Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Reasons for raising more swine
 Breeds of swine: A short history...
 Methods of swine breeding
 Swine breeding program
 Care and management of the breeding...
 Feeds for swine
 Equipment for swine
 Common diseases and parasites of...
 Marketing hogs
 Slaughtering and curing pork
 Recipes for pork from U.S.D.A.
 Showing and judging hogs
 General statistical swine information,...
 Table of Contents

Group Title: New Series - State of Florida. Department of Agriculture ; no. 21
Title: Hog production and marketing in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015018/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hog production and marketing in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin Florida. Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: 285 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lewis, L. H ( Lester H )
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee <Fla.>
Publication Date: 1947
Subject: Swine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by L.H. Lewis.
General Note: "October, 1947".
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00015018
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002198652
oclc - 44479777
notis - ALD8530

Table of Contents
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Reasons for raising more swine
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Breeds of swine: A short history of development of swine types
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Methods of swine breeding
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Swine breeding program
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Care and management of the breeding herd
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Feeds for swine
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Equipment for swine
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Common diseases and parasites of swine
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Marketing hogs
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
    Slaughtering and curing pork
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Recipes for pork from U.S.D.A.
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
    Showing and judging hogs
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
    General statistical swine information, etc.
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
    Table of Contents
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
Full Text
2~6- -

Bulletin No. 21

New Series

October, 1947

Hog Production

and Marketing

in Florida
c/o Florida State Marketing Bureau
P. O. Box 779
Jacksonville, Florida

NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner



Revision of bul. no. 21, April, 1929,
S Dec. 1938, March, 1946

I -

I1 -

Bulletin No. 21

Hog Production

and Marketing

in Florida

c/o Florida State Marketing Bureau
P. O. Box 779
Jacksonville, Florida

Excellent Type Poland China Sow
Pansy A-190630 Grand Champion Poland China Sow at the National
Swine Show, 1934
-Compliments of Seminole Farms, Donalsonville, Ga.

NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner

October, 1947

New Series


Chapter Pages
Acknowledgments -.................- -------........---.. 3

I Reasons for Raising More Swine.-------........ 5- 10

II Breeds of Swine _---...-..-......-....---------------. 11- 32

III Methods of Swine Breeding---.. ..----.--------- .. 33- 38

IV Swine Breeding Program----.. --...............--. .---.. 39- 56

V Care and Management of the Breeding Herd.. 57- 68

VI Nutrition ..-----... -.... .------..--------. 69- 94

VII Feeds for Swine -.........-......-------------.. 95-138

VIII Equipment for Swine -...--....-.------------.. 139-164

IX Common Diseases and Parasites of Swine ....- 165-182

X Marketing Hogs......-- ...-------------183-226

XI Slaughtering and Curing Pork ...-.......---------.227-240

XII Recipes for Pork from U.S.D.A. --..--------241-248

XIII Showing and Judging Hogs .....--............------.249-258

XIV General Statistical Swine Information-
Appendix .-----........-...-..............-..------259-278


We wish to express our appreciation to all agencies from
whose data materials were taken and especially to the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Extension
Service, Florida Livestock Sanitary Board, Agricultural
agents of the various railroads, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, State Agricultural Experiment Stations, various
Meat Packers and different Swine Breeders' Record As-

We wish to give personal expression of appreciation to
Drs. A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock, George Davis of the
Florida Experiment Station, and to Neill Rhodes of the
State Marketing Bureau, V. W. Lewis, General Livestock
Agent, and W. B. McSpadden, Livestock Agent of the Atlan-
tic Coast Line Railway, and E. M. Nix, Agricultural Agent
of the Seaboard Railway who read over the manuscript.
Many valuable suggestions were offered by Prof. W. E.
Stokes of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station on
Feeding and Grazing crops.

Special appreciation is expressed to Dr. George bavis
who wrote the material on vitamins as well as read over
the material in the Chapter on Nutrition, and to Dr. J. V.
Knapp, State Veterinarian, who wrote Chapter 9, Diseases
and Parasites of Swine, and V. W. Lewis, who helped con-
dense material. As the poet said,-

"We have gathered posies from other men's flowers,
Nothing but the thread that binds them is ours."

The author trusts that this Bulletin may serve well the
Swine Industry of Florida.


Reasons For Raising More Swine
The hog is one of the most dependable sources of agri-
cultural income being widely recognized for its efficient
utilization of feed and its adaptation to various systems of
farming, and being produced on about three-fourths of the
farms of the United States and consuming from 40 to 50 per
cent of the entire corn crop. In agricultural value it repre-
sents about one-tenth of the total agricultural income of the
nation. (Before World War II.)
There are many valuable qualities found in pork products,
and more pork is consumed per capital than any other meat
in the U. S. A. The South consumes a higher percentage
of pork than any other like area of the United States. The
following Table shows the regional annual per capital con-
sumption of pork for the U. S. A. (Furnished by Armour
& Company)
Section Urban Rural Total
North Atlantic ..............61.5 pounds 85.5 pounds 67.7 pounds
East North Central ....69.3 pounds 109.9 pounds 88.5 pounds
West North Central ....67.2 pounds 113.1 pounds 97.8 pounds
South Atlantic ..........76.3 pounds 117.6 pounds 107.1 pounds
South Central ..............79.7 pounds 121.3 pounds 112.8 pounds
Western ........................11.2 pounds 81.5 pounds 71.3 pounds
Total ..........................66.3 pounds 109.7 pounds 89.6 pounds

"During a 10-year period from 1932 to 1941, the average
annual per capital consumption of meat for the United States
was 137.84 pounds of which 68.83 pounds were pork, 54.53
pounds were beef, 7.75 pounds veal, 6.73 pounds were mut-
ton and lamb, and 12.67 pounds of lard, making a total of
these meats and lard of 150.51 pounds." (USDA.)
There are numerous advantages of swine on Florida
farms, namely-
1. To provide a home-grown meat supply and to add va-
riety to the family food supply; pork is high in protein and
fat, is very palatable, and can be cooked with a greater num-
ber of vegetables than any other meat; it is high in health-
giving qualities, containing a wide variety of amino acids
and is very high in the Vitamin B's; it is one of the richest
and most easily digested of all meats when eaten in the
proper quantities.


2. It is suitable for curing, and smoking enhances its
taste and it is thought its keeping qualities. The fat of pork,
if eaten in limited quantities, is the most easily digested of
all fats except butter. (See Page 270.)
3. They help maintain the fertility of the soil. (Page
4. They add to the volume of business and to the total
farm income.
5. They help distribute the use of labor, power and equip-
ment over the entire year, when grown with other crops.
6. They distribute production and marketing risks,
thereby giving a cash income each month of the year.
7. They save feed which might otherwise be wasted and
may be used to recover otherwise lost feed in cattle-feeding
8. They use by-products of the field, dairy, and acorns or
mast, tubers or roots, as well as grains, and seeds from
grasses and legume crops, garbage, etc.
9. A higher price is generally obtained by selling field
crops through hogs than by selling them as raw products.
10. If they are fed the right proportions with the proper
amounts, kind and quality of feeds, they will balance their
rations and "make hogs" of themselves and will do it more
economically than if they are hand-fed.
11. For years the hog has been known as the "mortgage-
lifter"; and he requires a smaller investment and will give a
quicker and larger income than most any other animal.
12. Swine is the most efficient utilizer of feed of the
various meat animals, unless it be the chicken. Swine and
poultry are best adapted to diversified and intensified farm-
ing, as they have a peculiar advantage where a large income
is expected on a small investment or small acreage, and the
income is usually quick as they obtain market weight at an
* early age.
13. Swine will dress a higher per cent than most meat
animals, dressing on well-finished animals between 75 and
80 per cent.
14. They are prolific and capable of producing, under
proper care and management, two litters of pigs per year
weighing 200 pounds each in a period of 6 to 7 months; and
the gilts may be bred when from 9 to 10 months of age and
farrow on or before their first birthday anniversary. The
fact that hogs are prolific and early maturing adds to their
usefulness and popularity.


15. With adequate fencing, self-feeding devices, etc.
crops can be harvested by hogs and save much labor. Nu-
merous feed crops can be grown in Florida adaptable to hog-
feeding operations.
16. Purebred hogs and improved high grades have done
well in Florida.
'17. There are approximately 35,000,000 acres of land in
Florida, of which 8,000,000 to 12,000,000 acres are adapted
to the production of feed crops suitable for swine-feeding;
furthermore rainfall is abundant and temperature mild,-
making for a growth of feed for swine the year-round.
18. Florida is not producing its present pork needs,
therefore there is an opportunity for the expansion of swine
in Florida.

The origin or the ancestry of swine is lost in antiquity,
but the remains of one of the progenitors have been found in
the rocks of the Middle Miocene to the Pliocene age in India,
Africa, and Europe; also the earliest representatives of the
hog family appear in the formations of the Eocene period of
both Europe and North America. Geologists claim that it
dates from the Pliocene period-even before man. The exact
origin of domestic swine, according to zoology, is not defi-
nitely known, but it is generally accepted that they de-
scended from the wild boar Sus scrofa of North Africa,
Europe, and Asia.
The Orient appears to be the first section of the world to
have domesticated hogs. The names "hog" and "swine"
seem to have their origin in "hag" meaning to "cut." Ac-
cording to Chinese history, swine have existed since about
4500 B.C., and Biblical history speaks of swine 1500 B.C. It
is thought that hogs were first brought to the North Ameri-
can continent by Columbus on his second voyage in 1493 to
Haiti in the new world. It was Hernando DeSoto who intro-
duced them into the U.S.A. in May, 1539, when he landed in
Florida with 13 head of hogs which later developed into a
large drove; also hogs were brought by the first settlers
from England.
Swine have followed civilized man the world over and
have been of inestimable food value to him. One authority
states of swine and its uses to man, "whenever energy, in-
itiative, courage, strength, resistance to fatigue and hard-
ships are displayed by colonizers, pioneers or explorers, it
has been due in great measure to the liberal use of pork as a


Most of the foundation for the breeds of swine in the
United States originated principally in England or China
with some from Spain and Portugal. Of the 10 to 12 breeds
of hogs used commercially in the United States, about 8 of
these breeds were developed within the United States.
With a carefully thought-out plan, starting with the
proper type of breed and using the proper feeding, foraging,
equipment, grading, butchering and marketing practices, the
producer is well assured of success. There is an old adage
that seems especially to apply to the production of swine,
"One must give in order to get;" and the producer must give
time, energy, and last but not least, his thought to the proj-
ect. Much attention must be given to details of hog produc-
tion such as breeding, feeding, selection, and marketing;
these are a few of the things the successful producer prac-
The production of swine properly divides itself into two
main divisions-large scale production by the exclusive
swine producer, and the few on the average farm. The com-
mercial producer makes a special business of swine produc-
tion while the farmer produces swine more as a "by-prod-
uct." Often the small producer is so busy with other mani-
fold duties on the farm that his swine do not get the
necessary attention.
Do not go into the production of swine on a broad scale
without knowing in advance the essential functions involved
in its production. It takes feed to make good hogs; and one
must study future market possibilities to justify his future
operations. The fact that hogs brought a good price last
year is no assurance they will bring a good price next year,
therefore the producer must study market conditions and
correctly analyze important factors associated with produc-
tion and marketing. It is difficult to always market hogs at
the right time to bring high prices.
There is an opportunity for every producer to produce
the meat for home consumption; the breed selected should
be adapted to local conditions and general market demands.
Every farmer must be his own judge as to the amount of
hogs he should raise. Many producers try to market a rath-
er uniform number of hogs each year and generally find
that this plan is profitable, especially with quality breeding
and with a variety of quality feeds raised at home. It is bet-
ter to have ample feed with some to spare than to produce
more hogs than one can finish, as the lack of feed and finish
are the two great curses of hog production today in Florida.


A few factors to consider in producing hogs or the num-
ber of hogs to produce, are,-
1. The adaptability of the soil to growing crops econom-
ically and suitable for hogs.
2. The farmer's inclination to produce hogs; as he
should know that he likes hogs and that he will do every-
thing he can to make them thrive on his farm.
3. The quantity of by-products that could be eaten by
hogs which otherwise would be wasted.
4. The division of the farm into suitable crops or pas-
tures for year-round grazing for hogs. Ample and necessary
fencing is a limiting factor.
5. Ample water of good quality and plenty of shade are
6. Producers should endeavor to produce two litters,
6 to 8 pigs per litter from each sow, or 12 to 16 pigs per sow
7. Plenty of feed for the young pigs and the brood sow,
and sufficient feed of the right kinds to finish the litters to
190 to 225 pounds, live weight, in 6 to 8 months.
8. The corn-hog ratio is the number of bushels of No. 3
yellow corn which equals the value of 100 lbs. of hog live
weight. The more bushels of corn one can purchase with
100 lbs. live weight of hog, generally the more profitable his
feeding operation.
9. The protection of hogs against disease, parasites, ex-
posure, starvation, etc.
10. The quality of breeding stock one intends to use. A
purebred boar of quality, breeding and type is indispensable;.
likewise one should produce ample quantity and quality of
11. How do profits from hogs compare with other live-
stock or will the crops be sold through livestock? (Hogs).
1 12. Is one generally informed on good breeding, feeding,
herd management and marketing practices?
13. Can the necessary grain equivalent or concentrate
feeds be raised which are suitable for finishing hogs?
14. Does one intend to use the proper protein and min-
eral supplements necessary for growth and development?
15. Can feeds be raised cheaply enough to stay with
hogs under adverse conditions?


16. The nearness to markets or kind of markets that are
accessible and the degree of cooperation that may be ob-
tained from the neighbors in making sales. As far as possi-
ble one should practice timely breeding to fit timely selling,
to obtain best prices.
17. One should engage in the hog business with the idea
of making it a permanent vocation, therefore one should
study timely breeding, feeding, and management, to fit
timely selling, as the market should be "fed and not bled."
Table 2 shows a comparison of monthly marketing of hogs
as practiced by the average producer of the U.S.A. and
Florida for a 3-year period, 1940-43. Source of data-U.S.-
D.A. Agricultural Production and Marketing Service).

January ...... .........
February ................
March .......................
April ........................-
May .......................
June ... ..............
July .......................
August .....................
September ...............
October .....................
November ................
December .................

U. S. A. Average -Florida Average
... 10.56 percent................... 20.07 percent
.. 8.06 percent................ 11.96 percent
... 8.13 percent.................... 7.50 percent
... 7.83 percent .......... ....... 5.16 percent
... 8.30 percent.................... 4.67 percent
... 7.96 percent.................... 5.00 percent
... 6.83 percent -- .............. 4.70 percent
.. 6.13 percent.............. 4.40 percent
... 6.70 percent.................... 5.83 percent
... 8.20 percent.................... 6.40 percent
... 9.76 percent ............... 8.90 percent
... 11.63 percent.................... 15.40 percent

Total ....................-100 percent....................100 percent

Table 2 shows that Florida producers market in a 6-
months period, from April 1st to Oct. 1st only 29.76 per cent
of their hogs, or 70.24 per cent from Oct. 1st to April 1st;
in a 4-months period November 1st to March 1st, Florida
producers market 56.33 per cent of their hogs. Would it
not be best to produce and sell more hogs from March 1st
to September 1st when prices are 30 to 36 per cent higher
than they are from November 1st to March 1st?


Breeds of Swine
Prior to the development of the railroads of the United
States and during their early history, the type of hog which
went to market existed in one which carried a large frame
and strong legs so that it could be driven. In most instances
it was not a highly finished market animal. With the open-
ing up of the West in what is known as the "Corn Belt,"
producers began to ship hogs to market rather than drive
them. This ultimately resulted in a demand for a hog to
consume large quantities of corn and one with early matur-
ing characteristics and less ability to travel on foot.
Many breeders then selected the early maturing kind,
with less frame, finer in bone, and finally the "chuffy type."
Later producers saw the extreme to which they had gone in
these so-called "hot-bloods" or the "chuffy type," and the
need for making a change to a more desirable type. They
then began the selection of what is known as the "big type"
which was long, leggy, narrow and shallow, but had the re-
deeming feature of large litters and plenty of milk. How-
ever this type was too slow in maturing, was coarse, and
about as undesirable and unprofitable to producers as the
smaller, fine boned, "chuffy, hot-bloods" described above.
Fortunately there were many far-seeing breeders who
held the idea that the "Intermediate Type" hog was more
profitable, and beginning about 20 years ago much investi-
gational and experimental work was started to ascertain the
type of hog necessary to meet producer and consumer wish-
es. This resulted in the type of hog known as the "meat
type" or what is generally called the "Intermediate Type."
It is medium in length, with well sprung ribs, deep in body,
medium in length of leg and bone refinement, smooth over
the shoulders and sides with a well-filled ham. This type of
hog will produce, in good individuals, from 8 to 10 pigs per
litter, two litters per year. It will also produce a desirable
finished carcass at live weight approximately 200 pounds in
6 months, and produce maximum yields of high priced cuts;
namely,-loin, bacon and ham.
Swine Type Investigational Work
It is the observation of many that the tail setting of the
"Intermediate Type" hog should be a little higher to make a


Fig. 1-Hampshire hogs ready for the feed lot in the south ern part of Florida.
Ulmerton Ranch, Largo, Florida.

4- i

Note the quality and thrift of these pigs.
Courtesy Atlantic Coast Line RMlroad


more perfect ham, that it should carry a little more lean
meat in its back and a little less fat in its belly. The 6th
Annual Report of the Regional Swine Breeding Laboratory,
Ames, Iowa, June 30, 1943, describes the possible dimen-
sions of a well-finished hog of 225 pounds, live weight, as
being about 40 to 42 inches from the tail setting to a point
between the ears, width 11 to 12 inches uniformly through-
out, depth 14 to. 15 inches just back of the shoulders.
In Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 322
is found the following statement: "A number of measure-
ments were taken on different carcasses." While the auth-
ors were unable to devise any system which was absolutely
accurate, yet it was found after some practice that certain
measurements could be made with a reasonable degree of
accuracy. Table 2-A shows the measurements taken and
represent the average measurements for the carcass of an
Intermediate Type of hog, live weight 225 pounds. (See Fig.
2 also.)

(See Cut)

Fig. 2
Snout to rear toe .................... ..... 67
Snout to first thoracic vertebra.... 17
First thoracic vertebra to H-bone 28.5
H-bone to rear toe ...................... 22.8
Depth of chest .................................. 11.5
Depth of fat back ....................... '1.8
Circumference of fore shanki ...... 5.8

"The length of the body proper seemed to vary with the
different individuals rather than with type. The Interme-
diate type, either hand-fed or self-fed, proved the most de-
sirable of the different types studied."



Fig. 3-Comparison of types of Poland China sows: A, small type, weight
275 pounds at 1 year, (or 249 days); B, intermediate type, weight 473 pounds at
1 year, (or 255 days); C, big type, weight 474 pounds at 1 year, (or 256 days).


The following is suggested for Intermediate type or the
most desirable hog:
1. Productiveness,-
(a) Superior prolificacy.
(b) Broodiness-a good utilizer of feed, producer of
plenty of milk.
(c) Adequate length to insure 12-14 evenly spaced
teats 6 to 7 on each side and opposite each other,
extending well forward and to the rear.
(d) Vigor, hardiness and forage ability, a hustler and
a rustler.
2. Feeding Quality,-
(a) Be able to produce 200 or more pounds of pork per
animal in 180 days or less; adequate size, rugged-
ness and quality without coarseness.
(b) Meaty, wide enough to give muscling, deep enough
for the elimination of excess fat back; and plenty
of good bacon; long enough, but not so long as to
delay early maturity.
(c) Strong straight legs of medium length over a short
pastern and set squarely on the corners of the body
with ample width between the forelegs and hind-
(d) Wide between the eyes; a broad, full, wide, not too
long face. Small fox ears and rat tails in all breeds
should be avoided as they are indications of weak-
3. Market Qualifications,-
(a) The primal or principal cuts are ham, bacon, loin
and shoulder. Good finish is valuable, but exces-
sive fat is intolerable. A deep, full, firm fleshed
ham extending down on both sides within 1 to 2
inches of the hock should be emphasized, so that
the rear view width of ham shall be the same at
top and bottom, or wide behind and fullness car-
ried down evenly- not flabby.
(b) The tailhead set high to avoid steep rumps and to
increase the depth of ham.
(c) A straight underline, the body deeper than wide to
increase the bacon strip and to reduce excess fat.
(d) Uniformity of width from end to end to insure full-
ness of loin and fullness behind the shoulders. One
should avoid too broad an animal or too flat spring
of ribs because it produces undesirable loin cuts.


The body should be oblong round but more oblong
than round.
(e) A uniform gradual arched back of moderate height
is preferred (discard highly arched backs) and
bring the top of the arch near the center of the
back instead of toward the rear end of it.
(f) Meaty shoulders of reasonable spread across the
top is desirable but should be in line with the
width of the body with no depression behind them.
The shoulder smooth.
4. As to Meat, preferably more meat well finished with
less fat. As the war is over, excess lard will again be-
come a drag on the market.
'(a) The flesh should be firm and solid even when in
high market condition.
(b) A heavy jowl, wasty middle, wrinkled flabby belly,
should be avoided, and boars should be avoided
with extra heavy sheaths.
(c) Avoid extreme wide backs, yet the animal should
have a good width-not a fish back (or narrow
5. Breed Character,-
(a) All medium type breeds should have firmness of
(b) Clean cut trimness without flabbiness or coarse-
ness anywhere.
(c) Head, clean jowled and face wide and full and
medium to short in length. Head should indicate
(d) Broodiness, prolificacy in sows; alertness and vigor
in boars.
(e) Any strong features characteristic of the breed
that are for the best interest of economy and breed
character should be retained.

Type of Hogs vs. Production Efficiency
The material in Table 3 was taken from Departmental
Circular No. 698, U.S.D.A.
"While this work seems to have some merit, further ex-
perimental work is necessary for final conclusion."
It is, however, the opinion of research workers on this
subject that the future hog must have prolificacy, early ma-
turity, be an economical utilizer of feed, carry a high dress-
ing per cent when finished, and at the same time not
produce an excess of fat.


Within the American breeds of the Intermediate or Meat
type hog, there exists within each breed considerable varia-
tion in type, so much so that it is more important to select
for type in swine production than for minor points. Often
there exists as much variation within the various breeds as
between the breeds.
The number and weight, at 70 days of age, of pigs weaned from
the Small, Intermediate, and Large type of sows.

Per Cent Pigs Average Average Gain
Type of Sow Saved to Weight To Weaning
Weaning Per Pig Age
Small 63.4 32.1 29.6
Intermediate 71.3 37.5 34.7
Large 68.4 39.3 36.5
3 Tests Average Feed Per
Type of Sow Daily Gain 100 lbs. of Gain
Small 0.97 417 2/3
Intermediate 1.21 1/2 400 1/3
Large 1.14 2/3 408
Dressing Per Cent Live Weight 220-225 lbs.
Sm all ............................... ............................77.1%
Intermediate .................-............. -.. 74.3%
Large ........................................74.9%

Some of the principal breeds of swine are-Duroc-Jersey,
Poland China, Spotted Poland China, Hampshire, Berkshire,
Chester White, and a few others. The relative popularity
and distribution of the principal breeds of hogs in the United
States or in Florida may be had by writing to the Secretary
of the different Swine Breeders' Record Associations.
(These Associations and addresses are listed in Appendix
of this bulletin, Page 276.)

The choice of a breed is largely a matter of personal
preference. It is generally wise, however, to choose that
breed most common in the neighborhood. Naturally in se-
lecting animals for breeding purposes, one should take into
account certain historic facts such as the type and adapta-
tion, the number of pigs per litter, the percentage of pigs
weaned and fattened, and rapidity of litter growth, since
these are factors in economical production.

In the material which follows is found a list of the pure-
bred breeds of hogs and a description of eaph breed. The
principal source of the material is U.S.D.A.


Fig. 4-Crown Prince, Junior Yearling Boar, Grand Champion, Illinois.
Duroc-Jersey Board-1945. Courtesy United Duroc Record Ass'n., Peoria, Ill.

*q~s~ -~JE~~9~

Fig. 5-Excellent Type of Duroc-Jersey Sow. 24 months old-Leader's
Lassie, first prized aged sow, and grand champion at the 1931 National Swine
Show. Courtesy United Duroc Record Ass'n., Peoria, Ill.


The Duroc-Jersey breed originated in the northeastern
section of the United States. It was derived from mating
strains of red hogs developed in sections of New York and
New Jersey. Those in New Jersey were originally called
Jersey Reds; those in New York are said to have been devel-
oped by a man who owned a noted stallion named "Duroc."
Because of his popularity the name "Duroc" was given to
the red hogs which this man was breeding. Several years
after the independent breeding of "Durocs" and "Jersey
Reds," these hogs were intermingled in breeding, with the
result that there was formed the breed known at the present
time as Duroc-Jersey. This breed is red in color, without
admixture of any other colors. The popular color is referred
to as cherry red; some animals, however, are quite dark,
while others are quite light.
From its early history the Duroc-Jersey breed was noted
for hardiness and prolificacy. It became popular in the
United States at about the time Poland China breeders were
producing the small type of hogs or so-called "hot-bloods."
This popularity had much to do with making the Duroc-
Jersey breed as widespread as it is today. The legs are of
medium length, with good bone. The sows are prolific and
are good milkers and mothers.
Pigs of this breed of good type attain a weight of 200
pounds or more at 6 months of age and are capable of pro-
ducing a greater weight at a profit if market conditions
justify their being fed for a longer time. The feet and
bones of Duroc-Jersey hogs generally have good quality.
Boars of the breed are massive and have good length and
depth with good backs. Duroc-Jersey sows generally are
upstanding, having good depth with good backs, as well as
good feet and legs.
Poland China
The Poland China hog originated in Butler and Warren
Counties, Ohio, and is possibly the oldest American breed
of hogs. In the seventies, two farmers-A. C. Moore, of
Canton, Ohio, and D. M. Magie, of Oxford, Ohio, developed
a widespread reputation for their hogs and advertised them
quite extensively. Their hogs were known at that time,
respectively, as the "Moore hogs" and the "Magie hogs."
From the Moore and Magie hogs was developed the breed
now known as the "Poland China."
The early Poland China hog was a large, rugged, coarse-
eared, heavy-boned, prolific, spotted animal that attained a



Fig. 6-Poland China Boar-Chief of Staff. Courtesy American Poland
China Record Association, Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Il.

Fig. 7-Gracious Lady. A 411 424. 1st Junior Yearling-Senior and Re-
serve Grand Champion Sow. Iowa, 1944. Bred by Emmert Bros., Mason City,
Iowa. Owned and shown by Brown and Brown, Hampton, Iowa. Courtesy
American Poland China Record Association.



,-. w ii


good market weight but was not of the easiest feeding type.
On only very few farms at present can one find any of the
old "hot-blood" Poland Chinas. A large proportion of grow-
ers of Poland Chinas now keep the Intermediate type. This
is the type that has become by far the most popular because
of its great utility. The boars have big, heavy bone, are
rugged, possess plenty of length and depth, and with it have
good quality. The sows are prolific, good sucklers, and are
capable of raising large litters. They have plenty of length,
are smooth, with good, full shoulders, and well rounded
hams. They are naturally active, take plenty of exercise,
and are capable of producing strong litters at farrowing
time. The color of the present-day Poland China generally
is black. There are six white points on Poland Chinas, name-
ly, all four feet, the tip of the tail, and a splash of white in
the face.
The Poland China is not surpassed by any breed in pro-
ducing a finished carcass at an early age. The meat finds
ready sale on the market. Pigs of this breed may be made
to weigh 200 pounds at 6 months of age.

Spotted Poland China
The Spotted Poland China in many ways is very much
like the Poland China but there is much more white on the

c-- -

Fig. 8--Wildfire. The above photo is one of the easier feeding, thicker
made animals, harmonizing well with public opinion today. Courtesy
National Spotted Poland China Record Association.


Fig. 9-Calico. Grand Champion Sow of Ohio State Fair. We present
her picture as near a perfect ideal in type and color. Courtesy National
Spotted Poland China Record Association, Indianapolis, Ind.

Fig. 10-Chester White Boar, "The Balancer," 454517. Courtesy
Chester White Swine Record Association.
^^^^^^^S w :"-*' ^-^1^
^^^^^^P ^ **'^^*fw^K 1- '
H^^B^ *^^t^-^flfc

t^ A ^ -. ,:

Chester White Swine Record Association*

rl ---~


body of the former. The appearance is rather that of a black
hog with numerous white spots all over.
The general type found in this breed is a hog with good
length, fairly straight, broad back, good depth of body, legs
of medium length with heavy bone of medium quality. The
head is short and broad, and the ears are somewhat larger
than those of the Poland China breed. The sows are prolific
and raise good-sized litters.
Chester White
The Chester White breed had its origin in Chester Coun-
ty, Pa. The large, coarse hogs found in the Eastern States,
especially in Pennsylvania, early in the nineteenth century,
were a mixture of the Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Cheshire
hogs, all of which were of English origin. In Pennsylvania
these hogs were crossed on smaller-type hogs, but the most
successful cross was by using an imported hog from Bed-
fordshire, England. This crossing was continuously im-
proved up to 1848, when the breed reached such a degree of
purity that it could be relied on to reproduce its desirable
qualities. It was named "Chester County White" in 1848,
but the word "County" was soon dropped and the present
name, Chester White, became established.
The Chester White is very prolific. It has a good dispo-


,' :, ,,.

*: i ,B ". ,?-,l--_
.;: .. j ^ . .

Fig. 11-Chester White Sow, Leslie Lillie, courtesy Chester White
Swine Record Ass'n., Levi P. Moore, Secy., Rochester, Ind. *


V4., J


t 1


Fig. 12-Berkshire Boar-Courtesy American Berkshire Swine Record
Ass'n., Springfield, Ill.

-.. It

Fig. 13-Berkshire Sow-Courtesy American Berkshire Swine Record
Ass'n., springfield, Ill.



sition and easily adapts itself to its environment. It ma-
tures early, and, being a good grazer, a good feeder, and pos-
sessing good dressing qualities, has demonstrated its utility
on many farms in the United States.
The Berkshire is one of the oldest of the improved breeds
of swine. It was originated and developed in England and is
still raised extensively in that country. Many animals of
this breed have been imported into the United States and
Canada from English herds. Mention is made of the Berk-
shire hogs in England and Scotland as early as 1789, large
specimens being compared with those of other breeds.
They are of medium size, generally smooth and of good
length and depth, having legs of medium length with fair
size and fair quality of bone. In color this breed is similar.
to the Poland-China, but has not so many white spots as are
usually found on the Polands. One peculiarity or charac-
teristic of the Berkshire breed is the short, upturned nose.
The face is usually dished and the ears are erect but inclined
slightly forward. Good Berkshire hogs have good width of
body, the back broad and the ribs well sprung. The hams
and shoulders are generally smooth and well fleshed. The
meat of the Berkshire is of good quality.
Good Berkshire pigs can be fed to market weight, 200
pounds, at from 6 to 8 months of age, and the Berkshire is
one of the best breeds to grade up native sows.
The Hampshire breed originated in the English Shire of
the same name and was introduced into the United States
during the first half of the last century. When the Hamp-
shire hog first became popular in the United States it was
often referred to as the Thin Rind hog, and was classed as a
bacon breed. It is now recognized as one of the Intermedi-
ate or meat type breeds. Sows of the breed are prolific and
the mothers are good sucklers and make good use of grass in
The most striking characteristic of the Hampshire is the
white belt around its body, including the shoulders and front
legs. The remainder of the hog is black.
The Hampshire in general appearance is smooth and has
legs that are rather fine boned and of fairly good quality.
The body of a Hampshire hog is not so broad as that of a
hog of the other Intermediate breeds, but it is deep and
smooth and produces desirable sides for bacon. The jowls
are light, the head is small and narrow, the snout rather


* --

Fig. 14-A Grand Champion Hampshire Boar at 18 months
of age. Courtesy Hampshire Registry Assn., Peoria, Ill.


Fig. 15-A Maryland Grand Champion Hampshire Sow.
She has also qualified for Registry of Merit. Two years
old. Courtesy Hampshire Registry Association, Peoria, 11.

straight and of medium length, the ears erect, the shoulders
smooth and well set, and the hams deep but not generally
so thick as in the other Intermediate or meat breeds. The
flesh is of good quality. Animals of this breed sell readily
on the open market.
The Hampshire possesses good growing and fattening
Hog producers in the United States do not produce the
bacon-type hog to any great extent. The Tamworth and the
Yorkshire, of English origin, are the two breeds grown in
the United States. The Tamworth breed is established in
many localities. The Yorkshire is confined principally to
the States in the North.



Bacon hogs are different from Intermediate type hogs in
that they have extreme length, the object of breeders being
to produce the maximum amount of bacon with relatively
small hams and shoulders. Animals of this type have good
depth, deep sides, and are comparatively narrow, with gen-
erally smoother bodies than most of the hogs of the Inter-
mediate breeds.
The Tamworth is one of the oldest and probably one of
the purest of all breeds of hogs. There is no evidence of
its having been crossed with other modern breeds, its pure
breeding dating back more than 100 years. The name of the
breed is derived from the town of Tamworth, located on the
River Thames, in Staffordshire, near the north border of
Warwickshire, England. Sir Robert Peel is credited with
having introduced these hogs into England from Ireland
about 1812, though their real origin is obscure. The first
record of any of this breed having been brought to the
United States appears to have been in 1881.
Hogs of the Tamworth breed are rather long-legged,
with long, deep, smooth bodies, good backs, narrow heads,
rather long snouts, and fairly large ears, usually erect and
often inclined forward. The jowls are light and the bone is
medium in size, but generally of very good quality. The
color is red, varying from light to dark. These hogs are
good grazers and take on flesh readily. Pigs of 200 pounds

-.. --7'

Fig. 16-A Grand Champion Age Boar. Courtesy Tamworth Swine As-
sociation, Ames, Iowa.


r- 'ri
'- 9 i,~P;

- % '1UI

Fig. 17-Tamworth Sow-A useful type of a Grand Champion.
Courtesy Tamworth Swine Association, Ames, Iowa.

Fig. 18-Bacon-type sow (left) and lard-type sow (right)

5 ''; '
i. .


weight at 6 months of age are not uncommon. They do not
mature quite so early as some of the other breeds. They
attain a market weight at as early an age as any of the
Intermediate or meat type breeds and can be fed profitably
to greater weights.
There are three distinct types of the Yorkshire breed,
known as Large, Middle, and Small Yorkshires. All origi-
nated in England. The Large Yorkshire is the type raised by
practically all Yorkshire breeders in the United States. (See
Figs. 19-20.)
They are large, white hogs with smooth, even, deep bod-
ies, very long, capable of dressing out a large percentage of
meat with bacon of very good quality. The body is supported
by legs of good length, having bone of medium size and gen-
erally of very good quality. Occasionally there are black
pigment spots in the skin of animals of this breed. Large
Yorkshire sows are prolific and are generally very good
Score cards differ upon the relative values of points, and
upon forms of grouping, however a use of the score card
Score Cards for the Various Breeds of Hogs as Drafted by
the Respective Record Associations and the
U. S. Department of Agriculture

Intermediate type Bacon type

Points 4. o

C I a S C) C5flc a 0 C) 6
Head and face................ ...... 4 4 4 4 7 4 5 6 5
Eyes.......... ..................... 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2
Ears.............................. 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2
N eck ................................ 22 2 3 3
Jowl................. ............. 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2
Shoulder ......................... 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Chest................................ 1 12 12 12 12 6 12 10 8 10
Back and loin ........................ 14 14 14 14 15 1 14 12 10 12
Side and ribs .. ..... .. ........ 9 8 9 8 8 6 8 12 13 12
Belly and flank ................... 4 4 4 4 6 5 4 4 3 4
Ham and rump............. 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 15 10
Feetandlegs......................... 9 10 9 10 10 10 8 8
Tail................................. 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
Coat................................ 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 3
Color.......... ..................... 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2
Size.................................. 8 8 8 8 5 6 8 8 7 8
Action and style ...................... 3 3 3 3 4 6 3 3 5 3
Condition ............................ 2 3 2 3 4 3 2 2 2 2
Disposition............................ 2 2 2 3 2 .. 2
Symmetry of points................... 3 2 3 2 3 4 5 3
Total ....................... 1001 100 100 100 100 0 100 10 100



ry : :,~'~l.s::--

Fig. 19-Yorkshire boar, Courtesy Yorkshire Swine Breeders Association


Cl C

Fig. 20--Yorkshire sow, Blakeford Bessie "78." Courtesy Yorkshire Swine
Breeders Association



should aid one in making a systematic examination of the
animal and should give one a sense of relative values in
judging. (See Table 4-Score card.)

Table 5 shows the body composition of swine at varying
degrees of finish at different slaughter weights. This table
furnished by Agricultural Research Center, U.S.D.A., Belts-
ville, Md.

Wt. at Body Composition of body substance per cent
Condition slaughter substance
Pounds Pounds Water Protein Fat Ash

Thin ...... ..
Moderately fat
Fat ......... .I
Very fat ..... I
Extremely fat I

106 100 56.3
162 154 49.2
219 210 44.3
230 219 41.4
343 327 37.7 [

14.9 25.8 3.1
13.7 34.2 2.9
12.6 40.6 2.5
10.5 45.9 2.3
10.2 49.5 2.1

Producers, by management practices, resolve themselves
or their management practices into the following opera-
tional types:
1. Those raising fat hogs for market.
2. Those raising purebred hogs.
3. Those producing feeder pigs for sale to other producers
for fattening or for porkers.
4. Those fattening out purchased feeder pigs. In this case
the producer does not raise his feeder pigs but buys
them for finishing.
5. There are other producers who may use a combination
of all of the above or a portion of all of the above in
their management practices.


I '.

Fig. 21-Old method of hog production should be exterminated

.S: .- --'
: I'S

Fig. 22-New method, or modern form, should be used

St. 4



Methods of Swine Breeding
Different producers practice different methods in pro-
ducing hogs. The type and kind of breeding stock used
naturally classifies their methods.
1. Scrub sows and scrub boars-nothing important.
2. Scrub sows and grade boars-nothing much. A little
3. Grade sows and grade boars-progressing.
4. Good grade sows and purebred boars-doing well..
5. Purebred sows and purebred boars of different breeds
(crossing)--doing excellent. (Use only purebred boars.)
6. Maintaining a purebred herd of excellent quality-doing

F;g. 23-New method
Comparing Fig. 21 with Figs. 22 and 23 breed and feed make the difference

Practices used in maintaining a herd of hogs resolve
themselves into several methods of breeding, namely-
1. Grade breeding may be defined as gradually improving
or grading up common stock with the use of purebred
The Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station in their bul-
letin 234 states:


Grading up hogs by use of purebred boars pays (see
Table 6).
(a) "The use of purebred boars through three genera-
tions resulted in marked improvement of pigs in
type, quality and ability to make rapid and cheap
(b) "The length of time required to produce a 200-
pound hog decreased as the percentage of pure
breeding increased.
(c) "The age at which different groups of hogs reached
200 pounds in weight was: scrubs, 243.67 days;
50 per cent grades, 201.33 days; 75 per cent grades,
201 days; and 87.5 per cent grades, 187 days.
(d) "The average daily gain in the different groups
was: scrubs, 0.95 pounds; 50 per cent grades, 1.18
pounds; 75 per cent grades, 1.19 pounds; and 87.5
per cent grades, 1.26 pounds.
(e) "The amount of feed required to produce a unit oi
gain decreased as the percentage of pure breeding
(f) "For each 100 pounds of gain the scrub hogs re-
quired 465.35 pounds of feed; the 50 per cent
grades, 403.37 pounds; the 75 per cent grades,
387.63 pounds; and the 87.5 per cent grades, 381.52
(g) "The feed cost per 100 pounds gain was: scrubs
$9.31; 50 per cent grades, $8.07; 75 per cent
grades, $7.75, and 87.5 per cent grades, $7.63.
Table 6 is set forth below:

Scrubs 50% grade 75% grade 87.5%grad,
Days to reach 200 lbs........243.67 201.33 201. 187.
Daily gain lbs .......... 0.95 1.18 1.19 1.26
Feed for 100 lbs. gain........465.35 403.37 387.63 381.52
Feed cost per 100 lbs. gain $ 9.31 $ 8.07 $ 7.75 $ 7.63

"It was interesting to note that the average feed cost foi
producing 100 pounds gain from the 87.5 per cent grades
was only 82 per cent of the cost as compared with scrubs
The hogs in the above test were fed on the same rations s(
that the only difference existing between them was th<
amount of purebred blood in their veins."
2. Crossbreeding is the mating of purebred animals o:
different breeds (a purebred boar should always be used)
The University of Minnesota, Special Bulletin No. 180, state:


the advantages of crossbreeding in the following statements:
Crossbred boars should not be used as sires for following
(a) "A crossbred male mated to females of the same
cross will result in offspring with too much vari-
ability in type and performance.
(b) "One of the parents must be purebred in order to
stabilize the system, and to keep the crossing con-
tinuous. One good purebred boar can be purchased
easier and cheaper than a group of purebred
(c) "Pigs are dependent on their mothers for 112-114
days before birth, and about 56 days thereafter.
During this period the pigs benefit directly from
the increased vigor of the crossbred sow, but could
not benefit in any such manner from the increased
vigor of a crossbred male parent."
"The-good purebred sire is the basis for the improvement
of swine or any other class of commercial livestock. This is
equally true of the methods of breeding swine proposed in
this bulletin. ,Crossbreeding will not solve any difficulties
or contribute anything to constructive pork production un-
less good purebred sires are used. The purebred breeder has
nothing to fear from the proposed methods of breeding
swine. In fact, he has much to gain. Many farmers are still

r '*. *J

Fig. 24-A Desirable Type Boar


using grade sires. Farmers who follow one of the methods
of crossbreeding outlined herein will utilize purebred sires
in the practice; hence an increased demand for purebred
sires should follow."
"Crossbred sows proved superior to purebreds for pro-
ducing market pigs. The crossbred sows produced litters
which averaged from two-thirds to two more pigs per sow
at weaning, and each pig weighed from 5 to 7 lbs. more at
weaning and the litter averaged 63 to 96 lbs. heavier than
the purebreds; the crossbreeds reached market weight of
220 lbs. from 17 to 22 days earlier than comparable pure-
breds and they reached this weight on from 27 to 36 fewer
pounds of grain."
Minnesota Bulletin 180 states: "By practicing cross-
breeding generally, the following improvements are made:
(a) The sows produce larger litters.
(b) The pigs are generally larger at weaning time.
(c) A shorter time is required to reach market weight.
(d) There is a decrease in feed necessary for a pound of
The Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, Ames, Iowa,
in Bulletin 380, states: "The results obtained, with 1,015
pigs farrowed in 108 litters, crossing Landrace and Poland
China, as well as crosses of Landrace, Duroc-Jersey, etc.,"
are shown below.
"The percentage of stillborn pigs was smaller among
crossbreds than among purebreds; crossbred pigs were
somewhat more vigorous at birth than purebreds as shown
by their ability to survive until weaning age; they averaged
3 to 4 pounds heavier at weaning time than purebreds; they
gained .09 to .12 lbs. more per day and saved 10 days to 2
weeks time in getting to market weight of 225 pounds than
did purebreds; they also saved 25 to 30 lbs. more feed than
purebreds. Crossbreeding can be continued as a steady pol-
icy only by going to purebred herds for the boars needed for
3. Natural Breeding is the mating of animals outside of
one's own blood or family lines. It is frequently referred to
as "outcrossing." One must be careful in this case to bring
in better quality and type or hiis watchword should be "im-
provement." It is the mating of purebred animals of the
same breed but one goes outside of his blood line to make
selections for breeding stock.
4. Inbreeding is the mating of parent and offspring or
brother and sister. This is the most dangerous type of breed-
ing. If one intensifies the blood of animals that are good,


the results are usually good, but if the animals are poor in
quality and type, these poor qualities are also intensified.
In other words, if animals lack vigor and are constitution-
ally weak or have other defects, inbreeding intensifies it.
In work done by the Bureau of Animal Industry, Belts-
ville, Maryland, on inbreeding of hogs, they point out the
following facts which were taken from "Journal of Heredi-
ty," Vol. 22, No. 12, Dec., 1931.
(a) "An attempt was made to establish an inbred strain
of Poland China swine by brother-sister mating
failed in the second generation, due to a decrease
in fertility and high mortality.
(b) "In the first generation of inbreeding litter size did
not significantly decrease but average birth weight
and per cent of pigs raised to 70 days of age were
less than in the control stock.
(c) "In the second generation litter size became very
much reduced and the vigor of the pigs greatly de-
creased; very few second-generation inbreds were
(d) "There was a slightly higher percentage of "still-
born" pigs among the inbreds than among the
(e) "The percentage of males was greater among the
inbreds than among the controls; differential pre-
natal mortality is suggested as an explanation of
this condition.
(f) "The segregation of several recessive genes is in-
dicated by the results, including cleft palate, scrotal
hernia, and the ridgeling character.
(g) "There is no basis for assuming that the results of
this experiment are typical of the Poland China
breed, which was used in this experiment. Other
strains of breeding might show a very different
result with the same amount of inbreeding."
Inbreeding is the process of breeding or mating of close-
ly related animals; varying degrees of intensity of inbreed-
ing may be termed "Line-breeding," "Close-breeding" and
"Incestuous-breeding." Inbreeding should be practiced only
by the most skillful breeder, and then only when such
breeder has a definite knowledge of the. ancestry.
5. Line-breeding may be defined as the mating of more
distantly related animals than those inbred, yet descending
from the same common ancestry; or it is but one step re-
moved from inbreeding, and as a consequence less disastrous


results may be expected from it in the hands of the average
6. Pure-breeding is the maintaining of purebred or reg-
istered stock of the same breed. Such breeders, however,
may practice inbreeding, line-breeding or may just breed
purebred hogs. He should have an ideal in mind and know
what the market wants and strive through selection to pro-
duce that kind. The art of breeding reaches its zenith in the
breeding of purebreds -. the most fascinating inspiring
branch of animal breeding when successfully followed,, but
the most difficult and disappointing when not successful.
This type of breeder is far more than a business man or a
farmer; he is an artist and the artistic appeal is possibly
first in importance to him. The breeder's ability as a judge
must be based on an instinctive gift to recognize animal
types and carry, them clearly in mind. Only an experienced
breeder, who is a good judge of hogs, should raise pure-
breds. There is much difference between propagating live-
stock and breeding livestock. The purebred breeder should
be a "natural" with purebreds. "Like has a tendency to be-
get like." How an animal will breed is told best from its
offspring. (See Chapter 4 under the heading "Swine
Breeding Program," subheading "Reasons for Using Pure-
bred Boars".)


Swine Breeding Program

The swine breeding program resolves itself into a num-
ber of divisions such as:
1. Purebred herd which furnished the foundation ani-
mals, boars as well as possibly females in many herds:

Fig. 24-A-Splendid litter. Courtesy Hampshire Swine
Registry Association

2. The grade herd which makes up most of the com-
mercial herds in the State (these grade herds should use
purebred boars);
3. Woods hogs which possibly should not be produced
for the reason that they are,-
(a) A poor quality and low in price and many are
really unfit for human consumption,
(b) No control breeding is practiced,
(c) They are a constant source for spreading diseases
and parasites,
(d) They destroy improved pastures for other livestock,
(e) They break into other people's fields and destroy
good feed and,
(f) They are a constant source of spreading screw
While it is difficult to include in this bulletin all the
necessary steps for a completely rounded out program of
Swine Production and Marketing, one should contact his
County Agent and Vocational Teacher, the Florida Agricul-


tural Experiment Station, and/or other recognized leading
agricultural agencies, etc. for further details and help.

The following are a few of the more important factors of
a swine program:
1. The breeding stock should be quiet and docile and
adapted to local conditions. The Duroc-Jersey, Poland Chi-
na, Spotted Poland China, Hampshire, and Berkshire, and
other breeds which will produce the "Intermediate" type
may be used.
2. Good purebred boars should head up the herd wheth-
er one is producing a registered or a grade herd, and such
boars should possess those dominating characteristics of the
breed they represent.
Some of the advantages of using purebred boars over
grades or scrubs are:
(a) Purebred boars have better conformation and qual-
(b) They produce more of a better product on less feed,
or they are better utilizers of feed.
(c) There is a greater uniformity to their offspring
which is generally of better quality, conformation,
and more capable of producing the most desirable
(d) Their offspring will mature earlier and can be put
in better market condition, thereby saving time and
(e) Their offspring is more salable.
(f) Their offspring is more valuable.
3. One should use good gilts or sows in the herd. These
animals if purebred should come with a good inheritance and
performance record. If purebred or grades they should give
plenty of milk and have 10 to 12 well spaced and properly de-
veloped teats. They should be prolific or capable of produc-
ing 2 litters of pigs per year, 8 to 10 pigs per litter, of uni-
form size, and with birth weights 21/ to 31/ lbs. each. They
should have the ability to produce pigs which make rapid
and economical gains-pigs showing quality and thrift. They
must naturally be good mothers and take care of their pigs.
The gilts replacing sows should be better than the sows they
replace, and the boars replacing boars likewise better than
the boars replaced. "Like has a tendency to beget like." If
gilts are properly developed, they may be bred when from
9 to 10 months of age so as to farrow when about 14 months
of age.


4. Go after and get a good pig crop and save the pigs
farrowed. A few ways in which this may be done are:
(a) By using good breeding stock.
(b) By proper feeding, care and management of the
(c) By keeping the herd free of parasites and diseases.
(d) By keeping ample and suitable mineral and protein
supplements accessible to the herd.
(e) By providing ample and suitable grazing and hog-
ging-off crops for year-round production.
(f) By providing plenty of shade and water.
One cannot starve profits out of hogs, and cannot get a
pig crop with a herd on starvation rations.
5. After the pigs are born they should be permitted to
grow out and "make hogs of themselves." A stunted hog can
never overcome being stunted or can never be the hog he
might have been had he been given good care, proper feed,
6. Keep the various classes and sizes segregated as to
classes, as each class will do better and save time and feed.
The breeding herd should be kept separate from the fatten-
ing herd; gilts away from boars until they are ready to
breed; sows and suckling pigs separate from the boars and/
or fattening herd while the pigs are nursing, for the reason
that each class has different feed requirements, etc.
7. The herd should be treated for hog cholera, and di-
sease and parasite control measures should be practiced.
Treat the pigs for cholera at weaning time, or when about 8
to 10 weeks of age.
8. The producer should provide a year-round produc-
tion of feed crops suitable for swine, so as to eliminate a
starvation period in Florida on hogs, which generally exists
from March 1st to July 1st. Some suggestions as to feed
crops and feeds will be found in Chapter 7, "Feeds for
9. All boar pigs which will not be retained for breeding
purposes should be castrated when they are about 2 to 4
weeks of age, or certainly before weaning time.
10. Every producer should have suitable farm equip-
ment to properly take care of his hogs which will include
fencing, self-feeders, waterers, shade, corrals, chutes, etc.
This is discussed under heading-"Equipment for Hogs"
Chapter 8, in another section of this bulletin.
11. Good production and good marketing go hand in
hand. The two great curses of each are-(a) poor breed-
ing, (b) poor finish. Care and management and feed have


an important bearing upon accomplishing the most desirable
results of production and marketing. Hogs should be fin-
ished to market weights of 190 to 225 pounds. If one is en-
gaged in the production of feeder pigs the feeder pigs should
be good, so as to induce the feeder buyer to use them. (See
"Marketing" Chapter 10, as to the best time to sell.)
Stunted Pigs-A Detriment
No one can starve profits out of hogs, on the other hand
potential profits may be had by proper practices. Young
animals will not make economical gains while being fattened
unless they have been raised so they are thrifty and vigor-
ous, as the skeletons of young animals have been injured by
inadequate rations during the growth period. Animals must
have more feed than mere body maintenance, otherwise the
feed they eat has produced no worth, no profit, and has been
wasted other than keeping the animal alive. Milk is the most
natural feed for pigs and young animals. A thrifty young
or growing animal can better use feed than old animals, and
one should take advantage of a great stimulus to growth
while the pigs are young. "One cannot starve profits out of
Selecting Breeding Animals
The physical merits of the individual animal may be
judged by several means. The most dependable are:
(1) A critical examination of the animal and an inspec-
tion of other members of the litter, the sire, dam, and other
closely related hogs.
(2) The numbers, uniformity in size, and type of pigs
in the litters; and
(3) The regularity of farrowing by the dam and grand-
Forming a breeding herd with sows from unrelated dams
and sires, if otherwise equally good, is preferable to select-
ing sows from those closely related. Subsequent breeding
practices thus will allow wider range of selection and greater
opportunities for matings within the herd.
Sows and boars are probably more desirable if selected
on the basis of weight attained at a given age under similar
systems of feeding, as this factor indicates the rate of gain
that may be expected in the offspring. Number of pigs in
litters, uniformity of litter size, and percentage of pigs
weaned and fattened are also important from the stand-
point of low production costs.
Selection of a Boar
Previously in this chapter we have given the reasons for
using good, purebred boars, and such boars as are used


should be good enough to produce the results stated as rea-
sons for using them.
The final selection of the boar should not be made until
after he is possibly 6 months of age. He should be strong in
those characteristics in which the sows are weak or he
should be of such type as to correct the faults of the sow and
therefore be less likely to transmit their weaknesses to their
offspring. The boar should be of the "Intermediate" type,
possessing quality and masculinity. He should be wide be-
tween the eyes, his neck short, thick and snugly fitted into
the shoulders, with smoothness through the shield. The back
should be well arched and its width carried uniformly
throughout; the hams well rounded and full to the hock.
A strong constitution is indicated by a good heart girth
measured back of the shoulders. The chest capacity is indi-
cated by the width between the front legs. Quality is indi-
cated by a smooth covering of flesh, hair that has life to it
as indicated by a glossy appearance, pasterns that are up
and show strength, and bones that are strong and of suffi-
cient size to carry the weight at any age; a hide that is
mellow and pliable with freedom from wrinkles and creases
in the sides or shoulders. The legs should be strong and
In purchasing a boar, one should study the records of his
ancestors through the pedigrees and performance, with spe-
cial emphasis on the size of the litters, their uniformity and
rapidity of growth and note whether they are desirable in
type and have uniformly transmitted desirable characteris-
tics to their offspring.
Very few boars become great sires, and there is a sharp
distinction between breeding livestock and propagating
them, as the former is characterized by qualitative improve-
ment, while the latter implies increase in numbers. There
is nothing more likely to produce a sound night's sleep than
to know one has a good breeding boar. A high quality boar
may be low in breeding efficiency as the result of poor or
mismanagement. If the boar does not accomplish improve-
ment get another one to take his place, however in
making a decision in replacing him, he should have several
trial matings.
Selection of the Sows
The sows should be of uniform type, show refinement,
femininity and docility. They should possess neat appear-
ing heads, smooth necks well fitted into the shoulders; good
clear eyes with plenty of width between them, and ears of
fair size but not obstructing the vision. The sows should
be upstanding with enough body heighth to prevent the ud-
der from dragging during the suckling period. The legs


should be placed under the 4-corners of the body and have
bone of good quality so as to permit the sow to move freely
and easily; the legs and pastern should be short and
straight. There should be plenty of room between the legs;
the back arched and well muscled over the loin; the hams
should be full and well rounded; the body should be uniform
in width carrying back evenly from the shoulders to the
hams; udders well developed as previously discussed.
The sows must show quality, be smooth and trim, yet
rugged with ample bone, and in purebreds no "swirls." They
should be of the "Intermediate" type and capable of produc-
ing good pigs which will finish in 180 days to weights 190
to 225 pounds. Feeding qualities are indicated by a good
head, constitution, and good length,- width and depth of
body. They should mature early and reproduce their kind.
Fleshing quality is indicated by wide, plump hams and am-
ple width of back and loins, being smooth throughout. Vigor
is indicated by a deep, wide chest, strong heart girth, and a
deep body-or by a strong constitution.
Breeding characteristics are s h o w n by refinement
throughout and the ability to nurse 10 to 12 pigs; the dispo-
sition naturally should be quiet and docile; they should have
a good constitution and health; and in breed type, be char-
acteristic of the breed represented.
The sows should be properly developed to be able to prop-
erly nurse 10 to 12 pigs, giving them all the milk they need
during the first 6 to 8 weeks after farrowing.
1. The gestation period of sows is usually 112 to 114
2. Heat period recurs in sows in good condition at in-
tervals 19-22 days.
3. After weaning pigs, sows will generally come in heat
within three days to week.
4. Sows remain in heat 2 to 3 days.
5. Well-grown out gilts may be bred at 9 to 10 months
of age.
6. Well-grown boars may be used for light service at 8
to 10 months of age; allowing one service per day but not
more than three per week for 2 to 3 weeks at the time.
7. Mature boars may breed two sows per day, 8 to 10
hours apart, but this heavy service should not last over a
week to 10 days.
8. Breed sows to farrow 2 litters per year, preferably
March and September, April and October, or May and No-


There is no one best breed of hogs, but Florida producers
will generally find the Intermediate type of the various
breeds mentioned in this bulletin to be satisfactory.
The history of one year of a sow's life should approxi-
mate the following; and may be bred as outlined in item No.
8 above. J'^ if
Breed for spring litter, November 10. 2
Gestation period, November 10 to about March 1st.
Farrowing time, about March 1st. o

Suckle pigs, about March 1st to about May 7th.
Wean pigs, about May 7th.

-3 \

Fig. 25-Diagram showing breeding, farrowing, and marketing cycle.
Outer circle shows months, middle circle shows cycle for spring litter, and
inner circle shows cycle for fall litter. (USDA)

With good feeding and proper care and management,
pigs may be sold when about 6 months old, around Septem-
ber 15th to October 1st, weighing 190 to 225 pounds.


Breed sow for fall litter, about May 10th.
Gestation period, May 10th to about September 1st.
Farrowing time, about September 1st.
Suckle pigs, from about September 1st to November 7th.
Pigs born September 1st, with proper feed, care and
management, should be ready to market the following March
and April at weights 190 to 225 pounds. See Fig. 25.
The following year, use the same breeding program as
outlined above. When sows are bred to farrow pigs Febru-
ary 1 to March 15, or from August 1 to September 15, the
pigs farrowed in March may be finished on corn and grazing
crops, while the pigs farrowing in August or September may
be finished on peanuts and other grazing crops.
Under screw worm conditions each farmer may have his
sows bred in such way as to have pigs come when the least
screw worm flies are present, but he should grow two litters
of pigs per year.


Species or Kind Age Number of Matings
*Hogs Boar pigs, 8 to 12 months 15 to 20)
Yearling boars and over 30 to 405*
Cattle Yearling bull 15 to 20
with good care, up to 25
2 years old and over 30 to 35 if in pastures
Sheep Young ram 8 to 10
Yearling ram 40 to 50 if in pastures

Gestation Table for Sows


Apr. 25
May 7
May 17
May 28
June 7
June 17
June 25
July 5
July 15
July 26
Aug. 5
Aug. 15
Aug. 25
Sept. 4
Sept. 14
Sept. 25
Oct. 5
Oct. 15
The above dates

July 5
July 15
July 25
Aug. 5
Aug. 15
Aug. 25
Sept. 5
Sept. 16
Sept. 25
Oct. 5
Oct. 15
Oct. 25
Nov. 5
Nov. 15
Nov. 25
Dec. 5
Dec. 15
Dec. 25
are approximate.



Oct. 26
Nov. 5
Nov. 15
Nov. 25
Dec. 5
Dec. 15
Dec. 26
Jan. 5
Jan. 15
Jan. 25
Feb. 4
Feb. 14
Feb. 25
Mar. 7
Mar. 17
Mar. 27
Apr. 6
Apr. 16


In the annual report of the American Society of Animal
Production, Volume 4, No. 3, August, 1945, is shown the fol-
lowing results of some work done at the University of Min-
nesota, using number one gilts farrowing for the first time
at approximately one year of age.
1. "Litter size increased with an increase in the age of
the dam at farrowing time as gilts farrowing at 320
days averaged one pig less than gilts at 365 days, and gilts
410 days of age averaged about one-half pig more than gilts
365 days of age," therefore one should strive to have well
developed gilts farrow for the first time when approximate-
ly 13 months of age.
2. "An increase of 10% in the inbreeding of dams of
the same age resulted in a decrease of about 0.6 pigs per
3. "The heavier gilts at breeding time, on an average,
farrowed larger litters.
4. "The length of body may be associated with prolifi-
5. "On an average, gilts making the greatest gains dur-
ing pregnancy farrow the largest litters, but variations in
gain may be an effect rather than a cause of variation in
litter size.
6. "Age and weight at mating time account for 4% of

....... . ."

f f .t .... _.I

I._ -^^ ^ 1

Fig. 25-A-Lanark III. Courtesy Chester White Record Association,
Rochester, Indiana


5,.-1. ,
7 L~i,

Fig. 26
Record of Performance (USDA)

Ageof sows......................... 1 1Y 2 2M 3 3% 4 4' 5 52 6 6%
Number sows bred.................. 401 118 278 131 184 90 97 50 44 34 24 11
Percent farrowing................. 81.79 74.57 79.50 84.73 82.61 77.78 82.47 72.00 77.27 56.41 70.83 63.61
Pigs farrowed ................. ... 7.98 8.33 9.37 8.31 9.81 9.54 9 32 9.56 9.44 8.05 7.87 7.71
Pig weight at farrowing ............. 2.56 2.47 2.70 2.76 2.66 2.74 2 64 2.77 2.79 2.69 2.81 2.63
Percent farrowed dead............... 5.39 5.18 6.18 8.24 6.64 7 49 13.40 18.00 16.51 17.51 12.78 31.48
Percent pigs weaned to number
farrowed......................... 70.00 66 60 69.20 65.70 64 50 60.50 54.30 59.00 64.50. 58.00 40.60 37.00
Pigs weaned per sow................ 5.58 5.55 6.49 5.46 6.32 5.77 5.06 5.64 5.15 4.73 3.18 2.86
Weaning weight .................... 35.3 33.2 39.0 38.7 39.8 35.8 40.2 37.2 39.9 37.6 41.6 39.7
Pork produced at weaning*** ........ 189 172 251* 203 244** 203 207 204 197 171 126 111
"** A most important factor. First place. ** Second place. Source-U.S.D.A.



L ~ POOCN HEAV LITER '-'^ .AT ^ '*EA *
P : -. 7`'



the variations in size of litters, and together they provide
the most reliable criteria for use in selection for fertility."
The Table 10 shows brood sow performance. The earliest
age to breed a gilt is when she is about 9 months old so she
will farrow when 12 to 14 months old. Table 10 shows that
2 to 3-year old sows stand out in producing large and heavy
litters at weaning age, that sows 2 years old and up to 5
years produce slightly heavier litters than sows under 2
years of age. Table 10 also shows that sows over 4 years
old farrowed from 12.78% to as high as 31.48% of the pigs
dead. Except when one is breeding purebred hogs, the sows
should be discarded when about 41/2 years old.

Table 11 was furnished by the U. S. Department of Ag-
riculture. It shows that if pigs weigh less than 2 pounds at
birth it is difficult to save them and produce economical
gains. The endeavor of each producer should be to so feed,
care for and manage the herd so that the sows will farrow
pigs of uniform weights at 21/2 to 31/2 lbs. each. The aver-
age per cent of pigs raised as compared with pigs born for
the U. S. A. as a whole runs about 65 to 70%. Anything
which may be done to increase the per cent of pigs weaned
would result in more efficient hog production. The average
birth weight of pigs for the United States generally runs
from 2 1/2 to 3 lbs. or about 2.65 pounds each. There are
two difficulties involved if pigs at birth weigh more than
31/2 pounds-first, the difficulty of sows farrowing and,
second the sows normally have too few pigs in the litter if
the pigs weigh over 31/2 lbs. each. It is much more desir-
able that the sows have 8 to 12 pigs per litter of average
weight 2 3/4 lbs. each at birth, than it is for them to farrow
three or four pigs of average weight 4 lbs. The size of the
pigs in the litter should be uniform in weight and quality.

Sucking % Weaned Average Weight
Birth Period At 70 Gain 190 Days
Weight Average Days Fattening of Age
Gain Period

4 lbs. .629 lbs. 83 percent 1.44 lbs. 220 lbs.
3%/2 lbs. .618 lbs. 79 percent 1.43 lbs. 218 lbs.
3 lbs. .556 lbs. 74 percent 1.35 lbs. 203 lbs.
22 lbs. .522 lbs. 68 percent 1.32 Ibs. 197 lbs.
2 lbs. .465 lbs. 56 percent 1.23 lbs. 179 lbs.
11/2 lbs. .375 lbs. 30 percent 1.18 Ibs. 170 lbs.
1 lb. .266 lbs. 5 percent all died all died


Table 11 is illustrated in "PIG VALUES," "Weight at
Birth Determines Worth," as follows: (See Fig. 27).

AT 70

Fig. 27-U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The illustration Fig. 27 "Pig Values," shows that all of
the pigs born weighing one pound or less and most of those
weighing one and one-half pounds or less died before wean-
ing age. One cannot starve profits out of hogs.
The size of pigs at birth is a factor in efficient swine
production as is further illustrated in work done at Purdue
University with more than 700 sows. The average of this
work is shown in Table 12.
As stated above, it is difficult for sows to farrow pigs
weighing more than 31/2 pounds. Sows should farrow 8 to


Birth Weaning % Pigs % Pigs Died
Weight Weight Weaned Before Weaning
1.50 lbs. 18.4 lbs. 13 percent 87 percent
2.00 lbs. 21.0 Ibs. 49 percent 51 percent
2.50 lbs. 24.5 lbs. 67 percent 33 percent
3.00 lbs. 27.5 lbs. 77 percent 23 percent
3.50 lbs. 30.2 lbs. 85 percent 15 percent
4.00 lbs. 34.7 lbs. 84 percent 16 percent

12 pigs weighing 21/2 to 31/2 pounds each at birth. No man
can make a profit out of what he loses. Save.those pigs.
Per Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular
No. 68, the following are some of the facts growing out of
the cost of raising pigs to weaning age:
"This report includes records on 147 litters of pigs far-
rowed on the Alabama Experiment Station farm during the
period 1926 to 1931, inclusive. The records show:
"(1) That the average number of live pigs farrowed
per litter was 7.95; the average number weaned per litter
was 5.76. The loss of pigs during the suckling period was
27.5 per cent. Pigs saved 72.5 per cent.
"(2) That the average amount of concentrates required
to produce a litter of 5.76 pigs to weaning age was 915
pounds. This was an average of 159 pounds of concentrates
for each pig raised.
"(3) That the feed required to raise a pig to weaning
age in litters of two was 448 pounds, but in litters of nine
it was only 110 pounds per pig.
"(4) That the feed cost of pigs raised to weaning age
in litters of two was $9.36 each, but in litters of nine it was
only $2.29 each.
"(5) That the average weight per pig when weaned,
at eight weeks of age, was 27.23 pounds."
A few of the many reasons why records of a sow's per-
formance is necessary in selecting high producing stock are
set forth below:
1. Better hogs are produced by keeping sow-testing or
herd records.
2. These production test records for purebred swine re-
sult in better herd management practices.

'-l--rl r.r


bZ-5..~ ~

JW& '.4-


Fig. 27-A-Nine pigs from the World's Record Registry of Merit Litter. 767 pounds adjusted weight at 56 days. Picture taken at
4 months with owner, John Soorholtz, Melbourne, Iowa. Courtesy Hampshire Record Ass'n.


~r'~; :; ~ .., -..c....~



3. There is a close relationship between type, rapid
gains, and economical production.
4 The fast growing pigs result in superior carcasses
and generally more economical production.
5. The fastest growing and heaviest litter weight pigs
produce generally the best carcass cut-out, and are generally
judged as outstanding from the producer-profit standpoint.
6. Sow-testing is the only common-sense method de-
vised for aiding the average swine producer in improving his
7. Successful hog producers are more inclined to prac-
tice a healthy pig program (sanitation), balanced feed ra-
tions, and follow improved breeding practices.
8. Finished hogs produce superior carcasses over unfin-
ished hogs.
9. It pays to use production tested purebred stock in
the breeding herd, either for pure-line breeding or commer-
cial crossbreeding.
In order to place registered hogs on a prosperous basis,
type, quality and conformation must be kept at a high level.
1. Have large enough unit to make a profitable opera-
2. As far as possible, stay out of debt.
3. As far as possible, produce all of the feeds needed on
the farm, however, some high protein supplements and min-
eral supplements should be purchased. There is no better
protein supplement for hogs than tankage, fishmeal, or skim
milk; all of these are from animal sources.
4. Balance feed production; do not depend solely upon
one or two crops. Hogs do better on a variety of feeds.
5. Endeavor to provide ample, suitable pasture, and
maintain a high level of profitable crop yields per acre.
6. Provide adequate equipment.
7. Improve the herd through culling and the use of
high quality sires; as the quality of sales the purebred pro-
ducer makes, has a relation to the quality of animals sold.
8. A new breeder of purebreds should start with only a
few good purebred sows and a good purebred boar, gradu-
ally developing the herd from this foundation stock. His
breeding stock should come from a reliable breeder having
good individuals of well-known breeding.
It is generally best not to start into the purebred busi-
ness until after one has had considerable experience with a


good grade herd. With this good grade herd he will develop
experiences in feeding, breeding, care, and herd manage-
ment, and marketing practices which will prove of untold
worth to him when he goes into the purebred business.

The breeding of purebred livestock is a fascinating busi-
ness but it carries along with it certain responsibilities and
obligations, some of which are listed below:
1. To keep an accurate set of herd records.
2. The value of a breeding animal is determined by its
offspring, therefore the producer should know the produc-
tive history of each breeding animal.
3. A strict culling program must be followed if one is
going to improve his herd.
4. He must know how to select boars to correct the
faults in his females, and these boars should be an improve-
ment over previous boars used.
5. He must know something of pedigrees.
6. He must be careful to supply registration and trans-
fer papers, therefore he must keep his registration papers
7. He must keep the farm and premises neat and at-
8. He must be honest but alert in his dealings.
9. Above all, he must have a real interest and enthusi-
asm for the breed he represents. Each breeder may find
other "Musts" which should be added to this list.
A Few Rules for Recording Purebreds
1. Know the Secretary and/or the address of the Na-
tional Association of the breed you represent, and belong to
the State Association.
2. Know the general rules for recording in the National
Association, if not, write for them. (A list of the principal
purebred breeds will be found in the Appendix of this
3. Naturally one needs to keep on hand a few applica-
tion blanks of the breed.
4. Pedigrees must give the sex of the animal, date of
farrow, number of pigs in the litter, number raised of each
sex. If the breed has color markings these must be shown
on the application.
5. If the animal is ineligible for registry, the applica-
tion will be returned; if other data are needed to register,


the applicant will be informed by the National Association
and the blank returned for further information.
6. The name and number of sire and dam must be
shown. Give as complete data as possible about each.
7. If a recorded animal is sold, help should be given the
new purchaser in making transfer of registration papers.
Follow up sales made and encourage new breeders. Send
the original pedigree for record, and not a copy of it, to the
8. The registration fee must be sent with the applica-
9. No purebred animal will be registered carrying a
"swirl" on its back.

Fig. 28 Poland Chinas
When holding purebred sales, the following information
should be given when advertising the sale:
1. The kind and date of sale-state breed, how many
females and/or males offered-open or bred, etc.
2. The location and time of sale, and how to reach the
sale point; if out on a farm, one might enclose a map for de-
tails as to how to arrive at the farm.
3. State what entertainment, if any, and what hour the
entertainment will be.
4. Give full information about registration and transfer
of papers and how the owner or sale manager will help with
such matters.
5. Make statement about health certificates or treat-


ments given the animal and what guarantees on same will
be furnished. If animals are guaranteed to be breeders, so
state, etc.
6. Terms of the sale, stating cash or a letter of credit
must be furnished by each purchaser; when and to whom
purchase payment shall be made. If animals are purchased
at owner's risk or guaranteed as to soundness, health, etc.
If absentee bids are accepted, to whom shall they be sent?
Give telephone number and telegraphic address, as well as
state who the auctioneer'will be.
7. Give a concise statement about shipments will
crates be furnished free, if not state charges for same. If
animal is to be shipped by express, name the shipping point.
If releases from sales clerk are to be obtained, so state in
the catalog, circular, or announce all conditions of sale be-
fore the sale starts. Who collects for sale, or whom does
each purchaser pay?
8. Transportation available, kind-whom to contact.
9. How long will animals be cared for after the sale, and
any other features which will be mutually beneficial.

Fig. 28-A-A good foundation sow that embodies the qualities desirable
in a breeding animal (Poland China sow, good type)


Care and Management of the

Breeding Herd
The sow is the manufacturing plant in swine production.
Her breeding, size, vigor and development determines large-
ly the kind of litters she will produce. The size of litter and
its vigor will govern largely the amounts of feed needed to
properly feed the sow and the litter.
For gilts to become successful brood sows they must be
properly fed to develop size, bone, and store'up vigor and
reserve strength. Gilts kept as replacements should be better
than the sows they replace and should be added to the breed-
ing herd when about 9 months of age but kept separated
from the fattening herd after attaining the age of 4 to 5
Either ground oats one-half and corn one-half in a self-
feeder or in troughs, supplemented with proper protein and
mineral mixtures, while they are grazing on pasture will do
much to help develop gilts.
It is unsafe to allow brood sows and bred gilts to follow
cattle or to remain in lots or pens of horses or mules; the
danger lies in their getting kicked or injured which may
mean the loss of the sow and a litter of pigs.
Vitamins, minerals, and protein supplements are neces-
sary. This subject will be treated under the head of "Nu-
trition," Chapter 6 in this bulletin. The chart Fig. 29 shows
the change of weight of sows covering a 6-months period,
from 2 weeks prior to breeding to gestation and a nursing
period of 8 weeks. This data is taken from Extension Cir-
cular 151, North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service.
(Originally in "Pork Production," by Smith.)
About two weeks prior to breeding date, one should in-
crease the feed of the sows, and there should be a gradual
increase in weight from breeding time to farrowing time, or
the sows should gain from one-half pound to three-quarters
of a pound daily during this time; or a 325 pound sow at
"flushing" time should weigh approximately 400 pounds at
farrowing time.
The breeding herd (sows) needs exercise and one of the
best ways to get it is to allow them to forage in the fields and
pastures where they can gather a larger portion of their
feed; the grain may be scattered so that they may have to
search for it. The most successful breeders require their


sows to forage about a mile a day, however the sows
should not be required to chase all over the farm to find a
few mouthfuls of feed. Sows and gilts need a continuous
use of good, well-balanced, nutritious feeds, and the pas-
tures in which they run should not be all "scenery" or bare
ground. They will need other feeds besides pasture.
Fig. 29
Desirable Changes Of Weight Of A 400-pound Sow For
Six Months
Pounds un

400 --- ----- ----400

325 ----------325

TWo Weeks Sixteen Weeks Eight Weeks
Flushing Period Gestation Period Nursing Period
Adapted from Por Prduction By mith.

1. Age to breed gilts is usually around 9 to 10 months
so they will farrow about the time they are 12 to 14 months
of age.
2. Reasons for producing 2 litters of pigs per year.
Two litters per year are much more profitable than one
litter for the following reasons:
a. The producer can use his capital to the maximum or
he can keep his capital operating and thereby does
not lose time.
b. The income is more evenly distributed throughout
the year and needed money obtained from hogs may
be used in other farm operations. One gets better
use of capital investment.
c. The producer can make maximum use of hog equip-
d. By systematizing hog production there is much less
danger in marketing when there is a drop in the mar-
ket, or one may breed and feed to remain off of the
markets when the prices are lowest, namely-De-


cember and January. Generally highest prices pre-
vail from July 15th through September and during
March and April, therefore by timely breeding and
feeding one may put hogs on the market during the
months when prices are best.
e. By having all of the sows farrow about the same
time, one will be able to give the sows better care
than he could if he had insufficient number to justi-
fy his time. The producer will also be better able to
take care of orphan pigs.
f. The.producer can improve his herd more rapidly by
producing 2 litters per year from each sow, due to
the fact he will have more pigs to select breeding
stock from, or he can give more careful selection.
g. The producer naturally will take greater interest in
all practices leading to a good hog production and
marketing program.
3. The kinds and amounts of feed to give different
classes of hogs will be discussed under Chapter 7-heading
"Feeds for Swine." Under that heading the amount, quali-
ty and kinds of feed are presented. One should also read
Chapter 6, on "Nutrition."
4. The constant endeavor of every producer should be
to keep sows that ordinarily have large, uniform litters, that
are good mothers and have sufficient length of body and
mammary development to nurse 10 to 12 pigs.
5. Before farrowing. About 3 to 6 days before farrow-
ing, the sows or gilts should be removed from the breeding
herd and placed on temporary or supplemental grazing, and
become familiar with their new surroundings before far-
rowing. These pastures will serve the useful purpose of
producing "Healthy Pigs." If farrowing houses are used,
the best type to use is the "A-type" or small "Colony" type.
(See Chapter 8, Equipment.) These houses should be kept
warm on cold days, the sows be given some but not excess
bedding; a guard rail should be a part of these houses, be-
ing 8 to 10 inches from the floor and extending from the
wall about 8 to 10 inches, so as to protect the pigs from
being mashed by the sow. The feed of the sow just prior to
farrowing, and for a few days after farrowing, should be of
a slightly laxative nature. Prior to farrowing, the sows
should be scrubbed with water, using 1 lb. of soap to 10
gallons of water, or 1 lb. lye to 30 gallons of water, or by
all means brush all dirt and filth off of the udder before she
farrows. Such procedure will help to prevent pigs from get-
ting worm eggs with their first meal, thus helping to pre-
vent internal parasites.


6. Farrowing time is an important event, and the pro-
ducer should be on hand to aid the sow and take care of the
pigs. As the pigs are born they should be dried off; if the
weather is cold some way of keeping the pigs warm should
be provided, such as a jug of hot water, a pig-brooder, or
warm bricks may be put in a basket covered with gunny
sacks to help keep the pigs warm. During warm or hot
weather, other than adding to the comfort of the sow there
is not much to be done except to dry off the pigs. The "nee-
dle teeth" or "wolf teeth" of the pigs should be clipped; and
if purebred, it would be well to "mark" or "notch" (see Fig.
30) their ears; in either case the navel of the pigs should be
treated with tincture of iodine to prevent infection; and the
owner should use Smearex 62 on the sows and on the navels
of the pigs to preclude screw worm troubles.
7. The feed after farrowing should be a light slop of
some of the grains carrying a large amount of bran. The
sow, however, should not be fed for the first 12 to 24 hours
after farrowing, preferably 24 hours, but should be given
plenty of water. On the second day give 2 to 3 pounds of a
laxative feed and on the 3rd day 2 pounds twice per day.


40 50 5 4-

302 3

2 10 I 2
Fig. 30-A method of marking pigs with ear notches. (After Day: Productive
Swine Husbandry, Lippincott)
The sow should be on full feed in about 10 days after far-
rowing, and her feed from this point on should be such as
to stimulate milk flow. With good sows it will be difficult
to maintain her body weight during the suckling period as
a good sow is a heavy producer of milk, producing from
three-fourths to a gallon of milk per day. This is another
reason why sows should gain in weight during the gestation
period. "Good sows" will normally lose about 40 lbs. or more
during the nursing period, as they are good milkers, while
poor or "counterfeit sows" may lose only from 10 to 20
pounds. A good sow produces much milk and cares for her


pigs, while a poor one may not do either. Recommended
feeds for nursing sows will be found under the Chapter 7
"Feeds for Swine" and Chapter 6 "Nutrition."
8. To prevent anemia and scours in pigs, one should use
the proper minerals along with other good feeds to the sows
and the pigs, and see that nothing interferes with the safe-
ty, growth and development of the litter. (See Chapter on
"Nutrition" Chapter 9, Diseases, etc., and Chapter on
"Feeds".) Pigs on good pasture are seldom affected with
Little pigs may develop scours. This condition may be
caused by over-feeding of sows, sudden change of feed, or
mouldy feed, heavy feeding of milk to the mother, or it may
occur during damp, chilly or cloudy weather, or be due to
filthy pen conditions, exposure to drafts, or by letting the
pigs get wet. White scours are caused by an organism
which gets in the digestive tract of the pigs through con-
tamination of the sows' teats or by contaminated feed.
The control measure may be one tablespoonful of baking
powder or dried blood meal fed in the slop to the sows; one
should also clean the premises with some good disinfectant.
Often anemia is caused by lack of iron and copper, or iron in
the blood, therefore an ample supply of protein and espe-
cially mineral supplements should be kept before all of the
hogs at all times.
9. After the pigs are about 10 days to 2 weeks old, the
sow should be on full feed, so she will give plenty of milk,
and the pigs should be taught to eat by this time. Self-
feeders are especially useful for this purpose and nothing is
more valuable than the use of plenty of nutritious green
10. The feed for the pigs during the nursing time will
be found in Chapter 7 on "Feeds" and Chapter 6 oi "Nutri-
tion." For the first few days there is nothing better than
the mother's milk for the pigs. A good feed mixture to keep
before the pigs in a self-feeder or trough may consist of 80
lbs. of cracked corn, 10 lbs. of tankage or fishmeal, and 10
lbs. of peanut or cottonseed meal; or they may be given a
mixture of 80 lbs. of ground or cracked corn, and 20 lbs. of
fishmeal or tankage. They cannot use bulky or fibrous
feeds to advantage. Avoid sudden changes in feed and
avoid feeding contaminated feeds; also see that the troughs
or self-feeders are kept clean and/or free from contamina-
A desirable feed for sows at this time may consist of 50
per cent ground oats, 50 per cent shelled corn, and one-half
to three-fourths of a gallon of skim milk or about one-half


lb. of tankage per head daily, allowing the sows to consume
all of the corn and oats they will eat. Keep mineral supple-
ments before them at all times.
11. Sunshine and exercise are valuable for pigs and
sows, but plenty of shade and water are also necessary.
Sows should be forced to walk at least a mile a day; the pigs
may be given newspapers or other harmless objects to play
with. The bedding should be kept clean and dry, as wet bed-
ding frequently develops colds in pigs, and at times the base
of their tails may become sore causing them to slough off.
12. Weaning time is an important time in the life of a
pig. About 4 days before the anticipated weaning date, one
should keep the pigs separated from their mothers for each
24 hour period, letting them nurse only one time the first
day (skipping the second day), and nurse the third day.
Whether or not the pigs are permitted to nurse the third
time will depend upon the condition of the sow's udder.
During this time the sow's feed should be diminished, so as
to diminish milk flow, and the sow should be fed limited
amount of feeds for about a week after the pigs are weaned.
Remove the sow from the pigs, leaving the pigs in their old
surroundings, taking the sow to a new location.
Pigs may be weaned when they are about 8 to 10 weeks
of age. The pigs should be castrated when from 2 to 4
weeks of age, and should be vaccinated against cholera when
they are weaned.
13. From here on the pigs are definitely "on their own"
and/or definitely in the hands of the owner from here out.
The pigs certainly need a well-balanced ration, all they will
eat, and be kept on good nutritious pasture.

The amount of milk which a sow will produce depends
upon the quality and breeding of the sow; that is, whether
she is a scrub, grade, or purebred, or whether she is a good
mother or a poor one; upon the number of pigs the sow is
nursing; as well as the feed, care and management of the
In work done by the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment
Station, Bulletin 104, with three breeds-Poland Chinas,
Berkshires, and Razor-backs-"The average daily milk yield
from these sows ranged from 4.9 to 6.3 lbs. The average
total yield for 84 days was 429 to 526 pounds. These figures
were obtained by segregating the pigs from their mothers
except for short suckling periods, and weighing the pigs be-
fore and immediately after suckling. The increase in weight
was credited to the milk from the sow."


Scrub sows and grade sows normally will produce from
about 1/2 to 2/3 of a gallon of milk per day each, while the
better quality or good sows will produce anywhere from 0.6
gallon to approximately one gallon of milk per day.
The following are a few of the advantages of properly
handling and feeding pigs:
1st. More spring, summer and early fall marketing.
2nd. More economical gains, as a stunted pig never
really overcomes being stunted. See subheading "stunted
pigs," Chapter 4.
3rd. This practice utilizes corn at a much greater return
in price if fed to hogs rather than being sold as corn. In
other words, it is better to sell the corn through hogs or
pigs. Producers have received generally about 60-75c per
bushel for their corn when sold as corn, but if such corn had
been put through hogs fed in combination with tankage and
green feed, the price of the corn would generally have been
25 to 50 per cent greater than when corn was fed alone.
4th. The South will never come into its own until its
fields are green in winter. There is nothing that will give
cheaper gains than having plenty of green feed for growing
pigs, but pigs should be given concentrate feeds.
5th. Thrifty, fast growing pigs are less susceptible to
disease, parasites, accidents, thievery, etc., for the reason
that pigs well cared for are, more often, behind fences and
are under constant supervision of the owner. Such pigs
not only look more profitable but will be more profitable.
Make hog production a business and not something to be
ashamed of.
6th. One can obtain 2 litters per sow per year, thereby
lowering, the investment on sows, loss of profits, as growing
hogs are more profitable.
7th. Such practice stimulates the growing of more corn
per acre. By good practice Florida producers generally can
produce more than 20 bushels of corn per acre. This ton-
nage of corn per acre when combined with tankage (and/
or other protein supplements) and green feed, will produce
more pork per acre than the average acre of peanuts. Pro-
ducers should not raise less hogs on peanuts but should raise
more corn per acre and widen and feed their markets. The
markets are starving for hogs during the same time that
many hogs are being stunted or starved for the lack of a
year-round "thrifty pig" and ultimately "thrifty hog pro-


8th. Winter and spring pigs may well be grown out to
go on the markets from July 1st to October 1st. Late fall
and early winter pigs may go on the market during March
and April and not in the least interfere with the production
of hogs on peanuts. One should keep in mind that only
37.26% of the total hogs marketed a year are sold from
March 1st to October 1st. (See Chapter 1, Page 10, Fig. 2.)
9th. By elimination of the starvation period, finer qual-
ity hogs can be marketed for the reason that stunted pigs
can never be as profitable and of as good quality as thrifty
10th. Corn hogs, or hard hogs, produced and sold from
March 1st to October 1st, generally bring from 30% to 36%
higher prices than if marketed from October 1st to March
1st. Corn hogs generally bring 75c per hundred more than
soft hogs. If such hogs are parasite free, the producer will
receive 371/2c per hundred additional. Generally hogs bring,
even when fed on the same feed, 11/ to 21/c more per pound
sold during the summer and early fall months, than if sold
during the winter months; therefore when producers strive
to eliminate the starvation period by raising more corn, us-
ing protein, and mineral supplements, and with plenty of
green feed, they reap the additional profits of 75c, 371/c
and $1.50, or $2.621/2 per hundred more for hogs generally
sold during summer months than hogs generally sold during
the winter months. This is particularly true if the prevail-
ing price on hogs in the fall is 8c a pound or more.
11th. The selling of finished hogs in the summer would
save pigs which otherwise would die or be stunted, and also
permit the production of 2 litters of thrifty pigs per year
per sow.
12th. Such practice ultimately would give a greater
yearly income from the farm and enable the packing com-
panies to operate more efficiently. Then too, higher prices
might be maintained during the winter months if more hogs
were finished and sold during the spring, summer and early
fall months. The producers should ever be mindful that a
growing hog is the most profitable hog and that the markets
must be fed for efficiency to prevail from the producer
through to the consumer.

1. Are the hogs hard, firm, soft or oily?
2. Are the hogs purebreds, cross breeds, inbreds,
grades or scrubs, if so, what per cent grades? All of these
things affect profits.


3. Have the hogs been treated for cholera or for disease
4. Have the hogs been grown under a "Healthy pig
5. Have they been provided with comfortable surround-
ings ?
6. Have the sows been carefully selected? Select big,
roomy gilts for thrifty litters.
7. Have ample balanced feeds been provided to include
proteins and mineral supplements and grazing crops?
8. Have the sows been bred to farrow at proper time to
fit the best markets?
9. What facilities have been provided for water, shade,
for sunshine, for shelter-all in the proportion to make the
hog comfortable?
More profits from hogs are obtained by practicing some
or all of the following methods:
1. By the use of better breeding stock.
2. Larger litters saved and two litters per year, timely
farrowed and timely marketed.
3. Prevention of hog cholera.
4. More and better grazing crops.
5. Better feeding methods-balanced rations, full feed-
ing all the time.
6. Parasite control-controlling worms by sanitation,
lice by oiling, etc.
7. Timely production and finished product to go on
timely markets-when markets are at their best, usually
August, September, October and March, and April. It is im-
portant to have more feed inside the fence than on the out-
side if hogs are expected to stay in the field. It takes more
than a fence to make a pasture or to provide feed. Best
results are obtained by diligently planning one to three
years ahead of all farm crops, so that ample feed of the
right proportions for balanced rations and timely produc-
tion may fit into timely marketing.
8. Feed sows better during winter and during suckling
period. Eliminate the starvation period from March through
9. Early castration of males.
10. Provide plenty of shade in hot weather.
11. Provide plenty of clean drinking water at all times.


12. Keep mineral-protein supplements before all the hogs
all the time.
13. Start right, feed right; then the hogs will grow right
and market right.
14. The farmer should study economical production along
with timely marketing.
15. Generally speaking, hogs bring the best prices be-
tween the weights of 190 and 225 lbs.
A few limiting factors in hog production are:
1. The kind of breeding stock.
2. Adequate fencing for feed utilization.
3. Labor-the kind to handle the livestock.
4. Adequate pastures and necessary feeds.
5. Adequate minerals and proteins essential for growth.
6. Adequate marketing facilities.
7. Elimination of bruises and injuries.
8. The use of Market News and the value of knowing
The following are a few ways in which one may reduce
death losses in pigs:
1. By using quiet and docile breeding stock.
2. By proper feeding and management of the breeding
herd which will help prevent pigs being born weak or dead.
3. The use of suitable shelter in farrowing quarters as
such facilities may protect the young against cold in the
winter and provide shade in the summer; such quarters
should have proper ventilation and bedding.
4. The use of guard rails in every farrowing house or
pen. The producer should be with his sow at farrowing
time to aid her in every way possible.
5. Provide sanitary farrowing quarters; and pigs should
be kept on clean ground planted in grazing crops, all of
which will do much to prevent worms, scours, bull nose and
sore mouth.
6. Vaccinate all pigs just before weaning to control hog
cholera or other diseases which can be controlled by vacci-
7. The goal should be to market at least seven pigs from
every litter farrowed and to eliminate waste of feed by sav-
ing these pigs. Table 13 furnished by the United States De-


apartment of Agriculture shows death losses at given ages
and weights in terms of feed losses; included in these feed
losses is the feed fed the sow during gestation and suckling
period. This table also shows if a pig dies at birth it is
equivalent to 28 lbs. of pork which took 140 lbs. of feed.
Age of Pig Pounds of Pork Feed to Produce the
Equivalent Pork Equivalent
Birth 28 lbs. 140 lbs.
10 weeks 53 lbs. 260 lbs.
20 weeks 122 Ibs. 602 Ibs.
30 weeks 200 lbs. 990 lbs.

8. It pays to full-feed as there is no profit in a starva-
tion or a mere maintenance ration.
9. Due to nutritional factors, mishandling, parasites of
various kinds, etc., it is felt that here in the South a greater
portion of the livestock dollar is being lost than in most
other sections of the country.
10. The prevention of livestock losses from various
causes is a cooperative job which concerns producers, ship-
pers, transportation people, yard handlers, packing house
employees, and consumers. All of these people have been
forced to recognize or should recognize that animals are
living, perishable, animate creatures, and not lifeless objects
of abuse, therefore each should do his utmost to correct
these abuses which take place on the farm, in stockyards, in
transit, or in terminal yards and packing houses.
1. Probably the most desirable weights of hogs to fol-
low steers in feed lots range from 100 to 150 pounds.
2. The number of hogs to follow steers varies with the
size of the hogs and the size of the steers, the kind of feed,
and the way in which it is fed; for example, two hogs per
steer on chopped corn, three hogs to two steers on husked
ear corn; one hog per steer on shelled corn; and one hog to
two or three steers on ground corn.
3. The profit from feeding beef cattle on grain may
sometimes prevent a loss in cattle feeding due to the fact
that the hogs make use of the undigested feed from the
cattle. If there are too many hogs used for each steer, the
hogs need additional grain.
4. When hogs follow grain-fed cattle they will gather
waste grain, etc.
5. Hogs that follow grain-fed steers in the summer


should have a separate pasture so that gains will be still
further cheapened.
6. It is often best to give some feed to the hogs ahead
of feeding steers, so as to keep the hogs out of the way of
the team and wagon and/or feed truck. Whenever hogs are
given grain in addition to what they get from cattle, it is
best to feed the hogs first so that they do not crowd around
the cattle troughs while the cattle are feeding.
7. With cattle that are fed a balanced feed, the hogs
naturally will get a balanced feed.
8. If the cattle are fed grain only, such as corn, the hogs
should have tankage or other protein and mineral supple-
ments to balance their feed.
9. When ground feed is given to cattle under one-year
old, it is not advisable to run hogs with them, as cattle use
about all of the feed for themselves.

The following facts are amply stated in Alabama Exten-
sion Circular No. 101 as regarding this matter:
1. Go into the hog business slowly.
2. Stay with the hog business. When prices are low, it
is a poor time to sell out.
3. Market hogs when well-finished and weighing about
200 pounds. They should reach this weight at six to eight
4. Keep hog lots sanitary and free from mud puddles
5. Keep fresh water before hogs at all times.
6. Group hogs according to their ages. Larger and
older hogs keep the pigs from getting their share of food
and may infest the pigs with parasites.
7. Gilts should not farrow before they are at least one
year old.
8. Castrate pigs before weaning, when about 2 to 6
weeks of age. Wean pigs when eight to ten weeks of age.
9. Double-treat pigs against cholera when about 8-10
weeks old, just before or at weaning time.
10. Use home-grown feeds as much as possible, but do
not hesitate to buy tankage as a protein supplement, if skim
milk is not available.
11. Keep pigs on forage crops; it pays.
12. Stick to one breed of hogs. There is no best breed.
13. Feed hogs liberally. "You cannot starve profit into
a hog."
14. Keep a mineral mixture before the hogs at all times.


Nutrition is the act or process of nourishing or being
nourished; the sum of the process by which an animal or
plant absorbs, or takes in and utilizes food substances.
Nutrient furnishes nourishment, is nutritious; promotes
Metabolism is the sum of the processes concerned in the
building up of protoplasm and its destruction, incidental to
life; the chemical changes in living cells by which the ener-
gy is provided for the vital processes and activities, and the
new material is assimilated to repair the waste; nutrients
are used to preserve life, to maintain the body, to replace
worn-out and build new tissues, and to produce work and
growth. Metabolism takes place in the presence of minerals.
Nutritious. A food to be nutritious must be nourishing,
promoting growth and repairing natural waste or conveying
Digestion is the process of rendering food absorbable by
dissolving it and breaking it down into simpler chemical
compounds, chiefly through the action of secretions contain-
ing enzymes, as in the saliva, the gastric, pancreatic, bile,
and internal juices in the alimentary canal of higher ani-
Enzymes are organic compounds which bring about
changes in other organic compounds without breaking down
or changing themselves, or is catalytic in its action; and are
found in animals from the mouth throughout the alimentary
canal, playing a very important part in digestion. Ptyalin
in the saliva changes starch into sugar; pepsin in the stom-
ach attacks proteins; trypsin in the small intestine further
acts on proteins dividing them into amino acids; such ami-
no acids are readily absorbed by the villi in the intestinal
wall. Lipase in the small intestines splits fats of foods into
fatty acids and glycerine; bile renders digestible fats ab-
sorbable, or bile makes it possible for the intestines to ab-
sorb fats and fatty acids, or bile aids in the absorption of
vitamins K and A.
Digestible nutrients are those parts of food materials
that are digested and are appropriated to the animal's use.
Assimilation is the incorporation of the food nutrients
into the body. It is an essential and the final part of the
process of nutrition but is preceded by ingestion and diges-
tion, absorption through the mucous membrane of the ali-

Fig. 31-The Type and Quality of Hogs Desired on Every Farm Producing Hogs.
Courtesy Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


mentary canal and transportation of the absorbed nutritive
matter by the blood and lymph to its place of utilization.
Food material thus absorbed may be incorporated in the
living protoplasm, stored for further use, or used immedi-
ately to release energy.
Ration is the amount of food supplied to an animal for a
definite period-usually for a day. There are two kinds of
rations, namely, maintenance and productive. When ani-
mals lack sufficient food to maintain their bodies they will
soon perish and cease to be profitable.
Maintenance ration is one that supplies the need of an
animal while resting without producing any labor and with-
out loss or gain of body substance. It takes a certain
amount of food to support life, repair waste tissue, main-
tain body temperature, provide muscular activity, keep the
vital organs working, etc., as these are demands on the
body and result in the need for maintenance; therefore such
ration is known as a maintenance ration for it keeps the
animal living, neither producing nor losing weight, nor pro-
ducing work.
Productive ration is made of two parts: (1) that which
maintains the animal, and (2) that which produces work or
growth. If an animal is growing, it is producing or storing
energy; therefore a growing ration is a productive ration.
While a productive ration is supposed to produce increased
weight, yet the individuality of an animal determines to a
large extent whether the food given is profitable or un-
Balanced- ration is one that contains feed nutrients in
the proper proportion to meet the needs of the animal for a
given purpose. The ability to balance a ration depends up-
on one's knowledge of the composition and digestibility of
the more common foods. It is important to know the
amount, kind and quality of foods in balancing a ration. A
balanced ration contains the proportion of nutrients to
properly nourish the animal to which it is fed.
Nutritive ratio is the proportion between the digestible
protein in a given feed and the digestible carbohydrates and
fats. The carbohydrate equivalent is obtained by multiply-
ing the fat by 21/4 and adding it to the carbohydrates. To
obtain the nutritive ratio, the digestible carbohydrate equiv-
alent is divided by the digestible protein. The nutritive
ratio will be considered "narrow" if it runs one part of
digestible protein to less than seven parts of digestible car-
bohydrate equivalent, and "wide" if it runs from one part
of protein to seven or more parts of carbohydrate equiva-
lent. The usual standard in computing a ration is furnished


by Morrison's Feed and Feeding, and every good stockman
should have a copy of it.
Feeds are divided into concentrates, minerals, rough-
ages, legumes, vitamins, and crude fiber.
A concentrate supplies a large quantity of feed nutrients
per unit of weight. Grains, tankage, and oil meals are con-
Roughage is usually coarse and bulky in nature. Feeds
such as hays, straw, silage, and roots are generally consid-
ered as roughages.
Legumes have the power to fix air nitrogen in nodules
on their roots. Such plants have bacteria that are capable
of taking nitrogen out of the air. Legumes are usually
rich in proteins and minerals, more so than grass crops.
Plants such as clovers, cowpeas, soybeans, kudzu, and al-
falfa, are legumes.
Vitamins are organic compounds derived from feeds
usually in small quantities and they are necessary for nor-
mal metabolism, growth, reproduction and protection
against disease.
Crude fiber is the coarse fibrous part of plants usually
of the carbohydrate group but much less digestible than
sugar and starches.
Nitrogen-free extract is the portion of the feed which re-
mains after the determination of water, protein, fat, ash
and crude fiber, and is composed principally of starches and
A feed supports life and reproduction. They provide
reserve energy to maintain temperature, growth, work and
for body maintenance. They enable the animal to replace
worn out tissues, and are used in normal metabolism. The
animal must have it for continued existence.
The economical feeding of farm animals requires a
knowledge of the principles underlying feeding practices.
The more knowledge one has of feed, its sources, use, com-
position, and digestibility, and the more familiar one is with
the function of the various feed materials, the more intelli-
gently one can balance rations or choose the feed which
constitutes a good ration.

Feeds further divide themselves into ingredients or
classes known as (1) water, (2) ash or mineral compounds,
(3) proteins, (4) carbohydrates, (5) fats, (6) crude fiber.


Water is present in all feed, even to the driest. It varies
from 8 to 15 per cent in grains, and from 75 to 90 per cent
in watery foods such as roots, tubers and silage, and in
hays from 10 to 20 per cent. Water is the dissolving or
liquefying agent in the digestive tract. It aids in digestion,
helps in assimilation, and is necessary for animal growth;
plenty of it is very essential and animals should have a
clean, sanitary, plentiful and convenient supply of it free-
choice at all times. Hogs will not grow rapidly or fatten
economically without it. The supply of water should be
pure from fresh streams, if possible originating on the farm
or from wells. It should be supplied in ample quantities, if

Five to six gallons of water a day will
be consumed by a sow and litter in hot
summer weather. Hogs cannot cool them-
selves by sweating, but will get along
nicely without wallows if given shade
and plenty of clean, fresh water.

necessary carried to hogs in a bucket, or supplied from
barrels as a drinking fountain. Animals forced to drink
stagnant or filthy water from wallows do not drink enough.
We presume no one would like to drink water from a bath
tub. Hogs will drink a lot of water no matter how much
slop they eat. If it has to be pumped it should be supplied
to them fresh 2 or 3 times daily, as the hog's stomach is not
large. There are several watering devices which may be
used, but important thing is to see that the hogs get plenty
of it.


Table 14 shows the approximate amount of water each
species or class of animal should receive daily:
Each 200 lb. hog ..................... ..... ............... 2 gallons per day
Each pig, about 75 lbs. ...................................... 11/ gallons per day
Each 800 to 1000 lb. cow
(fed mostly dry feed) ....................................... 20-25 gallons per day
Each steer or dry cow ...................................... 10-12 gallons per day
Each 1000 to 1200 Ib. horse ........................... 12 gallons per day
Each sheep, mature ......................................... 11/ gallons per day
Each 100 chickens (unit) ................................... 4 gallons per day

In hot weather, when animals are on dry feed and doing
hard work, more water may be needed; while on cold days
and no appreciable work, less water may be required. The
answer is: "See that all animals are provided with plenty
of clean, fresh, good water." Watering devices will be found
in this bulletin under the heading of "Equipment for Hogs."
(Chapter 8.)
A mineral is any chemical element or compound occur-
ring naturally as a product of inorganic processes. It does
not belong to the animal or vegetable kingdom but is neces-
sary in building animal and vegetable life and is a very def-
inite part of their growth.
Mineral elements for hogs are fed as compounds. The
ash present in all plant feeds contains minerals, but in most
plants the quantity is not sufficient to supply the needs of
the animals. Grains contain smaller amounts of minerals
than legume hays, which contain considerable amounts. All
animals need minerals, but young growing animals require
larger percentages to make rapid growth. Proper minerals
should be before livestock at all times, whether such animals
are breeding stock or growing stock. One of the biggest
mistakes any producer can make is in not providing plenty
of minerals of the right kind and quality at all times to all
of the animals.
The basis of good feed containing adequate minerals is
in fertile soils containing much humus and mineral matter.
The principal minerals needed by livestock and/or crops are
calcium, phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, sulphur, iron,
copper, cobalt, magnesium, manganese, sodium chloride
(common salt), zinc, iodine.
Minerals have vital functions in an animal's body and
are stored in the body.


1. Minerals build bone, such as calcium, phosphorus,
manganese, and nitrogen.
2. Common salt, a mineral, helps to control heat, or helps
to keep the animal cool in hot weather, and helps to
keep the body fluids normal.
3. Minerals stimulate the appetite and/or aid digestion,
such as cobalt, phosphorus, and salt.
4. Minerals improve the blood condition of the animal,
such as cobalt, copper, and iron.
5. Minerals give resistance to disease. A deficiency of
any essential mineral element predisposes an animal
to disease.
6. Minerals help save feeds by helping to utilize other
feeds, such as phosphorus, salt, cobalt, copper, and
The minerals most likely to be lacking in Florida are
common salt, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, and cobalt.
Calcium, commonly occurring'as lime, helps build bone
and teeth, and aids in clotting of the blood, and serves to
keep the heart beating. It is a factor in phosphorus utili-
zation, or its effectiveness; it helps maintain body acid-
alkali balance. The metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
is closely associated with Vitamin D. Important to young
animals is the calcium-phosphorus ratio, which should be
between 1:1 and 2:1. A deficiency of calcium may result
in rickets, convulsions, or tetany. Common sources of cal-
cium (must be fluorine free) are: Ground limestone, pref-
erably a high calcium limestone, finely ground oyster shell,
precipitated calcium carbonate, and hard wood ashes. Faster
weight gains, more efficient utilization of feed, increased
retention of calcium and phosphorus, heavier bone with
greater breaking strength, and higher slaughter grades re-
sult when adequate calcium is included in the ration.
The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin
372 states: "First symptoms of calcium deficiency, when
feeder pigs are fed peanuts and salt, are rough skin and
hair, swollen joints, stiffness and lameness. Advanced
symptoms are loss of appetite, walking on knees, posterior
paralysis, and finally complete paralysis." The Missouri
Station Research Bulletin 167, states "that a ration for
brood sows should contain not less than 0.40% of calcium,
otherwise there will be reduced vigor of pigs at birth."
Phosphorus. The bones are composed largely of calcium
and phosphorus. Phosphorus is a vital portion of proteins,
present in the nuclei of all cells and a portion of all living
protoplasm. Phosphorus combines with calcium in building


strong bones and teeth and helps to maintain the acid-alkali
balance of the blood by means of the phosphates it forms.
Young animals need it to prevent and overcome stunted
growth. Phosphorus helps to increase the pig crop and to
maintain life by aiding other functions necessary for proper
growth and development.
The Kansas Station, in Technical Bulletin No. 41, states
that abnormalities resulted from feeding low-phosphorus
rations are,-
1. A lowering of the inorganic phosphorus in the blood.
2. A failure of normal growth and development of bone
and muscle.
3. A reduced utilization of feed, and storage of energy.
4. A loss of appetite.
5. A marked increase in thirst and a corresponding ex-
cretion of urine.
"The minimum requirement of phosphorus in a ration of
growing pigs should be between 0.27 and 0.30 per cent,
which represents a daily intake of about 61/2 grams of phos-
phorus per 100 pounds live weight for pigs weighing 50
pounds, or about 3 grams per head daily, and 4 grams per
100 lbs. live weight for hogs weighing 200 lbs., or 8 grams
per head daily."
Sources of phosphorus are steamed bone meal, spent bone
meal, dicalcium phosphate, and superphosphate. Legumes
are rich in calcium. Grains and seeds are usually rich in
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 372,
Page 10, states: (See Table 15).
"The calcium and phosphorus requirements of growing
pigs, expressed in per cent of the dry ration, were indicated
by Mitchell and McClure and Ellis and Zeller to be as fol-
Calcium Content in Phosphorus Content in
Dry Ration Dry Ration
Weight Mitchell and Ellis and Mitchell and Ellis and
of Pigs McClure Zeller McClure Zeller
Pounds Percent Percent Percent Percent
30 0.53 ..... 0.37
50 0.44 0.40 0.29 0.30
100 0.28 ...... 0.23 ..
150 0.22 0.30 0.20 0.25
200 0.20 ...... 0.18
250 0.20 0.20 0.18 0.20


Salt. The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Bulletin 372 states:
"Symptoms of salt deficiency are rough skin and hair,
loss of and depraved appetite, and slow and poor gains.
Salt plays an important part in maintaining the proper
chemical reaction of the body, and aids in the digestion of
the feed. Swine have only a small reserve of salt in body
tissue, therefore salt should be accessible to them at all
times. Salt requirement is 2 grams per head daily." (About
1/16 oz.)
Iron and copper are essential in blood processes. About
70 per cent of the iron found in the body is in the blood as
hemoglobin, or red coloring matter of the corpuscles. Cop-
per should accompany the iron as it takes a small amount of
copper to aid the body in utilizing the iron. Iron helps to
prevent anemia, and animals lacking iron and copper de-
velop nutritional anemia, lose their appetite, become weak,
and their blood is low in hemoglobin or red corpuscles, iron
being an integral part of hemoglobin. Traces of copper are
essential to animal life but care should be exercised not to
give too much as it is a poison. Suckling animals need more
copper and iron as milk is low in these elements.
Cobalt helps prevent certain anemic conditions for it is
concerned with appetite, growth and thrift.
Zinc is probably necessary for growth and hair develop-
ment, but zinc in combination with lead is a poison. Since
only a trace of zinc is necessary, feeds generally contain
adequate supply.
Iodine or potassium iodide in small amounts is one con-
trol for goiter (not often found in Florida).
Minerals are generally so cheap for the good they do
and it takes such a small amount of them to do so much,
that there should be no excuse for not using them.
The following minerals are recommended by the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station in Bulletin 401, August
1944. (See Table 16.)
Ingredients Florida Experimental
Swine Mineral Swine Mineral
Defluorinated superphosphate 50 pounds
Steamed bonemeal 50 pounds
Marble dust 50 pounds 50 pounds
Common salt 25 pounds 25 pounds
Red oxide of iron 10-25 pounds 10-25 pounds
Copper sulfate 1 pound 1 pound
Cobalt sulfate 2 ounces 2 ounces


When using defluorinated superphosphate to replace
steamed bone meal it should contain from 10 to 14 per cent
phosphorus, 25 to 28 per cent calcium, and less than 0.2 per
cent fluorine. Steamed bone meal contains approximately
15 per cent phosphorus.
The amount of minerals contained in feeds or in indi-
vidual feed varies with the amount of minerals in soils on
which such feed is raised; therefore the necessity of prop-
erly mineralized or fertilized pastures and crops. The
basis of a good feed containing minerals comes from plants
grown on fertile soils containing much humus and mineral
matter, but hogs should have mineral supplements.
How to Feed Minerals to Hogs. Minerals may be fed as
mixtures from a self-feeder or from a trough or box. Keep
mineral mixtures before hogs at all times and at the most
accessible points to encourage consumption. Minerals may
be mixed and fed to hogs in separate containers, or be a
portion of a protein supplement, or be mixed in prepared
feeds; however if fed in separate containers hogs generally
will not eat more than their needs. If fed in a protein sup-
plement it should not be in excess of 1/2 of 1% of the total
ration. Hog producers can save feed by using good mineral
Protein means primary or holding first place. It is the
base of all albuminous substances. Proteins are the essen-
tial constituents of all living cells in both animal and vege-
table life, composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitro-
gen. Sulphur is found in most of them, phosphorus and iron
in some of them, and at times other minerals. Proteins are
decomposed by acids, alkalies, proteolytic enzymes, and pu-
trefactive bacteria.
Protein is a nutrient that is used to build tissues, nerve,
muscle, and all of the principal organs of the body. Proteins
help to supply heat, energy, fat, as well as blood, skin, hair,
hide, hoof, secretive organs, excretive organs, vigor, and
continuous development. Without proteins there can be no
life. The large amounts of carbohydrates normally found
in swine feeds make the use of protein supplements for
swine necessary. Grains generally contain from 7 to 11
per cent protein, while cottonseed meal, peanut meal, soy-
bean meal, fish meal, and tankage contain from 35 to 60%.
Generally speaking, there are very few foods which are rich
in protein; however those named above should be kept be-
fore the hogs in the proper proportions. At least 50% of a
protein supplement for hogs should come from animal
sources like fish meal, tankage, and milk.



Proteins in order of their importance to hogs are: (1)
tankage or fish meal alone, (2) tankage or fish meal 50 per
cent, and oil meals 50 per cent. A portion of a protein
supplement may come from skim milk when fed 2 to 4
pounds per day per head. Too much milk adds bulk and is
no better in hog feeding than in limited quantities. Peanut
meal and cottonseed meal when properly supplemented with
minerals make excellent proteins for swine.
While all plants have the ability to make protein some
plants known as "legumes" have the ability, because of no-
dules, to obtain nitrogen from the air, and these legume
plants generally have a higher protein content than grasses.
Young, tender grasses have a higher quality protein than
tough or mature grasses; and young, tender, green legume
plants generally have a higher per cent of desirable proteins
than similar grasses. Pastures which are young and grow-

.. r. It takes 11 bushels of
corn. if fed alone, to
produce 100 pounds NOT
L of gain. FIFLDIN

Houston County Farmers produced

Fig. 32-Save 5 bushels of corn on every 100 pounds of gain by using
o 00 a pounds of amin with only
bthee els of corn plus t 5poernds.
of tankage.'

~~,3^l E"' ^, ]PROTEINS

Fig. 32-Save 5 bushels of corn on every 100 pounds of gain by using
a protein supplement.

ing provide vital proteins that help to obtain economical
Proteins are made up of amino acids, and certain of
these acids are more valuable than others. These certain


indispensable amino acids, essential for life processes, are
called "essential or quality amino acids."
The quality and kind of a protein in a ration is just as
important as the amount of it. This is one reason why in
feeding hogs that certain proteins derived from animal bod-
ies like tankage, fish meal and skim milk, should constitute
at least 35-50% of the protein supplement to obtain results.
Reasons for proteins in swine feeding are:
1. Proteins are essential to swine because they are a part
of animal life, being an integral part of each and every func-
tion of the body, a part of every nucleus and are in all living
active protoplasm and cells, a part of all growth, all nerves,
tissue, muscle, internal organs, and a portion of hair, skin,
bone and feet. The quality and quantity of protein deter-
mines to a large extent the results obtained in the animal.
2. They are a part of reproduction, as there would be
no life without proteins.
3. They are a portion of the bone, giving them and other
portions of the body elasticity and toughness.
4. Proteins help to utilize more efficiently carbohydrates
and fats, or proteins help to keep an animal from "going off
feted" when fed in the right proportion with other feeds.
Fig. 32 shows the results of feeding and not feeding a
good protein supplement:
As seen in Fig. 32, it took 11 bushels of corn alone to pro-
The Protein Supplement Requirement of Hogs in Dry Lot

age of ment 100 LBS. OF MIX:1
protein to use With With With
needed in (See With ground ground ground
ration, below) corn ,wheat barley kafir
Pigs up to 50 lbs. 20 A 28 23 25 26
Pigs 50 to 80 lbs. 18 A 24 15 18 20
Pigs 80 to 120 lbs 16 A 19 9 12 14
Pigs 120 to 165 lbs. 14 B 13 4 6 8
Pigs 165 to 220 lbs. 12 B 7 3* 3* 5
Bred sows2 14 B 13 4 6 8
Nursing sows 15 B 16 7 9 12
Breeding gilts and boars 15 B 16 7 9 12
1 Five percent alfalfa meal should be included in all rations fed to growing
and fattening pigs in dry lot.
2 In feeding sows, ground alfalfa hay can be used to advantage up to 15 per-
cent of the ration if the alfalfa is high quality, fine-stemmed, and leafy.
The percentage of protein supplement in these rations was not reduced be-
low 3 percent in order to keep up the quality of the protein in the ration.
EXAMPLE: Feeding ground wheat to pigs weighing 50 to 80 pounds, in dry
lot-Use the line, "Pigs 50 to 80 lbs." On that line, under "Supplement
to use," is "A," and under "With ground wheat" is "15." So in mak-
ing the feed mixture, start with 15 pounds of Supplement A, which Is
given below. Add 5 pounds of alfalfa meal, making 20 pounds. Sub-
tract the 20 pounds from 100, which gives 80 pounds-the amount of
ground wheat needed for 100 pounds of mixture.


duce 100 lbs. gain. When 25 lbs. of tankage was used with
corn, it took only 6 bushels of corn to produce 100 lbs. gain,
or in the above feeding trial one pound of tankage replaced
111/2 pounds of corn. A protein supplement helps save feed
and helps utilize other feeds, and also helps to keep the ani-
mal from "going off" feed.

Carbohydrates and fats cannot take the place of pro-
teins, but proteins can be used in the place of carbohydrates
and fats. Other feeds are wasted when too little protein is
used, and the ration may be too expensive when feeding
more proteins than are needed. Proteins are economical
when fed in the proper proportions. Table 17 shows the
per cent of protein needed in different rations for differ-
ent weight swine (taken from Oklahoma Agri. Exp. Sta.
Circular 113)-or consult Morrison's Feeds and Feeding.

The Protein Supplement Requirement of Hogs on Pasture

age of Supple- 100 LBS. OF MIX
Protein ment
Needed to use With With With
in (See With ground ground ground
Ration below)- corn wheat barley kafir
Pigs up to 50 lbs. 18 A 24 18 19 20
Pigs 50 to 80 lbs. 16 A 18 11 12 14
Pigs 80 to 120 lbs. 14 B 13 5 7 9
Pigs 120 to 165 lbs. 12 B 8 3* 3* 4
Pigs 165 to 220 lbs. 10 B 3* 3* 3* 3*
Bred sows1 12 B 8 3* 3* 4
Nursing sows 13 B 11 3* 4 5
Breeding gilts and boars 13 B 11 3* 4 5
1 In feeding sows, ground alfalfa hay can be used to advantage up to 15 per-
cent of the ration if the alfalfa is high quality, fine-stemmed, and leafy.
* The percentage of protein supplement in these rations was not reduced be-
low 3 percent in order to keep up the quality of the protein in the ration.
EXAMPLE: Feeding corn to pigs weighing 80 to 120 pounds, on pasture-Use
the line, "Pigs 80 to 120 lbs." On that line, under "Supplement to Use,"
is "B," and under "With corn" is "13." So in making the feed mix-
ture, simply add 87 pounds (100-13=87) of corn to 13 pounds of Supple-
ment B to make 100 pounds of feed mixture. Supplement B is described
Supplements A and B in tables above are made up as follows:
Supplement A (46% crude protein)
Meat scrap (50% protein) .................................... 50 lbs.
Soybean or peanut meal (41% protein) ..---....... -- 25 lbs.
Cottonseed meal (43% ) ........................... ........ 25 lbs.

100 lbs.
Supplement B (44% crude protein)
M eat scrap (50% ) .................... ....................... 34 lbs.
Peanut meal (41% ) ............................................. 33 lbs.
Cottonseed meal (43% ) ....................... .............. 33 lbs.

100 lbs.


Protein Requirements For Swine
Protein is essential for growth. Different weight and
stages of growth of swine have different protein require-
ments. The following is the minimum recommended on a
broad scale as a per cent of total concentrates:
Stage of Growth % to Feed in % to Feed
Not on Pasture Dry Lot Feeding on Pasture
Pigs up to 75 pounds 18-20 percent 15-17 percent
Pigs 75 to 150 pounds 16-17 percent 12-14 percent
Hogs 150 to 225 pounds 13-15 percent 10-12 percent
Bred sows 14-15 percent 10-12 percent
Lactating sows 16-17 percent 13-14 percent

When feeding swine with plenty of good pasture the pro-
tein may run from 3-4% less than in dry lot feeding or when
pasture is scant. When pastures are scant or when dry lot
feeding, a good bright green legume hay 5% of the ration
should be added in order to help take care of vitamin A re-
quirements. Dry or bred sows can use hay to better ad-
vantage than other classes of swine. Good pasture should
be available for all swine.
Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen, and are heat-energy feeds. They are sugars, starch-
es, celluloses and pentosans. The sugars and starches are
called simple carbohydrates or saccharides or nitrogen free
extract, while the celluloses and pentosans are complex car-
bohydrates or polysaccharides, or crude fiber. Sugar is
soluble in water, starch is relatively insoluble in water but
is soluble in the presence of some enzymes like ptyalin in
the saliva. Crude fiber is the least valuable because of its
insolubility, but certain bacteria in the digestive tract may
act on it and break it down so that a small portion of it
may be used in cattle, but very little if any may be used in
hogs. Hogs cannot use much bulky feed and crude fiber
is bulky. Carbohydrates can take the place of fats but
cannot take the place of all fats in animal nutrition.
Fat is any class of neutral compounds composed of car-
bon, hydrogen and oxygen of which the different varieties
of natural fats are mixtures. Fats are glycerol esters of
certain fatty acids namely, stearic, palmittic and oleic,-on
saponification they yield glycerine. They are soluble in
ether but insoluble in water. Stearin is a hard, palmittin



a firm, and olein a soft fat at normal temperatures. A hog
tends to transfer fatty acids from feeds into its body as the
same fatty acid, and this accounts for certain feeds produc-
ing hard pork while others may produce a firm pork while
still others may produce oily pork. A given weight of fat
will develop 21/4 times as much heat energy as a carbohy-
Nutritional Technologist, Agri. Exp. Sta., U. of Fla.,
Gainesville, Fla.
Vitamins may be defined as organic compounds which
are required for the normal growth and maintenance of the
life of animals. Animals are, as a rule, unable to synthesize
these compounds which are effective in small amounts.
Swine in many ways resemble humans more closely than
any other non-primate animal in their requirements for the
vitamins. The deficiency symptoms which occur in swine
have their counterpart in humans. An important excep-
tion is Vitamin C or Ascorbic Acid for which swine have a
very low requirement.
The requirements of swine have been worked out for a
limited number of the vitamins and these are discussed in
more detail in the following pages. Because of the general
interest in the vitamins as a whole, some additional vita-
mins are listed with brief descriptions.
As information stands today any farmer using grains
and protein supplements and pasture need be concerned only
with Vitamins A, D, B2, Niacin and Pantothenic Acid. He
will be interested in others, particularly B1, Be and Choline,
but his feed even under very poor conditions will supply ade-
quate amounts.
Vitamin A
Pure Vitamin A occurs as pale yellow crystals at low
temperatures and as a viscous oil at room temperatures.
Vitamin A occurs only in the animal organism. It has
never been found in plants. In plants the precursors of
Vitamin A are found widely distributed, and there have
been nine precursors of Vitamin A discovered so far. The
most important of these precursors or pro-vitamins A in-
clude alpha carotene, beta carotene and gamma carotene
which are the yellow pigments of grasses, carrots, clovers
and many vegetables, and cryptoxanthein which is the pig-
ment of yellow corn.
From the standpoint of animal feeding, the pro-vitamins
A are the most important sources of this vitamin. Carotene


as well as the other precursors of Vitamin A is converted
in the animal body to Vitamin A and in swine is about one-
third as effective as Vitamin A in supplying the needs for
this vitamin. Quantities of Vitamin A are expressed in in-
ternational units. An international unit of Vitamin A and
of carotene is described as six-tenths of a microgram of
pure beta carotene. A gram of pure Vitamin A has an
activity of 4,500,000 international units. Vitamin A and
its precursors are easily oxidized and in feedstuffs losses
are frequently large due to exposure to unfavorable tem-
perature and atmospheric conditions.
Vitamin A is known to have very definite functions
within the animal body. It forms part of the visual purple
which is the pigment in the eye that permits vision in poor
light, consequently, a deficiency of Vitamin A causes a loss
of this pigment and the development of "night blindness."
Another general function of Vitamin A is as a stimulant
to the formation of new cells, and it is essential in those tis-
sues that must be constantly replacing themselves because
of wear, and in young animals wherever there is a growth
in tissues. A deficiency in Vitamin A in swine results in
night blindness, keratinization (thickened and horny) of
tissues including respiratory, urinary, intestinal and ocular
tissues. Other symptoms include cessation of growth, inter-
ference with the proper functioning of the reproductive sys-
tem, interference with tooth formation and blindness due to
constriction of the optic nerve. In sows a deficiency of Vita-
min A may result in the birth of blind pigs, or in some
cases, in the birth of pigs without eyes.
The requirements of swine for Vitamin A are correlated
very closely with body weight and approximate 25 to 30
units of Vitamin A per pound or from 120 to 200 units of
carotene per pound per day. Thus, a pig weighing 100
pound would have a daily requirement of Vitamin A of
about 3,000 international units.
Vitamin A is supplied in fish liver oils in a concentrated
form. Carotene or the precursor of Vitamin A is found in
green plants, young growing grasses, clover, green vegeta-
ble, hay which has a green color, and in carrots. Yellow
corn supplies appreciable amounts of Vitamin A precursor
in the form of cryptoxyanthein.

Vitamin D
Vitamin D occurs in several forms, the chief of which is
D2 or the ergosterol form, which occurs in plants which are
irradiated with ultro-violet light, and the Ds form which
predominates in fish oils. The D vitamins are fat soluble


and water insoluble, and are relatively heat stable. The
vitamin occurs only in small amounts in animal tissues.
Living plants contain no detectable amount of Vitamin D
but through irradiation of the cut plants as in the prepara-
tion of hay Vitamin D is formed from the precursors which
are present. Good sources of the Vitamin are found in fish
liver oils and in some fish by-products.
While fish fat is a good source of Vitamin D, the fat of
other animals is quite poor in this vitamin. The standard
international unit of Vitamin D is .025 microgram of pure
crystalline D2 in 1 microgram of olive oil. Thus, 1 gram of
pure Vitamin D2 is equivalent to 40,000,000 international
As Vitamin D functions in the animal body, it is very
closely related to the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus,
and a deficiency of Vitamin D results in poor ossification or
bone formation, and in young animals the condition known
as rickets develops. Vitamin D also influences the feed re-
quirement for gain and a lack of this vitamin results in an.
increased feed requirement per unit gain. A typical result
of Vitamin D deficiency in young animals is "rib beading"
(a thickening of the ends of the rib bones), curvature of the
long bones, and poor dentition. The deficient animals are
more susceptible to infectious diseases and in older animals,
osteomalacia and rarefication of the bones along with the in-
creased susceptibility to disease may be the only signs of
this deficiency.
The requirement of the pigs for this vitamin is closely
related to body weight and the requirement has been de-
termined to be from 225 to 450 international units per 100
pounds of body weight.

Vitamin B1 or Thiamin Hydrochloride
Pure Vitamin B, is a water-soluble crystalline compound
that is nearly colorless and has a yeast or nutty odor. It is
quite stable in strong acid solutions or when dry, and can
withstand heat to 120 C. It is quite sensitive to oxidation
and is readily destroyed by sulfur dioxide. Thiamin is very
essential to all forms of life and functions as part of the
cellular enzyme system. It is not stored to any appreciable
extent in the animal body and a regular intake must be pro-
vided. Thiamin is intimately tied up with carbohydrate
metabolism and when a deficiency occurs the disruption of
the normal carbohydrate metabolism causes the symptoms
which are seen. Thiamin is measured in international units
and 1 gram of pure thiamin hydrochloride equals 3,333,000
international units.


A deficiency of Vitamin B, in swine results in loss of
appetite, susceptibility to fatigue, nervous disorders, intes-
tinal disturbances, and unusual tenderness of muscles. Ed-
ema may develop in the legs.
While thiamin is very important in the swine ration, it is
rarely deficient because the whole grains, young growing
plants, and the seed meals, such as cottonseed, peanut and
soybean meals, which constitute such a large part of swine
rations, are good sources of this vitamin.
Riboflavin or Vitamin B2
Pure Riboflavin is an orange yellow crystalline com-
pound which is slightly soluble in water. It is relatively
stable to heat and oxidation but is destroyed upon exposure
to light. Quantities of vitamin B2 or riboflavin are ex-
pressed as milligrams or micrograms of riboflavin. Ribo-
flavin is widely distributed over the plant and animal king-
doms, every cell apparently requires a small quantity of
this vitamin as a part of the normal cellular enzymes.
Riboflavin in the ration promotes growth, prevents ner-
vous abnormalities and prevents some types of dermatitis.
When a deficiency occurs in swine it results in retarded
growth, diarrhea, decreased resistance to disease, sterility,
and if long continued and severe, a deficiency of riboflavin
will result in death.
The daily requirement of this vitamin by swine is be-
tween 1 and 3 milligrams of riboflavin per 100 pounds of
body weight. Good sources of this vitamin are milk, alfalfa,
liver meal and synthetic riboflavin. While riboflavin de-
ficiency in swine does not often occur, it will develop when
a ration is composed of too great a proportion of grains
and the owner fails to include pasture or animal protein in
the ration.
Niacin or Niacinamide
Niacin with the commonly occurring compound of niacin,
niacinamide, is another member of the B vitamin complex.
It is a white crystalline compound that is water soluble and
relatively stable to heat. Quantities of this vitamin are ex-
pressed as milligrams of niacin or niacinamide and it has
been found essential for the normal functioning of all living
cells, and is found in all living organisms.
Niacin does not occur free in living tissues but in the
form of niacinamide or still more frequently as compounds
of niacinamide in enzyme systems. Niacin functions pri-
marily as part of the cellular enzymes and a deficiency re-
sults in abnormal functioning of the body cells.



A deficiency of niacin in swine results in disturbances of
the gastro-intestinal tract which is shown by diarrhea. Re-
sistance to disease is lowered and necrotic enteritis may de-
velop. Growth is stopped and nervous disorders and der-
matitis frequently appear. The lack of any storage organs
for niacin makes it necessary that a regular supply be pro-
vided in the feed. Pigs require between 5 and 14 milli-
grams of niacin per 100 pounds of live weight daily.
Liver, yeast and wheat germ are especially rich in niacin.
Good sources are barley, peanut meal, wheat and fair sup-
plies may be secured from the oil seed meals and young
growing plants.
Pantothenic Acid
Pantothenic acid is a member of the B vitamin complex.
It is a white solid slightly soluble in water. It is stable to
light and to oxidizing agents but is unstable to prolonged
heating. Quantities of pantothenic acid are expressed as
milligrams of pantothenic acid.
Pantothenic acid occurs in small amounts in all animal
tissues as a part of the cell protoplasm. It usually occurs
combined with other materials.
While the exact functions of pantothenic acid are not
known, it appears to be concerned with the carbohydrate
metabolism of the animal. In swine a deficiency results in a
stilted gait, diarrhea, anemia, paralysis of the hind quar-
ters, loss of appetite, retarded growth, nervous disorders,
and lowered disease resistance.
Practical swine rations may be quite low in this vitamin
and can result in a deficiency of pantothenic acid unless spe-
cial provisions are made for it by providing materials such
as alfalfa or green pasture. A requirement of swine is from
8 to 12 milligrams of pantothenic acid per 100 pounds daily.
Concentrated sources of the vitamin are found in dried
Brewer's yeast and in synthetic pantothenic acid. Good
sources are cane molasses, peanut meal and green growing
grass. Alfalfa and wheat bran are fair sources; the grains
are extremely poor in this vitamin.

Choline is sometimes considered as one of the B vitamin
complexes. It is related in its function to methionine, an
essential amino acid, and to betaine. All of these compounds
serve a similar capacity in the animal body. Methionine and
betaine can substitute for choline particularly if choline is
absent from the diet. Choline is found widely distributed in


small amounts, and is necessary for normal body metabo-
Its primary function is as a source of "labile" methyl
groups and it is closely related to the metabolism of the sul-
fur containing amino acids. Quantities of choline are ex-
pressed in terms of milligrams. Unlike the other B vita-
mins which are usually required in small amounts choline is
required by swine at a level of around 450 milligrams per
100 pounds live weight, daily.
Because choline is so widely distributed in the usual
swine feeds, deficiencies are rarely if ever seen. When de-
ficiencies are experimentally produced, the principal symp-
tom is lack of appetite, retarded growth in the development
of fatty livers.
Good sources of this vitamin are the animal protein con-
centrates, cottonseed meal, peanut meal, alfalfa, dried skim
milk, and the wheat by-products.

Pyridoxin or Vitamin Be
Pyridoxin is a member of the B vitamin complex that is
widely distributed in plant and animal tissues. Because de-
ficiencies of it have resulted in a symmetrical dermatitis in
rats, it has sometimes been called the anti-dermatitis vita-
min. Pyridoxin deficiency has been produced in pigs ex-
perimentally, and symptoms resembling epileptic fits de-
Because of the wide distribution of this vitamin in feed-
stuffs, swine ordinarily receive abundant amounts of this
Inositol is often included in the B vitamin group and is
found in all plants and animal tissues. It is a water soluble
vitamin and it occurs naturally in combined form. The func-
tion of this vitamin is not known but it has been suggested
that it is a nutritional factor determining gastro-intestinal
motility. A deficiency of inositol has never been observed
in swine.
Para-Aminobenzoic Acid
Para-aminobenzoic acid is another of the B vitamin com-
plex, often called the anti-gray hair factor. It is also wide-
ly distributed in plants and animals and occurs both in the
free and combined forms; however, quantitative informa-
tion as to its distribution is not available.
Deficiency symptoms have not been described in swine.


Vitamin C or Ascorbic Acid
Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is a white odorless crystalline
compound, somewhat acid to taste. It is quite soluble in wa-
ter; it is quite stable in crystalline form but it readily de-
teriorates in solution when in the presence of air, traces of
metal such as copper and iron, and light. Although vitamin
C is quite important in human nutrition, it apparently is
synthesized by swine and therefore need not be supplied in
the ration.
Vitamin E or the Tocopherols
Vitamin E or the Tocopherols has been intensely inves-
tigated and research on these compounds, which occur as
oils, has yielded much information. Apparently it is required
by all animal organisms but the amounts required by swine
are so small that deficiency symptoms in this species have
not been demonstrated.
Much has been suggested as to its possible role in repro-
duction, as a protector of vitamin A, and in muscle metab-
olism. Some European workers claim to have overcome
barrenness in sows with vitamin E, but available informa-
tion indicates that a deficiency rarely if ever occurs in
Biotin or Vitamin H
Biotin or vitamin H is very widely distributed in plant
and animal tissues occurring mainly as a chemically bound
compound. Probably it is required by all animals in small
amounts. Certain abnormal skin and pigment changes have
been attributed to biotin deficiency, but naturally occurring
biotin deficiency in swine has not been observed.
Vitamin K
A number of compounds have been shown to have vita-
min K activity and it is abundant in the green leafy tissues
of plants. Fruits and cereals are poor sources of this vita-
min. Animal materials contain very little vitamin K, hog
liver being the richest animal source observed thus far.
Concerned as it is with blood clotting time it may be es-
sential to most warm blooded animals but a deficiency of
vitamin K has never been described in pigs.
Miscellaneous or Non-identified Vitamins
SMany materials with vitamin-like properties have been
described usually in connection with a particular species.
Some vitamins originally described as new vitamins have
been found to be identical with previously known vitamins
and several of the vitamins listed below may be identical. All


of the factors listed are more or less unknown as regards
their function, occurrence, and importance in the nutrition
of species such as swine, cattle, sheep, horses and dogs.
The factors listed have been described in the literature
and further research may clarify their importance.
1. Vitamin P-Concerned in maintaining the normal con-
dition of small blood vessels. 2. Vitamin B2-required by
pigeons. 3. Vitamin B3-an anti-paralytic factor for rats
and chicks. 4. Vitamin Ba-required by a pigeon, probably
identical with niacin. 5. Vitamin B,-required by pigeons
to prevent digestive disturbances. 6. Vitamin Bs-adenine
or adenylic acid, possibly aids in niacin treatment of pellag-
ra in humans. 7. Vitamin B -a deficiency results in chick
anemia. 8. Vitamin B,-an anti-perosis vitamin. 9. Vita-
min J or C--the anti-pneumonia factor for guinea pigs. 10.
Vitamin L1 and L--lactation vitamins necessary for the on-
set of normal lactation. 11. Folic Acid-perhaps the factor
identical with vitamins B1o and B,,. Required by rats for
optimal growth. 12. Vitamin M-a factor required by mon-
keys. 13. Factor T-required for the maintenance of blood
platelets in man and rats. 14. Factor V-a growth-promot-
ing factor for chicks. 15. Grass Juice Factor-necessary
for optimal growth of rats and guinea pigs. 16. Anti-per-
nicious anemia factor-a factor postulated as preventing
pernicious anemia of humans. 17. Vitagens-a name given
to the essential fatty acids. Linolenic acid, linoleic acid and
arachidonic acid.

Sows and gilts may produce weaks pigs at farrowing time,-
1. By feeding pregnant sows and gilts on corn alone dur-
ing the gestation period, or by starvation, or a mere main-
tenance ration.
2. By not feeding a protein supplement during gestation
and a reasonable protein supplement all the time.
3. By not feeding a simple mineral mixture such as the
one recommended by the Florida Agricultural Experiment
4. By not providing plenty of green feed (temporary or
supplementary grazing), or good bright legume hay in racks
(to the breeding herd), when other protein supplements are
not available. If rapid gains are expected in market hogs,
legume hay will not provide ample proteins.
5. By not providing sufficient water.
6. By not feeding a balanced ration.


Once a sow or hog begins to eat chickens, or a sow begins
to eat her own pigs, they are difficult to stop. The control
methods are wrapped up in using proper feeds, for proper
nutrition, and in good herd management practices. The
owner is usually at fault when hogs acquire this habit. Some
of the causes are:-
1. Lack of feed-usually on a starvation ration.
2. Lack of sufficient minerals.
3. Lack of proper vitamins in the feed.
4. Lack of ample and a mixed variety of protein supple-
ments. (From one-third to one-half the protein supplement
should come from animal sources, like tankage, fish meal or
skim milk.)
5. Lack of ample good green nutritious pasture, and the
kind of program "to produce healthy hogs."
6. Anything causing restlessness, like unnecessary han-
dling, preceding, during and after farrowing; dogs or other
animals around the sows at or within 2 weeks after farrow-
ing; chickens should be kept away from sows at farrowing
time or for all time. Hogs should be comfortable, be pro-
vided with ample shade and water and plenty of feed, which
will add materially to their comfort.
7. Hogs cannot be comfortable with lice and internal
parasites, as these are conducive to a nervous condition and
often result in the sows eating pigs or eating chickens..
When hogs are comfortable, they do their best.

The value of feed depends upon the digestibility of the
various materials of which it is composed and not on its
composition as shown by the chemist. Digestion is a process
of chemical changes in solution thru the influence of various
ferments or digestive juices and enzymes as the feed passes
thru the digestive tract. Each digestive juice has its special
work to do in the process of digestion.
The feed is taken into the mouth, chewed, and reduced
to fine particles, and the finer the particles the better the
juices can perform their functions. The process of chewing
and mixing of saliva with the food is known as mastication.
Ptyalin, an enzyme in saliva, changes starch into sugar.
As the feed leaves the mouth, it passes into the stomach,
there a special digestive fluid, called gastric juice, comes in


contact with the feed product. A weak solution of hydro-
chloric acid is found in the stomach.
As the feed passes into the small intestines it comes in
contact with two digestive fluids-bile from the liver which
acts on fats, and pancreatic juice from the pancreas which
has a more complex function to perform, as it acts on the
proteins and on the starches and fats, its action being three-
fold. No one knows wholly or understands fully the entire
course of changes and actions along the digestive tract, but
the above is given as an indication of some of the things
that are known.
The amount of feed digested by an animal depends upon
the quality, kind and the amount of food or feed, the class of
animal, and the condition or health of the animal, therefore
in feeding animals they should be kept in the most healthy
condition and fed according to requirements.
The size of the digestive tract of an animal has much to
do with the kinds of feeds which may be fed to it. This ca-
pacity in a hog is 7 to 8 gallons and less even than a sheep.
The cow and sheep have four stomachs each, known as
paunch, honeycomb, many-plies, and rennet. The paunch
acts as a reservoir and as a storage for feed; these animals
are known as "Ruminants" and can be fed more bulky feed
than animals like hogs and horses. Pigs and horses have
only one stomach each. A horse has a special way of taking
care of additional roughages while the pig does not, there-
fore pigs should be fed more concentrated feeds and can use
less bulk than most other animals.
In the small intestines complete digestion and prepara-
tion for assimilation of feed takes place. There are several
enzymes in the stomach which act on different feeds. The
principal enzymes of the pancreatic juice are trypsin, which
acts on proteins; anylase, which changes starch into malt
sugar; and lipase, which splits fats into fatty acids and
The large intestine is the collecting place for undigested
matter and very little, if any, digestive fluids are produced
there, but absorption of digested nutrients is completed in
the large intestine.
An unwise choice or poor quality of feed may lead to a
shortage of some dietary essentials, and may result in the
development of serious nutritional diseases. Old feeds are
usually low in vitamins.
While chemical analyses may give very definite informa-
tion as to the nutrients present in feeds, they do not always



give a true picture of the availability of such feeds. A few
important factors to be emphasized in comparing various
feeds are-
1. The availability of the nutrients. The availability of
a nutrient is to use the nutrient for its vital processes. The
value of the feed is determined by the availability of the
nutrients in it. In digestion trials corn, depending on grade,
shows from about 75 to 83% available nutrients, while bran
shows about 60%.
2. The quality of a nutrient is important in feeds. No. 2
corn carries approximately 72% carbohydrate equivalent
of which 70% is nitrogen free extract and 2% fiber. An-
other feed might contain equal amounts of carbohydrate
equivalent and yet have 45% nitrogen free extract and
27% fiber. No. 1 corn carries a higher per cent of digesti-
ble nutrients than does No. 2 corn, and some feeds carry
greater bulk than others, making them correspondingly less
3. Palatability is important for the reason that it makes
little difference how nutritious a feed may be if it lacks
palatability. Corn is very palatable while sweet potatoes in
hog feeding lack palatability.
4. The quality or grade of the feed itself. There is con-
siderable difference in the feeding value of corn or other
feeds of different grades. Corn damaged by weevils and
rats or decomposed is far inferior to No. 2 or No. 1 corn.
Barley may be worth about as much, pound for pound, as
corn, but corn usually runs fairly high in grade while barley
grades are usually low.
5. Bulk. Feeds high in nitrogen free extract are high in
concentrates, while feeds high in fiber are' low in concen-
trates. Fiber is bulky and less valuable. A small amount of
shorts is valuable in a hog ration and shorts show about
80% as much digestible nutrients as corn, pound for pound,
but when measured a quart of shorts (being more bulky)
has about 38% digestible nutrients or about half that of,
corn. An excess of shorts in hog feeding makes a ration too
bulky. Brood sows may use high quality legume hay to re-
place a fair portion of protein supplement, but legume hay
is too bulky to replace much of the protein in fattening
6. Form in which a feed is fed. One class of livestock
can use a certain feed to a better advantage than another,
or one age group of the same species may use more effec-
tively a certain feed than another age. Sows may use a cer-
tain amount of corn-cob meal to advantage while pigs need
more concentrate feeds like corn itself instead of corn-cob


meal. In hog feeding operations generally sorghum grains
can be used to better advantage if ground or cracked as
compared with feeding whole. When barley is fed it is
usually best to soak or cook it instead of feeding it straight.
The hog is a user of concentrates and cannot use too much
bulk, on the other hand, cattle can use a considerable
amount of bulky feed.
7. Difference in value according to how fed. There may
be as much as 25 to 50% difference between the value of a
feed in a balanced ration as compared with one not well bal-
anced. The feeding of corn alone to swine may take as
much as 11 bushels of corn to produce 100 pounds gain,
while if 30 lbs. of tankage is added to the corn it may take
as little as 6 bushels of corn and 30 lbs. of tankage to make
a 100 lbs. gain. Different combinations of feed have dif-
ferent physical as well as chemical reactions which may
affect digestion under some conditions.


Feeds For Swine
It will be difficult to fully treat this subject in this bulle-
tin, therefore the producer would do well if he purchased a
copy of Morrison's Feed and Feeding, care of Morrison Pub-
lishing Co., Ithaca, N. Y., as well as obtain and study feeding
tests put out by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion and use the services of the Agricultural Extension
Service, to obtain further information on this subject. One
might desire also to obtain tests made by the Georgia Coast-
al Plains Station, Tifton, Ga., and work done by Alabama at
the Wiregrass Experiment Station, Headland, Ala. The
various Agricultural Experiment Stations and the United
States Department of Agriculture and text books furnish
excellent material on this subject.
Morrison's Feeds and Feeding state the requirements of
digestible nutrients in swine feeding by weights (for class-
es). Showing'the digestible crude protein, total digestible
nutrients and nutritive ratio, see Chapter 6, Nutrition-
"Protein requirements for swine drylot feeding and on pas-
ture" in this bulletin. (Table 18 courtesy Morrison Pub.
Requirement Digestible Total Dig. Nutritive
by Weight Crude Proteins Nutrients Ratio
30- 50 pounds 7.8-8.5 pounds 41.0-45.4 pounds 1:4.0-1:4.5
50-100 pounds 5.5-6.0 pounds 32.9-36.4 pounds 1:5.0-1:5.6
100-150 pounds 4.4-4.9 pounds 28.8-31.9 pounds 1:5.5-1:6.2
150-200 pounds 3.5-3.9 pounds 25.8-28.5 pounds 1:6.2-1:7.0

For "digestible nutrients in feeds" and "weights of vari-
ous feeds by measure" see the Appendix.
Experiments show that hogs fed a ration of corn with
supplements, at levels of 4, 3, and 2 pounds of feed per 100
pounds of live weight, gained from an initial weight of ap-
proximately 65 pounds to 200 pounds at rates of 1.14, 1.03,
and 0.77 pounds per day, respectively. However, the feed
consumption per unit gain showed a significant decrease
with the decrease in feed level, and the group on the high-
feed level required 34 per cent more feed than the group on
the low-feed level, but they finished quicker.


Results with a wheat ration fed under conditions com-
parable to those for the above-mentioned corn ration showed
average daily gains of 1.26, 0.95, and 0.62 pounds with de-
crease in feed level. The feed consumption per unit gain
was not decreased to the extent of that of the corn ration.

The amount of feed required by hogs depends upon a
number of factors; upon the program and practices one ex-
pects to follow, and whether one is interested in feeding a
productive rations, etc. Some of these factors are:
1. The quality, kind and weight of pigs.
2. The kind and quality of concentrate or grain feeds
3. The kind, quality and amount of proteins used.
4. The kind, quality and amount of mineral supplements
5. The kind and quality of green grazing or pastures
6. Whether the pigs are fed in drylot or in pasture.
7. Whether the crops are hogged-off or harvested and
8. Whether the hogs are hand-fed or self-fed.
9. The weight of the pigs being fed.
10. And general herd management practices, shade, wa-
ter, etc.

Table 19, taken from Bulletin Kansas State Board of
Agriculture "Hogs in Kansas," shows the minimum gains to
be expected in fattening hogs if the operation is to be rea-
sonably satisfactory.
Gain of Fattening Pigs Minimum Expected
Number of Total gain Gain per day
Stage of growth days pounds pounds
Birth to weaning (8 weeks)............ 56 45 0.80
Weaning to 3 months ............... 35 25 0.71
3 months to 6 months ........................ 91 80 0.88
6 months to 9 months ..................... 91 85 0.93
Total 9 months ........................ 273 days 235 pounds

It should not take over 9 months to produce a 235 pound
hog. Under good practices one should produce 200 to 225
pound hog in from 6 to 8 months, therefore Table 19 is given
as a minimum to be expected if one expects to obtain a rea-


sonable reward for efforts. Generally a growing hog is a
thrifty hog and a profitable one. "One cannot starve prof-
its out of hogs."
Table 20 shows what may be expected in pounds daily
gain and the feed required to produce a one hundred pound
gain when hogs are fed a balanced ration containing corn,
tankage and mineral supplements while grazing.
Economy of Gain at Different Stages of Growth
Feed per Feed daily Daily gain Feed
State of head daily per 100 lbs. per head required
growth pounds liveweight pounds pounds
Birth to 100 lbs...... 2.2 4.2 lbs. 0.81 304
100 200 lbs........... 6.1 4.2 1.70 359
200 300 lbs............. 7.6 3.0 1.83 415
--Courtesy "Morrison's Feeds and Feeding."
It generally pays to full-feed hogs for the market from
pre-weaning stage to marketing stage. When one uses a
mere maintenance ration, outside of keeping the animal
alive, the feed is lost.

When swine of different weights are full-fed corn, tank-
age and mineral while on pasture, Table 21 shows the "Com-
posite Records of Several Experiment Stations."
Pounds Lbs. of concen- Pounds
Stage of growth Daily trates used for Feed head
Gain 100 lbs. gain Daily
From birth to 100 lbs. (live weight).... 0.80 325 2.25
From 100 to 200 lbs. (live weight).... 1.68 380
From 200 to 300 lbs. (live weight).... 1.78 430 7.50
From 300 to 400 Ibs. (live weight).... 490

Thrifty young animals make better use of feed than
older animals. The quality and age of the hogs as well as
the feed has much to do with gains. Corn, badly eaten with
weevils or rats, or moldy, cannot be expected to give the
same results as good corn.

A few of the principal concentrate feeds which may be
used in swine feeding, either "hogged-off" or "hand-fed"
that are generally considered adaptable to the swine-produc-
ing area of west Florida are in Table 22. (These feeds were


used in hogging-off operations at the Georgia Coastal Plain
Exp. Station, Tifton, Ga., and most of them have adaptation
to Florida.)
Result and Sequence of Hogging-off Crops
Bulletin 41, Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station
(B. L. Southwell)
No. Pounds
years Earliest date Latest date pork
test CROP hogs placed hogs removed per
run on crop from crop acre
8 Mature small grains
(Oats, wheat and rye)...... May 6 July 15 306.30
8 Early dent corn .................. June 28 September 27 501.63
4 Grohoma sorghum and
Spanish peanuts ................ July 29 October 25 314.13
Popcorn .................................. August 6 November 8 369.10
Chufas ................................... August 8 November 21 338.07
Sunflowers .................... August 12 October 5 123.56
3 Corn and Spanish peanuts.. August 12 January 4 541.72
3 Spanish peanuts ................ August 17 October 26 342.96
8 Corn ...................................... August 17 March 31 358.28
Grohomas sorghum and
soybeans .............................. September 2 November 2 359.94
7 Corn and soybeans ........... September 23 November 18 305.20
7 Runner peanuts.................... November 7 March 17 361.35
7 Sweet potatoes ..................... November 7 March 17 457.42

"The length of the hogging-off period depends, of course,
upon seasonal conditions, crop yields, and the number of
hogs placed on the crop, and an effort should be made to use
the number of hogs on each crop which will consume it to
the best advantage. It is best to have some surplus feed
than to be short."
The Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue University,
Leaflet 156, shows the comparative value of other grains
with corn in Table 23-page 99.

Corn, Oats and Rye
The question is often asked, is it more profitable to pro-
duce corn, oats, barley or rye. Table 24-page 100-shows
the results of a 5-year test by the Georgia Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, prepared by Dr. M. P. Jarnagin.
Referring to Table 23 comparing the feed value of shelled
corn with other grains, one will be able to determine in yields
per acre whether it is more profitable to raise corn, or oats,

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs