Group Title: Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Floridan aquifer system, Upper East Coast Planning Area, Plate 1-10b.
Title: Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Floridan aquifer system, Upper East Coast Planning Area
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015092/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Floridan aquifer system, Upper East Coast Planning Area
Series Title: Technical map series South Florida Water Management District
Alternate Title: Upper East Coast Planning Area
Physical Description: 11 maps : col. ; 58 x 84 cm. folded in envelope 27 x 34 cm.
Scale: Scale ca. 1:125,000
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Michael P
Reece, Dennis
Allen, Judith A
South Florida Water Management District (Fla.)
Publisher: South Florida Water Management District
Place of Publication: West Palm Beach
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Groundwater -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water quality -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Aquifers -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- 1:125,000 -- Florida -- 1979   ( local )
Water quality -- 1:125,000 -- Florida -- 1979   ( local )
Aquifers -- 1:125,000 -- Florida -- 1979   ( local )
Groundwater -- 1:125,000 -- Florida -- 1979   ( local )
Water quality -- 1:125,000 -- Florida -- 1979   ( local )
Aquifers -- 1:125,000 -- Florida -- 1979   ( local )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
single map   ( marcgt )
Polygon: 27.5833333333333 x -80.8333333333333, 26.9166666666667 x -80.8333333333333, 26.9166666666667 x -80.0833333333333, 27.5833333333333 x -80.0833333333333 ( Map Coverage )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece ; graphics by Judith A. Allen prepared by South Florida Water Management District.
General Note: Text, figures and bibliographical references on sheets.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00015092
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000886300
oclc - 07638523
notis - AEJ4468

Full Text


Map Series No. 1 Plate No. 1


-Il


R38E +
RI VER


R39E
COUNTY


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27030'


FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM WELL LOCATION MAP



UPPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA

By:
Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece

Prepared By:


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT


1979


NJF. I .II I I I


COUNTY




R39E


OKF-29
0


27025'

Vi2






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27020'


140


INTRODUCTION

The South Florida Water Management District's
(SFWMD) Upper East Coast Planning Area (UECPA) includes
Martin County, St. Lucie County and Eastern Okeechobee
County encompassing 834,560 acres. Large quantities of water
for agricultural irrigation are taken from the Floridan aquifer
system via free flowing wells into ditches where mixing occurs
with surface and groundwaters of generally higher quality.
Along the coast on Hutchinson Island relatively small quan-
tities of Floridan aquifer water are utilized for potable water
following reverse osmosis treatment.

As of February, 1979, the SFWMD issued agricultural
water use permits for 140,000 acre-ft./ year of Floridan
aquifer water serving 66,000 acres. An additional 210,000
acre-ft. is withdrawn from combined sources of the Floridan
aquifer, surface water and shallow groundwater aquifer to
serve 100,000 acres.

The Floridan aquifer as defined by Parker includes
"parts or all of the Middle Eocene (Ocala Limestone), Oligo-
cene (Suwannee Limestone), and Miocene (Tampa Limestone),
and permeable parts of the Hawthorn Formation that are in
hydrologic contact with the rest of the aquifer" (Parker, et al.,
1955). In the UECPA the Floridan aquifer system consists of a
number of stratigraphically controlled producing zones which
differ significantly in water quality and aquifer characteristics.
The top of the Floridan aquifer system consistently occurs
throughout the study area in Lower Oligocene and Upper
Eocene limestones. The base of the aquifer system could not
be defined as total depths of existing wells used in this study,
limited the depth of exploration.

METHODOLOGY

Throughout the study area existing privately owned
wells were utilized in the data collection efforts. An extensive
inventory of wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer system was
undertaken to identify wells for use in this study. Wells were
selected using the following criteria (1) cooperation of owner,
(2) capability of obtaining representative water level measure-
ments and water samples, (3) access into wells for borehole
geophysical logging, (4) suitability for aquifer testing, (5)
deepest penetration of aquifer, (6) absence of uncontrolled
flowing wells in the surrounding area, and (7) even distri-
bution throughout the study area where possible.

Wells chosen were monitored on a monthly basis for
water levels and water chemistry for one year. Most of the
wells within the monitoring network were geophysically
logged. Rock cuttings along with other hydrogeologic infor-
mation were collected from seven wells in the planning area
during drilling operations of privately owned water supply
wells. In defining the aquifer system both really and vertically
these wells served as control points where hydrogeologic and
borehole geophysical data were tied together and subsequently
extrapolated to other network wells where only borehole
geophysical data were available.

Data collected in the field during this study were inte-
grated with existing information both published and unpub-
lished. This map serves as a guide for all maps included in this
series to show locations for the various types of data used.
Wells are shown on the map by a well number with a symbol
designating the data source. The table shown below describes
by well number the type of information used in this study.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Appreciation is extended to the residents of Martin, St.
Lucie and Okeechobee counties who allowed access to and use
of their wells throughout this program. Acknowledgements are
given to the following well drillers who furnished cuttings and
other valuable information: Douglas Arnold, Stuart, and
McCullers and Howard Drilling of Vero Beach. Special appreci-
ation and acknowledgement is extended to Sharon Hynes,
Hydrogeologic Technician with the South Florida Water
Management District who helped in the computer storing and
retrieval of data. All work was completed under the super-
vision of Abe Kreitman, Director, Groundwater Division,
Resource Planning Department, South Florida Water Manage-
ment District.

SELECTED REFERENCES
Applin, P.L., and Applin, E.R., 1944. Regional Subsurface
Stratigraphy and Structure of Florida and Southern
Georgia. Bulletin of American Association of Petrol-
eum Geologists, Vol. 28, No. 12, Washington, D. C., pp.
1673-1753.
Black, Crow & Eidsness, Inc., 1975. Drilling and Testing of
Deep Disposal and Monitoring Wells, Engineers Report,
City of Stuart, Martin County, Florida, Project No. 307-
74-52.

Chen, C.S., 1965. The Regional Lithostratigraphic Analysis of
Paleocene and Eocene Rocks of Florida, Florida Bureau
of Geology, Bulletin No. 45.

Hendry, C.W., Jr., and Lavender, J.A., 1959. Final Report on
an Inventory of Flowing Wells in Florida, Florida Bureau
of Geology, Information Circular 21.

Kohout, F.A., 1965. A hypothesis concerning cyclic flow of
salt water related to geothermal heating in the Floridan
aquifer, New York Academy of Science, Trans., Ser. II,
V. 28, No.2, p.249-271.

Law Engineering and Testing, 1975, PSAR St. Lucie unit 2
(rev. 26-1/8/75) Docket No. 50-335: unpublished/
engineering report, p. 2.5-1 through 28, 46 figures.

Lichtler, W.F., 1960. Geology and Groundwater Resources of
Martin County, Florida, Florida Bureau of Geology, Re-
port of Investigation No. 23.

Meyer, F.W., 1971. Saline Artesian Water as a Supplement,
Journal American Water Works Association, Vol. 63,
No.2,1971.

Parker, G.G., et al., 1955. Water Resources of Southeastern
Florida, Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper No.
1255.

Puri, H.S. and Vernon, R.O., 1964. Summary of the Geology
of Florida and a Guidebook to the Classic Exposures,
Florida Bureau of Geology, Special Publications No. 5,
revised.

Radazzo, A.F., 1976. Petrographic and Geohydrologic Model
Aquifer Limestones in Florida, University of Florida,
Water Resources Research Center, Publication No. 35,
revised.

Stringfield, V.T., 1966. Artesian Water on Tertiary Limestone
in the Southeastern States Geological Survey, Profes-
sional Paper No. 517.


OKF-23
A OKF-35

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Graphics by Judith A. Aien


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AVAILABILITY OF WELL DATA
WELL GEL IIAICL WATER WATER GEOLOIC
WELL NO. CONSTRUCTION LOGS QUALITY LEVELS LOGS
OKlF1 x X
OKF2 X X X
OKE x
OK-2 X x X

SLFI X
SLF2 x

SLF X X
SLOE x
SLF- X X
SLF-lO X
SLF-ll X
SLF.12
SL-13 x X
SLFI X X X
SLF.17 x X X x
SLF-1 A A X X
SLF9 x
SLFS.2 X
SLF.2
SLF-26 X X X
SLFS7 X X
SLFa X
SLF-31 X X x
SLF- X X
MF- X X X X
MF X X
Mx X X
MF X X
SMFS x
MF X
Mr- x

MFw1 X x
M-14 X X
MF-I x x
MF-I x X X
MF.2S X x
MES x x x

mB.- X X x


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Plate No. 1


Map Series No. 1


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INDIAN R IVER COUNTY


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27020'

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CONTOUR INTERVAL 2 FEET
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Map Series No. 1 Plate No. 2





+



ENTIOMETRIC SURFACE MAP OF THE


FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM


DURING SEPTEMBER 1977 27.

PPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA
By:
Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece
Prepared By: +


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

1979


INTRODUCTION
27025'
A potentiometric map is a graphic representation of an
imaginary surface that depicts the pressure head of water con-
fined in an artesian aquifer. Stringfield (1936) prepared the
first potentiometric map of the Floridan aquifer covering
Florida from the Suwannee River to the Florida Keys. Healy
(1962) produced the first potentiometric map for the entire
state. Water within the Floridan aquifer system in the Upper
East Coast Planning Area (UECPA) is held at greater than
atmospheric pressure by overlying confining beds. Wells drilled
into any of the Floridan aquifer system producing zones
as defined in this study area will flow freely to the surface
without the aid of pumps. Under a static head of approxi-
mately 14.7 ft. above land surface, discharge as high as 1650
gallons per minute (gpm) was recorded from a 10-inch diam-
eter well penetrating producing zones 1, 2 and 3. Flows
throughout the area generally range between 200 and 600 gpm
from wells having diameters from 6 to 12 inches. Data pre- 27020
sented on this map were collected during September 1977,
and reflects the area's highest observed water levels of the
Floridan aquifer system for this year. 1-

DATA COLLECTION AND REDUCTION

Shut-in pressures in the aquifer were measured with a
calibrated mechanical pressure gauge read to the nearest inch
of head above the measuring point. Measuring points for each
well were referenced to mean sea level (msl) by a leveling -
survey. Pressure measurements were made at all wells in the
network within a five-day period on a monthly frequency
during 1977 and bimonthly during 1978. Within the study
area wellhead pressures were observed to be influenced by
changes in water density in the upper 50 to 100 ft. of bore-
hole where the well casing was in contact with cooler shallow
groundwater, thus having the effect of lowering wellhead
pressure. To compensate for this lower apparent pressure, all
wells were discharged to a steady state temperature. The well
was then shut-in at which time wellhead pressures were moni- %
tored with the final pressure being recorded after the well '-
stabilized. In the preparation of this map an additional cor-
rection was made because large areal changes in both water
quality and temperature influenced the pressure head. Specific
gravity data collected concurrent with pressure measurements
were used along with the height of water column above the
top of the Floridan to correct all pressure head data to a
constant borehole water specific gravity of 1.000.

POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE

Water stored in the Floridan aquifer system in the
UECPA exists in a dynamic state in which hydraulic gradients
are controlled by recharge, discharge and aquifer properties. 2701o'
Because groundwater flows down gradient from areas of
higher to lower heads, and perpendicular to lines of equal
potential, one can observe on the potentiometric map that
much of the water enters the planning area from the south.
The potentiometric surface in the UECPA ranges from a high
of +49 ft. msl in north-central Martin County to a low of
+31.0 ft. msl in northeast St. Lucie County near the Ft.
Pierce Inlet.
REFERENCES

Healy, Henry G., 1962. Piezometric Surface and Areas of
Artesian Flow of the Floridan Aquifer, July 7-16, 1961:
Florida Geological Survey, Map Series 4.

Stringfield, V.T., 1936. Artesian Water in the Florida Penin-
sula: U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Supply Paper
773-C. 27o05'











+



27o00







SCALE




0 1 2 3 4 MILES
S3931
P 1979
Plate 2 rl




Map Series No. 1 Plate No. 3
-1


+


27030'


POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE MAP OF THE


FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM DURING


MAY 1978


UPPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA


Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece
Prepared By:


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT


POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE


A potentiometric map is a graphic representation of an
imaginary surface that depicts the pressure head of water con-
fined in an artesian aquifer. Stringfield (1936) prepared the
first potentiometric map of the Floridan aquifer covering
Florida from the Suwannee River to the Florida Keys. Healy
(1962) produced the first potentiometric map for the entire
state. Water within the Floridan aquifer system in the Upper
East Coast Planning Area (UECPA) is held at greater than
atmospheric pressure by overlying confining beds. Wells
drilled into any of the Floridan aquifer system producing
zones as defined in this study area will flow freely to the
surface without the aid of pumps. Under a static head of
approximately 14.7 ft. above land surface, discharge as high
as 1650 gallons per minute (gpm) was recorded from a 10-inch
diameter well penetrating producing zones 1, 2 and 3. Flows
throughout the area generally range between 200 and 600 gpm
from wells having diameters from 6 to 12 inches. Data pre-
sented on this map were collected during May 1978, and
reflects the area's lowest observed water levels of the Flori-
dan aquifer system for this year.


Shut-in pressures in the aquifer were measured with a
calibrated mechanical pressure gauge read to the nearest inch
of head above the measuring point. Measuring points for
each well were referenced to mean sea level (msl) by a leveling
survey. Pressure measurements were made at all wells in the
network within a five day period on a monthly frequency
during 1977 and bimonthly during 1978. Within the study
area wellhead pressures were observed to be influenced by
changes in water density in the upper 50 to 100 ft. of borehole
where the well casing was in contact with cooler shallow
groundwater, thus having the effect of lowering wellhead
pressure. To compensate for this lower apparent pressure, all
wells were discharged to a steady state temperature. The well
was then shut-in at which time wellhead pressures were moni-
tored with the final pressure being recorded after the well
stabilized. In the preparation of this map an additional cor-
rection was made because large area changes in both water
quality and temperature influenced the pressure head. Speci-
fic gravity data collected concurrent with pressure measure-
ments were used along with the height of water column above
the top of the Floridan to correct all pressure head data to a
constant borehole water specific gravity of 1.000.


Water stored in the Floridan aquifer system in the
UECPA exists in a dynamic state in which hydraulic gradients
are controlled by recharge, discharge and aquifer properties.
Because groundwater flows down gradient from areas of
higher to lower heads, and perpendicular to lines of equal
potential, one can observe on the potentiometric map that
much of the water enters the planning area from the south.
The potentiometric surface in the UECPA ranges from a high
of +48 ft. msl in north-central Martin County to a low of
+30.0 ft. msl in northeast St. Lucie County near the Ft.
Pierce Inlet.

Long term water level changes in the Floridan aquifer
system in the UECPA are shown in the accompanying hydro-
graphs. Three wells in Martin County and two wells in St.
Lucie County have been monitored annually by the U.S.
Geological Survey since 1970. Data presented reflects low
water levels collected in either May or June.

Water levels in wells MF-25, MF-24 and MF-1, located
in Martin County show no significant upward and downward
trends over the seven-year period. This is also true for wells
SLF-22 and SLF-28 located in St. Lucie County.


Healy, Henry G., 1962. Piezometric Surface and Areas of
Artesian Flow of the Floridan Aquifer, July 7-16,
1961: Floridan Geological Survey, Map Series 4.

Stringfield, V.T., 1936. Artesian Water in the Florida Penin-
sula: U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Supply Paper
773-C.

U.S. Geological Survey, 1977. Hydrography Data Collected in
St. Lucie and Martin Counties, Florida. Personal Com-
munication, Miami Sub-District Office.


FLORIDAN AQUIFER HYDROGRAPHS


1970 1971 1972


1973 1974 1975 1976 1977


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INTRODUCTION


+


27025'


27010'


27005'


+


27015'


+


Graphics by Judith A. Alen


PALM


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R37E


BEACH


27005'


COUNTY


(USGS written communication, 1977)


G 3931
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1979
.B7
Plate 3 c.(


DATA COLLECTION AND REDUCTION


REFERENCES




Map Series No. 1 Plate No. 4
1


a I


R37E
I ND I A NI


Oil
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R38E "j
RIVER


R39E
COUNTY


DIFFERENCE IN POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE

OF THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM

BETWEEN SEPTEMBER 1977 AND MAY 1978

UPPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA


Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece
Prepared By:


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT


INTRODUCTION


The potentiometric surface of an artesian aquifer contin-
ually fluctuates in response to changes in rates of recharge and
discharge. If recharge to an aquifer exceeds discharge water
levels will rise, conversely if discharge exceeds recharge, water
levels will fall. Water levels also fluctuate in response to earth-
quakes, passing trains, earth tides and barometric pressure
(Parker and Stringfield, 1950) although to a lesser degree.
In the Upper East Coast Planning Area (UECPA) controlling
factors on potentiometric surface fluctuations are discharge
from wells, outflow to the Atlantic Ocean, and inflow from
aquifer recharge areas; although, discharge from wells generally
causes the greatest change in potentiometric levels throughout
the UECPA.

DATA REDUCTION

Maps that show changes in water levels are useful in
depicting effects of recharge to or discharge from an aquifer.
They are constructed by plotting the net change of water
levels measured in wells during a given time span. Data used
in this map were collected in September 1977 and May 1978
and reflect the difference between high and low water levels
for those given years respectively.

DIFFERENCE IN POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE

Patterns of seasonal water level fluctuations are generally
similar throughout the UECPA except for areas of heavy use.
Changes in the potentiometric surface can indirectly be related
to precipitation although not to the extent that precipitation
recharges the aquifer system directly through infiltration since
there is no direct recharge from precipitation to the Floridan
aquifer system in the UECPA. Direct recharge to the Floridan
in the UECPA does not occur because: (1) high heads which
are above land surface will not allow shallow groundwater to
infiltrate downward, (2) over 300 ft. of confining strata sep-
arates the shallow aquifer from the Floridan aquifer system.
The potentiometric surface is indirectly controlled by precipi-
tation and by irrigation practices. During the dry season
(November through May) flowing artesian wells are used
extensively for supplemental irrigation of citrus. The intensity
of use is greater in north and northeastern St. Lucie County
than Martin County, thus accounting for that area's drawdown
as illustrated on this map. Along the coast where the Floridan
aquifer is used for potable water supply, seasonal consumption
trends typically parallel irrigation trends.
Temporal changes in potentiometric head for monitoring
well SLF-17 located in west central St. Lucie County are
shown below. Heads were measured on a monthly basis on
network wells in 1977 and bimonthly in 1978. During the
period of record a minimum water level of +34.5 ft. msl
occurred in late April 1977 with a high of +43.2 ft. msl
recorded in December 1977. Although there was an 8.7 ft
fluctuation, water levels have not declined over this seven-
teen month period.

REFERENCES

Parker, G.G., and Stringfield, V.T., 1950. Effects of earth-
quakes, trains, tides, winds and atmospheric pressure
changes on water in geologic formations of southern
Florida, Econ. Geol. Bull., V. 45, No. 5, p. 441-460.







WELL SLF-17


PALM


Graphics by Judith A. Allen


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*Head corrected to constant borehole fluid specific gravity


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1979
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Map Series No. 1 Plate No.
II


+


TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS

OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM WATERS

FOR SEPTEMBER 1977


UPPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA
By:
Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece
Prepared By:


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

1979


INTRODUCTION


Total dissolved solids (TDS) content of a water sample
is a measure of mineral and organic matter that remains after
the sample is filtered and evaporated to dryness. The degree
of salinity, as measured by TDS, may be classified as follows
(Swenson, et al., 1965):


TOTAL
DISSSOLVED SOLIDS
(MG/L)

less than 1,000
1,000 to 3,000
3,000 to 10,000
10,000 to 35,000
more than 35,000


DEGREE OF SALINITY

non-saline
slightly saline
moderately saline
very saline
brine


High TDS values indicate that specific substances may be
present in concentrations which limit the suitability of the
water for various uses. The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (E.P.A.) recommends a maximum value of 500 mg/I
TDS for potable water when alternate water supplies of lower
TDS are available (U.S. E.P.A., 1979).

Areal variations in TDS of composite samples of the
upper three producing zones of the Floridan aquifer system
collected under natural discharge conditions are denoted on
the map by isograms.

DATA COLLECTION

Water samples were collected on a monthly basis from
all network monitor wells during 1977 and bimonthly during
1978. Wellhead samples were taken after the wells had dis-
charged to steady-state borehole temperatures. This procedure
assured complete flushing of the borehole and provided
consistent sampling during the study. Temperature, specific
gravity, specific conductance, pH, and alkalinity were meas-
ured immediately after sampling. One liter samples were
collected for complete laboratory analysis of inorganic con-
stituents. Total dissolved solids were analyzed by the gravi-
metric method with drying at 1040C.

GENERAL INTERPRETATIONS

The TDS content varies really and vertically in the
Floridan aquifer system. Total dissolved solids are relatively
high in waters of the Floridan aquifer system in the Upper
East Coast Planning Area (UECPA) due to the presence of
highly mineralized water trapped in sediments during an
earlier geologic time.


Chloride is the predominant anion with lesser amounts
of sulfate, bicarbonate, and sulfide also present. Sodium,
calcium, and magnesium are the major cations in association
with minor amounts of potassium and strontium. Other ions
are generally present in only trace amounts. The TDS values
in the UECPA for September 1977, range from 3200 mg/I
in northwestern St. Lucie County to 400 mg/I in eastern
Okeechobee County and western Martin County. Overall
distribution of TDS values in the Floridan aquifer system
is similar to that of chloride concentrations.

Monthly samples did not show any significant change
in TDS values throughout the UECPA during 1977 and 1978.
Monthly fluctuations of TDS values for individual wells may
be due to differing flow contributions of the various producing
zones which result from head changes within these zones. A
plot of TDS values of well SLF-17 during a seventeen month
period is shown below.

Three of the monitor wells used in this study were also
sampled by Lichtler in 1957 and 1958 (Lichtler, 1960). The
following table compares TDS values of the wells during 1957
and 1977:


TDS(MG/L)* Average TDS (MG/L)
1957-1958 1977-1978


MF-1
MF-6
MF-10


27025'
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WELL SLF-17
19771 1978
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNI JUL AUG SEP OCT NOVDEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY


PALM


Giaphics by Judith A. Allen


+ l R36E


R37E


BEACH



R38E +


COUNTY



R39E '.


aI II I I


SCALE
0 1 2 3 4 MILES
l I I


R40E



%IR41E


G 3931

Li3 141*979


S I R42E


*data from Lichtler, 1960.

The TDS values of water from the Floridan aquifer
system in the UECPA do not appear to have changed signifi-
cantly in the last twenty years.

REFERENCES

Lichtler, W.F., 1960. Geology and Groundwater Resources
of Martin County, Florida, Florida Bureau of Geology,
RI No. 23.

Swenson, and Baldwin, 1965. A Primer on Water Quality,
U.S. Geological Survey, Circular.

U.S. E.P.A., 1979. National Secondary Drinking Water Regu-
lations, Federal Register, Vol. 44, No. 140, July 19,
1979.


0,

27030'


+1S~


+


27050'
m"


27010'

Cl
00
rT






+





27005'
1nls









+




27000'


+


27018'

-I
Cl)


+


2710'


27001'











+



2700'
m


.B7


I I I I 1 1 I 1 I


L-


R42E


+1


It





I I -.I I I -- 1 T -


-f- I R36E


-I


R37E
i N n i A N


-1I


R38E +
R IVER


R39E
COUNTY


CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION OF

FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM WATERS


FOR SEPTEMBER 1977


UPPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA

By:
Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece
Prepared By:


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

1979


INTRODUCTION

ITh chloride concentration of water within the Floridan
3u-li.:r .n the Upper East Coast Planning Area (UECPA) is an
,nr.,_.ru,-- limiting factor in its use. Maximum recommended
,il.:.r,.: concentration, as chloride ion, for potable water is
"':, rn. I (U.S. E.P.A., 1979). Crop tolerances of chlorides
.n Jv.culiural irrigation water vary depending on: (1) type
,., .:r... 12) irrigation methods, and (3) management prac-
roc.. F.:.r example, relatively high chloride concentrations
in tb. i..,lerated in water used for flood irrigation of citrus
but, n..1 ,n water used for spray irrigation (Calvert and Reitz,
I ". I

'r, il variations in the composite chloride concentration
i.l I[h upper three producing zones of the Floridan aquifer
. tn, ,r the UECPA during September 1977 are represented
oin ihr- nimp by isochlors.

DATA COLLECTION

1 ii,.r samples were collected on a monthly basis from
jii n.:i.,.,rk monitor wells during 1977 and bimonthly during
%i." llhead samples were taken only after wells had
.Lchirf..J to steady-state borehole temperatures. This pro-
;.J..j.. _,. Jred complete flushing of the borehole and provided
...-.n.i.-[ sampling during the study. Temperature, specific
,Vrj..i. specificc conductance, pH, and alkalinity were meas-
ui.d .:.n .,te immediately after sampling. One liter samples
,re .:..,Ni.cted for complete laboratory analysis of inorganic
cionr ,ju. n[s.

GENERAL INTERPRETATIONS

I hi..ride concentrations vary both really and vertically
rn Ih.: FI..ridan aquifer system. High chloride concentrations
,r, 'iil Fi.,ridan aquifer system of the UECPA are due to the
pr,-.. n,: .,f highly mineralized water trapped in the sediments
durn- ..oi earlier geologic time and not recent day salt water
inrru,,,n irom the Atlantic Ocean. Salt water intrusion of the
FionIrdn aquifer system is not hydraulically possible in the
uEcLP Iue to high potentiometric heads of the Floridan
ic]uii, r ., ,tem along the coast.

1% ridge" of relatively poor quality water having a
Chlirie concentration ranging from 1200 to 1400 mg/l
sird ;. .-.,, thwest-southeast across the UECPA. Fresher water
p., ill.li, Ihis ridge on both sides with chloride concentrations
. i._, .a 200-400 mg/l occurring in western Martin and St.
Lu. .-..unties. Insufficient data is available to define the
chllr.dj: cncentration of the upper three producing zones of
ihe F.lrian aquifer system along the western boundary of
lh.. UELCP -.


Results of monthly sampling showed that there were no
significant temporal changes in chloride concentration through
out the area. Monthly fluctuations of chloride concentration
for individual wells may be due to differing flow contributions
of the various producing zones which result from head changes
within the zones. Chloride concentration during the seventeen
month period is shown below for well SLF-17, located in
west-central St. Lucie County. The chloride concentration
for this well ranged from a low of 525 mg/l in early March
1977, to a high of 930 mg/l in late April 1977. The chloride
concentration averaged 680 mg/l for this well and, except
for March to April 1977, fluctuated by only 150 mg/l during
the sampling period.

Two previous investigations examined chloride concen-
trations of artesian wells within the UECPA. A study of 49
artesian wells in St. Lucie County concluded that no signifi-
cant increase in chloride concentrations occurred, between
1950 and 1965 (Calvert, et al., 1965). Another study sampled
artesian wells in Martin County during 1957 and 1958
(Lichtler, 1960). Three of these wells were also sampled during
1977-1978 by the SFWMD study. The following table com-
pares the chloride concentrations of these wells during 1957
and 1977-1978:

Average
Well No. Chloride Concentration Chloride Concentration


MF-1
MF-6
MF-10


1957*
(MG/L)
1150.
350.
1180.


1977-1978
(MG/L)
1110.
320.
1110.


27025'


H












27020'





4-.










27015'

















00
1el














f
27to


WELL SLF-17


PALM


Graphics by Judith A. Alen


I III


SR36E


+1!


R37E


+


BEACH


COUNTY



R39E


R38E


SCALE
0 1 2 3 4 MILES
I l lI


[ R40E


iIR41E


+ R42E


.B'7


% 11 ..


1-,

27030'





+


01 R40E


R41E


+ 0I


R42E


*data from Lichtler, 1960.

It is apparent that chloride concentrations of the Flori-
dan aquifer system in the UECPA have not significantly
changed in the last 20 years.

REFERENCES

Calvert, D.V., and Reitz, H.J., 1965. Salinity of Water for
Sprinkle Irrigation of Citrus, Proceedings of the Florida
State Horticultural Society, Volume 78.

Lichtler, W.F., 1960. Geology and Groundwater Resources
of Martin County, Florida, Florida Bureau of Geology,
RI No. 23.

U.S. E.P.A., 1979. National Secondary Drinking Water Regu-
lations, Federal Register, Vol. 44, No. 140, July 19,
1979.


27030'


+


27025'


+







27020'



Cl
u,


+





27005'










+




27000'


27015'


C1
C/i


2701 0'


00
CA)


+




27005'

Cl
vo


+



27000'




H
0


16
G 3931
Juvsla~; C3,


Map oerm NO. I Mate No. 6


MarS Caries MN- 1 DI.trN A-


6





Map Series No. 1 Plate No. 7


R40E -


COUNTY


A

rA


TOP OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM

PRODUCING ZONE 1 AND

ACCOMPANYING WATER QUALITY


UPPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA


Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece
Prepared By:


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT


INTRODUCTION
Throughout the Upper East Coast Planning Area
(UECPA) contributing intervals within the Floridan aquifer
system were found to be stratigraphically confined to unique
rock units with the percent water contribution to the open
borehole varying really. In the UECPA the Floridan aquifer
system consists of a number of producing zones of different
hydrologic properties separated by semi-permeable zones in
a sequence of lower Oligocene, upper and middle Eocene
limestones. The base of the Floridan aquifer system could
not be defined because the total depths of wells used for data
collection limited depth of exploration.
METHODOLOGY

Data collected in the compilation of this map include
geologic descriptions of well cuttings from nine control wells
and borehole geophysical logs from 38 wells. Twenty-two
geologic logs collected from other agencies were also exam-
ined.

Borehole geophysical surveys used to determine con-
tributing intervals in the open borehole include borehole
fluid resistivity/temperature logs collected from 24 wells and
corrected flow meter logs calculated from 17 wells. Natural
gamma ray, neutron porosity and electric logs were used to
tie the geology and stratigraphy to these intervals within the
Floridan aquifer system.

The water quality observed at the wellhead of a Floridan
well in the UECPA is a composite of the formational water
quality of the various producing zones penetrated by the open
portion of the borehole. Borehole geophysical methods were
used to determine flow and water quality in the borehole. A
mass balance technique requiring borehole flow and borehole
water quality above and below a producing zone was used to
estimate total dissolved solids (TDS) of the water in each
producing zone. Relative borehole flow at any point in the
well was calculated from the flow meter log and the caliper
log in the following manner:

Q Av
Where,
Q = flow (in relative units of cps-in2) in the borehole.
A = area (in2) of the borehole assuming circular bore-
hole conditions.
v = velocity (cps) of the borehole fluid.

Corrected flow logs were computed at constant depth
intervals of two feet. A typical caliper log, flow meter log, and
computed flow log are shown below. A best fit line is drawn
through constant flow portions of the flow log. Where a
producing zone contributes water, flow increases, reflecting
the cumulative flow of all producing zones below the point
of measurement. The relative flow contribution of each
producing zone is the ratio of the difference in flow across
the producing zone to the total flow of the well.

Fluid resistivity logs were used to estimate borehole
water quality for most wells.

Fluid resistivity is related to specific conductance by the
following equation:


C=10,000
R


Fluid resistivity data used in this study were compen-
sated for fluid temperature at 250C.

Wellhead water sample analyses from all monitoring
wells were used to calculate the following regression equation
for TDS and specific conductance:

TDS =.631xC+57.5
Where,
TDS = total dissolved solids in mg/l

A linear correlation coefficient of 0.92 was found for
TDS and specific conductance.

The following mass balance equation was used to esti-
mate TDS values for the water of each producing zone:


TDSzo, = ATDSA-QBTDSB
(QA-QB)
Where,
QA + TDSA are the borehole flow and borehole fluid
TDS value, respectively, above the producing zone.
QB + TDSB are the borehole flow and borehole fluid
TDS value, respectively, below the producing zone.

Tops and bottoms of each producing zone were defined
by geologic parameters rather than by flow measurements.
Generally, only one significant flow contribution was found
within a single producing zone of a well. All flow contribu-
tions within a single producing zone were integrated to give
a single TDS value for that producing zone. More than one
flow contribution was detected within a single producing
zone in only a few cases.


GENERAL INTERPRETATION


Top of the Floridan aquifer system (producing zone
1) is correlated with a contributing interval found within a
tan to white, sandy, fossiliferous, limestone containing silt
size phosphorite. A high intensity natural gamma kick marks
the top of this zone throughout the UECPA. The top of
producing zone 1 ranges from -350 ft. msl in northwest St.
Lucie County to -850 ft. msl in southeast Martin County.
Thickness of producing zone 1 averages approximately 50
ft. and does not exceed 100 ft.

Producing zone 1 does not significantly contribute
to flow in wells in the southern half of Martin County. Within
the UECPA, the relative flow contribution of producing zone
1 generally increases to the north. The reason for the lack
of meaningful contribution of water in the southern portion
of the county has not been determined.

The water quality distribution of producing zone 1
generally resembles that of the composite well water. A
broad zone of poor quality water extends from northwest
to southeast across the UECPA. Relatively good quality
water occurs in producing zone 1 in the western portion of
the planning area. A small area of relatively good quality
water also exists west of Fort Pierce. Calculated TDS values
of producing zone 1 range from 680 mg/l in northeastern
Okeechobee County to 2570 mg/l in north central Martin
County.


Where,
C = specific conductance in micromhos/cm
R = fluid resistivity in ohm-meters
I


OKEECHOBEE


NO O U NT Y


JUPITER
ISLAND


JONATHAN DICKINSON


STATE PARK


/


^ ,


27005'


27000'


SCALE
0 1 2 3 4 MILES
I I I I


R36E


Graphics by Judith A. Alien


+


R36E


+b
I o


R41E


R42E


+


27025'


Upper East Coast
Planning Area


C-24


+


(
*\




PORT ST.


LAKE


27020'


27005'


ST. LUCIE INLET
STATE PARK


EXPLANATION
a 40 s CONTOUR TOP OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER
PRODUCING ZONE 1. IN FEET BELOW MSL
CONTOUR INTERVAL 50'
f 350 INFERRED CONTOUR
DATA POINT GEOLOGIC
A DATA POINT GEOLOGIC/WATER QUALITY
PLANNING AREA BOUNDARY
AREA WHERE PRODUCING ZONE I CONTRIBUTES
LITTLE OR NO FLOW
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS ig/I
-| > 200soo ooo.1500
S 2000oo. 2500 1000
I I O1500.2000


N


+


27010'


PALM


BEACH


CAUPER
%E700CIA4 R CH5



s00

00 -






00-o
850- ]_

BOO-

160 -*^


R42E


G 3931
.C3
1979
.87
















TOP OF PRODUCING ZONE 2


AND ACCOMPANYING WATER QUALITY


FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM


UPPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA


Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece

Prepared By:


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT


INTRODUCTION


Throughout the Upper East Coast Planning Area
(UECPA) contributing intervals within the Floridan aquifer
system were found to be stratigraphically confined to unique
rock units with the percent water contribution to the open
borehole varying really. In the UECPA the Floridan aquifer
system consists of a number of producing zones of different
hydrologic properties separated by semi-permeable zones in
a sequence of Lower Oligocene, Upper and Middle Eocene
limestone. The base of the Floridan aquifer system could not
be defined because the total depths of wells used for data
collection limited depth of exploration.


METHODOLOGY


Data collected in the compilation of this map include
geologic descriptions of well cuttings from nine control
wells and borehole geophysical logs from 38 wells. Twenty-
two geologic logs collected from other agencies were also
examined.

Borehole geophysical surveys used to determine con-
tributing intervals in the open borehole include borehole
fluid resistivity/temperature logs collected from 24 wells
and corrected flow meter logs calculated for 17 wells. Natural
gamma ray, neutron porosity and electric logs were used
to tie the geology and stratigraphy to these intervals within
the Floridan aquifer system.

The water quality observed at the wellhead of a Floridan
well in the UECPA is a composite of the formational water
quality of the various producing zones penetrated by the open
portion of the borehole. Borehole geophysical methods
were used to determine flow and water quality in the bore-
hole. A mass balance technique requiring borehole flow and
borehole water quality above and below a producing zone
was used to estimate total dissolved solids (TDS) of the water
in each producing zone. Relative borehole flow at any point
in the well was calculated from the flow meter log and the
caliper log in the following manner:

Q=Av
Where,
Q = flow(in relative units of cps-in ) in the borehole.
A = area (in2) of the borehole assuming circular bore-
hole conditions.
v = velocity (cps) of the borehole fluid.

Corrected flow logs were computed at constant depth
intervals of two feet. A typical caliper log, flow meter log, and
computed flow log are shown below. A best fit line is drawn
through constant flow portions of the flow log. Where a
producing zone contributes water flow increases reflecting
the cumulative flow of all producing zones below the point
of measurement. The relative flow contribution of each
producing zone is the ratio of the difference in flow across
the producing zone to the total flow of the well.

Fluid resistivity logs were used to estimate borehole
water quality for most wells.

Fluid resistivity is related to specific conductance by
the following equation:
C = 10,000


Where,
C = specific conductance in micromhos/cm
R = fluid resistivity in ohm-meters


Fluid resistivity data used in this study were compen-
sated for fluid temperature at 250C.

Wellhead water sample analyses from all monitoring
wells were used to calculate the following regression equation
for TDS and specific conductance:

TDS = .631 x C + 57.5
Where,
TDS = total dissolved solids in mg/1

A linear correlation coefficient of 0.92 was found for
TDS and specific conductance.

The following mass balance equation was used to esti-
mate TDS values for the water of each producing zone:


TDSzone QATDSA-QBTDSB
(QA-OQB)
Where,
QA + TDSA are the borehole flow and borehole fluid
TDS value, respectively, above the producing zone.
QB + TDSB are the borehole flow and borehole fluid
TDS value, respectively, below the producing zone.

Tops and bottoms of each producing zone were defined
by geologic parameters rather than by flow measurements.
Generally, only one significant flow contribution was found
within a single producing zone of a well. All flow contribu-
tions within a single producing zone were integrated to give
a single TDS value for that producing zone. More than one
flow contribution was detected within a single producing
zone in only a few cases.


GENERAL INTERPRETATION


Producing zone 2 is correlated with a lithologic interface
between a white, very clean microfossiliferous limestone
above, and a less pure chalky limestone with a few fossils
below. The top of producing zone 2 ranges from -450 ft. msl
in northwest St. Lucie County to over -950 ft. msl in southeast
Martin County. Thickness of producing zone 2 averages ap-
proximately 50 ft.

Producing zone 2 does not significantly contribute to
flow in wells in the northwest corner of the planning area. The
reason for the lack of meaningful contribution of water has
not been determined. A broad zone of poor quality water
extends from northwest to southeast across the UECPA. Rela-
tively good quality water occurs in producing zone 2 in the
western portion of the planning area. A small area of relatively
good quality water also exists west of Fort Pierce. Calculated
TDS values of producing zone 2 range from 910 mg/l in
northeastern Okeechobee County to 3010 mg/l in south-
eastern Martin County.


PALM


Graphics by Judith A. Alien


R36E


R37E


BEACH


R38E


jI.IFTER
2 ;L-ND


COUNTY



R59E |


R40E


iIR41E


+ -


SCALE
0 1 2 3 4 MILES
111 1


R42E


R40E


R41E


R42E


27030


27o25'


+


27020'


27010'


CALIPER
W,%E OIAISTER l4CHEB ~k
sot

sw



an

No





as

9o0


Moo


a m 3 m


27o0 '


2700'


C3
1979

plate 9








4+ S R36E


I- .I
ItC


R37E


-all
oil
eli
-I


R38E
RIVER


R39E C
COUNTY


-a' ~aI


I R40E


I R41E


Map Series No. 1 Plate No. 9
-I


R42E


TOP OF PRODUCING ZONE 3


AND ACCOMPANYING WATER QUALITY


FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM


UPPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA
By:
Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece
Prepared By:


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

1979


INTRODUCTION


Throughout the Upper East Coast Planning Area
(UECPA) contributing intervals within the Floridan aquifer
system were found to be stratigraphically confined to unique
rock units with the percent water contribution to the open
borehole varying really. In the UECPA the Floridan aquifer
system consists of a number of producing zones of different
hydrologic properties separated by semi-permeable zones in
a sequence of Lower Oligocene, Upper and Middle Eocene
limestone. The base of the Floridan aquifer system could not
be defined because the total depths of wells used for data
collection limited depth of exploration.

METHODOLOGY

Data collected in the compilation of this map include
geologic descriptions of well cuttings from three control wells
and borehole geophysical logs from 13 wells.

Borehole geophysical surveys used to determine con-
tributing intervals in the open borehole include borehole
fluid resistivity/temperature logs and corrected flow meter
logs. Natural gamma ray, neutron porosity and electric logs
were used to tie the geology and stratigraphy to these intervals
within the Floridan aquifer system.

The water quality observed at the wellhead of a Floridan
well in the UECPA is a composite of the formational water
quality of the various producing zones penetrated by the open
portion of the borehole. Borehole geophysical methods were
used to determine flow and water quality in the borehole. A
mass balance technique requiring borehole flow and borehole
water quality above and below a producing zone was used to
estimate total dissolved solids (TDS) of the water in each
producing zone. Relative borehole flow at any point in the
well was calculated from the flow meter log and the caliper
log in the following manner:

Q=Av
Where,
Q = flow(in relative units of cps-in2) in the borehole.
A = area (in2) of the borehole assuming circular bore-
hole conditions.
v = velocity (cps) of the borehole fluid.

Corrected flow logs were computed at constant depth
intervals of two feet. A typical caliper log, flow meter log, and
computed flow log are shown below. A best fit line is drawn
through constant flow portions of the flow log. Where a
producing zone contributes water, the flow increases reflecting
the cumulative flow of all producing zones below the point
of measurement. The relative flow contribution of each
producing zone is the ratio of the difference in flow across
the producing zone to the total flow of the well.

Fluid resistivity logs were used to estimate borehole
water quality for most wells.


Fluid resistivity is related to specific conductance by the
following equation:

C = 10,000


Where,
C = specific conductance in micromhos/cm
R = fluid resistivity in ohm-meters


Fluid resistivity data used in this study were compen-
sated for fluid temperature at 250C.

Wellhead water sample analyses from all monitoring
wells were used to calculate the following regression equation
for TDS and specific conductance:

TDS= .631 x C + 57.5
Where,
TDS = total dissolved solids in mg/1

A linear correlation coefficient of 0.92 was found for
TDS and specific conductance.

The following mass balance equation was used to esti-
mate TDS values for the water of each producing zone:

TDSzone =QATDSA-QBTDSB
(QA-QB)

Where,

QA + TDSA are the borehole flow and borehole fluid
TDS value, respectively, above the producing zone.
QB +TDSB are the borehole flow and borehole fluid
TDS value, respectively, below the producing zone.

Tops and bottoms of each producing zone were defined
by geologic parameters rather than by flow measurements.
Generally, only one significant flow contribution was found
within a single producing zone of a well. All flow contribut-
tions within a single producing zone were integrated to give
a single TDS value for that producing zone. More than one
flow contribution was detected within a single producing
zone in only a few cases.

GENERAL INTERPRETATION

Producing zone 3 is correlated with thick discrete
gray to blue crystalline dolomite beds within massive lime-
stones. No attempt was made to contour either the water
quality or depth to producing zone 3, due to the lack of
control points penetrating this zone.


PALM


Graphics by Judith A. Alien


+ I R36E


R37E


BEACH



R38E | +


COUNTY



R39E


SCALE


SCALE
0 1 2 3 4 MILES
II1 II


R40E


- | R42E


I *1 "I I -I I I


.t4


27030'






+


27030'


+


27025'

rir













27020'







+









27015'

N-














27010'







+







27o05'









+





270001'
.-1







H


2702s'


+


27020'


27015'


-4
CA
....


27010'


00I








+












27001'








CA


MF-6
CAPER FLOW METER
.;E 0,0rT0 IL.CHES s,

500
/4 ird2
5 5 0 4

600



a 700-

0 750 -



850-

900 -

950 -

1000 -


=IN


I


SR41E







p


A'
OKF-2
G. R. Neut
Te
O' ml -



100' -



200' -




300' -



400



500'

iL.
600'



700' -



800' -



900 -



1000' -



1100 -



1200 -



1300' -


SLF-9


SLF-14 SLF-23


MF-10


PBF-1


GENERALIZED HYDROGEOLOGIC CROSS SECTIONS



UPPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA




By:
Michael P. Brown and Dennis E. Reece

Prepared By:

SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
1979


INTRODUCTION


The Floridan aquifer first defined by Parker includes,
"parts or all of the Middle Eocene (Ocala Limestone), Oligo-
cene (Suwannee Limestone), and Miocene (Tampa Limestone)
and permeable parts of the Hawthorn Formation that are in
hydrologic contact with the rest of the aquifer." (Parker, et
al., 1955). In the Upper East Coast Planning Area (UECPA)
(index map shown) the Floridan aquifer system consists of
a number of producing zones of different hydrologic proper-
ties separated by semi-permeable zones in a sequence of lower
Oligocene (unknown, possible Suwannee Limestone), and
Upper and Middle Eocene (Ocala Limestone and Upper Avon
Park Formation) carbonate sediments1. The base of the
Floridan aquifer system could not be defined as total depths
of wells used for data collection limited the depth of explora-
tion.

METHODOLOGY

Data used in the construction of these general hydro-
geologic sections includes geologic descriptions of well cuttings
from OKF-29, SLF-5, SLF-14, SLF-23, OKF-24, MF-3, MF-20
and PBF-1 and borehole geophysical logs from all wells shown
in the three hydrogeologic cross-sections. Geophysical logs of
37 wells and geologic logs for 30 wells collected during this
and other studies were examined and integrated into the
preparation of plates 10A and B.

Borehole geophysical surveys useful in determining
water contributing intervals in the open borehole included
borehole fluid resistivity temperature logs collected from 24
wells and corrected flow meter logs calculated for 17 wells.
Natural gamma ray, neutron porosity and electric logs served
to tie the geology and stratigraphy to contributing intervals
within the Floridan aquifer system.

GENERAL HYDROGEOLOGY

Throughout the UECPA the contributing intervals
within the Floridan aquifer system were consistently found to
be stratigraphically confined within four mapable producing
zones. Cross sections shown reflect the general regional hydro-
geologic framework from land surface through the shallow
aquifer system, the major continuing zone and the Floridan
aquifer system.

In the UECPA the shallow aquifer system consists of
white to tan and brown unconsolidated quartz sand, white to
brown sandy and shelly well cemented limestone with in-
creasing amounts of phosphorite and gray to light green clay
towards the base. The thickness of the relatively high water
yielding zone in the shallow aquifer system varies from less
than 50 ft. to more than 250 ft. The shallow aquifer system
is separated from the Floridan aquifer system by more than
300 ft. of light gray to olive green sandy, shelly, phosphatic
plastic clay.


The top of the Floridan aquifer system (producing zone
1) is correlated with a contributing interval found within
a tan sandy limestone, poorly cemented, containing silt size
phosphorite. This phosphorite may cause the high intensity
natural gamma kick observed throughout the area which
marks the top of the system. The top of producing zone 2
is found to correlate with a lithologic interface between
a white, very clean sucrosic and friable microfossiliferous
limestone above, and a less pure chalky limestone with very
few fossils below. This change in lithology is also observed
on the natural gamma ray survey with the upper rock type
having a lower radiation level than that of the lower rock
type. Producing zone 2 grades into a light gray to tan, hard,
well cemented subcrystalline limestone or dolostone. The
lower producing zones (zones 3 and 4) were found to cor-
relate with relatively thick discrete beds of gray to blue
crystalline dolomite within massive limestone beds.

1 Classification and nomenclature of geologic units con-
form to the usage of the Florida Bureau of Geology.

REFERENCES

Applin, P.L., and Applin, E.R., 1944. Regional Subsurface
Stratigraphy and Structure of Florida and Southern
Georgia. Bulletin of American Association of Petrol-
eum Geologists, Vol. 28, No. 12, Washington, D. C., pp.
1673-1753.
Chen, C.S., 1965. The Regional Lithostratigraphic Analysis
of Paleocene and Eocene Rocks of Florida. Florida
Geological Survey, Bull. 45, 105 p.

Lichtler, W.F., 1960. Geology and Groundwater Resources
of Martin County, Florida. Florida Geological Survey,
R.I., No. 23, 149 p.

Mooney, R.T., 1979. The Stratigraphy of the Floridan Aquifer
System East and Northeast of Lake Okeechobee, Florida.
Masters Thesis, Department of Geology, Florida State
University, 61 p.

Parker, G.G., Ferguson, G.E., Love, S.K., 1955. Water Re-
sources of Southeastern Florida. U.S. Geological Sur-
vey, Water-Supply Paper 1255, pp. 57-194.

Purl, H.S., and Winston, G.O., 1974. Geologic Framework
of the High Transmissivity Zones in South Florida.
Florida Bureau of Geology, Special Pub. 20, 101 p.

Stringfield, V.T., 1966. Artesian Water in Tertiary Limestone
in the Southeastern States. U.S. Geological Survey, Prof.
Paper 517,226 p.


GENERAL HYDROGEOLOGY UPPER EAST COAST PLANNING AREA


TYPICAL SUITE OF BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS


WELL SLF-14
NATURAL
RESISTIVITY 64" NORMAL GAMMA RAY NEUTRON POROSITY
Iii, ii I 3,


BOREHOLE CORRECTED
TEMPERATURE FLUID FLOW LOG
GRADIENT RESISTIVITY
1easisee 4, sts toi"
ass---- 5 t5^ -------------


(rT.ThTM8



2sad -







T- -












L p ftM=


Ia pnV by W.%** Mba


G 3931
.C3


*19


.87


Plate I1


79
7


Map Series No. 1 Plate No. 10 A

--.


APPROXIMATE GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY CHARACTERISTIC FAUNAL
THICKNESS SERIES *FORMATION GENERAL LITHOLOGY CHARACTERIZATION AQUIFER ASEM ES

Undifferentiated Unconsolidated quartz sand, Low natural gamma radiation
50 250' Plo-Pielstocene Pamlico Terrace calcareous sandstone, shell higher in phosphatic shell beds, Shalow Aquifer System
Anastasia Fm beds. high neutron porosity,
high resstivilty (freshwater)
Upper Miocene Tamiami Formation Gray sandy clay, calcareous, High natural gamma radiation, Confining Zone
phosphatic "hotspots" due to high accumu-
lations of pebble phosphate,
200' 800' high neutron porosity becoming Possible low yielding
lower at bottom of section; low secondary artesian aquifers(s)
apparent resstivity High natural
Gray to olive green plastic gamma kick at base of Miocene
Middle Miocene Hawthorn Formation clay, phosphatic, sandy, sediments
shelly.
Halimeda sp
10'--50' Oligocene? Undifferentiated White limestone, calcilutite, High natural gamma radiation
silt size phosphate particles (lower than above), increasing Top of Floridan Aquifer System
reslstlvuty Bryo oan sp.
resistivity Producing Zone 1 BIP

Extremely low natural ganimna
Ocala Limestone White limestone, blocalc iutite, radiation low neutron Ledoccl
U P P E R fossiferous foramm coquinal, porosity, apparent resstiviy (large foram.)
51 125' Upper E oen lower than the Olhgocene,
higher than the Miocene Sem,-Permble Zone

Heterostegina
Ocala Limestone White limestone (grapestone) Natural gamma radiation increases Camerina s. (small foram.)
LO WER blocalcarenre in lower Ocala. Operculinodes sp.
Producing Zone 2
Tan, light gray, brown Low natural gamma radiation,
limestone, dolomitic sub- higher in dolomite beds, low
Total thickness Upper Middle Avon Park crystalline to sucrosic neutron porosity, extremely low Semi-Permeable Zone
not penetrated Eocene Formation texture, interbedded dolo in dolomne, increase in apparent Dctyoconu Cooke
mites, crystalline, gray to resistivity extremely high in Coskinolna s_
brown dolomite.
Producing Zone (s) 3 & 4 Fibulatra sp.
in massive dolomite beds

*Classifcation and nomenclature of the geologic units conform to the usage of the Florida Bureau of Geology.


I


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