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Group Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Virgin Islands to the Secretary of the Interior.
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Virgin Islands
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015459/00006
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Governor of the Virgin Islands
Alternate Title: Annual report - the Governor of the Virgin Islands
Annual report of the Governor of the Virgin Islands to the Secretary of the Interior
Annual report, Virgin Islands
Physical Description: 38 p. : tab. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Virgin Islands of the United States -- Governor
Publisher: Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Publication Date: 1931
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States Virgin Islands
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Report covers fiscal year.
General Note: Title varies slightly.
General Note: Vols. for 1925/26 issued as Senate document 170, U.S. 69th Congress, 2d session.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00015459
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA5018
oclc - 01235215
oclc - 1235215
lccn - 26027791
issn - 0363-3438

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Index
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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Full Text










UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES









UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR


ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE


GOVERNOR OF


THE VIRGIN ISLANDS



1931


UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1931


For sale by the Superinendent of Docummls, Washington, D. C.


- Price 5 cnts









VI/
















INDEX

Page
Agricultural high school ----------------------------------------- 6
Agricultural station ----------------------------------------------- 18
Banking--------------------------------------------------------- 10
Bay oil--------------------------------------------------------- 12
Board of pardons and paroles--------------------------------------- 27
Bureau of Efficiency ------------------------------------------- 7
Cattle cooperative----------------------------------------------- 19
Census --------------------------------------------------------- 13
Citizenship ------------------------------------------------------ 15
Coastwise shipping-- .-------------------------------------------- 26
Community activities --------------------------------------------- 19
Conditions to be met ----------- --------------------------------- 3
Conferences-.--------------------------------------------------- 7
Cotton growing ------------------------------------------------- 8
Crop-sharing rentals------------------------------------------ 11
Dairy experiment ---------------------------------------------- 12
Danish land records---- ------------------------------------- 24
Department of education----------------------------------------- 21
Department of industry------------------------------------------ 19
Department of public works---------------------------------------- 25
Departmental reports -------------------------------------------- 13
Developing agriculture ------------------------------------------ 8
Economic decline of Virgin Islands --------- ----------------------- 7
Electoral franchise ----------------------------------------------- 16
Federal prohibition --- ------- --------------------- --------------. 29
Finances .------------------------------------------------------- 13
Fire departments------------------------------------------------- 27
Government secretariat .------------------------------------ ------. 13
Handicraft department------- ---------------------------------- 21
Harbor board --------------------------------------------------- 26
Health -------------------------------------------------------- 8
Home and school associations ------------------------------------- 19
Homesteading plans .-__------- ---------------------------------- 9
Hot lunches for schools ---------. --------------- ----------------- -- 11
Hotel improvement.---------------------------------------------- 10
Immediate rehabilitation plans ------------------------------------ 19
Improved highways, St. Thomas---------------------------------- 25
Improving the educational system ---------------------------------- 7
Inauguration of the civil administration--------------------------- 5
Insane asylum. ------------------------------------------------- 23
Insecticides .--- ----------------------------------------------- 12
Judiciary department .--------------------------------------------- 23
King's Hill poor farm ------------------------------------------- 23
Leper colony _-------------------------------------------------- 23
Libraries ------------------------------------------------------- 28
Marketing fish .------------------------------------------------ 9
Municipal hospital, St. Croix ------------------------------------ 17
Municipal hospital, St. Thomas _----------- ---------------------- -- 22
Municipality of St. Croix .- ------------------------------ ------- 23
Music and drama------- ------------------ --------------------- 20
No executive orders given ---------------------------------------- 7
Police department ----------------------------------------------- 27
Policy of the new administration ----------------------------------- 5
Poor relief, St. Thomas and St. John ------------------------------- 28
President Hoover's visit ------------------------------------------ 12
Promoting handicraft ..------------------------------------------- 6
nI














IV INDEX

Page
Promoting Virgin Islanders _------------------------------- 7
Public health----------------------------------- -- --- 22
Public welfare----------------------------------------------- 28
Recreation --------------------------------------------------- 6
Recreation projects ------------------------------------------- 20
Reconstruction undertaken-------------------------------------- 7
Reforestation------------------- ------ ----------- 10
Rehabilitation ----------------------.--------------------------- 6
Richmond penitentiary --------------------------------------- 27
Road building------------------------------------------------ 18
Scholarships secured--------------------------------------------- 8
School gardens.------------------------------------------------ 12
Schools ------------------------------------------------------- 6
Selling cattle------.---------------------------------------- 9
St. John------------------------ -------------------- ----18
Summary of work begun since March 18 ---------------------------. 1
Summer school --------------------. ---------------------- 7
Trade development ------------------------------------- 6
Transshipment trade------------------------------------- ... 11
Virgin Islands register and directory ------------------...-- -...--- 30
Welfare commission. -------------------------------------------- 7
Well drilling--------------------- ---------------------------- 18
Work begun since March 18 --------------.----------------.- ---.. 1
Work of the Bureau of Efficiency ---------------------------------- 4














GOVERNMENT HOUSE,
ST. THOMAS, VIRGIN ISLANDS OF UNITED STATES,
August 31, 1931.
The PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
The White House, Washington, D. C.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the Gover-
nor of the Virgin Islands for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1931.
As I was not inaugurated until March 18, 1931, my report can not
cover the entire year. On that date the Navy Department turned
over the government of the Virgin Islands to the new civil adminis-
tration under the Department of the Interior. The change of ad-
ministration was made for the purpose of undertaking a rehabilita-
tion program which would remedy the desperate economic condition
of the Virgin Islands, help its citizens to earn a livelihood, and
gradually decrease the annual deficit which the islands had incurred
and which Congress each year has been forced to make up.
In the three and one-half months during which the new civil
administration has been in office, there has not been sufficient time
to do anything more than start the new program of rehabilitation.
However, during this time the following steps toward carrying out
this program have been taken:
A Summary of Work Begun since March 18, 1931
1. In replacing Navy personnel of the former administration, more
than 40 per cent Virgin Islanders have been appointed to office.
2. The cattlemen of St. Croix, who had surplus stock and few
sales except at unprofitable competitive prices, have been organized
into a cooperative, which has now secured a regular market at a fair
price.
3. Handcraft cooperatives for basketry and needlework among the
women have been organized, with some 200 women given work and
orders secured in the United States for the output.
4. With the aid of the Interior Department and financial assistance
from interested friends, the native handcraft cooperatives of St.
Thomas were able to make an exhibit at the American Fair, Atlantic
City, and to send two representatives to demonstrate the work.
5. A charcoal cooperative for St. John has been organized. Where
sales were uncertain and prices irregular and low, annual orders for
weekly deliveries at a fair standard price now afford steady work
and income.
6. Experimental rug making has been started for a New York
import firm, and an experimental order in rug making has been
secured.
7. Garden plots for 2,490 people have been secured, the seed pro-
vided, and planting begun in St. Croix. This project in self-support
supplements the efforts to aid unemployment. A similar project on a
smaller scale has been planned for St. Thomas.










2 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

8. In the newly erected potting shed in St. Thomas more than
70,000 tree plants have been potted, and planting is under way both
in St. Thomas and in St. Croix. Results indicate that fruit trees
would meet with better favor than forest trees.
9. Road construction work authorized by Congress has been begun
in St. Thomas.
10. The reconstruction of the Christiansted Reservoir, authorized
by Congress, is under way.
11. Options have been secured on properties to be developed as a
new hotel, for which funds were appropriated by Congress.
12. The report of the Chief of the Bureau of Efficiency on home-
steading has been studied and approved by the Department of the
Interior and by the governor. Negotiations for the purchase of
land are now being carried on.
13. Conferences with steamship companies and tourist agencies,
correspondencee with various groups which may be interested in
making a tour of St. Thomas, and the preparation of publicity mat-
ter, are among the activities of the department of industry for devel-
oping tourist trade.
14. Dr. W. W. Skinner, of the Department of Agriculture, comn-
pleted a study of the bay-tree and the bay-oil industry and of the
growing of insecticide plants. His investigations are being con-
tinued in the laboratory in Washington.
15. The Bureau of Fisheries completed a survey and conducted
experiments in these islands to learn how the catch of fish may be
improved and the fish marketed profitably.
16. Necessary legislation passed the St. Croix Colonial Council
for highway improvements, including a gasoline tax of 4 cents per
gallon. Construction of a water-bound macadam road is under
way for the center line, the main highway of the island.
17. Committees have been chosen by the colonial councils for pre-
paring for the public and submitting to the proper committees in
Washington a new organic act, a revision of taxes, and educational
and sanitation codes.
18. The St. Thomas Home Guard, a company of 50 of the most
representative men, has been organized for emergencies, such as
fires and hurricanes and for community development.
19. The field commission has been organized for directing base-
ball, cricket, and other recreational activities on what was formerly
the marine parade ground.
20. A welfare commission among the clergy has been organized to
cooperate with the commissioner of public welfare and to direct
public opinion in welfare matters.
21. A committee appointed by the governor is studying methods
to increase shipping and harbor activities.
22. A summer school for teachers, the only opportunity for normal
training, had an increased attendance of more than 500 per cent.
23. Two scholarships of $500 each have been secured for teachers
to study in the United States under pledge of returning to the Virgin
Islands school system. The scholarships are made immediately
available.
24. Three playgrounds have been organized and playground
equipment secured by donation from the Edwin Gould Foundation.










REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


CONDITIONS TO BE MET
Conditions in the islands have been desperate.
In March, when we came we found the people in St. Croix still
suffering from a severe drought; from the collapse of the Bethlehem
sugar factory, which was the chief industrial unit of the island;
and from the fact that they could not sell their cattle, the raising
of which is the second industry of the island. Most of the laborers
were out of work, and during the preceding months the Red Cross
had been feeding as many as 25 per cent of the population. There
was at the time a labor strike, so that the small sugar factory re-
maining open on the island could not begin work. There were a
number of cane fires. Depression was general, serious, and complete.
In addition to this economic condition, the majority of the people in
St. Croix had come to expect that the plans for rehabilitation under
the new civil administration would affect immediate relief.
Many persons were unemployed in St. Thomas because the falling
off in shipping over the world decreased harbor activities. In this
island the people were depressed also because of the announcement
that they were to lose the naval station. Both the general economic
condition and the minds of the people were in a low state. The con-
lict between the "naval" supporters and the "civil supporters
added to the confusion.
In St. John, the smallest of the islands, whose population of 735
supports itself largely through home gardens, cattle raising, and
charcoal burning, the people were almost desperate because the
drought had ruined their gardens and there was no market for their
cattle and charcoal.
The economic decline of the Virgin Islands seems to have begun
as far back as 1867 and continued progressively. This was a matter
of grave anxiety on the part of the Danish authorities, as shown in
various reports. In the last of these, the Danish Parliamentary
Commission of 1916 in their report stated in part:
In the last generation the Danish West India Islands have been steadily
declining * *. The decline * continues on the same scale. The
chief reasons for this sad result are the low sugar prices * *, the
changed condition in commerce and navigation brought about by the replace-
ment of sailing ships by modern steam vessels, so that St. Thomas for the
greater part has lost her importance as a port of call and an emporium.
This is a statement which is equally true to-day.
Four years ago there were three sugar factories on St. Croix with
a grinding capacity of more than 1,200 tons a day. Now there is
only one operating factory of 300 tons capacity. Cane acreage and
cane labor have been reduced in about the same proportion. Low
rainfall of St. Croix makes it almost impossible to profitably com-
pete in the sugar market with the vastly increased acreage of sugar
lands throughout the world which give from two to four times the
cane production per acre.
In 1921 St. Croix exported 31,000 pounds of long-staple cotton,
but the ravages of the pink bollworm were such that none has been
exported during the last three years.
Land on the islands is held by a few owners. On St. Thomas
60 per cent is held by 15 owners. On St. John 80 per cent is held
by 12 owners. On St. Croix 70 per cent is held by 14 owners.










4 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

Renters are required to pay cash to their landlords, a rental run-
ning from $10 to $12 an acre for land that would sell for from $35 to
$50 an acre.
The pressure is always to reduce the standards of labor to the
cheapest possible. Labor of the highest type is driven to the towns
and more particularly to the United States.
The standards of life are so low that in St. Croix 65 per cent of
the burials are pauper burials. Of the total revenue of St. Croix,
nearly 25 per cent is spent in poor relief.
For most of the humbler people no regular family life exists.
One room is commonly the space available for a family, however
large. Under these circumstances, sanitary conditions are wretched
and privacy is impossible. Marital relations are very irregular and
illegitimacy is common. In St. Croix, the rate is 64 per cent, in
St. Thomas 53 per cent illegitimacy.
The death rate is abnormally high, being about three times that
of the United States. In St. Croix it exceeds the birth rate. Infant
mortality, due largely to malnutrition and gastrointestinal diseases,
plays a conspicuous part in this high death rate.
Emigration has taken from the islands its most productive men
and women. The age group which emigrates is from 15 to 45 years.
Much of the improvement that should be expected from children
attending the schools is lost from the fact that many of these children
return to homes the condition of which falls far short of the so-called
American standard.
The effects of a slavery and semi-slavery culture are readily observ-
able in the necessary paternalism of government and the widespread
dependence on government by all classes.
Family life among a large proportion of the people is disorganized
chaotic, or nonexistent, and no orderly procedure has been supplied
to take the place of family life for great numbers of illegitimate
children.
The nutrition of the people is poor. Few vegetables or fruits are
grown on the islands. The kitchen garden is practically unknown.
The dominant industries demand the services of only the lower
ranks of labor and yearly the supply of labor becomes more pre-
carious and inefficient. There are few opportunities for the higher
ranks of labor and this tends increasingly to emigrate. Outside of
work in the dominant industries, labor offers neither regularity nor
rewards, and nowhere are there incentives to ambition or to improved
standards of living among the people.
The contacts between the school and the home are slight. As a re-
sult, the homes lack the incentives derived from a vigorous educa-
tional system, to better living, better nutrition, more regular systems
of home life and relationship, and greater industry.
THE WORK OF THE BUREAU OF EFFICIENCY
Because of this continued desperate situation, Congress instructed
the Bureau of Efficiency to make a study of the islands. A compre-
hensive survey was made by Hon. Herbert D. Brown and staff of the
Bureau of Efficiency, including the entire political, social, and eco-
nomic structure of the islands, and specific recommendations as to
remedial measures were made. Mr. Brown and his associates made










REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 5

three trips to the islands. His report of 1,051 typewritten pages in
four volumes presents a complete and constructive study of condi-
tions. The major recommendations were:
1. A change to civil administration under the Interior Depart-
ment.
2. A homesteading plan for the rehabilitation of St. Croix.
3. Increasing tourist trade and improved harbor conditions for
St. Thomas.
4. Improving the bay-oil industry for St. John.
5. Improved and permanent roads for all the islands.
Mr. Brown wrote of the plan: Even with the best of feeling on
all sides, it will take some time and study and money as well as
patience to work out a program of reconstruction for the Virgin
Islands."
For these projects, appropriations were secured from Congress,
and the new civil administration has undertaken to carry them
through in the spirit in which they were planned.

INAUGURATION OF THE CIVIL ADMINISTRATION
To accomplish the purpose of Congress and the recommendations
of the Bureau of Efficiency, the President issued an Executive order
on February 27, 1931, which transferred the Virgin Islands to the
Department of the Interior.
The civil administration was set up March 18, 1931, when the
civil governor was inaugurated at St. Thomas with impressive
ceremonies planned and carried through by the naval administra-
tion, and by a citizens committee. The new governor and his staff
received the loyal cooperation of officers of the naval administration.
Special acknowledgment has been made to the Secretary of the
Navy of the unfailing courtesy and continued helpfulness of Capt.
Waldo Evans, the naval governor, who remained in St. Thomas for
a month after the formal transfer; and of the equally loyal support
given by Commander Frederick L. Riefkohl, who succeeded Captain
Evans as commandant of the naval station until July 1, when the
station was formally closed. What might have been confusion was
prevented by the advice, directions, and help given by the naval
officials in Washington and in St. Thomas.

THE POLICY OF THE NEW ADMINISTRATION
Before leaving Washington I made a statement of policy, which
was submitted to the Interior Department and to the Bureau of
Efficiency, which had been responsible for the change in administra-
tion. The more essential portions of the statement follow:
I am entering upon this work with a realization that changes can not be
made overnight, but with confidence that with frankness, sympathy, and a
manifest determination that justice is to be done, we shall make progress.
Administration.-It appears that considerable economy in administration
may be secured through a reduction in the number of officials, and that with
no reduction in effectiveness. To that end, it is my policy to recommend for
immediate appointment only part of the number of the executives now em-
ployed and to recommend further appointments only as the conditions demand.
Because of the present serious conditions of unemployment, it seems wise
to continue in office most of the islanders now employed. There should come
a time before long when a reorganization may be made, when many persons
S81738-31--2












6 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

may be turned to other means of livelihood. Knowing how difficult such
reduction in Government employees is in the United States, I realize how
difficult it will be in the Virgin Islands, but it shall be my policy to make
such reduction as expeditiously as may be. Such change should be possible
when some of the rehabilitation projects become effective.
I am in full sympathy with the recommendation of the Bureau of Efficiency
to combine the two municipal hospitals in St. Croix as a means of economy and
effectiveness, and similar recommendations about the poor farm and other
agencies and institutions.
Rehabilitation.-I am in full accord with the rehabilitation projects recom-
mended by Herbert D. Brown, Chief of the Bureau of Efficiency, and approved
by Congress, and shall use every energy to carry these forward as quickly as
conforms with permanent results. In promoting these enterprises, I shall
count on the sympathetic and substantial support of the Department of the
Interior and of the Bureau of Efficiency. These undertakings include the home-
stead plans, the development of the tourist trade, the building of a hotel, and
other port developments for St. Thomas, and the development of the bay-rum
industry, as well as the improvement and the development of agriculture.
The rehabilitation projects, which are of paramount importance, are fully
discussed in the admirable report of the Bureau of Efficiency, so that they are
only referred to here.
Trade development.-To make these enterprises bring money returns as
quickly as possible, I am recommending the appointment of a trade commis-
sioner, whose business it shall be to find markets for what is produced, and
whose experience is such that he knows how to prepare commodities for the vari-
ous markets, and who has experience in distribution and sales. The most
important duty of this commissioner shall be to cooperate with the Department
of Agriculture and other departments of the Government in organizing,
promoting, and directing homesteading, and in the promotion of pay crops.
Promoting lhandicraft.-In addition to the love, all of which are long-time
projects, I shall undertake the improvement in those liaidicrafts in which the
islanders are now more or less skilled-needlework, basketry, cabinetmaking,
etc.-and make plans for the immediate marketing of them. In this way there
should come to the islands considerable ready money and increased employment
which will bring immediate returns.
To accomplish this end, I am recommending a ihandicraft supervisor who shall
work among the adults in improving their work, and particularly in directing
them to make those articles for which there is a ready market.
As a necessary part of this work, I recommend also a community organizer
who will bring together the adults in every community for recreation and self-
improvement, particularly for the promotion of guilds or cooperatives, which
will, under direction of the organizer, engage in those crafts that will bring
them immediate money and those recreations that will bring them more joy in
life.
Schools.-An imperative need of the schools is that they should be modern-
ized and made to meet the needs of the islands by training children to do and to
become interested in what they can find to do in the islands.
To accomplish this, the building up of an agriculture high school recommended
by the Bureau of Efficiency is much needed. This school must be developed
through the curriculum in the lower grades. At present there are few, if any,
pupils ready for such a school. The program of development must begin with
the teacher. In order that the teachers may know what and how to teach
these subjects, means must be found for bringing all teachers into a summer
school, the only normal instruction available to them.
For that purpose I plan to bring to the islands the most experienced and
efficient instructors for a summer school and a new director of education who
is in sympathy with the plans and experienced in promoting them.
Recreation.-As a part of the rehabilitation program, I urge that there shall
be a man of experience and ability who can bring to the lives of the people as
much refreshing recreation as possible. With better food, more opportunity
for work, and a better return for their labor, there must be at the same time
some of the joys of living. The largest returns on the smallest investment will
be in music. I am, therefore, recommending a musical director who will
develop the municipal bands already in existence, and follow up the activities of
the community organizer by promoting choruses, orchestras, and drama. Thus
the people will provide recreation for themselves and for their neighbors.










REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


Conferences.-My method in improving the conditions of the islands will be
to get the people interested in their own problems, so far as possible, and help
them toward a solution.
No government can give people freedom, or prosperity, or happiness. These
things can only be achieved. The individual who contributes to his government
is increasing his self-respect and his independence. He can achieve these things
for himself. No person, no government, however wise, or generous, or
munificent, can give them to him. He has them only in the degree that he
achieves them.
RECONSTRUCTION WORK UNDERTAKEN
The general plans presented by the Chief of the Bureau of Effi-
ciency, approved by Congress, and committed to the new administra-
tion all look toward a possible economic independence and self-
determination. In order to attain these ends, and in order to accom-
plish what was announced as my policy, the following projects or
methods have-been inaugurated:
1. Promoting Virgin Islanders.-It is the policy of this administra-
tion to put into positions of responsibility as many Virgin Islanders
as possible. Of the appointments made to replace Navy personnel,
40 per cent have been natives.
2. No executive orders given.-All matters pertaining to the
government of the islands have been presented to committees, or com-
missions of the colonial councils. In this way, the people are work-
ing at their own problems under stimulus and direction and with the
cooperation of the administration. The philosophy presented in one
form or another as occasion offers is that no people can be given
freedom or self-determination; these ends must be achieved.
3. A welfare commission.-In order to promote the welfare of the
people, the clergymen from all denominations have been called to-
gether for the first time in the history of the islands, and united in
forming a welfare commission to support the work of the commis-
sioner of public welfare.
The economic status of the Virgin Islands has been and will con-
tinue to be very seriously affected by the standard of morality which
produces an abnormal increase of population without the proper
assumption of responsibility for that increase or provision for its
employment. Promiscuity among married and unmarried men and
women, and among boys and girls, is far too grave to pass unnoticed
or unmentioned. This situation has existed so long and has become
so commonplace that it is accepted locally with little notice, or
remonstrance, or attempt at curtailment. It is in the hope of im-
proving this and other conditions and of arousing public sentiment
that the welfare commission has been organized.
4. Improving the educational system.-Following the recom-
mendations made by a commission consisting of Thomas H. Dickin-
son, W. Carson Ryan, jr., Swarthmore College, W. T. B. Williams,
Tuskegee Institute, and C. D. Stevens, Hampton Institute, the va-
rious improvements suggested are being put into effect.
(a) As there is little or no opportunity for normal instruction
here, a summer school for teachers is of paramount importance. For
that reason I organized the 1931 summer school in advance of the
coming of the new director of education. There was an attendance
of 144 compared with 27 the preceding year.










8 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

(b) To further assist the teachers to qualify for the best possible
work, I have asked from friends of education in the United States
for four $500-a-year scholarships for four years each. Two of these
have been pledged, and of the other two we are reasonably sure. Two
of the most representative teachers will go to the United States this
fall to begin their further studies under- agreement that they arc to
return to the islands to teach.
(c) Following the recommendation of the Bureau of Efficiency,
an agricultural and vocational high school will be organized in St.
Croix. Congress appropriated $50,000 for this purpose. The school
will be started as soon as land and buildings can be secured and the
.curriculum organized.
(d) A new director of education, George H. Ivins, has been ap-
pointed. He has had previous experience in Porto Rico and in the
Virgin Islands, and has the qualifications to carry forward the gen-
eral plan of reorganization along the lines recommended by the
educational commission in its survey.
5. Health.-In addition to the various public health and sanita-
tion matters dealt with by earlier administrations, the present
administration is undertaking such instruction as will lead the com-
mon people to improve their daily diet so they can do a full day's
work, as they can not do now when subsisting on the ahnost univer-
sal diet of these islands. This is being done through the cooperation
of the Extension Division of the Department of Agriculture; by
reorganizing the health program to provide district nurses; and
through instruction in the schools. A definite attempt is being made
also to reduce the high infant mortality, which is attributable to
poor food for mothers and babies as well as to the lack of care of
babies.
6. Developing agriculture.-In St. Croix, and to a less extent in
the other two islands, the chief source of livelihood must be agri-
culture. To further this occupation among the people, the admin-
istration has already given much attention to the various crops and
other sources of income. In cooperation with the excellent staff
of the agricultural experiment station in St. Croix, under the super-
vision of Mr. J. R. Ricks, some progress has been made.
Despite the best results that can be expected from rehabilitation
work planned-homesteading and other-and despite the need and
plan for diversification of interests and crops, sugar will and must
continue to be the key to St. Croix employment and prosperity for
some years to come. Even the homesteading plan, which it is hoped
will start a new era for people and for agriculture, will find the
sugar factory a very necessary ally, and the least of all risky ones
for some considerable time to come.
7. Experiments in cotton growing.-During May and June a sur-
vey was made with a view to again planting long-staple cotton,
which was a very profitable crop until the appearance of the pink
bollworm in 1922. Mr. U. C. Loften, of the Division of Entomology,
who investigated the conditions, found that the pest had persisted
in the wild cotton scattered throughout the island. But old control
ordinances have been amended so that all wild cotton is to be eradi-
cated this summer. If next summer's survey shows expected condi-
tions, cotton may be planted again in the fall of 1932 under condi-









REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 9

tions of strictly controlled clean culture. The extent of this develop-
ment will, however, depend largely upon the ability of the estate
owners to finance and risk the crop; and the lack of banking facili-
ties, together with the heavily mortgaged condition of most estates,
looms ominously.
8. Selling cattle.-On all the islands extensive acreage once given
over to cane cultivation is now devoted to grazing, which has rapidly
advanced since the introduction some years ago of the famous guinea
grass, which seems to adapt itself remarkably to our soils and climate
and which provides excellent forage. On St. Croix, 41,000 of its
51,000 acres are rated in the tax office as "grazing land," though
only part of it is cleared.
The cattle exports from the Virgin Islands were $84,107 for the
calendar year 1930, as compared with the $69,408 for the previous
year. Cattle imports (chiefly from Tortola, British) fell off from
$21,000 to $18,000 during the same period. Practically all exported
cattle go to Porto Rico. In April the department of industry
organized the Cattlemen's Cooperative of St. Croix, which is func-
tioning to the advantage of buyers and producers alike. A market
for regular weekly shipments was secured in Porto Rico, which
market is now taking all the cattle available.
9. Marketing flsh.-At the request of the Secretary of the Interior,
we had the services during May and June of Mr. R. H. Fiedler, chief,
and Mr. Norman D. Jarvis, technologist, of the Bureau of Fisheries
of the Department of Commerce, in surveying the supply of fish,
the conditions of fishing, and the possibilities of this industry.
Their careful and complete study and recommendations disclosed
certain limited opportunities for the development of the fishing
industry. Their report shows that the type of gear and boats,
though primitive, are well suited for local conditions and local re-
quirements; that commercial fishing is impracticable because fish
quantities and climatic and fishing conditions make it impossible to
meet competition of established commercial fisheries elsewhere; that
fish salting is practical for the local and near-by markets.
Their survey was followed by experiment and demonstration of
drying and icing fish, and several local men are considering the
development of those products, but are handicapped because fisher-
men are still expecting impossible retail prices for suitable wholesale
supply.
Three additional developments in the fishing industry have taken
place. A turtle crawl has been established, turtles being bought from
local and Tortola fishermen for shipment to the United States. A
small canning outfit producing turtle soup has been established,
samples of which have met with favorable comment in the northern
market. One fisherman has made a small test shipment of native
lobsters to Europe. Orders for these products are being solicited
for their use from ships that call at St. Thomas.
10. Honesteading plans.-The homesteading plan of the Bureau
of Efficiency was approved by the Secretary of the Interior and by
the civil administration. As this fiscal year closes, negotiations
have not yet been concluded for the purchase of those lands recom-
mended in the plan of the Bureau of Efficiency and provided for by
congressional appropriation. The plan contemplates the acquisi-
tion of more than 3,000 acres of land, some of which is for horti-










10 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

cultural purposes and some for grazing. It is expected to enable
more than 300 families to eventually grow their own food and suffi-
cient surplus to sell for their other needs.
The history of homesteading projects and the known experience
of the Department of the Interior show it to be imperative that
Federal lands should not be passed over to individual ownership
until the prospective homesteaders have demonstrated their abilities
and their determination to develop properly the lands assigned to
them. However difficult this problem of establishing small home-
steads, its solution must be found in one way or another, and the
plan prepared by the Bureau of Efficiency gives promise of that
solution.
Some such plan must also be extended to the island of St. Thomas
and probably to a lesser degree to the island of St. John. Neither of
these islands is provided for under the present plan. St. Thomas
is not agricultural by nature or temperament. Nevertheless, it does
have some cultivatable land, and economic pressure makes it neces-
sary to settle a few hundred families on that land, not as squatters
but as term lessors and then as ultimate owners. The desire among
the people of all these islands is for land ownership, but the good
land is held closely by a small number of owners, while the hundreds
who want it have nothing with which to buy and can give no
guaranty for their leases.
11. Hotel improvement.-As the present hotel facilities in the Vir-
gin Islands are inadequate for the development of tourist trade, Con-
gress appropriated $60,000 to provide improved hotel accommoda-
tions. A site has been selected which will warrant the investment
of the money available. Options have been obtained upon sufficient
of this property to permit the remodeling and supplementing of its
main building, and outside rooms will also be closely available for
extra guests. This project, however, is under review by the
department.
12. Banking.-The banking situation in the Virgin Islands is one
of the most critical which the new administration has to face. The
National Bank of the Danish West Indies, with its principal offices
in St. Thomas, operates under a franchise of 30 years, which expires
in 1934. This means that no long-term loans are made, and as a
result agriculture and industry are seriously handicapped. Also,
the bank is collecting as rapidly as possible on mortgages and long-
term loans.
In order to insure adequate banking facilities when the charter of
the national bank expires, a committee was appointed, consisting of
Dr. V. A. Christensen, president of the St. Thomas Savings Bank;
Judge C. G. Thiele; and Harry E. Taylor, commissioner of industry.
They are studying the situation. The Secretary of the Treasury will
send an investigator to assist in the study.
13. Reforestation.-E. V. Roberts, associate forester of the
United States Department of Agriculture, who has been assigned
to the Virgin Islands by the Forest Service, has built a potting shed
in St. Thomas and has planted some 70,000 young trees. Although
the work of building the shed and securing these seedlings was not
completed until just before the close of the fiscal year, some 4,000









REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


trees have been planted on approximately 20 acres of the municipal
tract in St. Thomas. As the plantings have been experimental in
nature, several species have been used in varying mixtures, chiefly
mahogany, Australian pine, rosewood, and various species of
eucalyptus.
Planting costs on this project have been high because it was neces-
sary to machete trails through the dense brush to open the area
for the planting and to allow transportation of seedlings to the
planting site. The cost, exclusive of the cost of seedlings and super-
vision, has been $55 per 1,000 trees.
Mr. Roberts found that the high cost of planting and the possibil-
ity of damage from hurricane or prolonged drought, together with
the uncertainty with respect to marketing conditions, combine to
form an extremely hazardous proposition, which he can not recom-
mend to landowners as a private investment. However, there is a
possibility of extending the work of roadside, fence row, and pasture
plantings, which have actual timber production possibilities as well
as esthetic and improvement value. Most applications for trees
have been for those which will give aesthetic and improvement
values.
14. Trans-shipment trade.-Prior to the World War, the port of St.
Thomas derived its prosperity chiefly through the trans-shipment
trade. During the war, however, German steamship companies re-
moved from the port, causing a decline, and an effort is now being
made to revive the trans-shipment trade.
Rufus S. Tucker, in his Economic Conditions of the Virgin Is-
lands, printed as Senate Document No. 41 of the Sixty-ninth Con-
gress, first session, shows the great possibilities for trans-shipment
trade in St. Thomas. The number of vessels sailing near St. Thomas
to and from the Panama Canal, Europe, and the United States is
considerable, and the number of vessels sailing in ballast that might
be attracted here in the chance of getting a cargo, or that might be
warranted in stopping here to discharge a cargo, is very great.
A committee appointed by the governor, consisting of Commander
W. Laub, director of the West Indian Co. (Ltd.), the large shipping
and coaling concern located at St. Thomas; Mr. Herbert E. Lock-
hart, agent of the Bull Insular Line; Mr. Emile A. Berne, president
of the Chamber of Commerce and agent of the Furness Line; Valde-
mar A. Miller; Dr. V. A. Christensen; the government secretary;
and commissioner of industry, is studying this question as well as
others that may build up the harbor of St. Thomas.
15. Crop-sharing rentals.-With the cooperation of persons con-
cerned, the civil administration has under way a crop-sharing rental
plan on the Princesse estate in St. Croix. The cash-rental plan
has worked such a general hardship that the people welcome this
experiment in a crop-sharing plan whereby the renter pays 10 per
cent of the gross selling price of the crop to the landlord. The par-
cels made available range from 2 to 5 acres, depending upon the
ability of the renter to work his ground. This experiment seems to
be more equitable than the cash-rental plan, and it looks toward de-
veloping reliable persons who may become homesteaders.
16. Hot lunches out of school gardens.-With the cooperation of
the American Red Cross and the Department of Agriculture hot
lunches have been provided for most of the schools in the country









12 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

districts of St. Croix, where unemployment has most seriously af-
fected the rations of the people. This plan seems to be on a con-
tinuing basis. The colonial council has authorized the purchase of
small tracts of land adjacent to the country school properties, which
tracts are to be used as school gardens, where will be grown the vege-
tables for the school lunches. These plots will also serve as experi-
mental stations and will develop interest in agriculture. A neces-
sary step to prepare the pupils for entrance into the agricultural and
vocational school to be established under the appropriation from
Congress will thus be accomplished.
17. Experimenting with bay oil and insecticides.-Dr. W. W. Skin-
ner, of the Bureau of Chemistry of the Department of Agriculture,
who visited the islands in March, studied the possibilities of growing
certain types of medicinal plants with a particular interest in bay
oil and in the possibilities of breaking it down into different essen-
tials and new uses. His experiments are being continued in Wash-
ington, and his report on the subject is not yet available.
18. Dairy experiment.-Mr. N. N. Nichols, of the Department of
Agriculture, arrived in June to study the problem of milk produc-
tion and milk utilization. The islands have more than enough milk
for local consumption, but in recent years there has been no local
production of dairy products. A small creamery has now been
started in St. Croix and another in St. Thomas.

President Hooter's Visit
One of the most important days in the history of the Virgin
Islands was March 25, 1931, the occasion of the visit of the President
of the United States, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Secretary
of War. The reception was simple and sincere. The people of St.
Thomas attempted to be at home to the President, to enable him to
see the islands and the people as they are. There were no decora-
tions of the conventional sort, and no effort to outdo any other city.
As one committee member said, New York can buy more bunting
than we can."
On their own beautiful arches, in doors and windows, the Virgin
Islanders used palm branches and flowering vines as decorations. As
the President came ashore, there were two long lines of decorated
fishing boats, through which his barge passed. For their reception,
the people passed in review before the President and his official
party showing their characteristic market women with trays of
fruit or vegetables balanced on their heads; the burdened donkeys
with attendant boys delivering milk or carrying grass and charcoal
to market; floats exhibiting bay rum or other local products and
showing cane-cutting process and similar displays. There were
" scratch bands, and Maypole dancing by a thousand school chil-
dren. These and much more made a colorful display and enabled
the President to see the life and customs of the people. The official
luncheon reception to leading citizens and members of the colonial
councils, and conferences with representatives of various organiza-
tions, filled a memorable day to all people of the islands.
The islanders considered it particularly fortunate that the Secre-
tary of the Interior accompanied the President on this visit. The
many people who met him came to know that in him they had an
understanding man to cooperate in the affairs of the islands.










REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS
The reports of the departments of the government of the Virgin
Islands are summarized as follows:
GOVERNMENT SECRETARIAT--BOYD J. BROWN, GOVERNMENT SECRETARY
The government secretariat has the closest working relations with
all departments and activities of the government and with the colo-
nial council and its committees. Practically every item in this report
represents some work on the part of the government secretariat.
Budgetary problems, never a simple matter in a community that
is not self-supporting, complicated this year by the falling off of
revenue due to the economic depression, were still further compli-
cated by the change of administration and the withdrawal of the
naval activities. In three and one-half months, a naval station built
up over a period of 14 years was decommissioned. What this meant
to the governmental activities of the islands, and particularly to the
department charged with financial control and supervision, can be
realized when it is stated that the naval station maintained a gen-
eral storehouse, with approximately $75,000 worth of stores, avail-
able for immediate issue to the government, thus giving the insular
activities the advantage of the purchasing power of the Navy. Care-
ful thought is being given to a plan to establish a revolving fund
in order that the governmental activities may have the benefit of
lower prices due to quantity purchases and in order that a stock
of essential material may be available.
Census.-The results of the census of 1930, published in the last
annual report, have been elaborated in two bulletins published by
the Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce. A first-series
bulletin gave the number and distribution of inhabitants, and a
population-agriculture final bulletin gave the composition and char-
acteristics of the population, number of farms, acreage, tenure, value,
mortgage debt, production, and livestock. Copies of these bulletins
may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
Finances.-The cost of the municipal government in the munici-
pality of St. Thomas and St. John during the fiscal year 1931 was
$222,005.21. Of this amount, 55 per cent or $121,381.21, was derived
from local taxation and 45 per cent, or $100,624, was contributed
from the Federal appropriation.
The cost of the municipal government in the municipality of St.
Croix during the same period was $198,266.81. Of this amount,
39 per cent, or $77,478.35, was derived from local taxation, and 61
per cent, or $120,788.46, was contributed from the Federal appropri-
ation.
Receipts from taxes always have been low due to the fact that the
per capital wealth of the islands is only about $350, which is about
one-eighth that of the United States. About three-fifths of the adult
males in St. Thomas and about four-fifths of those in St. Croix
do not have a regular income of $300 a year, the sum necessary to
allow them to vote. In addition to this, the collection of taxes
in St. Croix was further decreased during the fiscal year just closed
81738-31--3











14 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

by the collapse of the sugar industry. The actual revenues in St.
Croix during the year were approximately $30,000 less than the
estimated revenues.
The harbor of St. Thomas, which is by law a self-owning, self-
sustaining institution with a treasury independent of the municipal
treasury, suffered from the world-wide shipping depression, and its
revenues consequently fell off considerably during the year. The
total harbor receipts were $28,889.97. The total cost of operation
was $23,542.98, to which should be added the retirement of bonds
of the St. Thomas Harbor 4 per cent loan of 1910, which during
the year amounted to $6,769.23. Incidentally there will be but two
more drawings of harbor loan bonds for retirement, one in December,
1931, and the other in June, 1932, by which time all the bonds will
have been retired.
The cost of the central administration, which is defrayed direct
from the Federal appropriation, was $73,387.99. Special projects,
financed directly from Federal appropriations, cost $27,610.31. In
the cost of the central administration, given above is not included
the salaries of the naval personnel who were assigned to duty with
the government of the Virgin Islands up to March 17, 1931, when
they were replaced by civilian personnel. The salaries of the naval
personnel were paid from naval funds. These salaries totaled ap-
proximately $139.000 per annum, so that to arrive at the actual cost
of the central administration for the last fiscal year there should
be added to the $73,387.99 a figure equal to approximately three-
fourths (July, 1930, to March, 1931) of $139,000. or $104.250, which
would make the actual cost of the central administration $177,637.99.
The following were the sources of revenue in the municipality of
St. Thomas and St. John with the amounts derived from each source:


Direct taxes:
Real property tax---------------------------- $36. 399.06
Personal property tax_------------------- 5. 914. 84
Trade tax ----------------------------------- 374. 04
Lamp tax -- ------------------------- 1. 841.64
Horse, carriage, and boat tax --.-- ----------- 834. 09
Income tax------------------------------------ 22, 263. 58


Indirect taxes:
Customs dues--- ---------------- ---
Vendue fees and percentages--------- ---
Tax on inheritances------------- _---_
Court fees and fees from police office----------
Stamp dues -------------------------
Fees from steamer tickets---- ----------
Fees from burgher briefs---------------


$75,628.15


7. 020. 26
95. 38
4, 335. 46
5, 739. 45
1, 275. 01
958. 65
1. 322.41
20.747.52


Sundry revenues:
Pay patients, municipal hospital------------------ 2. 472.86
Fees from customhouse----------------- 636.74
Returns from night-soil removal service -----_---- 4. 928.11
Passport fees----------- --------- ---_ 67.00
Corporation fees ------------ ------ ---- 1.537.30
Returns from telephone service-------- ------- 9, 074. 27
Miscellaneous--------------------- -- ---- 060. 23
Contribution from St. Thomas Harbor board .--- 1, 229. 03


Total receipts------------ ------------------121, 381. 21


25 0nn5 5R


20,747.52











REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 10

The following were the sources of revenue in the municipality of
St. Croix with the amounts derived from each source.
Direct taxes:
Ground, building, and percentage tax------------ $18, 255. 96
Horse, carriage, and boat tax----------------- 2, 112. 98
Income tax----------------------------- 3, 086. 44
Quarter per cent tax_------------ ------------ 2, 539. 07
Automobile tax------------------------------- 5, 368. 76
Immigration tax ---------------- -------- 3, 559. 39
$34, 922. 60
Indirect taxes:
Import duty----------- ---------------------- 2, 890. 40
Export duty---------------------- 18, 573. 62
Ships dues --------------------------------- 784.43
Cranage and wharfage------------------------- 1,066.77
Stamp dues --------------------------------- 2, 394. 39
Vendue fees and percentages---------------- 101. 27
Tax on inheritances-------------------------- 2,151.05
Court fees and fees from police offices -------- 2, 640. 03
Fees from burgher briefs------------------------- 57. 69
30, 659. 65
Sundry revenues:
Fines and confiscations--------------------- ---. 1, 047. 56
Revenues from the prison------------------ --- 84.71
Received from municipality of St. Thomas and St. John:
Toward support of leper asylum-------------- 976.04
Toward support of insane asylum ----------- 1, 981.31
Toward support of King's Hill poor farm.----. 513. 89
Toward support of Richmond penitentiary---.. 935.93
Night-soil removal service-------------------- 2,895.98
Corporation fees------------------------------- 416. 95
Fees from customhouse-------------------------- 35. 05
Passport fees-------------------------------- 48.00
Miscellaneous -------------- ----------------- 2, 960. 68
11,896.10

Total receipts ------------------------------ 77, 478. 35
The following were the sources of revenue in the harbor of St.
Thomas, with the amounts derived from each source.
Ships' dues------------------------- -------- $13,312.51
Pilotage --------------- ------------------ 11,447.85
Ferryboat fees--------------------------------- 67.06
Rentals ------------- ----------------------- 715. 00
Quarantine fees ------- --------------------------- 1, 888. 97
Miscellaneous--------------------------- 1, 364. 81
Transferred from surplus- ------- ------- ---- 93. 77

28, 889. 97
Citizenship.-The popular belief that all Virgin Islanders are
American citizens has caused much confusion and is one of the prob-
lems to which the civil administration has given considerable atten-
tion. The citizenship situation may be analyzed as follows:
1. By the treaty of cession, Danish citizens and natives of the
Virgin Islands who were residing in these islands on January 17,
1917, and who did not elect to preserve their Danish nationality
within one year, became citizens of the Virgin Islands entitled to
the protection of the United States."
2. By act of Congress of February 25, 1927, the following persons
were granted full United States citizenship.
(a) Former Danes who resided in the Virgin Islands on January 17, 1917,
did not retain their Danish nationality, and who resided in the Virgin Islands,
the United States, or Porto Rico, on February 25, 1927.










16 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

(b) Natives of the Virgin Islands who resided in the Virgin Islands on
January 17, 1917, did not retain their Danish nationality, and who resided
in the Virgin Islands, the United States, or Porto Rico, on February 25, 1927.
(c) Natives of the Virgin Islands who resided in the United States on
January 17, 1917, and in the Virgin Islands on February 25, 1927.
(d) Natives of the Virgin Islands who were residing in the United States on
January 17, 1917, and in the United States or Porto Rico on February 25,
1927, were granted the privilege of naturalization within one year on petition.
(c) No provision was made for those nauves who were residing in foreign
countries on January 17, 1917. They are held to be nonquota immigrants and
must have nonquota immigration visas in order legally to resume residence
in these islands.
To clarify the status of and to give justice to Virgin Islanders in
the Virgin Islands, Porto Rico, and continental United States, it
is recommended that Congress grant full American citizenship to all
natives of the Virgin Islands who are now residing in the Virgin
Islands, Porto Rico, and continental United States, regardless of
their place of residence on January 17, 1917, with the exception, of
course, of those natives who have retained their Danish nationality
or have acquired some foreign nationality.
As most Virgin Islanders who are residing in foreign countries
are ignorant of the fact that they are not American citizens, and
as many of them return to the Virgin Islands from time to time,
without nonquota immigration visas, to the considerable embarrass-
ment of the insular immigration authorities, we have requested the
Department of State to instruct American consular officers in the
Caribbean area to notify shipping agents and captains of sloops and
schooners that Virgin Islanders, who were residing in foreign coun-
tries on January 17, 1917, are not American citizens and will not
be permitted to return to the Virgin Islands unless in possession of
nonquota visas.
'Th/ electoral! franchise.-According to the old Danish law still
in force in the Virgin Islands, the franchise is vested in every nmin
of unblemished character-who has attained the age of 25 years-
who either owns a property in the municipality that is calculated
likely to yield a yearly rent of at least 300 francs in St. Croix and at
least 700 francs in St. Thomas, or in tile preceding year has had a
clear annual income of 1,500 francs." As a result of these restric-
tions, there were registered in 1929 a total of only 1,227 voters. As
the average laboring manl receives only 55 cents a day, it must be
clear that few can ever qualify as vote -s, when an annual income of
$;(00 is required to make him eligible.
In addition to the prohibitive property qualifications for suffrage,
the election districts are unfairly divided. This is much more the
case in St. Croix than in St. Thomas. In his discussion of this
matter, Hon. Herbert D. Brown prints the following table in his
report:










REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


The new organic act should provide for correcting these inequali-
ties. It is recommended also that women be given the right to vote.
and that the age limit and the property qualification be reduced.
The present condition results in no widespread interest in public
affairs. Without such general interest there can be no progress to-
ward self-determination, which is the hope for the Virgin Islands.
MUNICIPALITY OF ST. CROIX-L. W. CRAMER, LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR
Although there is agreement among the experts who have inves-
tigated local conditions that the production of sugar in St. Croix is
economically impracticable, it is nevertheless true that the produc-
tion of sugar is still of paramount importance, economically, politi-
cally, and socially, and must remain so until a money crop is devel-
oped to replace it, and a new economic order is evolved. The chro-
nology of the year's Government activities turns largely upon the
condition of that industry. The collapse of the sugar industry dur-
ing the last fiscal year made all conditions in St. Croix desperate.
There was a long-continued drought; the price of sugar was low;
both the West India and the La Grange sugar factories were in
straitened financial circumstances. With the collapse of the West
India sugar factory there was a practical cessation of work through-
out the island. After prolonged negotiations and heroic measures,
the La Grange sugar factory was reorganized, so that labor condi-
tions were somewhat alleviated.
To meet these conditions the colonial council met in frequent and
long sessions, trying in every way to help the people. The council
made a loan of $30,000 from the immigration fund, available to all
growers of sugar cane in St. Croix and to cattle raisers for the
clearing of pasture lands.
To meet the unemployment situation the American Red Cross
donated $10,000 for the emergency, to which the colonial council
added $5,000. This sum was administered throughout the year by
the Red Cross under the capable direction of Mrs. Nan Cox Hare.
After the transfer of the administration to the Interior Depart-
ment a successful effort was made to enforce collection of due and
unpaid taxes.
The colonial council passed an ordinance changing the archaic
road-repair system and providing for a 4 cents a gallon gasoline tax
for building roads.
The problem of poor relief requires additional thorough study and
immediate revision. The total amount paid from budgeted funds
during the last year for poor relief was $20,998.65. In addition, a
total of $1,583.04 was paid from interest from trust funds. As the
total income from revenues of the municipality during the year was
$77,478.35, the normal amount spent for poor relief was approxi-
mately 25 per cent of the total income. In addition to this, there
was given out in doles, rations, etc., by the Red Cross $14,532 to meet
the unemployment emergency.
Though the field workers in St. Croix received only 55 cents a
day during the past year for an 8-hour (lay, they had twice the
wages paid for similar work in neighboring British islands. This
probably accounts for the demand by local employers that the immi-
gration restrictions be removed. Both from the point of view of










18 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

local standards and the point of view of larger United States inter-
ests in excluding cheap labor from continental United States, the
removal of immigration restrictions into St. Croix can not be
considered.
The lieutenant governor has brought about improvements in the
park in Christiansted, the grounds of government house, and various
other public properties. Public opinion has been developed toward
a general clean-up and improvement campaign, without appropria-
tions from the Government or employment of local persons.
In the latter part of July the Government began an extensive
garden program to relieve the condition of poverty existing among
the laboring classes of people who were then unemployed. Thirty-
eight different estates provided a total of 471 acres rent free, which
tracts were divided into 1,128 parcels under the direction of Claud
L. Horn, of the agricultural experiment station. By the aid of
Federal, municipal, and Red Cross funds, the ground was plowed
and seeds and supervision provided. For the coming fiscal year,
the same plan is continued, except that the total number of parcels
provided for is 2,490. The land has been plowed, the supervision
provided, and the seeds are being planted.
Road building.-With money appropriated by Congress and the
additional taxes imposed by the colonial council for the purpose, a
road-construction program has been outlined and the work begun.
The first construction is that of a water-bound macadamized high-
way, the Center Line Road, connecting Frederiksted and Chris-
tiansted, the two towns of St. Croix.
Well drilling.-One of the important projects carried over from
previous years is the drilling of wells, which is done at cost for
private persons. Rainfall is uncertain and, as there are no streams
on the island, the matter of a water supply for cattle and domestic
use, as well as the hope of finding a supply of water for irrigation
purposes, has made the well-drilling experiments a matter of unusual
local interest. Of the two wells dug for schools during the year,
that at Diamond School proved a failure, while that at Peter's Rest
School produced an abundant supply. Of the six private wells
drilled, all produced a satisfactory flow of water. No deep wells
were undertaken.
Cooperation of the agricultural station.-J. R. Ricks, director of
the experiment station in St. Croix under the Department of Agricul-
ture, is to be commended for his achievements. His energetic lead-
ership, his experience and knowledge of extension methods, and
his willingness to cooperate with the civil government have made
possible a number of experiments and a larger number of improve-
ments which otherwise could not have been accomplished. The
experiment station at Anna's Hope, St. Croix, has been made a
model for estate owners in the upkeep of private roads, grounds,
and buildings.
ST. JOHN
The report of various activities in St. John is included under the
departments of health, public works, and judiciary. Dr. A. A.
Richardson, the dispatching secretary, who continues in charge, has
filled the office since 1917. The medical records show no cases of
malaria or diseases classed as dangerous to public health; and since










REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


there has been no epidemic outbreak in St. John in modern times,
the medical activities are almost wholly confined to the ailments of
senility. The public-health work to be done is almost entirely social
and can best be done by a visiting nurse presenting better standards
of living.
IMMEDIATE REHABILITATION PLANS
Inasmuch as the homesteading and other major features of the
rehabilitation plan could not bring immediate results, the Interior
Department approved the proposal of the new administration to
add to the staff four persons whose work would bring immediate
returns in putting people to work, providing markets, developing
new industries, organizing community activities which would pro-
vide recreation, develop group projects, and bring the people to
work for better living conditions. The work begun by these four
persons is given in the following reports.
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY-HARRY E. TAYLOR, COMMISSIONER
Much of the work of the department is included in this report
under such heads as Homesteading, Hotel Improvement, Agri-
culture, Cotton, Cattle Raising, etc. The department has also been
active in settling labor disputes, in studying the banking situation, in
organizing for the development of shipping, in establishing the
cattlemenrs cooperative and the charcoal cooperative, in assisting
with the handcraft cooperative, in soliciting northern manufacturers
to provide work, in seeking northern outlets for local products, in
promoting interest among prospective tourists and winter residents,
and in answering a voluminous correspondence from inquirers on
many varied subjects.
Topography, uncertain rainfall, lack of capital, discouraging
experience, concentrated ownership of land, lack of initiative, and
inefficient labor are handicaps to be reckoned with. The establish-
ment of any sizable enterprise upon these islands beyond cane, cattle,
and possibly cotton is unlikely; but there are undoubted oppor-
tunities to develop numerous small activities that will utilize the
various native products or new ones, and that will employ more of
the available labor. Over and above these, the greatest and most
promising development open to the Virgin Islands lies in their pro-
motion as a place of winter residence. With all their natural advan-
tages and the widespread public interest, the possibilities are very
great, but this opportunity will be long deferred, if not lost entirely,
without substantial investment in these facilities which tourists and
winter residents require and in proper promotion. Little of such
investment can be made locally. It must come primarily from out-
side sources.
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
The three persons engaged in this special work since March 18.
1931, are Mary L. Flynn, Ralph M. Dunbar, and Ruth Morton. The
work undertaken or accomplished covers a great variety of activities.
Among the activities have been:
1. Organization of home and school associations.-A central com-
mittee appointed by the governor has control of this organization.
The central committee consists of Bishop J. E. Weiss, president;










20 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

Orville S. Kean, treasurer; and Mrs. Knud Knud-Hansen, secre-
tary.
Delegates from the various member associations met in St. Thomas
after work had been continued for some weeks to make reports and
to outline plans for the coming year. For the most part the home
and school associations have been made possible through the
cooperation of the principals of the various schools, particularly in
the rural sections of St. Croix and in St. John. Much of the work
of this department has been in cooperation with other departments
such as the department of agriculture, the department of industry,
and the department of education.
2. Recreation projects.-The development of recreational activi-
ties, especially in St. Croix, is an important part of the home and
school association program. The Edwin Gould Foundation for
Children granted our request for equipment for two playgrounds
in St. Croix and one in St. Thomas. This equipment is complete
and modern. The work of preparing the playground sites and
building additional equipment is done by volunteers under the direc-
tion of the home and school association supervisor.
The plan of this department is more general than home and school
association programs in the United States, including the development
of interest in and demonstration of better home conditions, facilities
for recreation for adults and children, and an adult educational pro-
gram including lectures, motion pictures, and discussion groups.
Play leaders' training courses have been begun, and the teachers in
the summer school had their first instruction in this work through
the supervisor.
3. Music and drama.-One of the problems which confronted the
new civil administration was the withdrawal of the Navy band,
composed of men enlisted chiefly from the islands, and extremely
popular.
In maintaining this band at a cost of $22,000 a year, the Navy
had taken advantage of and encouraged the love of music, which is
as natural to the natives of the Virgin Islands as are their coconut
and banana trees. To fill the gap made vacant by the Navy band,
the new civil government decided to appoint a director of com-
munity activities. With an expenditure of $3,900 for the salary of
the director, it was believed that a much larger number of natives
might be encouraged in the development of music and at a cost
very much less than that spent for the Navy band.
The work of Ralph M. Dunbar in this department has been con-
fined largely to developing an interest in and training persons for
the production of music and drama as a recreational activity. Much
interest was awakened in the summer school, where Mr. Dunbar
gave instruction to the teachers. He has traveled on horseback on
the trails of St. John to assist in school programs and in adult
activities developed by the home and school groups. He has given
free private voice lessons to a large number of promising young
singers, organized a native scratch band, a modern orchestral band,
a dramatic company, a choir for singing spirituals, and a chorus
for presenting opera. Most of the people in the chorus were not
able to read music, so that the work has been largely that of instruc-
tion in the rudiments of music. Public appearances of any of the










REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


organizations are under the direction and responsibility of two.
groups of citizens, one in St. Croix and one in St. Thomas, each
group consisting of something more than 50, who direct and assist
with the work and underwrite the finances. A music-week program
was developed in both municipalities, in which plays, pageants, and
operas were presented, with a small admission charge for two of
the events in order to cover expenses.
HANDICRAFT DEPARTMENT
Under the direction of Miss Ruth Morton, the work in this de-
partment has included a certain amount of instruction in needle-
work, the designs for such stitches as hardanger, hedebo, drawn
thread, solid embroidery. By simplifying designs and by constant
supervision and direction it has been possible to bring the work up
to a marketable standard. The same has been true in the work of
basketry in the French village of St. Thomas, and in St. John.
Sales have been made in the United States, so that an increasing
number of native men and women have found employment.
Through the generosity of the Interior Department, which allowed
the Virgin Islands a part of their exhibit space, an exhibit at the
American Fair in Atlantic City has been secured and an exhibit of
Virgin Islands native handicraft forwarded for display as well as
for sale. Through the generosity of the Furness Steamship Co. and
of a group of friends in Atlantic City, the expenses of two repre-
sentatives of the Virgin Islands handicraft industries, who were sent
with the exhibit, were paid. The handicraft work affords an oppor-
tunity for developing considerable home industry. The Virgin
Islands handicraft seems to find a ready market. This work
warrants vigorous and continued activity.
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Though the population of the Virgin Islands has steadily de-
clined during the past 10 years, from 26,051 in 1917 to 22,012 in 1930,
the school population shows an increase from 2,671 in 1920 to 3,132
in 1930. While the total population has decreased 151/2 per cent, the
number of children enrolled in schools has increased 17.26 per cent.
The number of teachers employed has not increased correspond-
ingly. While there were 107 teachers in 1921, with an enrollment
of 2,977, there were in 1924 a total of 120 teachers employed, and in
1930-31, with an enrollment of 3,132, a total of 111 teachers.
There has been no increase in salaries to correspond to the per-
centage of increase in the United States. The 107 teachers in 1921
were paid $84,350, while 111 teachers in 1930-31 were paid $83,103.84,
so that the per capital amount paid each teacher is smaller than it
was 10 years ago.
This is the first year in the history of education in the Virgin
Islands that a regular class has been graduated from the senior high
school, and this happy result has been achieved only because the
teachers of the junior high school have done double duty. They have
taught classes in the junior high school for which they were engaged,
and in addition have taught the three years of the senior high school
for which no teachers had been engaged. For the past six years
students of senior high school have been anxious to finish their last










22 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

year, but no provision has been made for them to do so. As a
result, many have migrated to the United States or secured positions
as clerks or teachers. One teacher has been added to the high-school
staff in St. Thomas for the coming year, and others should be added
for the year after. The students are here and should be given high-
school education. The enrollment in the high school or 1931-32
will be increased from 192 to 240, and money has been made avail-
able for only one additional teacher. Next year, as during that
just closed, instruction for the senior high school will depend upon
the generosity of the junior high-school staff doing double duty.
PUBLIC HEALTH
No unusual occurrence of any of the diseases dangerous to public
health, aside from venereal, took place in St. Thomas. Of the 191
cases of disease dangerous to public health reported during the year,
161 were venereal. The search for venereal contacts has been pros-
ecuted with zeal. A considerable number of infected persons have
refused to disclose sexual contacts and have thus prevented appre-
hension of venereal conditions. This situation can not be corrected
until a new law is passed supplanting a Danish law which makes
it possible for a person to withhold information as to the probable
source of infection.
A proper tuberculosis ward in the municipal hospital in St.
Thomas is urgently needed, which it is hoped may be made possible
by the plan for repairs to buildings prepared in the budget for next
year.
Approximately 5,000 mosquito-destroying fish were distributed in
St. Thomas in all kinds of containers, pools, and ponds. The
people have learned the value of the fish and apply for them when-
ever they have need. The recent abundant rainfall has increased
the number of mosquito-breeding places. Of these, 21,731 were
destroyed, as compared with 14,380 during the preceding year.
Lack of transportation for the sanitation inspectors made it difficult
or impossible to reach the principal breeding places of the Anopheles
to be found in the remote places of the island.
At the annual school examination in St. Thomas 1,875 children
were examined. Of the 1,179 defects found, 685 were defective
teeth, 112 hypertrophied tonsils, 295 conjunctivitis.
In St. Croix the annual school inspection showed 1,374 defects and
781 with no defects. Of the defects reported, 797 were of teeth,
790 defects of nose and throat, 103 orthopedic defects. During the
year 600 children stayed out of school one day or more with a mild
attack of influenza, but this was not of epidemic form, nor were the
children ill enough to require medical attention. The chief sani-
tation officer reported 83 cases of diseases dangerous to the public
health, of which 36 were venereal, 18 chicken pox, and 6 tuberculosis.
MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL, ST. THOMAS, DR. KNUD KNUD.HANSEN, CHIEF
MUNICIPAL PHYSICIAN
The municipal physicians have maintained a 24-hour professional
service available to the community both inside and outside the
hospital. The number of patients admitted to the hospital during
the year is 1,019; the number of patients discharged, 875; the num-










REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


ber of deaths (including 12 stillbirths), 85; the number of patients
remaining, 59; the number of operations, 256. Of the total number
treated in the hospital, 895 were nonpaying patients. The number
of out-patients to which consultation or treatment in the dispensary
was given was 21,065. To this is to be added 294 treatments to
patients in St. John. A special day was set aside for a clinic for
venereal diseases, which resulted in 3,059 consultations and treat-
ments.
HOSPITALS-ST. CROIX
In the two hospitals in St. Croix there were 1,661 cases of all kinds
admitted for treatment. There were also 245 surgical operations
performed during the year. There were 109 obstetrical cases in
the two hospitals. In the dispensary service of the two hospitals
there were admitted for treatment 14,194 cases. The district and
infant-welfare work in St. Croix has given 24,440 treatments. Calls
were made at each of the 17 stations at stated places every other
day, when a native nurse of each district gave attention to those
who came. Twice a week a municipal physician accompanied the
district nurse. The school nursing carried on in St. Croix is for
the purpose of following up the examination of the school children
who were found defective by the municipal physician. This work
was organized during the year and has been carried through effec-
tively. It is to be continued for the coming year.
LEPER COLONY
This institution, which is maintained for both municipalities, has
81 inmates. Of this number, one suspect is in the isolation ward
undergoing examination to determine the presence of active leprosy.
Most of the patients are ambulatory and continue with their daily
pursuits in the colony with but few complaints. Fourteen are prac-
tically bedridden or otherwise helpless because of extensive lesions
and are confined to the hospital wards under the care of the inmate
nurses.
INSANE ASYLUM
This institution, which is conducted for both municipalities, has
45 patients. There were 30 admissions during the year, 21 deaths,
and 1 paroled.
KING'S HILL POOR FARM
This institution, maintained for both municipalities, has 81
patients, of which number 12 were bed patients. The remainder are
ambulatory. During the year 49 patients were admitted. There
were 39 deaths and 1 discharged.
JUDICIARY DEPARTMENT
This. department included for the year the activities of the district
court and four police courts. The district court is under the appellate
jurisdiction of the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
at Philadelphia. In the district court, Prentice E. Edrington, judge,
16 criminal cases were heard and 14 disposed of. Two cases received
the verdict not guilty." Two cases were tried by jury. The pun-
ishment imposed was one for a fine of $50 and the others for. prison










24 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

terms of from one to three years. The cases covered charges from
selling lottery tickets to assault with intent to kill. Of the civil suits,
there were 23 cases, 15 of which were disposed of.
In the probate division there were 61 cases at the opening of the
year; 17 were added. Of this total, 36 were adjudicated, leaving
42 pending.
In this connection the judge of the district court recommends that
the present practice of lawyers collecting their fees in an early stage
of the settlement be forbidden by law, and that fees may be col-
lected only when cases are finally disposed of. This would result
in expediting the cases and in prompt payment to the Government
of inheritance taxes. This recommendation is being passed on to the
colonial councils for action.
In the police court of St. Thomas, Judge George A. Mena pre-
siding, there were 415 criminal cases, the largest group being 191 for
disorderly conduct, 40 for violating police regulations, 20 for slander,
and 38 for violating automobile ordinance. Of the 199 civil cases,
the largest number, 82, were suits to recover indebtedness, while 62
were to recover taxes. In the juvenile court of St. Thomas there
were seven cases. Of these, 1 was reprimanded, 2 were sent to the
boys' home, and 4 were flogged. The old Danish law provides that
children brought to court may be flogged at the request or with the
consent of the parents.
In the police court of Christiansted, Judge D. C. Canegata pre-
siding, there were 363 criminal cases. Of these 136 were for dis-
orderly conduct, 44 for assault and battery, 29 for contempt of court,
24 for slander, 22 for petit larceny. Twelve cases were held to the
district court, 46 suspended, 56 dismissed, 6 received warnings, 220
received fines, and the remainder received imprisonment from 12
days to 6 months. Of these 138 civil cases, 102 received judgment,
14 were dismissed, and 22 were settled out of court.
In the juvenile court of Christiansted 5 cases were suspended, 9
dismissed, 6 warned, 12 fined. In this court 19 were flogged.
In the police court of Frederiksted, Judge F. Coulter presiding,
there were 180 criminal cases. Of these, 34 were assault and bat-
tery, 24 slander, 11 petit larceny. Fifteen were referred to the dis-
trict court, 29 were dismissed, 114 were fined, 3 had sentences sus-
pended, 1 received reprimand, and 25 were imprisoned. In the same
court were 88 civil cases. Of these 15 were dismissed, 68 were recon-
ciled, and the remainder are pending. Of the two juvenile cases
in this court, one was fined and the other flogged.
In the police court of St. John, Dr. A. A. Richardson presiding,
there were 14 criminal cases. Of these seven were for disorderly
conduct. Thirteen persons were found guilty. In this court was
one civil case; the verdict was "guilty."
TRANSLATING DANISH LAND RECORDS
Until 1917 the land records and indices were copied in the -Danish
language. In the earlier volumes, the characters, though clear, are
gothic, and not easily read now, even by persons conversant with
the Danish language. There is only one man in the Virgin Islands
who is familiar with the land records and who reads the old Danish
script. Moreover, the physical condition of the old books is de-








REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


plorable. There are 46 volumes of these records, which should be
translated and put into convenient and durable form. To accom-
plish this, a special item in next year's budget is included.
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS-ANDREW SIMPSON. COMMISSIONER
The department of public works includes new construction, exten-
sion, maintenance, repairs, and operation of the following: Public
water supply, reservoirs, wells, fresh and salt water distribution
systems; sewerage systems and surface drainage; public buildings
and institutions; street repairs and improvements and street cleaning
and garbage collection; parks and cemeteries; garage; town clocks;
plumbing installations for private parties under special deposits;
public surveys and land records; and building inspection. The
routine work in these various activities has been carried on in the
usual way. Special comment on some of the operations follow.
The salt-water system, providing fire protection and flushing serv-
ice in St. Thomas has an operating cost that is unduly high be-
cause of waste of water from poor fxtures. Two new Deming tri-
plex pumps and a 50-horsepower motor have been installed during
the year, each pump with a capacity of 20,000 gallons per hour.
These provide sufficient water for the town of St. Thomas, but it is
found that the extra pressure of these larger pumps is more than
the old distributing mains can stand. New mains are urgently
needed. The present condition means poor service and constitutes a
menace in case of fire.
Major alterations were made to one building of the St. Thomas
Municipal Hospital, which now houses the X-ray machine purchased
from the naval hospital at the time of the transfer of government.
The commissioner of public works, as the official surveyor of prop-
erty, reports that the whole procedure of property transfer is so
archaic and unbusinesslike that it is difficult and often impossible to
determine boundary lines. It is imperative that a new survey be
made of much of the property of the islands.
On June 8 a heavy rain of 3 inches, which fell in 2 hours in St.
Thomas, caused 14 major washouts, so that all of the main roads of
the island were difficult or impossible to travel.
In St. Croix a new ordinance has been passed by the colonial
council taxing the estate owners along centerline road, where before
each estate owner was required by law to keep the road bordering
his estate in repair. This new plan of road supervision under the
department of public works, together with the congressional appro-
priation for roads and together with the passing of a 4 cents per
gallon gasoline tax by the colonial council, has made possible the
reconstruction of the principal highway of St. Croix. This work is
now under way.
IMPROVED ROADS FOR ST. THOMAS
St. Thomas is in urgent need of improved highways. The beauty
of the islands is one of its chief commercial assets. This can not be
fully understood or made a source of sufficient attractiveness to
tourists except by providing roads for reaching its hills and bays
and beaches. It is proposed that a 5-year program of highway im-
provement be set up, $60,000 a year, one-half to be paid by the Fed-
eral Government and one-bal.f by. thp.m.unicipality. The amount
. .
. . . . . .










26 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

requested for the first year will enable the Government to build a
circuit from St. Thomas along the perimeter of one part of the island
and return to St. Thomas over picturesque Louisenhoj.
HARBOR BOARD

The effect of the present condition of world trade is reflected in the
harbor department, under the harbor board, of which Capt. William
O. Simmons is harbor master. This is shown by a comparison with
previous years.
The number of vessels, with the gross tonnage, was-


Year (fiscal) Number Tons
of vessels

1928. ....-- ..... .......- -...---- ----- -------................---...---- .--.-- 601 2, 536, 729
1929---..----- ....---.--.-- ....------- ------------------.........- ------------.. 655 2, (51,397
1930....-----------.............--------. ----.....-----------------..--- ------- 595 2, 43, 420
1931--... --. ---- ..- ...- ..-- .. .-- ..-- .-- ..-- .---- ... ------ 527 2,225,375

The number of vessels paying pilotage, compared with the previous
year, was:


Year (fiscal) Nuber Amount
ofvessels

D. W. I. Cy.
1030---......-- -------------------------..------------.--- -------------- -.. 455 $14, 38. 05
1931.------------------..------- ---------- ------------- -- ------------------. 395 11,840.70

SDanish West Indies currency.
COASTWISE SHIPPING
The coastwise shipping law of 1921 has not yet been applied to
the Virgin Islands. The President has had authority to exempt the
islands from the application of this law, which has been done for a
year at a time. The merchant marine act of June 5, 1920, section 21,
provides that-
From and after February 1, 1922, the coastwise laws of the United States
shall extend to the island Territories and possessions of the United States not
now covered thereby, and the board is directed prior to the expiration of
such year to have established adequate steamship service at reasonable rates
to accommodate the commerce and the passenger travel of said islands and to
maintain and operate such service until it can be taken over and operated and
maintained upon satisfactory terms by private capital and enterprise: Pro-
vidcd, That if adequate shipping service is ziot established by February 1, 1922,
the President shall extend the period herein allowed for the establishment of
such service in the case of any island Territory or possession for such time as
may be necessary for the establishment of adequate shipping facilities therefore.
The Federal Commission of Investigation of 1924 and subsequent
investigators have recommended that the act be amended so that
the periodic postponements from 1922 to the present shall be un-
necessary and so relieve shipowners and local business interests of
the apprehension that prohibition of foreign ships may come into
effect some time by default. If there could be assurance that the
coastwise shipping law would be suspended for a period of years, if
not perpetually, it is believed by most local business men that foreign
capital could be secured to develop a number of harbor industries.
. ........ .. . ... .. `. .










REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 27

The application of this law would destroy the most important
branches of shipping in St. Thomas and cause a serious curtailment
of the present harbor business.
POLICE DEPARTMENT
In addition to the duty of maintaining order, the police force
functions in taking the school census; assisting in the enforcement
of the immigration law; collecting half a dozen different taxes, such
as the trade and lamp tax, horse and boat tax, the automobile tax.
The director of police acts as sheriff and is frequently called upon to
adjust domestic difficulties.
For the municipality of St. Thomas and St. John there is a police
force of 22, which includes the matron, overseer, and chief clerk.
M. J. Nolan continues as director. This force made 503 arrests dur-
ing the year for various offenses, including 1 for violation of the im-
migration law, 2 for violation of fire ordinance, 5 for violation of
the national prohibition act, 52 for violation of police regulations,
and 241 for disorderly conduct.
Of the 503 arrests there were 140 acquittals, 57 reprimands, 11
with suspended punishment, 215 fines, and 80 imprisonments, rang-
ing from a few days to one for eight years. Of the 22 committed
to Richmond Penitentiary, 8 were sentenced for one year or more,
the remaining 14 being sentenced for from two to six months.
For the municipality of St. Croix there is a police force of 28,
of which D. S. Armstrong continues as director. Of the total number
of 367 arrests, 1 was for vagrancy, 5 for violation of the national pro-
hibition act, 26 for violation of police regulations, 12 for assault, 57
for assault and battery, 13 for aggravated assault and battery, and
144 for disturbing the peace and disorderly conduct.
RICHMOND PENITENTIARY
This institution, located at Christiansted, St. Croix, serves both
municipalities. The total number of prisoners received during the
year was 165. Of the 42 prisoners in the penitentiary at the close of
the year, 5 were sentenced for first or second degree murder. Prison-
ers are employed during the year on repairing public buildings, or on
public works for which no appropriation is available. Under the
supervision of Warden C. Espersen, the penitentiary is clean, light,
and in good repair. The warden reports that it is seldom necessary
to administer punishment for violation of regulations.
THE BOARD OF PARDONS AND PAROLES
The Board of Pardons and Paroles has just begun a study of the
best practice of pardons and paroles with the expressed purpose of
adopting a plan for Richmond Penitentiary, where there are several
cases or long-term prisoners whose exemplary conduct, and ability
to make a living seem to entitle them to special consideration for
paroles.
FIRE DEPARTMENTS
Twelve fires occurred during the year, resulting in a property loss
of $10,150. The town of Frederiksted had no fires; the town of
Christiansted 1, the town of St. Thomas 4, and the country districts











28 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

in St. Croix 7, 6 of which were cane fires, probably of incendiary
origin. There was one life lost in a fire in St. Thomas, when an
infant of 18 months was burned. Ten children and two old people
sleeping in the same wooden shanty were saved.
The brand major in charge of the fire department of St. Thomas
reports that, as the water system is not dependable, any fire is a seri-
ous menace. The commissioner of public works reports that the
system can not be made dependable until new mains are laid. The
pumps and the reservoirs are adequate, but the mains are weak from
corrosion, and filled with salt, the system being dependent upon salt
water. It seems urgent that new water mains be provided at once.
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE, LUCY GILLETTE. ACTING COMMISSIONER
This department is charged with matters pertaining to Red Cross
and other nonsectarian philanthropic agencies, purely humanitarian
phases of public institutions other than hospitals and schools, and
matters pertaining to public libraries.
Poor relief, municipality of St. Thomas and St. John.-This con-
sists of granting pensions; the handling of the local Saturday fund
by the Red Cross; emergency relief work; the distribution of lega-
cies; the investigations as to the financial status of those indebted
to the Government; general welfare work such as investigating cases
and preventing the abandonment of children by parents going to
the United States; and the assisting of those in need in the obtaining
of work.
For this municipality there were 1,500 interviews. Investigations
resulted in 600 refusals of aid. One hundred and seventy-nine pen-
sioners were on the poor list, and 155 pensioners were receiving aid
from budgeted funds. The following expenditures were made:
Expended from amount budgeted in aid of poor- $4, 150. 72
Expended from trust funds _..--_ ------------ 1, 571. 40
Expended from local Saturday fund -------------------- 713.35
Expended from Oxholm, golden wedding and silver wedding legacies 1, 110. 82
Libraries.-The three public libraries, located in Christiansted,
Frederiksted, and St. Thomas have now completed the second year
of reorganization made possible by the 3-year grant from the Car-
negie Corporation. Originally organized by the American Library
Association in 1920 and continued under the supervision of that
institution for some three years, the libraries had rapidly fallen into
poor condition during the eight years that followed, when there was
no experienced supervision and little money with which to keep the
public needs supplied with new books.
Miss Sarah C. N. Bogle, of the American Library Association,
started reorganization of the work, which was continued under the
direction of Miss Catherine L. Jones, librarian of the Hampton Insti-
tute, and Miss Edith C. Moon, who remained as supervising librarian.
With this expert supervision and with the aid of the grant from the
'Carnegie Corporation, the appearance, usefulness, and service of all
three libraries have increased measurably. Three part-time libra-
rians are employed. The old books have been put into condition for
circulation, new books have been purchased, and the number of new












REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 29,

borrowers of books has increased from ninefold in the Christiansted
library to fifteenfold in the St. Thomas library. With funds made
available, 4,796 books were bought, while 814 more came through
personal gifts.
Of the total expenses for the year amounting to $13,821.30,
$10,087.30 was provided by the Carnegie Corporation. As the grant
from that source for the coming year is only $5,000, it will be seen
that additional funds must be provided or the service of the libraries
will fall off greatly.
FEDERAL PROHIBITION, J. LEROY NOLTE, DIRECTOR
During the year there were 11' prosecutions and 9 convictions for
violation of the national prohibition act, with sentences totaling
545 days and fines totaling $360. Five stills were destroyed and 42
gallons of liquor confiscated.
This department has authority to issue permits, and the respon-
sibility for supervision of alcohol and bay-rum plants. The bay-rum
industry has flourished during the year, having shipped the largest
amount in its history, 138,065 gallons, a marked and steady yearly
increase from the 74,277 gallons shipped five years ago.
The alcohol plant in St. Croix distilled 51,381 gallons, as compared
with 98,834 gallons reported last year. The plant has been in opera-
tion only part of the year but has now resumed.
If the Volstead Act has injured the business of the Virgin Islands,
it has not been through the prevention of the manufacture of rum,.
or in difficulties in connection with the manufacture of bay rum.
The average annual export of Santa Cruz rum in the 31 years from
1777 to 1807 (the earliest figures available) was 992,682 gallons.
After 1854 the trade dropped off rapidly, so that in the five years
ending March 31, 1894, the average annual export was only 98,503
gallons, worth $20,426; the five years ending March 31, 1915, 59,090
gallons worth $19,920. This is less than 5 per cent of the total
value of exports from St. Croix.
The sugar refineries have complained that the prohibition of rum
manufacture prevented their disposing of the blackstrap molasses
which was formerly distilled. However, they might easily have re-
arranged their stills so as to use their waste molasses to manufacture
the alcohol used in bay rum. The shipping interests of St. Thomas
also have complained that because of prohibition foreign ships avoid
the port. This may have been true during the period when ships
were not allowed legally to carry liquor into American harbors,
even under seal, but at present foreign vessels are not thus restricted.
There remains a certain amount of annoyance from locking ships'
bars but not enough to deter the owner of a vessel from ordering it to
St. Thomas if he could bring or carry away cargo or save on his
fuel purchases.
Very respectfully submitted.
PAUL M. PEARSON, Governor.
















VIRGIN ISLANDS REGISTER AND DIRECTORY


EXECUTIVE
Paul M. Pearson, governor.
Boyd J. Brown, government secretary and commissioner of finance.
Lawrence W. Cramer, lieutenant governor of St. Croix.
Morris F. de Castro, assistant government secretary and assistant commis-
sioner of finance.
W. N. Denny, head of finance of St. Croix.
A. A. Richardson, dispatching secretary of St. John.
Charles H. Gibson, government attorney.
R. B. Stafford, M. D., commissioner of public health.
Andrew Simpson, commissioner of public works.
Harry E .Taylor, commissioner of industry.
George H. Ivins, director of education.
Knud Knud-Hansen, M. D., F. A. C. S., chief municipal physician, St. Thomas
and St. John.
Charles H. Bitner, M. D., acting chief municipal physician, St. Croix.
Lucy Gillette, commissioner of public welfare.
Michael J. Nolan, director of police. St. Thomas and St. John.
Douglas S. Armstrong, director of police, St. Croix.
John Leroy Nolte, director of prohibition.
J'imes C. Tily, assistant commissioner of public works of St. Croix.
Donald S. Boreham, assistant commissioner of public works and head of fire
department of St. Thomas.
C. Espersen, head of fire department, Christiansted, St. Croix.
Frank Smith, head of fire department, Frederiksted, St. Croix.
William O. Simmons, harbor master, St. Thomas.
Mary L. Flynn, supervisor of home and school associations.
Ralph M. Dunbar, supervisor of community activities.
Ruth Morton, supervisor of handicraft.
Edith C. Moon, supervising librarian.
Dr. V. A. Christensen, municipal physician, St. Thomas and St. John.
D. C. Canegata, municipal physician, St. Croix.
George M. Hughes, municipal physician, St. Croix.
Stanley I. Winde, sanitation officer.
Rudolph C. Miller, tax assessor, St. Thomas and St. John.
Alice Atkinson, chief nurse, St. Thomas.
Anna Jacobs, district nurse, St. Thomas.
Winifred Nichols, chief nurse, St. Croix.
Catherine A. Flynn, district nurse, St. Croix.
Ianthe A. Blyden, nurse, St. Thomas.
Arabella Tutein, nurse, Christiansted, St. Croix.
Evelyn Richardson, nurse, Frederiksted, St. Croix.
R. U. Lanclos, municipal dentist, St. Thomas.
Hugo C. Hark, municipal dentist, St. Croix.
Jacob A. Robles, chief clerk and confidential secretary to the governor.
Guilderoy W. Bornn, secretary to the governor.
JUDICIAL

Prentice E. Edrington, jr., judge of the district court.
George A. Mena, judge of the police court of St. Thomas.
D. Hamilton Jackson, judge of the police court of St. Croix.
A. A. Richardson, judge of the police court of St. John.
Wilhelm Jensen, clerk of the district court of St. Thomas and St. John.
J. F. Henry, clerk of the district court of St. Croix.
Leon A. Mawson, stenographer of the district court.
30













REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

LEGISLATIVE


Colonial Council of St. Thomas
John Leroy Nolte, chairman.
J. E. Kuntz.
Joseph Reynolds.
Valdemar A. Miller.
George A. Moorehead.
Benito Smith.
Svend A. Mylner.
Conrad Corneiro.

Colonial Council of St. Croix:
D. C. Canegata, chairman.
A. Moorehead.
F. Coulter.
C. Pentheny.
Robt. W. Skeoch.
A. V. Nelthrop.
Ralph de Chabert.
Anselmo Fabio.
D. H. Jackson.
D. S. Armstrong.


and St. John:
Lionel Roberts.
Albert Maduro.
Knud Knud-Hansen, M. D., F. A. C. S.
Christian Petersen.
L. J. T. Boschulte.
Carl E. Francis.
Abram E. Smith.
Orville S. Kean, assistant.


Alfred Francis.
Jos. Alexander.
Miles Merwin.
C. R. T. Brow.
William Clarke.
Herbert Fleming.
Carl Lawaetz.
Arnold M. Golden.
R. A. Frederick, assistant.


MUNICIPAL COMMITTEE, ST. THOMAS

Lionel Roberts, chairman; Valdemar A. Miller, Carl E. Francis, Benito
Smith, Knud Knud-Hansen.

MUNICIPAL COMMITTEE, ST. CROIX

Joseph Alexander, chairman; Robert W. Skeoch, D. C. Canegata, C. R. T.
Brow, William Clarke.
ST. THOMAS HARBOR BOARD

Gov. Paul M. Pearson, chairman; Government Secretary Boyd J. Brown,
acting chairman; Emile A. Berne, Conrad Corneiro, Joseph Reynolds, Herbert
E. Lockhart.
BOARD OF EDUCATION OF ST. THOMAS AND ST. JOHN

Government Attorney Charles H. Gibson, chairman; Government Secretary
Boyd J. Brown, Chairman of the Colonial Council John Leroy Nolte, Lionel
Roberts, Joseph Reynolds, Director of Education George H. Ivins, secretary.

EDUCATIONAL BOARD OF REVIEW, ST. CROIX

Government Attorney Charles H. Gibson, chairman; Lieut. Gov. Lawrence
W. Cramer, vice chairman; Chairman of the Colonial Council D. C. Canegata,
D. Hamilton Jackson, T. J. Ash, Director of Education George H. Ivins,
secretary.
IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE, ST. THOMAS

Commissioner of Public Works Andrew Simpson, chairman; Arthur S. Fair-
child, Mrs. Knud Knud-Hansen, Maurice Petit, Abram E. Smith, Herbert
Taylor.
LIBRARY COMMISSION, ST. THOMAS

Joseph Reynolds, chairman; Commissioner of Public Welfare Lucy Gillette,
secretary.
LIBRARY COMMISSION, ST. CROIX

Harold J. Benedict, chairman; D. C. Canegata, Robert W. Skeoch.













32 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

BOARD OF CHILDREN'S GUARDIANS, ST. THOMAS AND ST. JOHN

Judge George A. Mena, chairman; Commissioner of Public Welfare Lucy
Gillette, Mrs. D. E. Lucien Lorand.

BOARD OF CHILDREN'S GUARDIANS, ST. CROIX

Government Attorney Charles H. Gibson, chairman; Director of Police
Douglas S. Armstrong, Sister Maren Knudsen.

BOARD OF REVIEW AND EQUALIZATION OF TAXES, ST. THOMAS

Government Secretary Boyd J. Brown, chairman; Lionel Roberts, Cyril E.
Daniel.
TAX COMMISSIONS, ST. CROIX

Christiansted: Head of Finance W. N. Denny, Chief Bookkeeper R. Petersen,
Joseph Alexander, D. S. Armstrong.
Frederiksted: Head of Finance W. N. Denny, Chief Bookkeeper R. Petersen,
Miles Merwin, Arnold M. Golden.

MUNICIPAL POLICE COMMISSION, ST. THOMAS AND ST. JOHN

Government Secretary Boyd J. Brown, Director of Police Michael J. Nolan,
George A. Moorehead, Lionel Roberts, D. Victor Bornn.

TRADE AND LAMP TAX COMMISSION, ST. THOMAS

Joseph Reynolds, chairman; J. E. Kuntz, G. A. Moorehead, Albert Maduro,
S. A. Mylner.
COMMITTEE ON ACCOUNTS, ST. THOMAS

V. A. Miller, Lionel Roberts, Oscar Harthmann, auditor.

ELECTORAL BOARDS, ST. THOMAS AND ST. JOHN

Judge George A. Mena, chairman, St. Thomas; A. A. Richardson, chairman,
St. John; Albert Maduro and I. de Lugo, town of St. Thomas; L. J. T. Boschulte
and Jens Tanggaard, country district of St. Thomas; Carl E. Francis and H. E.
Lockhart, St. John.
ELECTORAL BOARD, ST. CROIX

Judge of the Police Court D. Hamilton Jackson, chairman; Joseph Alexander
and A. Teytaud, Christiansted town; D. Hamilton Jackson and A. V. Nelthropp,
Christiansted county district; C. R. T. Brow and E. E. Schroder, Frcderiksted
town; William Clarke and M. M. Skeoch, Frederiksted county district.

POOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, ST. THOMAS AND ST. JOHN

Abram E. Smith, J. E. Kuntz, Carl E. Francis, L. J. T. Boschulte, Christian
Petersen, Rev. D. C. L. Barrow.

POOR COMMISSIONS, ST. CBOIX

Judge D. Hamilton Jackson, chairman; D. C. Canegata; the chief municipal
physician, Christiansted.
Judge D. Hamilton Jackson, chairman; William Clarke; the municipal phy-
sician in charge, Frederiksted.

PUBLIC CEMETERIES' COMMISSIONS, ST. CROIX

Christiansted: Anselmo Fabio, chairman; R. de Chabert; assistant for public
works, St. Croix.
Frederiksted: Miles Merwin, chairman; Arnold M. Golden; assistant for
public works, St. Croix.













REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 33

THE FIELD COMMISSION, ST. THOMAS

Valdemar A. Miller, chairman; Lionel Roberts, secretary; Herbert E. Lock-
hart, treasurer; Ernest Barzzey, Fernando Corneiro, Andrew Simpson, Harry
E. Taylor.
ST. THOMAS HOME GUARD

Gov. Paul M. Pearson, chief executive officer; Herman O. Creque, commanding
officer, Valdemar A. Miller and Emile A. Berne, captains; D. Victor Bornn,
secretary.
JURY COMMISSION, ST. THOMAS

Clerk of the district court; Albert Maduro and George Levi.

JURY COMMISSION, ST. CROIX

Clerk of the district court; R. de Chabert; Arnold M. Golden.

THE WELFARE COUNCIL, ST. THOMAS

Rev. Father J. Conway, C. SS. R.; Carl E. Francis, Rev. P. M. Gubi, Rev.
F. Joseph, Rev. A. S. Reed, Rev. James Rollocks, Rev. Father J. Shields,
C. SS. R.; Rev. J. Arthur Swinson, Rev. H. D. Whitteker.

HEALTH COMMISSIONS, ST. CROIX

Christiansted: Robert W. Skeoch; chief municipal physician; judge of the
police court.
Frederiksted: C. R. T. Brow; municipal physician in charge; judge of the
police court.
HOSPITAL COMMISSIONS, ST. OROIX

Christiansted: Robert W. Skeoch, chief municipal physician, judge of the
police court.
Frederiksted: C. R. T. Brow, municipal physician in charge, judge of the
police court.
FIRE COMMISSIONS, ST. CROIX

Christiansted: C. Espersen, brand major; Jos. Alexander, judge of the police
court.
Frederiksted: Frank Smith, brand major; C. R. T. Brow, judge of the police
court.
BUILDING AND STREET COMMISSIONS, ST. OBOIX

Christiansted: Joseph Alexander, assistant for public works, St. Croix.
Fredericksted: William Clarke, assistant for public works, St. Croix.

PRISON AND JAIL COMMISSION, ST. CROIX

Robert W. Skeoch, director of police.

PRISON COMMISSION, FREDEBIKSTED

C. R. T. Brow, director of police.

COTTON PEST COMMISSION, ST. CROIX

J. R. Ricks, director of agricultural experiment station, chairman; William
Clarke, A. V. Nelthropp, D. S. Armstrong, C. Pentheny.

KINGS HILL PUBLIC VILLAGE COMMISSION, ST. CROIX

J. R. Ricks, chairman; J. A. Fleming, Herman Hansen, Kal Esmann.















34 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

BOARD OF PARDONS AND PAROLES, ST. CROIX

Government Attorney Charles H. Gibson, chairman; Judge of the Police
Court D. Hamilton Jackson; Lieut. Gov. Lawrence W. Cramer; chief municipal
physician; Director of Police D. S. Armstrong.

BOARD OF MANAGEMENT OF THE LEPEB ASYLUM, ST. CROIX

Medical officer in charge of the leper asylum; Anselmo Fabio.

BOARD OF CONTROL, AGRICULTURAL FUND, ST. THOMAS

Commissioner of Industry Harry E. Taylor, chairman; director of education;
Lionel Roberts, George A. Moorehead, W. M. Perry.

FOREIGN CONSULS IN ST. THOMAS

Ernest van Beverhoudt, Belgium.
George Levi, Brazil, Costa Rica, Peru.
Emile A. Berne, Chile, Dominican Republic.
J. Percy Souffront, Venezuela (in charge), Colombia, vice consul Dominican
Republic.
Valdemar A. Miller, Cuba.
W. Laub, consul general of Denmark.
Cyril E. Daniel, consul general of Haiti, consular agent of France.
E. L. M. Monsanto, consular agent for Germany.
E. G. Larkin, Great Britian.
I de Lugo, Italy, Spain.
M. van Epps, the Netherlands.
C. G. Thiele, Norway.
Isaac Paiewonsky, Panama.
M. E. Trepuk, Portugal.
Axel Holst, Sweden.
FOREIGN CONSULS IN ST. CROIX

Miles Merwin, vice consul Great Britain.
H. A. Delemos, honorary vice consul Dominican Republic.

FEDERAL OFFIOALS

C. L. Root, collector of customs, Virgin Islands.
C. V. F. Daniel, deputy collector of customs in charge, St. Croix.
E. S. Richardson, jr., postmaster, St. Thomas.
B. R. Larsen, postmaster, Christiansted.
R. H. Amphlett Leader, postmaster, Frederiksted.
E. H. Carnes, chief quarantine officer, Virgin Islands.
George M. Hughes, quarantine officer, Frederiksted.
J. R. Ricks, director, agricultural experiment station, St. Croix.
W. M. Perry, extension agent, St. Thomas.
E. V. Roberts, forester.
C. B. Heiberger, chief radioman in charge, United States Naval Radio Station,
St. Thomas, Virgin Islands.




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