Group Title: New Series - State of Florida. Department of Agriculture ; no. 21
Title: Hogs in Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015020/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hogs in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. New series
Physical Description: 31 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee <Fla.>
Publication Date: <1929>
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "April 1929."
General Note: "Prepared and published in co-operation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
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Bibliographic ID: UF00015020
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001962735
oclc - 28571063
notis - AKD9412

Full Text

FROM THE LIBRARY
OF
DAVID FAIRCHILD


Bulletin No. 21


New Series


April, 1929


Hogs In Florida


By
JOHN M. SCOTT


State of Florida
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee


Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of
Agriculture, University of Florida,
Gainesville.


. JA. APPLEVARD, INC., T*LLAUXSSFE, FLORIDA






























DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture.........................Tallahassee

T. J. Brooks, Director, Bureau of Immigration .....................Tallahassee

Phil S. Taylor, Supervising Inspector...............................-- Tallahassee

John M. Scott, Agricultural Editor.............. ... ............. ......Gainesville









HOGS IN FLORIDA
By JOHN M. SCOTT
Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville
OG raising in Florida is not a new industry. In fact,
history tells us that DeSoto brought hogs to Florida in
1539 for the purpose of supplying his army with meat.
He is also credited with giving the Indian his first taste of hog
meat. However, the type of hog DeSoto brought to Florida and
the type of hog raised today are quite different.
The quality of the hogs in the State has changed materially
during the past 15 years. Prior to 15 years ago there were com-
paratively few first class hogs to be found in the State. With
the exception of a few pure bred herds, the vast majority con-
sisted of what is generally termed "razor-backs" or "piny-
woods rooters."'
It was during 1917 and 1918 that the people of Florida first
began to take an interest in raising better hogs. On March 1,
1919, the American Poland China Record Association held a
promotion sale of hogs at the University of Florida. This was,
so far as the writer is aware, the first auction sale of pure bred
hogs held in the State. During the next two or three years, the
Florida Swine Growers Association held a number of auction
sales in various parts of the State. The sales held by the Swine
Growers Association always offered for sale individuals of the
various breeds; in other words, no one breed was pushed or
advertised more than any other breed.
The following figures taken from the 1927 Yearbook of
Agriculture shows the number of hogs in the State for the past
five years:
No. of hogs
January 1, 1924 .......................... 640,000
January 1, 1925 .......................... 498,000
January 1, 1926 .......................... 458,000
January 1, 1927 ........................... 485,000
January 1, 1928 .......................... 543,000
Hogs are raised in every county in Florida, but the majority
are found north and west of the citrus and trucking sections of
the State. This is due to the fact that very few of the citrus
growers are in a position to handle hogs. In the first place, it
is not advisable to keep hogs in a citrus grove. Then, too, the
average citrus grower and truck farmer have no land available
for growing the necessary feed crops for hogs. As a result, hog
raising has developed faster in North and West Florida than
it has in other parts of the State.









4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

FLORIDA ADVANTAGES

Florida hog raisers have a number of advantages over the hog
raisers of the Central States. The climatic conditions in Florida
are such that two litters may be produced a year without the
necessity of expensive farrowing houses to protect the young
pigs from cold. Cheap, economical shelters will answer the pur-
pose in Florida just as well as many of the expensive barns and
sheds that are necessary in many of the northern states. Green
pastures may also be had in Florida the year round.
Another important factor is that with practically all Florida
soils, which are of the loose sandy type, all feed crops may be
grazed by the hogs without danger of injuring the soil by
tramping when wet. This is quite an important consideration
when the cost of production is taken into account. Hogs can
harvest a crop much cheaper than can be done in any other way.
The climatic and soil conditions also help in a number of ways
to keep the hogs healthy. Where it is possible to graze hogs in
cultivated fields and pastures the year round, the permanent hog
lot, which is the source of a great deal of the hog raisers'
trouble, is done away with. The permanent hog lot is the source
of many parasites, both external and internal, such as lice, fleas,
kidney worms, and stomach worms of various kinds. When the
farm crops are rotated, which results in the hogs also being
rotated from field to field at stated intervals, the problem of
keeping these various parasites under control is not nearly so
difficult as where the permanent hog lot is maintained.






Mo









Fig. 1. Four good gilts.








HOGS IN FLORIDA 5

BROOD SOWS

Under Florida conditions, there is little excuse for keeping a
brood sow on the farm unless she will produce two litters of
healthy pigs each year. On the average, the good brood sow
should raise ten strong pigs a year. The feed cost of keeping a
sow is nearly the same whether she produces five pigs or ten pigs
a year. But the cost per pig is very much reduced when ten pigs
are raised instead of only five.
Another important factor is to determine when the brood sow
should farrow. The farrowing dates will depend somewhat upon
the crop rotation system used on the farm, as it is not wise to
have sows farrow at a time when little feed is available. This
makes it wise to choose a cropping system that fits in well with
one's hog raising plans.


Fig. 2. These are the mothers of part of the 200 hogs on one farm.

THE BOAR

Florida farmers were quick to realize the necessity and im-
portance of good sires, which has resulted in a strong demand
for good boars of the various breeds. The best hog raisers are
becoming more and more discriminating in selecting a sire ,and
it is already rather difficult to dispose of the common type of
individual.









6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CHOOSING A BREED

There is no one best breed of hogs for Florida. Nearly all of
the breeds are represented in the State, and one can find advo-
cates for each of them in various sections over the State. The
lard type of hogs, however, is more common than the bacon
type.
In Florida, as in most other places, it is largely a matter of
personal choices to what breed to raise. At the present time






-or







Fig. 3. A good Poland China boar.
Courtesy W. L. Watson.



I --.--

S....-.. -" ."i


.-- ". ..



I; k .


-- ; Fig. 4. A desirable ty : ckshe br.

Fig. 4. A desirable type Berkshire boar.








HOGS IN FLORIDA


there are probably more Poland China and grade Poland China
hogs than any other one breed. Duroc Jerseys and grade Duroc
Jerseys, however, are a close second. There are very few white
hogs in Florida, due primarily to the fact that the white breeds
sun-scald and blister in the hot sun much more easily than
black and red breeds. If an abundance of shade is provided for
the white hogs, however, they seem to do very well.
The main thing is to chose the breed one likes best, and then
give that breed good care and attention.









SFig.. 5 Some good brood sows.







CROPS FOR HOGS
CoRN.-This is the chief grain crop that is used almost uni-
versally as a hog feed. Even in Florida it is about the most
important part of the gi&ain mixture; however, there are a num-
.1 .w

















ber of companion or supplementary crops that can be grown
Fig. 5. Some good brood sows.

CROPS FOR HOGS

CORN.-This is the chief grain crop that is used almost uni-
versally as a hog feed. Even in Florida it is about the most
important part of the gain mixture; however, there are a num-
ber of companion or supplementary crops that can be grown
economically as important hog feeds. Corn is grown in all sec-
tions of the State, but more generally in the northern part where
most of the hogs are to be found.
The crop is usually planted between March 1 and April 15,
depending somewhat upon the section of the State. The method
is to plant in rows 6 to 7 feet apart and 2 to 21/ feet apart in the
row. If it is to be grazed by hogs, peanuts are planted between
each row of corn. Planting corn in 6 and 7 foot rows naturally
reduces the yield of corn per acre, but when peanuts are inter-
planted with corn, the acre yield of feed is materially increased.
Corn grows in Florida much the same as in other states.
Ordinary field varieties require 120 to 140 days for the crop to
mature. When early maturing varieties are planted, less time









8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

is required for them to mature, and it is possible to get the hogs
ready for an earlier market.
PEANUTS.-A companion crop that goes well with corn and
makes a most excellent hog feed is peanuts. They are grown in
all sections of the State where corn is grown. One hundred
pounds of peanuts will produce more pounds of gain on hogs
than any other crop grown in Florida. A combination of corn
and peanuts makes an ideal crop to be grazed by hogs, and is
the most economical for production of any crops grown in the
State.
More information regarding the growing of peanuts is given
in Bulletin No. 9, New Series, issued by the State Department
of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Fla.
SOYBEANs.-Soybeans are now being grown to some extent in
Florida, and can be utilized as hog feed if desired.
COWPEAS.-This crop, especially the Brabham and Iron
varieties, are grown in all parts of the State.
CHUFAS.-A crop grown in many parts of Florida for hog
feed is chufas. On the poorer types of land they make a good
yield and are considered a desirable fattener for pork production.

GRAZING CROPS
In addition to the above grain crops, there are a number of
grazing crops that are desirable and useful to supplement these
grain crops for pork production.
Oats and rye sown separately or mixed will furnish green
winter grazing from December to April. They may be sown the
latter part of September or October in North Florida, and the
latter part of October and November in South Florida. Two and
a half bushels of oats, or a bushel and a half of rye, is the rate
at which they are generally sown. When oats and rye are
mixed, one and a half bushels of oats and about three pecks
of rye are sufficient to sow an acre.
Austrian winter peas and hairy vetch make good winter
grazing crops in North and West Florida. Austrian winter peas
should be sown in October or November at the rate of 30 to 35
pounds of seed to the acre. The seed are sown broadcast and
covered with a disk harrow. Hairy vetch should be seeded broad-
cast in October or November at the rate of 20 to 25 pounds of
seed to the acre, and covered with a disk harrow. Austrian
winter peas and hairy vetch should furnish grazing from
February to April.









HOGS IN FLORIDA 9


Fig Austrian Winter Peas, a good late winter and early spring grazing
S.* .. .. .. . : . .



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Fig. 7. Hairy vetch, a good grazing crop for hogs from February to April.
For spring and early summer grazing, there is the choice of
cowpeas, soybeans, and cattail millet. Sweet corn and other early
varieties of corn may be planted early and used as soon as it
reaches the roasting ear stage. When corn is grown for this
purpose, it should be grown on well prepared land and should
receive a liberal application of fertilizer for the purpose of
hastening the growth of the crop.









10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Later plantings of cowpeas, soybeans, cattail millet, Napier
grass as a soiling crop, beggarweed, and sorghum give summer
and early fall grazing.
The summer grazing crops may be planted any time from
March to July 1, and should furnish grazing from May 15 until
frost comes in the fall.








u --








Fig. 8. A bunch of shotes ready for the corn and peanut field.

PASTURES
In addition to the various pasture and feed crops that may
be grown for hogs, it is advisable to have a good pasture of
carpet or Bermuda grass to run the hogs on at any time during
late spring or summer when other feed crops are short for any
reason.
The best pasture grasses are carpet grass, Dallis grass, and
Bermuda grass. To these may be added lespedeza or Japanese
clover. All of the above grasses may be sown separately or the
seed of all may be mixed in equal amounts and seeded at the
rate of twenty to twenty-five pounds to the acre on a well
prepared seedbed. They may be sown any time from March 1
to July 1.
YEAR ROUND GRAZING CROPS
A good deal of discussion has taken place as to the possibility
of growing the necessary crops for grazing hogs every month in
the year. Such a plan is possible for most parts of Florida on
good land. Table No. 1 gives a list of crops that may be grown
for feeding hogs in Florida, the date to plant, how to plant, seed
required per acre, and the period over which they may be grazed.










TABLE 1.

HOG FEEDS-WHEN TO PLANT AND WHEN TO GRAZE
Crops I When to Plant How to Plant Seed per Acre When to Graze
C(ornl a 'l Peanuts ....................... March and April Corn in 7 ft. rows 3 to 4 quarts of August to Nov.
with peanuts be- corn; % to 1 bu.
tween of peanuts
Peanuts, Spanish ............................... April and May 24 to 30 inch rows 3 bushels in hulls August to Nov.
Peanuts. Florida Runner ................. April and May 24 to 30 inch rows 1| 1/ bushels in hulls Sept. to Dec.
norghun ......................... .......... April and May 31/2 to 4 foot rows About 1 peck July to October
cartail Millet ............................... March to May Broadcast % bushel May to October
t owpeas .................................. April to July 24 to 30 inch rows 2 to 3 pecks June to October
Soybeans .-.............-..............-...... April to July 24 to 30 inch rows 2 to 3 pecks July to October
Oats ...................................S........... Sept. and Oct. Broadcast 21%1 bushels Jan. to April
Itye ......................................... Sept. and Oct. Broadcast I 1/% bushels Jan. to April
Beggarweed ........................................ May and June Broadcast 20 pounds Aug. to Oct.
(hufas Ar................ .................. April and May 3 foot rows (/2 bushel Nov. and Dec.
Vetch ............................ .......... ... Oct. and Nov. Broadcast 20 to 25 lbs. Feb. to April
Austrian W inter 'eas ................... Oct. and Nov. Broadcast 30 to 35 lbs. Feb. to April
Velvet Beans ...................................... March to May 4 foot rows 1 peck Nov. to March
Permanent Pastures ..................... March to July Broadcast 20 to 25 lbs. March to Nov.
Permanent pastures consist of Bermuda grass, carpet grass, dallis grass, and lespedeza.









12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Perhaps some other crops could be added to this table, but under
average conditions the ones mentioned give the greatest satisfac-
tion. Sweet potatoes might be added, but in most cases they are
worth more to sell on the market than they are worth as a hog
feed. Others may want to add cassava. Cassava is a good hog
feed, but not as economical a crop to grow as many of those
given in the table.

EQUIPMENT
The necessary equipment for raising hops in Florida is rela-
tively cheap when compared with what is necessary and often
found on hog farms in many northern states.
Shelters or sheds for winter protection in Florida may consist
merely of a good roof with the north and west sides boarded up
about four to five feet high so as to break the force of the north
and northwest winds. These should by all means be open to the
south and southeast; this is important so as to get the benefit of
all sunshine available. Sunshine is next to feed in importance in
hog raising.
An abundant supply of good fresh water should be available
at all times. The source of an abundant water supply may be
from a well, spring, or some other supply-this is a local problem
that must be worked out for each farm.

r- "-- -" ,'-" "' :'.




-.1 -














Fig. 9. Some first class Poland Chinas almost ready for the market. Courtesy W. L.
Watson.








HOGS IN FLORIDA


Provision should be made so that at farrowing time each sow
will have a small enclosure and a shed or shelter. When the pigs
have reached an age of ten days or two weeks, two sows and
litters may be placed in the same lot or pen.

WHEN TO MARKET HOGS
If one will take the time and trouble to look up statistics, it
will be found that over a number of years the highest price is
usually paid for hogs during the months of May or June, and
August to October. In planning a cropping system of grazing
crops for hogs, as well as farrowing dates for the sows, it would
therefore be well to keep in mind those seasons of the year when
hog prices are the highest.
By referring to Table No. 1, it will be seen that the best
crops for fattening hogs (corn and peanuts) are ready to graze
at a time that makes it possible to have the hogs ready for market
in September and October, which is, as a rule, a time when
prices for hogs are best.

CO-OPERATIVE MARKETING

.Communities in a number of counties in Florida practice co-
operative marketing of their hogs. In some cases the farmers
merely pool their hogs so as to ship in carload lots. In other
cases a number of farmers in a community may assemble their
hogs on a certain day at some central shipping point, and have
some competent person grade the hogs according to market
grades. The graded hogs may then be offered to local buyers,
or the owners may ship the hogs to market. When co-operative
shipments are made, the hogs are graded and each farmer is
credited with a definite number of pounds of each grade. The
shrinkage in transit is prorated. Another method sometimes
used in co-operative shipments is to mark each lot of hogs so they
can be identified when they get to market.

DISEASES
Hogs in Florida are subject to the same diseases as are found
in other states where hogs are kept, and the methods of treat-
ment are the same as elsewhere.
For hog cholera, serum and virus are used. To give some idea
as to the amount of serum and virus used, Dr. J. V. Knapp,
State Veterinarian, has supplied Table No. 2 containing informa-
tion regarding the amount of serum and virus used by months
from November, 1927, to October, 1928.









14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

TABLE 2

Serum and Virus Used in Florida During 12 Month Period
From November 1, 1927, to October 31, 1928.*
Month C.CS. Serum C.CS. Virus
November, 1927 ............. 511,000 25,410
December, 1927 .............. 402,900 19,600
January, 1928 ............... 632,550 32,500
February, 1928 .............. 724,400 38,520
March, 1928 ................. 717,200 36,575
April, 1928 ................. 232,950 16,210
May, 1928 .................. 259,900 14,535
June, 1928 .................. 255,500 13,035
July 1928 .................. 2,323,100 112,070
August, 1928 ............... 1,429,050 70,215
September, 1928 ............ 1,077,950 49,050
October, 1928 ............... 1,055,050 47,540

Total ................... 9,621,550 475,260

SData supplied by Dr. J. V. Knapp.

Worms in hogs are best controlled by rotation of grazing
crops so as to move the hogs onto new ground every two or three
months. Fields and crops ought to be planned so that as much
as a year will intervene from the time the hogs graze one field
until they come back to it again.


.
'. '- -: -q p -

Fig. 10. Any farmer anywhere would be proud of this lot of Duroc gilts.








HOGS IN FLORIDA 15

SHADE

During warm weather shade is almost as much a necessity for
hogs as feed. In Florida shade is best supplied by trees, because
under ordinary conditions the soil in the shade of the trees is
always cool and there is always a free circulation of air. These
conditions cannot be secured when shade is furnished by the
construction of box type or A-shaped individual hog houses.
A large number of varieties of trees grow well in Florida,
and a great many of them grow quickly.
Where it is impossible to have shade trees, then some other
form of shade should be provided. The A-shaped individual
hog house is a very desirable type in many cases. However, any
form of shade that appeals to the individual hog raiser may
be used.
FEEDING GARBAGE
The proper feeding of garbage to hogs in many sections is
becoming an important industry. In Florida, during the tourist
season from November to April, there is a large amount of
garbage available for hog feed. A considerable amount of this
is now being utilized for feeding purposes, but in some sections
of the State the garbage from hotels and restaurants is still
considered a valueless or waste product.
A sample of municipal garbage from Louisville, Ky, analyzed
by the Kentucky Experiment Station, showed the following re-
sults on an air dry basis:
Per cent
P rotein ..................................... 21.5
Carbohydrates ............................... 41.8
F at ........................................ 23.4
A sh ..................... ..... ... ........... 13.3

All hotel and restaurant garbage will not make as good a
showing as the above. The analysis will vary with the season
of the year, with the care that is exercised in gathering up the
material, and the amount of wash water that is mixed with it.
Where no wash water is added, the feeding value of the garbage
is much higher than where a considerable amount of water is
added.
The man who feeds garbage to hogs will sooner or later find
that he must give very close attention to the collecting and feed-
ing of it if he is to avoid many troubles. Those who contemplate
feeding garbage to hogs should write to the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., for copy of Farm-
ers' Bulletin No. 1133, "Feeding Garbage to Hogs."













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Fig 11 Florida garbage raised hogs. This farm markets 800 to 1000 hogs each year. Courtesy Umerton Ranch.
., ,, "..; .i. .









HOGS IN FLORIDA 17

DRY LOT FEEDING
Dry lot feeding of hogs for market will not be found as
economical as that of grazing off crops by the hogs. However,
there are times and conditions that make it necessary to do dry
lot feeding. When these conditions arise, it is always a question
as to the choice of feeds and how to mix the various feeds to
get best results.
The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station during the past
15 years has done a considerable amount of dry lot feeding.
Some of the results should be of interest to the readers of this
bulletin.
EXPERIMENT I. Comparison of shelled corn, fish meal and
skim milk with a ration of shelled corn and fish meal.
Skim milk is not a new feed for hogs, but very few hogs in
Florida have been fed milk in any form in the past.
During this experiment, hogs in Lot I were fed shelled corn,
fish meal and skim milk. Hogs in Lot II were fed shelled corn
and fish meal, the same as in Lot I, except that they were given
no skim milk. The shelled corn and fish meal were fed in the
proportion of nine parts corn to one part fish meal by weight.

TABLE 3
Results of Experiment in Feeding Shelled Corn, Fish Meal, and Skim
Milk in Comparison with Shelled Corn and Fish Meal to Hogs*
Eight hogs in each lot. Lot I Lot II
Pounds Pounds
Weight at beginning of experiment, August 9, 1924 1,438.00 1,435.00
Weight at close of experiment, October 8, 1924 ...... 2,356.00 2,151.00
Gain per lot in 61 days ...-------------~..--..-..--.----.. ..... 918.00 726.00
Average gain per head ...-..-......... ---......- ................ 114.70 90.70
Average daily gain per head ....------- ---------............... -.. 1.88 1.48
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds of live weight 10.46 8.29
Pounds of corn to make 100 pounds gain .........-...... 312.74 395.45
Pounds of fish meal to make 100 pounds gain .... 34.74 43.93
Pounds of skim milk to make 100 pounds gain ...... 275.38 .....
Total grain to make 100 pounds gain .................... 347.48 439.38

A glance at Table 3 indicates the results of feeding these
two- rations, and shows very clearly that, so far as gains are
concerned, skim milk will produce excellent results.
EXPERIMENT II. Experiment to determine relative value of
buttermilk and skim milk, together with one to determine
the feeding value of fish meal.
Thirty-two hogs were used in this test and were divided
Calculated from Florida Experiment Station Annual Report, 1925,
page 16R.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


into four lots of eight hogs in each lot. Hogs in Lot I were
fed shelled corn nine parts and fish meal one part by weight,
and also skim milk. Lot II was fed shelled corn nine parts and
fish meal one part by weight, together with dried buttermilk.
The dried buttermilk was mixed with water, one pound dried
butermilk to nine pounds of water. The buttermilk and skim
milk were then fed in equal amounts.

Lot III was fed shelled corn and shorts in equal parts by
weight, and fish meal equal to 5.5% of the weight of the corn
and shorts. Shelled corn and shorts in equal parts by weight
were fed to Lot IV.

Table 4 shows in detail the comparative results of this feed-
ing test, which indicates that there is but little difference in
the feeding value of skim milk and- buttermilk. The gains
produced were almost equal and the total amount of grain
required to produce 100 pounds of gain were also practically
equal.
TABLE 4

Results of Experiment to Determine Relative Feeding Value of Butter-
milk and Skim Milk, Together with an Experiment to Deter-
mine the Feeding Value of Fish Meal.*


Eight hogs in each lot

Weight at beginning of experi-
ment. October 18, 1924 ..........
Weight at close of experiment,
December 18, 1924 ..................
Gain per lot in 61 days ..................
Average gain per head ..................
Average daily gain per head ........
Average daily gain per 1,000
pounds live weight ................
Pounds of corn to make 100
pounds gain .............................
Pounds of shorts to make 100
pounds gain ...........................
Pounds of fish meal to make 100
pounds gain ............ ...........
Pounds of skim milk to make 100
pounds gain ............................
Pounds of buttermilk to make
100 pounds gain ......................
Total pounds of grain to make 100
pounds gain ..............................


Lot I Lot II
Pounds Pounds

786.6 810.0

1,348.3 1,356.6
561.7 546.6
70.21 68.32
1.15 1.12

11.70 11.06

318.85 327.66

.... .. ..............

35.42 36.41

276.03 ...........

............ 283.66

354.27 364.07


Lot III
Pounds

763.3

1,170.0
406.7
50.83
0.83

8.73

224.18

224.18

24.65


Lot IV
Pounds

786.6

1,076.6
290.0
36.25
0.59

6.04

314.38

314.38


473.01 628.76


Calculated from Florida Experiment Station Annual Report, 1925,
pages 16R and 17R.










HOGS IN FLORIDA


The small amount of 5.5% of fish meal added to the ration
fed Lot III caused a saving of 155.75 pounds of corn for each
100 pounds of gain produced. To put it another way, 24.65
pounds of fish meal saved 155.75 pounds of shelled corn. This
shows very clearly the necessity of adding some good protein
supplement to the ration if the best results are to be expected.

EXPERIMENT III. Comparison of fish meal, tankage and linseed
meal when fed with corn.
Twenty-one hogs were used in this experiment, with seven
hogs in each lot. The ration fed each lot was as follows:
Lot I-Shelled Corn nine parts and fish meal one part by
weight.
Lot II-Shelled corn nine parts and tankage one part by
weight.
Lot III-Shelled corn nine parts and linseed meal one part
by weight.

TABLE 5
Results of Experiment to Determine Relative Feeding Value of Fish
Meal, Tankage, and Linseed Meal When Fed With Corn.*


Seven hogs in each lot.


Lot I Lot II Lot III
Poundsfl? Pounds Poundsi


Weight at beginning of experiment,
October 11, 1923 ...................................... 1,272.0
Weight at close of experiment,
December 5, 1923 .................................... 1,858.0
Gain per lot in 55 days ......-............................ 586.0
Average gain per head ....-.. ...................... 83.71
Average daily gain per head ...................... 1.52
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live
weight ........................................................ 8.37
Pounds of corn to make 100 pounds gain.... 408.5
Pounds of fish meal to make 100 pounds
gain ....................... .......... ... ............. 45.39
Pounds of tankage to make 100 pounds
gain ........ ............... ..... .. ............................
Pounds of linseed meal to make 100
pounds gain ..................... ............ ..............
Total pounds of feed to make 100
pounds gain ...................... .. ................ 453.9


1,233.0 1,100.0


1,723.0
490.0
70.0
1.27

7.22.
498.6


1,553.0
453.0
60.85
1.17

7.48
539.4


55.40 ...

......... 59.9

554.0 599.3


Table 5 gives the weights and gains. All lots made satis-
factory gains in weight, although in this experiment the lot
fed corn and fish meal made the best gain.
The fish meal, linseed meal, and tankage used in the above
experiment showed the following analysis as made by the
Chemistry Department of the Florida Experiment Station:
*Calculated from Florida Experiment Station Annual Report, 1924.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fish Meal Linseed Meal Tankage
(percent) (percent) (percent)
M oisture ...................................... 8.45 9.93 4.75
A sh ....................... ................. 18.40 6.00 41.00
F at ....................... ................. 12.70 5.30 12.15
P rotein ........................................ 57.81 30.50 23.44
Carbohydrates ..................... 2.18 38.44 9.29
F iber ............................................ 3.46 9.83 9.37
EXPERIMENT IV. Comparison of shell corn and fish meal with
shelled corn, alfalfa meal and cottonseed meal.
The results of a feeding experiment with the above feeds
should be of interest to hog raisers for the reason that cotton-
seed meal, one of our southern-grown protein feeds, has made
such a good showing.
Hogs in Lot I were fed shelled corn nine.parts and fish meal
one part by weight, while those in Lot II were fed shelled corn
nine parts, cottonseed meal one part, and alfalfa meal two
parts, by weight.
The results obtained are shown in Table 6. Both lots of hogs
made good gains in weight. However, the hogs that were fed
the cottonseed meal made the best gains, but required a little
more feed to make 100 pounds of gain. This was due to the
alfalfa meal.
TABLE 6

Results of Experiment When Comparing Fish Meal With a Combina-
tion of Alfalfa Meal and Cottonseed Meal for Fattening Hogs.*
Seven hogs in each lot Lot I Lot II
Pounds Pounds
Weight at beginning of experiment, October 3, 1925 1,153.30 1,136.60
Weight at close of experiment, November 17, 1925 .... 1,546.60 1,588.30
Gain per lot in 46 days ..--...................................... 393.30 451.70
Average daily gain per head .................... ... ... 1.22 1.40
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight ..... 7.41 8.63
Pounds of corn to make 100 pounds gain ................. 419.90 365.39
Pounds of fish meal to make 100 pounds gain ......... 46.65........
Pounds of alfalfa meal to make 100 pounds gain.... ........... 81.24
Pounds of cottonseed meal to make 100 pounds gain ............ 40.62
Total pounds of feed to make 100 pounds gain........ 466.55 487.69
EXPERIMENT V. Comparison of shell corn and fish meal with
shelled corn, alfalfa meal and cottonseed meal.
This experiment is a duplication of Experiment IV. The
same amounts of feed were given each lot as in the preceding
experiment.
*Calculated from Florida Experiment Station Annual Report, 1926.










HOGS IN FLORIDA


Table 7, which gives the results of the experiment, shows
that cottonseed meal produced a better average daily gain than
did the fish meal, thus bearing out the results obtained in Ex-
periment IV. However, both of these protein supplements
gave satisfactory results.

TABLE 7
Results of Experiment Feeding Shelled Corn and Fish Meal in Com-
parison With Shelled Corn, Alfalfa Meal and Cottonseed Meal.*
Ten hogs in each lot. Lot I Lot II
Pounds Ponuds
Weight at beginning of experiment, December 8, 1925 1,286.60 1,313.30
Weight at close of experiment, January 28, 1926 .... 1,960.00 2,080.00
Gain per lot in 51 days ....--............----- ....- .............. 673.40 766.70
Average daily gain per head ..........-......-..................... 1.32 1.50
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight .... 10.26 11.44
Pounds of corn to make 100 pounds of gain-............... 415.65 352.15
Pounds of fish meal to make 100 pounds of gain....... 46.18 .......
Pounds of cottonseed meal to make 100 pounds gain ............. 39.48
Pounds of alfalfa meal to make 100 pounds gain...... ............. 78.97
Total pounds of feed to make 100 pounds gain...... 461.83 470.60

EXPERIMENT VI. Comparison of shell corn and fish meal with
shelled corn, alfalfa meal and cottonseed meal.
A third experiment was conducted to determine the compara-
tive feeding value of shelled corn and fish meal against shelled
corn, cottonseed meal and alfalfa meal. Fourteen hogs were
used in the experiment. As in the two preceding experiments,
Lot I was fed shelled corn nine parts and fish meal one part
by weight, while Lot II received shelled corn nine parts, cot-
ton seed meal one part, and alfalfa meal two parts, by weight.
The results of this experiment indicate that the conclusions
drawn from Experiments IV and V were correct, and that fish
meal, cottonseed meal, and alfalfa meal are all good protein
supplements to feed with corn. In this experiment, cottonseed
meal and alfalfa meal produced the best average daily gain.
Detailed results of the experiment are shown in Table 8.
Calculated from Florida Experiment Station Annual Report, 1926.










22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

y -". 'r -r















Fig. 12. A nice bunch of hogs that will soon be ready for the peanut field.

TABLE 8
Results of Experiment Feeding Shelled Corn and Fish Meal in Com-
parison with Shelled Corn, Alfalfa Meal and Cottonseed Meal.*
Seven hogs in each lot. Lot I Lot II
Pounds Pounds
Weight at beginning of experiment, March 10, 1926 808.30 826.60
Weight at close of experiment, May 4, 1926 -..-........------.. 1,251.60 1,285.00
Gain per lot in 55 days ..-..........-------......-.....-------------......--..--...--.. 443.30 458.44
Average daily gain per head .....-.....-......------ --.----------............. 1.15 1.19
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight...... 9.97 10.08
Pounds of corn to make 100 pounds gain ................... -------------400.97 387.76
Pounds of fish meal to make 100 pounds gain ...... 44.55 .........
Pounds of cottonseed meal to make 100 pounds gain .............. 43.08
Pounds of alfalfa meal to make 100 pounds gain ...............-.... 86.16
Total pounds of feed to make 100 pounds gain ........ 445.42 517.00

The cottonseed meal used in all of the feeding experiments
was the bright meal, seven percent ammonia. The fish meal was
the pure ground fish meal with the following guaranteed analy-
sis:
P rotein ........... .................................... ............. 55 percent
F a t ............................................................ ................................. 4 p er cen t
F ib er ...................... ................................................................. 2 p er cen t
M in eral m atter ..................................... ............................ 15 percent
The results given in a number of the above feeding experi-
ments are no doubt somewhat of a surprise to many of those
who have not kept in close touch with hog feeding experiments
in recent years. During the past 10 years, a good deal of at-
tention has been given to the feeding of fish meal and cotton-
seed meal as a protein supplement. In the past there has been
Calculated from Florida Experiment Station Annual Report, 1926.









HOGS IN FLORIDA 23

a very general feeling that it was dangerous to feed cotton-
seed meal to hogs. A number of farmers reported that cotton-
seed meal was poisonous to hogs, and this opinion was borne
out by several experiments.
During recent years, however, the process of manufacturing
cottonseed meal has changed greatly and the meal now put on
the market can be fed without danger of poisoning hogs. It
is still necessary, though, to exercise care and judgment in
feeding cottonseed meal. The fact that cottonseed meal is a
good feed is no reason that it should be fed in unlimited
amounts. If cottonseed meal is fed with corn in the amount
needed to properly balance the feed, which will be from 10 to
12 percent of the ration, no bad results are apt to result from
its use.









.. .
A i -


Fig. 13. A spring crop of pigs that will be ready for the fall market.

The Texas Experiment Station has been doing a lot of work
in feeding cottonseed meal to hogs. In some of their experi-
ments the feeding tests were for short periods of from 60 to
80 days, while in other tests the experiments were continued
from the time the sows were bred until the pigs produced were
ready for market. The following is a summary of some of
the work at the Texas station:

COTTONSEED MEAL FEEDING AT TEXAS EXPERIMENT
STATION
(From a paper read before the Association of Southern Agri-
cultural Workers by Fred Hale, February 1, 1928, Memphis,
Tennessee.)
The questions that the Texas Experiment Station attempted
to answer in their experiments were as follows:









24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

"Can the ration for hogs contain enough cottonseed meal to
approximately balance the protein part of the ration without
producing death from the so-called cottonseed meal poisoning?
"Can cottonseed meal be included in the ration for brood
sows during their gestation and lactation periods, and to suck-
ling pigs, without producing bad results from cottonseed meal
poisoning?
"Can pigs be carried from weaning to a market weight of
225 pounds on a ration containing cottonseed meal as a major
part of the protein part of the ration?
"Can cottonseed meal be fed to pigs, free-choice style in a
self-feeder?"
Three hundred fifty pigs and eight brood sows were used in
these experiments, and the experiments were under observation
from November, 1923, to February 1, 1928, and are still being
continued.
The brood sows were started on a ration composed of ground
milo 85 percent, prime cottonseed meal 15 percent (all parts
by weight), and a mineral mixture made up of equal parts of
hardwood ashes, air-slacked lime and sodium chloride composed
1 percent of the ration. In February, 1925, the ration was
changed to milo 75 percent, wheat shorts 10 percent, and cot-
tonseed meal 15 percent. One and one-half pounds limestone
and one pound of salt were added to each 100 pounds of the
above mixture. The hogs were on Sudan grass and pasture
during the summer and oat pasture in the winter.
The following table supplied by the Texas Experiment Sta-
tion gives the date of farrowing and number of pigs farrowed
from March, 1924, to September, 1926:
Number of Pigs Farrowed in Experiment at Texas Experiment Station,
March, 1924, to September, 1926.
Sow March Sept. March Sept. March Sept. Total
No. 1924 1924 1925 1925 1926 1926
15 10 6 5 12 12 12 57
31 11 4 5 15 9 11 55
44 9 5 8 Missed 15 12 49
161

These results would indicate that the feeding of cottonseed
meal had no bad effects on reproduction. It is stated that the
sows were fed from eight to ten pounds of grain per day per
head during the time they were nursing their pigs, the pigs
being weaned when ten weeks old. This meant that for a
period of seven to eight weeks the sows were eating from 1.2
to 1.5 pounds of cottonseed meal daily.























.;


S1. A.






r *** ~lYI LI-':' .


Fig. 14. Part of a carload of pig club barrows. Suwannee County. Courtesy R. W. Blacklock.


5~T"'~:


s-^,


Pw


.
W









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The Texas Experiment Station has the following to say
about some later stages of the experiment: "To carry these
tests into the second generation, two gilts were saved from
the old sows, and were developed to breeding age on the same
ration fed to the sows. These gilts farrowed their first litter
in September, 1926, and each farrowed 12 normal pigs. They
farrowed their second litter in March, 1927, one gilt farrowing
14 pigs and the other gilt 10 pigs. In September, 1927, these
two gilts farrowed their third consecutive litter on a ration con-
taining 15% cottonseed meal-one gilt farrowed 14 pigs and
the other gilt 10 pigs. These results do not mean that a ration
containing 15% cottonseed meal is the best ration, but simply
that no poisoning effects are produced when the ration contains
cottonseed meal and that the second generation of pigs on such
a ration is just as normal as is the first generation."
The experiment was continued to determine the effect of
cottonseed meal on fattening and growing pigs: "In September,
1924, Warren divided 20 pigs from cottonseed meal fed sows
into two lots of 10 pigs each. One lot was fed a ration of
ground corn 90 parts and tankage 10 parts, by weight. The
second lot was fed a ration composed of ground corn 85 parts
and cottonseed meal 15 parts, by weight. The results of that
test are summarized in the following table:
Test Began Sept. 22, 1924, Closed Dec. 11, 1924 (80 Days) Dry Lot.


o1 O0 zz
FM O3 '3 o r'


I 10 103.5 220.6 117.1 1.46 356.2 4171
II 10 103.6 215.9 112.3 1.40 371.5 4172

"None of the pigs in the cottonseed meal lot showed any
signs of bad effects from the cottonseed meal, and it is to be
remembered that this lot was carried from pigs started on
feed in a creep to a market weight of 215 pounds on a ration
containing 15% cottonseed meal."
COTTONSEED MEAL AND FISH MEAL IMPORTANT
SOUTHERN FEEDS
Cottonseed meal supplies protein in the cheapest form of any
of our protein feeds. It is a Southern product and more of it
in the future should be fed to our Southern livestock. It is








HOGS IN FLORIDA 27

necessary to remember, however, that it is possible to overfeed
with cottonseed meal. It is therefore never advisable to use
a ration that contains more than 10 percent to 12 percent of
cottonseed meal when feeding hogs. This percentage, of cotton-
seed meal is sufficient to balance up the ration so that satis-
factory gains may be expected.
Fish meal is a much newer protein supplement than many of
the other protein feeds used in this country. German investiga-
tors, however, reported on the feeding value of fish meal many
years ago. During the past ten years a large number of feed-
ing experiments have been conducted in various parts of the
United States with fish meal. It has not only been used in hog
feeding experiments, but with dairy cows and poultry. Good
results have been reported with all classes of livestock. Fish
meal not only supplies a large amount of protein, but it also
supplies a considerable amount of mineral matter in a very
desirable form.

HOME CURING PORK*

The home-curing of pork presents some difficulty to the aver-
age Florida farmer, due to the mild temperature which prevails
throughout most of the year. Much of this difficulty may be
overcome by observing a few precautions which in themselves
are simple, but when neglected are sure to result either in a
total loss of the meat, or in leaving it in a tainted and very in-
ferior condition.
The hog should be confined for twenty-four hours before
butchering. During this time there should be plenty of water
given him, but no feed. This allows the intestinal tract to become
emuty, making the carcass more easily cleaned. As soon as a
hog is killed fermentation begins in the intestines if they are full
of food. This fermentation may be sufficient to taint the meat
should there be any delay in butchering. As fresh meat absorbs
odors readily, it is not uncommon to find cured meat with a dis-
agreeable taste due to this cause.
As soon as the hair is scraped off, wash the skin with cold
water, and remove the internal organs. If the weather is cool
the carcass should remain hanging overnight, and if cool
weather continues, leave the body undisturbed until the thickest
pieces of meat are thoroughly chilled to the bone. Should the
weather turn warm, and no ice is available, it may be advisable
to cut up the meat before it is cool so that the cooling may pro-
ceed more rapidly. It is necessary to have all animal heat out of
Reprint from Florida Extension Division Bulletin No. 11.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


the meat before salting, or souring will occur near the bone in
the larger pieces.
It is always a wise precaution to have a supply of ice on hand.
If only one- or two hogs are to be killed there should be two hun-
dred pounds of ice for every one hundred pounds of meat. In
case the weather turns warm, chop the ice into small pieces and
spread a layer on the floor or table, sprinkle some salt on the ice,
then lay the pieces of meat skin-side down and cover them with
chopped ice. If the meat remains in this condition for twenty-
four hours it will be thoroughly chilled. If, however, cold stor-
age is cdnvenient, with facilities for handling meat, it may be
more economical to place the meat in the cooling room until
thoroughly chilled, and ready for salting. Several ice plants in
Florida have cooling rooms provided for handling the farmer's
meat, and some have additional facilities for salting and smok-
ing. A nominal charge is made for curing, and for storing the
meat until it is thoroughly cured and smoked.

CURING THE MEAT

After the hog has been slaughtered, dressed and properly
cooled, the next step is to cut up the carcass. In preparing the
hams they must be trimmed closely, making them appear plump
and without any ragged ends. The shank-bone should be cut
short, and the shoulder cut as closely behind the shoulder blade
as possible, making the piece round and attractive. The same
holds true in cutting out the backbone, and the sides for bacon.
Trim off all the parts that make the piece look ragged, before
packing the meat away for curing. Most of the pieces trimmed
off can be made into sausage, so there will be no waste.
The most important factor in the process of curing meat is
that of destroying the bacterial organisms which bring about
decay. There are many preservatives that might be used were
this the only factor to be considered. In curing meats it is
necessary to use such materials as are not poisonous, or will
make the meat unfit for human consumption. A second factor
that must be regarded is the preservation of such flavors as will
make the meat palatable, digestible and otherwise fit for human
consumption. Meat with the meaty flavor gone would be worth
little.
There are two methods of curing pork commonly used in the
South-curing in brine, or pickling and dry curing. The former
method is the more simple in that no expensive equipment need
be provided. Unless cold storage is available, the latter method
can be practiced only during cold weather. ,









HOGS IN FLORIDA


CURING IN BRINE, OR PICKLING
After the meat has been cut up and trimmed, lay it out on
clean muslin or some other clean surface, or on fresh pine-tops,
sprinkle with salt, and let it lie from twenty-four to forty-eight
hours, or until it is thoroughly cooled before attempting the
curing process. Meat lying in this condition for forty-eight
hours will lose considerable bloody water, and will thus avoid
the necessity for changing the brine after the meat has been
placed in the solution. Meat that has not been thoroughly
chilled, or retains some of the animal heat, is very likely to sour
or become tainted near the bone. This is particularly true with
large hams.
Next, provide thoroughly clean barrels or boxes and place the
meat in them snugly, after having washed off the salt and the
bloody water, and cover it with a solution made as follows:

Salt ..........................-........... .........-....--- ... 8 pounds
Saltpeter ..----.................. .... -----....... .. .... 2 ounces
Sugar ................... .....---- .............. ...... 3 pounds
or,
Cane syrup ...--... ------------............. .....-.--.. 3 pints

Dissolve this mixture in 4 gallons of water. Increase the quan-
tity of solution, maintaining these proportions, in keeping with
the amount of meat to be cured. This brine should be strong
enough to float a fresh egg-a spoiled egg will always float.
Another solution may be made and used in this way:

Salt .................. .. ..... ............................. 30 pounds
Saltpeter ----....... ....................------....--- ... 5 ounces
Soda .- ----............ ..............-....... 8 ounces
Brown sugar ............................ ..-- .................. ... 10 pounds
or,
Molasses ...---............--- .. ---....-.....----. 1 gallon

Dissolve this mixture in 20 gallons of water. This will be suf-
ficient for 400 to 500 pounds of meat. Put the solution in a large
kettle and let it come to a boil, then take from the fire and skim.
When cold, pour the solution onto the meat and let it stand five
weeks. The larger pieces will require a little longer time and the
smaller ones not so long. Do not put in any pieces that are
tainted or have begun to sour, for they are useless, and will spoil
all the pieces in the box or barrel if left a week or ten days with
them.
It is very important that every part of the meat should be








30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

well covered by the solution. A ten-pound ham should stand
in this solution about forty days, and a fifteen-pound ham sixty
days. The brine should be examined every week, as there is
always some possibility of its souring, which would spoil the
meat. If the brine is found to be sour, remove all of it, wash the
meat and the box or barrel, and then make a fresh solution. If
a mold appears on the surface, skim it off.
The next step is to hang the meat up and let it dry for three
or four days, when it will be ready for smoking.

DRY CURING
Another method of curing pork is known as "dry" curing.
After the meat has been thoroughly cooled, and all the animal
heat gone, place each piece of meat on a clean, bleached muslin
cloth about a yard square, or on an opened flour sack, after cov-
ering the cloth with newspapers. Place the ham or shoulder
skin-side down on top of the newspapers and apply the follow-
ing:
To a fifteen-pound ham, take 1 teacup of granulated sugar,
2 teacups of salt, 2 tablespoons of black pepper, and 1 table-
spoon of cayenne pepper. Place all in a vessel and mix thor-
oughly. Continue to rub this into the meat until every part
of the meat has absorbed all it will. It is necessary to do this
very thoroughly. After this application, fold the cloth entirely
around the meat, being careful that every piece is well covered,
and hang in a cool place.
The main advantage of dry curing is that it holds to a large
extent the original flavor; but it is more difficult to cure meat in
this way, particularly during warm weather, and should never
be attempted unless the weather is cool. When handling thick,
heavy hams or shoulders during warm weather it will be dif-
ficult to prevent souring close to the bone unless a curing solu-
tion is allowed to come in contact with this part. Since most
persons prefer to leave the bone in the piece, inject a solution of
weak brine and saltpeter with a hypodermic syringe deep into
the piece and around the bone. A special strong needle will be
necessary for the work. These needles are made with a cap on
the end so that when forced into the meat the opening will not
be closed.
SMOKING CURED MEAT
Meat that has been cured in brine will have a better flavor
if it is smoked, which may be done in this way:
After the meat has been in the brine the proper length of
time, take it out and wash off the salt. Let the pieces dry for









HOGS IN FLORIDA 31

twenty-four hours, and they are ready for smoking. From two
to three weeks will be required in the smokehouse. It is not ad-
visable to have a fire in the smokehouse or near the meat as a
high temperature will cause the meat to drip, losing flavor and
moisture. However, a smudge may be used inside the house if
the meat is hung four or five feet above the fire to avoid much
heat and a consequent dripping. It is preferable to have the
fire in a stove outside the smokehouse, and bring the smoke into
the house through a pipe extending well into the house. The
smoking process should be gradual; that is, large amounts should
not be given at any one time. In fact, some recommend giving
a little smoke each morning and allowing the fire to go down be-
fore night. Hickory chips or hard maple with corncobs make
the best smudge and add something to the flavor of the meat.
Do not use pine, soft woods, or any resinous materials as they
deposit soot and make the meat unsightly. The smoking should
be continued until the meat is a dark amber color. It is pos-
sible to smoke meat in much less time than this, but it is pref-
erable not to hasten the process.

PREPARATION FOR KEEPING
If the weather is moderately cool and the meat is to be kept
for a short time only, it may remain in the smokehouse. Of
course, it should be kept dark and well screened. If it is to be
kept for an indefinite time, wrap each piece first in paper, then
cover with burlap, and then dip it in milk of lime, which is a
lime solution with a larger quantity of lime than the water will
dissolve; or use a yellow wash made as follows:
For 100 pounds of ham or bacon, take 3 pounds of barium
sulphate, 1/-pound of glue, 3/4-pound of chrome yellow (lead
chromate), and 6 ounces of flour. Mix the flour with 1 gallon of
water; dissolve the chrome in 1 quart of water; add this and
the glue to the flour mixture and bring it to a boil; then stir
in the barium sulphate slowly. Let it stand twenty-four hours,
then apply it with a brush thoroughly, covering every crack.




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