expired.
This was in 1702, after a reign of about thirteen years.
James II. died a short time before his son-in-law. His severe
reverses had softened the harshness of his character; and he gave the
best proofs of a truly religious spirit by the kindness and amiability
of his home-life.
Anne was exceedingly popular when she came to the throne;
she was a good-hearted sort of woman, and she was a Stuart, for
whom the people had yet muih affection.
One of her first acts was to go to war with France. In 1706
Marlborough gained the celebrated battle of Ramillies, in which the
enemy lost thirteen thousand men, and all their artillery; a loss that
compelled them to evacuate Spanish Flanders. The English at
last got tired of fighting for mere glory, and peace was made at
Utrecht on the 11th of April, 1713.
One of the most important events of Queen Anne's reign was
the union between England and Scotland, which took place on the
6th of March, 1707. Anne died on the 1st of August, 1714.
[ s83 ]








WILLIAM IIJ.


LANDING OF WILLIAM III.


[ 87 1




"-4

OUR SOVEREIGNS FROM JAMES I. TO VICTORIA.

When good Queen Anne" had breathed her last, there was a
short but agitating uncertainty as to who should succeed her. But
there was no opposition to King George, who came over, and quietly
took possession of his rich prize on the 28th of September, 1714. His
accession was according to the Act of Settlement passed in the reign
of William III., which limited the crown to Sophia, who was the
grand-daughter of James I., and the mother of George.
The friends of James Edward Stuart thought that now was the
time for them to be up and doing; and they acted accordingly.
Scotland was the most favourable field of action for them; and the
standard of the Pretender," as he was called, was set up by the
Earl of Mar, at Kirk-Michael, in Braemar, on the 6th of September,
1715, while the Jacobite noblemen in the north of England prepared
to co-operate with their friends in Scotland. But the insurrection
was soon over. The decisive battle of Preston, on November 11th,
ruined the Pretender's cause. He escaped to France, and his unfor-
tunateo adherents had to bear the full vengeance of King George,
who, in the hour of success, was too forgetful of mercy.
King George died suddenly, while on the way to his beloved
Hanover, on the 11th of June, 1727, in the sixty-eighth year of his
age, and the thirteenth of his reign. He was succeeded by his eldest
son, who became George II.
George II. continued those wars on the Continent which had
been begun by William III., in order to preserve the '"balance of
power"-that is, to prevent any one kingdom having more power
than the other kingdoms might think suitable. At Dettingen, in
1743, he gained a great victory over the French. Fontenoy, which
was fought two years later, proved a change for us; there, we
English, under the young Duke of Cumberland, were beaten with
considerable loss.
[ 88 ]






















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OUR SOVEREIGNS FROM JAMES I. TO VICTORIA.


The year 1745 was marked by another Jacobite insurrection.
Prince Charles Stiart, son of the first Pretender, left France on the
14th of July in that year, with a couple of small vessels, and landed
on a wild part of the Highland coast, with only seven followers.
Numbers hastened to support him, and then the prince's standard
was solemnly set up in the quiet little valley of Glenfinnan. After
various adventures, and enduring much hardship, a final battle took
place on Culloden Moor, between the Pretender's half-starved army
and a much larger force of the king's, under the Duke of Cumberland.
It ended in the total defeat of the prince's friends; andthe hopes of
the Stuarts were crushed for ever.
King George died suddenly: on the 25th of October, 1760, and
was succeeded by-his grandson, George III., who, being the first real
Englishman that had ascended the throne since the days of James II.,
was liked all the better on that account.
The events of his long reign were varied and striking. The
American colonies constituted themselves into an independent
government, entitled the United States of America. The Declaration
of Independence was signed on the 4th of July, 1776, and acknow-
ledged by the British Government by a treaty signed at Paris,
September 3rd, 1783. General Washington was elected the first
president in 1789.
At the very time that America was lost to the British crown,
events were occurring in a distant part of the world which led to the
,acquisition of our Indian empire-the most extensive and magnificent
conquest in the annals of nations. In 1757 the famous victory of
Plassey was gained by Colonel Clive, who, with only 3,000 men,
defeated an army of 50,000. Hyder Ali was defeated by Sir Eyre
Coote in 1781, and died after his final overthrow in 1782. The native
forces were then mustered against us by Hyder Ali's son (Tippoo
[90]




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