<%BANNER%>

UFMAP UFSPEC DLOC PALMM



Mineral resources of Alachua County, Florida ( FGS: Map series 131 )
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS MAP IT! MAP IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015039/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mineral resources of Alachua County, Florida ( FGS: Map series 131 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Map series 131 )
Physical Description: 1 map : col. ; 49 x 68 cm.
Scale: Scale [ca. 1:126,720]
Language: English
Creator: Hoenstine, Ronald W
Lane, Ed ( Edward ), 1935-
Spencer, Steven M
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Maps -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Geology -- Maps -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Maps -- Alachua County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- 1:126,720 -- Florida -- Alachua County -- 1990   ( local )
Geology -- 1:126,720 -- Florida -- Alachua County -- 1990   ( local )
Mines and mineral resources -- 1:126,720 -- Alachua County (Fla.) -- 1990   ( local )
Mines and mineral resources -- 1:126,720 -- Florida -- Alachua County -- 1990   ( local )
1:126,720 -- Alachua County (Fla.) -- 1990   ( local )
1:126,720 -- Florida, Counties (Alachua County) -- 1990   ( local )
Geology -- 1:126,720 -- Florida -- Alachua County -- 1990   ( local )
Geology -- 1:126,720 -- Alachua County (Fla.) -- 1990   ( local )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
single map   ( marcgt )
Maps   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- Florida -- Alachua County
Polygon: 29.9166666666667 x -82.6666666666667, 29.4166666666667 x -82.6666666666667, 29.4166666666667 x -82, 29.9166666666667 x -82 ( Map Coverage )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Ronald W. Hoenstine, Steven M. Spencer and Ed Lane.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: "ISSN 0085-0624."
General Note: Includes location map.
General Note: Text, 3 ancillary maps, and 2 cross sections on verso.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001745772
oclc - 24182380
notis - AJF8557
System ID: UF00015039:00001

Full Text





GEOLOGY Sand


MAP SERIES NO. 131

MINERAL RESOURCES OF

ALACHUA COUNTY, FLORIDA

BY



RONALD W. HOENSTINE, P.G.#57, STEVEN M. SPENCER

AND

ED LANE



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES




TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

1990

ISSN 0085-0624


ALACHUA COUNTY

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on Florida's rapid development,
the accompanying population increase, and their effect on the state's important mineral
resources. Frequently, this development occurred in areas underlain by known mineral
deposits, precluding extraction of the minerals. The economics associated with these
mineral resources represent substantial employment and income to the private sector as
well as taxes to county and state governments. One response to this growing conflict
between rapid growth and development of the state's mineral resources was in the form of
legislation enacted by the Florida Legislature in 1985 requiring each county to establish a
comprehensive land use plan. Additional guidelines and due dates were established by the
1986 Florida Legislature.
In response to this act and at the request of the Alachua County Department of Planning
and Development, the Florida Geological Survey initiated this compilation of Alachua
County's mineral resources. The objective of this report is to interpret and summarize
geologic data (i.e., core and well cutting descriptions, geophysical logs, and data derived
from field reconnaissance) in a format appropriate for use by city and county planners.
A knowledge of Alachua County's mineral resources is basic and integral to the process
of initiating, developing, and implementing an effective comprehensive land use plan. This
information is essential to planners and officials in their analyses of urban and rural
development in such areas as zoning, road construction and the establishment of waste
disposal sites.
Factors used in evaluating the economic value of the county's known and potential
mineral resources are varied, changing and in many instances interrelated, thus
complicating an accurate assessment. The evaluation process is inherently dependent on
an extensive exploration program, which is a necessary precursor to mining in order to
determine reserves, content and extent of specific mineral resources. In addition, such
factors as operating expenses, transportation, beneficiation, reclamation, and capital costs
of mining must be included in the overall calculations.
Resource evaluation for this report is based on a number of sources including Florida
Geological Survey reports and unpublished data, field reconnaissance, state and federal
statistical data, company reports, questionnaires, and discussions with mining company
personnel and state and federal officials. Although detailed information on company
statistics is confidential, information of a more general nature is readily available or can be
reasonably extrapolated from existing data. The diversity of sources as well as their close
association with the various aspects of resource evaluation lends substantial confidence to
the general assessments and inferences of this report.


Metric Conversion Factors

In order to prevent the duplication of English and metric units in this report the following
conversion factors are provided.


MULTIPLY
feet
miles
tons


BY
0.3048
1.609
907.18


TO OBTAIN
meters
kilometers
kilograms


GEOMORPHOLOGY

Alachua County falls within the Northern (Proximal) and Central (Mid-peninsular) Zones of
White (1970). The line separating these major geomorphic regions approximates a line
passing through the cities of St. Augustine, Palatka, Hawthorne, and Gainesville. Figure 1 is
a geomorphic map of Alachua County.
The northern geomorphic zone extends across the northern portion of Florida. Within this
zone is the Northern Highlands, a major geomorphic feature characterized by broad rolling
uplands, which extends across the northern part of the state of Florida from Trail Ridge on
the east to the state of Alabama on the west. In Alachua County, the Northern Highlands
encompasses the north-central and northeastern parts of the county., t is boundedpto the
south by the Cody Scarp, a prominent escarpment named and described by Purl and
Vernon (1964) as the most persistent topographic break in Florida.
The trend of the Cody Scarp in Alachua County is very irregular and difficult to observe. It
is present in the northwestern part of the county extending southward to an area just west of
Gainesville then eastward in a sin uous path into neighboring Putnam County (Figure 1).
The Cody Scarp forms a boundary separating the Northern Highlands from the Central
Highlands. White (1970) describes the Central Highlands the Central Highlands as a region containing a number
of elevated areas which rise above surrounding general uplands of considerably less
elevation.
The Central Highlands enclose large lowland features including the Central Valley and the
Western Valley. The Central and Western Valleys are elongate features oriented parallel with
the length of the peninsula. The Central Valley originates in southeastern Alachua County
and extends southward through neighboring Marion County, terminatinating in Lake and
Orange Counties. The Western Valley is present in the western and southern parts of the
county and extends southward into Hillsborough County.
White (1970) identified two smaller features the High Springs Gap and the Alachua Lake
Cross Valley as being present in Alachua County. The High Springs Gap, the more northerly
feature, is described as an opening in the western valley wall of the Western Valley providing
drainage to the Gulf Coastal Lowlands. The Santa e River flows through this area merging
with the Suwannee Rivero o the northwest at the intersection of Lafayette, Gilchrist and
Suwannee Counties. In a similar manner the Alachua Lake Cross Valley serves as a gap
joining the Western and Central Valleys in southern Alachua County. This broad valley once
contained Alachua Lake, a shallow lake which drained abruptly into a sinkhole in the late
1800's. Paynes Prairie occupies the basin of this former lake.
The northern section of the Brooksville Ridge is present in extreme southwestern Alachua
County. This highland feature, a subdivision of the Central Highlands, is a large, linear high
extending 110 miles from eastern Gilchrist County southeastward into southern Pasco
County. Extremely variable in elevation, the Brooksville Ridge attains a height of
approximately 135 feet above mean sea level (MSL) in Alachua County. The sediments
making up the Brooksville Ridge include sand, clayey sand, and sandy clay which overlie
limestone and dolomite.
A small section of the Fairfield Hills is present in the southern part of the county near the
town of Micanopy. This geomorphic subzone of the Central Highlands is a north-south
trending topographic high that separates the Western Valley from the Central Valley in
Alachua County.
Several relict marine terraces are superimposed on the surface topography of Alachua
County (Figure 2). These plains, generally considered depositional features, were formed
by higher sea stands during the Pleistocene Epoch. Healy (1975) recognized three terraces
in the county based on elevation. These terraces, from highest to lowest, include the
Coharie Terrace (170 to 215 feet MSL), the Sundedand/Okefenokee Terrace (100 to 170 feet
MSL), and the Wicomico Terrace (70 to 100 feet MSL) and are shown in Figure 2.


The following discussion of geology is primarily compiled from Puri and Vernon (1964),
Williams et al. (1977), and Knapp (1978). Figure 3a is a map showing the locations of the
north-south and east-west geologic cross sections used in this report (Figures 3b and 3c).
Alachua County Is underlain by Paleozoic basement rocks consisting of quartzitic sand-
stone, shale and quartzite (Barnett, 1975). For example, an oil test well in northeast Alachua
County (W-12226, section 34, Township 8S, Range 21E) penetrated Ordovician quartzite at
a depth of 3,204 feet below MSL (Barnett, 1975). In this oil test well, basement rocks are
overlain by sequences of Cenozoic and Mesozoic Erathem carbonates (limestone and
dolomite) measuring thousands of feet in thickness. Overlying these carbonates in the near-
surface are deposits of fine to medium grain quartz sand, clayey sand, sandy clay, silt,
limestone and organic-rich (peat) sediments.
The oldest rocks cropping out in Alachua County are the Ocala Group limestones. These
carbonate rocks, referred to in the cross sections (Figures 3b and 3c) as Ocala Group undif-
ferentiated, form the upper portion of the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County. The
lithology of the Ocala Group ranges from white to tan to brown, recrystallized limestone to a
very fine grained, chalky, porous, cream colored, fossiliferous limestone. Deposited during
the Eocene Epoch, these sedimentary rocks are present in the near-surface throughout the
county. The Ocala Group, which has an approximate average thickness of 150 feet in
Alachua County, crops out over a wide area in the western portion of the county. Excellent
exposures occur in numerous limestone quarries and pits such as the area several miles
north of the city of Newberry. Here, a number of quarries are present in a relatively small
area.
The Suwannee Limestone overlies the Ocala Group in very limited localized areas of
northwestern and western Alachua County. Occurrences are sporadic in these areas as
erosion has removed much of these Oligocene age deposits. Its lithology ranges from an
indurated, cream to yellow, chalky limestone over most of the area of occurrence to silicified
boulders in the immediate area around High Springs. Although this formation is highly
variable in thickness, approximately 21 feet of Suwannee Limestone was observed in the
cuttings in Florida Geological Survey well W-324 (section 14, Township 9S, Range 19E).
The Miocene Hawthorn Group unconformably overlies the Ocala Group, except in limited
areas where the Suwannee Limestone is present, in which case it unconformably overlies
the Suwannee Limestone. In Alachua County, the Hawthorn Group consists of three forma-
tions. These are from oldest to youngest: the Penney Farms Formation, the Marks Head
Formation and the Coosawhatchie Formation. The highly variable nature of the Hawthorn
sediments in this area makes identification of the individual units difficult using well cuttings.
These sediments are referred to in the cross sections as Hawthorn Group undifferentiated
(Figures 3b and 3c). The Hawthorn Group is present throughout most of Alachua County,
except in the extreme western portion of the county, where it is absent due to erosion.
Exposures can be observed in the vicinity of the Santa Fe River. It is present in a number of
sinkholes including one located several miles northeast of High Springs (section 19.
Township 7S, Range 18E).
These si:ciclastic sediments have a diverse lithology consisting of phosphatic,
interbedded sand, clayey sand, sandy clay, limestone and dolomite. The Hawthorn Group
ranges in thickness from zero in western Alachua County to approximately 150 feet in
northeastern Alachua County.
A number of exposures can be observed in the old hard-rock mines in the vicinity of
Newberry. Although extremely variable in thickness, these sediments attain a maximum
observed thickness of approximately 50 feet in several of the abandoned phosphate
quarries located several miles to the northwest of Newberry (Mineral Resources Map).
The Cypresshead Formation is present along the eastern edge of Alachua County
bordering Putnam County and in the southwestern corner of Alachua County where it forms
part of the Brooksville Ridge (Scott, 1988b). The lithology of this Plio-Pleistocene age unit
varies from a red to reddish-orange, clayey to gravelly sand. This lithology is similar to the
Citronelle Formation that occurs to the west in the Florida panhandle. The Cypresshead
Formation is underlain by the Ocala Group and the Hawthorn Group in eastern Alachua
County, and is overlain by undifferentiated sand and clay.
The majority of Alachua County Is blanketed by a veneer of Pleistocene and Holocene
sands and clays referred to as "Undifferentiated Sands and Clays." Associated with past sea
level stands and lacustrine deposits, which once covered Alachua County, these sediments
consist of fine to medium grain sand, silt and clay. In central and eastern Alachua County,
this unit unconformably overlies the Hawthorn Group. These sediments vary in thickness
from less than a foot in areas, such as western Alachua County, where limestone occurs
near the surface, to as much as 80 feet or more in karst features developed in the Ocala
Group limestone.

Mineral Resources

Introduction

The following discussion of the economic geology of Alachua County is not intended to
be a complete Investigation leading to immediate industrial development because in many
cases, the data represents information on a single outcrop, pit or mine. However, favorable
data may indicate that certain areas might warrant further investigation.
The Mineral Resources Map is designed to present an overview of the major mineral
commodities in an area. Factors such as thickness of overburden as well as the quality and
volume of the deposit will affect the mining of the mineral commodity at any specific site. In
contrast, geologic cross sections are extrapolated from cores and/or well cuttings to show
the distribution and thickness of surface and near-surface stratigraphic units (Figures 3b and
3c). Occasional variations between the geologic cross sections and the Mineral Resources
Map may occur. The following is a discussion of clay, heavy minerals, peat, phosphate,
limestone, sand and undifferentiated resources of Alachua County.


Clay

Clay is present in the surface and near-surface sediments of Alachua County. The
predominant mineralogical forms are smectite and kaolinite (United States Soil Conservation
Service (SCS) 1985). Kaolinite occurs as a matrix material in the quartz sands
(Cypresshead Formation) present along a narrow portion of the Alachua-Putnam County
boundary. Smectite-bearing sediments occur over much of the county andare associated
with the near-surface Hawthorn Group.
The SCS (1985) utilized the uppermost 80 inches of the sediment profile to map soil type
and determine usefulness of the material. In their study they identified several sandy, clayey
loam soil types as present in the county. One soil type, Oleno clay, is described as clay or
clayey from total depth (TD) to the surface. The Oleno clay is present primarily along the
floodplain of the Santa Fe River in northwestern Alachua County. The SCS rates the Oleno
clay poor as a construction material. Many other clayey soil types are present in areas such
as Paynes Pralre State Preserve, Levy Lake, Orange Lake, and the community of Island
Grove (Minerl Resources Map).
Clay has not been mined in Alachua County since the early 1920s when it was extracted
near Campvie (sample(sample 1, section 33, Township 9S, Range 22E). The clay from this site was
used In the manufacture of a poor grade of common brick (Greaves-Walker et al., 1949).
They reported that In addition to common brick, test results indicated the clay from this site
would make a good grade of refractory brick (Table 1).
Table 1. Characteristics of Campville Clay
(From Greaves-Walker et al., 1949)

Form ing Behavior............................................................................. G ood
Drying Behavior......................................................................... Excellent
Firing Behavior................................................................................ G ood
Firing Rang e..................................................................................... W ide
Dry Com pressive Strength............................................................ 258 psi
Dry M odulus of Rupture........................................ ... .................... 90 psi
Fired Compressive Strength, Laboratory
G one 10 ............................................... ................................ 1022 psi
Fired Modulus of Rupture, Cone 10................... ................... 382 psi
Rlsslsance to Abrasion Dry Good
Resistance to Abrasion, Fired, Laboratory
cone 10 Fair
pArcent Water of Plasticity 11 6
Percent Absorption, Fired, Laboratory
do ne 10............................................................................. .... ........... 15.4
Percent ULinear Shrinkage, Dry............................................................ 1.9
Percent Linear Expansion, Fired,
L rbo ratory, C one 10...........................................................................1.2
Percent Total Linear Shrinkage,
L boratory, Cone 10....................................................................... 7
Fired Color, Laboratory Cone 10.....................................................W hite
py rometric Cone Equivalent, (PCE)
C one 30................................................................................. (3002 F.)

Sf ca (SIO ) ................................................................................ 80 .88%
Ah imlna and Titanla(A1203 + TiO2) ......................................... 12.11%
Fe Tic Oxide(Fe2 3)................................................................... 1.00%
U e (C aO )................................................................................. 0.03%
M( gnesla (MgO).................................0.23%
All allea (Na2O + K20) ................................................................ None
Lc M on Ignition (lgn) .................................................................. 5.73%

T o ...................t........................................................................ 99 .98%
.;


Clay is present In the near-surface sediments near Hawthorne and Waldo (Calver, 1949).
Calver stated that these clayey sediments would be suitable only for a poor or low grade
common brick. HIckman and HamlIn (1964) reported on a clay test (sample 2, section 33,
Township 9S, Range 18E) in which the auger sample penetrated 12 feet of a dark buff
colored clay beginning at a depth of four feet from ground surface. The test results
Indicated the material to be suitable as ceramic clay. The results also showed the clay to
have excellent bloating qualities at 19000 F. These tests indicate that utilization of clay
sediments as an economic commodity may warrant further Investigation.

Heavy Minerals

Heavy minerals are present throughout much of Florida as discrete grains Intermingled
with quartz sand (Campbell, 1986). Economic deposits of this commodity (percentages
averaging about 3-8 percent of the total) are present In neighboring Clay County along the
Trail Ridge and south of Green Cove Springs.
Theonen and Warne (1949) investigated heavy mineral occurrences as part of a regional
investigation for the United States Bureau of Mines. In Alachua County, they analyzed
sediments along State Highways 20, 26, 121, 222, and 231. Results of analyses indicated
that the average heavy mineral percentage was 0.03 (Theonen and Warne, 1949). This value
is far below any deposit of economic significance. To date, there are no known commercial
deposits of heavy minerals in the county.

Peat
Peat Is an accumulation of partly decomposed organic material (mainly plant matter)
which accumulates In perennially wet areas (Davis 1946; Bond et al., 1984). Along with wet
conditions, which affect peat accumulation, other factors of importance include topography
and climate. Alachua County Is well suited for the occurrence of peat deposits with its
abundant low areas, continuous standing water and ample vegetation.
Davis (1946) reported on reported on three peat deposits in Alachua County: 1) In Lake Wauberg
(sample 3, section 9, Township 1 S, Range 20E), 2) in Newmans Lake (sample 4, section 5,
Township 10OS, Range 21E), and 3) In the marsh of Orange Lake (sample 5, section 12,
Township 12S, Range 22E). Table 2 is an analysis of these deposits.


Table 2

Analysis of Alachua County Peats
(From Davis, 1946)
Moisture Free Basis, Analysis in Per Cent
Proximate Analysis Ultimate Analysis

BTU Per Pound
Volatile Fixed
Matter Carbon Ash H C N 0 S Moisture Free
Sample/Location


3 In LakeWauberg near Micanopy. Levy
Grant, lot 9, T11S, R20E 43.6 13.6 40,1


4 In Newmans Lake
sec. 5, T10S, R21E

5 Orange Lake, in drained marsh
sec. 12, T12S, R22E


4.2 338 29 185 05 596


21.4 4.9 73.7 1.9 15.5 1.2 7 5 0.2


60 5 30.7 8.8 5,9 55.9 3.4 25.4 0 6 9460


The Soil Conservation Service (1985) designated numerous areas of the county as having
peaty soils. A number of these soils occur in Orange Lake, Lochloosa Lake, Levy Lake and
portions of the Paynes Prairie State Preserve as well as other small areas (Mineral
Resources Map). The SCS soil types associated with peat or peaty muck include Samsula,
Shenks, Okeechobee, Terra Ceia and Ledwith.
Peat is not presently mined in Alachua County. If such operations were to begin, the
typical extraction procedures include removal of surface vegetation followed by site
dewatering and then removal of peat by draglines or bulldozer. The material would then be
shredded and stockpiled for future use. Currently, all Florida peats are used for horticultural
purposes.
Hardrock Phosphate

In Florida, hardrock phosphate was first discovered by Alburtus Vogt in 1889 In
southwestern Marion County at Dunnellon. The hardrock phosphate district, as mapped by
Vernon (1951) trends northwest to southeast and includes western Alachua County (Mineral
Resources Map). Cooke (1945) described the phosphatic sediments of this deposit as
plates and boulders which lie upon and/or have replaced some of the underlying limestone.
This hardrock phosphate, which is associated with paleokarst features in Alachua County,
was mined years ago; however, when pebble phosphate began to be mined at a sub-
stantially lower cost the demise of the hardrock phosphate industry was inevitable. The
industry continued until 1966 when mining of the commodity in Alachua County finally
ceased (Olson, 1972).
Pebble Phosphate

Economic grade deposits of pebble phosphate are known to exist in several counties
throughout Florida. Alachua County has been mapped in the Northern Phosphate District
(Zellars and Williams, Inc., 1978; Scott, 1988a). Phosphatic sediments of the pebble variety
are present in the Hawthorn Group sediments within the county. It was in this county that
mining of pebble phosphate was first attempted in 1883 near the town of Hawthorne (Knapp,
1978). The phosphatic sediments which occur in the Hawthorn Group are often deeply
buried and consist of pebble-sized grains comprising 2 to 10 percent of the sediment suite
(Scott, 1988a). Characteristics of the Northern Phosphate District are shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Characteristics of the North Florida
Phosphate District (From Zellars and Williams, Inc., 1978)



O verburden Thickness feet...............................................................20-50

O re Zone Thickness feet.................................................................... 10-25

Pebble Percent Product......................................... ........ ............ 10-20

P percent B P L* ...................................................................................... 66-70

P percent M g O .... ............................................................................... 0.75

Percent U308 of Product.......................... ................................. 0.008

P percent F...................................................................................... 3 .0-4 .0
*Bone Phosphate of Lime
Pirkle (1957) conducted a study of the phosphatic sediments in the vicinity of Gainesville,
Florida, and found phosphate zones within the Hawthorn sediments at the top and bottom
of the unit. The suite of sediments, however, constituted a low grade (50% Bone Phosphate
of Lime) ore deposit. When compared to the Central Phosphate District to the south, the
economics of the Alachua County deposits probably precludes any mining in the near
future.

Limestone

Limestone has been mined extensively In the vicinity of Newberry for many years. Its
close proximity to the ground surface enhances the place value of the deposit. In Alachua
County, economic deposits of limestone are limited to the western part of the county as the
top of the limestone dips and deepens to the northeast (Mineral Resources Map).
Four companies mining limestone in Alachua County use the open pit method for
extracting rock. Heavy equipment removes vegetation and overburden material prior to
mining. The limestone In this area is generally soft and friable, however, if indurated,
blasting may be required to loosen the deposit to enhance recovery.
Operators report that the water surface is 25 to 30 feet below the top of the mineable
limestone. Draglines permit mining to depths of 40 to 50 feet below the water surface.
Therefore, the maximum mineable section ranges from 65 to 80 feet.
Stockpiled sediments are loaded by dragline or front-end loaders into trucks and
transported to processing areas. Processing techniques involve reduction and screening to
obtain various size fractions (Campbell, 1986).
The four major rock producers In the county include Florida Rock Industries, Limerock
Industries, Limestone Products and the S.M. Wall Company. Limestone from western
Alachua County Is utilized primarily as base coarse material. The product Is usually
distributed to nearby Florida markets and occasionally to south Georgia. Total resource
and production estimates are not available. The wide occurrence, thin overburden and
thick sections of the Ocala Group limestone suggest iltt these deposits can be
economically mined for many years.


Quartz sand occurrences in Alachua County typically contain clay and silt. Sand grain
size varies from fine to coarse. Mining Is concentrated in the Brooksville Ridge area and the
Northern Highlands (Figure 1). Sand is used as fill material, construction Ingredients and in
asphalt mixtures (Knapp, 1978).
The SCS (1985) determined that as many as 14 soil types, which are widely distributed
throughout the county, are suitable as sources for road fill. Many areas are defined by the
SCS as "probable" sources of sand based on compaction, processing and other
construction practices.

Undifferentiated Resources

A large portion of central and eastern Alachua County's surface and near-surface
sediments are comprised of sand, clayey sand, clay and organic muck. The clays and
muck are often Inundated by water. The sand and clayey sand have widespread
occurrences. They may be especially Important as a source of fill in the county for many
areas which are subject to flooding. In addition, the organic-rich sands may have value as
top soil. The possibility exists that a future comprehensive investigation of these
undifferentiated sediments may lead to additional economic or Industrial applications.


REFERENCES

Barnett, R. S., 1975, Basement structure of Florida and its tectonic implications: Gulf Coast
Association of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 25, p. 122-142.

Bond, P. A., Campbell, K. M., and Scott, T. M., 1984, An overview of peat in Florida and
related Issues: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 27,151 p.

Calver, J. L., 1949, Florida kaolins and clays: Florida Geological Survey Information Circular
2, 59 p.
Campbell, K. M., 1986, The industrial minerals of Florida: Florida Geological Survey
Information Circular 102, 94 p.

Cooke, C. W., 1945, Geology of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 29, 339 p.

Davis, J. H., Jr., 1946, The peat deposits of Florida, their occurrences, development, and
uses: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 30, 247 p.

Greaves-Walker, A. F., Turner, P. P., and Hagerman, R. S., 1949, The development of a
structural clay products Industry using Florida clays: University of Florida Engineering
and Industrial Experiment Station Bulletin 30, Gainesville, Florida, 48 p.

Healy, H. G., 1975, Terraces and shorelines of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Map
Series 71, scale 1:2,000,000.

Hickman, R. C., and Hamlin, H. P., 1964, Ceramic clay investigations In Alachua, Clay, and
Putnam Counties, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Information Circular 46,
41 p.

Knapp, M. S., 1978, Environmental geology series Gainesville Sheet: Florida Bureau of
Geology Map Series 79, scale 1:250,000.

MacNeil, F. S., 1950, Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geological Survey
Professional Paper 221-F, p. 95-107.

Olson, N. K., 1972, Hardrock phosphate in Florida: in proceedings, Seventh Forum on
Geology of Industrial Minerals: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 17, p. 195-
210.

Pirkle, E. C., 1957, Economic consideration of pebble phosphate deposits of Alachua
County, Florida: Economic Geology, v. 52, p. 354-378.

Puri, H. S., and Vernon, R. 0., 1964, Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to
the classic exposures: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 5 (revised), 312 p.

Scott, T. M., 1988a, The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group (Miocene) of Florida:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 59, 148 p.

1988b, The Cypresshead Formation in northern peninsular Florida: in
Southeastern Geological Society Guidebook for annual field trip February 19-20, 1988. 3
p.

Theonen, J. R., and Warne, J. D., 1949, Titanium minerals in central and northeastern
Florida: United States Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 4515, 62 p.

United States Soil Conservation Service, 1985, Soil survey of Alachua County, Florida: U. S.
Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Services, 185 p.

Vernon, R. 0., 1951, Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geological
Survey Bulletin 33, 256 p.

White, W. A., 1970, The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula: Florida Bureau of Geology
Bulletin 51, 164 p.

Williams, K. E., Nicol, D., and Randazzo, A. F., 1977, The geology of the western part of
Alachua County, Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of Investigation 85, 98 p.

Zellars and Williams, Inc., 1978, Evaluation of the phosphate deposits of Florida using the
minerals availability system: Final report prepared for the U. S. Bureau of Mines, 196 p.


WAa- 1OS- I 9E-6bc
FEET METERS WA 7SU 18E-36oo a-40318C 7


WW-21-6






UNDRTFIGURE 3bED




CROSS SECTION A AT .. METERSS


TO 120'
-20 To 05' TD 200'
RVEMRC DE EUON IS APRONIMELY 210 "nMES

FIGURE 3c na "ES
CROSS SECTION B B' 0 3 6 KLETOERS


SCALE .....
0 L, AIiS Highlands

a KILOMurS


SCALE FOR --..
FIGURES 1,2,3a .;




( : ^ Alachua
X:!: ii : | :^ ^ Lake Cross :::.'."."*"*

EXPLANATION Val.ey

D NORTHERN HIGHLANDS
rr-q Fairfield
L[ CENTRAL HIGHLANDS Hills
BROOKSVILLE RIDGE FIGURE 1

CENTRAL VALLEY GEOMORPHOLOGY (from White, 1970)

WESTERN VALLEY

] FAIRFIELD HILLS

" CODY SCARP



--_ -- -


|: 170'-215' COHARIE TERRACE
100'-170' SUNDERLAND TERRACE
OKEFENOKEE TERRACE (MACNEIL, 1950)
70'-100' WICOMICO TERRACE


EXPLANATION
* WELL LOCATION


The well and quarry system used in this report uses the
rectangular system of section, township and range for
identification. The well or outcrop number consists of six parts:
W for well or L for quarry, county abbreviation, the Township,
Range, and Section, and the quarter/quarter location within the
section.


DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

This public document was promulgated at a total cost of
$1,968.00 or a per copy cost of $2.62 for the
purpose of disseminating geologic data.


FIGURE 2

TERRACES (from Healy, 19750


FIGURE 3a
CROSS SECTION LOCATIONS


0

m\
Or


_ _