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Mineral resources of Putnam County, Florida 1989 ( FGS: Map series 128 )
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 Material Information
Title: Mineral resources of Putnam County, Florida 1989 ( FGS: Map series 128 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Map series 128 )
Physical Description: 1 map : col. ; 45 x 68 cm.
Scale: Scale [ca. 1:126,720]
Language: English
Creator: Spencer, Steven M
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1989
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Maps -- Florida -- Putnam County   ( lcsh )
Geology -- Maps -- Florida -- Putnam County   ( lcsh )
Shorelines -- Maps -- Florida -- Putnam County   ( lcsh )
Maps -- Putnam County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- 1:126,720 -- Florida -- Putnam County -- 1989   ( local )
Geology -- 1:126,720 -- Florida -- Putnam County -- 1989   ( local )
Shorelines -- 1:126,720 -- Florida -- Putnam County -- 1989   ( local )
Mines and mineral resources -- 1:126,720 -- Florida -- Putnam County -- 1989   ( local )
Mines and mineral resources -- 1:126,720 -- Putnam County (Fla.) -- 1989   ( local )
Geology -- 1:126,720 -- Florida -- Putnam County -- 1989   ( local )
Geology -- 1:126,720 -- Putnam County (Fla.) -- 1989   ( local )
Shorelines -- 1:126,720 -- Florida -- Putnam County -- 1989   ( local )
Shorelines -- 1:126,720 -- Putnam County (Fla.) -- 1989   ( local )
1:126,720 -- Putnam County (Fla.) -- 1989   ( local )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
single map   ( marcgt )
Maps   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- Florida -- Putnam County
Polygon: 29.8333333333333 x -82.0833333333333, 29.3333333333333 x -82.0833333333333, 29.3333333333333 x -81.4166666666667, 29.8333333333333 x -81.4166666666667 ( Map Coverage )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Steven M. Spencer ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: "ISSN 0085-0624."
General Note: Includes location map.
General Note: Shows township, range, and sections.
General Note: Text, 3 ancillary maps, 6 tables, and 2 cross sections on verso.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001773726
oclc - 24177606
notis - AJJ6979
System ID: UF00015041:00001

Full Text







MAP SERIES NO. 128


MINERAL RESOURCES OF


PUTNAM COUNTY, FLORIDA


BY



STEVEN M. SPENCER, P.G.#319, RONALD W. HOENSTINE

ED LANE, AND J. WILLIAM YON



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES





TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

1989



ISSN 0085-0624




PUTNAM COUNTY

INTRODUCTION

In recent years considerable attention has been focused on Florida's rapid development,
the accompanying population increase and their effect on the state's important mineral re-
sources. Frequently, this development occurred in areas underlain by known mineral
deposits, precluding extraction of the minerals. The economics associated with these
mineral resources represent substantial employment and income to the private sector as
well as taxes to county and state governments. One response to this growing conflict
between rapid growth and development of the state's mineral resources was in the form of
legislation enacted by the Florida Legislature in 1985 requiring each county to establish a
comprehensive land use plan. Additional guidelines and due dates were established by the
1986 Florida Legislature.
In response to this act and at the request of the Northeast Florida Regional Planning
Council, the Florida Geological Survey initiated a study of Putnam County's mineral re-
sources. The objective of this report is to interpret and summarize geologic data (i.e., core
and well cutting descriptions, geophysical logs, and data derived from field reconnaissance)
in a format appropriate for use by city and county planners.
A knowledge of Putnam County's mineral resources is basic and integral to the process
of initiating, developing and implementing an effective comprehensive land use plan. This
information is essential to planners and officials in their analyses of urban and rural devel-
opment in such areas as zoning, road construction and the establishment of waste disposal
sites.
Factors used in evaluating the economic value of the county's known and potential
mineral resources are varied, changing and in many instances interrelated, thus complicat-
ing an accurate assessment. The evaluation process is inherently dependent on an exten-
sive exploration program which is a necessary precursor to mining in order to determine re-
serves, content and extent of specific mineral resources. In addition, such factors as operat-
ing expenses, transportation, beneficiation, reclamation and capital costs of mining must be
included in the overall calculations.
Resource evaluation for this report is based on a number of sources including Florida
Geological Survey reports and unpublished data, field reconnaissance, state and federal
statistical data, company reports, questionnaires, and numerous discussions with mining
company personnel and state and federal officials. Additional information sources are
Bermes et al., (1963) and Scott (1979, 1988). Although detailed information on company
statistics is confidential, information of a more general nature is readily available or can be
reasonably extrapolated from existing data. The diversity of sources as well as their close
association to the various aspects of resource evaluation lends substantial confidence to the
general assessment and inferences of this report.

Metric Conversion Factors

To prevent the awkward duplication of English and metric units in this report, the following
conversion factors are provided.


MULTIPLY

feet
mies
fahrenheit


BY

0.3048
1.609
9/50C + 32


TO OBTAIN

meters
kilometers
centigrade


GEOMORPHOLOGY

The geomorphology of Putnam County is complex. In addition to the county's numerous
land forms there are a series of transitional areas separating the major geomorphic zones
and surface features present in the county (Figure 1).
Putnam County falls within the Northern proximall) and Central (mid-peninsular) physio-
graphic zones of White (1970). The former zone is characterized as a highland area that
extends from the Trail Ridge westward to the Apalachicola River Valley. The latter zone can
be described as a series of ridges and valleys trending approximately parallel to the Atlantic
Coast.
White (1970) notes that the Northern and Central Highlands are apparently remnants of a
once continuous highland altered by erosion and karst processes. The Northem Highlands
section extends into the northwest comer of Putnam County and represents an intact por-
tion of this once continuous terrain. Within these two major regions are geomorphic subdi-
visions, some of which are named for nearby towns or geographic areas (Figure 1).
The landforms associated with the Northern Highlands include the Florahome Valley, a
distinct north-south feature located near the Putnam-Clay county line (Figure 1). This fea-
ture Is situated almost entirely within Putnam County and is considered to be a large solu-
tion valley (White, 1970).
Located to the south of this valley is the Cody Escarpment, a southward-facing Pleisto-
cene shoreline named by Vernon (1951), which forms the southern boundary of the North-
ern Highlands. South of the escarpment Is the Central Valley of the Central Highlands, and
the Duval Upland, a landform which extends northward into Nassau County. South and east
of the Duval Upland is the Eastern Valley which merges with the Central Valley in western
Putnam County. The Eastern Valley is a broad flat valley which extends along much of the
eastern coast of Florida. The Mount Dora Ridge separates the Central Valley from the
Marion Upland (White, 1970). Located at the northern end of the Mount Dora Ridge is the
Kenwood Gap.
In southern Putnam County, the St. Johns River Offset, a part of the Atlantic Coastal Low-
lands, is present. White (1970) suggests that this offset is a solution cut feature Influenced
by the topographic control of water movement by relict Atlantic shoreline features.
Eastward and contiguous to the St. Johns River Offset is the Crescent City Ridge, which
White (1970) suggests Is a relict Atlantic shoreline feature and which approximately parallels
the present Atlantic coastline. This feature along with the Duval Upland, may be associated
with past high sea level stands.
A number of smaller topographic highs, induding the San Mateo Hill, Palatka Hill, Teas-
dale HUI, and the Welaka Hll are present in the county. These landforms, all of which are
part of the Atlantic Coastal Lowlands, may represent areas which were resistant to the ef-
fects of karst dissolution (White, 1970).
Based on elevation, Healy (1975) recognized six marine terraces (shorelines formed by
ancient seas) In Putnam County (Figure 2). These depositional features with their respective
elevations from highest to lowest include the Sunderland Terrace (100 to 170 feet mean sea
level (MSL)), the Wicomico Terrace (70 to 100 feet MSL), the Penholoway Terrace (42 to 70
feet MSL), the Talbot Terrace (25 to 42 feet MSL), the Pamlco Terrace (10 to 25 feet MSL),
and the Silver Bluff Terrace (0 to 10 feet MSL). Based on elevation mapping done for this
study, scattered remnants of a seventh, and higher, terrace or shoreline may exist, the
Coharie Terrace from 170 to 215 feet MSL


GEOLOGY

Putnam County Is underlain by Igneous and metamorphic basement rocks which occur at
depths greater than 3,000 feet below land surface. These rocks Include volcanic ash, tuff
and rhyoite which have been encountered In deep oil test wells. The basement rocks are
overldain by a thick section of carbonates (limestones and dolomites) measuring thousands
of feet. In turn, these rocks are overlain near the surface by a veneer of slliciclastic sedi-
ments Including quartz sands, silts, clayey sands and clays. There are few domestic water
wells in the county that are deeper than a few hundred feet because water quality decreases
with depth (Bermes et al., 1963). Thus geological Information for the deeper rocks Is scarce,
and the following discussion of formations begins with rocks of Eocene age (approximately
38 55 million years ago). The locations of cross sections used In this report are shown in
Figure 3a. Figures 3b and 3c show the stratigraphic relationships of the formations.
Miller (1986) compiled data concerning the Floridan aquifer system for all of Florida, and
many of the descriptions of deeper rocks in the county used here follow his interpretation.
Miller (1986) combined the rocks of the Lake City Limestone with those of the Avon Park
Limestone and named this composite unit the Avon Park Formation. Recent geologic
information regarding their areal extent and lithologic similarities supports this change. The
Avon Park Formation, of Middle Eocene age, consists of cream to brown pelletal limestone
and Interbedded brown to cream dolomite. The top of the Avon Park Formation varies from
about 60 feet below MSL in the southern part of the county to about 400 feet below MSL In
the north. It varies from approximately 700-feet thick In the westem part of the county to
1,100-feet thick in the east.
Rocks of Late Eocene age that overlie the Avon Park Formation throughout the county
are collectively referred to here as the Ocala Group (Puri, 1957). The lower part of the Ocala
Group is a cream to tan, granular limestone that locally may vary from a finely crystalline,
Indurated limestone or dolomite, to a coquina consisting entirely of small Foraminifera. The
upper part of the Ocala Group consists of white coquina of large, discoid Foraminifera,
Lepidocyclina sp., and fragments of echinolds, bryozoans, and mollusks, usually In a soft,
friable, chalky matrix of micriic limestone. The Ocala Group is a primary unit of the Flori-
dan aquifer system and Is the principal source of potable water In Putnam County (Bermes
et al., 1963). The top of the Ocala Group varies from about 25 feet below MSL in the south-
ern part of the county to more than 200 feet in the northern part. From south-to-north, it
thickens from approximately 50 feet to over 150 feet (Bermes at al., 1963).
Sediments of Oligocene age do not occur in Putnam County (Miller, 1986). Although
once present, these sediments have been eroded. Sediments of Miocene age belonging to
the Hawthorn Group unconformably overdlie the Ocala Group throughout most of the county.
Hawthorn sediments are missing in the southeastern part of the county, as a result of either
erosion or nondeposition (Scott, 1988b). Based on cores, Scott (1988) subdivided the
Hawthorn Group In Putnam County into three formations, from older to younger: the
Penney Farms Formation, the Marks Head Formation, and the Coosawhatchie Formation.
However, the highly variable nature of the Hawthorn sediments In this area makes Identifica-
tion of the individual units difficult using well cuttings. Scott (1988b) recommended that
these sediments be referred to as Hawthorn Group undifferentiated. That designation Is
followed In this report. The Hawthorn Group (undfferentiated) consists of complexly inter-
bedded slllciclastics (sands, silts, clays) and carbonates (limestones and dolomites), with
ubiquitous phosphatic sand sometimes making up as much as 50 percent of the sediments
(Scott, 1988b). The gray and green colors of the Hawthorn sediments are distinctively dif-
ferent from those of the formations that underlie and overlie the Hawthorn Group. Some
units are sparsely fossiliferous, containing mollusks, shark teeth, diatoms, or foraminifera.
The top of the Hawthorn Group dips gently from west-to-east, from about 75 feet above
MSL at the western county line to about 120 feet below MSL in the eastern part of the
county (Scott, 1988). Hawthorn sediments thicken south-to-north, from zero thickness in
the southeastern corner of the county to over 150-feet thick along the northern county line
(Scott, 1988). In most of eastern Putnam County the Hawthorn Group is overlain by Inter-
bedded lenses of marine, fine to medium sand, shell, and calcareous, silty clay. They may
be Late Miocene or Pliocene in age (Bermes et al., 1963). In extreme southeastern Putnam
County, where the Hawthom Group is absent, these units overlie the Ocala (Scott, 1988b).
in western Putnam County the sediments overlying the Hawthorn are yellow to red,
nonmarine beds of coarse, poorly sorted sand, clay and sandy clay (Bermes at al., 1963).
These siliciclastics, formerly included in the Citronelle Formation of possible Pliocene age by
Cooke (1945), have recently been included in the Cypresshead Formation (Scott, 1988a).
Cypresshead Formation sediments are exposed in various borrow pits, with an excellent
example in the county borrow pit near Grandin. These units are classified as undifferentiat-
ed sand and clay on Figures 3b and 3c.
Various thicknesses of Pleistocene/Holocene quartz sands, silts, clayey sands, and clays
have been deposited, weathered, and reworked during the past 10,000 years since the end
of the Pleistocene Epoch (the Ice Ages). In places, they reach thicknesses of approximately
150 feet (Figures 3b and 3c). Deposits of peat and organic-rich sediments occur in Flora-
home Valley, along the St. Johns River floodplain, and near lakes or other perennially wet
areas (Mineral Resource Map). These units are included with the undifferentiated sand and
clay on Figures 3b and 3c.
MINERAL RESOURCES

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of the following discussion Is to provide information on the occurrence of
economic mineral resources in Putnam County, to describe the types of tests performed
and the results of analyses of samples collected. The Information presented is not intended
to be an exhaustive investigation leading to immediate industrial development, because In
many cases the data represent information on a single location, pit, or mine. However,
where favorable, the data may indicate that certain areas might warrant further investigation.
Occasional variations between the geologic cross sections and the Mineral Resource Map,
may occur. The Mineral Resource Map is designed to present an overview of the major
mineral commodities in an area. Factors such as thickness of overburden, quality and
quantity of the deposit could affect the mining of the mineral commodity at any specific site.
In contrast, geologic cross sections are extrapolated from cores and/or well cuttings to
show the distribution and thickness of surface and near-surface stratigraphic units. The
commodities discussed are clay, sand, peat and heavy minerals.

Clay

The U.S. Bureau of Minesclassies clay into six categories: kaolin, bentonite, ball clay,
fullers earth, and common clay (Amplan, 1985). Two of these days, kaolin and common
clay, are or have been mined in Putnam County (Caiver, 1949). Kaolin Is mined near Edgar
(section 25, Township 10S, Range 23E) by The Feldsper Corporation. Located along the
southernmost extension of the Northern Highlands geomorphic province, the kaolin is
mined from the lower portion of the Cypresshead Formation. The thickest sequence of
kaolinitic sand which occurs in the Edgar mining district measures, from the bottom to
surface, 20 to 45 feet of white, clayey (kaolin) sand. This, in turn, is overlain by 10 feet of
red to reddish-orange clayey sands, then overlain by yellowish unconsolidated sands typi-
cally ranging In thickness up to 10-feet (Pridrke, 1960).
The Feldspar Corporation operates a 25-acre mine site near Edgar (C. DesRosier, per-
sonal communication, 1988). Mine operators recovering kaolinitic sand to a depth of 35 feet
below land surface are mining 3 to 5 acres per year. The mine operation utilizes a floating
hydraulic dredge system which pumps sediment into a series of classifiers. This step
removes send and other undesirable materials from the clay. The clay and water mixture is
thickened by dewatering and drying. The clay may be further dried and classified prior to
bagging.
Mine operators, In 1988, report that reserves are sufficient to last well beyond the year
2,000. Shipping Is by rail and truck to domestic markets in the United States. Additionally,
Florida kaolin Is shipped to foreign markets.

Typical uses of kaolin from Putnam County Include ceramic tile, electrical Insulators,
plumbing fixtures, dinnerware and appliances. The varied uses, ample reserves, and good
quality of Putnam County's kaolin suggest that future economic activity for this commodity
Is favorable. Analyses of some samples of Edgar kaolin are listed In Table 1 as follows:

TabletI
Analyses of Blocks of Kaolin and Properties of the Kaollnite
(From Pirkle 1960)

Model Estimates from
X-ray Analysis (aoorox.) Physical Prooerties
Kaolin 75-85% Type: Kaolin
Quartz 6-8% pH: 6.5
Hydrous mica 5-8% Unflred color: off-white
Iron hydroxides 2-3% Unfired strength: high
Less than 1% montmorillonite
Very plastic and smooth working requiring 44% water for
plasticity with 6.5% drying shrinkage, no defects.
Fire Tests:

Percent Percent App.
Temp., Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Specific
F Gravity
1,800 Slight Ivory Soft/Crumbly 6.6 37.6 2.56
2,000 White Soft/Crumbly 6.5 37.0 2.72
2,100 White Soft/Crumbly 7.0 36.1 2.72
2,200 White Soft/Crumbly 9.5 34.1 2.71
2,300 White Soft/Crumbly 10.0 30.0 2.75
2,400 White Soft/Crumbly 14.5 25.5 2.75


Surface checking indicating fineness of grain. Pyrometric cone
equivalent approximately Cone 36 (290F).


In the extensive flood-plain region of the St. Johns River in eastern Putnam County, Bell
(1924) reported on clay deposits suitable for commercial purposes. Bell (1924) reported
that the thickness of the clay varied from 12 feet with one foot of overburden for two
localities in the Rice Creek area just northwest of Palatka, to 12 to 20-feet thick near
Springslde. Other localities where clay was reported to be suitable for commercial
applications Include the region between Crescent Lake and Lake George. Bell (1924)
reports that common brick, face brick, hollow brick, fire-proofing and drain tile were the
primary products of these flood-plain clay deposits. The physical properties of the Rice
Creek and Springside clay samples are given In Tables 2,3 and 4 and shown on the Mineral
Resources Map as PU-5, PU-6 and PU-7 respectively. These deposits occur in an area
designated on the Mineral Resources Map as undifferentiated resources. In order to prove
that these sites would be economic once again a more extensive Investigation will be
required.
Table 2
Physical Properties of Rice Creek Station Clay (Inactive Utica
Brick and Tie Co., section 33, Township 9S, Range 26E)
(From Bell. 19241

Plasticity, judged by feel ..........................................Excellent.
W ater of plasticity............................ .... ................. 24.2 %
Pore wa ter......................................................... ........ 0.5 %
Shrinkage water...................................................... 23.7 %
Near air shrinkage......................................................... 7.7%
Volume air shrinkage.......................................... .....30.5%
Modulus of rupture, average... 776.3 pounds per square Inch.
Slaking test..................................................................... 6 hours.

Fire Tests:


Temp. Unear Sheer Absorption Porosity
OF Per cant Per cent Per cent


Color

Brick red.
Brick red.
Brick red.
Brick red.
Brick red.
Brick red.
Brick red.
Brick red.


Table 3
Physical Properties of Herman Brown Clay, Rice Creek
(section 16, Toanship 9S, Range 26E)


Plasticity, judged by feel .........................................Excellent.
W ater of plasticity ...........................................................22.3%
P ore w ater ..........................................................................1 .3 %
Shrinkag e w ater................................................. .......20.9 %
Unear air shrinkage ................................................ 10.0 %
Volume air shrinkage...... ... ..................... .......... 26.5 %
Modulus of rupture, average 546.2 pounds per square Inch.
Slaking test............................................................ 3 hours.

Fire Tests:


Temp. Near Sheer Absorption
OF Per cent Per cent


Porosity
Per cent


Color


1742 0.5 13.1 36.5 Brick red.
1922 1.0 13.1 36.2 Brick red.
2102 2.0 13.2 34.2 Brick red.
2174 2.6 11.1 31.7 Brick red.
2246 2.1 11.8 28.7 Brick red.
2390 3.0 12.3 30.7 Brick red.

Table 4
Physical Proplrties of Springside Clay
(section 29, Township 9S, Range 26E)


Plasticity, judged by feel ................................................................. Excellent.
W ater of plasticity................................................ ............................... 25.1 %
Near air shrinkage.............................................. .............................. 11.1 %
Volume air shrinkage ............................................. ........................... 28.6 %
Modulus of rupture, average.......................791.4 pounds per square Inch.
Sla king test................................................................................................1 hou r.
Overfires at cone 12.

Fire Tests:


Temp. Near Sheer Absorptkin Porosity
o Par eant Paer cant Per cant


0.1 12.6 29.7
0.9 13.7 31.0
0.6 12.3 29.4
1.4 11.5 29.8
1.4 10.4 25.8
1.4 8.7 17.5


Color


Brick red.
Brick red.
Brick red.
Brick red.
Brick red.
Brick red.


Calver (1949) tested clay sediments in Putnam County. These analyses are shown In
Tables 5 and 6 and shown on the Mineral Resources Map as PU-8 and PU-9 respectively.
Table 5
Physical Properties of Orange MIls Clay
(section 24, Township 9S, Range 27E)
(From Calver. 1949)

Plasticity, judged by feel.................................................. .................................Fair
Water of plasticity.............................................................................. 38.0 %
Unear air shrinkage....................................................................................10.5 %
Modulus of rupture, average.............................. 470.0 pounds per square inch.
Slaking test ................................................................................................... Fast


Fire Tests:


Temp. Near Sheer Absorption Porosity
OF Per acnt Per ant Per ant


Color


1742 0.5 15.4 34.8 t. Bk.red.
1922 1.0 13.6 33.4 Lt. Bk. red.
2102 2.0 12.2 34.0 Lt. Bk. red.
2174 2.0 11.7 31.1 Lt. Bk. red.
2246 1.5 11.1 31.7 Brick red.
2390 2.5 11.3 31.3 Brickred.

Table 6
Physical Properties of Hopkins Point
(section 8, Township 13S. Range 28E)
(From Calver. 1949)

Plasticity, judged by feel............................................................................... Good
Water of plastlclty .........................................................................................32.0 %
Near air shrinkage ........................................................................................9.0 %
Modulus of rupture, average .............................470.0 pounds per square Inch.
Slaking test........................................................................................................ ..
Color................................................................................................Yellowish gray


Fire Tests:


Temp. Near Sheer Absorption Porosity
.;n Perncatee Perncant Pernnant


Color


1742 1.0 10.9 28.0 Reddish Orange
1922 1.5 9.4 26.1 Reddish Orange
2102 2.5 6.8 23.2 Brick red.
2174 2.0 7.4 24.4 Brick red.
2246 1.5 6.9 23.8 Brick red.
2390 2.5 7.9 23.9 Brick red.


Sand covers all of Putnam County. However, this sand is not always adequate for
industrial use. The Florida Department of Transportation Road and Bridge Construction
manual (1986) dictates specific criteria for construction purposes.
The largest reserves of commercial quality quartz sand come from thick deposits found
along the western side of Putnam County (Mineral Resource Map). At present, sand from
this unit is mined by Florida Rock Industries, Inc. (Keuka Mine) In section 29, Township 10S,
Range 24E and by the Feldspar Corporation in section 25, Township 10S, Range 23E.
Additionally, the Putnam County road department operates borrow pits in the western por-
tion of the county near Intedachen and Grandin. Sand from these locations is used for road
construction. South and east of Crescent City a few local operators use available surface
sand for fill material.
Quartz sand mining utilizes both dry and wet mining methods. A barge mounted pump Is
used to mine sand in flooded areas. Draglines are used in areas where the sand is not
below the water surface (Campbell, 1986). Typically, the sand is pumped in slurry to classi-
fiers where size fractions are separated. The fine fraction Is pumped Into settling areas while
the more desirable coarse fractions are loaded or stockpiled (Scott at al., 1980).
During the course of this study, sand samples were collected and analyzed for grain size
distribution. The following methodology was used. Sand samples were repeatedly put
through a riffle splitter until a 100 gram sample was obtained. The samples were then treat-
ed to remove organic and clay materials, then wet sieved before drying. The sand samples
were then rotapped using U. S. standard testing sieves. The final step included weighing
and recording the results.
Test result data (Table 7) represent one set of samples. Information derived from this
table may aid the reader In determining the general usefulness of a particular sand deposit.
Test results indicate most samples are suitable for brick masonry, concrete, sand-cement
riprap, sand-asphalt hot mix, and as a sand seal coat according to the Florida Department of
Transportation Road and Bridge Construction manual (1986). No tests were performed to
determine the suitability.of sands for the manufacturing of glass. The widespread occur-
rence of Impurities (heavy minerals, Iron oxides) typically preclude Its use for glass
products. However, beneficlation technology may alleviate some of the potential problems
and enable its use In the production of glass products.
The Florida General Soils Atlas (Kolb, 1974) states that sand suitable for construction may
be obtained from the Astatula, Candler-Apopka, and Tavares-Myakka-Basinger Soil Associa-
tions. The Atlas further notes that many of Putnam County's soil associations are rated
good as roadfill material. Exceptions to this include the flood-plain regions of the St. Johns
River and the northwest portions of the county where substantial peat deposits occur. It
should be noted that the soil scientists examine a maximum of 80 Inches (from depth to
ground surface) to determine the various soil ratings.

Heavy Minerals

Heavy minerals can be found in most of Florida's sand sediments. However, at the
present time mining of heavy minerals Is restricted to localities on the Trail Ridge and south
of Green Cove Springs in Clay County. As part of a regional study on heavy minerals in
Florida, the U. S. Bureau of Mines investigated the occurrence of this commodity in Putnam
County. Several drill holes were made in the Interlachen area along State Road 20 and on
State Road 100 from Carraway In the east, west through Grandin and Into Clay County.
Results of the study were published in Thoenen and Warne (1944). The heavy mineral
contents typically ranged from less than one percent to about two percent. The low content
of heavy minerals In Putnam County sediments, based on research by Thoene and Wame
(1944), and compared to similar deposits mined in Clay County, precludes them from future
economic development.

Peat

Peat represents the partly decomposed remains of plant material. It accumulates in
waterlogged areas in which the pH is generally low. These conditions allow the
accumulation of plant material to exceed the rate at which it is decomposed by organisms.
Waterlogged surface conditions occur when topographic relief Is low and topographic
barriers exist which restrict the flow of water and allow it to pond (Bond et al., 1986).
Peat is mined from the Florahome area of Putnam County by Traxier Peat, Inc. (multiple
sections of Township 9S, Range 24E) and R&R Peat Farms, Inc. (section 5 of Township 9S,
Range 24E). To prepare an area for mining, dewatering and clearing of surface vegetation
must take place. The peat is then removed by draglines or bulldozers and stockpiled to dry.
Lastly, the peat may be shredded and additives mixed In to consumers specifications. Uke
most peat in Florida, it is primarily utilized for agricultural and horticultural applications.

Undifferentiated Resources

Much of the surface and near-surface sediments of Putnam County are comprised of
clayey sands, and lesser deposits of organic muck. The hetrogeneous nature of these
sediments In the county would tend to preclude there large scale economic marketability.
Locally however, where costs are not prohibitive and the need is present for uses such as
top soil or road fill, extraction Is feasible.
The possibility does exist that a future comprehensive investigation of these undifferenti-
ated sediments may lead to economic or Industrial applications.

REFERENCES

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1987, Annual book of ASTM standards, section
4, v. 4.02 Concrete and Mineral Aggregates: ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, 997 p.
Amplan, S. G.. 1985, Clays, Jn Mineral facts and problems: U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin
675, p. 157-169.
Bates, R. L, and Jackson, J. A., editors, 1980, Glossary of geology (second edition): Falls
Church, Virginia, American Geological Institute, 751 p.
Bell, G., 1924, A preliminary report of clays of da: oridaFlorida Geological Survey
Fifteenth Annual Report, 266 p.
Bermes, B. J., Leve, G. W., and Tarver, G. R., 1963, Geology and ground-water resources of
Flagler, Putnam, and St. Johns Counties, Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of
Investigation 32,97 p.
Bond, P. A., Campbell, K. M., and Scott, T. M., 1986, An overview of peat in Florida and
related issues: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 27,151 p.
Calver, J. L, 1949, Florida kaolins and clays: Florida Geological Survey Information Circular
2, 59 p.
Campbell, K. M., 1986, The industrial minerals of Florida: Florida Geological Survey
Information Circular 102, 94 p.
Cooke, C. W., 1945, Geology of Floride: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 29, 339 p.
Florida Department of Transportation, 1984, Manual of Florida sampling and testing
methods, sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates: FDOT, designation FM 1 -T 027, 6
p.
Florida Department of Transportation, 1986, Standard specifications for road and bridge
construction: Tallahassee, Florida, 786 p.
Healy, H. G., 1975, Terraces and shorelines of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Map
Series 71, scale 1:2,000,000.
Kolb, W. 0., (coordinator) 1974, The Florida general soils atlas with interpretation for
regional planning districts III & IV: Tallahassee, Florida, Florida Department of
Administration, Division of State Planning, Bureau of Comprehensive Planning, 44 p.
Miller, J. A., 1986, Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system In Florida and in
parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina: U. S. Geological Survey Professional
Paper 1403-B, 91 p.
Pirlde, E. C., 1960, Kaolintic sediments in peninsular Florda and origin of the kaolin,
Economic Geology: v. 55, p. 1382-1405.
Purid, H. S., 1957, Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida Geological Survey
Bulletin 38, 248 p.
Scott, T. M., 1979, Environmental geology series, Daytona Beach sheet: Florida Bureau of
Geology Map Series 93, scale 1:250,000.
Scott, T. M., Hoenstlne, R. W., Knapp, M. S., Lane, E., Ogden, G. M., Jr., Deuerling R., and
Neel. H. E., 1980, The send and gravel resources of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology
Report of Investigation 90, 41 p.
Scott, T. M., 1988a,. The Cypresshead Formation in northern peninsular Florida: ID Pirkle, E.
C. and Reynolds, J. G. (eds.), Southeastern Geological Society Annual Fieldtrip
Guidebook, February 19 & 20,1988.,76 p.
Scott, T. M., 1988b, The Iithostratlgraphy of the Hawthorn Group (Miocene) of Florida:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 59,148 p.
Thoenen, J. R., and Warne, J. D., 1944, Titanium minerals In central and northeastern
Florida: U. S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 4515, 62 p.
Vemon, R. 0., 1951, Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geological
Survey Bulletin 33, 256 p.
White, W. A., 1970, The geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula: Florida Geological Survey
Bulletin 51,164 p.


The well and quarry system used in this report uses
the rectangular system of section, township and
range for identification. The well or outcrop number
consists of six parts W for well r L for quarry.
county abreviation. the Township. Range. and
Section, and the quarter/quarter location
within the section.


N NORTHERN HIGHLAI










.ENWOO0 GAP a



FIGURE 1

GEOMORPHOLOGY

(modified from White, 1970)


-. Iarc...-a. a, .I. t.aa,0.,ray n .- .".,,ar '.U. --



A A*
FEET/METERS WPu-9S-23E-1sbb WPu- xS-24E-3bb WPu-10S-27E-41
200- 60




uso
loo 40 oo23 LA o se



-15o TO 226U El etIE
-soo -20 j
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION IS APPROXIMATELY 210 TIMES. TD 252


FIGURE 3b

CROSS SECTION A-A'


SCALE FOR FIGURES 3b and 3c


EXPLANATION
NORTHERN HIGHLANDS

j] FLORAHOME VALLEY
CENTRAL HIGHLANDS
S MARION UPLAND

D MOUNT DORA RIDGE

[-- CENTRAL VALLEY
ATLANTIC COASTAL LOWLANDS
E CRESCENT CITY RIDGE
WELAKA HILL

D EASTERN VALLEY
PALATKA HILL
SAN MATEO HILL
DUVAL UPLAND

TEASDALE HILL

ST. JOHNS RIVER OFFSET


0 4 MILES

0 6 KILOMETERS

SCALE
FOR FIGURES 1,2,and 3a



EXPLANATION

170-215" COHARIE TERRACE

100 -170' SUNDERLAND TERRACE (COOKE, 1939)/
OKEFENOKEE TERRACE (MACNEIL. 1950)
S70'-100' WICOMICO TERRACE

S42'-70' PENHOLOWAY TERRACE

] 25'-42' TALBOT TERRACE

j 10'-25' PAMLICO TERRACE

W 0-10' SILVER BLUFF TERRACE


00 -oW-1435


w-14376





-* _7 W-14353 1
RODMAN RESERVOIR

I



EXPLANATION
WELL LOCATION > W-43
O CORE LOCATION


FIGURE 3a c

CROSS SECTION LOCATION




B B
WPu-eS-26E-10d WPu-9S-2S E-32dd WPu-10S-27E-41 WPu-11S-26E-27d WPu-13S-2aE-7ca

10 ST. JOHNS WPu-S-27E-26C c S. JOHNS RIVER
.00 2 RIVERVW14477

o.so 0MSL -s c- -Ms

TO TD2 T112S O- Ta-TED





-250 1
TO 237 T O 252


VERTrICAL EXAGGERATION IS APPROXIMATELY 210 TIMES.


FIGURE 3c

CROSS SECTION B-B'


Ilrr. YnnS- No. .... .....rlP


I V I ~ .... .. ... ?_ __ .. ..


Pu-lb sK 7'
195. Rn


1.021A.WS s32 1W0.00 1." .