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 Title Page
 Personnel
 Table of Contents
 Fig. 1
 The characteristics of soils
 Factors in soil development
 Soil classification
 Factors in the development of Florida...
 The characteristics, distribution...














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 334
Title: The soils of Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015113/00001
 Material Information
Title: The soils of Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 67 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm. +
Language: English
Creator: Henderson, J. R
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1939
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by J.R. Henderson.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
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Bibliographic ID: UF00015113
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924564
oclc - 18214564
notis - AEN5191
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Personnel
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Fig. 1
        Page 4
    The characteristics of soils
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Factors in soil development
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Soil classification
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Factors in the development of Florida soils
        Page 18
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    The characteristics, distribution and utilization of Florida soils
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
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Full Text



Bulletin 334


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
WILMON NEWELL, Director












THE SOILS OF FLORIDA



By J. R. HENDERSON

















Single copies will be sent free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


May, 1939









EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of
the University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Research
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S.., Agronomist1
W. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S, Associate2
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman'
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
L. M. Thurston, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
O. W. Anderson, M.S., Asst. Poultry Hush.
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asst, An. Husbandman
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition'
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist'
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Soil Microbiologist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Assistant
-'--..Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
Rogers, M.A., Spectroscopic Analyst'
....-rd A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist1
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist'
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant

HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Spec. Fumigation Res.
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist'
George F. Wbber, Ph. D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistants
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Assistant Botanist


BOARD OF CONTROL

R. P. Terry, Chairman, Miami
Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
H. P. Adair, Jacksonville
Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves,- Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Horticul.
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Animal Husbandman
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage, Engineer2
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge2

FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
Samuel O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist'
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge,
Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist'
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist'

'Head of Department.
'In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
'On leave.










CONTENTS
PAGE

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS ....................................... .............. ............. 5

Soil Color .....................................................................................................----------------... 6

Soil Texture .......................... ----------------.................. 6

Soil Structure and Consistence .......................----...-.. -------... 8

FACTORS IN SOIL DEVELOPMENT .......................-----------......-----................................... 9

SOIL CLASSIFICATION ........................-.---...........--......------- 13

FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF FLORIDA SOILS ........................................ 18

Parent Materials ...............-------------------........................... 18

Climate ........................ .... ----..------------.................. 20

Relief and Drainage ...................... ------........................................................ 21

Vegetation ........,........-......- .....-......------------............... 22

CHARACTERISTICS, DISTRIBUTION AND UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA SOILS ........ 25

The Red and Yellow Soils----------------------------------------...............30
The ed and Yellow Soils ..................... ........................ 30

Sandy Loams .......--...-....-.....---------------------... 30
Sands ................................ .. .................---

The Ground Water Podzols ....-- .... ...--- ----------- 43

The Half-Bog Soils ................................. -------..................... 44

Sandy Loams ...............................------ --..... 45

Sands ...................................... ..--------- ---.......... 49

The Bog Soils ........-----..............--------------------- 51

The Dry Sands .........------............. ------------- -----------52

The Lithosols ........................... ..................... 54

The Alluvial Soils ................................................- -.. 55

SOME NOTES ON THE MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF FLORIDA SOILS 57

KEY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FLORIDA SOILS ......................................... 63


[3]












S, I Loose leaves and organic
Organic debris lodged O debris, largely undecom-
on the soil; usually --- posed.
absent on soils I A Organic debris partially
developed under grass | O | decomposed or matted.
cover.
A dark-colored horizon,
A 1 containing a relatively
S high content of organic
matter, but mixed with
mineral matter.
Zone of A light-colored horizon,
eluviation A2 representing the region
(removal). of maximum leaching.

Transitional to B, but
The Solum. A more like A than B.
3 Sometimes absent.
This portion
includes the Transitional to B, but
true soil, 1 more like B than A.
developed by Sometimes absent.
soil-
building
processes.

Zone of A deeper colored (usually)
illuviation horizon representing the
(accumulation) IJz region of maximum
illuviation.




Transitional to C but
B3 more like B than C.

The parent material.
Lay rest upon the rock
-- from which it was C
weTeaheed or upon an
unrelated formation.



Fig. 1.-A soil profile showing all the principal horizons. (Important
subdivisions of the main are indicated by extra numerals, thus: A.i and
A, represent sub-horizons within A2.) From 1938 USDA Yearbook, Soils
and Men, p. 889-slightly revised.









THE SOILS OF FLORIDA

By J. R. HENDERSON1

k The aim of this publication is to present: first, as a back-
ground, a discussion of the characteristics, development and
classification of soils in general; and, second, a discussion of
Florida soils, including their development, characteristics, classi-
fication, utilization and management.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS
Soils are natural bodies, possessing individual characteristics
which have developed or are developing under the influence of
several factors.
Perfectly developed soils are made up of genetically related
horizons or layers, called collectively the soil profile. The prin-
cipal horizons are designated as A, B and C. The A and B
horizons or upper layers constitute the solum or the true soil.
The A horizon consisting of the surface and subsurface layers
contains considerable organic matter (especially the surface
layer) and has been leached of some of the original mineral
constituents. The B horizon, usually called the subsoil, has
been enriched by accumulations of some of the materials re-
moved from the A horizon. The C horizon is the parent material
or weathered unconsolidated rock from which the soil has been
developed. These horizons, which may have distinct subdivi-
sions, vary greatly in different soils, being well developed in
some and only poorly developed in others.
In some abnormal soils one or even two of the horizons may
.be lacking. In some cases soil formation has followed weather-
ing so closely that no C horizon can be found between the solum
and the unaltered geological formation. In very sandy soils
which contain very little or no colloidal (very finely divided)
materials, the B horizon may be very thin or even absent.

1The writer acknowledges his indebtedness to: members of the staff of
the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils of the United States Department of
Agriculture for their numerous publications on soils in general and their
reports on Florida soils, which have been drawn upon freely; to Dr. O. C.
Bryan, formerly of the College of Agriculture, under whose supervision
some of the early reconnaissance surveys were initiated; to Miss Lillian
Arnold for supplying the scientific names of plants; and to the late Dr.
R. M. Barnette of the Experiment Station, under whose helpful guidance
the preparation of this manuscript was begun.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Moreover, the solum may rest upon a geological formation, the
weathered product of which is not its parent material.
Each soil horizon has a distinctive color, texture, structure,
consistence and chemical composition.

SOIL COLOR
Soil colors are produced primarily by organic matter, iron
compounds, silica and lime.
Organic matter is one of the most important materials affect-
ing the color of soils. A soil may range in color from white,
yellow or red, through the grays and browns to black as its
organic matter content increases. In organic soils color is often
an indication of the stage of decomposition; a raw peat usually
is brown while the associated muck is black.
Several soil colors, associated with different iron compounds,
indicate the drainage conditions under which the soils were de-
veloped. Red colors indicate the presence of dehydrated iron
oxide and good drainage conditions; yellow colors, hydrated iron
oxides and previous conditions of poor drainage; and bluish
colors, reduced iron compounds and poor drainage conditions.
-Red, yellow and gray mottlings are often produced by variable
drainage conditions.
Silica and lime impart white and light gray colors to soils.
Other color variations of less importance are produced by man-
ganese compounds, aluminum hydroxide and various salts.

SOIL TEXTURE
Soil texture refers to the size of the individual soil particles.
The textural characteristics of soils are inherited in part from
the parent materials from which they have developed. For
instance, soils developed from limestones and shales have finer
textures than those developed from sandstones.
The textural differences that are exhibited by the various
horizons within any given soil reflect the influence of the various
factors in soil development. In humid areas where water, one
of the most active agents in soil formation, percolates freely
through the soil some of the finer particles have been removed
from the A horizon and accumulated in the B horizon.
The Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, United States Department
of Agriculture, divides soil particles ino seven textural groups,
called separates:







The Soils of Florida


Separate Diameter of Particles (in millimeters)
Fine gravel .......................................................... 3.0 to 1.00
Co rse sand .......................................................... 1.00 to 0.50
Medium sand .......................................... .............. 0.50 to 0.25
Fire sand ..................................... ... ...... ...... 0.25 to 0.10
Very fine sand .................................... 0.10 to 0.05
Silt ......................................................................... 0.05 to 0.002
Clay ....................................................................... Below 0.002
Since most soils contain a mixture of two or more size groups,
"textural grade" is used to express the percentages of the
separates in -the combination. The following table shows the
proportions of sand, silt and clay in the 11 major textural
grades.
1. Soils containing less than 20% clay:
a. Less than 10% silt and clay sands.
b. From 10 to 20% silt and clay -loamy sands.
c. From 20 to 50% silt and clay -sandy loams.
d. From 30 to 50% silt and from 30 to 50% sands loam.
e. More than 50% silt and less than 50% sands- silt
loam.
2. Soils containing from 20 to 30% clay:
a. Less than 30% silt and from 50 to 80% sands- sandy
clay loam.
b. From 20 to 50% silt and from 20 to 50% sands clay
loam.
c. From 50 to 80% silt and less than 30% sands- silty
clay loam.
3. Soils containing 30% or more clay:
a. From 30 to 50% clay, less than 20% silt and from 50
to 70% sands- sandy clay.
b. 30% or more clay, less than 50% silt and less than
50% sand clay.
c. From 30 to 50% clay, from 50 to 70% silt and less
than 20% sand- silty clay.
In the "sandy" members (sands, loamy sands, sandy loams,
sandy clay loams, and sandy clays), a modifier, such as "fine"
or "coarse", is used to indicate the dominant sand separate or
separates:
Modifier Dominant sand separate-(s)
Coarse ...........................Fine gravel, coarse sand.
-- .........................Fine gravel, coarse sand, medium sand.
Fine ............................Fine sand, very fine sand.
Very fine ......................Very fine sand.







8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The texture of soils has an important bearing on plant relation-
ships by virtue of its influence on the physical nature and chemi-
cal properties of soils. Soils with coarse texture are nohcohesive,
permit rapid percolation of water and have a low absorptive
power for water and nutrients. On the other hand soils with
very fine texture are highly cohesive, prevent rapid percolation
and are highly absorptive.
The finer particles of the clay separate are known as soil
colloids2. 'These materials are able to hold certain plant nutri-
ents such as calcium and magnesium and exchange them for
other nutrients. The total and relative amounts of the various
nutrients so held are controlled by several factors of which
the most important is the amount of water percolating through
the soil. In humid climates where there is a continual down-
ward movement of water, the bases such as calcium, magnesium,
and potassium, are replaced by hydrogen, giving rise to an acid
soil condition. When lime is added to the soil in appreciable
quantities hydrogen is replaced by calcium and the balance is
then reversed, for the time being at least. Changes of this
kind are very appreciably affected by the nature and reaction
of the fertilizers used.
SOIL STRUCTURE AND CONSISTENCE
Soil structure refers to the arrangement of the individual
soil particles into groups or aggregates. These aggregates may
assume various shapes and sizes, depending upon a number of
factors, of which the most important are: (1) texture, (2) the
amount and kind of colloidal material, (3) amount of water,
and (4) kind of plant and animal organisms found in the soil.
Some of the most common soil structures are described as
follows:
Single-grained -Each soil particle by itself; structureless.
Crumb- Soft, small, porous aggregates, irregular in shape.
Granular--Hard or soft, but firm small aggregates, angular
or rounded.
Massive Large mass of cohesive soil without definite
structure.
Nut Fairly large aggregates more or less rounded in shape.
Platy Soil particles arranged in thin layers, parallel to soil
surface.
"While the discussion here is primarily concerned with the mineral
portion of the soil, it. should be remembered that a great part of the
organic matter of soils is colloidal.






The Soils of Florida


Fragmentary- Thin aggregates, more or less irregular in
size and shape with no definite position in respect to soil
surface.
Columnar- More or less regular columns separated by cracks
with vertical axes longer than horizontal axes.
Structures are not developed in very sandy soils, while they
are highly developed in some of the heavy clay soils3. Mineral
colloids have a high cohesive power which promotes the forma-
tion of large aggregates. On the other hand organic matter
in the colloidal state is weakly cohesive and tends to prevent
structure development. Excess moisture tends to puddle heavy
soils. Upon drying, these soils may develop various structures
due to the force of the contracting water film surrounding the
particles. Plant roots, rodents, insects, and other forms of
living matter existing in the soil leave behind organic materials
which upon decomposition further change the soil structure
through the gross physical effect they exert on the one hand
and the secondary effect of the resultant organic matter pro-
duced on the other.
Each soil horizon has a characteristic structure or lack of it.
The A horizons usually contain more organic matter and less
colloidal minerals than the B horizons and, therefore, do not
have as highly developed structures as the latter. The structure
within the profile has an important bearing on plant root dis-
tribution, soil aeration, drainage, and ability to withstand
erosion by wind and water.
Soil consistence is a term used to designate the cohesiveness
of soil aggregates. Such self-explanatory terms as incoherent,
soft, friable, stiff, compact, brittle and others are used to ex-
press the consistence of soils. Consistence is closely associated
with structure and controlled by about the same factors. The
water content of the soil has a pronounced influence on soil
consistence. A soil that is plastic when wet may be compact
when dry.
FACTORS IN SOIL DEVELOPMENT
SWithin recent years soil investigations in various parts of
the world have shown that the soil is a natural body, developed
through the operation of a set of well defined factors. These
factors are listed in the following outline:

Most of the soils of Florida are essentially structureless.






10

A.


Passive factors (factors which are not active in the soil-
forming process).
I. Parent materials (from which the soil is formed).
a. Residual materials (accumulated by the decomposi-
tion of the underlying consolidated rocks).
1. Igneous rocks rocks cooled from the molten
mass of the earth, such as granite.
2. Sedimentary rocks rocks deposited in water,
such as shale and limestone.
3. Metamorphic rocks either of the above which
have been changed into another form by heat
or pressure, such as gneiss, slate and marble.
b. Transported materials. Materials transported by:
1. Water Alluvial deposits (stream deposits).
Marine deposits (ocean deposits).
Lacustrine deposits (lake deposits).
2. Wind -Aeolian deposits loesss, dune sands, etc.).
3. Ice glacial deposits.
4. Gravity colluvial deposits (material deposited
at the foot of slopes).
c. Cumulose deposits (plant remains accumulated under
conditions of continuous or seasonal inundation
by water).


II. Relief slope and elevation.
III. Age the length of time the active soil-forming fac-
tors have been at work.
B. Active factors.
I. Climate.
a. Rainfall.
b. Temperature.
c. Humidity and evaporation.
II. Living matter. (Mainly native vegetation and the
macro- and micro-organisms which bring about its
decomposition.)
Until recently the kind of parent material was considered
to be of first importance in determining the characteristics of
soils. Now this assumption is considered to be wrong except
in the case of soils derived from recently deposited or very
resistant materials where the other factors have not had time
to overcome the influence of the parent materials. Thus it is


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station









The Soils of Florida


possible to have similar soils formed from parent materials
derived, from granite and from limestone, provided the other
factors have been uniform. On the other hand, because of
climatic differences, a soil derived from sandstone in Wisconsin
is different from a soil derived from sandstone in Georgia.
Nevertheless there are certain characteristics which a soil in-
herits from its parent material which cannot be overlooked. The
texture of a soil and the depth of its profile are greatly influ-
enced by the character of the minerals found in its parent
material. Also, there may be a residual effect of the parent
material on the nutrient composition of a soil. For instance,.
a soil derived from limestone is usually more productive than
an associated soil derived from sandstone.
Relief is an important factor in soil formation. Gentle slopes
with good drainage where the surface runoff is not excessive
seem to be most favorable to the development of normal soils.
Steep slopes, particularly when unprotected by a heavy vege-
tative cover, permit the removal of the surface soil by erosion,
forming shallow soils which remain perpetually young. Flat
relief results in poor drainage which causes the formation of
dark surface soils and gray and yellow mottled subsoils due to
lack of oxygen. Where the drainage is very poor plant parts
may accumlate, giving rise to organic materials such as peat
and muck.
The length of time the factors of soil formation have been
allowed to exert their influence has a marked effect on depth
and development of the soil profile. "A young soil usually is
very shallow and has poorly defined horizons while an old soil
is deep and has well defined horizons. An old soil may become
degraded and finally change into a different kind of soil due
to changes in climate.
The climatic factors control, to a great degree, the speed
and nature of the chemical processes involved in weathering
and soil formation.
Rainfall enters the soil and transfers materials from one part
of the soil to another, or even out of the soil profile. In areas
of heavy rainfall, percolation is usually high and some of the
soil constituents, especially the bases (calcium, magnesium,
potassium, etc.), are removed from the soil and carried away
in the drainage waters. As rainfall decreases, other factors
being constant, the amount of percolation decreases and the
amount and distance of removal of the soil constituents is les-










Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


sened. In arid regions rainfall may be so low that very little
percolation takes place, allowing soluble salts to accumulate in
the soil profile.
Although rainfall is an index, several other factors determine
the amount and effectiveness of percolation. Of these factors
the more important are temperature, relative humidity, slope
of the land, character of the vegetative cover, and kind of parent
material. Percolation decreases with an increase in temperature
above freezing, with a decrease in relative humidity, and with
an increase in slope of the land. The vegetative cover, the
character of which is partially determined by climate, tends to
prevent runoff and evaporation but increases the loss of water
by transpiration. A compact heavy parent material will allow
less percolation than a light or porous one.
Variations in temperature are partially responsible for the
development of some of the broad zonal ,groups of soils. In
very cold regions the ground is perpetually frozen and very
few of the soil-forming processes can operate. In arid regions
high evaporation reduces percolation. In well drained areas
the rate of decomposition of organic matter, which in turn
affects the rate of decomposition of the mineral materials, is
largely controlled by temperature. The rate of decomposition
increases with an increase in temperature.
The characteristics of soils are greatly influenced by the
character of the native vegetation. Plants vary in their growth
habits and nutritional requirements. Grasses have shallow
fibrous root systems and require relatively large amounts of
the bases for their nutrition. On the other hand coniferous
trees have deep non-fibrous roots and require small quantities
of the bases. Thus, the nature of the plant and its nutritive
requirements has a tremendous influence on the distribution
and composition of its residues.
Upon decomposition plant residues yield humus, various or-
ganic and inorganic acids and minerals. Some of the minerals
may be absorbed by the colloidal materials while others are
carried out of the soil in the drainage waters. The acids act
upon the mineral constituents, forming new products which are
removed by the drainage waters, or left behind to become part
of the soil body.
The decomposition of the organic residues is accomplished by
a wide variety of micro-organisms of which the most import-
ant are nioks, actinomycetes and bacteria. These organisms,






The Soils of Florida 13

which function differently, require different conditions for their
growth. The molds tolerate acid soils while the actinomycetes
and bacteria, many of which are extremely important aids in
plant nutrition, do best in slightly alkaline, neutral, or slightly
acid soils.
SOIL CLASSIFICATION
The action of the soil-forming factors- parent material, re-
lief, age, climate and vegetation- in various combinations and
degrees of intensity has resulted in the development of thou-
sands of individual soils, each of which possesses definite char-
acteristics. However, the individual soils within a given climatic
zone or under similar conditions of local environment exhibit
similar features which may be used as a basis for combining
the individual soils into larger groups.
The late Dr. C. F. Marbut of the Bureau of Chemistry and
Soils, U. S. Department of Agriculture, was one of the first
workers in this country to develop a comprehensive scheme of
soil classification based purely on soil characteristics. He set
up several categories and combined the individual soils into
groups under each category. Recently, Kellog and co-workers
in the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils have made an extensive
revision of Dr. Marbut's scheme. The revised system is pre-
sented in Table 1.
The system recognizes the individual soil as the unit of the
lowest category. The thousands of individual soils soil types
- are grouped into a few thousand series and these into several
hundred families and these into still more inclusive groups and
so on, until all soils are collected under three groups in the
highest category. Logically, the number of soil features taken
into consideration decreases as the groups become more in-
clusive.
The soil type and the soil series, units of Categories I and II,
respectively, are recognized in the field classification of soils.
Of these field units, the series, which is defined as a group
of-soils alike in all characteristics except the texture of the
surface layer, is the more important. Features considered in
establishing a soil series are the color, structure, consistence,
reaction (acidity or alkalinity), thickness, and arrangement of
the various horizons and the geology of the parent material.
Since some soil characteristics are expressions of environment,
the soils within a series are confined to similar conditions of
climate and relief.






TABLE 1.-CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR CHARACTERISTICS.


Condensed from the 1938 Yearbook


--I


Category VI
Order


Category V
Suborder
Soils of the cold zone-


1. Light-colored soils
of arid regions


2. Dark-colored soils
of the semi-arid,
subhumid, and hu-
mid grasslands
3. Soils of the forest-
grass-land transi-
tion
4. Light-colored pod-
zolized soils of the
timbered regions
5. Lateritic soils of
forested warm-
temperate and
tropical regions
1. Halomorphic (sa-
line and alkali
soils of imperfectly
drained arid re-
gions and littoral
deposits)
2. Hydromorphic
soils of marshes,
swamps, seep
areas, and flats

3. Calomorphic


'Pedocals


Pedalfers











Intrazonal soils






Azonal soils


Agriculture--"Soils and Men", p. 993.


Category III
Family


of the United States Department of
Category IV
Great Soil Groups
1. Tundra soils
2. Desert soils
3. Red Desert soils
4. Sierozem
5. Brown soils
6. Reddish Brown soils
7. Chestnut soils
8. Reddish Chestnut soils
9. Chernozem soils
10. Prairie soils
11. Reddish Prairie soils
12. Degraded Chernozem soils
13. Noncalcic Brown soils
14. Podzol soils
15. Brown Podzolic soils
16. Gray-Brown Podzolic soils
17.*Yellow Podzolic soils
18.*Red Podzolic soils
19. Yellowish-Brown Lateritic soils
20. Reddish-Brown Lateritic soils
21. Laterite soils
1. Solonchak or saline soils
2. Solonetz soils
3. Soloth soils
4. Wiesenboden
5. Alpine Meadow soils
6.*Bog soils
7.*Half-Bog soils
8. Planosols
9.*Ground-Water Podzol soils
10. Ground-Water Laterite soils
11. Brown Forest soils
12. Rendzina soils
1.*Lithosols
2.*Alluvial soils
3.*Sands (dry)


Category II
Series


Category I
Type


-I I


I


Zonal
soils


pa
00

S-4

o


.
C3
M







o0





-5,



o -
(a.
0,0


- CC C
.m'G


*These great soil groups occur in Florida.


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o's






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bl

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"-S
21

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4




02
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.4B)

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Ti'o





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mwS







The Soils of Florida


A soil series is named for some county, town, river, or other
prominent landmark where these soils were first described and
given official recognition. For example, the Fellowship soils
were first described and given official recognition near Fellow-
ship Church in Marion County, Florida.
The soil type is a subdivision of the soil series based on the
texture of the surface soil4. The soil type name is a combina-
tion of the series name and the textural grade of the surface
layer. Fellowship (series) sandy loam (textural grade) is an
example of soil type designation.
Sometimes a soil type is slightly different from the typical
in some external characteristic such as relief, stoniness or de-
gree of accelerated erosion. This variation is expressed by
adding a descriptive term to the type name. For example,
when an appreciable quantity of stones is present in Fellowship
sandy loam it is called Fellowship sandy loam- stony phase.
The grouping of closely related series into families has not
received its full share of attention. It appears that a combina-
tion of color and parent material may well be used as a basis
for grouping the series within a region of uniform environment.
As an illustration of the possibilities of such a grouping, the y
Orangeburg, Magnolia, Greenville and RedBay series of the
southeastern United States, all of which have red subsoils and
have developed from marine deposits of sands and clays, may
be conveniently grouped into a family.
Families (groups of series), are combined into the great soil
groups of Category IV. Some of the great soil groups contain
only a few soil series while others contain several hundred. The
series within any great soil group differ from one another in
one or more characteristics but all exhibit the same general
kind of profile. (For a general presentation of the profile char-
acteristics, conditions of environment and general productivity
ratings of the great soil groups see pp. 996-1001, 1938 Year-
book of the United States Department of Agriculture "Soils
and Men".) The general distribution of the great soil groups
in the United States is shown in Figure 2.

'Since one of the primary aims of the field classification of soils is the
determination of their suitability for economic plants, the definition of a
soil type is sometimes altered in order to express more adequately this
relationship. In certain areas (particularly in the Coastal Plain which
includes all Florida) some of the soil type designations are based on the
depths to clay rather than the texture of the surface layers. Moreover, in
some soil types, deep and shallow phases are separated from the typical
soil to express more completely their crop producing powers.



















































FIG.2- THE GREAT SOIL GROUPS
OF THE UNITED STATES


OL SOILS
Podrol Soils
Brown Podzolic Soils
Gray-Brown Podzolic Soils,
Prairie Soils
Reddish Prairie Soils
Red & Yellow Podzolc Soils
Chrrnozem Soils


ZONAL SOILS (cont.)
Cheanut Soils.
Reddish Chesnut Soils.
a Brown Soils.
I Reddish Brown Soils
I Noncalcic Brown Soils
Sierozem & Gray Desert Soils
I1 Red Desert Soils


INTRAZONAL SOILS
Planosols.
Rendzina Soils
Solonchak & Solonetz Soils
Wiesenboden, Ground Water
Podzol & Half Bog Soils.
LJ Bog Soils.


AZONAL SOILS
S Lithosols & Shallow Soils (Arid-
subhumid).
Lithosols &Shallow Soils (Humid)
Lithosots (Relatliv ly Sparse
Vegetation)

SSands (Dry)







The Soils of Florida 17

The great soil groups are combined into several suborders
in Category V. Groupings are based on one of several general
factors, including the color, nature of accumulated products,
environmental conditions, and the character of the parent ma-
terial.
Finally, in Category VI, all soils are grouped into three
orders- zonal, intrazonal and azonal.
The zonal soils have well developed profile characteristics
which reflect the dominating influence of the active factors in
soil development- climate and vegetation. Thus, the zonal
soils are confined to well drained, gently rolling upland and are
developed from parent materials not of extreme texture or chem-
ical composition, which have been in place long enough for
climate and vegetation to have fully expressed their influence.
The txwo subdivisions of the zonal soils are distinguished by
accumulations of calcium carbonate in one the Pedocals and
by the absence of such accumulations in the other the Pedal-
fers. The Pedocals have developed in arid and subhumid areas
while the Pedalfers have developed in humid areas.
The intrazonal soils have more or less well developed soil
characteristics which reflect the dominance of relief or parent
material over the influence of climate and vegetation.
The azonal soils do not have well developed characteristics
either because of lack of time for the active factors to fully
express themselves or because of extreme conditions of relief
or parent material.
The manner in which the classification system works may be
illustrated by using four well known soils of the Florida flat-
woods: Leon fine sand, Leon sand, St. Johns sand, and St. Johns
fine sand.
Category I II III
(Soil types) (Soil series) (Soil family)
Leon fine sand .. Leon
Leon sand j --'"-....... --" ..Leon
St. Johns fine sand t. Johns
St. Johns loamy fine sand --.........-----. J s
Category IV V VI
(Great soil group) (Suborder) (Order)
Ground water Pudzols Hydromorphic Intrazonal







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF FLORIDA SOILS
Each of the factors in soil development has expressed its
influence on Florida soils. Climate and vegetation have been
dominant in the development of the zonal soils which occupy
most of the well drained upland. Flat relief, with its accom-
panying poor drainage, has been the dominant factor in molding
the characteristics of the soils of the flatwoods, marshes, and
swamps. The very sandy nature of the parent material has
been responsible for the poorly developed characteristics of the
dune sands along the old and present coast lines. The soils of
the rocklands and marl glades of the lower East Coast and the
overflow lands along the larger streams of northwest Florida
are youthful, that is the soil materials have not been in place
long enough for normal soil development. In the marl glades
poor drainage has further prevented the development of the
normal soil for the area.
In the ensuing discussion, one should keep in mind that the
utilization of Florida soils is only partially controlled by the
characteristics developed under the influence of the soil-forming
factors. Some of the factors, especially climate and relief (ex-
pressed in poor drainage conditions and agricultural erosion),
have a direct influence on land utilization inasmuch as they
limit certain crops to definite geographical areas. For example,
citrus is confined to the warmer sections of Central and South
Florida, yet most of this crop is grown on a soil type that is
widely distributed over the other well drained portions of the
state. Moreover, the commercial production of truck crops is
often limited to certain areas because of favorable climatic con-
ditions and water relationships rather than soil characteristics.

PARENT MATERIALS
Except for alluvial deposits along the larger streams and
organic deposits in very wet areas the formations upon which
the soils of Florida have developed consist of limestone, marls
and marine deposits of sands and clays.
Limestones underlie the entire state but are exposed over
limited areas, mainly in Central Florida where they have weath-
ered to form the parent materials of the Gainesville, Hernando
and Fellowship soils. The limestone deposits are usually buried
beneath more recent deposits of sands, clays, marls and organic
materials.







The Soils of Florida


average climatological values in this way of course gives very
general figures.
Florida's average annual rainfall varies from slightly less
than 50 inches in the north-central part to over 65 inches near
the east coast in the southern part. Over half of the precipi-
tation occurs in June, July, August and September. The aver-
age seasonal rainfall in inches is: Winter, 3.00 per month;
spring, 3.12; summer, 6.94; and autumn, 4.39. July is the
wettest month with an average of 7.22 inches while November
is the driest with an average of 2.25 inches. Although the sea-
sonal distribution of Florida's rainfall is usually very good there
are some months, usually in spring, in which crops suffer for
lack of water. Figure 3 shows the annual precipitation for the
different sections of the state.

RELIEF AND DRAINAGE
Florida is a low plain ranging in elevation from a few feet
to slightly more than 300 feet above sea level. The northern
part of the state from Madison westward consists of a series
of low gently sloping "hills" ranging in elevation from 200 to
300 feet above sea level. A second hilly ridge, varying in width
from about 60 miles at its widest point in Marion County to
about 10 miles at its southern tip, extends from Hamilton County
to a point just below Childs in Highlands County. A third hilly
region lies west of the central ridge, mainly in Citrus, Hernando
and Pasco counties.
Extending inland from the coasts is a series of broad almost
level terraces varying in elevations from a few feet to slightly
more than 100 feet above sea level.
The drainage systems of the state are quite variable. In the
rolling areas of northwest Florida the excess water is rapidly
removed by numerous small streams which flow directly into
the Gulf of Mexico or into the larger streams entering from
Alabama and Georgia. In the central ridge and in other sections
of the state, streams are rare. Most of the surplus water seeps
rapidly into the numerous lakes that dot the terrain or directly
into underground cavities, produced by the solution of the
underlying limestones. The flat terraces have no well defined
drainage systems; drainage is inadequate. The excess water
moves slowly through broad sloughs into shallow lakes or
sluggish strearr : and finally into gulf or ocean.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


VEGETATION
In Florida, the character of the native vegetation is largely
determined by local soil conditions. Conversely, the character-
istics of some soils reflect the influence of the native vegetative
cover. This relationship is so definite that some soil types can
be identified by their native plant cover. Although every soil
type does not have a distinctive vegetative cover, large areas
having fundamental differences in vegetation can be separated
on the basis of groups of closely related soils. The accompany-
ing generalized vegetation map represents such a separation.
The dominant plant cover of each area is described below. Some
of the variations in each area can be accounted for by soil
variations.
I. "Clay" pine land.
Longleaf pine (Pinus australis Michx. f.5) with very few
deciduous trees. (Where present, deciduous trees are
mainly red oak (Quercus rubra L.)). Undercover of
wiregrass (Aristida spp. and Sporobolus spp).
II. Rolling sandy pine land.
Longleaf pine (Pinus australis Michx. f.) and black-jack
(Quercus laevis Walt.) intimately mixed or alone with
an undercover of wiregrass (Aristida spp. and Sporobolus
spp.). In places the tree growth includes some red oak
(Quercus rubra L.), turkey oak (Q. cinerea Michx.), live
oak (Q. virginiana Mill.), post oak (Q. stellata Wang.)
and hickory (Hicoria spp.). In the north central parts
of the state the undercover contains chinquapin (Castanea
alnifolia Nutt.) and in the central and southern part,
S partridge pea (Chamaecrista spp.).
III. Flat pine land.
Longleaf pine (Pinus australis Michx. f.) and slash pine
(P. palustris Mill.,6 and P. caribaea Morelet in South
Florida), with some pond (black) pine (P. serotina
Michx.), and cypress (Taxodium ascendens Brongn.).
Undergrowth of wiregrass (Aristida spp. and Sporobolus
NOTE: Quercus laevis, commonly called black-jack oak, is also known
as turkey oak; Q. cinerea, commonly called turkey oak, is also known as
upland willow oak; Q. Marilandica, which is found in small areas within
the "Clay Pine Land" west of the Ochlockonee River, is technically known
as black-jack oak.
'Formerly Pinus palustris Mill.
'Formerly Pinus Elliottii Engelm.







The Soils of Florida


spp.), saw palmetto (Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small),
and gallberry (Ilex glabra L.). West of the Apalachi-
cola River the undergrowth is mainly wiregrass (Aristida
spp. and Sporobolus spp.) and pitcher plants (Sarracenia
spp.).
IV. Miami pine land.
Slash pine (Pinus caribaea Morelet) with clumps of live
oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) and silver palm (Cocco-
thrinax argentea (Lodd.) Sarg.). Undercover of saw
palmetto (Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small), wiregrass
(Aristida spp. and Sporobolus spp.) and various other
plants not found in large numbers elsewhere.
V. Scrub land.
Sand pine (Pinus clausa (Engelm.) Vasey), black-jack
oak (Quercus laevis Walt.), scrub oaks (Q. Chapmanii, Q.
Rolfsii, Q. myrtifolia, Q. geminata), rosemary (Ceratiola
ericoides Michx.), and blue-stem palmetto (Sabal Etonia
Swingle). In Highlands County scrub hickory (Hicoria
floridana (Sarg.) Small) is mixed with the typical growth
and in Broward and Dade counties there is a scattering
of slash pine (Pinus caribaea Morelet.).
VI. "Red Clay" hammock land.i L/
Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.), loblolly pine (P.
Taeda L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), dogwood (Cyn-
oxylon floridum (L.) Raf.), redbud (Cercis canadensis
L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), hickory (Hicoria alba
(L.) Britton.), and longleaf pine (Pinus australis Michx.
f.). Undergrowth is fairly thick and notable for general
lack of wiregrass (Aristida spp. and Sporobolus spp.).
VII. Sandy hammock land.
The two areas have different vegetation. Wakulla Ham-
mock: Red oak (Quercus rubra L.), hickory (Hicoria
spp.), post oak (Quercus stellata Wang.), and white oak
(Q. alba L.) with an abundance of dogwood (Cynoxylon
floridum (L.) Raf.) and some magnolia (Magnolia grandi-
flora L.). Oldtown Hammock: Laurel oak (Quercus
laurifolia Michx.), live oak (Q. virginiana Mill.), and
magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora L.) with some water
hickory (Hicoria aquatica (Michx. f.) Britton) and cab-
bage palmetto (Sabal Palmetto (Walt.) Todd.).







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


L -VIII. Calcareous and phosphatic hammock land.
Red oak (Quercus rubra L.), live oak (Q. virginiana
Mill.), hickory (Hicoria spp.), swamp chestnut oak (Quer-
cus Prinus L.), dogwood (Cynoxylon floridum (L.) Raf.),
sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and cabbage
palmetto (Sabal Palmetto (Walt.) Todd.).
,IX. Low marl hammock land.
Cabbage palmetto (Sabal Palmetto (Walt.) Todd.), live
oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.), water oak (Q. nigra L.),
swamp chestnut oak (Q. Prinus L.), magnolia (Magnolia
grandiflora L.), and some cedar (Sabina silicicola Small.).
X. Marl prairie land.
Saw grass (Mariscus jamaicensis (Crantz) Britton)7,
switch grass (Spartina Bakeri Merr.), reed grass (Phrag-
mites communis Trin.), and sedges.
XI. Sandy prairies.
Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small), runner
oak (Quercus pumila Walt.), wiregrass (Aristida spp. and
Sporobolus spp.), and sedges. The wetter areas have very
little saw palmetto (Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small), and
wiregrass (Aristida spp. and Sporobolus spp.), and are
further characterized by scattered clumps of cypress
(Taxodium distichum (L.) L. C. Rich), or cabbage pal-
metto (Sabal Palmetto (Walt.) Todd.).
XII. Fresh-water marsh land.
Mainly saw grass (Mariscus jamaicensis (Crantz) Brit-
ton) with various other water-loving grasses and plants
such as hyacinths (Piaropus crassipes (Mart.) Britton).
XIII. Tidal marsh and mangrove swamps.
Salt-loving marsh grasses in the northern part of state.
Mangrove (Rhizophora Mangle L., Laguncularia race-
mosa Gaertn. f., and Avicennia nitida Jacq.) and button-
wood (Conocarpus erect L.) with some grasses along
southern coast from Ft. Lauderdale to Sarasota.
XIV. Swamp.
Cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) L. C. Rich.) mainly,
with sweet bay (Magnolia virginiana L.), gums (Nyssa
spp.), ash (Fraxinus spp.), swamp maple (Rufacer
'Formerly Cladium effusium.







The Soils of Florida


rubrum (L.) Small), etc. In South Florida the growth
is almost pure cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) L. C.
Rich.).
XV.1 Tropical hammocks (not shown on map).
Dense growth of tropical and subtropical plants. These
hammocks are largely confined to the Florida Keys and
a narrow strip along the lower East Coast.

THE CHARACTERISTICS, DISTRIBUTION AND
UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA SOILS
Only 14,664 of Florida's 58,666 square miles have been covered
by detailed soil surveys. (See Fig. 5.) This work, extending
over a period of 35 years, has been done by the Bureau of
Chemistry and Soils of the United States Department of Agri-
culture in cooperation with various State agencies. The re-
mainder of the State has been covered by reconnaissance surveys
conducted by the College of Agriculture of the University of
Florida. Although the earlier detailed surveys have been anti-
quated by recent findings and the reconnaissance surveys are
necessarily very general, the knowledge thus obtained presents
a fairly clear picture of the soil and land use problems in the
State of Florida.
These surveys show that in Florida the three soil orders are
represented by eight of the great soil groups. The zonal order
is represented by the Red and Yellow soils of the well drained
uplands and terraces; the intrazonal order by the Ground-Water
Podzols and the Half-Bog soils of the flatwoods and the Bog
soils of the swamps and marshes; the azonal order by the Sands
of the sand dunes, the Alluvial soils of the river bottoms, and
the Lithosols of the marl glades and rockland.
Within the several great soil groups more than 50 well estab-
lished soil series and more than 100 soil types have been identi-
fied. (See the accompanying generalized soil map.) Moreover,
several soils have been noted which do not fit into any of the
well established series and because of lack of detailed soil sur-
veys in those areas have not been established as new series.
These soils will be correlated and recognized as the detailed
survey work progresses but in the reconnaissance work they
have been placed in the series which they most closely resemble.
In each soil series most of the soil types are either sandy
loams or sands, dominated respectively by the fine sandy loams








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and the fine sands. However, some of the soil series contain
loamy sands in which the A horizons consist of loamy sands
resting upon the characteristic B horizons at depths below 30
inches. Further, some of the series contain members with clay
surface soils. As the loamy sands and clays are inextensive
and differ from the sandy loams and sands mainly in textural
characteristics they will not be discussed here.
The following outline shows the relationships of Florida soils
and the order in which they will be discussed.


FIG.5-AREAS COVERED BY DETAILED
SOIL SURVEYS WITH DATE OF
SURVEY.
(Surveys of Alachua & Collier
Counties now in progress).
1939


/"







The Soils of Florida


I & II. The Red and the Yellow Soils


A


non-calcareous


. Sandy loams
1. Derived from marine deposits of
sands and clays
a. Norfolk Red Bay group
('(1). Norfolk
S(2). Ruston
(3). Orangeburg
(4). Red Bay
b. Marlboro Greenville group
(1). Marlboro
(2). Tifton
(3). Faceville
(4). Carnegie
(5). Magnolia
(6). Greenville
c. Susquehanna Cuthbert group
(1). Susquehanna
(2). Gilead
(3). Cuthbert
d. Dunbar Eulonia group
(1). Dunbar
(2). Eulonia
2. Derived from or influenced by lim
careous sands and clays
a. Fellowship Gainesville group
(1). Fellowship
i (2). Hernando
(3). Gainesville
3. Developed on alluvial deposits no
to overflow
a. Kalmia Cahaba group
(1). Kalmia
(2). Cahaba


B. Sands
1. Derived from marine deposits of non-calcareous 1
sands and clays
a. Norfolk Orangeburg group
S(1). Norfolk
(12). Ruston

(4). Orangeburg


stones or cal-





longer subject







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


b. Blanton--Orlando group
11)--Blanton)
S(2). Orlanda-
(3). Ft. Mead>
2. Derived from or influenced by limestones or cal-
careous sands and clays
a. Hernando Gainesville group,
(1). Hernando
(2). Gainesville
3. Developed on alluvial deposits no longer subject to
overflow
a. Kalmia Cahaba group
(1). Kalmia
(2). Cahaba

III. The Ground Water Podzols
A. Sands
1. Derived from marine deposits of non-calcareous
sands
a. Leon-St. Johns group
(Lj-Leon_
(2). St. Johns

IV. The Half-Bog Soils
A. Sandy leams
1. Derived from marine deposits of non-calcareous
sands and clays
a. Bayboro Coxville
(1). Bayboro
(2). Bladen
(3). Coxville
b. Portsmouth Plummer group
(1). Portsmouth
\(2). Scranftoi'
(3). Plummer
c. Grady group (only one series)
(1). Grady
2. Derived from or influenced by marl
a. Parkwood group (only one series)
(1). Parkwood
3. Developed on alluvial deposits no longer subject to
overflow






TI Soils of Florida


a. Leaf Myatt group
(1). Leaf
(2). Myatt
nds
Derived from marine deposits ol
sands and clays
a. Bayboro Coxville group
(1). Bayboro
(2). Bladen
b. Portsmouth- Plummer group
(1). Portsmouth
(2). Hyde
(3). Scranton
(4). Plummer


non-calcareous


Derived from or influenced by marl
a. Parkwood group (only one series)
(1). Parkwood


V. The Bog


Soils
(1).
(2).
(3).
(4).
(5).


Muck
Peat
Peaty Muck
Swamp
Tidal Marsh


VI. The Dry Sands
(1). Lakewood)
(2). St Lucie
(3). Dade
(4). Palm Beach /
(5). Coastal Beaci

VII. The Lithosols
(1). Perrine


VIII. The Alluvial Soils
A. Sands with fair to good natural drainage
(1). Thompson
B. Sandy loams with fair to good natural drainage
(1). Thompson


B. Sai
1.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


C; Sands with poor natural drainage
(1). Johnston
'(2). Bibb
D. Sandy loams with poor natural drainage
(1). Johnston
(2). Ochlockonee
E. Miscellaneous materials
(1). Undifferentiated alluvial soils
(2). Riverwash

I & II. THE RED AND THE YELLOW SOILS
'These two great soil groups occupy the well drained uplands
and second bottoms8. The topography is undulating to rolling
in the upland areas and level or nearly level on the second
bottoms. The upland soils have developed on limestones or
marine deposits of non-calcareous sands and clays while the
soils of the second bottoms have developed on alluvial deposits
no longer subject to overflow.
The Red soils are characterized by brownish-gray, grayish-
brown or reddish brown A1 horizons over yellow, brownish-
yellow, yellowish-brown or yellowish-red A2 horizons over
yellowish-red, red or dark red B horizons over red, yellow and
gray mottled parent materials. The Yellow soils have dark
gray, gray or yellowish-gray A1 horizons over yellowish-gray,
grayish-yellow or yellow A2 horizons over yellow B horizons
over red, yellow and gray mottled parent materials. The B
horizons of both groups are variable as to depth and consistence.
In some of the soils the B horizons are within a few inches-of
the surface and in others they may be several feet below the
surface. Most of the Red and Yellow soils have friable B hori-
zons but some of them have heavy plastic clay B horizons. The
soils of both groups are acid or slightly acid throughout the
profile.
A. Sandy Loams.
1. Derived from marine deposits of non-calcareous sands
and clays.
a. The Norfolk-Red Bay group.
These soils are characterized by relatively deep surface soils
overlying friable sandy clay subsoils.
'The Red soils are not found throughout the area but where they occur
they are intimately associated with the Yellow soils.






The Soils of Florida


(1)." Norfolk series9
A,, 0-4" Gray or yellowish-gray loamy sands.
A2, 4-18" -- Grayish-yellow or yellow loamy sands.
B, 18-36" Yellow friable sandy clays.
C, 36" plus Yellow, gray and red mottled friable sandy clays.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine and wiregrass, with some hard-
woods, mainly red oak.
Distribution: Most extensive of the Red and Yellow sandy
loams. Occurs in every county west of Madison except Wakulla
and Franklin.
Utilization: General farming. Main crops are corn, cotton
ahd peanuts. Small acreages devoted to watermelons, oats,
leguminous hay crops, bright tobacco, shade tobacco, sweet
potatoes, sugarcane and pecans. The deep phibe produces an
excellent grade of bright tobacco.
(2). Ruston series
A1, 0-4" -Brownish-gray or grayish-brown loamy sands.
As, 4-18" -Yellow to brownish-yellow loamy sands.
3, 18-44"- Reddish-yellow or reddish-yellow friable sandy
clays.
C, 44" plus Yellow, gray and red mottled friable sandy clays.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine and wiregrass with considerable
hardwoods in places.
Distribution: Second most extensive of the Red and Yellow
sindy loams, occurring in every county where the Norfolk sandy
lFoms are found.
Utilization: Same as for the Norfolk sandy loams. General
-!,irming with cotton, peanuts and watermelons as the principal
ash crops.
(3). Orangeburg series
A1, 0-4" Brownish-gray to grayish-brown loamy sands to
sandy loams.
A2, 4-16" Yellow to brownish-yellow loamy sands to sandy
loams.
B, 16-54" Bright red friable sandy clays.
C, 54" plus Red friable sandy clay mottled with yellow and
gray.

"The colors given in the profile descriptions indicate the usual ranges.
The depths given are representative of average profiles and are not to be
taken as definite. Variations in the thickness of the various horizons of
most of the soil types arc rather common.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Vegetation: Variable. In Santa Rosa County vegetative c6ver
is mainly longleaf pine and wiregrass. In most other places
the longleaf pine is partially or completely replaced by hard-
woods and loblolly pine.
Distribution: Large areas in Jefferson, Leon, Gadsden and
Jackson counties, and in the vicinity of Jay in Santa Rosa
County. Smaller areas in most of the other counties west of
Jackson and in Madison County.
Utilization: Used for the production of subsistence crops and
such cash crops as cotton, peanuts and shade tobacco. More
than half of the Florida cotton crop is grown on these soils.,
They are perhaps the leading shade tobacco soils in the Quincy
area. General agricultural value is slightly above that of the
-Ruston soils.
(4). Red Bay series
A1, 0-4" Reddish-brown loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 4-15" -Brownish-red or red loamy sands to sandy loams.
B, 15-60" Red friable sandy clays.
C, 60" plus-Red friable sandy clays, slightly mottled with
yellow and gray.
Vegetation: Hardwoods with some loblolly and longleaf pines.
Distribution: Closely associated with the Orangeburg soils
but not as extensive. Largest areas are in Jefferson, Leon,
Gadsden and Jackson counties.
Utilization: Used for about the same crops as the Orangeburg
soils. Only very small acreage devoted to shade tobacco.
b. Marlboro Greenville Group.
These soils are similar to the Norfolk-Red Bay group but are-
distinguished by their shallower surface soils and higher con-.
tent of fine material (silt and clay) throughout the profile. They
are slightly more fertile than the corresponding members of
the Norfolk-Red Bay group.
(1). Marlboro series
A1, 0-4" Gray to brownish-gray sandy loams.
As, 4-10" Yellow to brownish-yellow sandy loams.
B, 10-36" Deep yellow heavy friable sandy clays.
C, 36" plus- Yellow heavy friable sandy clays mottled with
red and gray.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine and wiregrass with some hard-
woods.







The Soils of Florida


Distribution: Limited to small areas in some of the northwest
Florida counties.
Utilization: General farming. Corn, cotton, and peanuts are
the main crops. Some of the shade tobacco in the Quincy area
is grown on these soils. Not as good as Norfolk for bright
tobacco.
(2). Tifton series
These soils are similar to the Marlboro soils but have deeper
surface soil and contain large quantities of brown iron pebbles
throughout the profile.
A1, 0-4" Gray to brownish-gray sandy loams.
A2, 4-12" Yellow sandy loams.
B, 12-36" Yellow to slightly reddish-yellow heavy friable-
sandy clays.
C, 36" plus Red, yellow and gray mottled heavy friable sandy
clays.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine and wiregrass with some hard-
woods.
Distribution: Fairly large areas in Walton and Okaloosa
counties. Smaller areas in Calhoun, Gadsden, Escambia and
perhaps some of the other northwest Florida counties.
Utilization: General farming. Main crops are corn, cotton
and peanuts.
(3). Faceville series'1
A,, 0-4"- Brownish-gray sandy loams.
A2, 4-10" Yellow to brownish-yellow sandy loams.
B, 10-44" Reddish-yellow to yellowish-red heavy friable sandy
clays.
C, 44" plus- Red, heavy friable sandy clays, mottled with
yellow and gray.
Vegetation: Hardwoods with some longleaf and loblolly pines.
Distribution: Confined to small areas in the northern part of
northwest Florida, mainly in Gadsden, Jackson and Holmes
counties.
Utilization: Same as for the Ruston sandy loams.
(4). Carnegie series
These soils are similar to the Faceville soils, but contain brown
iron pebbles throughout the profile.

"The Faceville, Magnolia and Greenville soils are locally influenced
by limestones.







34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

A1, 0-4" Gray to brownish-gray sandy loams.
A2, 4-10" Grayish-yellow, yellow, or brownish-yellow.
B, 10-40" Reddish-yellow to yellowish-red, heavy friable sandy
clays.
C, 40" plus Yellow, red and gray mottled heavy friable sandy
clays. The mottling increases with depth.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine and wiregrass with some hard-
woods, mainly red oak.
SDistribution:, Associated with the Tifton soils in the upper
portion of northwest Florida west of the Ochlockonee River.
Utilization: General farming. Corn, cotton, and peanuts are
the main crops.
(5). Magnolia series
A1, 0-4" Brownish-gray to grayish-brown sandy loams.
A2, 4-10" Yellow to yellowish-brown sandy loams.
B, 10-48" Bright red heavy friable sandy clays.
C, 48" plus Red heavy friable sandy clays, mottled with yellow
and gray.
Vegetation: Hardwoods with some longleaf and loblolly pines.
Distribution: Jefferson, Leon, Gadsden and Jackson counties,
mainly. Areas not very large.
Utilization: General farming. Fairly large percentage used
for the production of cotton and shade tobacco.
(6). Greenville series
(Some Greenville clay is associated with the sandy loams.)
A, 0-8" Dark reddish-brown or brownish-red sandy loams.
B, 8-60" Dark-red heavy friable sandy clays.
C, 60" plus Red heavy sandy clays, slightly mottled with
yellow and gray.
Vegetation: Hardwoods and loblolly pine.
Distribution: Confined to Jefferson, Jackson and Leon coun-
ties. May be very small areas in other counties to the west.
Utilization: General farming.
c. Susquehanna Cuthbert Group.
This group is distinguished by their brittle, or heavy, plastic
sandy clay or clay subsoils which form a granular and frag-
mentary structure when dry. They have low crop values and
are not generally farmed except where they occur as small spots
in other soils.







The Soils of Florida


(1). Susquehanna series
(Susquehanna clay is associated with the sandy loams.)
A1, 0-4" Gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 4-12" Grayish-yellow loamy sands to sandy loams.
B, 12-20" Yellow to brownish-yellow mottled plastic clay.
C, 20" plus Red, yellow and gray mottled plastic heavy clay.
Vegetation: Variable. When associated with Norfolk soils
vegetative cover consists of longleaf pine and wiregrass. Iso-
lated areas support a hammock growth of hardwoods, loblolly
and shortleaf pines.
Distribution: Found usually as small spots within the Norfolk
and Ruston sandy loams. An isolated area occurs in the vicinity
of Knox Hill in Walton County."
Utilization: Used for the production of corn, cotton and
peanuts. Yields are usually lower than on the associated Nor-
folk and Ruston sandy loams.
(2). Gilead series12
A,, 0-4" Gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 4-15" Grayish-yellow to yellow loamy sands to sandy
loams.
B, 15-36" Yellow brittle sandy clays.
C, 36" plus -Yellow, gray and sometimes red mottled brittle
sandy clays.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine and wiregrass with some hard-
woods.
Distribution: Occurs as small spots within the Norfolk sandy
loams in some of the northwest Florida counties.
Utilization: Used with the associated Norfolk soils for the
production of general farm crops.
(3). Cuthbert series
A,, 0-4" Gray to brownish-gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 4-15" Grayish-yellow to brownish-yellow loamy sands to
sandy loams.

"In Suwannee County there is a large area with sandy surface soils,
resembling those of the Norfolk and Blanton sands, underlaid at various
depths (usually less than four feet) by red, yellow and gray mottled heavy
plastic clays resembling the subsoils of the Susquehanna sandy loams.
When a better knowledge of the characteristics of these soils is obtained
they probably will be established as a new series.
"Tentative name. Has not been officially approved by Correlation
Committee of the Soil Survey Division, 'United States Department of
Agriculture.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


B, 15-36" Reddish-yellow to yellowish-red heavy, tough, com-
pact clay or sandy clays.
C, 36" plus Red, yellow and gray mottled brittle sandy clays.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine, wiregrass and hardwoods.
Distribution: Occurs as small areas within the Ruston and
Faceville sandy loams.
Utilization: Used with the associated soils in general farming.

d. Dunbar Eulonia Group.
These soils occupy slightly elevated areas within, and adjacent
to, the clayey flatwoods in North Florida and gentle slopes in
Red and Yellow sandy loam area of northwest Florida. Natural
drainage is fair to good.
(1). Dunbar series
A1, 0-4" Gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
As, 4-20"- Light grayish-yellow loamy sands to sandy loams.
B, 20-30" Yellow friable sandy clays.
C, 30" plus Yellow, gray, red and pink mottled heavy friable
sandy clays.
Vegetation: Longleaf and slash pines with an undercover of
wiregrass.
Distribution: The largest area of these soils occurs in eastern
Alachua County and along the west border of Putnam County.
Other areas of importance are found in Baker County and in
Gulf and Calhoun counties where the upland sandy loams grade
into the flatwoods soils.
Utilization: General farming. In Alachua County some of
these soils are planted to truck crops and pecans. In northwest
Florida they remain forested or are used with the associated
soils for general farming.
(2). Eulonia series
A1, 0-4" Gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 4-18"- Grayish-yellow to yellow loamy sands to sandy
loams.
B, 18-30" Yellow, semi-plastic to tough fine sandy clays,
slightly mottled with yellowish-brown and gray.
C, 30" plus -Red, yellow, brown and gray mottled heavy
slightly plastic or tough sandy clays or clays.
Vegetation: Longleaf and slash pines, with wiregrass under-
cover.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Distribution: Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Levy, Citrus, Her-
nando, Sumter and Pasco counties. Small areas in some of the
bordering counties and in Wakulla County.
Utilization: General farming with some truck and citrus.
Corn, peanuts, Sea Island cotton and hardy winter vegetables
are the chief crops grown. Citrus is confined mainly to warmer
hilltops in Pasco and Hernando counties.
(3). Gainesville series
A1, 0-6" Brownish-gray to grayish-brown sands to sandy
loams.
A2, 6-24" Yellowish-red to reddish-brown loamy sands to
sandy loams.
B, 24-48" Reddish-brown compact to friable sandy clays often
containing chert fragments.
C, 48" plus Reddish-brown compact sandy clays mottled with
gray and yellow.
Vegetation: Hardwoods, mainly red oak with some longleaf
and loblolly pines.
Distribution: Alachua, Marion, Levy, Hernando and Pasco.
Not found to any great extent in the other counties where this
group of soils occurs.
Utilization: General farm crops, mainly corn, peanuts, Sea
Island cotton and subsistence crops with some bright tobacco.
3. Developed on alluvial deposits no longer subject to over-
flow.
These soils have developed on the second bottoms of the
larger streams of northwest Florida. The alluvial deposits from
which they have developed have been in place long enough for,
the development of normal Red and Yellow profile character-
istics.
a. The Kalmia-Cahaba Group.
(1). Kalmia series
A1, 0-4" Gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 4-18" Pale yellow loamy sands to sandy loams.
B, 18-30" Yellow friable sandy clays.
C, 30" plus -Yellow and gray mottled friable sandy clays.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine, wiregrass and gallberry with some
loblolly pine, sweet gum, oaks and other hardwoods.
Distribution: Apalachicola River and larger streams to the
west.
Utilization: These soils remain forested.






The Soils of Florida


Distribution: Occurs as small areas in association with the
BIaden soils.
Utilization: Only a small percentage of this land is in culti-
vation. Where cultivated, it is used mainly for general farming.
2. Derived from or influenced by limestones or calcareous
sands and clays.
a. Fellowship Gainesville Group.'1
(1). Fellowship series
These soils usually have good external drainage and fair to
poor internal drainage. However, in level areas external drain-
age may be poor. The poorly drained phases have grayer pro-
files and are, in a sense, Half Bog soils. Fellowship clay is
associated with sandy loams. It has a gray undeveloped profile.
A,, 0-6" Gray to dark gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 6-18" Yellowish-gray to brownish-yellow loamy sands to
sandy loams.
BC, 18" plus Gray, yellow, brown and red mottled heavy plas-
tic clays containing chert fragments.
Vegetation: Hardwoods, cabbage palmetto and loblolly pine.
Distribution: Largest areas are in Alachua, Marion, Her-
nando and Sumter counties. Smaller areas occur in Citrus and
Wakulla counties. Poorly drained areas occur in association
with the Parkwood soils in some of the lower East Coast
counties.
Utilization: General farm and truck crops. Corn, peanuts,
peppers, string beans and cabbage are the main crops. Extel-
lent pastures may be developed on some of these soils.
(2). Hernando series
A,, 0-4"- Gray to grayish-brown loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 4-24" Grayish-yellow to yellowish-brown loamy sands to
sandy loams.
B, 24-36" -Yellowish-brown or brownish-yellow friable or
semi-plastic sandy clays.
C, 36" plus Gray, red and yellow mottled semi-plastic sandy
clays.
Vegetation: Hardwoods or longleaf and slash pines with wire-
grass.
"There is a possibility that new series will be separated from the Fellow-
ship and Hernando in those areas where pebbly phosphatic materials rather
than highly calcareous materials have influenced the soil characteristics.






The Soils of Florida


(2). Cahaba series
A1, 0-6"- Brownish-gray to grayish-brown loamy sands to
sandy loams.
A2, 6-15" Yellow to brownish-yellow loamy sands to sandy
loams.
B, 15-30" Reddish-yellow to yellowish-red friable sandy clays.
C, 30" plus Red, yellow and gray mottled friable sandy clays.
Vegetation: Oak, hickory and other hardwoods with some
longleaf and loblolly pines.
Distribution: Same as for Kalmia sandy loams but less ex-
tensive.
Utilization: Most of these soils remain forested. Small areas
have been cleared and are used for general farming.
B. Sands.
1. Derived from marine deposits of non-calcareous sands
and clays.
a. Norfolk Orangeburg Group.
These soils are usually on more rolling relief than the other
Red and Yellow sands.
(1). Norfolk series (see footnote 11)
A1, 0-3" Gray to yellowish-gray sands.
As, 3-30" plus Yellow sands. The depth to the friable sandy
clay is quite variable.- When closely associated with the
Norfolk sandy loams it may be just below 30 inches, while
in most other areas it may be and usually is 6 to 8 feet
below the surface.
-Vegetation: Longleaf pine, black-jack oak, turkey oak and
wiregrass with some red oak and post oak. The better areas
support a fairly dense growth of pine or a mixture of longleaf
pine, red oak and post oak while the poorer areas support a
growth of black-jack oak and scattered longleaf pine.
Distribution: This is the most extensive and widely distrib-
uted of all the Red and Yellow soils, occurring in nearly every
county where these soils are found.
Utilization: The utilization of these soils, which are inherently
unproductive, varies with different sections of the state. In the
counties west of the Aucilla River they are used for forestry
and grazing mainly, and to a small extent for general farming.
In the other counties north of the citrus belt the better grades
are used for general farming with peanuts for hogs, bright






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tobacco, watermelons, and Sea Island cotton as cash crops. In
the southern counties these are the most extensive citrus soils.
In Lake County these soils are used for the production of early
watermelons.
(2). Ruston series
A1, 0-4"- Brownish-gray to grayish-brown sands.
A2, 4-30" plus Reddish-yellow to yellowish-red sands. The
reddish-yellow or yellowish-red friable sandy clay typical
of the Ruston sandy loams is usually encountered between
30 and 48 inches below the surface.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine and wiregrass with some red oak
and black-jack.
Distribution: These soils occur in close association with the
Ruston sandy loams and are not very extensive.
Utilization: Used with the associated sandy loams for gen-
eral farming. These soils have a slightly higher agricultural
value than the Norfolk sands.
(3). Eustis series
These soils differ from the Ruston sands in the greater depth
to clay.
A1, 04" Brownish-gray to grayish-brown sands.
A2, 4-60" Reddish-yellow to reddish-brown sands.
B, 60-72"- Reddish-yellow loamy sands to sandy clays.
C, 72" plus Red and yellow sandy loams or light sandy clays,
mottled with gray.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine and wiregrass with black-jack,
turkey, and live oaks.
Distribution: The typical soil is found only in small areas
in Lake and adjoining counties.
Utilization: Most of these soils are planted to citrus. In the
vicinity of Bartow in Polk County they are irrigated by over-
head systems and used for the production of truck crops. These
soils are slightly more productive, than the associated Norfolk
sands.
(4). Orangeburg series
A,, 0-5" Grayish-brown sands.
As, 5-30" plus Bright red sands. The red friable sandy clays
typical of the Orangeburg sandy loams is usually en-
countered between 30 and 48 inches below the surface.
Vegetation: Hardwoods and longleaf pine.







The Soils of Florida


Distribution: These soils are closely associated with the
Orangeburg sandy loams and are inextensive.
Utilization: Used with the associated sandy loams for gen-
eral farming. They are slightly more productive than Ruston
sands.
-.- Blanton Orlando Group.
These soils occupy slight elevations within or narrow strips
,bordering the flatwoods and undulating areas within the Norfolk
sands. They do not occur west of the Apalachicola River.
(1).JBlanton series> (see footnote 11)
In some cases where these soils are intimately associated with
"the flatwoods soils drainage may not be very well established.
A1, 0-4" Gray to light gray sands.
A21, 4-20" Light gray or yellowish-gray sands.
A22, 20-30" plus- Pale yellow or yellow and gray splotched
sands.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine, turkey oak and wiregrass with
runner oak and, in places, chinquapin.
Distribution: These soils are widely distributed in the penin-
sula and extend as far west as the Apalachicola River. The
areas are usually small but in Columbia and Suwannee counties
these soils are found in fairly large areas. In the southern part
of these two counties there are areas of Blanton sandy loams in
which the characteristic surface soils are underlaid at 2 to 3
feet by yellow and gray friable sandy clays.
Utilization: In the northern counties these soils are used to
some extent for the production of corn, peanuts, watermelons
and bright tobacco. In the southern counties the protected areas
are planted to citrus. These soils have about the same agricul-
tural value as the Norfolk sands but in some cases the better
water relationships make them more valuable for certain crops.
(2 Orlando series,
A,, 0-12--Dark gray to almost black sands.
A2, 12-30" plus Gray grading at lower depths into yellowish--
gray to grayish-yellow sands.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine and wiregrass with turkey and
live oaks.
Distribution: The largest areas of these soils are found in
the vicinities of Orlando and Winter Garden in' Orange County,
Sorrento in Lake County, LaCrosse in Alachua County, and







42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Sopchoppy in Wakulla County. Smaller areas occur in many
of the southern counties.
Utilization: These soils are more productive than any of the
associated well drained sands, and are adapted to a wide variety
of crops, including general farm crops, truck crops, and citrus
where protected from cold damage.
(3). Ft. Meade series
A1, 0-8" Dark gray sands.
A21, 8-28"-- Brownish-gray sands.
A22, 28-60" Grayish-yellow to brownish-yellow sands.
BC, 60" plus Mottled red, yellow, gray and brown pebbly
clayey sands. (This rests on beds of pebble phosphate.)
Vegetation: Longleaf and slash pines, with clumps of live
oak, and turkey oak and an undergrowth of wiregrass and
broomsedge.
Distribution: These soils are confined to the Peace River area
in lower Polk and Hillsborough counties and upper Hardee
County.
Utilization: These are good general purpose soils used for
general farm and truck crops, and in the warmer areas for
citrus.
2. Derived from or influenced by limestones or calcareous
sands and clays.
a. Hernando Gainesville Group.
These soils are associated with the sandy loams of these series.
They are underlain by the characteristic sandy clays at depths
below 30 inches within 60 inches of the surface.
(1). Hernando series
A1, 0-4" Gray to brownish-gray sands.
A2, 4-30 to 60" Grayish-yellow to yellowish-brown sands.
Vegetation: Mixed hardwoods or longleaf pine and wiregrass.
Distribution: Closely associated with the Hernando sandy
loams.
Utilization: Used with the associated soils for general farm-
ing. These soils have a fertility rating about equal to that of
the better Norfolk sands.
(2). Gainesville series
A1, 0-5" Brownish-gray to grayish-brown sands.
A2, 5-30 to 60"- Yellowish-red to reddish-brown sands.







The Soils of Florida 43

Vegetation: Longleaf pine and wiregrass with scattered
growth of hardwoods.
Distribution: Same as the Gainesville sandy loams.
Utilization: General farming and citrus production.
3. Developed on alluvial deposits no longer subject to over-
flow.
a. The Kalmia Cahaba Group.
(1). Kalmia series
A,, 0-6" -Gray sands.
A21, 6-36" Pale yellow sands.
A22, 36" plus Light gray to white sands.
Vegetation: Longleaf and loblolly pine, sweet gum and other
hardwoods.
Distribution: Small areas along the Suwannee River and the
larger streams to the west.
Utilization: These soils remain forested with the original
growth or have been cut over.
(2). Cahaba series
A1, 0-6"- Grayish-brown or brownish-gray sands.
A2, 6-30" plus Reddish-yellow or yellowish-red sands.
Vegetation: Sweet gum and other hardwoods, some pines.
Distribution: Small areas along the Apalachicola and Choc-
tawhatchee Rivers.
Utilization: These soils remain forested with the original
growth or have been cut over.

III. THE GROUND WATER PODZOLS
These soils occupy the poorly drained flatwoods where they
are intimately associated with the slightly lower Half-Bog soils.
They have developed on marine deposits of non-calcareous sands.
The Ground Water Podzols are characterized by light gray,
gray or dark gray A1 horizons over light gray or white A2
horizons over black or dark brown B horizons over white sandy
parent materials. In some areas the parent materials or even
the B horizons may rest upon limestone, marl or clay. These
substrata have very little or no influence on the characteristics
of the soils. These soils are acid to strongly acid throughout the
profile.
This great soil group is represented by only two soil series
and these in turn by only the sands (sands and fine sands).







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


(1). Leon series
A,, 0-4"- Gray or light sands: Color looks like that of a
mixture of salt and pepper.
As, 4-18" Light gray to white sands.
B2, 18-26"- Sands, loosely or firmly cemented with black or
dark brown organic matter.
B3, 26-36" Brown-stained sands.
C, 36" plus- White sands.
These soils occupy slightly higher positions than the asso-
ciated St. Johns soils. They have variable drainage conditions
depending upon seasonal rainfall and thickness and consistence
of the B2 horizons. Thick hard B horizons hinder both percola-
tion and the capillary movement of water. Thus some of these
soils may become very wet during rainy seasons or very dry
during dry seasons.
Vegetation: Longleaf and slash pines with an undergrowth
of wiregrass and saw palmetto with some gallberry.
Distribution: These soils occupy extensive areas in every
county within the flatwoods with exception of perhaps Dade.
These constitute more than half the total area of the flatwoods.
Utilization: Not generally used for cultivated crops but in
such areas as the Sanford celery district where water control
(drainage and irrigation) may be economically practiced they
are used for a highly specialized type of truck farming. These
soils are used mainly for forestry and grazing.
/ (2). St. Johns series
A1, 0-8" Dark-gray to almost black sands.
A2, 8-18" Light gray to white sands.
B2, 18-24" Sands, loosely cemented with black to dark brown
organic materials.
B3, 24-30" Brown-stained sands.
C, 30" plus White sands.
Vegetation: Longleaf, slash and pond pines with an under-
cover of gallberry and wiregrass with some saw palmetto.
Distribution: These soils are closely associated with the Leon
soils but are relatively inextensive.
Utilization: Same as for the Leon soils.

IV. THE HALF-BOG SOILS
These soils occupy the poorly drained flatwoods where they
are associated with the Ground Water Podzols and Bog soils.







The Soils of Florida


Most of the soils in this great soil group have developed on
marine deposits of non-calcareous sands and clays but some of
them have been derived from or influenced by marl or have
developed on poorly drained second bottoms.
The Half-Bog soils are characterized by gray, dark gray, or
black A1 horizons over light gray, yellowish-gray or grayish-
yellow A2 horizons over yellow and gray mottled or bluish-gray
horizons. The divisions between B and C horizons are usually
hard to distinguish. However, the lower part of the profiles
usually show less yellow mottling. With the exception of the
Parkwood which is mildly acid these soils are acid or strongly
acid.
These soils require some form of artificial drainage before
they can be successfully used for farming purposes.

A. Sandy Loams.
1. Derived from marine deposits of non-calcareous sands
and clays.

a. The Bayboro- Coxville Group.
These soils have heavy plastic clay B horizons.
(1). Bayboro series
A1, 0-10" Dark gray to black loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 10-18" Light-gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
BC, 18" plus- Dull gray to bluish gray heavy plastic clay
mottled and streaked with yellow and brown.
Vegetation: Swamp or fresh water marsh. Slash pine and
grasses in places.
Distribution: The largest known area occupies Payne's Prairie
in Alachua County. Other smaller areas are associated with
the Bladen soils in the northern part of the St. Johns valley.
Utilization: The Alachua County area is used for grazing
while some of the other areas are used with the associated Bladen
soils for the production of Irish potatoes and other truck crops.
(2). Bladen series
Bladen clay is associated with the sandy loams.
A1, 0-6" Gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 6-20" Light gray to light yellowish-gray loamy sands to
sandy loams.
BC, 20" plus Dull gray heavy plastic sandy clays or clays,
mottled with yellow and brown.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Vegetation: Slash pine, wiregrass and sedges. In the Indian
River area the vegetation consists of prairie grasses and a
recent growth of slash pine.
Distribution: Baker, Nassau, Duval, Clay, Putnam, St. Johns,
Flagler, Indian River and St. Lucie counties with smaller areas
in some of the other East Coast counties.
Utilization: Truck crops and citrus. In the Hastings area po-
tatoes and in the Indian River area citrus are the leading crops.
Some excellent pastures have been developed on these soils.
(3). Coxville series
These soils are slightly better drained than the other mem-
bers of the group. Coxville clays and loams are associated
with the sandy loams.
A1, 0-6" Gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
As, 6-15" -Light gray to light yellowish-gray loamy sands to
sandy loams.
(15-30" Gray and yellow mottled heavy plastic sandy clays
BC,{ or clays.
30" plus Gray, yellow and bright red mottled heavy tough
sandy clays or clays.
Vegetation: Slash pine, wiregrass and sedges with some live
oak and cabbage palmetto in places.
Distribution: Main areas are found in southeastern Alachua
County, a few miles west of the Oklawaha River in Marion
County, and in the St. Johns valley where they are associated
with the Bladen soils.
Utilization: Trucking. In Alachua and adjoining Marion
County some of these soils are used for citrus and general
farming.
'b. Portsmouth -Plummer Group.
These soils have friable light sandy clay subsoils which are
slightly sticky when wet.
(1). Portsmouth series
A1, 0-10" Dark gray to black loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 10-24" Light gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
BC, 24" plus Light gray friable sandy clays, slightly mottled
with yellow in places.
Vegetation: Longleaf and slash pine with an undercover of
wiregrass and gallberry. In some places these soils support
a swamp or fresh-water marsh growth.







The Soils of Florida


Distribution: Small areas of these soils are widely distributed
in the flatwoods.
Utilization: Very little of these soils have been reclaimed.
Cultivated areas are used for the production of truck crops.
(2). Scranton series
A1, 0-10" Dark gray to black loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 10-24" Yellowish-gray to grayish-yellow loamy sands to
sandy loams.
BC, 24" plus Yellow or gray and yellow mottled friable sandy
clay.
Vegetation: Longleaf and slash pines with an undercover of
wiregrass and gallberry.
Distribution: These soils are not extensive. Found mainly
in Bradford, Union, 'St. Johns and adjoining counties.
Utilization: Some of these soils are ridged up to facilitate
drainage and planted to strawberries and general farm crops.
(3). Plummer series
A1, 0-5" Gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 5-24" Light gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
BC, 24" plus--Light gray friable sandy clay mottled with
yellow.
Vegetation: Longleaf and slash pines with wiregrass, pitcher
plant (bug catcher) and sedges. Some areas are swampy.
Distribution: These soils are found in large areas in the flat-
woods of West Florida and in association with the Bladen soils
in the St. Johns valley.
Utilization: These soils are used .mainly for grazing and
-forestry.
c. Grady Group (only one series).
(1). Grady series
The Grady soils occupy poorly drained depressions within the
Red and Yellow soils of northwest Florida. Grady clay loam is
associated with the sandy loams.
A1, 0-6" Dark gray to gray sandy loams.
A2, 6-18" Light to yellowish-gray sandy loams.
SB18-30" Bluish-gray heavy tough clay or silty clay.
BC, 30" plus Gray, red, yellow and brown mottled heavy
plastic clay.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Vegetation: Cypress, bay, gum and Mayhaw with a mixed
undergrowth.
Distribution: These soils are closely associated with the Red
and Yellow soils of northwest Florida. They occur as\spots of
a few acres at the bottom of slopes.
Utilization: Not generally used for farming but some areas
have been drained and successfully used with the associated soils
for general farming.

2. Derived from or influenced by marl.

a. The Parkwood Group (only one series).
(1). Parkwood series
These soils are underlain by marl at depths usually less than
four feet. Drainage conditions and color and texture of the soil
horizons above the marl are quite variable.14 Parkwood clay
and clay loam are associated with the sandy loams.
A,, 0-8"- Gray to dark-gray sands to sandy loams.
A2, 8-24" -Light gray to yellowish or brownish gray loamy
sands to sandy loams.
B, 24-36" Gray to pale yellow plastic sandy clays to clay.
Sometimes absent. -
C, 36" plus- White to pale yellow marl. (In some cases the
marl layer is not the parent material of the soil.)
Vegetation: Cabbage palmetto, live oak and other hardwoods.
Distribution: The largest areas of these soils are found in
Gulf Hammock in Levy County. Smaller areas are found in
long narrow strips near the East Coast and in a number of
South Florida counties.
Utilization: Almost none of the Levy County area has been
reclaimed. In other parts of the state these soils are used for
the production of citrus and truck crops for which they are
well suited.

"The Parkwood series as it is now known contains at least three distinct
soils. One of them has a heavy black surface which extends downward
to a depth of two or three feet where marl is encountered. Another has
a gray or dark gray surface over a light gray subsurface which passes
into a dark brown or yellow, gray, and brown mottled sandy clay. This
clay layer is 2 to 18 inches thick and rests upon marl. The third soil has
a gray or dark gray surface which passes directly into marl at depths of
from 8 to 12 inches.







The Soils of Florida


3. Developed on alluvial deposits no longer subject to over-
flow.
a. Leaf Myatt Group.
(1). Leaf series
These soils have poor to fair drainage. The better drained
phases which have more yellow in the A2 horizons may be classed
as Yellow soils.
A1, 0-4" Gray to dark gray sandy loams.
A2, 4-15" Yellowish-gray to gray sandy loams.
B, 15-24" Yellow and gray mottled heavy plastic clay.
1C, 24" plus Red, yellow and gray mottled heavy plastic clay.
Vegetation: Hardwoods with some longleaf and loblolly pines.
Distribution: Confined to small areas along some of the larger
streams in northwest Florida.
Utilization: Forestry and grazing.
(2). Myatt series
A1, 0-6" Dark gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 6-18" Light gray to pale yellowish-gray loamy sands to
sandy loams.
B, 18-30" Yellow and mottled sticky sandy clays.
*C, 30" plus Gray, yellow and brown mottled sticky sandy
clays.
Vegetation: Wiregrass prairie with a scattered growth of
longleaf and slash pines.
Distribution: These soils are found mainly along the smaller
streams of West Florida.
Utilization: Forestry and grazing.
:B. Sands.
1. Derived from marine deposits of non-calcareous sands
and clays.
a. Bayboro- Coxville Group.
These soils are unlike the sandy loams of this group in that
the clay subsoils are found at depths greater than 30 inches
arid usually less than four feet. They are closely associated with
the sandy loams and used similarly. The Bladen sands are the
most important of the group. Bayboro sands have been en-
countered in only one small area while the Coxville sands have
not been and probably will not be encountered in the state.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


b. Portsmouth Plummer Group.
S(1). Portsmouth series
A1, 0-10" Dark gray to black sands.
A2, 10-30" plus- Light gray to white sands.
Vegetation: Swamp, low hammock, or longleaf and slash
pines with an undergrowth of wiregrass and gallberry.
Distribution: Throughout the flatwoods.
Utilization: A very small portion of these soils has been
drained. In some places they are drained or ridged up and
successfully used for the production of citrus, strawberries and
other truck crops.
S(2). Hyde series
A1, 0-24" Dark gray to black sands high in organic matter.15
A2, 24-30" plus Light gray to white sands.
Vegetation: Swamp, mainly cypress, gum and titi.
Distribution: Large areas in Franklin, Wakulla and Liberty
counties. Small areas are associated with the Portsmouth sands
in other parts of North and West Florida.
Utilization: These soils have not been reclaimed. At present
they are valued chiefly for their timber growth. Beekeeping is
an associated enterprise in the area occupied by them.
S(3). Scranton series
These soils are slightly better drained than the other mem-
bers of the group.
A1, 0-10" Dark gray to black sands.
A2, 10-30" plus Yellowish-gray to yellow sands.
Vegetation: Longleaf and slash pines with wiregrass.
Distribution: The largest area of this soil is found in the
vicinity of Plant City in Hillsborough County. Smaller areas
are found in some of the adjoining counties and in the north-
east part of the state.
Utilization: These are the leading strawberry soils in the
state. They are also used for a number of other truck crops.
- (4). Plummer series
A1, 0-6"- Gray sands.
A2, 6-30" plus- Dull gray to light gray sands. (In some of
the southern counties this layer is grayish-yellow or yellow
and rests upon unweathered limestones.)
"In some cases the A1 horizon extends to depths of 36 inches or more
before the light gray A2 horizon is encountered.






The Soils of Florida


Vegetation: Wiregrass, sedges and pitcher plant with some
saw palmetto and a thin growth of longleaf and slash pines.
There are prairie and cypress swamp phases of these soils in
some of the South Florida counties.
Distribution: Next to the Leon soils these are the most ex-
tensive and widely distributed poorly drained soils.
Utilization: As a rule they are not used for cultivated crops.
However, in some of the lower South Florida counties they are
used to some extent for the production of winter tomatoes,
string beans and limited amounts of other crops. In other
sections of the state these soils are used for grazing and for-
estry.
2. Derived from or influenced by marls.
a. Parkwood Group (only one series).
(1). Parkwood series
Similar to the Parkwood sandy loams with which they are
closely associated but differ from them in that the surface soils
are sands and the clays overlying the marls are found at depths
below 30 inches. They are not as valuable as the sandy loams
but are used similarly.
V. THE BOG SOILS
These soils occupy the very poorly drained marshes and
swamps. They consist of accumulated plant remains in various
stages of decomposition mixed with small amounts of mineral
materials.
As a rule they are strongly acid except where they have formed
in close association with limerock or marl as in the Everglades
where they are only slightly acid on this account.
(1). Muck
0-24" plus- Dark brown to black, highly decomposed organic
matter containing 35 to 75 percent mineral material, mainly
fine sand and silt.
Vegetation: Variable. Swamp or fresh water marsh.
Distribution: Small areas are found throughout the flatwoods
but the largest areas occur in the St. Johns arshes and along
the south rims of Lakes Okeechobee and Istokpoga.
Utilization: The reclaimed areas of muck are used mainly
for the production of sugarcane and truck crops, of which the
most important is string beans. Some of the Everglades areas







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


have been recently planted to grasses which are cut, dried and
used as dairy feed.
(2). Peat
0-24" plus Dark brown to black partially decomposed organic
matter containing 0 to 35 percent mineral matter.
Vegetation: Fresh-water marsh mainly with some areas of
swamp.
Distribution: This is the most extensive of the organic soils.
The largest areas of peat are found in the Everglades, in the
St. Johns marshes and in the marshes south of Lake Istokpoga.
Utilization: Being less desirable than muck, only a small
percentage of this soil is farmed. Some of the Everglades and
St. Johns marshes have been reclaimed and are used for the
production of sugarcane, truck crops and grasses. Smaller
areas elsewhere are used for truck crops, mainly beans and
celery.
(3). Peaty muck
Peaty muck is gradational between peat and muck with which
it is closely associated. While it has a similar agricultural use
it is usually regarded as more valuable than peat and less valu-
able than muck.
(4). Swamp
Miscellaneous unclassifiable swampy areas. Not used for
agriculture. Have some value for grazing and forestry.
(5). Tidal Marsh
Marshy areas along the coast which are subject to tidal in-
undation. These areas are not used agriculturally but have
some value as cover for game.

VI. THE DRY SANDS
These soils occupy the excessively drained scrub ridges of
the peninsula and dunes along the beaches. They consist of
incoherent sands.
(1). Lakewood series
A1, 0-2" Light gray sands.
A21, 2-18" White sands.
A22, 18" plus Deep yellow sands.
Vegetation: Sand pine, scrub oaks, rosemary, blue-stem pal-
metto and scrub hickory.







The Soils of Florida


Distribution: The largest areas of these soils occur in Marion,
Lake, Volusia and Highlands counties and as narrow strips a
few miles inland from the East Coast. Smaller areas occur
in other parts of the peninsula and near the Gulf Coast in north-
west Florida.
Utilization: These soils are used mainly for game protection
and to some extent for grazing and. forestry. In Highlands
County and along the East Coast small areas are successfully
used for citrus. On the whole they are not used for cultivated
crops.
(2). St. Lucie series
A1, 0-2"--Light gray sands.
A2, 2-60" plus White sands.
Vegetation: Sand pine, rosemary, scrub oaks and blue-stem
palmetto.
Distribution: Closely associated with the Lakewood soils but
have a wider distribution.
Utilization: The St. Lucie soils are not used for cultivated
crops. They have some value for game protection, grazing and
forestry. Pineapples are grown on these soils to a very limited
extent.
(3). Dade series
The Dade soils are similar to the St. Lucie soils but are under-
lain by limestone. The weathered limestone is not the parent
material of these soils.
A1, 0-2" Light gray sands.
A2, 2-30"- White sands.
30-32" Brownish-yellow loamy sands.
32" plus Oolitic limestone.
Vegetation: Saw palmetto, scrub oaks and coontie with a
scattered growth of slash pine.
Distribution: Near the coast in Broward and Dade counties.
Utilization: Used to a small extent for citrus, papayas and
other subtropical fruits. Slightly more fertile than the Lake-
wood and St. Lucie soils.
(4). Palm Beach series
A,, 0-6" Grayish-brown sands containing fragments of small
sea shells.
A2, 6-36" plus Gray, yellow and browf speckled mixture of
sands and shell fragments.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Vegetation: Subtropical hammock growth.
Distribution: Occurs as narrow strips adjacent to the beach
along the East Coast from Broward County south to Miami.
Utilization: Used to a small extent for the production of
truck crops. They are more productive than the Dade soils.
(5). Coastal beach
Recent sand dunes along the coast which have no crop value.

VII. THE LITHOSOLS
The Lithosols are confined to comparatively small areas near
the southern tip of the peninsula. They consist of partially
weathered limestone or unconsolidated calcium carbonate of silt
loam texture.
(1). Perrine series'6
Light gray finely divided calcium carbonate containing vari-
able amounts of sand and organic matter and underlaid at 6 to
72 inches by shell marl or limestone.17 There is a shallow phase
in which the underlying formations are less than six inches
from the surface. These soils are naturally poorly drained.
Vegetation: Saw grass, reed grass, switch grass and sedges.
Distribution: This soil is confined to Broward, Dade, Collier
and Monroe counties where it occurs as long narrow strips
within the other soils.
Utilization: Used for the production of Irish potatoes, toma-
toes and other truck crops. The shallow phase is not used for
cultivated crops.
(2). Rockdale series16
Oolitic limestone with numerous small surface cavities filled
with red or reddish-brown sandy loams and silt loams or gray
to grayish-brown sands to loamy sands. These soils are almost
level and are only a few feet above sea level. The cavities and
porous nature of the limestone permit rapid internal drainage.
Vegetation: Slash pine with clumps of live oak and silver
palm with an undercover of saw palmetto, wiregrass and vari-
ous subtropical plants.

"Tentative name. Has not been officially approved by the Correlation
Committee of the Soil Survey Division, United States Department of
Agriculture.
"Possibly several new soil series will be established on the basis of
organic matter or sand content when these areas are surveyed in detail.






The Soils of Florida


Distribution: Confined to a small area lying between and
west of Miami and Florida City in Dade County, and to the
keys.
Utilization: Used for the production of citrus (mainly limes),
avocados, papayas and a limited amount of truck crops.

VIII. THE ALLUVIAL SOILS
Alluvial soils occupy the first bottoms (overflow lands) along
the larger streams. As new materials are deposited during each
flood these soils as a rule do not show well defined horizons of
eluviation and illuviation. They are not used for cultivated
crops. Most of them remain forested, but some of the heavier
soils have been partially cleared and planted to pasture grasses.
A. Sands with Fair to Good Natural Drainage.
(1). Thompson series
A1, 0-6" Gray to yellowish-gray sands.
A2, 6-30" plus Pale yellow sands.
Vegetation: Longleaf pine with oaks, gum and in places haw.
Distribution: Occur along the Suwannee River and its tribu-
taries and along some of the smaller streams of northwest
Florida.
B. Sandy Loams with Fair to Good Natural Drainage.
(1). Thompson series
A1, 0-6" Gray to yellowish-gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 6-20" Pale yellow loamy sands to sandy loams.
B, 20-30" Yellow friable sandy clays.
C, 30" plus Red, yellow and gray mottled friable sandy clays.
Vegetation and Distribution: Same as for Thompson sands.
C. Sands with Poor Natural Drainage.
(1). Johnston series
A,, 0-10" Dark gray to black sands.
A2, 10-30" plus Light gray sands.
Vegetation: Pines of various species, oak, gum, titi and gall-
berry.
Distribution: Some of the smaller streams of the north and
central parts of the state.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


(2). Bibb series
A1, 0-6" Gray sands.
A2, 6-30" plus Light to almost white sands.
Vegetation and Distribution: Same as for Johnston sands.

D. Sandy Loams with Poor Natural Drainage.
(1). Johnston series
A1, 0-12" Dark gray to black loamy sands to sandy loams.
A2, 12-24" Light gray loamy sands to sandy loams.
BC, 24" plus Bluish-gray plastic sandy clays mottled yellow.
Vegetation and Distribution: Same as Johnston sands.
(2). Ochlockonee series
Some areas of these soils have fair to good natural drainage.
Ochlockonee clay is associated with the sandy loam.
A1, 0-6" Brown to grayish-brown sandy loams.
As, 6-15" Grayish-brown sandy loams.
BC, 15" plus Brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown heavy sandy
clays or clay.
Vegetation: Tupelo and black gum with various other hard-
woods.
Distribution: Found mainly along the Ochlockonee, Apalachi-
cola, Choctawhatchee and Escambia Rivers.

E. Miscellaneous Materials.
(1). Undifferentiated Alluvial Soils
These consist of a mixture of unseparable swampy bottom-
lands.
(2). Riverwash
Recent deposits of alluvial sands.







S The Soils of Florida 57

SOME NOTES ON THE MANAGEMENT AND
CONSERVATION OF FLORIDA SOILS
Florida's favorable climate permits the successful production
of a wide variety of crops on soils which are very often inher-
ently low in fertility. This fact tends to lessen the importance
of soil differences and increase the importance of good soil
management practices. Stated simply, the most important soil
management problems in Florida are: (1) the selection of the
soils best suited for the crops to be grown; (2) fertilizing to
overcome the inherent soil deficiencies and to meet the nutrient
requirements of the crops grown; (3) reduction of soil leach-
ing; (4) rotation of crops and land-resting; (5) control of erosion
and (6) the establishment of favorable soil moisture conditions.
An important step in establishing any agricultural enterpriseJ
is the selection of soils which best meet requirements of the
crops to be grown. (Comparative ratings of Florida soils, when
used under good management practices for the production of
several kinds of crops are presented in Table 2.) Soil selection
for various crops involves a consideration of several factors of
which the most important are: natural soil fertility, possible
water relationships, climate (especially temperature) and local
"air drainage".
Sandy loams are usually more productive than sands and are
naturally better suited for most crops. On the other hand such
crops as bright tobacco and watermelons seem to be of better
quality when produced on the lighter soils. Soils with the water
table not far below the surface are naturally better suited for
truck crops than are similar well drained soils. (Citrus and
winter vegetables are confined to definite temperature belts,
which should not be ignored. Within a given temperature belt
local air drainage, which is a product of relief, is very important.
Extensive damage to citrus, tung and vegetable plantings has
resulted in various parts of the state because of unfavorable
air drainage.
The action of Florida's humid climate on the sandy parent
material has resulted in the formation of soils which are for
the most part low in colloidal materials. Likewise, the colloidal
material present has been leached of most of the plant nutrients
which were present in the parent material. The deficiency of
Florida soils in elements necessary for normal plant growth is
not confined to the more common elements -nitrogen, phos-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


phorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium but includes many
of the so-called trace elements as well. Among these the most
important, as we now recognize them, are copper, manganese,
zinc, and boron. The discovery of the association of these trace-
element deficiencies with certain Florida soils during recent
years is leading to a remarkable change in our concept of fer-
tilizer practices.
While the amount and kind of fertilizer materials added to
the soil depend primarily on the crops grown, they also vary
considerably with the different soils. Most of the inorganic
soils respond to additions of phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen.
While the organic soils require very little nitrogen fertilization
they require relatively large quantities of potassium and phos-
phorus. Both organic and inorganic soils, particularly those that
are very acid, usually respond to additions of some form of lime
both as a corrective of soil acidity and as a source of nutrient
calcium and magnesium.
While deficiencies of the trace elements in Florida soils do
not appear to be as general as those of the elements required
in larger quantities they demand equally as much attention,
at least in certain locations and with certain crops. Thus mag-
nesium deficiency is most pronounced in the sands, especially
those in high, well drained areas, where it is notably responsible
for the "bronzing" of citrus. Copper deficiencies have been
particularly noted on the raw organic soils in the Everglades
and elsewhere and in sandy areas in various parts of the state.
In such localities this element is known to be beneficial in the
control of diebackk" and ammoniationn" of citrus and in the
control of certain forms of "salt-sickness" in cattle. "Marl
frenching" of citrus and the occurrence of certain "leaf patterns"
in the foliage of various other plants growing on the marl or
other high lime soils and on some of the upland sands indicate
a deficiency of manganese. Zinc deficiencies which show up as
"frenching" of citrus, "bronzing" of tung, "rosette" of pecans,
and "white-bud" of corn, are rather general over the state. Fre-
quently zinc deficiency patterns are complicated by those of
manganese. The addition of small amounts of boron is an aid
in the successful production of celery on some of the flatwoods
soils where it has been established as a specific in the control
of "crack stem". Much study is being given to these deficiencies
at the present time and to the best method of correcting them.
Advantage is found in spraying directly on the foliage in certain







The Soils of Florida


instances by way of keeping the chemical out of contact with
the soil itself.
The removal of fertilizer nutrients by the leaching action of
water passing downward through the soil constitutes a serious
loss in Florida, especially in areas where the soils are very open
or sandy. Since colloidal materials increase the absorptive
capacity of soils, the humus resulting from the decomposition
of organic matter significantly reduces these percolation losses.
Thus a good management program for mineral soils provide
for the maintenance of the soil humus through additions of
organic matter with the use of cover crops or otherwise.
Crop rotation and land-resting are beneficial in maintaining
the productivity of soils. Some of the sandy soils in the general
farming sections have been maintained in a fair state of pro-
ductivity through the practice of crop rotation and land-resting
without the addition of appreciable quantities of fertilizer
materials. The complex balance thus developed in the soil is
being carefully investigated at the present time.
The clay subsoils which prevent the rapid penetration of
water, and the rolling topography of the Red and the Yellow
sandy loams of northwest Florida are responsible for a consider-
able amount of sheet erosion in that section of the state. Al-
though erosion is not a serious problem in the entire section
its control or prevention should be a part of the soil manage-
ment program. Increasing the absorptive capacity of the soil,
by crop rotation, addition of organic matter, contour furrow-
ing, strip cropping and terracing are effective means of erosion
control under such conditions.
A great percentage of Florida soils are naturally too poorly
drained for most crops. However, in laying out systems for
artificial control of surface waters over-drainage should be care-
fully guarded against. The value of some soils has been greatly
reduced by too much drainage with the result that the more
modern systems include adequate provisions for water control,
that is, both drainage and irrigation. One of the most serious
soil conservation problems to be found anywhere in the United
States is in the Everglades of Florida; and this has been largely
developed by over-drainage without adequate provisions for
control.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 2.-COMPARATIVE RATING OF FLORIDA SOILS FOR THE COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTION OF\VARIOUS KINDS OF CROPS1.
-- E-Excellent; G-Good; F-Fair; P-Poor; U-Unsuited;
D-This soil does not occur in areas where these crops are grown.
1I Graz-
Gen. Tree Crops I| m- ing
Soil Type Farm Truck Iproved and
Crops Crops Cit- Other Pas- For-
_I rus' I ture Iestry
SOILS WITH GOOD
NATURAL DRAINAGE:
Blanton fine sandy loam ......... F P D\ G F G
loamy fine sand .......... P P G F P F
fine sand ........................ P3 P F P P F
Cahaba fine sandy loam ............ G D D G F F-G
sandy loam .................. G D D F F
Carnegie fine sandy loam ........ E D DI G G F
Coastal beach ............................ U U U U U U
Cuthbert fine sandy loam ....... F D D F F F
sandy loam .................. F D D F F F
Dade fine sand ............................ U U P U' P P
Eustis fine sand .................-......... P3 P G- P P P
Faceville fine sandy loam.......... E D D G G F
Fellowship clay ......................... P F P P E F
clay loam ...................... F G P P E F
fine sandy loam ......... G F F F G F
sandy loam .................... G F F F G F
Ft. Meade fine sand .................... P-F F G-- P P-F F
Gainesville fine sandy loam ...... G F G-. F F F
sandy loam .................. G F G c F F F
loamy fine sand .......... F P-F G. F P-F F
loamy sand .................. F P-F G_ F P-F F
fine sand ...................... P-F P G _P P F
Gilead fine sandy loam .............. -F D D F F F
Greenville clay ......--............... F D D F G-E F
fine sandy loam ......... E D D G G F
Hernando fine sandy loam ....... G F -G F F F
loamy fine sand ......... F P G F P-F F
fine sand ....................... P P G P P F
Kalmia fine sandy loam ............ G D D G F F-G
sandy loam .................. G D D G F F-G
fine sand ..................... P D D P P F-P
sand .............................. P D D P P F-P
Lakewood fine sand .................... U U P-F U U P
sand --.............................. U U P U U P
Magnolia fine sandy loam ........ E D -D G G F
Marlboro fine sandy loam ........ E D D G G G
Norfolk fine sandy loam .......... G3 D D; G F G
sandy loam ................... G3 D D' G F G
loamy fine sand .......... F3 P DI F P F-G
loamy sand .................. F3 P D F P F-G
fine sand ...................... P-U3 U G, P-U U F-P
sand ............................. P-U U *G P-U U P
Orangeburg fine sandy loam .... G-E D D G F F-G
sandy loam .................. G D D G F F-G
loamy fine sand .......... F D D G P F ,
loamy sand ................ F D D G P F
fine sand ...................... P-F D D P-F U F
sand .............................. P-F D D P-F U F
Orlando fine sand ....................... P-F F-G G P-F P-F F








The Soils of Florida


TABLE 2.-COMPARATIVE RATING OF FLORIDA SOILS FOR THE COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTION OF VARIOUS KINDS OF CROPS1-Continued.
E-Excellent; G-Good; F-Fair; P-Poor; U-Unsuited;
D-This soil does not occur in areas where these crops are grown.


Soil Type


I I Graz-
Gen. Tree Crops Im- Ging
Farm Truck I proved and
Crops Crops Cit- Other I Pas- For-
rus2 ture I estry


Palm Beach fine sand ................ U P P U U P
sand .............................. U P P U U P
Red Bay fine sandy loam .......... G-E D D G F F
loamy fine sand .......... F D D F-G P F
Rockdale ...................................... U P F UT U P-F
Ruston fine sandy loam ............ G D D G F G
sandy loam .................. G D D G F G
loamy fine sand .......... F3 D D F-G P F-G
loamy sand .................. F3 D D F-G P F-G
fine sand ..................... P3 D D P P F-P
sand ............................. P D D P P F-P
St. Lucie fine sand .................... U U P-U U U P
sand .............................. U U P-U U U P
Susquehanna clay ...................... P D D F-G G F
fine sandy loam .......... F D D G F G-F
Thompson fine sandy loam ...... U D D U G F
sandy loam .................. U D D U G F
fine sand ...................... U D D U P-F F
sand .............................. U D D U P-F F
Tifton fine sandy loam ............. E D D G F-G G
SOILS WITH FAIR TO GOOD
NATURAL DRAINAGE:
Blanton fine sand ........................ P P-F P-) P P-F F-G
Dunbar fine sandy loam ............ F F-G G F-G G
loamy fine sand .......... P-F P-F D F-G F F-G
Eulonia fine sandy loam .......... F F-G D G F-G G
Fellowship clay ........-.............. P F P P E F
clay loam ...................... F G P P E F
fine sandy loam .......... G F F F G F
Leaf fine sandy loam ................ F D D F-G G G
Norfolk fine sandy loam .......... G D D G G G
SOILS THAT REQUIRE
SOME FORM OF
ARTIFICIAL DRAINAGE:
Bayboro fine sandy loam .......... F F-G D U-P E P-F
loamy fine sand .......... F F-G D U-P G P-F
fine sand ...................... P F D U-P G P-F
Bibb fine sand ............................ U U U U F F
Bladen clay .................................. P F U U E G
fine sandy loam .......... G G G- U-F E E-
loamy fine sand .......... F G G U-F G G
fine sand ...................... P-F F F-G U-F G G
Coxville fine sandy loam .......... G G G U-F E E
Grady clay loam ........................ F D D U E P-F
fine sandy loam .......... G D D U E P-F
Hyde fine sand ............................ F D D U G F-G
Johnston fine sandy loam ........ U U U U F F-G
fine sand ...................... U U U U F F-G
Leon loamy fine sand ................ U F P-F U F F
fine sand ...................... U P P U F-D F
sand ........-.................... U P P U F-P F








62 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE 2.-COMPARATIVE RATING OF FLORIDA SOILS FOR THE COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTION OF VARIOUS KINDS OF CROPS'-Concluded.
E-Excellent; G-Good; F-Fair; P-Poor; U-Unsuited;
D-This soil does not occur in areas where these crops are grown.

I I Graz-
Gen. Tree Crops Im- ing
Soil Type Farm Truck proved and
Crops Crops Cit- Other Pas- For-
rusS ture estry
Marl (Perrine) .......................... D G-F U U F-G P
Muck .......................................... G E P U G P-F
Myatt fine sandy loam .............. F D D U G P-F
Ochlockonee clay ..................... U U D U E F
fine sandy loam .......... U U D U G F
Parkwood clay .......................... F G G U E P-F
clay loam .......... ........ F- G. E, U E P-PF
fine sandy loam .......... G G E U G P-F
fine sand ...................... P F G U F P-F
Peat ........................................... P-F F-G P U E P-F
Peaty muck ............................... F F-G P U G P-F
Plummer fine sandy loam ........ P P-F P U G F
loamy fine sand ....... P P-F P U F F
fine sand ................... U P-F P U F F
sand ............................ U P-F P U F F
Portsmouth fine sandy loam .... G G P U G F
loamy fine sand .......... F F-G P U G F
fine sand ...................... P F P U F-G F
Riverwash .................................. U U U U U U
St. Johns loamy fine sand ........ P F-G P U F-G F
fine sand .................. P F P U F F
sand ........................... P F-P P U F F
Scranton fine sandy loam ........ G G I U G G
loamy fine sand ......... F G D U F-G G
fine sand .................... F G F-G U F F-G
Swamp ............ ........... U U U U P F-G
Tidal marsh ......................... U U U U U U
Undifferentiated alluvial soils.. U U U U P F
'It should be understood that these ratings represent an average and that variations
in productivity may occur in each soil type.
'Most of the citrus soils are also found outside of the citrus belt. Moreover, some
areas of the soils given "good" ratings for citrus are unsuited because of unfavorable
local temperatures.
'These soils are "good" for the associated cash crops, watermelons, bright tobacco
and Sea Island cotton.
'Because of favorable climatic conditions these soils are well suited to such subtropical
fruits as avocados, mangos and papayas.








The Soils of Florida

KEY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FLORIDA SOILS


A. Soils on rolling to undulating relief with good nat-
ural drainage.
I. Derived from non-calcareous sands and clays.
A. Sands (sandy clay or clay B horizons at
depths below 30 inches).
1. Brownish-gray A2 horizon:
a. Bright red A2 horizons .....................
b. Yellowish-red or reddish-yellow A2
horizons ........................................ ...... ..
c. Yellowish-red or reddish-yellow deep
As horizons .............................................
2. Gray A, horizons:
a. Yellow As horizons ......................
b. Pale yellow or gray and yellow
splotched A2 horizons .........................
3. Light gray A1 horizons:
a. W hite A2 horizons ................... ...........
b. White A21 horizons underlaid by yel-
low (A22 horizons) at 12 to 30" ............
c. White A2 horizons underlaid by lime-


See Page


Orangeburg ........ 40

Ruston ................ 40

kEustis .................. 40

Norfolk ................ 39

Blanton ............. 41

St. Luice ............ 53

Lakewood ......... 52


stone at 12 to 36" ................................ Dade .................. 53
4. Dark gray to almost black A1 horizons: .- .
a. Gray or yellowish-gray A2 horizons .. Orlando ............. 41
b. Brownish-gray or yellowish-gray A2'-
horizons underlaid by beds of pebble
phosphate at depths of 6 to 8 feet .... Ft. Meade ........... 42
B. Sandy loams with friable sandy clay B hori-
zons at depth between 12 and 30 inches.
1. Reddish-brown A, horizons, brownish-red
or red A. horizons:
a. Red B horizon ....................................... Red Bay ............. 32
2. Brownish-gray A2 horizon, yellow or
brownish-yellow A2 horizons:
a. Bright red B horizons ........................ Orangeburg ........ 31
b. Yellowish-red or reddish-yellow B
horizons .................... ...... ...................... Ruston ............... 31
3. Gray A1 horizons, grayish-yellow or yel-
low A2 horizons:
a. Yellow B horizons ......................... Norfolk .............. 31
C. Sandy loams with heavy friable sandy clay
B horizons usually within 12 inches of the
surface. (This group of soils corresponds in
color to the Norfolk-Red Bay group but
differs in having more fine material (silt
and clay) throughout the profile.)
1. Reddish-brown A2 horizons, brownish-red
A2 horizons:
a. Dark red B horizons ............................. Greenville ......... 34








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


2. Brownish-gray A1 horizons, yellow or See Page
brownish-yellow As horizons:
a. Bright red B horizons ............................ Magnolia ............ 34
b. Yellowish-red B horizons .................... Faceville .............. 33


3. Gray to brownish-gray As horizons, yel-
low to brownish-yellow A2 horizons:
a. Deep yellow (cottonseed meal color)
B horizons ......................... ... .. Marlboro
b. Yellow to slightly reddish-yellow B
horizons with brown ironstone pebbles
throughout the profile ........................ Tifton ...
c. Reddish-yellow to yellowish-red B
horizons with brown ironstone pebbles
throughout the profile .......................... Carnegie
D. Sandy loams with brittle or plastic sandy
clay or clay B horizons:
1. Gray to brownish-gray A, horizons,
grayish-yellow A2 horizons:
a. Yellowish-red or reddish-yellow heavy
tough compact B horizons ................. Cuthbert
b. Yellow brittle B horizons .................. Gilead ...
c. Red, yellow, and gray mottled very
heavy plastic BC horizons .................... Susqueha
II. Derived from or influenced by limestones or
calcareous sands and clays.
A. Sands.
1. Grayish-brown to brown A, horizons:
a. Brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown
or yellowish-red As horizons ................ Gainesvil
b. Speckled gray and brown As horizons,
containing fragments of uncemented
sea shells ................................................. Palm Be
2. Gray to brownish-gray A, horizons:
a. Yellow, grayish-yellow .or brownish-
yellow As horizons with yellow or
yellow, gray and brown mottled fri-
able sandy clay B horizons at depths
between 30 and 60" ........................... Hernandc


............ 32


............... 33


.............. 33






.............. 35
............./ 35

nna ...... 35


le .......... 42


5ch ........ 53


-........... 42


B. Sandy Loams.
1. Grayish-brown to brown A1 horizons,
brownish-yellow, reddish-yellow or red-
dish-brown As horizons:
a. Yellowish brown to reddish yellow
friable sandy clay B horizons ............ Gainesville ......... 38
2. Gray to grayish-brown As horizons, yel-
low to brownish-yellow A. horizons:
a. Yellow or yellow, gray and brown mot-
tled friable sandy clay B horizons ...... Hernando ......... 37
3. Gray to dark gray A, horizons, dingy
gray or yellowish-gray A2 horizons:








The Soils of Florida


a. Gray or yellow, gray and brown SeePage
mottled heavy plastic B horizons ........ Fellowship .......... 37
C. Clay Loams and Clays.
1. Gray to dark gray A horizons:
a. Bluish-gray or yellow and gray mot-
tled heavy plastic clay B horizons ...... Fellowship .......... 37
D. Miscellaneous.
1. Oolitic limestone with numerous small
surface cavities filled with red or reddish-
brown sandy loams and clay loams or
gray or grayish-brown sands or sandy
loams ..............................-.......--- .... Rockdale .............. 54
B. Soils on undulating relief with fair to good nat-
ural drainage.
I. Derived from non-calcareous sands and clays.
A. Sands.
1. Gray A1 horizons:
a. Pale yellow or yellow and gray
splotched A2 horizons ............................ Blanton ................ 41
B. Sandy Loams.
1. Gray Ai horizons, grayish-yellow to yel-
low As horizons:
a. Yellow friable sandy clay B horizons.... Dunbar ................ 36


b. Yellow semi-plastic to tough sandy
clay B horizon underlain immediately
by red, gray, brown and yellow mot-
tled or streaked heavy slightly plastic
or tough sandy clays ............................
C. Soils on flat relief with poor natural drainage.
I. Derived from non-calcareous sands and clays.
A. Sands (sandy clay or clay B horizons at
depths below 30 inches).
1. Dark gray to black A, horizons:
a. Gray to light gray Az horizons ..........

b. Yellowish-gray or yellow A2 horizons....
2. Gray A, horizons:
a. Dull gray to light gray A2 horizons-...


Eulonia ................ 36


Portsmouth ...... 50
Hyde .................. 50
Bayboro ............ 49
Scranton .............. 50
Plummer. ....--... 50/
Bladen, .............. 45


B. Sands with brown or black organic "hard-
pan" B horizons.
1. Dark gray Ai horizons, light gray to
white A2 horizons ............-........................... St. Johns ............ 44
2. Gray A, horizons, light gray to white
A horizons ..................-- ........- ---.............. Leon .................... 44
C. Sandy loams with friable sandy clay B
horizons.
1. Dark gray to black A, horizons:
a. Light gray Az horizons, light gray or
gray and yellow mottled B horizons.... Portsmouth ........ 46








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


b. Yellowish-gray or yellow A, horizons,
yellow or gray and yellow mottled
B horizons ............................................
2. Gray A, horizons:
a. Dull gray Az horizons, light gray or
light gray and yellow mottled B hori-
zons ..........................................................
D. Sandy loams with heavy plastic clay B
horizons.
1. Dark gray to black A, horizons:
a. Light gray Az horizons, bluish-gray
B horizons, streaked or splotched with
brown and yellow ..................................
2. Gray A, horizons, light gray A2 horizons:
a. Gray, yellow and brown mottled B
horizons ..............................................
b. Gray, yellow and red mottled B hori-
zons. Amount of red increases with
depth ................................... ...............
3. Gray to dark gray A, horizons:
a. Light gray to yellowish-gray A; hori-
zons, bluish-gray B horizons which
pass into gray, yellow, red and brown
mottled heavy tough clay or silty
clay ................... ................ ............
II. Derived from or influenced by marl.
A. Sands.
1. Gray to dark gray A, horizons, light
gray As horizons ........................................
B. Sandy Loams.
1. Dark gray to black A, horizons, light
gray As horizons, pale yellow calcareous
plastic B horizon resting on white to
cream colored marl ..................................
C. Miscellaneous.
1. Light gray to dark gray almost pure cal-
cium carbonate underlaid by limestone....


See Page

Scranton ............. 47



Plummer .............. 47






Bayboro ............ 45


Bladen ............... 45


Coxville ........... 46





Grady .................. 47




Parkwood ............ 51




Parkwood ........... 48


Perrine ............. 54


III. Organic Soils.
A. Black to dark brown highly decomposed
organic matter containing 35 to 75 percent
m ineral m atter ........................ .................. M uck .................... 51
B. Dark brown to black partially decomposed
organic matter containing 0 to 35 percent
m ineral m atter .................................................. Peat ...................... 52
C. Organic material with properties common
to both peat and muck .................................... Peaty Muck ........ 52
IV. Miscellaneous Soil Materials.
A. Unclassifiable swamp materials ...................... Swamp ................ 52
B. Marshy areas subject to tidal inundation ...... Tidal Marsh ........ 52







The Soils of Florida


D. Bottom Soils.
I. First bottoms.
A. Sands with fair to good drainage.
1. Gray A2 horizons, pale yellow A2 hori-
zons ............... .............----. ..........
B. Sandy loams with good drainage.
1. Gray A, horizons, pale yellow A2 hori-
zons, yellow B horizons .........................
C. Sands with poor drainage.
1. Dark gray to black A, horizons, light
gray As horizons ..........................................
2. Gray A2 horizons, dingy gray Az hori-
zons ............................................. .. ....... .....
D. Sandy loams with poor drainage.
1. Black to dark gray A1 horizons, light
gray A2 horizons, yellow and gray mot-
tled plastic B horizons ....................... .....
2. Brown to grayish-brown At horizons,
grayish-brown A1 horizons, brownish-
yellow plastic B horizons, sometimes
mottled with red and gray ....................
E. Clays and clay loams with poor drainage.
1. Brown or brownish-gray A1 horizons over
yellowish-brown or mottled yellow, gray
and brown plastic B horizons ...................
F. Miscellaneous poorly drained first bottom
materials.
1. Unclassifiable swampy materials ............
2. Recently deposited alluvial sands along


See Page


Thompson ........... 55


Thompson ............ 55


Johnston ............ 55

Bibb ..................... 56



Johnston .............. 56



Ochlockonee ........ 56



Ochlockonee ........ 56


Undifferentiated
Alluvial soils .... 56


streams ..... ................ ..... .............. .. Riverwash .......... 56


II. Second bottoms.
A. Sands with fair to good drainage.
1. Gray A, horizons, pale yellow Az hori-
zons .................. ........................ .....
B. Sandy loams with fair to good drainage.
1. Gray Ai horizons, pale yellow As hori-
zons, yellow friable B horizons ................
2. Brownish-gray A, horizons, grayish-
brown to brownish-yellow As horizons,
reddish-yellow friable B horizons ...........
C. Sandy loams with poor to fair drainage.
1. Gray to dark gray A. horizons, yellowish-
gray to yellow As horizons, yellow and
gray mottled heavy plastic B horizons
ofter, mottled with red ............................
D. Sandy loams with poor drainage.
1. Dark gray A2 horizons, light gray Az
horizons, yellow and gray mottled semi-
plastic B horizons .................-.....................


Kalmia ................ 43


Kalmia ................ 38


Cahaba .............. 39




Leaf .................... 49



Myatt .................. 49







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