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Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Poultry in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014993/00001
 Material Information
Title: Poultry in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. New series
Physical Description: 71 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stoutamire, Ralph
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1930
 Subjects
Subject: Poultry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Poultry industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes iibliographical references ( p. 71).
Statement of Responsibility: by Ralph Stoutamire.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "July 1930"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014993
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7387
ltuf - AME9083
oclc - 28571205
alephbibnum - 002443862

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
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    Main
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Full Text




New Series July, 1930


Poultry In



By
RALPH STOUTA


Florida.. .
Revised. See
Bul. no. ?4,
May, 1976
Bul. no. 35,
April 1940.
May 1957,
,MIRE July 1959

r


State of Florida
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee


LUARARY
FLORID~A BXPER17NT STATION


_I I_ _I _


__


Bulletin No. 34





























DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture -____ Tallahassee
T. J. Brooks, Director, Bureau of Immigration ___Tallahassee
Phil S. Taylor, Supervising Inspector -- ___- Tallahassee














CONTENTS


Florida, Naturally Adapted for Poultr
Choosing a Location ___--
Breeds of Poultry ----___- __-
Making a Start-
1. Starting With Hatching Egg
2. Starting With Baby Chicks_
3. Starting With Pullets ---
4. Starting With Breeding Stoc
Hatching -------------
Fall Hatching -------
Hatching Eggs --------
Selecting Eggs for Hatching-
Incubation -------- ---
Natural Incubation ---
Artificial Incubation --
Brooding ___- ______----
Natural Brooding ____
Artificial Brooding
Feeds and Feeding __-
Feeding Chicks and Young Stoc
Baby Chicks _-_ ___-
Growing Chicks _______
Feeding and Caring for Growin
Feeding Especially for Eggs
Scratches and Mashes
Protein__-_____-
Minerals _____
Fats and Carbohydrates
Green Feed ___
Grit ______ _____
Water and Milk _
Recommended Rations
Approaching the Perf .ct
Preparing Broilers______ _-
Fattening Roasters -


y 6-----
--6---
7-----
--9--------
s---------- 9
----------11
1I
k 11
------ 11
-------------
12
---------12
14
14
----14
15
----- 16
--------- 16
----- 16
17
k ------18
-------- 18
-__ ------- 18
ig Pullets ---- 24
_--_--- 25
-----_ 25
------- 26
27
27
--------27
------- 30
-- 30
---------31
-------- 34
---------35
37












Houses and Housing
Types of Houses
Dropping Boards
Roost Poles
Nests -----
Culling -
Health and Vigor
Head and Adjuncts -
Body Type or Conformation-
Pigmentation -
Molting________ ___-
Culling Guide _____
Selecting Pullets and Breeding Males _


Diseases and Insect Pests of Poultry
Manson's Eye Worm -___---.. -
Intestinal Worms__-------------__
The Chicken Mite -____ _--
Scaly Leg -____________________
Chiggers and Fleas ____--__ _
Lice ________________
Catarrh ________________
Canker _____-_-___
Fowl Pox -________________
Bacillary White Diarrhea -- -____
Coccidiosis -----------------------__________
Hatcheries_____ ___________
Marketing Associations __ ______
Investments, Costs, Profits _____.______
Some Questions and Answers ______-__
References --------------___--___ ___


-__- 38
39
_--- 42
42
42
45
_--- -- 46
46
____ 47
__ 47
__ 48
-_____ 49
-___ __ 50


____-_ 50
-_____ 52
____- 53
--_-__ 56
------_ 56
_----_ 57
--____ 58
__ 59
-__- -, 59
--_ 60
--_ 62
62
-___-_ 64
___--_ 65
__-_-_ 67
-_-___ 70
71


____


I


_
_
_



_
_
_













Florida Poultry Farming
By Ralph Stoutamire

Poultry production in Florida is developing rapidly. From
almost nothing twenty-five years ago it has grown to become
one of our leading agricultural enterprises. It is found on 84 out
of 100 of our farms. More conservative authorities place the an-
nual value of our poultry products at five million dollars, while
the lesser conservatives say it is no less than twelve million dol-
lars. Perhaps it is safe to say this figure is about eight million
dollars. However, there is room for more growth, as it has been
estimated by the State Marketing Bureau that we are annually
importing into the state from twelve to thirteen million dollars
worth of poultry products.
Florida seems to hold a charm for many people, and among
them are hundreds if not thousands of non-residents who think
of coming to this state to engage in their main business or their
favorite hobby, raising chickens. A few years ago people in other
parts of the country-and even here-thought that Florida was
not suited for poultry. But time and thought change. With
the turn of time this fallacy has diminished. We now find peo-
ple in all walks of life raising poultry in this state and many
with reasonable success.
The back yard poultry raiser, the farm flock producer, and
the commercial egg farmer, all find poultry not only pleasant
and enjoyable but also profitable.
The poultryman who is attracted to Florida will find that
much of his previous knowledge and technique can be used here.
However, because of differences in climate, rainfall and soil, not
all found practical elsewhere is applicable. Thus there is ground
for saying that the beginner is less apt to make mistakes than the
seasoned poultryman who comes here and tries to put into prac-
tice methods he followed successfully elsewhere. This neces-
sarily is not true. Much depends upon the man. He who takes
his work seriously, studies diligently, works systematically and
faithfully, keeps his eyes and ears open to learn the good and the
bad of his neighbors' methods, uses common sense and stays on
the job, that man ought to make money raising poultry in Flor-
ida, be he beginner or old-timer from another region.
This bulletin is written to apply particularly to conditions
in Florida, and as they relate to chickens rather than to all classes
of poultry. Much of it, of course, is general principle, and much








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


is practice common only to conditions here. It is intended pri-
marily as a handbook for Florida poultrymen, and secondarily
as an answer to the many questions that naturally arise in the
minds of prospective settlers. It is compiled from many sources,
but effort has been made to make it apply specifically to Florida.

FLORIDA, NATURALLY ADAPTED FOR POULTRY

Our mild winter helps considerably in the production of eggs
and early broilers at a season when prices are highest. It makes
possible a long breeding and growing season.
Due to our relatively mild climate, poultry buildings are
relatively inexpensive. Birds can be out in the direct rays of the
sun practically every day in the year. Very few commercial pro-
ducers confine their birds even during winter, but we need houses
here.
Green feed can be grown during all of the 12 months. This
alone is a mighty important part of the daily diet of growing
stock, breeding stock and egg producers.
Poultry markets are right at our doors, especially during the
tourist season. And in time, no doubt, Florida will be selling a
surplus to outside markets, such as New York and Cuba. Direct
water and rail facilities enable the Florida egg to reach market in
a relatively short time.

CHOOSING A LOCATION

Before, any one spends time and money gettinginto the poul-
try business, he should make sure that he has the proper inclina-
tion for it. He should remove every doubt, if there be any, from
his mind that he really wants to raise chickens. He should be
sure he has the patience and love for birds, so necessary to suc-
cess. In short, he must be sure he is poultry-minded.
Once a person is sure that he wants to engage in this industry
and that he has the proper inclination, the next step is to select
a location. Many considerations enter here: soil, shade, crops;
and runs, proximity to old poultry farms, markets, etc. The.
soil should be high enough that the pens and runs will not be-
come quagmires during a rainy season, yet the higher lands of
the state are frequently too light and dry. A sandy, reasonably
porous soil is generally more suitable than heavy or clayey soils.
The land should be such that green feed can be grown at least
with fair success. Trees provide shade which is desirable for the:
health and comfort of the fowls during much of the year. If
one intends giving the birds range and not. confining them con-









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


tinuously, fairly open pasture or hammocks are important. Be-
cause of danger of diseases it is not advisable to locate a new
poultry farm near an old one as long as there is any question as
to the presence of disease on it.
An important consideration in this connection is nearness to
markets. This applies to the things the poultryman must buy
as well as to the things he will sell. Naturally the centers of
population provide him with both. Jacksonville, Miami, Tam-
pa, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Lakeland, the Palm Beaches and
many other centers, from the standpoint of markets, are all in-
viting locations. Some of these cities provide constant, year-
around demands for poultry and poultry products, which may
give them an advantage over others. Moreover, the more typical
tourist centers may make up for their short season of demand by
better prices during this short season. However, it remains true
that in this age of rapid transportation, prices for such produce
remain more or less equal in markets as close together as those.

BREEDS OF POULTRY

Other most important points for the beginner to bear in
mind are breed and blood. The old axiom that "Blood will tell"
is true, as true in the poultry world as elsewhere. The beginner
should first determine which type of chicken he desires to raise-
whether egg or meat-and then which particular breed within
that type appeals to him most. Beyond being poultry-minded,
he must be Leghorn-minded or Rhode Island Red-minded or
Brahma-minded. Determine what you want to breed, then go
after the best blood in that particular thing.
Proof of the statement that "Blood will tell" is found in a
concrete example at the University of Florida. Dr. N. W. San-
born, professor of poultry, carried on a test with a single comb
White Leghorn pullet (see figure 1). From September 26,
1927, to November 4, 1928, this bird laid 341 eggs, and during
exactly 12 months of this period she laid 318 eggs. Before the
test she had laid 21 eggs. Her second year she laid 220 eggs.
Up to May 1 of this year, the first six months of her third year,
she had laid 120 eggs, bringing her grand total to May 1 to 679.
Perhaps most remarkable is the fact that she is still alive and
doing good work. She is being used now especially for breed-
ing. Four of her full sisters in one year produced respectively
236, 281, 268 and 252 eggs. Thirteen of her half-sisters laid
.in a similar period 246, 238, 221, 241, 291, 221, 292, 250,
261, 236, 279, 274 and 234 eggs. Eighteen sisters and half-
sisters averaged 257 eggs in 12 months. Blood will tell! Be
sure what you select is good blood.









8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Remember that for energy, time and money expended over
the great majority of cases coming under observation the greater
profit comes from pure blood. Of course if your chickens are
going to be forced to rough it for themselves, it may be that
nondescripts would stand the best chance. But it is being as-
sumed that the beginner has in mind devoting his time, thought
and effort to the best advantage, the same as if engaged in some





;_


:1


-4.


Fig. 1. White Leghorn pullet that has laid 079 eggs in a little
more than two and a half years by actual test at the Florida College of
Agriculture. (Courtesy Florida College of Agriculture.)

other enterprise. Remember that you-head and hand-as well
as your birds must work, if you are to succeed.
In Florida most all breeds of poultry do well, but the most
popular are single comb White Leghorns, Rhode Island Reds,
Barred Plymouth Rocks and White Wyandottes. For the be-
ginner the best practice is to select one breed, though some prefer
two. One can usually do better with only one breed.
The single comb White Leghorn is universally favored on
commercial egg farms where the main source of revenue is from


-\n,;,. ...


~-









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


the sale of eggs. Leghorns come into production earlier than
heavier breeds and are more profitable as egg producers.
The disadvantage of Leghorns is that they are hard to keep
confined and generally will not set or brood chicks.
Leghorns of other varieties-Minorcas, Anconas and Cam-
pines-have the same general characteristics as the White Leg-
horns, but are not so popular in Florida.
Dual purpose breeds of the American class, which include
Rhode Island Reds, Barred Plymouth Rocks and White Wyan-
dottes, are more suited for general farming conditions. These
birds are good producers of eggs and meat, and make good
mothers.

MAKING A START

It is customary and perhaps most practical to begin with
young chicks in the spring, producing broilers and eggs for the
late fall and winter trade. Get started early. Early-hatched
chicks grow better, fewer die, and the broilers bring more money
because they are sold earlier on a higher market. Then the pul-
lets mature in time to lay high-priced fall and winter eggs.
To make sure of having pullets mature early enough to do
best as egg producers, it is preferable that no chicks be started
after April 15, certainly not later than May 1. Heavy breeds,
Rhode Island Reds for instance, should be hatched in February
and March; light breeds, such as White Leghorns, should be
hatched in late February, through March and the first half of
April.
Chicks to be brooded together should be hatched or secured
at the same time, because chicks of different ages never do well
together. Starting all at the same time reduces labor and gets
the more tedious part of the brooding over with at one time.
There are a number of ways to get a poultry flock started.
These are by (1) using hatching eggs; (2) buying baby chicks;
(3) buying from 10- to 12-week-old pullets; (4) using breed-
ing stock.

1. STARTING WITH HATCHING EGGS

Hatching eggs can generally be purchased very reasonably. If
one is experienced and can successfully operate an incubator, this
method would be most economical. Another method would be
to have a hatchery man incubate the eggs. The eggs should be
hatched during February, March and April for pullets.




































*c~~ .)S...C,."


Fig. 2. Tiny, insignifltunt-looking now, but just give them time and half a chance. Day old baby chicks.


" ]4 -









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


2. STARTING WITH BABY CHICKS

Baby chicks can be purchased very readily and if one does
not have experience in running an incubator, it would no doubt
he cheaper to purchase the chicks. Baby chicks should be pur-
chased during February, March and April.
As a rule the poultryman is losing time by trying to do his
own hatching. Modern-day hatcheries are equipped as the
small poultryman can not be equipped to hatch off chicks and
take care of them through this most trying age. Often hatch-
eries carry chicks for three or four weeks. The buyer saves him-
self much worry and work by buying chicks of this age, though
he has to pay more for them.

3. STARTING WITH PIILLETS

Still another way to get started is to purchase partially
grown pullets. For the person who has had no experience in in-
cubation or brooding, this plan may be most desirable. Pullets
are generally purchased in summer, so that they will come into
production early in fall.

4. STARTING WITH BREEDING STOCK

Breeding one's own stock is usually the most expensive, but
it is desirable if the producer is planning to go into the breeding
business.
But no matter how the start is made, whether by hatching
eggs, buying baby chicks, buying young pullets or breeding one's
own, remember the best is none too good. Investigate what you
buy and be sure you get high quality. The right start is im-
portant if success is expected. This can not be over-emphasized.

HATCHING

Pullets that lay during fall and winter-when. prices of eggs
are highest-are most profitable. To produce winter eggs, pul-
lets must be hatched in early spring. Generally speaking Feb-
ruary, March and April are best.
Breeds ot tne Mediterranean class, such as Leghorns, will
come into production in from five to six months.
The breeds of the American class, such as Rhode Island Red,
Plymouth Rock and Wyandotte, will commence laying in from
six to seven months.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 3. First White Wyandotte cock at the Southern National
Poultry Show, 1927; owned by Elmer Duff;, Kathleen, Florida. (Photo
by Dittrick, Orlando.)

Breeds of the Asiatic class, such as Brahmas and Cochins,
will come into production in about nine months.

FALL HATCHING

Hatching chicks in fall-during October, November and De-
cember-is being practiced for the production of early broilers.
Farmers in some areas of the state have been very successful in
producing winter broilers. Even some commercial egg farmers
are utilizing their brooder equipment over a loriger period of
time by brooding fall chicks for winter broilers.

HATCHING EGGS

During hatching season it is desirable to gather eggs often, at
least twice a day. This protects them from heat. Eggs of course
should be kept in a cool, well ventilated place. And do not hold














POULTRY IN FLORIDA 13


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4 4 .
.1.'~*~


.4-;'
.t-~. '


,.=. S. V.


Fig. 4. Trapnests arranged in a laying house. The use of trap-
nests enables the poultryman to know daily exactly what each hen is
doing.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


for more than ten days or two weeks. Do not wash hatching
eggs. Washing removes the gelatinous coating which serves as
a protective cover. When this covering is washed off, evapora-
tion of moisture, so necessary to the life of the egg, takes place
more readily. Clean eggs are best for hatching.
Do not hold eggs too long. Best results are usually ob-
tained if they are incubated during the week they are laid.
Hatching eggs can be kept in egg cases and should be turned
daily. The germ in the egg will start development slowly if
the temperature is 68 degrees Fahrenheit or over, thus the reason
for keeping cool.

SELECTING EGGS FOR HATCHING

Care should be exercised in selecting eggs for hatching. They
should be uniform in color, size and shape. They should weigh
about 2 ounces each or 24 ounces to the dozen. They also
should have strong shells. Abnormally large or small eggs
should be discarded.

INCUBATION
Natural Incubation: There are two types of incubation:
natural and artificial. Natural hatching with hens is practiced
generally when only a few chicks are to be raised.
In natural incubation one of the first considerations is that
'he setting hen be in good physical condition. She should be
healthy and free of parasites. It is a good practice to treat the
hen for lice before putting her on the eggs.
Make the nest in a secluded, dry, well-ventilated place away
frc m the rest of the birds. If a box or barrel is used, it is advis-
able to put a few inches of sand in the bottom. This helps to
hold moisture. In case the hen is to be put on the ground, dig
out a shallow hole, then use hay, straw, excelsior, etc., and ar-
range so that the eggs will not roll out, spread too far apart or
pile up on top of each other.
Generally from 12 to 18 eggs are put under the hen, depend-
ing on her size. Remove the hen to the new quarters at night.
For the hen's convenience and comfort provide near at hand
fresh, clean water, scratch feed and some green feed. Some mash
may also be put in a trough within her reach.
Candle the eggs on the seventh day. Remove all infertile
eggs and all eggs with dead germs. Candling is done by holding
the egg in the dark over a hole through which a light is shining.










POULTRY IN FLORIDA 15


This enables one to determine the condition of the contents of
the eggs.
It is well to set two or three hens at a time, so that in case
of a poor hatch all the chicks may be put with one hen.
Watch out for lice and mites during hatching. If discovered,
treat promptly to get rid of them.























Fig. 5. Interior of a brooder house. Note how the corners of the
house have been rounded; this prevents chicks from crowding up in cor-
ners. Note self-feeding equipment. (Photo by i. S. D. A. Courtesy
Florida Agricultural Extension Division.)

Artificial Incubation: The trend is more and more
toward hatching eggs artificially. There are many types of in-
cubators on the market, most of them satisfactory.- When a
great many chicks are to be raised the incubator is most econom-
ical.
By using an incubator chicks can be hatched at any time.
Purchase a good machine and follow directions as recommended
by the manufacturer.
Place the incubator in a well-ventilated room, one in which
the temperature can be controlled. In many cases it is more de-
sirable and actually more economical to have eggs hatched at a
hatchery. (See page 11.)









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


BROODING

Natural Brooding is desirable when only a few chicks
are raised. A brood coop which is dry, well-ventilated and
easily cleaned is best. It can be made almost any size or shape.
A coop approximately 3 V2 x4 feet will serve the purpose. The
front may be made of slats or chicken wire so that the mother
hen will be confined while the chicks may range.
Place the brood coop in a cool spot, preferably on a lawn or
sod with some shade. Face it south or southeast, which will al-
low sunshine to enter. On the floor of the coop put an inch
or two of sand which then may be covered with a small layer
of cut alfalfa hay or a similar substitute.
Just as soon as the chicks are dried off the mother hen and
chicks can be moved to the coop. Keep them confined a day
or two until they become accustomed to the new quarters. The
chicks can then run out on warm sunny days after the grass has
dried.
Artificial Brooding is becoming more popular and universal
every day. It is possible to raise large numbers of chicks at one
time and at any season of the year. There are many types of
brooders on the market and they range from the 50- to 1000-
chick-size and up.
In Florida there are fireless brooders, homemade brick
brooders, canopy brooders, heated either by oil, coal or electric-
ity, and battery brooders. All of these types are apparently suc-
cessful as all are in operation. The battery brooders are becom-
ing more popular, especially for the large producers, hatcheries
and broiler plants.
There are a few fundamental factors which should be ob-
served in the brooding of chicks. The brooder house should
be well constructed. It should have plenty of room, be dry and
well-ventilated. There are many types of brooders but they
should embody these few fundamentals.
Brooders, generally, are worth their cost in the rearing of
good chicks. They are centers of warmth, open to the few
chicks that need heat at intervals through the day, and around
which the flock may circle through the long hours of the night.
The brooder should be run at a temperature that will warm the
single chick through the day and hot enough at night to drive
.the.bunch of chicks away to the cool outer edge. After dark a
visit to the brooder should show more than half the chicks out-
side around the brooder. Do not let the brooder heat fall below
the normal body temperature in normal weather. In cold









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


weather keep it higher. If it increases in heat at night, the chicks
will increase the size of their circle; and, if it becomes cooler, the
chicks will hover closer together. Do not try to economize on
oil; to do so endangers the life of the chicks. It takes only a few
deaths or stunted chicks to equal the value of the oil that might
be saved.


FEEDS AND FEEDING


The food eaten by a chicken is used to replace worn down
tissues, to provide materials for growth and storing of fat and
other tissues and to reproduce its kind. A bird's complex com-
position, as well as of its egg, suggests the nature of feed it
needs. Its body consists of water, minerals, proteins, carbohy-
drates, fats and various other organic substances. The egg is
made up of albumen and yolk. Albumen contains over 87 per-
cent of water and nearly 11 percent of protein. Yolk is more
complex than albumen and contains about 50 percent of water
and about 50 percent of solids-egg oil, protein, carbohyrdates,
fats, minerals, and other substances. It is also rich in certain
vitamins. Egg shell consists largely of calcium. The feed re-
quired by chickens must contain those substances in varying
quantities and proportions, according to the age of the particular
bird and the purpose for which it is fed.*
In the development of body tissue and in the production of
eggs the relative value of the feed needed by chickens depends
somewhat on its composition and digestibility. Practically
all staple grains and green plants used in poultry feeding have
an abundance of carbohydrates and fats, all contain some min-
erals, most of them are deficient in protein, and many are de-
ficient in vitamins. The staple grains-corn, wheat, barley, oats
-contain about 10 or 12 percent of protein, but they are low in
ash content. The so-called concentrated feeds-meat scrap, fish
meal and gluten meal-are naturally rich in protein but poor
in carbohydrates. Because chickens need relatively large quan-
tities of various minerals, such feed as oyster shell, ground lime-
stone and raw bone meal are of particular value because they are
rich in minerals. Various poultry feeds differ so much in com-
position that some variation is necessary, if chickens are to have a
proper balance of the various elements required.
Among the many practices in poultry raising, probably the
variation in rations is the greatest, be it for growing chicks, mar-
*From Farmers' Bulletin No. 1541, U. S. D. A.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ket poultry, laying hens, or breeding stock. Although many
farmers and commercial poultrymen use widely different rations
for the different classes of stock, there are certain fundamentals
in feeding which must be followed in order to get best results.
Regularity is a most important requisite in satisfactory feed-
ing. Growing chicks and market poultry, as well as laying and
breeding stock, must be fed regularly, or satisfactory results can
not be obtained.
Palatability of the ration is another requisite, and this means
providing variation, both as to grain and bulky food. While
variety is desirable, both the scratch and the mash rations may
be rather simple, using principally the grains most readily ob-
tainable.
The effect of feed upon the product gives occasion for study.
Yellow corn, for instance, produces yolk darker in color than
does white corn. Certain feeds give flavor to eggs, as onions and
geranium leaves. If broilers or roasters are fed cod-liver oil up
to killing time, the poultry has a distinctly fish flavor.

FEEDING CHICKS AND YOUNG STOCK

Baby Chicks: In the early life of the baby chick no bet-
ter feed can be given than milk, and many poultry specialists
recommend it almost altogether. Whole milk, skimmilk or but-
termilk provide both food and drink, for two or three days.
Where milk is not available, finely chopped, hard-boiled eggs can
be substituted, one egg being enough for 30 baby chicks.* Af-
ter this, feed every three hours all the chicks will eat in ten min-
utes of a mixture of rolled oats and corn grits. Also in the early
days of the young chick finely ground mash may be fed. As the
chicks get larger add whole wheat to the oats and grits. By the
time they are ten days old they should have a growing mash al-
ways within reach. A good growing mash can be made by mix-
ing together 3 pounds of the mash that is fed to laying hens and
I pound of coarse wheat bran. Or, for larger quantities, mix
100 pounds of wheat bran and 300 pounds of ready-mixed
mash used for laying hens.
Chicks should be out on the ground at a week of age, out
where they can get fresh air, an abundance of sunshine and lots
of green, succulent feed. Keep finely ground oyster shell, grit
and water within reach of them at all times.
Growing Chicks: When the chicks are weaned by the

*From Bullet'n 38, Florida Agricultural Extension Division.






















1-11



L..*




11;~r fit


Fig. 6. Scene on the Wonder Poultry Farm in Marion County. Note the Bermuda pasture which is abundant
almost every week in the year. Pullet entering the nest on the right. (S. A. L. Ry. photo.)


~or










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


hen, or are beyond the brooder age, they need even more atten-
tion than when younger. They should be provided with roomy
coops or houses, large yards or wide range, shade of trees or
growing crops. They can then be fed much the same as laying
stock, except that the proportion of scratch feed to laying mash
should be greater. Usually equal weights of scratch feed and
mash will take the profitable chicken up to within a month of
the laying age. Chicks increase in size rapidly after the first four
or five weeks, which means they will soon over-crowd their
house and runs, if care is not taken.


L


Fig. 7. Homemade, easy-to-make dry
Iansh feeder. It probably cost 15 cents
but is worth a hundred times that nlmaunt
or more. (Courtesy Florida Agricultural
Extension Division.)


Below are given two good chick mashes *
weeks.
No. I


Yellow corn meal -
Rolled oats ___
Bran. ________
Middlings
Sifted meat scrap __ -

Total (protein, 17.2%) ______

*From Farmers' Bulletin No. 1541, U. S. D. A.


for the first two


Parts, by weight
40
_--_- 20
____ 20
10
10

_____ 100










POULTRY IN FLORIDA


No. 2
Parts, by weight
Yellow corn meal __--------------------- 40
Rolled oats 20
Bran___ 20
Middlings 10
Dried milk (34.6% protein) -------------- 10

Total (protein, 15.2%) 100
These mixtures may be fed in a flat trough four times daily
for the first two or three weeks and then fed with a mixture of
equal parts of finely cracked corn and cracked wheat. For the
first few days hard-boiled, infertile eggs may be mixed with
either mash or milk, in which case the meat scrap may be re-
duced one-half. Care should be taken not to over-feed at any
time.
The mashes below are recommended for chicks from two to
three weeks of age:
No. 1.


Yellow corn meal
Bran __________
Middlings
Meat scrap (53.9% protein)
Bone meal
Alfalfa-leaf meal -- -
Salt -___-

Total (protein, 17.6%)
No. 2

Yellow corn meal -
Middlings __
Bran _-___
Rolled oats _
Meat scrap (53.9 % protein)
Dried milk (34.6% protein)
Alfalfa-leaf meal
Bone meal -
Salt

Total (protein, 18.3%) __


Parts, by weight
---- __ 40
20
20
- --- 210
5
-- 4
-- 1

100

Parts, by weight
________- 40
-_________ 15
_-____-_____ 12
_---_ _____ 10
_____-_--_ 10
-- 5
-__- __- __- 4


_100


Either of these mashes may be placed in hoppers kept opehf
at all times or fed as a moist, crumbly mash once daily, supple-
mented by suitable chick grains twice a day. Where a few hunL









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


dred or more chicks are being raised, dry-mash feeding requires
much less time than wet-mash feeding. Also in dry-mash feed-
ing all chicks are more sure of getting their proper share of feed.
The self-feeding hoppers should be so constructed as to waste
no mash. With the dry mash the chicks are fed 2 parts of
cracked corn and 1 part of wheat as a scratch ration. There are
many excellent commercial feeds on the market, and many poul-
trymen use them altogether.
When the chicks are eight or ten weeks old they will eat
whole wheat and cracked corn, so that the small-sized chick
feed can be eliminated and the chicks fed the scratch grains twice
a day.


A
,1
A.~-'~ 'I
,.
~ ~N


Fig. 8. Summer shelter for pullets; inexpensive, easy to male,
satisfactory.
The chicks' growth can be hastened if they have sour milk,
skimmilk or buttermilk to drink in addition to the grain feed
and green feed. Milk is excellent to mix with the mash, if wet-
mash feeding is preferred.
Frequently the question is asked, "How much feed is re-
quired for a chick to a certain age, and what should the chick









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


weigh at that certain age?" The data in the following table
were compiled in Bulletin 59 of the Ohio Agricultural Extension
Service from Bulletin No. 96 of the Storrs Agricultural Experi-
ment Station (Connecticut), being the average of three experi-
ments with 1028 White Leghorns and 865 Rhode Island Red
chicks. The birds had skimmilk to drink and no water during
the first 10 weeks, after which both milk and water were sup-
plied. An outdoor range was provided. Though conditions in
Florida are considerably different, these figures may be taken as
a fairly safe guide.
FEED CONSUMPTION (INCLUDING MILK SOLIDS) AND
WEIGHT OF BIRDS BY WEEKS
WHITE LEGHORNS RHODE ISLAND REDS


WEEK -


0___ .08 .08
1 .09 .11 .10 .11
2 .28 .18 .29 .16
3 .57 .26 .56 .26
4 .94 .38 .95 .36
5 1.42 .50 1.48 .53
6 1.96 .69 2.18 .73
7 -- 2.71 .90 2.96 .96
8 3.51 1.09* 3.94 1.22
9 4.41 1.22 4.95 1.52
10 5.40 1.41 6.02 1.80
11 6.45 1.56 7.15 2.01
12 7.53 1.80 8.39 2.29**
13- .- 8.64 1.93 9.62 2.39
14 9.74 2.06 10.83 2.56
15 10.93 2.20 12.14 2.76
16 12.11 2.36 13.58 2.90
17 13.54 2.49 15.17 3.13
18 -- -- 14.93 2.63 16.82 3.26
19 -- 16.38 2.72 18.38 3.43
20 -. .- 17.91 2.90 20.12 3.68
21 19.39 3.05 21.89 3.85
22 --- 20.83 3.12 23.68 4.00
23 22.29 3.22 25.41 4.16
24 23.84 3.28 27.24 4.29
*Leghorn cockerels were removed at the end of the eighth week.
**Rhode. Island Red cockerels were removed at end of 12th week.









24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

FEEDING AND CARING FOR GROWING PULLETS

Though the chick period is fraught with a multitude of dan-
gers, if proper care is observed, the owner finds his young birds
growing up into chickens before he hardly realizes it. By the
eighth week he should be separating cockerels from pullets. As
the former more frequently are grown as broilers, their treat-
ment is different from that of pullets being prepared to produce
eggs. It is necessary to discuss these separately.
Having separated the pullets, they should be placed in their
permanent laying quarters two or three weeks before the laying
of the first egg, put on a laying ration, and allowed to settle
down to prepare for a long and profitable laying period. Be-
cause of climatic conditions in Florida, laying quarters are not so
limited as in northern states. Pullets here should have some
range. In searching for part of their food they secure needed ex-
ercise. But care should be exercised that this range is not too ex-
tensive and that it is sufficiently removed from any disturbances
which might unnecessarily excite the pullets. They should be
so fed and cared for that they will grow and fatten. This is
the period for them to take on flesh and develop big and strong
* bones. Soon they will be laying, and the good layer certainly
needs a reservoir of fat and tissue to call upon.
A suitable and adequate range for pullets should be:
1. Not seriously contaminated with diseases and parasites.
2. Maintained exclusively for growing pullets. Keep out
other chickens.
3. Capable of providing an abundance of green feed.
4. Large enough that the birds will get plenty of exercise
in ranging.
5. Adequately shaded by trees or shrubs or other shelter, as
protection against hot sunshine and heavy rain.
Ranges should be rotated from year to year, if possible. This
helps' to keep down diseases and insect pests. The old maxim,
"Cleanliness is Godliness," certainly is true in the poultry busi-
ness. It pays, too. Droppings or litter from brooders or laying
houses, or other places, may bring on no end of trouble. Bare
and contaminated ground around the ranges or roosting shelters,
and feeding arid drinking equipment is hazardous. Some danger
from. pests is lessened, if the birds are allowed to roost in trees
during warm, clear weather. However, this is not stressed, as
it is so easy to forget that the season suitable for this is short and
too frequently the birds would be left out of doors when they
should be under shelter in roosting houses.
Ground around feeders and water troughs is often the worst









POULTRY IN FLORIDA'


on the pullet range. Here droppings accumulate and, as there is
always some feed on the ground close to feeders, the chickens eat
large quantities of filthy soil in their attempt to secure this feed.
Likewise around the drinking trough there may be filthy pud-
dles of water, from which the birds drink rather than from clean
drinking receptacles. Or if the soil around the trough is only
slightly moist as is usually the case, the birds will eat this wet
filth. Moving the feeding and drinking equipment every few
days goes far toward avoiding these dangers.
Naturally, what has been said above with reference to caring
for pullets applies to the care that should be given to all birds,
especially laying hens.

FEEDING ESPECIALLY FOR EGGS

The all-important problem in feeding laying hens is to get
the largest possible returns in eggs at the lowest possible cost.
The cost of the feed consumed and the price of the eggs are,
therefore, the two most important factors determining profits
in egg production. We can not control prices, but we can, to
some extent at least, control egg production. Egg prices are
highest during fall and winter; heaviest production at that time
is the keynote to greatest profits. Usually pullets should com-
mence laying in October.
The usual advance in the price of eggs, particularly fresh
eggs, during fall is due largely to natural causes. The molting
of yearling stock shuts out this source of production, leaving
pullets practically as the only source of fresh eggs at that time.
Pullets should not commence laying before they are well de-
veloped, and if for any reason most of them have been hatched
late or have not been cared for properly during the growing sea-
son, a scarcity of fresh eggs is sure to result.
Among the several factors affecting the cost of producing
eggs, feed is the most important, since it normally represents
from one-half to two-thirds of the total cost of egg production.
Therefore, the kinds of feed given and the method of feeding are
important. At the same time, it can not be said that there is
any best method of feeding laying stock, because flock averages
of 150 eggs per bird have been obtained when different rations
and different methods of feeding have been used. On the other
hand, there are general principles which apply in feeding prac-
tice, and it is possible to suggest rations which should give satis-
factory results under average conditions.
Scratches and Mashes: Laying hens should be fed a ration
consisting of scratch grains, mashes containing animal feed, min-









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


eral feed, green feed, grit and drink. Scratch grains may. be
omitted from the ration, but it seems advisable to recommend
for the average poultry raiser those rations that have been satis-
factory under varying conditions.
The staple grains used in feeding layers are necessary to sup-
ply carbohydrates and fats, though they are deficient in protein
and minerals and sometimes vitamins. Mashes have a particular
value in feeding practice because it is possible to incorporate in
them certain feeds rich in protein and minerals.
Protein: Some kind of animal feed is necessary. Animal
feed is essential because most of the staple grains do not contain
sufficient quantities of protein to supply the hen with her nor-
mal requirements. For that reason, meat scrap or fish meal is
usually used in the dry or wet mash rations. These should be
of the highest possible quality. Meat scrap differs in the quantity
of protein it contains, and grades containing from 50 to 55 per-
cent protein are most commonly used. The high-protein feeds
vary greatly in their protein content, which should be considered
in buying and balancing rations. Both these products also fur-
nish much desirable minerals.
















.. -.

Fig. 9. Simple and inexpensive mash hopper any
poultryman can make.

Proteins of milk are more easily digested, and consequently
more efficient than proteins of meat or fish. Skimmilk is rich in
protein and ash or mineral matter and is of special value in build-
ing up muscles and bones. Condensed or concentrated butter-









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


milk contains from 10 to 14 percent of protein, and dried but-
termilk usually contains from 30 to 35 percent. Cost of pro-
tein in milk is much higher than in meat scrap or other similar
feeds. Milk is readily digested, however, and has a decided
tonic value.
Minerals: Birds need more animal feed, proportionately,
than most other animals. This is primarily because eggshell
is largely composed of mineral matter in the form of calcium,
and also because the skeleton of the bird requires large propor-
tions of various kinds of minerals to keep it in repair. Mineral
feed is best supplied in the form of crushed oyster shell or high-
grade limestone. Shell or limestone should be kept before the
hens at all times.
Fat and Carbohydrate requirements must be met. They
supply the chicken with material for the formation of fat
in the body and for the development of energy. Most staple
grains are relatively rich in these things, and because they are
abundant and easily obtained there seems little concern over the
normal requirements. At the same time the character of fat in
some animal feed may have considerable significance, particularly
if an excess of fatty acids is present. Also, since a portion of the
carbohydrates consists of fiber, some attention should be given
the fiber content of feed, because fowls do not digest fiber as well
as do mammals, and there seems some danger in providing chick-
ens with an excess.
Green Feed should be constantly available for laying stock.
If the birds are not on grass or cowpea range, green feed can be
supplied daily in the form of germinated oats, cabbage, turnips,
collards, rape, etc. Feeding layers green feed tends to keep them
in better health and to promote egg production. Green feed is
one of the best sources of vitamins for poultry.

GREEN FEED FOR POULTRY

Alfalfa is a great feed for poultry, one of the best known.
But we do not grow this plant in Florida successfully, which
means we must pay dearly for it or substitute for it as best we
may. Cowpeas, velvet beans and peanut vines and foliage are
fair and practical substitutes which we can grow, though many
do not who can and should. Feed of this type is valuable, not
so much for its protein content, but because its leaves are rich in
minerals and vitamins, frequently lacking in mash: rations.
Germinated oats form another valuable source of green feed.
These may be germinated in burlap sacks by soaking the sacks
of oats in water for 24 hours and then piling the bags together













GREEN FEED FOR POULTRY
Agronomy, horticulture and poultry specialists of the Florida College of Agriculture have worked
out a green-feed chart for poultry in Florida. It f611ows:
DISTANCE
AMOUNT OF WHEN TO DAYS TO APART BE-
CROP VARIETY SEED PER PLANT HARVEST TWEEN ROWS
ACRE (PASTURE) AND IN ROWS
Copenhagen Market 50 days
CABBAGE 1 pound Sept.-March (90 days to 2% ft.-3 ftx2 ft.
Early Flat Dutch head)

CHINESE Paoting (Wong Bok Type) 40-45 days
6-8 oz. Sept.-March (80-90 days 2% ft.-3 ftx2 ft.
CABBAGE Peking (Pe Tsai Type) to head)
COLLARDS True Georgia Whitehead % pound Any season 50 days 21 ft x 2 ft.
Imperial Long Standing
KALE Dwarf German 8 pounds Aug.-April 40-45 days 18 in. x 6 In.
Curled Scotch
Fall
Southern Giant Curled (Sept.-Oct.)
MUSTARD 5-6 pounds Spring 35-40 days 18 in.
Chinese Broad Leaved (Feb.-Apr.)
RAPE Dwarf Essex 8-20 pounds Sept.-Jan. 40-45 days 2 ft.
Fall
Purple Top (Sept.-Dec.) Tops in
TURNIPS 2 pounds Spring 2 ft.
White Egg (Feb.-Apr.) 6-8 weeks














COWPEAS


OATS



RYE


BERMUDA
GRASS


Brabham
Iron
Couch
Whippoorwill
Clay
Mixed


Fulghum
Rust Proof
Burt

Abruzzi
Georgia
Florida Rye

Common
Giant


CORN Any variety

Cattail
MILLET Pearl

NAPIER
GRASS


I-1 bu.


2-4 bu.


3-6 pecks


Plant Roots


1-2 bu.


10-20 lbs.

Plant roots
or
canes


r~- - .-I- .1


Mar.-Sept.



Oct.-Nov.-Dec.


Oct.-Nov.-Dec.


Any season


Mar.-Sept.


Mar..-Sept.

Any time
Mar.-Sept.


60 days



6 weeks


6 weeks


Apr.-Nov.


2 ft. drilled



Broadcast


Broadcast


6-8 weeks Broadcast


6 weeks See remarks

Begin to cut
when 18 in. See remarks
high


REMARKS: Where soil is naturally fertile it may not be necessary to fertilize, although it probably
would pay. On light sandy soil it is suggested that from about 1000 to 1500 pounds of high grade
fertilizer, containing 5 % of ammonia or chicken manure to which is added acid phosphate and muriate of
potash, be used.
Rape must have rich moist soil; it may be sown in with oats and rye. Millet for poultry pasture
should be broadcast; if to be cut, plant in rows 3 or 4 feet apart and drill seed in the rows. Napier
grass should be set (plants) 2 feet apart in 4-foot rows.


_i


'---c~----










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


to hasten the process. The sacks may be completely or partly
filled, depending on the quantity of sprouted oats needed.
A liberal supply of green feed daily provides hens with re-
quired succulence and tends to keep them in better physical con-
dition. It also keeps up egg production, the ultimate purpose
of feeding poultry.
Grit: In order that chickens may make most efficient use
of their feed, some form of grit should be included. Feed con-


Fig. 10. Most Florida soils will produce an abundance of green feed
with very little effort. Too little of it is grown. This is rape.

sunied by chickens is ground in the gizzard and, in order for it
to be ground most efficiently, pieces of grit or small gravel should
be present.: This can easily be provided by purchasing one of
the different brands of grit on the market or by providing gravel.
Water and!.Milk: .When hens are laying they consume
large quantities f .watqr. Fresh .water should be supplied daily
and.:the layers should never be in need of it or egg production
-will fall off. Milk also serves as a liquid food. It contains
lactic acid, is a great appetizer, and its use will increase materially









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


the quantity of feed consumed. It also serves as a regulator of
the digestive system and keeps birds in the best possible condi-
tion.
Recommended Rations: Following is a good scratch
mixture from Farmers' Bulletin No. 1541 of the United States
Department of Agriculture:
Parts, by weight
Yellow corn --_-_-__ ____ 2
Wheat -__-_____ 1__
Good, sound oats __ ___-- 1
In mid-summer it might be well to reduce the corn and in-
crease the wheat and oats, because corn is very fattening and,
therefore, heating. This scratch ration .should be fed morning
and evening, either in the litter or in troughs. The evening feed
of scratch grain should be sufficient that the birds go to roost
with full crops.
A scratch mixture used in Florida's egg-laying contest, held
at Chipley in Washington County in 1926-29, is given below;
WINTER SCRATCH
Cracked yellow corn -- _ __100 lbs.
Wheat _________ ____ 100 lbs.-
SUMMER SCRATCH .
Cracked yellow corn _____-_ 100 lbs.
Wheat _______ __ ___ __ 200 lbs.
A mash is a mixture of ground grains and feeds rich in pro-
tein and minerals. It is not as coarse and bulky as scratch mix-
tures. Therefore, feed it more carefully in order to prevent
waste. Self-feeders or hoppers should be provided for feeding it.
Farmers' Bulletin No. 1541 suggests the following mash:
Yellow corn meal ____________ 40 'lbs.
Ground oats -____ 10 lbs.
Middlings __-________ 10 lbs.
Bran ___- __ 10 lbs.
Meat scrap or fish meal 20 lbs.
Alfalfa-leaf meal __-__ _____ 5 lbs.
Steamed bone meal --1___-_ 2 lbs.
Ground limestone _________ 21 Ilbs.

Total (protein, 20.6%) __- _100 lbs...
The Florida egg-laying contest has used the following suc-
cessfully:
Yellow corn meal _- __ __ 100 lbs. *
Wheat bran __100 lbs."









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Wheat middlings ____________
Whole ground white oats _-_-
Meat scraps (55% protein)
Sulphur _ _____-------
Salt _ _-_____-___
Bulletin 38 of the Florida Agricultural
offers the following dry mash:
Yellow corn meal -
Wheat shorts -- -
Alfalfa-leaf meal
Meat scrap -
Sulphur _- -
Salt --

Total -


100 lbs.
100 lbs.
100 lbs.
3 lbs.
3 lbs.
Extension Division

30 lbs.
__ 40 lbs.
10 lbs.
20 lbs.
1_ 2 lb.
2__ lb.

__ 101 lbs.


In case the laying hens are confined in the laying house, or
if there is lack of sunshine, the rations given above can be im-
proved by adding from I to 2 percent of cod-liver oil. This
may be mixed in the scratch feed instead of in the mash, if pre-
ferred.
The mash mixture may be fed either in a dry form or as a
moist mash. When fed as a dry mash it may be placed in self-
feeding hoppers where the birds can help themselves at any time.
This method of feeding mash rations saves labor and also insures
all hens of getting a fair share of the feed. On the other hand,
the mash may be fed moistened with either water or skimmilk.
Wet mash has the advantage of being somewhat more palatable
than dry mash, and birds may eat more of it, thus increasing egg
production.
Instead of using scratch and mash rations suggested above,
many farmers use commercial scratch and mash preparations, of
which there are a number of good ones on the market. Using
commercially prepared scratch and mash rations saves much la-
bor, and with a flock of a few hundred birds this is an important
item.
The quantity of feed consumed by laying hens is affected by
a variety of factors, chief of which are kind of feed supplied, size
of hens, and to a certain extent the number of eggs laid. A ra-
tion consisting of a variety of grains usually induces greater con-
sumption than when one grain is fed. If artificial lights are
used, extra feed must be given after dark and the drinking water
made available for early morning use. Leghorns and similar
breeds consume less feed a rear than birds of larger breeds, as
Plymouth Rocks. Usually birds bred for high egg production
consume slightly more feed -han those of the same size not bred












POULTRY IN FLORIDA


END tLEVATIOKM


.510o ELLVATIOH


Fig. 11. Plans for outdoor mash hopper. Herewith is bill of ma-
terial for a hopper after this plan: 4 pieces 2x2x18 inches; 2 pieces 1x2x24'
inches; 2 pieces 1x4x50 inches; 6 pieces 1x2x50 inches; 2 pieces 1x6x4
Inches; 1 piece lxl2x4S inches; two pieces 1x.1 inches x 8 feet 6 inches,
2 pieces 1x1x18 inches; 3 pieces 1x Vx3/ inches; 4 pieces of plaster lath,
3 No. 10 screws, 2% inches; % pound of 6 penny box nails. (Courtesy
(Courtesy Florida Agricultural Extension Division.)









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


for the same purpose. Leghorns laying an average of approxi-
mately 150 eggs per bird consume from 70 to 85 pounds of
grain feed a year, and general-purpose breeds, like Plymouth
Rocks, with the same production consume from about 80 to 95
pounds a year.
Approaching the Perfect: To show that best practices,
even though they may "approach the perfect," do pay, let
us quote a few paragraphs from the final report of Florida's
third egg-laying contest, as reported by the Agricultural Exten-
sion Division, University of Florida. These give not only
methods but also something of results:

"Daily Method of Feeding and Care

"About 6 o'clock in the morning the birds are given a feed-
ing of soaked oats. In bad weather this is fed in a 'trough in-
side the house, otherwise it is fed on the ground. Then each
water vessel is washed and fresh water is put in all pens. All
birds in the nests early in the morning are given a chance to get
off, as it is found that a number of them go in to warm them-
selves or to roost, especially when they first arrive or while molt-
ing.
"The third round is made about 8 o'clock to gather eggs.
This operation consists of removing each hen from the trapnest,
looking at her number, weighing the egg, and giving the hen
credit. In the height of the laying season two men are kept
busy at this job till 3 or 4 in the afternoon.
"At 11 o'clock a moist mash is given all birds. This con-
sists of about equal parts of semi-solid buttermilk and the con-
test laying mash and is fed.at the rate of about 3 pounds of each
to 100 hens. Some pens consume much more of this than
others, generally according to their condition and rate of lay.
"In the middle of the afternoon fresh water is again given
the birds and all hoppers are looked after and refilled where
needed. The only feeding of scratch is given about an hour be-
fore sundown and is governed by the appetites of the birds. Ef-
fort is made to have the birds go to roost with full crops.
"All houses are cleaned twice a week. This includes drop-
ping boards, table, run boards in front of nests and tops of feed
storage cans.
"Green feed is grown in a garden. Such greens as collards and
rape are planted. This is cut and run through a green feed cut-
ter before being fed to the birds. The two yards for each house
also are used for growing green stuff in the form of oats and rye
in the fall and winter and cowpeas in the summer when weather









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


is too dry and hot for other greens to grow well. The birds
have access to one yard while the other is growing these feeds.
In addition to the green feeds mentioned, lawn clippings are also
fed. Using these various sources of green feed made it possible
to have some type available every day during the contest. The
birds are out in the yards almost every day in the year, being
shut in only when the weather is very wet or cold. The fronts
of houses are left open the year through.
"No artificial lights were used at any time during the third
contest.

"Egg Production

"The average egg production for the 82 competing pens for
the 51 weeks ending October 23, 1929, was 200.7 eggs per
bird, or 56.2 percent production. The average production dur-
ing the third contest was 9.8 eggs higher than in the second con-
test, and 14.2 eggs higher than in the first contest.
"One single comb White Leghorn pullet produced 309 eggs
in 51 weeks; 116 birds produced 250 eggs or more; while 439
produced 200 eggs or better.
"Heavy breeds included in the contest were Rhode Island
Reds, Plymouth Rocks, Wyandottes, Australorps and Orping-
tons. Light breeds included Minorcas and Leghorns."

PREPARING BROILERS

Note: "Fryer" is the term applied to a size or type of mar-
keted chicken, particularly in the South. It is nothing more than
a broiler with a little more weight. For that reason it will not
be given special discussion in this bulletin, despite the wide popu-
larity of "fried chicken" throughout this section of the country.
At the time pullets are separated from the cockerels it is well
to cull out those pullets which do not show promise as egg pro-
ducers. Culling, to be discussed later, should go on all the time,
from the selecting of eggs for hatching till the pullets are well
matured and have proved themselves as layers. When young
pullets are placed in the laying yard, weed out all undersized or
slow growers. These may go with the cockerels into the broiler
markets.
The broiler market is best in winter and early spring. Those
birds that are ready at the separation period should go directly
to market, if satisfactory prices can be secured. Otherwise they
may be fed and held for better prices, sold later as fryers, or they
may be carried over to the roaster market still later,










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


If broilers are sold retail or shipped only a short distance,
they should be milk fattened, though some local buyers do not
prefer milk-fattened broilers. Milk fattening results in: 1. Add-
ing weight faster than on the range; 2. meat of better quality;
3. quicker separation of cockerels and pullets, which means bet-
ter pullets; 4. in some places better prices for broilers.
The following rations are suggested for broilers by Bulletin
59 of the Ohio Agricultural Extension Service:
No. 1
Yellow corn meal _____--_ -------- 7 lbs.
Standard miiddlings _-____- __------ 3 lbs.
Bran ------------1 lb.
No. 2
Yellow corn meal -___ ___- __- ----- _3 lbs.
Ground wheat _____- __- ----------1 lb.
Ground oats ------- --- 1 lb.
No. 3
Yellow corn meal _ ___ -------- 3 lbs.
Standard middlings 1____1--------- lb.
To one of the above mix skimmilk or buttermilk to form a
sloppy feed of the consistency of batter, which will pour readily
from a bucket. If semi-solid buttermilk is used, add 1 V2 pounds
to a gallon of water and mix as above. If one desires to speed
up fattening, add 10 percent of meat scraps, tankage, or soy-
bean meal to the mash.
For the first two days feed twice daily only what the birds
will consume in 10 minutes. Remember, success in fattening
depends upon keeping the birds hungry. Over-feeding the first
few days may spoil appetites and result in losses rather than
gains in weight. After the second day give the birds, twice or
three times daily, all they will consume in from 20 to 30 min-
utes. Remove the feed left over after each feeding. Give nothing
to drink unless the place where the fattening is done is very
warm; There is plenty of liquid in the sloppy feed, if it is mix-
ed properly.
If the birds are thin when shut up, they should fatten in
from 14 to 16 days. If in good flesh to start with, they will
fatten in 7 or 8 days.
The question is frequently asked, "How much does it cost
to produce a broiler, per pound?" Conditions and methods of
feeding are so very different and variable that one hesitates to
even try to answer such a question. It may be said, however,
that under average conditions the pound broiler cost lies around
25 or 30 cents. The producer has to study costs most carefully,
always on the lookout to shave off a penny here and another.









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


there, if he hopes to hold them below the prices he receives for
his finished product.

FATTENING ROASTERS

Those birds which go beyond the broiler stage become roast-
ers. To this group should be added those pullets which can not
prove their worth as layers, eliminating them from the laying
pens as rapidly as one is positive they are no longer profitable as
layers.
Many farmers may not be in position to fatten their roasters
to advantage, because prices received may not pay the costs of
fattening. One should consider the cost of the grains used in
feeding during the fattening period and the cost of labor. Fur-
thermore, unless the farmer can feed his birds properly during
the fattening period, it is not advisable for him to try to fatten
them. Then, again, many farmers have not sufficiently good
market facilities to dispose of fattened birds to advantage. Un-
der such circumstances, it is usually advisable to sell direct from
the range in an unfinished condition.
The best time to fatten roasters is in fall in order to take ad-
vantage of the market situation and the cool weather. At that
time well-fattened, fresh-killed poultry commands highest prices,
particularly just prior to Thanksgiving and Christmas.
Roasters are usually fattened in one of four ways: 1. On the
range; 2. in pens; 3. in fattening crates; 4. in fattening bat-
teries. The range method is the one usually employed on most
farms, although, as in the case of broilers, cockerels sometimes
are confined to pens. Choice between these two methods de-
pends largely on local circumstances, although birds fattened in
pens require more careful feeding than birds on range. In crate
fattening, from six to ten birds are confined in a small crate and
fed for a period, usually, of from six to fourteen days. The
birds get no exercise and consequently utilize most of their feed
in producing flesh. This is a desirable method of fattening
roasters, where a farmer is in position to sell dressed birds direct
to consumer. Fattening of roasters in batteries is practiced in
commercial packing plants where birds are fattened by thou-
sands. As a matter of fact, broilers, fryers, and old hens, as
well as roasters, are frequently fattened in batteries. Battery
fattening is the exception rather than the rule in Florida.
Ground grains used to make up roaster-fattening rations are
usually corn meal, oatmeal, low-grade flour, middlings, and
finely ground oats. Let the price of the grain, quality consider-
.ed, be your guide. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1;41 (U. S. D. A.)









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


offers the following mixtures:
No. 1
Parts, by weight
Corn meal ---- 6
Rolled oats _-_- -31
Middlings -_ No. 22
No. 2
Parts, by weight
Corn meal ---- 6
Ground oats, without hulls 21V
Middlings -_ -1---- I 12
These ground feeds should be mixed thoroughly and the
mixtures fed with milk. Milk is an excellent feed for fattening
chickens. It tends to develop tissue and improve the quality of
meat. The proportion of milk to mash is about 2 to 1. If
dried milk is used, include 15 pounds in 100 pounds of mash
and mix with water. Water is given freely at the beginning
and at the end of the fattening period, and just prior to killing
a liberal quantity should be given in order to flush out the in-
testines.
Do not over-feed the first four days. Feed very lightly twice
a day for the first two days. For the rest of the period feed all
the birds will eat twice a day, but do not leave feed before them.
Once a year practically a third or a half of the laying flock is
culled out, or should be. Also most breeding males are sold at
the end of the breeding season. Both classes are usually in good
condition at this culling period and do not require extra fatten-
ing. However, those that are thin may be fattened for a week
or two on a roaster-fattening ration. Old birds fatten quicker
than young birds.

HOUSES AND HOUSING

The poultry housing problem is less serious in this than
most other states. Clear nights, mild temperature, and frequent
rains during months when heat naturally is greatest, supply
conditions helpful to profitable poultry production.
In buildifig houses always remember the importance of
cleanliness. Use every precaution to make it easy to keep the
premises clean. Do not tolerate filth. Uncleanliness breeds
trouble-diseases and insect pests.
Poultry needs shelter from wind and rain and from heat and
cold. This demands at least a tight roof, one wind-proof wall
and a solid, secure floor, though it is best to have three wind-
proof walls. But the perfect hen house has never been built.









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


We all have our pet ideas about what constitutes a good house.
Then, too, conditions and circumstances require different types,
shapes, materials and methods in poultry house construction.
However, there are certain essentials which most of us can agree
are vital. The purpose of the house is to protect the birds
against weather and enemies and to facilitate handling. Hens
must be guarded against harm of every sort. One usually wants
a house that will stop the chicken thief, prevent catarrhs and
roup, and protect the birds against heat and cold and rain.
Locate your house on well-drained soil that slopes to the
south or southeast, and face the house in those directions or to
the southwest. Study the weather and wind conditions and
habits of your particular location, and so locate the house that
wind and rain will not blow into the open side. The house
ought to be in proximity to land that will produce green grazing
crops. Trees should be available for shade.

TYPES OF HOUSES

Generally we have three housing methods: Colony, semi-
colony, intensive. The colony system is used when a relatively
small number of chicks or chickens are to be handled. The in-
tensive system is used when a large number of birds are to be
housed together. The semi-colony system is midway between
the colony and the intensive. Small houses may be constructed
on skids so they can be moved from place to place, reducing the
possibilities of disease. But small houses increase building costs,
labor and management. In Florida we find all three systems, as
well as combinations of them. The colony house for brooding
baby chicks and the semi-colony and intensive houses for man-
aging the layers seem most prevalent.*
In Florida the shed-roof or even-span house is most com-
mon. The house should be relatively deep. Narrow houses are
costly and undesirable because ventilation is almost impossible
without causing direct drafts to blow over the birds. The depth
of the house will be greatly influenced by its length; the more
nearly square the house is, the lower its cost. The front should
be high enough to allow sunlight to penetrate into the interior,
as sunshine is the best and cheapest disinfectant. In deep
houses it is desirable to have light underneath the dropping
boards, which can be furnished by placing windows in the rear
of the house below the height of the dropping boards.
The house should be planned to keep the chickens fairly dry
*From Bulletin 45, Florida Agricultural Extersion Division.










- rz2~ -
-
~~--.r-


U


-7.IT


Fig. 12. This is a small house that has been found satisfactory in the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.
Two-thirds span, 12x14 feet in size.


___--;-


*wtaivi ;

















I fl I 1 F


i .
,. ,


4~1


* ~. r


: Fig. 13. This poultry house has been used for four years on the poultry farm of the Florida College of Agri-
culture and the professor in charge says he can see of.no changes or improvements he would care to have made in it.
Oats- in the foreground, are ^grown as a -winter cover crop.


* -.f









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


and protected from driving winds, as well as to provide sanitary
conditions. If the floor is tight-made of wood, concrete or
tamped clay--and is kept clean, there should be little trouble
from fleas.
Construction costs are important, to be true, but remember
that good material is the cheaper in the end and is more satis-
factory while it lasts. This applies particularly to the roof
which gets the hardest treatment from the weather. Painting
poultry houses is economy. When painted on the inside the
danger of parasites is lessened.

DROPPING BOARDS

Dropping boards should be constructed of tongue and groove
lumber. The boards should be laid from front to rear to fa-
cilitate cleaning. Arrange the boards horizontally and parallel
with the floor. Locate the boards about 2/2 or 3 feet from the
ground and let extend from 9 to 12 inches beyond the front and
back roosts.

ROOST POLES

Roost poles must be provided. Place on the same level so as
to prevent the birds from crowding each other toward the higher
ends of the poles or toward the higher poles or perches. For
roosts select 2x2-inch pieces, lumber or straight poles. Rough
or sharp corners or points should be smoothed down. Place
roosts about 6 inches above the dropping board and support
either by wires from the roof or by a frame resting on the drop-
ping boards. Allow from 8 to 10 linear inches per bird for
roosting space. With the roosts from 12 to 16 inches apart,
this provides ample space. Wire stretched below the roosts and
above the dropping board collects any eggs that may be laid and
keeps the hens out of the droppings, which promote cleanliness
and health.

NESTS

Locate nests convenient for both caretaker and hens. On
side walls or under dropping boards are usual places for nests.
Provide plenty of them, one for every four to eight hens. For
Leghorns and other light breeds a 12x12-inch nest is about the
proper size. The heavier breeds need 12xl4-inch nests. Both
sizes should be about 15 inches high with a front board 3 or
4 inches high.












xwI2.e~ 3CLLC.~M


IL___ ___________________'* ----- 0~__



FP-ONT LLEVATIOH


Fig. 14. Plans for an
18x32-foot, even-span lay-
Ing house. It might be ad- .
visable to provide openings i "' a s TJLST t'TO S
in the ends of this house -
(none Is shown here) near -
the peak in order to pro-
vide greater ventilation. 0 .<
The following illustration oO
shows the floor plan of this
same house. (Courtesy
Florida Agricultural Ex- -4 a'-''
tension Division.) A: I.CLL.E


.TRNN/VERJL SECTION


I


" IT


"'' "


'










~A IA


R H "


I 11 I
III Ih II II


II II~,r


it II
II
II II
II II


Fig. 15. Floor plan for an 18x32-foot, even-span laying house. Side
and ends plans of this saine house are shown in the preceding illustra-
tion. (Courtesy Florida Agricultural Extension Division.)


FLOOR PLAN


-~ -1 -


-rc mL Lr cP -r ,______ ~_


A


rn/


am.mmm


1 _ _


t


'









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


The bottom of a nest should be of either wood or wire.
When single tiers of nests are used, half-inch mesh hardware
cloth (fine wire) may be used for the bottom. This permits
freer circulation of air and allows droppings and trash to fall
through.
A sloping roof keeps hens from roosting on top of nests.
Hinged jump-boards in front may be closed to keep hens out of
the nests at night. Many poultrymen use orange boxes and egg
crates for nests.

CULLING

As already said, culling should begin with the eggs and end
at the block. It is, properly, a continuous process. It is foolish
to spend time, money and energy with birds that will not and
can not produce a reasonable profit.
It is necessary, if we are to cull successfully, that the flock
be properly managed.* Good hens appear as culls if they have






. .. :







Pig. 10. A simple catching hook like this is a great convenience to
the poultryman and prevents undue exciting of the birds. (Courtesy
Florida Agricultural Extension Division.)

not received proper rations and care. But be sure your own
methods are correct before you accuse your hens of being slackers
and non-producers.
As a rule culling of the laying flock is done during summer
and early fall, from July to November, when greater accuracy is
possible. It is well to examine the flock once a month, especial-
ly from early summer until fall. By culling at different times,

*-From Bulletin 47, Florida Agr'cultural Extension Division.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


the poultryman is able to reduce his production costs with each
culling.
It is necessary in culling to catch, handle and examine each
bird. Catching hooks made of stiff wire may be used to advan-
tage in picking up hens. It is most important to handle the
flock and individual birds without causing too much excite-
ment.
There are a number of characteristics to consider carefully in
culling. Weigh all of the following points and decide whether
or not the bird is fit for another year. It is not sufficient to con-
sider only one or two of these points.

HEALTH AND VIGOR

Economical and efficient egg production is dependent upon
good health and constitutional vigor. Weak, under-sized birds
must always be removed from the flock. Sometimes birds of
the same size show a variation in vigor. Vigor can be determin-
ed by looking at the head parts and by considering the bird's
activity.

HEAD AND ADJUNCTS

The general appearance of the head is a good indication of
productiveness. The head of the producer is broad and fairly

















Fig. 17. Left: Head of high producer. Comb and wattles are full,
bright, and velvety; beak, short, well curved; eye, bright, prominent;
beak, eye-ring and ear-lobe are pale in color. Right: Head of poor
producer. Comb and wattles are small, shrunken, scaly; eye, dull, sunk-
en; beak, eye-ring, ear-lobe and shanks have yellow color. (Courtesy
Florida Agricultural Extension Division.)









POULTRY IN FLORIDA 47


short, with a well-curved beak. The face is clean-cut. The
poor producer's head is long, narrow, crow-shaped, and has a
long beak. Eyes in a good producer are full, round, prominent
and bright, while in the non-producer eyes are sunken and dull.
Comb and wattles of the producer are well developed and of
fine texture, but in the poor producer these parts are undevelop-
ed and coarse. Condition of comb and wattles indicates condi-
tion of the bird. The laying bird will have a comb bright red
in color, full and velvety to the touch; the non-layer's comb and
wattles are pale, shrunken and scaly.

BODY TYPE OR CONFORMATION

To secure heavy egg production it is important that the bird
have good body capacity for the consumption of large quanti-
ties of feed and for manufacture of eggs. The heavy producer
has a long, broad back which extends well to the rear and has
depth from back to keel. This depth should extend well to
the rear. Breast is full and deep.
The poor layer is narrow across the back and tapers toward
the rear, has a short keel and lacks depth in the abdominal reg-
ion. Breast is shallow and narrow. Spread of pelvic bones and
distance between pelvic bones and keel are indications of quality.
This spread varies with laying conditions of the bird. The
greater the spread or the deeper the abdomen, the better.

PIGMENTATION

The presence or absence of yellow in the bird's body is a
characteristic which assists the poultryman in learning about the
productiveness of the individual. In all yellow-skinned va-
rieties before birds start to lay they show yellow color in beak,
skin and shanks. This color comes from feed. If the feed is
yellow corn and plenty of green stuff, the yellow is more pro-
nounced than if white corn and little green feed are used.
In a non-laying pullet yellow color is .found in the vent,
eye-ring, ear-lobe (in white ear-lobed breeds), beak and shanks.
As the bird commences to lay and manufacture egg yolk she ab-
sorbs the yellow pigment which leaves the body first in the vent.
With continued laying it leaves eye-ring, ear-lobe and then beak.
Color leaves the base of the beak first and, fading, extends from
the base to the tip. The lower mandible bleaches out more rap-
idly than the upper. It takes about four or six weeks of laying
for the beak to bleach. Finally with continued laying the yel-
low color leaves the shanks; bleaching begins on the scales on









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


the front of the shanks first and then on the scales on the rear.
It takes from four to six months for the shanks to bleach out.
The rate of losing this yellow color varies with different
birds. Generally the thicker the skin the longer the time re-
quired for complete fading. Larger birds usually bleach more
slowly than smaller birds. As soon as the hen stops laying the
color returns in the same order, but faster than it disappeared;
namely, vent, eye-ring, ear-lobe, beak, shanks.

MOLTING

When a hen stops laying she usually goes into a molt, which
means a shedding or partial shedding of feathers. A partial
molt may occur at any season, but the body molt usually oc-
curs in summer and fall. Early (and slow) molters are generally
poor producers, while late (and quick) molters are best pro-
ducers. The early molter loses much more time than the late
molter and naturally is less profitable. Hens of different ages
may or may not molt at the same season: it is more a matter of
condition and laying instincts. An individual probably molts
at approximately the same season each year, beginning at about
the same time but molting for a longer period each succeeding
year.
The molting of the primary wing feathers is of interest in
detecting vacation periods. The primary wing feathers are
separated from the secondary feathers by an axial feather. When
a hen stops laying she usually drops the inner primary feather
next to the axial feather first. If she remains in non-laying con-
dition for two or more weeks, the second primary feather drops,
and so on until the entire wing is molted. It requires about
six weeks to grow a new feather.
The poor producer drops one at a time and takes a long time
to complete the molt, perhaps 24 weeks. The good producer
may drop and restore a few feathers and start laying, keeping
the old primary feathers another season. In some cases she may
drop a number at one time. Eight weeks may be ample time for
her to molt, and she may not delay that long.










POULTRY IN FLORIDA


Culling Guide

The following comparisons have been worked out by poul-
try experts and may be relied upon as a safe guide in culling:


Good Producer Has: Character Poor Producer Has:


broad, short


bleached, short


bright, prominent


bleached

lean, smooth

large, bright


full, broad

broad, long

fine, pliable, expanded

thin, velvety

thin, flexible, well-
spread


head


beak


eye

ear-lobe
eye-ring

face

comb


breast


back

abdomen


skin

pelvic


bones


long, narrow, crow-
shaped

long, yellow

dull, sunken

yellow

coarse, wrinkled

small, shrunken, cover-
ed with white scales


shallow, narrow


narrow, tapering

small, coarse, thick

thick, coarse

thick, hard, close to-
gether


bleached, lean, flat, fine- shanks fat, .round, coarse-scal-
scaled ed, yellow

late, rapid molt early, slow

mist, large, bleached vent dry, small, yellow


The use of legbands is a help in culling, as also are trap-
nests. Different colored bands can be used to indicate the time
various pullets begin laying. Trapnests enable one to know
exactly what each individual is doing. Time and effort are
necessary to mark hens with legbands and to use trapnests, but
it is better to use system in the industry, thus knowing with
some degree of accuracy what individuals are doing, than to drift
along aimlessly, though hopefully.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SELECTING PULLETS AND BREEDING MALES

For the laying quarters select those pullets which possess
good health and size. Give preference to the early-maturing
bird. The good layer conforms to the standard requirements
of the particular breed and variety-is free of disqualifications.
Vigor in the male is most important. He should be active
and conform to the standard requirements of his breed as to
type, size and color markings. Select the rooster with a short
broad head, with alert eyes, with long broad back and with a
deep chest. Do not assume that the male with an attractive
pedigree qualifies, but put him through the test.

DISEASES AND INSECT PESTS OF POULTRY

There seems no end to the ailments and parasites affecting
chickens. A bulletin several times the size of this one could be
written upon this subject without exhausting it. It would
seem that a tropical climate, such as Florida has, would make
this industry more hazardous than in cooler regions. However,
remember most authorities say sunshine is the best known disin-
fectant, and of sunshine Florida has an abundance. Sunshine,
if used properly,_ prevents many troubles. It may stop diseases
and insects before they get started.
But it is not everything. Cleanliness should prevail in
poultry yards, pastures and houses, supplementing the benefits
of sunshine. Where it is a cardinal principle, you find little
trouble from diseases and insects. Study all remedies advanced
for poultry troubles, observe practices of most successful chicken
raisers, and you will find that cleanliness is foremost. If it is
practiced for one trouble, other troubles may be prevented at the
same time.
Cleanliness results most easily and efficiently from a sys-
tematic cleaning-up program. Once cleaning up has become ac-
cepted as part of the regular schedule, it is not so difficult. No
matter how small a flock, the weekly cleaning should never be
omitted. In removing visible matter-litters, droppings, ref-
use-millions upon millions of invisible germs and bacteria
are removed 'also. Much of this should be burned or buried at
a safe depth.
Of course, there are times when trouble will break out de-
spite sunshine and cleanliness. Disinfecting and applying in-
secticides to houses, roosts and nests, and even to runs, should
form part of the regular hen house schedule of work. White-
wash fills up cracks, a hiding place of insects. Spraying with
















7-4'


Fig. 18. Flock of young breeding cocks on the Wonder Poultry Farm In Marion County. Note the Bermuda
pasturage and the high fence, also the flocks and houses In the background. (S. A. L. Ry. photo.)


~i;



u.-.,









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


kerosene, creolin or coal tar solution, carbolic acid preparations,
or old motor oil, etc., will go far toward putting an end to pests
of the poultry house. Wetting down the earth of yards and
runs will slow up the breeding of fleas and chiggers.
One authority has said, "Sweep, scrape, scrub, then disin-
fect." A world of advice and good common sense is wrapped
up in those few words. "Hard work, too," some one will say.
True! But where is the job that does not require a lot of very
hard work? Remember, if you are going in for poultry raising,
you might as well realize before hand that it is beset with hard
work and annoyances. Unless you mean to do it right, do not
start, or get out if you are already in.
As said before, there seems no end to the pests of poultry
and to the discussions as to how to control or exterminate them.
We shall not attempt to mention any but the more common to
Florida. Even this will be done briefly. If the poultryman
will practice the sanitation methods suggested, the chances are
he will have few troubles, if any. In combatting one trouble,
he may be preventing others. In the event, however, he finds
other diseases or insects pestering his birds, he may call in his
county agent or write to the State Department of Agriculture at
Tallahassee or to the Florida College of Agriculture at Gaines-
ville and receive help. The discussion below of poultry diseases
and insects, and the treatments recommended, are mainly from
Bulletin 247 of the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station
and Bulletin 59 of the Ohio Agricultural Extension Service.
The whole, of course, is adapted to Florida conditions as far as
possible.

MANSON'S EYE WORM

Manson's eye worm is a great trouble in some flocks. It
locates in the tear sac of the chicken's eye, and here sets up an in-
flammation leading to excessive secretion of tears and irritation.
The bird scratches its eye which causes further irritation.
A few years ago Dr. D. A. Sanders, working for the Florida
College of Agriculture, made a most important discovery re-
lating to this pest. He showed that the eggs of this worm hatch
out in the body of the common cockroach. The chicken catches
and eats the roach. The worm larvae are freed in the crop of
the bird and may reach the eye within 20 minutes after the roach
is eaten. The larval worms migrate up the esophagus to the
mouth and reach the eye through the tear duct. Here the worms
reach sexual maturity and lay eggs which reach the intestines
and pass out in the droppings, finally reaching the roach and
starting another life-cycle.









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


Treatment consists in daily removing droppings of birds
known to affected. Runs clean and free of trash, loose boards
and mudholes and exposed to sunshine have few cockroaches.
The birds may be freed of worms by carefully lifting the mem-
brane covering the eyeball and introducing a drop or two of
2-percent cresol solution daily for a few days. A drop of 5-
percent creolin has been recommended to kill the worms immed-
iately, but it must be removed at once by irrigating the eye with
water. Birds known to be infested should be separated from
others until they are free of worms.

INTESTINAL WORMS

Intestinal worms in poultry divide themselves into two
groups: Round worms (of which there are two, the large round
worm and the cecum worm) and flat (or tape) worms. More
pronounced symptoms are produced in growing chicks than in
mature birds. In fact, a normal, healthy pullet a few months
old usually throws off a normal infestation of round worms.
Retarded growth, muscular deficiency, paralysis, diarrhea and
general debility are symptoms which follow worm infestation.
However, it is impossible to make a diagnosis without opening
the bird and conducting a search for the parasites in the intes-
tinal tract.
The large round worm is the most common parasite of
the intestinal tract. When mature it is from two or three
inches in length, white in color, round in shape. It lives a free-
living existence in the intestinal tract and does not require an
intermediate host. Eggs of the worms pass out with the drop-
pings, go through an incubation period in the soil, and are
picked up by chickens. Contaminated soil, therefore, is one of
the most common means of spreading this parasite.
The cecum worm, small and round (sometimes called pin
worm) is found in the ceca or blind intestine. It is not sup-
posed to do much damage. It carries the causitive organism of
blackhead in turkeys which, while commonly found in chickens,
is not often serious, though it is fatal to turkeys. Its life cycle
is almost identical with that of the large round worm.
The tape worm is entirely distinct from the round worm,
In the adult stage it lives in the intestinal tract and is attached
by a scolex or head to the intestinal wall. It is flat and seg-
mented. Its life cycle is more complicated than that of the
round worm, and a secondary or intermediate host is required
to carry the infestation from one bird to another. Mature seg-
ments, filled with thousands of microscopic eggs, break off. and









54 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

pass out with the droppings. These eggs are consumed by a
suitable secondary host and develop to a cystic stage in the body
of the secondary host. The cyst lies dormant here until the sec-





















.',, S







Fig. 19. What worms will do for a bird. This pullet is in-
fested with both tape and round worms. Note the pale, sickly
appearance of the eye and face, also the thin condition of the
bird. (Courtesy Florida Experiment Station.)
ondary host is consumed by the chicken. This is the only
known means by which tape worms spread, and it is impossible
for them to be carried directly from one chicken to another.
House flies, dung bugs, small snails, slugs, earthworms act as
intermediate hosts for tape worms.
Preventative measures are the only safe method of handling
these various intestinal parasites. While there are treatments
which rid the birds of the parasites, it usually happens that con-
siderable damage has been done already-pullets are stunted and









POULTRY IN FLORIDA 55

probably attacked by diseases or other pests as a result of reduced
vitality. While the treatment is often effective in removing the
worms, it is usually impossible to put a pullet in as good health
or in as good condition to lay as she would have been, had she
been raised free of this parasite.
Certain precautions are to be practiced, if any worm infesta-
tions have been present on the farm. Keep young chicks healthy
by observing these rules:
1. Raise young chicks away from old hens.
2. Raise chicks on clean soil, where old hens have not been
allowed to range and entirely away from barnyard and manure
piles where flies and other insects which act as carriers breed.
3. Clean all poultry houses regularly. Clean dropping
boards daily; remove manure immediately to some distant part
of the farm and scatter thinly.
4. Destroy all breeding places of flies-manure piles, rub-
bish heaps, old straw piles, etc. Stop the breeding of flies.
5. Insects and earthworms should not be fed to chicks, as
they may be carriers of worm eggs or larvae.
6. If the mature flock is infested, treat with a reliable ver-
micide in spring before allowing them outdoors. Treatment
should be accompanied with a general cleaning and disinfecting.
In brief, a program of strict sanitation about the poultry
plant is the best known remedy to prevent outbreaks of intes-
tinal parasites. Carelessness and filth are causes of trouble.
During scrupulous cleaning operations a special disinfectant
may be used to kill worm eggs and larvae. As such iodine sus-
pensoid can be used according to manufacturer's directions.
For round worms in mature birds probably the most impor-
tant thing in growing healthy chicks is to rid the laying flock of
the parasites and thus reduce the danger of carrying them over
to the growing flock. Individual treatment must be resorted to.
Among the more satisfactory treatments for round worms are:
Nicotine sulphate capsules, iodine vermicide, carbon tetrachloride,
tetrachlorethylene. The cecum worm does not respond readily
to treatment except where it is possible to get the vermicide in
the ceca.
Tape worms in mature birds require a treatment other than
those commonly used for round worms, because the parasites
are attached to the intestinal wall. The more commonly used
treatments are kamala and iodine vermicide. Kamala has been
known to create some bad after-affects, and caution should be
used in administering it. Give only when the birds have a full
crop, and experiment with a few birds at first to see whether or
not they are going to react unfavorably to the treatment.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


THE CHICKEN MITE

The common chicken mite is found over the entire country.
It is most prevalent in mid-summer. It lives from four to five
months. Although dampness seems to increase its length of life,
hot dry weather is essential for its maximum development.
It is just visible to the naked eye, is grayish in color except
when engorged with blood. As a blood-sucker it remains on the
body of the bird until engorged and then returns to its hiding
and nesting place-in cracks of roosts and floors, refuse, and
other obscure places. Eggs hatch in about two days. The adult
stage is reached in about eight days.
Mites cause severe irritation but seldom leave any mark.
Unthriftiness and decrease in eggs are results of their action.
They sometimes drive setting hens from their nests.
Removal of all interior fixtures and thorough disinfection
with a strong dip applied with a force pump is recommended.
All rubbish should be removed and burned. Care must be
taken to get the spray into all crevices. Kerosene emulsion,
crude petroleum and wood preservatives may be used for spray-
ing. Follow with whitewash which aids mechanically in filling
up. crevices. Spraying should be repeated after one week to get
any mites that escaped the first application. It may be necessary
to give even a third. Roosts should be painted frequently with
wood preservative or crude petroleum. Keep in mind that mites
are blood-sucking parasites and do not remain on birds as do
lice. Mites are much more harmful than lice, and in treatment
it is necessary to treat the house and not the birds, as in the case
of lice.
Construct roosts and nests so as to reduce hiding crevices to
a minimum. New birds brought to the farm, or birds moved
to new quarters, should be isolated for a few days in a pen sep-
arated from the permanent quarters, so that all mites will leave
them, thus preventing infestation of the new quarters. If the
birds are moved during the day, rather than at night, mites will
not be carried with them.

SCALY LEG

Scaly leg is caused by a small mite which burrows into the
skin of the feet and legs, causing an injury from which an exu-
date oozes. This dries and causes the scaly condition that gives
the disease its name. It generally appears between the toes and
works upward, finally involving the unfeathered parts of the
leg. In bad cases the leg may appear greatly enlarged.









POULTRY IN FLORIDA 57

To treat combine clean-up measures with local applications
of an ointment consisting of 1 part of oil of caraway and 5 parts
of vaseline. Equal parts of kerosene and olive oil well rubbed


Fig. 20. Scaly leg, a bad case of It. Note how it is running down
to the toes. (Courtesy Florida Experiment Station.)
in are also very good. Apply on several successive days. Local
applications without general cleaning is of no avail because the
mites often leave the affected bird and attack others.

CHIGGERS AND FLEAS

Chiggers and fleas live and act very much alike. They thrive
in dry soil. Hen houses with earth floors frequently are alive
with them. Chiggers collect on birds, mainly on. featherless
parts, and stick tight, thus winning the name in certain locali-
ties of "stick-tights." Fleas bite and run or jump, causing per-
haps as much nervous damage as loss of blood. Some one once
said, "I don't mind a flea's board bill but I can't stand his
traveling expenses."
Treatment is the same for both. Spray the houses with









58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


crude oil. Rub vaseline on affected places. Wet down earth
floors, yards and run. In Florida we have so much sandy soil
that these insects really do become a nuisance. And once well
established in light soil, it is difficult to get rid of them. Gen-
erally speaking, wetting down the soil probably is the best con-
trol method.

LICE

Lice live on fowls and lay their eggs on the short feathers
below the vent. They irritate birds by their movements and
thus prevent adequate rest at night.
They can be killed by a fine dust that fills their air tubes.
Hens frequently dust themselves in fine soil. Any fine dust
sifted into the plumage eliminates most lice, if it comes in con-
tact with them. The following dusting procedure should be
found effective: Distribute a pinch of sodium fluoride on neck,
back, under wings, over heart and in vent: then ruffle through
the feathers so as to spread the powder thoroughly.
Probably the best way to kill lice is to use mercurial oint-
ment, commonly known as blue ointment. Thoroughly mix 1
ounce of it with 2 ounces of some petroleum jelly, such as vase-
line. This gives a mixture that kills not only the lice but also
their eggs. Rub a small amount of this ointment-a piece the
size of a pea-into the short feathers below the vent. Make
an oily patch about the size of a quarter-dollar piece. On these
short feathers can be seen the nits or lice eggs. The mercury kills
the nits by contact and the lice, coming to the vent for moisture,
get into the poison and die. A single application of mercurial
ointment should solve the lice problem for several months, and
two applications a year should keep practically all lice off the
birds. Remember that this ointment is poisonous and should
not be used on baby chicks or left where hens can eat it.
An effective control measure for lice is the painting of roosts
and perches with a 40-percent nicotine sulphate solution. Use
a brush and apply in a thin line. Do this early enough that it
will dry off before the birds go to roost, say about 30 minutes
ahead of that time. Body warmth of the birds causes the nico-
tine to volatilize; the fumes reach the base of the feathers and
kills the lice. A common commercial nicotine sulphate prepara-
tion is known as Black leaf 40.
Dipping for lice control may be done. Mix in a tub in the
proportion of 1 ounce of commercial (or 2/3 of an ounce of
chemically pure) sodium fluoride to 1 gallon of water. Hold
the bird by its wings with one hand and submerge, using the
free hand to ruffle the feathers and to wet the body. Finally








POULTRY IN FLORIDA


duck the head a few times, drain for a few seconds and release.
One pound of sodium fluoride will treat 300 hens by this dip
method. It is advisable to dip on warm days so that birds will
be thoroughly dried off before night.

CATARRH

Catarrh, or nasal roup, is a nasal trouble that usually fol-
lows an improperly treated cold. Its cause is not known, but
probably many types of bacteria are responsible. Bits of straw
and feathers stick to the beak and nostrils, and there is more or
less sneezing and mouth breathing. The birds appear sluggish,
the comb may be pale, the feathers may appear unthrifty. Nos-
trils are plugged with dried mucous.
Sick birds should be isolated into separate small cages, placed
in a warm place and fed carefully. Clean out the nostrils twice
daily with a 2-percent solution of potassium permanganate or a
10-percent solution of baking soda. The former substance ap-
plied to drinking water is a good tonic; or it at least stimulates
and prevents catarrhal infections.
As catarrh usually results from colds, remove the conditions
which permit the colds, if you would prevent catarrh. Con-
struct or reconstruct houses and roosts so that the birds will not
sit in direct drafts. Cracks, knot holes and crevices on opposite
sides of a house create cross drafts which nearly always cause
colds. It is essential that birds be given fresh air without drafts
and be kept in clean, dry houses flooded with sunshine. This
means that three sides of the house should be tight and that the
birds will not be reached by drafts of cold air from the fourth.
Lack of ventilation also causes colds. Do not crowd the birds
on the roosts. Prevent colds and you prevent catarrh.

CANKER

Canker is a very serious disease of all types of poultry, but
more especially of chickens. It is frequently called diptheritic
roup and fowl diptheria. It is characterized by the development
of cankers and diptheritic patches in the mouth and throat. The
lesions are covered by a yellowish membrane that is removed
with difficulty, leaving a raw surface. Mouth breathing frequent-
ly accompanies it. The birds appear pale, show lack of appetite,
are unthrifty in appearance. There are occasional symptoms of
pneumonia, whitish diarrhea with high temperature and exces-
sive thirst. An excessive number of egg yolks of affected birds
may be ruptured.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Sick birds should be placed by-themselves and given individ-
ual treatment. Houses and runs must be carefully cleaned and
disinfected. Perhaps the best treatment is the ax. Some cases
may be treated successfully by removing the membrane from the
surface of the lesions with a bent wire or hairpin and painting
the raw area with a 10-percent solution of argyrol or tincture
of iodine. A 5-percent solution of silver nitrate is very effective,
but it is very irritating and should be used with care. Potassium
permanganate added to the drinking water aids in preventing the
spread of canker.

FOWL POX

Fowl pox, or sorehead, probably is closely related to canker,
as it acts similarly. Its characteristic symptom is the develop-
ment of small blister-like eruptions, smooth, grayish to white,
which appear on the skin. These areas enlarge and later become
covered by dry, wrinkled crusts which vary in color from yel-
low to black.
Isolate sick birds and give a dose of Epsom salts. Keep
warm and feed plenty of green feed and sour milk. The tu-
mors may be softened with glycerine or vaseline and removed.
Touch up the areas, after removing tumors, with a 5-percent
silver nitrate solution or tincture of iodine. Burn removed
tumors.
Vaccination-a comparatively recent discovery in this field
of veterinary science-seems an effective control for this trouble.
If fowl pox has been present on the farm, it is advisable to im-
munize pullets during the growing season. But before vacci-
nating be sure your trouble is fowl pox. If in doubt, consult
your county agent, or write to the State Livestock Sanitary
Board, Tallahassee, or to the Florida College of Agriculture,
Gainesville.:
"' There are a number of commercial vaccines on the market
and usually they may be relied upon. Poultrymen may buy
and apply the vaccine themselves, as the operation is reasonably
simple.' However, care must be taken to read and follow the
manufacturer's directions which accompany the commercial pro-
duict.
Vaccinate when the pullets are from three to four months of
age, before the combs are fully developed, and preferably while
the birds are on range and while the weather is clear.
Vaccination to prevent chicken pox will help to ward off the
other head diseases, such as colds, roup and canker or sorehead.

























L A-sQ -. -~ ,t%.5?.Y -


17"W s-ak,, MAP -








7 -


Ilk


Pig. 21. Another Marion County poultry scene. These White Leghorns are industrious workers. Note the
houses, nests and self-feeders in background. Plenty of sunshine means healthier birds. (S. A. L. Ry. photo.)









62 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BACILLARY WHITE DIARRHEA

In chicks this disease is primarily a bowel trouble; in adults
it is a disease of the reproductive organs.* Chicks most com-
monly acquire the infection through eggs from which hatched.
Chicks hatched free from the germs of the disease may, how-
ever, acquire it through food soiled by droppings from infected
chicks.
The disease usually makes its appearance in a flock from the
fourth to the twelfth day. By the sixteenth day it is usually
subsiding and danger of it after 21 days of age is not great. It
is impossible to distinguish between bacillary white diarrhea and
diarrhea due to other causes by the symptoms manifest. In
either case there is diarrhea, rapid loss of weight, ruffled feathers,
drooping wings, etc.
Treatment is absolutely futile. Extravagant claims of cures
by medication are without foundation. If chicks recover under
such treatment, it is good evidence that they did not have bacil-
lary white diarrhea. While not all chicks that become affected
die, the majority do and those that live should never be added
to the breeding flock. The only sure way to avoid the disease
is by hatching chicks from hens that do not carry the infection.
Whenever possible it is advisable to buy hatching eggs or baby
chicks from tested hens only. If this is not possible, determine
the history of the supplying flock and purchase stock from only
those birds which show a good livability of chicks.
The accrediting of poultry flocks in Florida is handled by
the State Livestock Sanitary Board which has headquarters in
Tallahassee.

COCCIDIOSIS

Coccidiosis is a serious disease of poultry. It occurs in chicks
from two weeks of age to maturity, usually appearing very sud-
denly and frequently after warm, rainy weather. It is caused by
a microscopic one-celled parasite which develops and multiplies
in intestinal walls. Symptoms result from injury to and de-
struction of intestinal cells. In young chicks (affected by the
acute type of the disease) the ceca are more commonly affected.
In older birds (affected by the chronic type) the small intestines
are more frequently involved. Heaviest losses from coccidiosis
take place on birds between the first and fourth months of age.
*From Extension Service Bulletin No. 156, Iowa State College of
Agriculture.









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


Over-crowding, malnutrition and lack of sanitation reduces
the resistance of the birds to a degree which makes coccidiosis
much more fatal under these conditions than where birds are
well housed and cared for in a sanitary way. The disease spreads
by chicks consuming feed, water, litter or soil which contain
droppings of diseased chicks. These parasites remain in the soil
for a year or more. It is, therefore, very important in combat-
ting coccidiosis that strict attention be paid to preventing soil














Fig. 22. Chronic coccidiosis did this. Note the thin, listless, eznaci-
ated condition of the chicken. (Courtesy Florida Experiment Station.)

infection, as there is no known means of treating soil to kill the
organisms.
Heaviest coccidiosis mortality usually occurs during the first
week or 10 days after first symptoms appear. After this deaths
become less frequent, but the disease may linger on as long as a
month before it has run its course. An outbreak of the disease
usually leaves many chicks stunted and poorly developed.
As already said, the organism attacks the walls of the intes-
tinal tract, entering and destroying the cells. This destruction
goes on for some time and is the immediate cause of the acute
symptoms which the chicks develop. After the trouble has run
its course fertilized eggs develop. These eggs (oocysts) pass
out with the intestinal contents and go through an- incubation
period in the soil or litter, varying from two to several days in
duration.
Conditions favorable for coccidial incubation are warmth
and moisture, which accounts for the fact that many outbreaks
of coccidiosis occur in damp, dirty houses or after warm rainy
spells which permit the rapid incubation of eggs in soil or litter.
Dry floors, wire frames for feeding, frequent cleaning, wire









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


porches and clean ground are strongly recommended as means
of preventing outbreaks of this disease.
In controlling coccidiosis make every effort to maintain a
high degree of sanitation in order to prevent the disease organ-
isms from becoming established among growing chicks. If the
disease appears, put the birds immediately on a coccidiosis-control
ration which contains a high percentage of milk. The Cali-
fornia Experiment Station has developed a very satisfactory
control mash. It as well as instructions for its use follow:
Dry skimmilk or buttermilk -_________.__40 lbs.
Wheat bran ___-___ ___ __-___ 10 lbs.
Yellow corn meal -_ __- ___- __-____- _30 lbs.
Ground barley _____-_____-____- 20 lbs.
The important ingredient of this mash, so far as the control
of it is concerned, is the high percentage of dried skimmilk or
buttermilk. In using this control mash, reduce the grain to one-
third of the mash consumption. Feed green feed liberally.
It is not necessary in preparing a control mash that the con-
stituents be the same as indicated here. In other words, the
regular all-mash may be used for controlling coccidiosis, if the
dried milk content is increased to 30 percent.
Start feeding the control mash as soon as the presence of the
disease is detected. Keep the mash constantly before the chicks.
If grain is fed, restrict the amount to one-third of the weight of
the mash consumption. The mash should not be continued
longer than 10 days, then taper it off gradually to the original
growing ration.
As soon as coccidiosis appears the brooder house should be
thoroughly cleaned or the chicks moved to other brooders that
have been cleaned. The house should then be cleaned every day
and clean litter supplied. It is well to keep the chicks off the
ground by the use of wire platforms while they are being treated,
and as soon as mortality ceases they should be moved to clean
soil. Burn dead chicks and cull the flock heavily of those show-
ing effects of the disease before moving the healthy birds to a
clean place. Plow under the infected yard and allow no chicks
to use its soil for at least two years.

HATCHERIES

With the development of the poultry industry in Florida,
the hatchery business has increased. We now find hatcheries in
practically all vicinities of the state. They are amply able to
supply the needs of the beginner or the producer already in the
industry. Many substantial businesses have been built up with-









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


in recent years, and this is an inviting field for capital and busi-
ness initiative.
And, without calling names, it should be said that there are
many noteworthy breeders and hatchery operators in Florida,
men who are a credit to the poultry industry. There are breed-
ers who are producing as fine quality as can be found in all of
America. And these men are increasing in number rapidly. And
wherever best quality can be supplied by a local producer, it has
the advantage of being already acclimated to Florida conditions,
which is a consideration not to be taken lightly.

MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS

Marketing poultry products is one of the most important
phases of the industry. Through the efforts of county and
home agents, who are able to reach individual producers, of
extension poultry specialists who devote their entire time to dis-
seminating knowledge of poultry and encouraging and inspiring
all to greater and better efforts, and of the State Marketing Bu-
reau, which is able to gain contact with a wide selection of con-
sumers, there has been rapid progress in this field.
During recent years several co-operative poultry marketing
associations have come into existence. Three regional ones, al-
ready functioning successfully, have headquarters at Orlando,
Tampa and Jacksonville. These are the Central Florida Poultry
Producers Cooperative, the Gulf Coast Poultry Producers Co-
operative, and the North Florida Poultry Producers Coopera-
tive.
The organizations are assisting materially in the orderly dis-
tribution of eggs. There are a few other smaller cooperatives
and plans are under way to organize the producers of the east
coast.
Mention might well be made of numerous local poultry or-
ganizations. While success is not dependent upon cooperative
effort the unselfish working together of persons having common
interests and purposes is more apt to lead to success than to fail-
ure. Where we see this being done, we may ordinarily regard
it as a good omen. And it means more than an effort to make
more money: it is a gesture toward happier living and better
citizenship, though this gesture may be an unconscious one.
Mention of one local cooperative effort of poultry people
will suffice. About 1917 the home demonstration agent of Put-
nam county organized a group of poultry raisers in the Flora-
home vicinity into an egg circle. Its purpose was to secure a
more profitable and dependable egg market. The club (or cir-
























































Fig. 23. Gold medal poultry show of the Volusia County Fair, 1929. No longer can It be truthfully said that
Florida does not and can not produce poultry of the very finest quality.


~F;;;;








POULTRY IN FLORIDA 67

cle) has existed to this day and its members, as a rule, receive
better prices for their eggs by 3 or 4 cents a dozen. Years ago
a steamship line was secured as a customer and so satisfactory
have been the relationships that neither customer nor producer
has ever had any idea of terminating the arrangement.
Many other examples, similar to this one, could be cited to
show the value of cooperation to poultry producers. But this
one is peculiarly striking because of its long existence and for
the many years it has been able to hold a satisfied customer. It
is one more instance of the worth of our county and home dem-
onstration agents.

INVESTMENTS, COSTS, PROFITS

As a rule more business principle could be practiced on the
poultry farm, as well, of course, as on most other types of farms.
The farmer too often has looked upon his farm as a place to
live rather than as a business enterprise.
However, times change and conditions improve. It is ever
thus. Farmers are showing a thirst for knowledge and informa-
tion on how to improve their farms and increase their incomes.
County agents have more and more calls. Farm short courses
are gaining in popularity and being better attended by real
farmers. And bankers and business men are showing an in-
creased interest in helping and cooperating with the men of
the soil, which means that farm people are apt to gain in knowl-
edge and business practice.
In this connection it is appropriate to quote briefly from cir-
culars recently issued by the Florida College of Agriculture in
reporting poultry farm surveys conducted by Frank Brumley.
It will answer many -questions that ought to be answered in a
bulletin of this nature.
"A farm business is not a success unless it has paid all farm
expenses, paid a fair rate of interest on the money invested in
the farm, returned the operator and his family a fair wage for
their labor, and left the farm in as good or better condition-than
it was in at the beginning of the year. . . .
"In a study of 104 poultry farms in Florida for 1927-28,
the average total capital invested was found to be about $8,000
per farm. The number of birds averaged 812. Should a farmer
have been drawing 7 percent interest on this sum, rather than
having it invested in the farm, he would have received about
$560 without working. The operators of these same farms
placed a value on their labor of $750 for the year, in addition
to $125 of unpaid family labor on the farm. This makes the









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


total value of unpaid labor for the farm about $875, which
means that the average poultry farmer in Florida is slightly more
of a laborer than a capitalist. .. . . It is thought that
$8,000 for the Florida poultry farms having an average of 812
birds at the beginning of the year is possibly higher than nec-
essary under Florida conditions. .. . The larger the farm,
the greater the capital invested. If the capital is wisely spent
and properly distributed, the larger farms generally are more
efficient and show a lower cost per bird. We find this $8,000
invested per farm for 812 birds had the following distribution
among the items that make up the total:
Real estate _-______ $6,200 or 78%
Poultry __-______ ___ 1,300 or 16%
Other livestock __ --------- 150 or 2%
Poultry equipment __ 175 or 2%
Other equipment ____- 175 or 2%
"In studying the efficiency of the use of capital, it was
found that when the number of birds were increased the invest-
ment per bird decreased. It was also found that the cost per
dozen eggs was less on the farms with greatest number of birds.
"It was found that the real estate investment per bird varied
from $8 to $5, while the investment in poultry buildings was
about $1.25. For all equipment it was about $2 per bird . .
"The average total capital per bird for all farms was about
$10, but there was great variation-from $50 to $3. Ob-
viously where the investment is from $20 to $50 per bird, it
is impossible to make money. . . .
"Should egg production be low, there seem six ways of ob-
taining higher production profitably, as follows:
"1. Keep the laying flocks composed of from 50 to 75 per-
cent pullets.
"2. Secure your chicks from well-bred laying stock.
"3. Hatch at the proper time to get high fall and winter
production and high yearly production. To do this two hatches
seem best, if possible one each in February and April.
"4. Secure at least from 30 to 35 eggs per bird as a total
for the three winter months of November, December and Jan-
uary.
"5. High egg production requires or results in high feed
intake.
"6. The White Leghorn gives the highest egg production
for the least feed cost."










POULTRY IN FLORIDA


Below is given a table showing important findings in the
survey conducted by Professor Brumley. It answers many
questions asked by those thinking of entering the industry.

Summary of important factors on the 10 most profitable
poultry farms and the 10 least profitable poultry farms (meas-
ured by farm income) as compared with the average for all of
the 104 studied in 1928:


44
-0




us farm expenses other than
interest) ------------ $2,438 $ 576 $ 580
Value of eggs above feed cost $ 2.67 .98 $ 1.96
Average number of fowls----- 1149 610 676
Yearly egg production per bird__ 162 121 148
Eggs per bird, Nov.-Jan.___ 32 17 24
Percentage of mortality ------ 12.0 17.0 10.7
Pounds of feed per fowl ----- 75 76 77
Feed cost per fowl ------ $ 2.24 $ 2.42 $ 2.36
Feed cost per dozen eggs 16.8c 24.3c 19.3c
Feed cost per cwt. --------- $ 2.99 $ 3.19 $ 3.00
Percentage of pullets ----- 73 55 62
Price received per dozen eggs --- 38c 35c 36c
Price received for cull hens ---. 74c 72c 76c
Hours labor per 1,000 fowls---- 2,583 3,440 2,903
Number of fowls per man .-- 623 484 475
Eggs produced per man, dozens__ 8,293 4,823 5,900









70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

SOME QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Just as final proofs of this bulletin are being read, several
letters asking for information are passed along to the author
with the suggestion that they be answered herein. Attempt is
made to answer as many as space will permit.
From M. G. C., Orlando: "One of my best hens is appar-
ently a very sick bird. She refuses to eat. Sits still on the ground,
feathers drooped. No other bird in the flock acts likewise. What
should I do?"
Answer: Kill her. Then burn or bury at a safe depth.
Ordinarily the ax is the best remedy, perhaps not to "cure" the
ailing bird but surely the safest way to keep the disease-what-
ever it may be-from spreading to the rest of the flock.
Do not let your anxiety to save a best hen obscure the ne-
cessity of keeping the flock as a whole healthy. It is possible
that some trouble is about to gain foothold in your flock. De-
stroying this one bird may mean saving several others.
This is a general answer: If your hen is exceptionally valu-
able, isolate her and consult your county or home agent or a
veterinarian.
From C. E. G., Louisville. Ky.: "I am anxious to go to
Florida to raise chickens. What part of the state would you ad-
vise me to settle in? And is it true that you never have any
poultry ailments down there? Also I have been told that you
have no trouble in getting a dollar a dozen for your eggs. I
would like to know many such points as this before leaving a
good job."
Answer: You are wise in being sure of what is ahead of
you before leaving a good job. Perhaps the best locations for
poultry are near our larger cities. The tourist centers offer par-
ticularly good markets during winter and spring. However, if
you can locate on a direct rail or motor truck line with the
markets, being close to them is not so important. If you buy
any land, be sure you see it first and study its location and its
market connections.
Some dreamer must have told you we have no poultry
troubles in this state. All regions have them. But we believe
we have less than most states, certainly not more. This we at-
tribute to our light soils and abundance of sunshine.
It was another dreamer who told you about eggs bringing









POULTRY IN FLORIDA


a dollar a dozen in this state. That price was secured occasion-
ally during the boom. But those were abnormal times. Eggs
are bringing only around 25 and 35 cents a dozen now. Last
winter in some instances they went as high as 55 or maybe 60
cents, maybe a little more in exceptional cases. The general egg
market to a large extent governs the price of eggs here. The
world has been brought too close together through the railroad,
highways, airplanes and refrigeration for any particular vicinity
to enjoy dollar-a-dozen egg prices while the rest of the country
gets only 25 or 30 cents.
If you plan to come to Florida to engage in any enterprise,
visit the state first. See for yourself. Pick your own locality.
Familiarize yourself with real estate values before investing. And
more important than anything else, perhaps, is be sure you want
to raise chickens before you leave a proved good thing to do it.
And also be 'sure you have the necessary capital to start and tide
yourself over until your new business is on a paying basis.

REFERENCES
In the writing of this bulletin frequent reference has been
made to the following publications, and frequently passages have
been reproduced, usually with modifications, from them.
Bulletins 38, 45 and 47 of the Florida Agricul-
tural Extension Division.
Final Report of the Third Florida National Egg-
Laying Contest by E. F. Stanton and N. R. Mehrhof,
conducted by the Florida Agricultural Extension Di-
vision.
Farmers' Bulletin No. 1541 of the United States
Department of Agriculture.
Extension Service Bulletin No. 156 of the Iowa
State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.
Bulletin 59 of the Ohio Agricultural Extension
Service.
Bulletin 247 of the Kansas Agricultural Experi-
ment Station.
Informal circulars from the Florida College of
Agriculture reporting the poultry surveys by Frank
Brumley.
Bulletins of the State Marketing Bureau.
Co-operation and most valuable assistance were given liber-
ally by Prof. N. R. Mehrhof, extension poultry specialist, and
Dr. N. W. Sanborn, professor of poultry, of the Florida College
of Agriculture.











POULTRY AND DAIRY FEED
The sub-committee of the Board of Commissioners of
State Institutions and the Institution Superintendents ap-
pointed for the purpose of determining poultry and dairy
feed formulas met at the Florida Farm Colony, Tuesday
August 18, 1931 at 10 A. M. The meeting was called to
order by Dr. J. H. Colson, Chairman. Those present were
Mr. Shuler and Mr. Cox representing the poultry and dairy
department,, respectively, of the Florida State Farm, Mr.
and Mrs. Vason representing the dairy and poultry de-
partment of the Florida State Hospital, Mr. Brumley,
dairyman, and Mr. Cassels, Poultryman, of the Florida
Farm Colony, Mr. Clayton and Mr. Brown of the dairy de-
partment, College of Agriculture, University of Florida,
Dr. N. W. Sanburn of the poultry department, college of
Agriculture, University of Florida, Mr. Murchoff, rep-
representing the Florida National Egg Laying Contest and
Mr. W. C, Thomas, representing the Purchasing Depart-
ment. The matter of formulas for dairy feeds was first
considered by the committee and after discussion between
the institution representatives and the University of Flor-
ida a motion was made that those representing the dairy-
ing departments retire and determine upon a suitable for-
mula for dairy feed. This was done in a few minutes and
the formula as listed below was adopted by the committee
to the complete satisfaction of all present.

DAIRY FEED
Corn M eal ............................... 500
B ran ................................... 600
CS M eal 8% ............................ 500
Oats ................................... 300
Linseed M eal ............................ 100

Total (protein 17%) .................. 2000
The formula as adopted is the one recommended as
best by the College of Agriculture, University of Florida,
after many years trial in their experimental dairy. This
formula is now in use by many dairymen throughout the
State and has been found to be profitable during long
feeding periods, over a number of years.
The same procedure was followed in securing formu-
las for poultry feeds. The following recommended for-
mulas of the College of Agriculture, University of Florida
were adopted by the committee to the complete satisfac-
tion of all poultrymen.








LAYING MASH

W heat Shorts ............................ 400
Yellow Corn Meal ........................ 300
Alfalfa Leaf & Blossom Meal ............. 100
55% Meat Scrap ......................... 100
Powdered Skim Milk ..................... 50
Salt .................................... 5
Sulphur ................................ 5

Total ................................ 960

LAYING SCRATCH

Yellow Corn ............................ 300
W heat ................................. 300
Heavy Oats (or none) ......... .......... 100

Total ..................... .......... 700

GROWING MASH

Laying Mash ............................ 300
W heat Shorts ........................... 100

Total ................................ 400

GROWING SCRATCH

Corn and wheat, twice a day, all they will eat,
cracked at first, but used uncracked whenever
the birds can swallow whole grain.

BABY CHICK STARTER
No formula available. Quantities small. Institu-
tions are at liberty to requisition brand wanted.
The formulas above shown are the ones adopted by
the sub-committee and it is the recommendation of the
sub-committee that same be used throughout all State In-
stitutions.
Respectfully submitted,
Dr. J. H. COLSON, Chairman.
W. C. THOMAS, Secretary.
8-18-31.








POULTRY DEPARTMENT


Our own trials with feeds have led to the following
formulas:

Laying Mash

Wheat Shorts ........ 400 lbs. @ $1.04 CWT $4.16
Yellow Cornmeal ..... 300 lbs. @ 1.74 CWT 5.22
Leafmeal Alfalfa .... 100 Ibs. @ 2.09 CWT 2.09
55% Meat Scrap ...... 100 lbs. @ 2.70 CWT 2.70
Powdered Skim Milk 50 lbs. @ 4.50 CWT 2.25
Salt ................ 5 lbs. @ .90. CWT .05
Sulphur ............. 5 lbs. @ .98 CWT .05

960 lbs. 16.52

This figures $34.42 per ton. On today's market
branded Laying Mash cost $48.00 per ton. A
difference of $13.58 per ton.

Laying Scratch

Yellow Corn ......... 300 lbs. @ $0.80 CWT $2.40
Wheat .............. 300 lbs. @ 1.44 CWT 4.32
Heavy Oats (or none) 100 lbs. @ 1.48 CWT 1.48

700 lbs. $8.20

This figures $23.40 per ton. On today's market
branded Laying Scratch cost $38.00 per ton. A
difference of $14.60 per ton.
In feeding these we drive the hens to eating the mash
by with-holding scratch, so that the mixtures are used up
at about the same time.

Growing Mash

Laying Mash ........ 300 lbs. @ $1.72 CWT $5.16
Wheat Shorts ........ 100 lbs. @ 1.04 CWT 1.04

400 lbs. $6.20

This figures $31.00 per ton. Today's market
price not available.









Growing Scratch


Corn and wheat, twice a day, all they will eat,
cracked at first. but used uncracked whenever the birds
can swallow whole grain.
Baby Chick Starter

No formula available, quantities small. Institutions
are at liberty to requisition brand wanted.
We start our chicks on fresh cracked yellow corn,
home cracked, all the products of the mill going into the
feed hopper, with small amounts of chick grit and oyster
shell. With this corn we use either milk or hard boiled
eggs, usually milk for two weeks and then cooked eggs
for the third week, with growing mash and scratch from
then on till the pullets show signs of beginning to lay.
We use evaporated, canned milk, equal quantity of
water being added. If eggs are used at the start with
baby chicks we cook them 30 minutes, giving daily, at
first, 3 eggs for every 100 chicks, and increasing the eggs
according to increased weight of chicks as they grow.
Our eggs are the infertile ones in our hatching work,
saved and made use of as long as we can get them.
Lawn clippings are used daily from fifth day of age.

DAIRY DEPARTMENT

Quantities Unit Cost Total Cost
Corn Meal ...... 500 lbs. @ $1.00 $5.00
Bran .......... 600 lbs. @ 1.05 6.30
C. S. Meal, 8% 500 lbs. @ 1.00 5.00
Oats .......... 300 lbs. @ 1.60 4.98
Linseed Meal ... 100 lbs. @ 1.94 1.94

(17% Protein) 2,000 lbs. $23.22

This figures $23.22 per ton. On today's market
branded 17% Protein Dairy Feed cost $39.70 per
ton. A difference of $16.48 per ton.




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