Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introductory remarks -- the early...
 Three border counties
 Four counties
 Forfar or Angus
 Concluding chapter
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Stories of Scotland and its adjacent islands
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015736/00001
 Material Information
Title: Stories of Scotland and its adjacent islands
Physical Description: iv, 174, 9 p., 5 leaves of plates (1 fold.) : ill., map (some col.) ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Geldart, Hannah Ransome, 1820?-1861
Fletcher, Josiah ( Publisher )
Fletcher and Alexander ( Printer )
Hall, Virtue, and Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Arthur Hall, Virtue & Co.
Josiah Fletcher
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Fletcher and Alexander
Publication Date: 1851
Copyright Date: 1851
Subject: Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- Scotland   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1851   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1851
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Norwich
General Note: "Fourth thousand"--T.p.
Statement of Responsibility: by Mrs. Thomas Geldart.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00015736
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA8266
notis - ALG6787
oclc - 04451954
alephbibnum - 002226501

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introductory remarks -- the early kings, etc.
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Three border counties
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 24b
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 44b
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Four counties
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 102a
        Page 102b
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Forfar or Angus
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Concluding chapter
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Back Matter
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
    Back Cover
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
Full Text


for ftong POcP{,

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?nitlr is te ing.
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Stories of taftlaik.
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The Baldwin Library



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SCOTLAND is the northern division of the cele-
brated island of Great Britain. If you look at
it on a map, you will be struck with its rugged
appearance. Its coast is jagged and irregular,
and its interior for the most part covered with
mountains and watered with lakes. Separated
from England by the Cheviot Hills, which ex-
tend almost from sea to sea, with a breadth of
from forty to sixty miles, it would seem as though
nature herself had determined the boundaries of
each country; but man willed it otherwise, and
from very early times these two neighbours,
isolated from other parts of the world by large
and stormy seas, began to quarrel and fight like


bitter enemies. Wars-cruel, bloody, desolating
wars-lasted at short intervals for many years;
and it is very likely that this quarrelsome spirit
was encouraged .by those ambitious, battle-
loving people, the Romans.
The Romans, you know, had it in contempla-
tion to conquer the whole world, and to make
their own city of Rome the head of all the
nations on the face of the earth. They suc-
ceeded better in the flat parts of Britain than
in the hilly countries; and, although they pos-
sessed themselves of England and a part of the
south of Scotland, they could not make their
way into those great northern mountains, where
the hardy mountaineers were prepared to resist
them steadily, and where the rough fare of a
barbarous country was distasteful enough to the
more civilized and luxurious Roman soldier; so
they retreated.
These wild people, however, having been once
unsettled, began to come down from their
mountain fastnesses, and invade that part of
the land which had already been conquered by
the Romans. The people of the northern part
of Scotland were not one nation; there were


some called Scots and others Picts. The earliest
authentic information which we possess of the
Scots is that they were a people inhabiting
Ireland, which island they appear, in the 5th
century, to have divided with the Hiberni, the
previous inhabitants, over whom they gradually
acquired so decided a superiority as to give their
name to the country exclusively called Scotia
from the 5th to the 10th century. In the
beginning of the 6th century, a colony of this
people crossed over from the north of Ireland
to North Britain and settled in the county now
called Argyle. There have been many different
opinions however as to the origin both of the
Scots and Picts, the latter seeming to be a term
commonly used by Roman writers to describe
painted men rather than any distinct race; but
the discussion of this matter would not be inter-
esting to you. Quarrelsome as they were with
one another, the Picts and Scots made common
cause against the people who had attacked them;
and their inroads were rather alarming to the
new settlers. The Romans therefore built a very
long wall between one side of the island and
the other, made towers on the wall, and filled


camps with soldiers in various places around; so
that at the least alarm the men might hasten to
defend any part of the wall which was attacked.
This first Roman wall you may see marked on
the map; it was built between the two friths
of Clyde and Forth, just where the island of
Britain is at the narrowest. Some parts of it
still remain, but the work was quite a failure.
The Barbarians,* as the Romans called the Picts
and Scots, were not to be kept away by a wall,
so the Romans resolved to give up a portion of
the country in hopes of keeping them quiet;
and therefore built a new wall stronger than
before, about sixty miles further back. The
Barbarians made very persevering attempts to
get over this wall, but in vain: and in the midst
of the contest the Roman soldiers were wanted
in Rome, for civil war had broken out there,
and the Emperor sent orders for them all to
come and help to fight in their own country.
So leaving the Britons and Scots with the
fighting mania upon them, they forsook them
and returned, and then, indeed, the Barbarians
Barbarians was a general name given by the Romans to
the inhabitants of most countries in central Europe.


rushed in like a flood on the poor Britons, who,
terribly alarmed, sent for help to Germany, and
these people, called Saxons, came over and, being
a very warlike nation, were glad to assist the
The Saxons, however, expected payment for
their trouble, and prepared to take advantage of
the condition of distress in which they found
the Britons, by helping themselves to the best of
everything they saw, taking possession of the
country, and using the inhabitants as slaves and
servants. Many of the Britons fled into Wales,
which country they defended for a long time,
and lived under their own government and laws;
until the English got possession of that also.
Scotland, however, was not so easy a conquest,
as England found to her cost, and still remained
The history of the early Scottish kings is
deeply interesting. There was old king Duncan
in the very early times, his sons Malcolm and
Donaldbane, and his famous relative Macbeth,
in whose story Shakespeare the poet has mixed
up truth and fiction, till the former is hard to
come at. I will tell you the tale of Macbeth


and the witches, as it is generally believed, when
we come to the proper place; but these events
occurred in the reign of our Saxon king, called
Edward the Confessor, who, in assisting the
Scottish king to recover possession of the throne,
acted more generously than his successors, and
never thought of paying himself for his help out
of the Scotch kingdom as his predecessors did.
Then came the Norman conquest, which,
although it did, not involve Scotland, had an
indirect effect on the country.
Many Saxons who were driven from England
by William's cruelty and oppression took re-
fuge in Scotland, and this was one means of
greatly civilising the southern part of the land.
Edgar Atheling, a relation of the amiable
Edward the Cpnfessor, accompanied the exiles,
and Malcolm Cammore, who had received much
kindness in former times from Edward, remem-
bering that kindness, married the Princess
Margaret, and made her Queen of Scotland.
Malcolm tried to seat Edgar on the English
throne, but in vain; William and his Normans
were not to be vanquished. After Malcolm,
came three kings in succession, who made little


figure in Scottish history; and then Malcolm's
sons, Edgar, Alexander, and David.
David made war against England, and in his
reign was fought the noted battle of the Standard.
He it was that founded the abbeys, to which you
will hear frequent reference. That at Holyrood,
in Edinburgh; Melrose, in Roxburghshire;
Dryburgh, in Berwickshire, and others. He
appears according to his knowledge to have been
a religious man, and was called by the Roman
Catholics, Saint David.
James I of England and VI of Scotland,
thought his predecessor rather too generous to
the church, for he once said of him that Saint
David had proved a sore saint to the crown."
One reason which probably had weight with
David was that out of veneration to religion,
church lands were frequently spared, when other
parts of the country were laid waste and plunder-
ed. David, therefore, considered perhaps that by
putting land under the protection of the church,
he had done his best to secure them against
devastation, and most of his monasteries were
founded in those parts of the country peculiarly
exposed to danger from the enemy's attacks.


At the time of Edward I, of England, Scot-
land was reduced almost to the condition of a
conquered country. The Lord High Justice
Ormesby, called all men to account who refused
an oath of allegiance to King Edward. Such
persons were summoned to the courts of justice,
fined, deprived of their estates, and otherwise
severely punished. Scotland was therefore in
great distress, and the inhabitants determined
to rise against the English or southern men, as
they called them, to recover the liberty and
independence of their country. Their leader
was the celebrated William Wallace, whose name
is still mentioned with reverence and affection
in Scotland. Some particulars of the story of
Wallace and Bruce you will read in the proper
place, for it is not my design to give you a
regular history of the kings in succession. Bruce
succeeded in his efforts to free his country from
much tyranny and oppression, but in his suc-
cessor's time, the warlike Edward III, war was
again declared against Scotland. Robert Bruce,
one of the greatest of the Scottish kings, being
dead, the kingdom descended to his son David,
who was but four years old when his father died.


There was, therefore, a Regent appointed,
Randolph, Earl of Murray; that is to say, a
person who exercised the authority of king for
a time, until the young king was of an age to
reign. Randolph was a just but very severe
ruler, he appears to have taken great pleasure
in putting criminals to death; there was no
mercy with his judgment. He once sent orders
to the Highlands to have certain thieves and
robbers executed, and his officer caused their
heads to be hung round the walls of the castle
to the number of fifty. When Randolph came
down the lake in a barge and saw the castle of
Ellangowan, where the execution had taken
place, adorned with their bloody heads, he said
that he loved better to look on them than on a
garland of roses.
Edward Baliol, the son of a certain John
Baliol, whom Edward I had formerly created
king, and afterwards dethroned, came over from
France, where he had been living since his
father's dethronement, and laid claim to the
crown. Edward III took up his cause, with a
view, no doubt, to secure Scotland for himself,
and the country was reduced to a sad state by


repeated wars. Edward was busily engaged too
at this time against the French king, and this
rather weakened his force in Scotland, or it is
possible he might have completed the conquest.
Whilst he was absent on one of his French
expeditions, the battle of Nevill's Cross was
fought near Durham, when David II was taken
prisoner and led in triumph through the streets
of London.
We are coming to the end of the Scottish
kings. After David Bruce's death the crown
was claimed by the Stuarts, a singularly unfor-
tunate family. Robert Stuart, who had married
a daughter of David Bruce, was the first of the
line of Stuart kings. James I was assassinated;
James II was killed by a cannon, which burst at
the siege of Roxborough; James III fell in the
battle field, by the hands of his own subjects;
James IV also fell at the battle of Flodden Field,
fought against the English; James V, after a
great defeat in the time of Henry VIII, died it
issaid of grief. The fate of his daughter Mary,
Queen of Scots, is well known. After the union,
Charles I, king of Scotland and England, was
beheaded. Charles II wandered many years as


an exile. James II was obliged to resign the
crown; and his son and grandson, known by the
names of the Pretenders, vainly trying to recover
the kingdom, were proclaimed traitors, and had
a price of 4006 set upon their heads.
Thus we have glanced at the history of
Scotland, which will enable you, I hope, slight
as is the sketch, to understand the allusions
which may be made to the different kings in
the course of this little volume. And now let
us look for a moment at the country as a whole.
Those deep indentations made by the sea into
the land are, in the language of the country,
called friths or firths, such as the frith of Forth,
the friths of Clyde, &c., giving Scotland the
irregular outline, which you see on the map.
The lakes are called Lochs; thus you will hear
of Loch Lomond, Loch Katrine. The surface of
the country is extremely unequal and varied; it
is divided into the Highlands and Lowlands.
The Grampians, a long chain of hills, dividing
the two districts.
The climate of Scotland, compared with that
of England, is wet and cold, and corn, fruit, and
vegetables, are usually much more forward with


us than with our neighbours. The productions
are numerous and valuable.
There is a great quantity of coal, iron is
found very generally, as well as lead and marble
in the northern counties, plumbago in Dumfries,
one of the southern, and slate in Argyleshire
and Perthshire, which are more northerly.
The ancient name of this interesting country
was Caledonia, and its inhabitants probably
Celts, that migratory people who came from
the neighbourhood of the Euxine and Caspian
seas. We will now proceed to notice each county
separately, and see if we can accomplish the task
of learning the name and peculiarity of every
one of the thirty-three counties.

Flodden--James the Fourth's death-Polworth and Lady Grizzell
King David's Abbeys-Kelso-Siege of Roxburgh-Bursting of the Can-
non-Death of James-Jedburgh-Its Abbey-Dryburgh-Scott's
burial place-Melrose-Sculpture-Michael Scott'sTomb-Character
of the Monks-Abbotsford-Galashiel's Convenient Shop.
Gretna-Johnny Armstrong-Cure for great Talkers-Gray Mare's Tail
-Mountain Scenery-Stories of the Covenanters-Feudal System-
Watch Hill-Dumfries-Burns.

THE divisions of Scotland are thirty-three. It
has eleven counties to the north, nine in the
middle, and thirteen in the south. We will first
try and learn the names of those which are
usually called the Border Counties. You must
look at the map and see which these counties
are. Do not merely take my account of them,
see for yourself. No book on geography can
stand in the place of a map. It is there that
you see the exact position and relation of one


country to another. Whilst its very form may
be helpful to you in recollecting its locality and
We will begin with BERWICKSHIRE. This
county you see has a small portion of North-
umberland to the south-east: the German Ocean
to the east; Haddington to the north; and a
part of Edinburgh and Roxburghshire to the
west and south.
Berwick, usually called Berwick upon Tweed,
is unlike every other town in Britain. It was
fortified by King Charles I in 1639, for the
purpose of overawing the Covenanters, part of
whose history I hope to give you in another
place. It is said that Berwickshire people are
unable to sound the letter R. This defect,
which is called the burr, gives a very singular
sound to their speech; I think if you have once
heard a native of Berwickshire talk, you will
not easily forget the peculiarity.
There is a ford across the river Tweed, about
twelve miles west of the town of Berwick, which
the Scotch and English armies usually crossed
when they invaded one another's country. It
was also a great place of conference; and


Holywell Haugh, close by, is the field where
Edward I had a meeting with the Scotch
nobility, to settle the dispute between Baliol
and Bruce, about the right to the throne of
Scotland, to which you have seen reference in
the previous chapter. Coldstream in this county
had at one time a handsome Priory. You may
have heard of a regiment of soldiers called the
Coldstream Guards. It was originally raised
by General Monk, who lived at Coldstream in
Charles the Second's reign; and has ever since
borne the name of the Coldstream Guards.
The field, or rather hill, of Flodden, is about
six miles from this town. It is memorable as
the scene of a great battle, the particulars of
which, connected as they are with the Scot-
tish history at that period, I will give you.
James IV reigned over Scotland at the time
that Henry VII was king of England. James
had rebelled against his own father, who, after
receiving some wounds in the battle field, was
treacherously murdered by a priest who pretended
to come and hear his confession. James IV
had not long been on the throne before he
began to feel some remorse for his undutiful

conduct; and according to the doctrines of the
Roman Catholic Church, which but too greatly
tend to lead men away from the Saviour of
sinners, he tried to atone for it by various acts
of penance. Amongst other tokens of repent-
ance, he caused an iron belt or girdle to be made,
which he wore constantly under his clothes,
every year of his life adding another link of
an ounce or two to the weight of it. James
was, however, for the times in which he lived, a
good king. He was not fond of flatterers; but
ruled by the counsel of the wisest of his nobility,
and won the hearts of his people. He used to
go about in disguise amongst the poorer classes,
and ask questions about the king, thus dis-
covering his subjects' opinion of him, and many
a good lesson did he receive, in these private
visits, from the simple chiefs or the lowlier part
of his subjects.
James IV being one of the most popular
monarchs that ever reigned in Scotland, his
countrymen have endeavoured to make out that
he could not have been accessory to the insur-
rection against his father, as they affirm him to
have been but thirteen or fourteen when it


occurred. His birth, however, taking place in
1472, and his father's death having occurred in
1488, he must then have entered his seventeenth
year. Henry VII of England, who was very
anxious to make a friend of James IV, was
not a warlike king; for he loved money, and
wars are expensive affairs. He therefore pro-
jected a marriage between his eldest daughter,
Margaret Tudor, and James, whilst Margaret
was yet an infant; and when still an inexpe-
rienced girl of less than fourteen, the marriage
was actually completed. The king was eighteen
years older than his girl queen, and was at the
time of their marriage the handsomest sovereign
in Europe. Sir Walter Scott, in one of his
poems thus describes him:-
For hazel was his eagle eye,
And auburn of the darkest dye
His short curled beard and hair;
Light was his footstep in the dance,
And firm his stirrup in the lists;
And oh, he had that merry glance,
Which seldom lady's heart resists."
The king appears to have been very kind and
persevering in his efforts to please and conciliate
his bride, but she was a difficult young lady to
please, it seems; and was somewhat like her


brother, King Henry VIII, in temper and dis-
position. Her first letter to her father after their
marriage was one of complaint and murmur,
although her husband was doing his utmost to
entertain and oblige her and bid her welcome
to Scotland.
When Henry VII died, Margaret's brother
Henry, who was of a much more impetuous,
fiery, despotic disposition, could not agree with
James at all. The cause of their quarrel
you may read in Scottish history; the result
was the disastrous battle of Flodden, where
James and many of his Warlike peers and loyal
gentry fell on the field. The conquerors lost
5000 men, but the Scots perhaps twice that
number.1 The English lost but few of distinction,
whilst the Scots left on their battle field-the
king, two bishops, two mitred abbots,2 twelve
1 This battle was fought in the year 1513.
2 You may wonder to hear of an abbot's mitre. In the
early history of the church, abbots did not wear mitres, only
bishops being permitted that honour; but as the wealth and
importance of monasteries and abbeys increased so did the pomp
of their heads or superiors. The abbot was then a person of
great importance, and was regarded in the monasteries as a lord
and father, no appeal being allowed from his decision. Abbots
or Priors sat in the upper House of Parliament and wore a
silver mitre, in order to distinguish it from that of the bishops,
which was of pure gold.


earls, thirteen lords, and five eldest sons of peers.
James was not permitted a burial, for the Pope
having excommunicated him no priest dared
pronounce the burial service over his body.
The corpse was therefore embalmed, and sent
to the monastery of Shene, in Surrey. It lay
there until the Reformation, when all religious
houses of the kind were broken up; and the
monastery of Shene was given to the Duke of
Suffolk. After this period, the body, which
was wrapped up in lead, was tossed about the
house as a piece of useless lumber. Stowe, the
noted historian of London, who lived at this
time, saw it flung into a waste room among old
pieces of wood, lead, and other rubbish. Some
idle workmen, for their foolish pleasure," says
that historian, "hewed off ft-e head; and one
Lancelot Young, master glazier to Queen
Elizabeth, finding a sweet smell come from
thence, owing doubtless to the spices used for
embalming the body, carried the head home
and kept it for some time; but at last caused
the sexton of St Michael's Wood Street to bury
it in the charnel house." What a humiliating
end to that king, once so proud and powerful;


and what a lesson on the nothingness of human
Two miles north of Greenlaw, at the edge of
a vast black heath, are the remains of a Roman
camp. You may have read an account in some
child's book, of Lady Grizzell Baillie. Polworth
Church, in this county, is the place where the
Earl of Marchmont concealed himself, for six
weeks, during the reign of Iting James II; he,
with many more, having fallen under the dis-
pleasure of that monarch for his religious as
well as political opinions. The greater part
of his family were ignorant of the place of his
concealment, but it fell to his daughter Grizzell's
lot to carry him food; and one day, to the great
amusement of the elder and the indignation of
the younger childxAn, she managed to take away
from the dinner table, a whole sheep's head, of
which dish she knew her father to be fond. The
vault in which the Earl lay hidden was full of
bones, and he was surrounded by human skulls.
How strong is the love of life in man's heart;
he is content to live with the dead awhile, if
hope of life be held out to him. The Earl
learned by heart the whole of Buchanan's Psalms,


in this dreary lodging, and many portions of
Scripture. Lady Grizzell must have been very
courageous, as well as discreet, for she never
shrank from her midnight walk, although obliged
to perform it alone, or divulged the secret of
her father's hiding-place, a greater mark still of
a firm, well-disciplined mind. Joanna Baillie, a
poetess of some note, gives a pretty description
-of Lady Grizzell's character when young. I
think you would like to read it:-

"And well, with ready hand and heart,
Each task of toilsome duty taking;
Did one dear inmate take her part,
The last asleep, the earliest waking.
Her hands each nightly couch prepared,
And frugal meal on which they fared,
Unfolding spread the servet white,
And decked the board with tankard bright.
Through fretted hose and garment rent,
Her tiny needle deftly went,
Till hateful penury, so graced,
Was scarcely in their dwelling traced.
With reverence to the old she clung,
With sweet affection, to the young.
To her was crabbed lesson said;
To her the sly petition made;
To her was told each petty care;
To her was lisped each tardy prayer;
What time the urchin half undrest,
And half asleep, was put to rest."-


The next of the border counties is Rox-
BURGHSHIRE, which is bounded on the north
and north-west by Berwick and Selkirkshire,
on the west by Dumfries, on the south by the
Cheviot hills, and on the east by part of North-
Kelso, although not the county town, is the
largest in Roxburghshire; it is pleasantly situated
on the river Tweed. Towering above the town,
are the remains of Kelso Abbey, one of that chain
of abbeys to which I have referred, founded by
King David, in 1128, for the protection of the
Roxburgh was besieged in 1460, by James II.
It had formerly a strong border castle, which
had for many years been in the possession of
the English; and James, being very anxious to
gain possession of this bulwark, summoned the
full force of his kingdom to accomplish this
great enterprise. The nobles attended in great
numbers, and the siege of Roxburgh commenced.
A battery was formed, of such large clumsy
cannon as were constructed at that time, upon
the north of the Tweed. Those were awkwardly
framed out of bars of iron, fastened together by


hoops of the same metal, somewhat in the same
manner as casks are made, and far more liable
to accident than our modern cannon, which are
cast in one solid piece. It was one of those ill-
made guns which was the immediate cause of
James' death. It burst in going off, and a
fragment of iron broke his thigh-bone and
killed him on the spot, he having unwisely
stood too near the cannon in order to mark the
effect of the shot. A thorn-tree in the park of
the Duke of Roxburgh still marks the spot
where he died at the early age of twenty-nine.
Jedburgh is a very picturesque village; it
consists of one long street; but the remains of
its fine old abbey are interesting and beautiful.
The Jedburgh people were a few years since,
a very simple set, and so little given to travel,
that it is related of a certain barber, that for
seventy-one years he had never left the town,
for a greater distance than three miles during
his life.
Dryburgh, another of King David's abbeys,
lies upon a level around which the river Tweed
sweeps. More of the domestic parts of the
abbey, than of the church remain. It is a spot


full of interest, and here Sir Walter Scott, the
celebrated novelist, is buried.
By far the most striking of the three, how-
ever, is the Abbey of Melrose. I cannot give
you any idea of the extreme beauty of these
ruins. I had heard a great deal of them, and
had seen many views of different parts of the
ruin, but neither drawing nor fancy equalled
the reality. It is of that style of architecture
called Gothic. There is an oriel window almost
entire, and many of the shapely pillars are
standing. I think that Scott's description, which
an intelligent girl repeated to me on the spot,
will give you some idea of the extreme delicacy
and beauty of the carving. The sculpture of
two rows of pillars in particular may be com-
pared to the figuring of richest lace.

Now slow and faint he led the way,
Where cloistered round, the garden lay;
The pillared arches were over their head,
And beneath their feet were the bones of the dead;
Spreading herbs and flowerets bright,
Glistened with the dew of night.
Nor herb nor floweret glistened there
But was carved in the cloister arches fair;
The moon on the east oriel shone
Thro' slender shafts of shapely stone




By foliaged tracery combined;
Thou wouldst have thought some fairy's hand
Twixt poplars straight the osier wand
In many a freakish knot had twined;
Then framed a spell when the work was done,
SAnd changed the willow wreath to stone.

These lines are from Scott's Lay of the Last
Minstrel," a little poem well worth your reading.
The above refer to a midnight visit paid by a
certain William of Deloraine to Melrose, whither
he had been dispatched by a lady from the
Border to search for a book of magic reputed to
be buried in the tomb of Michael Scott, who
was buried in the Abbey. Michael Scott is not
a fictitious character, but his great discoveries
in chemistry and alchemy brought on him the
suspicion of that ignorant and superstitious age
of being a wizard, and it is probable that he
encouraged the idea.
Sir Walter Scott has used the fact of his
being buried at Melrose as the foundation of
the story in his little ballad.
The knight had orders to go to fair Tweedside
and to inquire for the Monk of St. Mary's Aisle
at the Abbey, to bring back the treasured volume,
but into which he must by no means look. The


monk, who had been an old friend of Michael's,
rather unwillingly led the way to the cloisters,
and sitting down on the tomb of Robert Bruce,
the old man told him of the mighty book which
lay in the magician's tomb, and pointed out the
spot where he had been buried. The knight
accomplished his task, carried away the book,
but the monk is reported to have been found
dead in his cell at noontide on the following day.
At the time of the Reformation, and probably
long before, the monks of Melrose bore a very
moderate character, especially as being too fond
of good living and breaking the rules of the
church which enjoined fasting on certain days.
There is an old verse in reference to this which
had only too much truth in it.

The monks of Melrose made gude kail'
On Friday when they fasted;
Nor wanted they good beef and ale,
As lang as their neighbour's lasted."

It is much to be regretted that this beautiful
ruin has been so defaced by the intemperate zeal
of Cromwell's army, who at the time of the
civil wars battered its fine walls from the Gat-


tonside hills. The village of Melrose is curious.
It is in the form of a triangle, having small
streets leading out of each corner.
Abbotsford, the seat of the late Sir Walter
Scott, is about three miles west of Melrose.
The house, garden, pleasure grounds, and woods,
were the creation of the owner, and many of
the trees were planted by his own hands. His
maxim was, If you have nothing to do, be aye
(ever) planting a tree, it will be growing when
you are sleeping." I must not enter into par-
ticulars of the beauties of Abbotsford. They
would of themselves fill a chapter. I remember
seeing there a very striking picture of Mary
Queen of Scots, taken after her decapitation at
Fotheringay, and said to be an original. The
little study beyond the library where Sir Walter's
many works were written, contains one interest-
ing evidence of his affectionate disposition. The
old-fashioned bureau at which he always wrote,
belonged to his mother.
There is a large tartan manufactory at Gala-
shiels which has much increased of late years, but
within the memory of many was an insignifi-
cant little village with few shops, and possessing


not a single bookseller in the place. A singular
shopkeeper, known by the name of Willie a'
things," used to keep in his warehouse, as his
advertisements will show, a strange variety, and
dealt in goods usually divided amongst a dozen
shopkeepers. Red herrings and parasols, yellow
sugar and yellow sand, treacle and linen, cradles
and coffins.1
At Mount Benger the poet Hogg resided; he
is known generally by the title of the Ettrick
DUMFRIES completes the border line, it
adjoins the county of Roxburgh, and is the
most important of the southern counties. It is
bounded on the south by part of Cumberland
and the Solway Frith, on the north-east by
Roxburgh and Selkirkshire, on the north by
Peebles and Lanark, and on the north-west by
Ayr and Kirkcudbright.
The entrance to Scotland from Carlisle is
certainly not pleasing. The first place you
come to on the border is the disgraceful village
of Gretna, where there have been so many
clandestine marriages. A man of the name of
I Chambers' Picture of Scotland;


Paisley commenced the trade. Gretna is near
the village of Springfield, and is a dull, dis-
agreeable looking place.
Moffat is noted for its medicinal springs, and
from its hills flow the Tweed, the Clyde, and
the Annan. The vale of the Esk is noted for
the deeds of the far-famed Johnnie Armstrong.
His strong tower of Gilnockie still stands,
although it is now converted into a cow-house.
Langholm is on the left bank of the river Esk.
It was at Langholm that Johnnie and his band
of thirty-six men, going forth to meet king
James V, on one of his thief-destroying journeys,
met with a disastrous fate, for James instead of
receiving his allegiance, ordered them all out to
There used to be a curious instrument at
Langholm, called the Branks, which was put on
the head of very talkative ill-tempered wives,
called shrews, and by projecting a sharp spike
into the mouth, subdued the tongue at once.
There is some fine scenery in this county.
Near the village of Moffat is the great natural
curiosity called the Grey Mare's tail. It is a
cataract formed by a small stream which leaves


the mountain Lake Loch' Skene. The water
is precipitated over a rock three hundred feet
in height; it falls down a dark precipice with
slight ledges projecting, and the interruption
which the course of the tiny stream receives
produces a curious effect. The mountains are
very wild in these parts, but there are associa-
tions with them still more interesting than the
natural beauty of the spot; associations with
the Covenanters. Now how important does a
knowledge of history become in travelling!
The hills of this part of Scotland would not
attract you particularly if you were ignorant of
the scenes that were enacted amongst them.
Before you can understand the history of the
Covenanters you must be a little acquainted
with the circumstances which led to the con-
duct of those conscientious although enthusiastic
James VI of Scotland and I of England,
as you know, succeeded Queen Elizabeth on
the throne, thus uniting the two kingdoms
which for years had been at frequent and bitter
warfare. On ascending the throne of England,
James found himself at the head of a people


who had lost both the power and habit of con-
testing the will of their sovereign. The Tudors
were all but despotic in their rule. At the
arbitrary will of King Henry VIII the Church
of England was disjoined from Rome. After
the death of Henry VI, his sister Mary restored
the Roman Catholic Faith, and Elizabeth at her
accession again declared it Protestant, and all
this without much resistance. Now Scotland
was under different circumstances. The feudal
nobility retained much of their power and many
of their privileges; but here again I am reminded
that you may not know the meaning of that
word feudal. The connexion of a king as sove-
reign over his princes and great men as vassals
must first be understood. A king or sovereign
prince gave large promises or grants of land to
his dukes, earls, and noblemen, and each of
them possessed nearly as much power within
his own district as the king in the rest of his
dominions; but then the vassal, whether duke,
earl, or lord, was obliged to provide his sovereign
with a certain number of men when he was
engaged in war. In like manner these vassals
of the crown, as they were called, divided the


lands which they held under the king into estates,
which they bestowed on knights and gentlemen
whom they thought fit to follow them in war,
and attend their courts in peace; for they too
held courts and administered justice each in his
own province and county. This system of hold-
ing lands for the purpose of providing soldiers
for the king in time of war was called the feudal
system, and was general throughout Europe for
many ages.
This system was abolished in England before
it was done away with in Scotland. Henry VII,
a wise and cunning prince, had by his success
at Bosworth attained a secure seat on the throne.
He took advantage of the weak state of the
barons and peers to undermine the power which
the feudal system had given to the lords over
their vassals, and they submitted, feeling, I dare
say, that it had been a stormy sort of rule that
their forefathers had exercised. They now,
therefore, exacted rents from their tenants instead
of service in battle, and became peaceful and
wealthy. At the first appearance this is an im-
provement, but then on the other hand the taxes
which the king raised were enormous. James


tried, on his accession, to bring Scotland into the
same submissive state in which he had found
England, and proposed that the Parliament of
each country should appoint commissioners to
consider of the terms on which it might be pos-
sible to unite both under the same constitution.
But, as you may suppose, this did not answer;
the English demanding that the whole system
of English law should be extended to Scotland,
and Scotland indignantly rejecting the proposal.
So for the time James was obliged to give that
up, but he was determined if possible to make
the form of the Scottish Church as near as
possible like that of England.
You must recollect that the Reformation in
Scotland was effected by different means from
that in England. The new plans of church
government differed no less than the outward
form. It is necessary that you should under-
stand this before you can at all appreciate
the firmness of the Covenanters in resisting the
religion forced upon them by James. To tell
you here the many distinctions between Epis-
copacy and Presbyterianism would occupy too
much space. The Presbyterians acknowledge


no visible head of the church but Jesus Christ
alone. The Episcopalians, whilst they acknow-
ledge Christ alone as their spiritual Head,
recognize the King or Queen as their temporal
head. To an ambitious man like James, there-
fore, their resistance was very provoking, and
without regard to it he elected thirteen bishops,
a step peculiarly offensive to the Presbyterian
There were other points on which James and
the Parliament insisted, and the Presbyterians,
feeling that the great work of the Reformation
was about to be undone by their King, were
much alarmed and aggrieved. To force a reli-
gion on a people with the principles of which
they do not unite, and cannot conscientiously
agree, is certainly an act of injustice, and you
must bear in mind in the history of the Cove-
nanters, that those points which to us may seem
unimportant, were to them great matters, in-
volving great principles. Charles I,who succeeded
his father James, was as a private gentleman an
amiable and virtuous man, but he inherited his
father's notions of kingly prerogative to the full,
and it was a legacy that proved his ruin. He


too resolved to bring the Church of Scotland,
in point of church government and ceremonies,
to the model of the Church of England.
The enforcing the use of the prayer book
brought matters to a crisis, and a species of
engagement, or declaration, was drawn up by
a large proportion of the Scotch; the principal
object of which was the eradication of Prelacy,
and the establishment of Presbytery. This
engagement was called the National Covenant,
and was sworn to by hundreds and thousands of
all ages, who were thence called Covenanters.
Now I do not expect that thus far the account
of the Covenanters has interested you, but it is
necessary that you should understand the matter
at the commencement of the book, as there will
be more than one reference to them in the course
of our notice of different parts of Scotland.
To return to Dumfries. The mountains of
which I spoke to you were the hiding places
of the Covenanters in Charles the Second's
time, who continued the religious persecutions
of his ancestors. Though very wild and barren,
yet here they remained days, months, nay years,
without shelter; exposed to cold, rain, and the


killing night dews. Claverhouse, the inveterate
foe and scourge of the suffering band, used to
pursue them into their mountain fastnesses, and,
hill sides are shown to this day almost as steep
as a wall, where, mounted on his great black
steed, he would gallop in pursuit of them. The
hill opposite the village of Burkhill is called the
"Watch hill," on account of the custom that
these wanderers had of placing one of their
number to watch the motions of the soldiers,
whilst the rest were engaged in worship in the
deep dell behind. On one occasion Claverhouse,
by means of a glass, discerned the watch and
made for the place, but long before he approached
the sentinel had given warning, and the wor-
shippers had dispersed amidst the heather. On
another occasion he surprised them at their
devotions and four men fell almost in the act of
You have most likely heard of Burns, the
celebrated Scotch poet. He resided for many
years at the town of Dumfries, and was interred
in the same place.

Yarrow-Park's birthplace.
Border castles-The Tweed.
Glasgow-The Cathedral-Cemetery-College-Museum-The Clyde;
its falls-Hamilton-Bothwell bridge-More about the Cove-
Paisley-Founders of the cotton trade-Curious names of streets-
Elderslie-Birthplace of Wallace-Greenock-Watt.

SELKIRKSHIRE is the adjoining county to Rox-
burgh. Its boundaries are, Peebles on the
north and west, Roxburghshire on the east, and
Dumfries on the south.
Not many centuries ago, it was a royal
hunting forest; it is now for the most part a
desolate looking county. Selkirk, the capital,
stands on the river Ettrick. Near this town a
female was found dead with an infant at her
breast, after the battle of Flodden. She bad


gone out to meet her husband, but sank on the
way, exhausted. The vale of the river Yarrow
is narrow at the opening, and somewhat woody;
but the greater part is composed of those
green pastoral hills, celebrated in the poems of
Not far from the town of Selkirk, at Foul-
shiels, a farm on the banks of the Yarrow, the
well-known traveller, Mungo Park, was born.
Day by day little Mungo, with satchel on his
back, trod the path to the parish school at
Selkirk, and was often seen with book in hand
or thinking deeply whilst other lads were at
play. He did not, however, shun all the bold
adventurous sports of his age, and the greater
the danger, the greater temptation to the lad.
At fifteen years of age he was apprenticed to a
surgeon, at Selkirk, and afterwards removed to
Edinburgh, where he attended the lectures of
the University, When his studies were ended,
he obtained an appointment of assistant-surgeon
to the Worcester, East Indiaman, and made his
first voyage to Sumatra, at which time he added
to his stock of knowledge of natural history, and
during his stay on the coasts of the island made



many useful observations and discoveries on
fishes, eight of which had never been previously
described. At the period of his return there
was great interest in the minds of many in-
telligent people on the subject of Africa, and
especially as to the existence and course of the
river mentioned by old geographers as the Niger.
A traveller who had already been sent out by
"the African Association" for the purpose of
discovering its source, had recently died in
Africa, and men naturally shrank from encoun-
tering the dangers of an untried path.
Park at length offered himself to the Associ-
ation, and in July 1795 we find him at Pisania,
a British factory about 200 miles up the river
Gambia, which you will find marked on the map
of Africa. Here he studied the Mandingo lan-
guage under Dr. Lindley, and collected useful
information for his dangerous undertaking, on
which he embarked on the 2nd of December.
Many wild undisciplined bands beset his path,
negroes and wandering Moors, and at Yarra he
was detained prisoner by a Moorish chief, who
believed him to be a spy, where he remained
from February to July. When he obtained his


release, he had only his horse, a few articles of
clothing, and a pocket compass which he had
hidden in the sand. Alone and unprotected the
brave Scotchman set forth, and after a journey
of fifteen days arrived at Jolibe. At Kamalia,
500 miles from any European settlement, his
health gave way, and for more than five months
he was dependent on the care and charity of a
strange race, of some of whom, however, there
have been touching instances recorded of sym-
pathy and kindness. His lonely wanderings
occupied nineteen months, and he returned to
England with abundance of adventures to record,
but little of discovery or success. After a few
years passed in his native country, devoted to
close study of astronomy, geography, and the
Arabic language, he once more set forth. This
time under the escort of soldiers provided by the
Association, and merchandize to defray travel-
ling expenses. They left Pisania in May, 1805.
In November, he wrote word that of forty-four
Europeans, who had left the Gambia in health,
five soldiers only remained, having fallen victims
to the rainy seasons of the country. The fate
of Park was never correctly known, but it is


believed that he died either by the hands of the
natives, or from an accident on a rapid of that
river, Niger, whose source and history he had
devoted the energies of his life to discover.
PEEBLESHIRE, or Tweeddale, is bounded on
the north by Midlothian, on the south by
Dumfries, on the west by Lanark, and on the
east by Selkirk. The Tweed takes its rise
here and gives to this district the popular
name of Tweeddale. It abounds in trout and
Peebles, the capital town, is a dull place.
The hilly region of Peebleshire was dreadfully
exposed, in early times, to the unfriendly
visits of marauding Englishmen. To provide
against these, strong castles were built by the
Scottish kings, on the lower part of the Tweed,
and the chain was continued by many great
proprietors of land, towards the head of the
river. These castles are now in ruins, but
there are many remains still to be seen. They
were built in the shape of square towers, of
stone and lime. They consisted usually of
three stories; the lower story, which was
vaulted in order to afford protection to the


cattle of the 'owner in time of danger; the
great hall in which the family lived; and the
highest, in which were the bed-rooms, designed
for the safety of the inhabitants. These were,
by common consent, built alternately on each
side of the river, and in a continued view of
each other. A fire, kindled on the top of these
towers, was the well known signal of the
approach of an enemy: the smoke gave notice
by day, and the flame by night. You cannot
travel in Scotland, without being constantly
reminded of the correctness of some of Scott's
beautiful descriptions; and, when I saw the
ruins of the border castles, these lines, which
I will transcribe for you, came very pleasantly
into my mind;

Sweet Teviot, on thy silver tide
The glaring hill-fires blaze no more;
No longer steel-clad warriors ride
Along thy wild and willowed shore.
Where'er thou wind'st by dale or hill,
All, all is peaceful; all is still
As if thy waves, since Time was born,
Since first they rolled upon the Tweed,
Had only heard the Shepherd's reed,
Nor started at the bugle horn."

We may almost fancy the river murmur has


a joyful tone, now that the sound of the war-cry
is heard no more on its banks, and sheep graze
peacefully on green pastures once crimson with
the blood of dying warriors.
LANARK, otherwise called Clydesdale, is a
large and important county. It is bounded ou
the south by Dumfries and part of Ayr; on the
east by Peebles and Edinburgh; on the north,
by Linlithgow and Dumbarton; and on the
west, by Renfrew and part of Ayr.
The capital of Lanark is Glasgow, a very
important town. It is the first city, in point
of population, in Scotland. The principal part
of the city occupies a plain, on the north-east
side of the Clyde, which has of late years been
made navigable, at high tides, for vessels of great
burden. It has large manufactures of cotton.
I have heard old people speak of the time when
there was only one boat on the river for the
accommodation of travellers, which was drawn
by horses. Glasgow has some handsome streets,
and so many objects of interest, that I scarcely
know which to mention to you.
The cathedral, or high church as it is called,
stands at the upper end of High street, and was


founded in 1123. It narrowly escaped destruc-
tion at the time of the Reformation, and is, with
the exception of St. Magnus in Kirkwall, Orkney,
the only ancient gothic cathedral remaining
entire, in all Scotland.
The inner church, and the arched roof of a
vestry supported by a single pillar, are very
beautiful, and the vaulted cemetery beneath the
inner church, is a curious and interesting place.
There is an extensive burial ground near, which
is situated on very high ground.
Then there is the college, with its library,
and the valuable museum, bequeathed to the
university by the late celebrated Dr. William
Hunter. It consists of a rare library of books
and manuscripts, a fine collection of insects,
corals, and shells, and a cabinet of coins and
medals, besides a collection of Dr. Hunter's
anatomical preparations. Glasgow is not the
only interesting place in Lanarkshire; indeed
there are few countries so rich in associations,
as Scotland. The difficulty in writing its history,
is to select the most interesting among so many
tempting subjects.
The town of old Lanark, which travellers

~ I C~

"'' jl L r ,I:~I



from the south usually visit is not particularly
I told you that Lanarkshire is sometimes
called Clydesdale, from its being the vale
formed by the course of the river Clyde. To
see the falls of this river is alone worth a
journey to Scotland, so, at least you and I may
say, who have never seen those of Niagara.
I must leave it for the pencil to give you a
faint idea of that which it is impossible justly
to describe.
There are three falls made by the Clyde.
Corra Linn-so called from a tradition that
Corra, daughter of an ancient Scottish king,
was drowned in it-is the first of the three.
The river does not descend in an unbroken
sheet of water, but is precipitated eighty-four
feet, when two ledges of rock break it, as you
may see in the little drawing annexed; but of
the beauty and richness of the foliage, the
grand effect of the sun upon the glittering
spray, and the sound of the cataract, it is
impossible to convey an idea. Boniton, the
second, is also very beautiful. Above the fall
the river is as calm and smooth as a lake,


when it suddenly throws itself into the abyss
below. The channel is narrow, and the banks
are composed of solid rock singularly and re-
gularly perpendicular. The extreme regularity
of these layers of rock is extraordinary. At
the first view it appears almost like the work
of art, but there is no architect like the
Almighty. The third fall is that of Stonebyres,
which was exhibited to us by a curious half-
cracked old woman, called Janet McDougal.
A guide is needful, for the best place for seeing
the fall is not free from danger, and although
a daft" guide is not exactly the kind we
should choose to conduct us to the edge of a
precipice, old Janet was harmless and amusing
enough in her way.
Hamilton Palace, the seat of the' duke of
Hamilton, stands on a plain between the town
of Hamilton and the river. The pictures at
the palace are worth seeing. There is one by a
great painter named Rubens, which is called
the Glory of Hamilton." The subject is
Daniel in the lions' den. Rubens was born at
Cologne, in Germany, in 1557. He was not
only a fine painter, but a learned man, and


understood seven languages. This neighbour-
hood, however, owes its principal interest to a
great conflict which took place between Claver-
house and the Covenanters, at a place called
Drumclog. On one occasion a large body of
country people had collected at Harelaw, near
Loudon Hill, to hold a meeting, which, in con-
sequence of an Act of Parliament forbidding
such assemblies, was illegal. Many came armed,
and had, according to custom, posted a watch
on Loudon Hill, whilst the service was pro-
ceeding. Whilst they worshipped, Grahame of
Claverhouse, to whom I have already referred,
arrived at a village close by, bearing with him
two field preachers, whom he had just captured
near the town of Hamilton; and, hearing of the
large number collected at London Hill, he pushed
forward to that place. Here he was opposed by
a large body in point of numbers but very rudely
armed, although there were fifty horse, and as
many infantry with guns, the principal part of
the little army consisted of men armed with
pikes, scythes, and forks, and women who en-
tered into the enthusiasm of the scene likewise
prepared to offer resistance. As they approached


singing psalms, according to their custom, Cla-
verhouse ordered a volley of shot to be fired; to
avoid which the Covenanters fell on their faces
and little mischief ensued. They met on a
boggy piece of ground very unfit for the action
of cavalry, and a broad ditch between the parties
seems to have given the advantage to the Cove-
nanters; for, when Claverhouse ordered his men
to charge, they, being ignorant of the nature of
the soil, plunged into a bog and were thrown
into the greatest disorder. The day was thqre-
fore in favour of the Covenanters. The famous
black steed of Claverhouse was wounded by a
scythe, and was scarcely able to bear him from
the battle-field, and thirty of the defeated party
were slain. As Claverhouse passed the place
where he had left the imprisoned preachers in
the morning, King, the name of one of them,
called out to him, in derision, to stay and take
the afternoon sermon.
This victory encouraged the Covenanters to
attempt bolder undertakings, but they were
doomed to suffer defeat more often than triumph.
Their zeal and vehemence could scarcely stand
against the superior military knowledge and


force of their enemies, and Bothwell Bridge, not
far from Hamilton palace, was the scene of one
of their most frightful defeats, when the Duke
of Monmouth scattered them like a flock of
sheep. The slaughter that took place on this
occasion was, however, against his orders, and
partly owing to the temper of Claverhouse,
who was determined to avenge his, defeat at
Drumclog. Four hundred were killed and twelve
hundred made prisoners the latter were marched
to Edinburgh and imprisoned in the Greyfriars'
tlichirchy ard like cattle in a penfold, while several
ministers were ordered out for execution.
The county of RENFREW is very small. It is
bounded on the west and north-west by the Frith
iof Clyde, on the south and south-west by Ayr, and
on the east by part of Dumbarton and Lanark.
The principal town is Paisley, which has very
extensive cotton manufactures. The persons
who commenced these manufactures were ped-
lars, accustomed to travel about the country,
and the object of every such packman's ambition
was ultimately to become a merchant. Many of
them succeeded, and ended their days in comfort
and affluence. At first Paisley was noted.for


a coarse chequered linen cloth, then for cotton
handkerchiefs; now silk gauze, thread, and
shawls form part of its manufactures. The names
of some of the streets are curious. There is a
Gauze Street, Cambric Street, and Thread Street.
Three miles west of Paisley is Elderslie, the
birth-place of the celebrated William Wallace.
Greenock may be called the Liverpool of
Scotland. It is a very important port, but
that which will be most interesting to you to
remember, connected with it, is the fact of its
being the birth-place of the celebrated James
Watt, who made such great improvements in
the steam engine. Both the grandfather and
uncle of Watt were men of repute as mathe-
matical teachers and surveyors in the west of
Scotland. Watt's father was a merchant in
Greenock, and his son James was born there
in 1736. At a very early age he showed great
skill in mechanics. Even when in after years
he could have employed hundreds to do his
bidding, he loved to work with his own hands.
Watt was a practical man. At eighteen he
went to London to be apprenticed to a mathema-
tical instrument maker, but his health failing,


he was obliged to return in little more than a
year. Shortly after his return, the University
of Glasgow appointed him their mathematical
instrument maker. Robert Simpson, Adam
Smith, and Dr. Black, all celebrated men, were
at that time professors there. In the winter
of 1763, his mind was directed to that subject
which has made his name illustrious all over the
world. He was employed to repair the working
model of a steam engine of Newcomen's con-
struction, by which he was led to discover that
there was a great waste of steam in its mode of
working, and consequently of fuel. By a long
course of experiments he brought to perfection
his invention of the condensing steam engine,
now most generally used in mines, factories,
and steam packets. It,would be useless to
describe it more particularly here, as it would
be necessary that you should be more thoroughly
acquainted with the whole construction of that
wonderful machine than it may be supposed you
are. The patience and perseverance manifested
by Watt, are worth notice. He had many
discouragements, and at first few appreciated
the value of his invention. Of the importance


of it to trade, a child can have no idea ; the use
of it in mines alone is immense. In the deep
mines of Cornwall the new e:ih: wa: first
introduced, and the saving of fuel amc~unted to
three-fourths of the quantity consumeT d by th(
old-fashioned ones. Independe v ntly of this great
apttainment in mechanics, Watt was a. wonderfu-
man. He was well informed, and well read.,
and his conversation is described as having b eei;
very delightfull. He was amiU:.l, unaffected,
and unpretending., disliked all parade a.: show.
and ;was an honest, :traightic-'.vrd character.
He died at Heathfie.l, in Staffordshire, at t!:i
e~e of ei-'hty-four.


Q flljuftr 'roll, I I.

Ailsa Craig.-Ayr the Capital.-Birth-places of Poets.-Burns anid
Dundrennan Abbey.-Amworth.-Story of Rutherford.
Preston.-Story of the Pretender.-Battle of Preston Pans.-Colonel
Gardiner's Death.-Tranent.-Haddington.-Knox's Birth-place--
History of Knox.
AYRSHIRE is one of the largest counties south
of the Forth, it stretches eighty miles in a
crescent shape, and is a very productive county.
It is bounded on the north by Renfrew; on
the east by Lanark and Dumfries; on the
south by Kirkcudbright and Wigton; and on
the west by the Irish Channel.
Ailsa Craig is one of the must striking curi-
osities in Ayrshire; it rises fifteen miles from
the shore, out of the sea, like an inverted top.
On this singular island the Solan goose is found


in great abundance, and it is an aviary for a
variety of other sea birds, whose screaming is
quite deafening. It is about two miles in
circumference and uninhabited.
Ayr, the capital of Ayrshire, is a well-built
town, at the mouth of a river of the same
name. A mile and a half from Ayr isThe cot-
tage where the poet Burns was born; it consists
but of two rooms, and was the work of his
father's own hands. Montgomery, another poet,
was born at Irvine, a small sea-port in this
county; also Gait, a celebrated novel-writer,
and the author of an amusing book, called
the "Ayrshire Legatees," which is a humourous
account of a simple country minister coming
up to London on the event of some property
being left him. I remember there is one droll
account of a quarrel with a hackney coachman.
He had been told that if a coachman charged him
too much he was to take the number of the coach,
and a driver overcharging him he accordingly
proceeded to cut the number off thevehicle, having
thus literally interpreted his friend's advice.
KIRKCUDBRIGHT is bounded by Ayr and
part of Dumfries on the north; on the east and


south east is part of Dumfries and the Solway
Firth, on the west and south west a portion of
Wigton and Wigton Bay. Kirkcudbright is
the ancient district of Galloway. It is noted
for a breed of horses. The Galloway horses
are a Spanish race.
At Dundrennan Abbey, in this county, the
unfortunate Mary Stuart spent her last night
in Scotland. She arrived late in the evening,
and was hospitably received by the monks.
The building is greatly dilapidated, but it bears
marks of former splendour. Its walls are now
covered with a grey moss.
Kirkcudbright, the principal town, is a sea-
At Amworth resided Rutherford, the eminent
Presbyterian divine; he lived in the reign of
Charles II. Archbishop Usher, who had heard
of the fame of Rutherford, once went secretly
to Amworth in order to hear him preach
and converse. He appeared at the Manse
(so the parsonage house, or residence of the
minister, is called in Scotland,) disguised as a
beggar, and asked a night's lodging. We should
now think a beggar very bold to make such a


request, but in those times amongst the simple
Scottish people this was not extraordinary.
He was desired to sit down in the kitchen, when
Mrs. Rutherford came, according to custom,.to
catechise their servants. She did not omit
to ask the beggar some questions, and amongst
others, inquired of him how many command-
ments there were. He replied, "eleven;" Mrs.
Rutherford was greatly shocked at his ignorance,
however she gave him a good supper and sent
him to bed in one of the garrets. The Arch-
bishop had a great desire to hear Rutherford
pray, and for some time listened for the sound
of his voice, at his evening devotions, as his
room was just over that of his host. Hearing
no voice, however, he commenced pouring out
his own soul in prayer to God., Rutherford,
now heard him, and at once suspecting the
truth, that the pretended beggar was the great
Archbishop Usher, forthwith proceeded to the
stranger's room, when he told him his suspicion.
At Mr. Rutherford's earnest request the visitor
consented to preach the next day at Amworth
church, but it was, of course, needful to keep
the matter a profound secret, for if it were


known that he had done so, great trouble and
disgrace would have ensued to the archbishop.
Disguised, therefore, in a suit of Mr. Ruther-
ford's clothes, the Bishop went out very early
into the fields, where Mr. Rutherford followed
him, and shortly brought him in to breakfast,
introducing him as a stranger who had promised
to preach for him that day. Mrs. Rutherford
hearing from the servants that the beggar had
left early, was not surprised, and after breakfast
they all went to church. The Archbishop
preached from John xiii, 34, "A new com-
mandment give I unto you, that ye love one
another," and observed that this might be called
the eleventh commandment. The minister's
wife was puzzled. "Why," said she to herself,
"that is the very answer the beggar gave me last
night, surely this cannot be he." In the morn-
ing the Bishop left without being discovered.
WIGTONSHIRE, or West Galloway, consists
principally of two peninsulars jutting out from
the more continental part of Galloway. Luce
Bay divides the promontories. Its boundaries
are Ayr and Kirkcudbright on the north, the
Irish Sea on the west, and on the south, Luce


Bay. I have very little that is interesting to
tell you of Wigtonshire. Its capital, Wigton,
is a dull town; the principal street of which lies
within a space laid out in shrubberies. The soil
in many parts of Wigtonshire is very productive,
and the wheat grown there is considered of a
superior description. Port Patrick is the nearest
port to Ireland, the Channel in this part being
but twenty-one miles across; steamers are con-
stantly employed between the two countries.
The county of HADDINGTON, or East Lothian,
is bounded on the south by Berwick, on the
north and east by the Frith of Forth, and on
the west by Mid-Lothian.
The story of the Pretender is so associated
with this county, that I will begin my account
of him in this chapter, endeavouring, after I
have explained the circumstances of his landing
in Scotland, to confine myself to those events
of his life which took place in Haddington.
Charles Edward, known by the name of the
Young Pretender, was the grandson of James
II, of England, who was, as you know, com-
pelled to abdicate the crown, and was succeeded
by his son-in-law, William, Prince of Orange,


and his daughter Mary, who reigned jointly
with William, and after their death by Anne
his youngest daughter. Historians have called
Anne the last Stuart, but George I, who
succeeded her, had no claim to the crown but
as a Stuart also. His mother was the Electress
Sophia of Hanover, the daughter of the Queen
of Bohemia, who was herself the daughter of
James I, of the Stuart line, who reigned in
England. George was a prince in his own
country, and governed Hanover as well as
England. It is not of James the Second's son,
however, that I propose to write here, but of his
grandson. The Old Pretender from some cause
excited less sympathy and interest than his son.
After fruitless endeavours to obtain the crown,
he retired from the contest, and the Rebellion of
1715 ended, as an historian says, without even
the sad Mclat of a defeat. After his return from
Scotland he was compelled to leave France, and
was obliged to settle in Italy, where his two sons
were born, Prince Charles Edward, known by
the name of the Young Pretender, and Henry
Benedict, who bore the title of Duke of York,
and was promoted to the rank of Cardinal in


the Roman Catholic Church. Prince Charles
Edward, at this time was, according to the
statements of those who were not so enthusiastic
in his cause as to be blind to his defects, a
young man of pleasant and courteous manners,
personal courage, and a good temper, but his
education had been strangely neglected. Instead
of being instructed in the constitution and rights
of the English nation, he had been trained up in
those absurd, perverse, and antiquated notions
of divine hereditary right, out of which so many
of his grandfather's misfortunes had arisen.
He had also been strictly brought up in the
Roman Catholic Faith, and this was much
against his cordial reception by the greater part
of the English. The Jacobites, as the adherents
of the Stuarts were called, had long ceased to
think of restoring the Old Pretender, but they
turned their thoughts to his eldest son, who was
deeply anxious to recover the throne of his
ancestors. After many discouragements from
his father, and disappointments of help from
France, Charles determined to try upon his
own resources, and set sail on his perilous
expedition with only a few attendants in a man-


of-war of sixty guns, to which a frigate was
added. He landed in Scotland after some days,
but received a very disheartening reception.
His reply to Lochiel, who attempted to reason
with him on the madness of his enterprise, and
advised him at once to return home was, Sir,
I am come home, and, moreover, I am come with
my mind made up to reclaim my rights, or to
perish." He soon gained followers, and collected
a considerable army; but not to pursue him
through this part of his eventful career in
Scotland, I will tell you that he arrived safely
at Edinburgh, and prepared to take possession of
the palace of Holyrood. As Charles approached
the palace, crowds of persons pressed upon him.
His personal appearance was prepossessing. His
dress was after the Highland fashion. He wore a
short tartan coat, anda blue bonnet with a white
rose. He had, in his course from the Highlands,
been joined by many persons of distinction.
The courage of the Highland soldiers was well
known, and hopes were high that victory and
restoration were in store for the exiled Stuarts.
He was proclaimed king at Edinburgh Cross,
by the title of James VIII, and for a while a


gleam of sunshine and splendour lighted up
Prince Charles' fortunes.
While these things were going on at
Edinburgh, General Cope, with the govern-
ment force, landed at Dunbar, a seaport at
Haddington. Charles went forth to meet him.
The progress of the Highland regiment was
almost in silence, in order to conceal their
situation from the enemy, who were lying in
wait for them; not a whisper was heard
amongst them. On the 21st of September
they began their march whilst the sun was
three hours below the horizon. It was just
dawn, and the mist was fast retiring, when the
Highlanders began their attack. A writer on
the subject, says: "Morning was already on
the waters of the Forth, and the mist was
rolling in huge masses over the crofts, or
meadows, to the left, but it was not yet
sufficiently clear for the armies to perceive each
other. A darkness lay between them, which
was soon to disclose the dreadful spectacle of
an armed enemy."' The Highlanders still kept
a silence broken only by the sound of their
1 Chambers' History of the Rebellion.


feet passing over the stubble. From General
Cope's army, an occasional drum was heard.
At setting out on the charge, the Highlanders
pulled off their bonnets and uttered a short
prayer. Their mode of fighting, so different to
that of the king's soldiers, quite puzzled the
enemy. They advanced with the utmost
speed, fired within musket length of the object,
then throwing down their pieces drew their
swords, and holding a target in their left,
and a dirk in their right hand, darted on the
enemy through the smoke of their own fire,
and cut them down. The actual conflict,
on this memorable occasion, lasted but four
minutes. The royal army was quite defeated;
nearly 400 slain, 700 taken prisoners, whilst
but 170 escaped. The celebrated Colonel
Gardiner was present at this battle; he was a
rare example of a conscientious, prayerful, and
religious man, amidst the excitement of a
warrior's life. He was at this time very old,
and so weak, that he had to be carried, in a
chair, from Haddington to the field. Deserted
by his dragoons, and severely wounded, he put
himself at the head of a small body of foot, and


only ceased to fight when brought to the ground
by severe wounds. He died in the Manse, or
Parsonage house, of Tranent. He was buried
in Tranent churchyard, and some years after-
wards, when the ground was disturbed, his head
was found, marked by the stroke of the scythe
that was the cause of his death. The wounded
were on this occasion treated very kindly by the
conquering army. A journalist of the time,
says: "Whatever notions Low country people
may have of the Highlanders, I .can attest that
they gave many proofs of kindness. Many
after the battle ran to Port Seton, for ale and
other liquor, to revive the wounded or dying.
I saw a Highlander, with patient, tender kind-
ness, carrying a poor wounded soldier on. his
back, and leave him in a house with sixpence to
pay his charge." The wounded men of both
sides were taken to Colonel Gardiner's house
at Tranent, and a few years ago it was thought
possible to discern the stains of their blood on
the old oak floor. The Highlanders were very
active in despoiling the slain. Every article
of value, according to their notion, was appro-
priated, and in their simplicity they often


made ludicrous mistakes. "One who got a
watch, exchanged it for some worthless trifle,
remarking that he was glad he had done so, for
it had died that night, because it had stopped;
another exchanged a horse for a pistol." Rough
old Highlanders were seen going about with
the fine shirts of English officers, stretched
over the rest of their clothes ; whilst boys were
seen strutting about with gold laced cock'd
hats on their heads.\ Thus ended the battle
of Preston Pans.'
The Prince's conduct appears to have been
both moderate and merciful; he forbade any
outward signs of joy, inasmuch as he said,
blood had been shed and involved so many in
sorrow. The remainder of his history I will
relate in its proper place, for I have something
more to tell you of Haddington, and we have
heard enough of battles for the present.
The county-town of Haddington is situated
on the south side of the Firth of Forth. In this
town, or in the neighboring village of Gifford,
was born the celebrated reformer John Knox.
Some writers have said that Knox's parents
I Chambers' History of the Rebellion.


were in poor circumstances. This does not
appear to have been the case. They were able
to give their son a good education, which in
that age was far from a common advantage.
In his youth he was sent to the Haddington
Grammar School, and thence to the University
of St. Andrew's, at that time the first School
for learning in Scotland. He was ordained a
Priest in the Romish Church at an earlier age
than usual, and taught philosophy likewise in
the University. That you may rightly appre-
ciate the conduct and character of Knox, look
for a few moments at the circumstances of the
times in which he lived. Nothing perhaps has
given so great a prejudice to his actions as igno-
rance of the corruptions which reigned in the
Romish Church at that time. Full half of the
wealth of the nation belonged to the clergy.
Avarice and ambition, and the love of pomp and
show, influenced the men who pretended to teach
the religion of the meek and lowly Jesus. The
lives of the clergy were a scandal to their pro-
fession. Through the superstitions of princes
and nobles, monasteries had multiplied greatly.
Dr. Mc Crie, in his life of Knox, says, "The


kingdom swarmed with ignorant, idle, luxurious
monks, who like locusts devoured the fruits of
the earth. Friars, white, black, grey," &c.
Then the clergy were shamefully ignorant.
Even bishops declared, and that without a blush,
that they never read any part of the Bible but
that which they met with in their missals or
Prayer Books. People were truly perishing for
lack of knowledge, for to that book which was
able to make them wise unto salvation, they had
no access. It was locked up from them, and the
use of it in their own language was forbidden
under the heaviest penalties. The services were
mumbled in the Latin tongue, which many of
the priests did not understand, and some few
could scarcely read; and "scarce anything
remained of Christianity in Scotland, but its
name." Many mediators were made to share
the honour of procuring the divine favour with
the "One Mediator between God and man,"
and more prayers were offered to the Virgin
Mary, than to Him who "ever liveth to make
intercession for us." Men were taught to con-
fess to the Priests, to go on pilgrimage to the
shrine of some saint, to eat no flesh on Friday,


to pay tithes and other church dues, and then
they were told they were safe. The sermons
were usually mere tales of the wonderful holi-
ness of a founder of some religious order, his
miracles, his watching, fastings, combats with
the devil; but of the truths of the Bible, and
the glorious gospel of the blessed God, not a
word. The dying beds of rich men were visited
indeed, but for what purpose? was it to whisper
words of hope and comfort, or to point to Christ
as the Way, the Truth, and the Life ? No-but
avaricious priests were ever hovering about the
dying man, to extort legacies for themselves or
the church. No sooner had a poor husbandman
breathed his last, than the vicar came and
carried off the "corpse present;" this consisted
of the best cow belonging to the deceased, and
the uppermost covering of his bed, or upper
clothes. The service of God was neglected,
churches deserted, and places of worship served
only for houses of traffic, resorts for pastime, or
sanctuaries for malefactors. Such was popery
in Scotland.
The doctrines of the Reformation had made
some progress however, in the country, before


Knox embraced them. As early as 1526, before
Henry the Eighth's quarrel with the Pope, which
doubtless brought about the Reformation in
England, a youth of the name of Patrick
Hamilton, made known the glad tidings of the
gospel to his country-men. He was of a noble
family, and went over to Wittemberg to confer
with Luther; he came back after serious study
of the Scriptures, and in 1528 was cruelly put to
death, at St. Andrew's, by Archbishop Beatoun.
A reformer, whose name was George Wishart,
was very useful to Knox, in instructing him
in the great doctrines of the Bible: he however
suffered martyrdom, leaving Knox, almost alone,
to follow in his steps.
Cardinal Beatoun, the great persecutor of
the reformers, was put to death by a small but
determined band of men, soon after Wishart's
martyrdom; and Knox has been accused of
being privy to the death of the cardinal. It is
impossible to justify Knox, if such were the
case, and his vindication of the act cannot be
denied. His sentiments were now so fully
known that his life was in great danger, and
he was obliged to take refuge in the castle


of St. Andrew, then held by the Protestants.
Here he began his ministry. He was shortly
after sent to France, and at the instigation of
the Pope was kept close prisoner there, put in
chains, and treated with great severity. In 1549,
when Edward the Sixth came to the throne, he
was liberated, and returned to Scotland.
He was appointed to preach at Berwick, and
was very useful there. He resided in England
for some time, and was appointed one of King
Edward's chaplains, but he did not agree with
the principles of the English Church nor with
the use of the common Prayer Book. In 1556
he went to Geneva, in Switzerland, to be Pastor
over an English Church there, and greatly en-
joyed Calvin's friendship. At this time he
assisted several exiles from England, in preparing
a translation of the Bible. This is commonly
called the Geneva Bible.
In 1557 Knox received letters from several
good men in Scotland, entreating him to return.
Queen Mary's cruel persecution of the Protest-
ants, was the cause of a singular production of
the Reformer. Its title was, "The first blast
of the trumpet against the monstrous Regiment


of Women," i. e., i -gimhen or government; in
which he freely attacked the practice of permit-
ting females to govern nations. In Elizabeth's
reign he wrote an awkward apology, but it
is very likely that Cecil, her secretary, never
presented it to her, for he was friendly to the
Scotch Congregation, and knew that Knox's
uncourtly style was not likely to please his
royal mistress. Queen Mary, soon after her
arrival from France, had an interview with
Knox. Mary seems to have expected to awe
the bold man into submission by her authority,
but she little knew Knox. She accused him of
writing a book against her authority, and many
other charges. To these Knox replied that if
to teach the truth of God in sincerity, and to ex-
hort people to worship God according to his word,
were to excite subjects to rebel, he was guilty.
The conversation between him and the young
queen is extremely interesting, and so instructive
that I cannot resist copying you a portion of it.
After a long argument, Mary said, "Well, I
perceive that my subjects shall obey you and
not me: and will do what they please, not what
I command."


"God forbid, madam," replied Knox, "my
travail and desire is that princes and subjects
may obey God. And think not, madam, that
wrong is done to you, that you are required to
be subject to God. He craves of kings that
they be as foster fathers, and queens as nursing
mothers to his people."
"But you are not the church that I will
nourish," said the wilful queen, "I will defend
the church of Rome, for it is, I think, the true
church of God."
"Your will, madam, is no reason, neither
doth your thought make the Roman harlot the
spouse of Jesus Christ."
He also warmly opposed Mary's marriage
with a Papist; and in his interview with her,
his free uncourtly language so offended her
that she wept bitterly. His remarks on these
occasions brought him into sad disgrace, and he
was summoned to take his trial. When the
queen had taken her seat at the council, and
perceived Knox at the foot of the table, she
burst into a loud fit of laughter. That man,"
she said, "had made her weep and shed never a
tear himself; she would now see if she could


make him weep." He was, however, to the
queen's bitter disappointment, not only un-
moved, but finally acquitted. He died in the
67th year of his age, worn out with anxieties
and labours. From the time that he embraced
the Reformed Religion, he enjoyed little rest.
For many years an outlaw and an exile, and
constantly exposed to danger, it must to him
have been a glorious exchange, when he fell
asleep in Jesus.
His character has been so differently judged,
that it is difficult to give a correct sketch of it.
Many of his faults may be traced to his natural
temperament, and to the character of the age
and country in which he lived. His passions
were strong-he was an earnest man in every
thing, and knew neither disguise nor affectation.
His language was often coarse and intemperate,
and some of his actions seem to have sadly
lacked the spirit of Christian meekness. McCrie
says, at the close of his memoir, In contem-
plating such a character as that of Knox, it is
not the man so much as the reformer that ought
to engage our attention."
The wisdom of God in raising up persons
endued with qualities suited to the work


allotted to them, should engage our particular
admiration. It is easy for us in the present
day to censure the great movers in the grand
scheme of reforming a corrupt church, but we
may nevertheless take some useful lessons from
the manly, uncompromising Luther, and even
from the stern and somewhat coarse Knox,
in the stedfastness with which they followed
their motto-to" hearken unto God rather than
to men." They did not consider their fellow-
creatures' opinions, they looked to no worldly
gain, to no rich preferment, to no future wealth
nor living; but, what says the word of God ?"
was the question which ever and anon they put
when combatting with the obstinate superstitions
of the Romish church. Study the character of
such men as Knox now. It is a time that calls
upon the young to do this; and remember that
which men and children are too apt to forget-
that there is but one authority on earth for any
religious opinion whatever, the Holy Bible, the
sure word of God. We will now close our long
chapter on this interesting county, but I hope
you will not regret the space I have given to so
important a subject as that of the Reformation
in Scotland.

Otbbaote ,'ifh.

The Palace-James V--The apparition explained-Mary's birth-place
-Queen's ferry.
The Old Town--The Castle-Description of the old-fashioned inhabitant
-Greyfriars Church-Signing of the Covenant-The Covenanters-
Holyrood House, story of Mary-Dalkeith-Roslin-Hawthornden.

Of all the palaces so fair,
Built for the royal dwelling;
In Scotland fair, beyond compare,
Linlithgow is excelling.

THE next county that we will consider is that of
LINLITHGOW. Its boundaries are the Frith of
Forth on the east, Stirlingshire on the north,
Peebles and Lanark on the south, which last
county also bounds it on the west.
Linlithgow, the capital, lies in a hollow along
the borders of a lake, surrounded by hills. The
village consists of a long narrow street, but the
principal object of interest is the fine old palace.
There are many interesting associations with


this place. The exterior is rather rough, and it
was evidently constructed in troublous times
with a view to defence. A few windows above
and as many slits below are the only apertures
that open to the outside of the building. The
architecture of the interior court is the best.
No part of the ruins is roofed. The walls
are all that remain of this once noble palace.
Edward the First spent a whole winter at Lin-
lithgow, during the wars which succeeded his
invasion of Scotland.
You read in a former chapter of the disastrous
battle of Flodden. At the church in Linlith-
gow palace, James IV saw the apparition of
which the superstitious and ignorant have made
many strange tales, but the facts are, I believe,
Queen Margaret, his wife, who was sister of
Henry VIII, was at that time passing a few
days with James at this palace. The day before
the battle when the king was attending vespers,
as the evening service was called, and praying
for success on his intended expedition, there
"came in a man clad in a blue gown or blowse,
belted about him with a roll of white linen.

His head was bare, bald at the top, with yellow
locks hanging on each side, and his age about
fifty. He came fast forward among the lords
crying and peering especially for the king,
saying he wanted to. speak to him." At last
the man reached the desk where King James
was at prayer; he made no reverence to him, but
leaned on him grueling (or bending down to the
desk) and spoke thus. "Sir king, my mother
hath sent me to thee, charging thee not to go
where thou hast purposed, which if thou do
thou shalt not fare well, nor none that is with
These words spoken, the messenger escaped
from among the assembly, and so suddenly dis-
appeared that he seemed to vanish miraculously.
There is no doubt that those who wished to
dissuade James from the battle tried to work
on his superstitious mind by this means, and
therefore dressed up a man to represent St.
John, called the adopted son of the Virgin
The Roman Catholics believed in the pos-
sibility of the souls of departed saints and
apostles appearing on earth, and many impos-


tures of which you may read in history are of
this kind. Nothing, however, could dissuade
James, and the result you have already heard.
James V, the son of this king, and father of
Mary Stuart, was scarcely less unfortunate.
He died of grief at the loss of a large army, and
when news was brought him of her birth, gave
a mournful reply. He was scarcely thirty-one
years old, and survived his child's birth but a
few days. Her troubles 'began very early, and
in this old ruined palace did she first see the
light. The supposed room is still shewn, and
there is something very affecting in visiting the
birthplace of one whose life from the cradle to
the grave was a constant scene of disquietude
and sorrow.
Henry VIII of England was very anxious to
get possession of this infant Queen, and eagerly
desired a marriage with her to his only son,
afterwards Edward VI, but the Scotch were a
little suspicious of King Henry's motives and
declined the honour. Mary, when very young,
was accordingly sent to France, with a view to
her education and subsequent union with the
young heir of that kingdom, whilst Mary of


Guise, her mother, an ambitious woman and a
bigoted Catholic, was appointed Queen Regent,
and she and the persecuting Cardinal Beatoun,
who, as I told you, was the murderer of Hamil-
ton and Wishart, ruled the kingdom much as
they pleased during Mary's minority. Of her
marriage and early widowhood, it is no part of
the present pages to treat; we will talk more
of Mary bye and bye, when we come to any
place rendered memorable by her residence or
her misfortunes.
The Parliament 'hall is a long noble room,
but very ruinous. The kitchens are spacious,
and on the side of one of them is a large oven
with seats all round it.
A great part of Linlithgow Palace was
destroyed in 1746, when the royal army was
proceeding to meet the Pretender, and lay on
straw in these princely halls. The town of
Queens-ferry, on the Frith of Forth, is a small
seaport, and derives its name from Margaret, wife
of Malcolm III, often crossing over that passage
to Dunfermline, where there was a palace.
We will now look at EDINBURGH or MID-
LOTHIAN, which contains the capital of Scotland.


The county of Edinourgh is bounded on the
north by the Frith of Forth, on the north-east
'and east by Haddington and Berwickshire, on
the south by Lanarkshire, Peebles, and Selkirk-
shire, and on the west by Linlithgow.
Edinburgh, the capital, is a most interesting
town. It was at the beginning of George III's
reign an inconvenient, ill-built, and old-fashioned
place, of about 70,000 inhabitants. It is now a
kind of double city, first there is the picturesque
old town, occupied now by the poorer classes,
and secondly, there is the beautiful modern town,
inhabited by the upper classes. Many a poor
family now dwells in a fine house in the old
town, once the residence of some grand person,
and many a fine oak-panelled room or carved
ceiling shelters poverty and misery where once
there were riches and comfort.
The city is built on three ridges running east
and west. The central ridge is ended by a
rocky precipice on which is the castle, a fine
old building. The rock on, which it stands
is two hundred feet in height, and many
interesting events have occurred within the
walls of this castle. Here Queen Mary gave


birth to her only son, afterwards James I of
Across the valley which separates the old
from the new town, a bridge was erected, and
further west, across the same valley, a mound
of earth, chiefly formed of the rubbish removed
in digging the foundations of the newly-erected
houses, was begun in 1783. A third and nearer
bridge connects the western part of the new town
with the southern district. Before these bridges
were built, the only communication to the south
and north was by those narrow, steep lanes,
called closes and wynds, which descend from
both sides of the high street. The meaning of
close, is a passage in a town for persons on
foot; wynds are passages for carriages. Some
of these curious narrow little streets are com-
posed of immensely high houses, and are so
narrow that persons may shake hands with their
opposite neighbours.
It is really a treat to walk about this anti-
quated part of the town, and to recal the habits
of the simple people who once lived there.
Ladies used to have their tea drinking at six,
and were lighted to their friend's house by a girl


bearing a lantern. Gas was unknown in the old
times at Edinburgh, but if the night were very
dark a sedan-chair was ordered, a kind of carriage
carried by men. The dresses of the ladies in the
last century were very odd. An old gentleman
has been heard to describe two hooped ladies
moving up and down the Lawn market on a
summer's evening, whose figures took up the
whole path. In the narrow lanes they had often
to tilt their hoops up and carry them under their
arms. Stays were made so stiff and long that
they touched the chair both before and behind
when the lady sat down, and she had to hold fast
by the bed post whilst the maid laced her. There
is a book called "Traditions of Edinburgh," by
Mr. Robert Chambers, in which you may read
many amusing anecdotes. I will copy you a
curious advertisement of a school for young
ladies, which that book contains, and which was
extracted from an old Edinburgh Gazette, of
the year 1763. "Wax work of all sorts taught
by a gentlewoman from London; filigree work,
japan work on amber or glass; gum work;
pastry of all sorts; boning a fowl without cutting
the back butter work; preserving pickles;


writing and arithmetic, music and dancing,"
with many more accomplishments too tedious to
mention. In the College Wynd, in Edinburgh,
Sir Walter Scott was born. In the Netherbow,
in the old town, is the residence or manse of the
celebrated Reformer Knox, and perched in a
corner above the door is a curious little effigy of
him preaching in a stone, pulpit. Grayfriars'
Church is a very interesting part of the old town,
it lies near the Grass Market, and here are the
remains of many celebrated men-Robertson,
the historian; Ramsay, who was induced by
his friend Fenelon, archbishop of Cambray, to
change his deistical opinions, and who afterwards
educated the children of the pretender, and
many others. But this churchyard will ever be
a memorable place, as the scene of the signing
of the covenant. The document was handed
out after a sermon from one of their celebrated
preachers, and multitudes signed on the flat
monumental stones, amidst prayers and tears,
some even writing with their blood.
At the south-west angle of the churchyard is
a gateway leading to an inclosure where several
hundred of these faithful covenanters were


imprisoned after the Battle of Bothwell Bridge,
which I mentioned to you in a former chapter.
The cruelty these poor creatures endured seems
incredible. They were allowed scarcely any-
thing to lie upon or to cover them, their food
was but four ounces of bread daily, and they
were guarded day and night. If any person
arose from the ground at night he was shot at.
Some gained their liberty by signing a bond
never to take up arms against the King, but
four hundred refusing were kept five months
in this frightful state, only being permitted
shingle huts at the approach of winter, which
was boasted of as a great mercy. A remnant,
about two hundred and fifty-seven in number,
were afterwards sent to Barbadoes, but the
vessel was wrecked and only forty-nine came on
shore alive.
The old Tolbooth or prison of Edinburgh was
burnt in the time of George II, during some
riots known by the name of the Porteous riots.
It was near St. Giles' church. There used to
be a great many booths or shops around the
church, but the council ordered that none but
booksellers', watchmakers', and jewellers' shops

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