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 Title Page
 Outline of Florida state gover...
 Comparative studies
 Constitution of the United...
 Declaration of Independence
 The Confederate Sates of Ameri...














Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Outline of Florida State Government and comparative studies
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014990/00001
 Material Information
Title: Outline of Florida State Government and comparative studies
Series Title: Bulletin. New series
Physical Description: 66 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, T. J ( Thomas Joseph ), b. 1870
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1938
 Subjects
Subject: Comparative government   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by T.J. Brooks.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "April, 1938."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014990
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7384
ltuf - AJQ0042
oclc - 01729987
alephbibnum - 001825992

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Outline of Florida state government
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Comparative studies
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Constitution of the United States
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Declaration of Independence
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    The Confederate Sates of America
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text
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UNIVERSITY
DIA LAN. FLOOR "


BULLETIN No.


3 5 NEW SERIES


APRIL, 1938


Outline of Florida

State Government
AND

Comparative Studies


By T. J. BROOKS
Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture







STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner


-- -


S1









OUTLINE OF FLORIDA STATE GOVERNMENT
By T. J. BROOKS
Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture

A. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
(a) SENATE: Composed of thirty-eight members, elected for four
years-one-half alternating with the other half, by even
and odd numbered districts, biennially.
(b) HOUSE: Composed of ninety-five members, elected biennially by
counties, representation based on legislative reapportion-
ment.
Five largest counties have three representatives each,
18 next largest have two each, all others have one rep-
resentative each.

B. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
(a) SUPREME COURT: Consisting of not less than three, and not
more than six members. Legislature of 1923 placed the
number at six.
(a') Method of Selection: Elective, six-year term for each and
elected at alternating elections.
(b1) Jurisdiction:
(a') Original, may issue
1-Writs of mandamus;
2-Writs of certiorari;
n--Writs of prohibition;
4-Writs of quo warrant;
5-Writs of habeas corpus;
6-All writs necessary or proper to the complete
exercise of its jurisdiction;
7-Any member has power to issue writs of habeas
corpus upon petition or on behalf of any person
held in actual custody, and may make such
writs returnable before him .or the full bench,
or any Justice thereof, or before any Circuit
Judge.
(b') Appellate in
1-All cases of law and equity originating in Cir-
cuit Courts;
2-Appeals from Circuit Courts in cases arising
before Judges of the County Courts in matters
pertaining to their -probate jurisdiction; the
management of estates of infants;
3-Cases of conviction of felony in the Criminal
Courts;
4-All criminal cases originating in the Circuit
Courts.









JUSTICES
Glen Terrell.
W. H. Ellis.
J. B. Whitfield.
Rivers H. Buford.
Roy H. Chapman.
Armstead Brown.
(b) CIRCUIT COURTS; CIRCUIT JUDGES:
(a') Method of Selection: Appointed by the Governor and
confirmed by the Senate, for a period of six years. By
custom they are nominated in primaries.
(b1) Jurisdiction:
(a') Original and exclusive in
1-All cases in equity;
2-All cases of law not cognizable by inferior
courts;
3-All cases involving the legality of tax assess-
ment or toll;
4-Action of ejectment;
5-All actions involving the titles or boundaries of
real estate;
6-All criminal cases not cognizable by the inferior
courts.
(b2) Appellate
1-Actions of forcible entry and unlawful detainer
-and such other as the Legislature may pro-
vide.
2-Issuing writs of mandamus, injunction, quo
warrant, certiorari, prohibition, habeas cor-
pus, and all writs, etc.
(c') Direct Appellate in
1-All civil and criminal cases arising in the county
courts or before the County Judge in counties
not having county courts;
2-All misdemeanors tried in criminal courts;
3-Judgments and sentences of Mayor's Court;
4-All cases arising before Justices of the Peace in
counties where there are no county courts;
(d2) Review of Supervisory
1-Matters arising before County Judges pertain-
ing to their probate jurisdiction, or to the es-
tates and interests of minors;
2-Such other matters as the Legislature may pre-
scribe.









(SENATE BILL NO. 4)
AN ACT Redistricting the State of Florida into Judicial Circuits, and
providing for the appointment of Circuit Judges, and repealing ex-
isting laws in conflict with the provisions of this Act.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF
FLORIDA:
Section 1. That there shall be Fifteen Judicial Circuits in this State,
of not less than 50,000 inhabitants according to the State census of
1935, and the county or counties composing each and the number of
Circuit Judges therein, respectively, shall be as follows:


JUDICIAL CIRCUITS

OF THE

STATE OF FLORIDA


First Circuit: Composed of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa and
Walton, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Second Circuit: Composed of Franklin, Gadsden, Leon, Wakulla,
Jefferson and Liberty, and shall have two Circuit Judges, but one of
whom shall reside in Leon County;
Third Circuit: Composed of Madison, Taylor, LaFayette, Suwannee,
Hamilton, Columbia and Dixie, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Fourth Circuit: Composed of Duval, Clay and Nassau, and shall have
three Circuit Judges in addition to the Circuit Judge of the Circuit
Court of Duval County appointed under the provisions of Section 42,
Article 5, of the Constitution;










Fifth Circuit: Composed of Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Lake, Sum-
ter, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Sixth Circuit: Composed of Pinellas and Pasco, and shall have two
Circuit Judges;
Seventh Circuit: Composed of Volusia, Putnam, St. Johns and
Flagler, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Eighth Circuit: Composed of Alachua, Baker, Gilchrist, Bradford,
Union and Levy, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Ninth Circuit: Composed of Brevard, Orange, Osceola, Seminole,
Indian River, Okeechobee, St. Lucie and Martin, and shall have three
Circuit Judges;
Tenth Circuit: Composed of Polk, Hardee and Highlands, and shall
have two Circuit Judges;
Eleventh Circuit: Composed of Dade and Monroe, and shall have
four Circuit Judges;
Twelfth Circuit: Composed of Manatee, Sarasota, DeSoto, Char-
lotte, Glades, Lee, Hendry and Collier, and shall have two Circuit
Judges;
Thirteenth Circuit: The Thirteenth Judicial Circuit shall not be
affected by this Act and shall remain as provided under existing law.
Fourteenth Circuit: Composed of Holmes, Washington, Bay, Jack-
son, Calhoun and Gulf, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Fifteenth Circuit: Composed of Broward and Palm Beach, and shall
have two Circuit Judges.
Section 2. That in Circuits composed of two or more counties hav-
ing only two Circuit Judges under the provisions of this Act, both
Judges shall not be residents of the same county, except that in the
Tenth Circuit one Judge shall, and the other Judge may reside in
Polk County; Provided, that in the Seventh Circuit one Judge shall
reside in Volusia County, and one Judge shall reside in one of the
other counties of said Circuit, and that in the Twelfth Circuit one
Judge shall be appointed from and be an actual bona fide resident of
Lee County, and shall reside in Lee County during the continuance
of his appointment, and in the Ninth Circuit one Judge shall reside in
either Seminole or Brevard County, one Judge shall reside in Orange
or Osceola County and one Judge shall reside in Indian River,
Okeechobee, St. Lucie or Martin County; and that in the Eleventh
Circuit one Judge shall be appointed from and be an actual bona
fide resident of Monroe County, and shall reside in Monroe County
during the continuance of his appointment. Provided, however, the
provisions of this Section shall not apply to the Sixth Judicial Circuit.
Section 3. The Circuit Judges holding office at the time of the rati-
fication at the general election of 1934 of the amendment to Section
45 of Article V of the Florida Constitution, shall severally continue in
office and exercise jurisdiction until their then existing term or terms
of office as Judge or Judges of the Circuits, respectively, in which the
county of their resident may be included.
Section 4. That there shall be at least two regular terms of the
Circuit Court held in each county each year, also any special term or
terms that may be necessary from time to time; Provided that such
regular terms may be held at such time or times as now fixed by law,
or until changed by statute; Provided that in Circuits having more
than one Circuit Judge, at least one of said Judges shall be available
as nearly as possible at all times to hold and conduct hearings in
Chambers.









Section 4-A. That the regular and special terms of court of each
county of said respective circuits may be convened and held as now
provided for by law; providing, however, that regular and special
terms of court may be held and be in session in the same or different
counties in such circuits simultaneously. Separate minutes of each
term, whether regular or special, shall be kept by the Clerk of each
court of such circuits.
Section 5. No civil or criminal cases, suits in equity, actions at law,
statutory or otherwise; and no writs, process, pleading, motion, infor-
mation, presentment, indictment, or other proceedings, order, finding,
decree, judgment or sentence, shall abate, be quashed, set aside, re-
versed, qualified, dismissed, defeated, or held to be in error because
of the changes in any Circuit or Circuits, or Judge or Judges, State
attorneys or other prosecuting officers by reason of any provision or
provisions of this Act.
Section 5-A. Provided, however, that this Act shall not be con-
strued as in anywise affecting or abolishing any other Courts or Judge-
ships in any county by reason of any county or counties being added
to or removed from any Circuit; but all such other or inferior Courts
or Judgeships shall continue in full force and effect as now constituted
and until changed by law.
Section 6. This Act and all appointments under this Act shall take
effect sixty days after the same becomes a law, as provided under the
said Amendment of Section 45 of Article V, Constitution of Florida;
Provided that no Circuit Judge shall be appointed to any vacancy or
to any term of office except as authorized under the provisions of said
Section 45 of Article V of the Constitution and this Act.
Section 7. All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith be and
the same are hereby repealed.
Approved May 31, 1935.
Filed in office Secretary of State May 31, 1935.


(c) CRIMINAL COURTS; JUDGES:
(a') Method of Selection: Appointed by Governor for four
years. These courts are created by the Legislature.
County Judges' Courts in such counties have no juris-
diction on criminal cases and no prosecuting attorney.

(b') Jurisdiction: In all criminal cases, not capital, which
shall arise in said counties respectively.
Escambia
(Court of Record, with Criminal Jurisdiction)
Dade
Duval
Hillsborough
Monroe
Orange
Palm Beach
Polk
7










CIVIL COURT OF RECORD
Duval
Dade

JUDGES OF THE COURT OF CRIMES
Dade County only.
(d) CIVIL COURT OF RECORD; JUDGES:
(a') Method of Selection: Appointed by the Governor and
confirmed by the Senate-term four years.
(b') Jurisdiction: Original and exclusive in
(a2) All cases at law including writs of attachment and
garnishment in value under $1,500.
(b2) Has not jurisdiction in cases of equity, or cases
involving the legality of a tax, assessment, a toll,
or of action of ejectment, or of action involving
the title or boundaries of real estate or in cases in-
volving less than $500.
(e) COUNTY COURTS:
(a') Method or Organization: By legislative enactment.
(bW) Jurisdiction:
(a') Original in
1-All cases at law in which the demand or value
shall not exceed $500;
2-Proceedings relating to forcible entry;
3-Unlawful detention of lands and tenements;
4-Misdemeanors.
(b2) Appellate in
1-Cases arising in the courts of Justices of the
Peace.
Counties which have County Courts are: Broward, DeSoto, Gadsden,
Glades, Indian River, Jefferson, Lee, Manatee, Martin, Okeechobee,
Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Sarasota, Seminole and St. Lucie. See list
of County Officers for Judges and Attorneys.
(f) COUNTY JUDGE:
(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four years. Also
Judge County Court where established.
(b') Jurisdiction:
(a2) Original in
1-All cases in which the value of property in-
volved shall not exceed $100;
2-Proceedings relating to forcible entry or un-
lawful detention of lands and tenements;
3-Such criminal cases as the Legislature may
prescribe;
4-Settlement of estates of decedents and minors;
5-Probate wills;
6-Grant letters testamentary and of administra-
tion and guardianship;
8









7-The power of committing magistrate;
8-Issue all licenses required by law to be issued
in the county.
(g) JUSTICES OF THE PEACE:
(a1) Method of Selection: Elected every four years.
(b1) Jurisdiction:
(a') Original only:
1-Case in which the value of property involved
does not exceed $100;
2-Criminal cases excepting felonies as may be
prescribed by law;
3-Issue process for the arrest of all persons
charged with felonies and misdemeanors not
within his jurisdiction to try, and make the
same returnable before himself, or the County
Judge for examination, commitment, or bail of
the accused.

JUVENILE COURTS
Brevard
Dade
Duval
Hillsborough
Monroe
Orange
Pinellas

C. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
(a) THE GOVERNOR-CHIEF MAGISTRATE:
Fred P. Cone.
(a1) How Chosen: By election every four years; not eligible
for two terms in succession.
(b') Power and Duties:
1-Commander-in-Chief of the military forces of the
State except when they are called into the Federal
service;
2-Executes the laws of the State and recommends meas-
ures to the Legislature;
3-May demand of the Supreme Court interpretation of
provisions of the State Constitution upon any ques-
tion affecting his executive powers;
4-Signs all grants and commissions;
5-Has power to suspend officers who are not liable to
impeachment;
6-Has veto power of bills passed by the Legislature or
to disapprove any items in bills making appropria-
tions. Veto may be overruled by a two-thirds vote
of members present in each house.
Member of the following Boards and Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-Board of Internal Improvement;









4-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District;
5-State Pension Board;
6-Board of Pardons;
7-Tax Equalization Board;
8-Sinking Fund Commission;
9-Budget Commission;
10-Text Book Commission.

(b) THE OFFICE OF SECRETARY OF STATE:
R. A. Gray.
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and
Commissions:
1-State Canvassing Board;
2-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
3-State Board of Pardons;
4-State Board of Education;
5-Budget Commission;
6-Text Book Commission;
7-Conservation Commission;
8-Industrial Commission;
9-State Board of Vocational Education.
(c') Divisions of his Office: Has charge of capitol and grounds.
1-Division of Corporations;
2-Division of Elections and Commissions;
3-Division of Recording and Filing.
(d') Official Custodian of Capitol and Grounds.
1-The Great Seal;
2-Acts of the Legislature.
(c) THE OFFICE OF ATTORNEY GENERAL:
George Couper Gibbs
(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and
Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-State Board of Pardons;
4-Board of Tax Equalization;
5-Foreign Investment Board;
6-Board of Appraisers of Securities;
7-Board of Railroad Property Assessors;
8-Board of Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund;
9-State Canvassing Board;
10-Budget Commission.
(c') Legal Advisor of:
1-The Governor;
2-The Cabinet Officers;
3-State Board of Health;
4-State Highway Board;
5-State Hotel Commission;
6-State Conservation Commission;









7-State Wild Life Commission.
8-State Plant Board;
9-State Board of Control;
10-Board of Tax Equalization;
11-Is the State Supreme Court Reporter.

(d) THE OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER:
J. M. Lee.
(a1) Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b1) Functions: Member of the following Boards and Com-
missions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-Board of Pardons;
3-State Canvassing Board;
4-Board of Finance;
5-Pension Board;
6-Railroad Assessment Board;
7-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District;
8-Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement
Fund;
9-Budget Commission;
10-Board of Appraisers of Securities;
11-State Text Book Commission;
12-Florida Securities Commission.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of Accounts;
2-Division of Supervisor of State Banks;
3-Division of Tax Redemption;
4-Division of Pensions;
5-Division of Railroad Assessments;
6-Division of County Depositories;
7-Division of the "Blue Sky" Law;
8-Division of Bank Receivership.

(e) THE OFFICE OF TREASURER:
W. V. Knott.
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and
Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District;
4-Board of Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund;
5-Board of Pensions;
6-Board of Tax Equalization;
7-State Text Book Commission;
8-Florida Securities Commission;










9-Ex-Officio Insurance Commissioner;
10-Budget Commission;
11-Board of Administration.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of Accounts;
2-Division of Insurance.

(f) THE OFFICE OF STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC
INSTRUCTION:
Colin English.
(a1) Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and
Commissions:
1-State Board of Education;
2-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
3-State Vocational Educational Board;
4-State Text Book Commission;
5-Budget Commission.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Joe Hall-Chief Clerk and Certificate Clerk;
2-Alice Chambers-Secretary;
3-M. W. Carothers-State Director of Instruction;
4-R. M. Evans-State Director of School Finance;
5-Claud M. Andrews-State Supervisor of Agricultural
Education;
6- State Supervisor of Trade and Industrial
Education;
7-Boletha Frojen-State Supervisor of Home Eco-
nomics Education;
8-D. E. Williams-State Agent for Negro Rural
Schools;
9-J. L. Graham-Director of Division of Schoolhouse
Planning and Construction;
10-J. A. Stripling-Draftsman, Division of Schoolhouse
Planning and Construction.

(g) THE OFFICE OF COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE:
Nathan Mayo.
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b1) Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and
Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-Board of Pardons;
3-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District;
4-Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund;
12








5-State Text Book Commission;
6-Budget Commission;
7-State Marketing Board;
8-Milk Control Board.
(c1) Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of Agriculture and Immigration; also con-
ducts Census Bureau, Enumeration of State Re-
sources, and State Advertising;
2-Division of Pure Food and Drugs, Stock, Feed, Fer-
tilizer, Citrus Fruits, Milk, Gasoline and Oil In-
spection;
3-Division of Land;
4-Division of Field Notes;
5-Division of Prison;
6-Division of Chemistry;
7-Division of State Marketing Bureau;
8-Division of Citrus Fruit Inspection;
9-Division of State Marketing Board.

BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS

BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF STATE INSTITUTIONS: This
Board is provided for in the Constitution and is composed of the
Governor and the cabinet. It has charge of the eleemosynary insti-
tutions of the State-the Industrial School for Boys, Industrial
School for Girls, State Asylum, State Farm and Florida Farm Col-
ony-lets contracts for State printing and makes text book con-
tracts, supervises State buildings and lets contracts for improve-
ments.
BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF EVERGLADES DRAINAGE
DISTRICT: Composed of the Governor, Attorney General, Comp-
troller and Commissioner of Agriculture. It is a governing board
which has charge of the drainage projects and the general work
of reclaiming the Everglades.
SINKING FUND COMMISSION: Composed of the Governor, Secre-
tary of State, Attorney General, Treasurer and Superintendent of
Public Instruction. Administers moneys received by the State
banks as interest on money on deposit, for retiring the State debt.
TRUSTEES OF THE INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT FUND: They ad-
minister the disposition of State lands and the proceeds thereof.
They are the Governor, Attorney General, Comptroller, Treasurer,
and Commissioner of Agriculture.

STATE PENSION BOARD: Passes on all applications for pensions.
Composed of the Governor, Comptroller and Treasurer.
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH: Composed of four members appointed
by the Governor. Its duty is to administer laws on sanitation and
health.









STATE VETERINARIAN-under State Board of Health. His func-
tion is to direct the work of eradication of the cattle tick, tubercu-
losis and hog cholera.
STATE PLANT BOARD: The personnel is the same as that of the
State Board of Control. Its duty is to administer the law on plant
disease and the shipping of plants.
FOREIGN INVESTMENT BOARD: Composed of the Treasurer, the
Attorney General and the Comptroller. Administers laws on foreign
corporations doing business in the State.
BUDGET COMMISSION: Composed of the Governor, Comptroller,
Treasurer, Attorney General, Secretary of State, Commissioner of
Agriculture and State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION: This Board is also established by
the Constitution. It is composed of the Governor, Attorney General,
Treasurer, Secretary of State, and State Superintendent of Public
Instruction. It has charge of the State School Fund, and collabora-
tive supervision over State Colleges and the University with the
Board of Control. It has the power of veto over acts of the Board
of Control in the appointment bf teachers and the setting of sal-
aries. It may remove subordinate officers.
STATE CANVASSING BOARD: Composed of Secretary of State, At-
torney General and Treasurer. Canvasses and reports on all election
returns.
STATE PENSION BOARD: Passes on all applications for pensions.
Composed of the Governor, Comptroller and Treasurer.
STATE BOARD OF PARDONS: This is another Board created by the
Constitution. It is composed of the Governor, Attorney General
Comptroller, Commissioner of Agriculture and Secretary of State
It passes on all questions of pardons.
STATE BOARD OF CONTROL: This statutory Board was created
in 1905 when the Legislature undertook to consolidate the institu-
tions of higher education. It supervises the expenditures for the
Institutions of Higher Learning and makes recommendations to
the Legislature concerning them. The personnel is appointed by
the Governor-five in number, selected from different sections o:
the State, who serve without pay.
STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT: Composed of five Commission
ers, who are appointed by the Governor, one from each Congres
sional District and one from the State-at-large. It directs the con
struction of State highways.
STATE BOARD OF DENTAL EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF PHARMACY.
STATE BOARD OF ACCOUNTANCY.
STATE BOARD OF MEDICAL EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF LAW EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF PLUMBING COMMISSIONERS.
STATE BOARD OF ARCHITECTURE.
STATE BOARD OF VETERINARY EXAMINERS.
STATE RACING COMMISSION.








STATE BOARD OF CHIROPRACTICS.
STATE RAILROAD COMMISSION.
STATE BOARD OF OPTOMETRY.
STATE BOARD OF OSTEOPATHIC EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF EMBALMING.
STATE BOARD OF ENGINEERING EXAMINERS.
STATE SCHOOL BOOK COMMISSION.
STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION:
Wild Life, Shell and Salt Water Fish Commission.
State Geologist.
Hotel Commissioner.
State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
ADJUTANT GENERAL (Appointed by the Governor and holds office
at his pleasure, by provision of the Constitution; by Statute of
1921 the appointment is by advice and consent of the Senate).
STATE RAILROAD ASSESSMENT BOARD.
STATE REALTY BOARD.
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION BOARD.
BOARD OF EX-CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS HOME.
BUREAU OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION AND IDENTIFICA-
TION.
STATE LABOR INSPECTOR.
SUPERVISING INSPECTOR OF NAVAL STORES.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU:
(The Marketing Commissioner is nominated by the Commissioner
of Agriculture and commissioned by the Governor.)-Function:
(See Report of that Office).
STATE MARKETING BOARD:
Has charge of Farm Warehouses.
INSPECTOR OF AIRCRAFT.
CHILD WELFARE COMMISSION.
MOTOR VEHICLE COMMISSION.
AUDITING COMMISSION.
FORESTRY COMMISSION.
LIBRARY COMMISSION.
MILK CONTROL BOARD.
COMMISSION FOR PROMOTION OF UNIFORMITY OF LEGISLA-
TION IN U. S.
STATE CONSTITUTIONAL, MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION.
DADE MEMORIAL COMMISSION.
JUDAH P. BENJAMIN MEMORIAL COMMISSION.
NATIONAL BOARD OF REVIEW, MOTION PICTURES.
15








FLORIDA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND.
FLORID'A CRIPPLED CHILDREN'S COMMISSION.
EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK COMMISSION.
STEVEN FOSTER MEMORIAL.
CROSS STATE CANAL COMMISSION.
(HOUSE BILL NO. 267)
AN ACT dividing the State of Florida into five (5) Congressional
Districts and prescribing and setting forth the territorial limits and
boundaries of each district.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF
FLORIDA:


CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS

OF THE

STATE OF FLORIDA


SECTION 1. That the State of Florida be and the same is hereby
divided into Five (5) Congressional Districts, same to be numbered
and designated as District Number One, District Number Two, Dis-
trict Number Three, District Number Four, District Number Five.
SECTION 2. The Counties of Charlotte, DeSoto, Glades, Lee,
Hendry, Pasco, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas,
Polk, Hernando, and Sarasota shall constitute and compose the First
Congressional District.









SECTION 3. The Counties of Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Clay,
Columbia, Dixie, Duval, Gilchrist, Hamilton, LaFayette, Levy, Nassau,
Suwannee, Madison, Taylor, and Union shall constitute and compose
the Second Congressional District.
SECTION 4. The Counties of Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, Franklin,
Gadsden, Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Okaloosa,
Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Walton and Washington shall constitute and
compose the Third Congressional District.
SECTION 5. The Counties of Broward, Collier, Dade, Indian River,
Martin, Monroe, Okeechobee, Palm Beach and St. Lucie shall consti-
tute and compose the Fourth Congressional District.
SECTION 6. The Counties of Brevard, Citrus, Flagler, Lake,
Marion, Orange Osceola, Putnam, Seminole, Sumter, St. Johns and
Volusia shall constitute and compose the Fifth Congressional District.
SECTION 7. That when any new counties are created, such new
counties shall compose a part of the Congressional District out of
which the territory for such new county is located.
SECTION 8. That all laws or parts of laws in conflict herewith are
hereby expressly repealed.
SECTION 9. This Act shall take effect at the expiration of the
terms of office of the Congressmen now serving from this State, pro-
vided that the general election to be held 1936 a Congressman shall
be elected from each district as by this Act created.
Approved May 28, 1935.
Filed in Office Secretary of State May 29, 1935.











COMPARATIVE STUDIES

By T. J. BROOKS

COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENTS

(11) Definition: A study of the similarities and contrasts
in the structure and administration of governments.

AS TO KINDS
(21) Explication
(12) Monarchies
(14) Absolute
(21) Limited
(33) Titular
(22) Republics
(13) Constitutional
(21) Non-Constitutional
(31) Socialistic

AS TO STRUCTURE
(32) Despotic Monarchies
(11) Afghanistan
(21) Bhutan
(32) Hejaz
(41) Moroco
(51) Nepal
(63) Oman
(42) Constitutional Monarchies
(13) Belgium
(23) Bulgaria
(38) Denmark
(43) Egypt
(53) Great Britain
England 0
Scotland
Ireland and Wales
Canada
Australia
New Zealand
Union of South Africa
India
(62) Greece
(73) Iraq
(83) Italy
(92) Japan
(103) Jugoslavia
(113) Netherlands
(123) Norway
(138) Persia
(14s) Roumania
(151) Siam
(16s) Sweden
(52) Federated Republics
(13) Argentina
(23) Brazil
(3-) Germany
(41) Mexico
(53) Russia
Soviet Union
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Georgia
Ukrania
White Russia
(6V) Spain
(71) Switzerland

18










(62) Centralized Republics
(12) Albania
(23) Austria
(33) Bolivia
(43) Chili
(51) China
(63) Columbia
(73) Cuba
(83) Czecho-Slovakia
(93) Ecuador
(103) Esthonia
(113) Finland
(123) France
(13s) Guatemala
(14a) Haiti
(153) Honduras
(163) Latvia
(173) Liberia
(183) Lithuania
(193) Nicaragua
(203) Panama
(213) Peru
(223) Poland
(233) Portugal
(243) San Salvador
(258) Santo Domingo
(268) San Marino
(273) Turkey
(28') Uruguay
(293) Paraguay
(303) Venezuela
(72) Un-centralized Republic
(18) The United States of America

CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHIES

AFGHANISTAN
CAPITAL: Kabul
AREA: 245,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 10,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Constitutional Monarchy
(11) Executive Branch
King
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, appointed by King
(22) Lower Chamber, Assembly, elective
(31) Judicial Department

ALBANIA
CAPITAL: Tirane
AREA: 10,629 Square Miles
+ POPULATION: 1,003,007
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy, Limited
(11) Executive Branch
(12) King
(22) Council of Ministers
(21) Legislative Branch
Assembly, indirectly elected
(S3) Judicial Department

ALGERIA
CAPITAL: Alger (Algiers)
AREA: 847,818 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,553.451
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative Colonial
Note: Northern Algeria considered as three French Departments
(Provinces)
(11) Executive Branch, Local
Governor-General










(21) Legislative Branch
Each department is represented in the French Na-
tional Assembly at Paris by one Senator and three
Deputies.
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Southern Algeria is under military government.

BELGIUM
CAPITAL: Brussels
AREA: 11,755 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8,000,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Representative Hereditary Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
King
Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
Upper Chamber, Senate, 159
Lower Chamber, Deputies, 187
(31) Judicial Department

BULGARIA
CAPITAL: Sofia
AREA: 40,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 5,500,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
King
(21) Legislative Department
Single Chamber, the Sobrange, 227 members
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Constitution suspended 1934 by dictatorial decree.

DENMARK
CAPITAL: Copenhagen
AREA: 16,568 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,600,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
King
Cabinet
Premier
(21) Legislative Department (Rigsdag)
Upper Chamber, Landsting, 76
Lower Chamber, Folketing, 149
(31) Judicial Department

EGYPT
CAPITAL: Cairo
AREA: 383,000 Square Miles
SETTLED AREA: 13,600 Square Miles
POPULATION: 14,300,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Branch of Government
(I) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 100
(22) Lower Chamber, 150
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Since 1936, Constitution functions under British protection.

ESTONIA
CAPITAL: Tallinn
AREA: 18,354 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,126,413
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary
Note: After two years of a government by dictatorship a plebis-
cite in 1936 reestablished popular representative govern-
ment.












GREAT BRITAIN
CAPITAL: London
AREA: 94,277 Square Miles
POPULATION: 45,000,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Limited Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King-Titular
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier Minister
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, House of Lords, 168
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Commons, 615
For five year term, subject at all times to dissolution
of Parliament by a vote against the program of the
party in power-when a new election is ordered.
(31) Judicial Department: It does not have the right to declare
Acts of Parliament "Unconstitutional." England
has no written constitution but she has a tradi-
tional constitution well defined by custom and
court decisions.

SUBDIVISIONS OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
(Irish Free State and Scotland are coordinated with Eng-
land in the British Empire, except that Scotland is repre-
sented in English Parliament and Ireland has its own
Parliament.)
IRISH FREE STATE (Eire)
CAPITAL: Dublin
AREA: 26,601 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor General-appointed by England
(22) Executive Council-appointed by the Executive
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament or Oireachtas
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, or Senad Eireann, 60
(22) Lower Chamber, Chamber of Deputies, or Dail
Eireann, 153
(31) Judicial Department
CANADA
CAPITAL: Ottawa
AREA: 3,690,043 Square Miles
POPULATION: 10,500,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Provincial
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor-General-appointed by England
(22) Premier Minister-elected
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 96
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Commons, 245
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Each of the nine Canadian Provinces have a separate parlia-
ment enjoying considerable local autonomy.
AUSTRALIA
CAPITAL: Canberra
AREA: 2,974,581 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,500,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: A Dependency-Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor-General-appointed by England
(22) Cabinet
(32) Prime Minister
(21) Legislative Department, Federal Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 36
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 74
(31) Judicial Department

21












NEW ZEALAND
CAPITAL: Wellington
AREA: 104,015 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,500,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: English Dependency
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor-General
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department-Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Legislative Council, 30
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 80
(31) Judicial Department

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
CAPITAL: Pretoria (seat of administration)
Capetown (seat of legislature)
AREA: 472,347 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8,200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: English Dependency
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor-General
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 40
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 150
(31) Judicial Department

INDIA
CAPITALS: Winter: New Delhi; Summer: Simla
AREA: 1,805,332 Square Miles
POPULATION: 351,450,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: An English Dependency of 1,094,300
Square Miles and population of 270,612,000. The
remainder being "Indian States."
(11) Executive Department
(12) Ostensibly the King of England
(22) Viceroy or Governor-General
(32) The Cabinet
(42) A Premier
(21) Legislative Branch: Legislature
(12) Upper Chamber, Council of State, 60
(22) Lower Chamber, Legislative Assembly, 146
(31) Judicial Department

ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN
CAPITAL: Khartoum
AREA: 1,008,100 Square Miles
POPULATION: 5,687,835
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Anglo-Egyptian Condominium
(11) Executive Department
The affairs of the Dependency are administered by a
Governor-General appointed by Egypt with the as-
sent of Great Britain

BALUCHISTAN
CAPITAL: Quetta
AREA: 130,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 800,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Baluchistan
(11) Executive Department
Chief Commissioner, under viceroy of India
(21) Judicial Department
Note: The native Baluchistan States of Khelat and Las Bela are
controlled by a British appointed Political Agent.











BRITISH GUIANA
CAPITAL: Georgetown
AREA: 89,480 Square Miles
POPULATION: 313,619
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Colonial
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor, appointed by Crown
(22) Executive Council, appointed by Crown
(21) Legislative Department
Council, semi-elective
(31) Judicial Department

CEYLON
CAPITAL: Colombo
AREA: 25,322 Square Miles
POPULATION: 5,415,500
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Colonial
(11) Executive Department
Governor
(21) Legislative Department
State Council of 61 members
(31) Judicial Department

CYPRUS
CAPITAL: Nicosia
AREA: 3,584 Square Miles
POPULATION: 330,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Colonial
(11) Executive Branch
(12) Governor
(22) Executive Council
(21) Legislative Branch
Legislative Council, semi-elective
(31) Judicial Department

FEDERATED MALAY STATES
CAPITAL: Kuala-Lumpur
AREA: 27,506 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,713,096
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Protectorate under Native Rulers
Rulers
Note: The Federation is made up of four states, under a British-
supervised Federal Council. Local government in each of the
states is under a native ruler assisted by a British Resident.

NEWFOUNDLAND
CAPITAL: St. John's
AREA: 42,734 Square Miles
POPULATION: 282,039
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Colonial
(11) Executive and Legislative Departments, Commission
Six Commissioners, three each from Britain and New-
foundland

PALESTINE
CAPITAL: Jerusalem
AREA: 10,155 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,035,154
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Mandate
(11) Executive Department
(12) High Commissioner
(22) Executive Council
(21) Legislative Department
Legislative Council; includes representatives of prin-
cipal religious communities, each to enjoy com-
plete autonomy and freedom in their religious, cul-
tural and communal affairs.












IRELAND, NORTHERN
CAPITAL: Belfast
AREA: 5,237 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,280,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Branch
(12) Governor-General
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch (autonomous) Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 26
(22) Lower Chamber, Commons, 52
(31) Judicial Department
Note: The North of Ireland also elects 13 representatives to send
to the British House of Commons.

GREECE
CAPITAL: Athens
AREA: 49,912 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,300.000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Branch
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, 120
(22) Lower Chamber, 258
(31) Judicial Department
Note: The monarchial constitution abolished in 1936 and replaced
by a Fascist Distatorship under approval of the King.

HUNGRY
CAPITAL: Budapest
AREA: 35,875 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8,837,349
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy, Constitutional
(11) Executive Branch
(12) Regent (During Vacancy of Throne)
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Branch: Legislature
(12) Upper Chamber, elected and appointed from special
groups, 252
(22) Lower Chamber, House-elective, 245
(31) Judicial Department

ICELAND
CAPITAL: Reykjavik
AREA: 39,709 Square Miles
POPULATION: 111,555
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy, Limited
(11) Executive Branch
King (King of Denmark)
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
One body of 49 members, the Althing, sharing power
with King
(31) Judicial Department

IRAQ (Mesopotamia)
CAPITAL: Baghdad
AREA: 143,240 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,300,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy, Limited
(11) Executive Branch
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier

24











(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 20
(22) Lower Chamber, House, 107
(31) Judicial Department

ITALY
CAPITAL: Rome
AREA: 119,714 Square Miles
POPULATION: 42,200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy-Corporative
(11) Executive Department
(12) King-Titular
(22) Cabinet
(32) Facist Grand Council
(42) Premier-Virtual dictator
(21) The Legislative and Executive Branches are interlocked
in an Upper and Lower Chamber-the Lower being
selected by Grand Council. Membership in these
bodies is largely a matter of holding certain offices
in the National Government. Recently modified by
the Premier under stress of war-The State as-
sumed control of large business and the legislative
branch dissolved. The upper chamber or Senate has
374 members and the Chamber of Deputies, or
lower body, has 400 members.
(31) Judicial Department

ITALIAN EAST AFRICA
(Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland)
CAPITAL: Ethiopia, Asmara
Italian Somaliland, Mogadiscio
AREA: Ethiopia, 45,783 Square Miles
Italian Somaliland, 190,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: Ethiopia, 621,766
Italian Somaliland, 1,210,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Italian Colonial
(11) Executive Department (Victor Emanuel III, Emperor)
Governor-General
(21) Judicial Department
Note: Prior to the Italian conquest and annexation of this terri-
tory as a colonial possession in 1936, Ethiopia was a Mon-
archy. From 1931 to 1936 the government was a limited
monarchy with two nominated houses of Parliament to ad-
vise with the Emperor. Prior to 1931, the Monarchial form
was absolute.

JAPAN
CAPITAL: Tokyo
AREA: 265,129 Square Miles
POPULATION: Including Korea, 91,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) Emperor
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Imperial Diet
(12) Upper Chamber, House of Peers, 403
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 466
(31) Judicial Department

KOREA (Chosen)
CAPITAL: Keijo (Seoul)
AREA: 85,206 Square Miles
POPULATION: 20,599,876
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Considered an integral part of Japan
(11) Executive Department
Governor-General with extensive powers











MANCHUKUO
CAPITAL: Hsinking
AREA: 446,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 33,700,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
Note: The constitution of 1934 provided for a monarchial set-up
with an Emperor, Minister and Cabinet. Executive power,
however, is wielded by Tokio through the resident Jap-
anese ambassador.

MONGOLIA
CAPITAL: Ulan Bator Khoto (Urga)
AREA: 1,875,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,160,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Tribal Chieftain Autonomy, Soviet in-
fluence
Note: The Chinese provinces of Ningsia, Suiyuan and Chahar are
partly under Japanese and partly under native Mongol con-
trol. The province of Jehol and parts of Hsingan were in-
cluded within the new Manchukuoan State.

YUGOSLAVIA
CAPITAL: Belgrade
AREA: 96,134 Square Miles
POPULATION: 14,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 76
(22) Lower Chamber, Skupshtine, 305
(31) Judicial Department

NETHERLANDS
CAPITAL: Amsterdam
SEAT OF GOVERNMENT: The Hague
AREA: 12,593 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) Queen
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department, States-General
(12) Upper Chamber, 50
(22) Lower Chamber, 100
(31) Judicial Department

NETHERLAND INDIA (Dutch East Indies)
CAPITAL: Batavia
AREA: 733,642 Square Miles
POPULATION: 60,731,025
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Colonial
(11) Executive Branch
Governor-General, nominated by Queen of Holland
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, Advisory Council, 5 nominated by
the Queen
(22) Lower Chamber, Assembly (Volksraad) partially
elected, 60
(31) Judicial Department

NORWAY
CAPITAL: Oslo (name changed from Christiana)
AREA: 125,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy











(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament, or Storting
Composed of one body of 150
(31) Judicial Department

PERSIA (Iran)
CAPITAL: Teheren
AREA: 628,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 10,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) Crowned Ruler or Shah
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament of 136 members
Called Medjiliss or National Assembly
(31) Judicial Department
RUMANIA
CAPITAL: Bucharest
AREA: 122,282 Square Miles
POPULATION: 18,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 250
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 387
(31) Judicial Department

SIAM
CAPITAL: Bangkok
AREA: 200,148 Square Miles
POPULATION: 11,500,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Supreme Council
(22) Privy Council
(31) Judicial Department
SWEDEN
CAPITAL: Stockholm
AREA: 173,154 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Council of State
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Diet or Riksdag
(12) Upper Chamber, 150
(22) Lower Chamber, 230
(31) Judicial Department

REPUBLICS

ARGENTINA
CAPITAL: Buenos Aires
AREA: 1,153,119 Square Miles
POPULATION: 11,500,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Republic











(11) Executive Department: Federal
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 30
Elected for 9 years
Renewed by one-third a year
Elected by Provincial Legislatures
(22) Lower Chamber, 158
Four year term
Renewed by halves every two years
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Governors of Provinces, elected by local suffrage, exercise
extensive provincial power.

BRAZIL
CAPITAL: Rio de Janeiro
AREA: 3,285,318 Square Miles
POPULATION: 40,500,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(I1) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 42
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 300
(31) Judicial Department
Note: State governments exercise a large degree of autonomy.

COSTA RICA
CAPITAL: San Jose
AREA: 23,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 539,654
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch, Parliamentary
A single Body, Congress, elected, 43
(31) Judicial Department

GERMANY
CAPITAL: Berlin
AREA: 181,714 Square Miles
POPULATION: 64,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Nazi Dictatorship
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Chancellor, or Fuhrer-Virtual Dictator
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
Consisting of one body (Reichstag) of 577 mem-
bers. Retains advisory powers only, Rights of
former Federal States abolished.
(31) Judicial Department

HAITI
CAPITAL: Port-au-Prince
AREA: 10,204 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,550,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, appointed by President, 21
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, elected, 37
(31) Judicial Department










MEXICO
CAPITAL: Mexico City
AREA: 767,198 Square Miles
POPULATION: 16,500,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 58
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 170
(31) Judicial Department

PANAMA
CAPITAL: Panama
AREA: 90,540 Square Miles
POPULATION: 276,366
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch, National Assembly
A one-house body with 32 elected members
(31) Judicial Department

RUSSIA
CAPITAL: Moscow
AREA: 8,187,253 Square Miles
POPULATION: 162,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Socialistic-Representative
(11) Executive Branch*
(12) President of Central Executive Committee and other
committees
(22) Cabinet or Council of Peoples' Comissars
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Commission: Supreme Council or Verkhovny Soviet
(22) Soviet Congress
(13) Council of the Union, Soviet Soyuza, 472
(23) Council of Nationalists, Soviet Natsionalnos-
tei, 138
(31) Judicial Department
* The Secretary of the Communist Party is virtual dictator-Stalin
(Bolsheviki means "majority"; Soviet means "group")

SPAIN
CAPITAL: Madrid
AREA: 190,050 Square Miles
POPULATION: 23.000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(Cortes) Consisting of one body of 455 members
(31) Judicial Department

SWITZERLAND
CAPITAL: Berne
AREA: 15,940 Square Miles
POPULATION: 4,100,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Federal Council
(32) Chancellor
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Council of States, 44
(22) National Council, 187
(31) Judicial Department











AUSTRIA
CAPITAL: Vienna
AREA: 32,399 Square Miles
POPULATION: 7,000,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) President-4 years
(22) Cabinet
(32) Chancellor
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 50
(22) Lower Chamber, 165
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Now an integral part of the German Reich, under Nazi rule

BOLIVIA
CAPITALS: La Paz and Sucre
AREA: 514,155 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(22) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 16
(22) Lower Chamber, called the Chamber, 70
(31) Judicial Department

CHINA
CAPITAL: Nanking
AREA: 4,278,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 444.653,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) State Council
(22) Chairman and Minister
(21) Legislative
Standing Committees
(31) Judicial: Ministry of Justice and a Supreme Court
Note: Central China and the lower Yantze valley are controlled
from Nanking under dictatorship of the Kuomintang or Na-
tionalist Party. The rich southern provinces of Kwantung
Kwangsi are virtually independent of the Central govern-
ment. Manchuria and Jehol provinces were taken by Japan
in 1931-34. In 1935 Japan moved south of the Great Wall
and took parts of Hopei Province in China proper and Cha-
har in Inner Mongolia from the influence of the Nanking
government. Japan has since been attempting to consolidate
these with Shantung, Shansi and Suiyuan provinces into a
proposed "autonomous" region, and presumably at length
to exercise a protectorate over all China.

CHILE
CAPITAL: Santiago
AREA: 287,890 Square Miles
POPULATION: 4,300,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 45
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 142
(31) Judicial Department

COLUMBIA
CAPITAL: Bogota
AREA: 440,846 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic









(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 56
(22) Lower Chamber, Departmental Assemblies, 118
(31) Judicial Department

CUBA
CAPITAL: Havana
AREA: 4,164 Square Miles
POPULATION, 3,608,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 37
(22) Lower Chamber, 128
(31) Judicial Department

CZECHOSLOVAKIA
CAPITAL: Prague
AREA: 54,207 Square Miles
POPULATION: 14,800,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 150
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 300
(31) Judicial Department

ECUADOR
CAPITAL: Quito
AREA: 116,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,500,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 32
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 56
(31) Judicial Department

FINLAND
CAPITAL: Helsinki
AREA: 150,986 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,700,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: One body-Parliament Diet 300
(31) Judicial Department

FRANCE
CAPITAL: Paris
AREA: 212,659 Square Miles
POPULATION: 42,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier









(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 314
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 615
(31) Judicial Department

FRENCH WEST AFRICA
CAPITAL: Dakar
AREA: 1,443,332 Square Miles
POPULATION: 14,479,836
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: French Territorial, with Colonial Sub-
divisions
(11) Executive Department, Territorial
Governor-General
(21) Legislative Department
Territorial Council
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Individual Colonies within French West Africa are admin-
istered by Lieutenant-Governors.

MADAGASCAR
CAPITAL: Tananarive
AREA: 228,707 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,853,300
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: French Colonial
(11) Executive Department
Governor-General from France

SYRIA
CAPITAL: Beyrouth (Beirut)
AREA: 57,460 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,722,540
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic (French Mandate)
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch
Representative Council
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Except for the control of her foreign relations and certain
other functions, Syria is an independent republic. In 1936
France promised to negotiate a treaty guaranteeing complete
independence.

GUATEMALA
CAPITAL: Guatemala
AREA: 48,290 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,100,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, Council of State, 7
(22) Lower Chamber, National Assembly, 69
(31) Judicial Department

HONDURAS
CAPITAL: Tegucigalpa
AREA: 46,332 Square Miles
POPULATION: 860.000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Congress
Composed of 59 Deputies
(31) Judicial Department

32











LITHUANIA
CAPITAL: Kaunas
AREA: 21,804 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,400,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Branch-One Body of 85 Members
(31) Judicial Department
Note: In 1926 a Nationalist group by a military coup came into
control, and in 1933 adopted Fascist governing principles

NICARAGUA
CAPITAL: Managua
AREA: 51,660 Square Miles
POPULATION: 750,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 24
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 43
(31) Judicial Department

PARAGUAY
CAPITAL: Asuncion
AREA: 61,647 Square Miles
POPULATION: 900,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 20
(22) Lower Chamber, 40
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Following a soldiers' revolt in 1936, the provisional presi-
dent set up a virtual Fascist dictatorship

PERU
CAPITAL: Lima
AREA: 432,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 40
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 120
(31) Judicial Department

POLAND
CAPITAL: Warsaw
AREA: 149,958 Square Miles
POPULATION: 30,700,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 96
(22) Lower Chamber, Diet, 208











(31) Judicial Department
The old Marshal, Dictator Piludski, having come to believe that
Dictator Mussolini's so-called '"Corporative State" represents prog-
ress, introduced its spirit into Poland's new Constitution.

PORTUGAL
CAPITAL: Lisbon
AREA: 35,490 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative, Corporate
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department
A single body, the National Assembly of 90 deputies
(31) Judicial Department
Note: The 1926 dictatorship was placed on a corporative basis by
the 1933 constitution.

TURKEY
CAPITAL: Angora
AREA: 294,416 Square Miles
POPULATION: 14,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Branch: Grand National Assembly consisting
of 317 Members
(31) Judicial Department
Note: In practice, Turkey's government is a dictatorship.

URUGUAY
CAPITAL: Montevideo
AREA: 72,153 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(I1) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Legislature
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 30
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 99
(31) Judicial Department

VENEZUELA
CAPITAL: Caracas
AREA: 393,874 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 40
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies 85
(31) Judicial Department

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
CAPITAL: Washington
AREA: Continental U. S., 3,026,789 Square Miles
Including out-lying possessions, 3,738,395 Square Miles
POPULATION: Continental U. S. 126,000,000
Including out-lying possessions, 138,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic











(11) Administrative Department
(12) President-Elected for four years
(22) Cabinet--Appointed by the President
(13) Secretary of State
(23) Secretary of Treasury
(33) Secretary of War
(4') Attorney General
(53) Secretary of The Navy
(63) Secretary of Interior
(73) Postmaster-General
(83) Secretary of Agriculture
(93) Secretary of Commerce
(103) Secretary of Labor
(21) Legislative Department: Congress
(12) Upper House, 96-Elected for 6 years
(22) Lower House, 435-Elected for 2 years
(31) Supreme Court: May decide the constitutionality of
laws passed by Congress when cases are brought to
Court involving the validity of an Act. Nine Judges,
appointed by the President for life.
(18) Circuit Court of Appeals
(23) District Courts
(3S) Court of Claims
(43) Court of Customs

ALASKA
CAPITAL: Juneau
AREA: 586,400 Square Miles
POPULATION: 59,278
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: United States Territory
(11) Executive Branch
Governor, appointed by U. S. President
(21) Legislative Branch
Legislature with limited powers
(31) Judicial Department

HAWAII
CAPITAL: Honolulu
AREA: 6,406 Square Miles
POPULATION: 368,336
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: United States Territory
(11) Executive Branch
(12) Governor, appointed by U. S. President
(22) Secretary appointed by U. S. President
(21) Legislative Branch: Legislature
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 15
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 30
(31) Judicial Department

PORTO RICO
CAPITAL: San Juan
AREA: 3,435 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,543,913
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: United States Territory
(11) Executive Branch
Governor, appointed by U. S. President
(21) Legislative Branch: Legislature
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 19
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 39
(31) Judicial Department

VIRGIN ISLANDS
CAPITAL: St. Thomas
AREA: 133 Square Miles
POPULATION: 22,012
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: United States Dependency
(11) Executive Branch
Resident Governor, appointed by U. S. President











(21) Legislative Branch
Colonial Councils
Partially elected by Municipality of St. Thomas and
St. John and Municipality of St. Croix.
(31) Judicial Department

PHILIPPINES
CAPITAL: Manilla
AREA: 114,400 Square Miles
POPULATION: 12,082,366
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department, National Assembly
The Assembly consists of one body of 98 elected
members
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Until July 4, 1946, when complete independence will be
achieved, the United States reserves supervisory rights in
finance and Island defence.










WHEN A CABINET MINISTRY RESIGNS IN ENGLAND
"There is no statutory requirement that a ministry shall go out of office whenever
it loses the support and confidence of a majority in the House, but by a custom
which has now prevailed for nearly two hundred years, it is bound to do so.
"There are various ways in which the House of Commons may show its lack of
confidence. .. The House may vote to reduce the salary of a minister. . Or the
House may reject some government measure. . or the House may undertake to
pass some bill which the Government opposes, and the issue may be one of con-
fidence in the government. . .
"Finally, if the House is dissatisfied with the cabinet's general policy, without
reference to any particular measure, it can at any time pass a resolution expressly
declaring its want of confidence.
"British cabinets, as a matter of fact, have rarely been forced to resign, during
the past one hundred years, by reason of an adverse vote in the House of Commons.
They have gone out of office for the most part as the result of adverse action by
the people at the polls. On the other hand a decision to dissolve parliament and
call a general election has sometimes been dictated (as in 1924) by a setback in
the House.
"Snap votes and mishaps due to the absence of ministerial supporters do not
entail the cabinet's resignation. The cabinet has at all times the privilege of demon-
strating by proposing a resolution of confidence, its control of a majority in the
House.
"It is the privilege of the cabinet when it finds itself faced by defeat in the
House, to make an appeal to the people. In other words the prime minister can
advise the king to dissolve parliament and order a general election. During the
election campaign the ministry continues in office, but if the result of the polling
is unfavorable, it does not usually wait for parliament to assemble (but resigns) . .
The king sends for the leader of the victorious party, and asks him to form a new
ministry."
Wm. B. Munro, Governments of Europe, (Rev. ed. of 1931) p. 86.
It is to be noted that it is a Cabinet measure which is considered to indicate a
defeat of the Ministry, and that the Ministry may resign without asking the King
to dissolve parliament. A Prime Minister who actually commands a majority in
the House, who wishes to initiate legislation or a policy, novel or revolutionary in
character, may request the King to dissolve parliament so that the opinion of the
electorate can be taken.
Any act passed three times by the House of Commons is a law without the con-
currence of the House of Lords.


THE RIGHT OF A DOMINION TO SEND A MINISTER

In the British empire the term "Dominion" is officially used as a convenient
abbreviation for "self-governing Dominion." The Dominions are Australia, Canada,
Irish Free State, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa. Although New-
foundland has Dominion status it is not represented in the League of Nations and
India, although it does not yet possess Dominion status, is represented in the League
of Nations. The self-governing dominions which are members of the League of
Nations possess therefore a quasi-international status, and de facto have the same
independent status as Great Britain, with which they are equal members of the
Imperial Conference, although de jure they are still subject to the supremacy of
the British Parliament. (Encyclopedia Britannica, "British Empire" p. 178.)
By the Imperial Conference of 1926 the Dominions were defined as "autonomous
Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one
to another in any aspect of their domestic or foreign affairs, although united by a
common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British
Commonwealth of Nations." On December 11, 1931, the Statute of Westminster
became law which by legal enactment recognizes this status of the Dominions as
defined at the Imperial Conference of 1926. During 1931 the Dominions had also
passed the Statute of Westminster.
"A Dominion may negotiate a treaty without the intervention of the diplomats
of Great Britain, and it may send a minister of its own and consuls to a foreign
country. Ireland and Canada already send ministers to the United States and the
United States sends a minister to each of these countries. Until a Dominion
establishes its own legation in a country it is advised to use the diplomats of
Great Britain." (Frank A. Magruder, National Governments and International
Relations, 1933, p. 236.)


THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT

"The union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a federal state formed by the volun-
tary association of its seven constituent republics on a basis of full equality. The
central government has jurisdiction in all matters concerned with foreign relations










and in those domestic matters relating to the Union as a whole. Adherence to the
Union does not limit the autonomy of the constituent republics in the field of local
administration or matters of social welfare, such as health, education, etc.
"The highest organ of authority in the U.S.S.R. is the All-Union Congress of
Soviets, composed of delegates from urban, soviets and from regional and repub-
lican congresses of soviets. It convenes once in two years. During the interval
between the All-Union Congresses of Soviets the supreme authority devolves upon
the Central Executive Committee, elected at the All-Union Congress and responsible
to it. The Central Executive Committee is composed of two houses: the Council
of the Union and the Council of Nationalities. The membership of these two coun-
cils, as elected at the 1935 Congress, numbered 607 and 150, respectively. The
last session of the Central Executive Committee took place during February, 1935.
"The Council of the Union is elected by the All-Union Congress from the repre-
sentatives of the seven constituent republics in proportion to their population. The
Council of Nationalities consists of five representatives from each of the constituent
and autonomous republics and one representative from each autonomous area. The
members of the Council of Nationalities are elected at the Congresses of the various
constituent and autonomous republics and areas, but their election must be ratified
by the All-Union Congress. Both Councils are responsible to the All-Union Con-
gress.
"The Central Executive Committee meets three times a year. Between the
sessions the supreme legislative, executive and administrative authority devolves
upon the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee. This body consists of
27 members, including the nine members of the Presidium of the Council of the
Union, the nine of the Presidium of the Council of Nationalities, and nine elected by
the two Councils in joint session." Handbook of the Soviet Union.










A List of References on Comparative Politics and Govern-
ment with Special Reference to France, Germany,
Great Britain, Italy, etc.

GENERAL

Gazeteer of the 1937 Matthews-Northrop New International Atlas: Produced by
J. W. Clement Co., Buffalo, N. Y., for the Blue Ribbon Books Inc., New York,
N. Y.
Gazeteer of the 1937 New International Atlas of the World: Published for American
Education Society, Chicago, Ill.
Bonn, Moritz J. The crisis of European democracy. New Haven, Pub. for the
Institute of Politics by the Yale University press, 1925. 103 p. (The Institute
of Politics publications, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.) D653.B65
Bryce, James Bryce, viscount. Modern democracies. New York, The MacMillan Co.,
1921, 2 v.
Finer, Herman. Foreign governments at work; an introductory study, London,
New York, H. Milford, Oxford University press, 1921, 83 p. (The world of
today. (24)).
Goodnow, Frank J. Comparative administrative law; an analysis of the adminis-
trative systems, national and local, of the United States, England, France,
and Germany. New York and London, G. P. Putnam's sons, 1903 2v. in 1.
JF1351.G65 1903
New governments of eastern Europe. New York, HI Holt & Co. (1927) 826 p. (Am-
erican political science series; general editor, E. S. Corwin.) D443.G56
"Select documents on the new governments of eastern Europe" p. 559-800.
Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Russia.
Ray. Major European Governments, 1931. Ginn & Co., Boston.
Harden, Maximilian, Germany, France and England. Translated and edited by
William Cranston Lawton, New York, Brentano's (1924) 326 p. DD249.H3
Mallory, Political Handbook of the World, 1932, Harper Brothers, N. Y.
McBain, Howard L. The new constitutions of Europe, by Howard L. McBain and
Lindsay Rogers. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & Co., 1923, 612 p.
JF11.M25 1923
Bibliographical foot-notes.
Morley, The New Democratic Constitutions of Europe, 1928. Humphrey Milford,
London, England.
Pipkin, Charles W. Social politics and modern democracies. New York, The
MacMillan Co., 1931. 2v. HD7876.P47
Selected bibliography: v. 2, p. 387-402.
France, Great Britain.
Strong, Charles F. Modern political constitutions; an introduction to the com-
parative study of their history and existing form. New York, London, G. P.
Putnam's sons, 1930. 385 p.
"Books recommended": p. xii-xviii.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC
Argentina Republic. Constitution. Instruccion civica. La Constitucion national
explicada articulo por articulo. Buenos Aires, JLauouane & cie., 1928. 238 p.
Rowe, Leo S. The federal system of the Argentine Republic. Washington. The
Carnegie institution of Washington, 1921. 161 p. (Carnegie institution of
Washington, Publication No. 258) JL2018.R6
Bibliography: p. 133-136.
FRANCE
The government of France. Authorized translation by J. Bayard Morris. London,
G. Allen & Unwin, Ltd. (1924) 222 p. JN2597.B35
"This work was originally published in Paris in 1919. Since that time changes
in the French constitution have made certain passages obsolete and M.
Barthelemy has supplied me with new matter in order to bring the book up-to-
date".-Translator's note.
Bibliography at end of each chapter.

GERMANY
Armstrong, Hamilton F. Hitler's reich, the first phase. New York, The MacMillan
Co., 1933. 73 p. DD251.A7











The new German constitution. Tr. from the French by Joseph Gollomb. New York,
A. A. Knopf, 1922. 339 p. JN3953.1922.B7
"The constitution of the German commonwealth" (text) : p. 297-339.
Germany: twilight or new dawn? New York, Whittlesey house, McGraw-Hill book
Co., inc., 1933. 226 p. DD253.G4 1933
Hitler, Adolph. My Battle. Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1933, 297 p.
A DD247.H5A32
Abridged and translated by E. T. S. Dugdale.
Germany in transition; lectures on the Harris foundation. 1924. Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Chicago press (1924) 236 p. DD249.K7
Mattern, Johannes. Principles of the constitutional jurisprudence of the German
national republic. Baltimore, the Johns Hopkins press, London, H. Milford,
Oxford University press, 1928. 682 p. (Semi-centennial publications of the
Johns Hopkins University, 1876-1926) JN3954.M3
Bibliography: p. 649-666.

GREAT BRITAIN

Adams, George B. Constitutional history of England. New York, H. Holt & Co.
(1921) 518 p. (American Historical series. General Editor; C. H. Ha-kins.)
JN118.A3
"General bibliography": p. ix-x.
Blauvelt, Mary Taylor. The development of cabinet government in England. New
York, the MacMillan Co.; London, MacMillan & Co., Ltd., 1902. 300 p.
JN401.B7
Clarke, John J. Outlines of central government, including the judicial system of
England. 3d. ed. London, New York, Sir I. Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1928. 251 p.
Bibliography: p. 215-236. Law
Emden, Cecil S. The people and the constitution. Oxford, The Clarendon press,
1933. 336 p. DA44.E5
Democracy at the crossways; a study in politics and history, with special reference
to Great Britain, London, MacMillan & Co., Ltd., 1919. 511 p.
DA577.H4 1919
"List of the principal Books referred to": p. 497-504.
Hogan, Albert E. The government of Great Britain, its colonies and dependencies.
5th ed., rev. and enl. by Isabel G. Powell. London, W. B. Clive, University
totorial press, Id., 1923. 272 p. JN321.H7 1923
Jenks, Edward. The government of the British empire. London, J. Murray (1929)
414 (i.e. 424) p. JN321.J44 1929
"Fourth edition November 1929."
Keith, Arthur Berriedale. The constitution, administration and laws of the Empire.
London, W. Callins Sons and Company, Ltd. (1924) 355 p. (The British
Empire, a survey . edited by Hugh Gunn. (111) ). DA11.K4
Bibliography: p. 324-334.

ITALY

Abbot, Willis J. Mussolini tells why he prefers fascism to parliamentarism for
Italy. (New York, Italian historical society, 1928) 13 p. (Italian historical
society. Pamphlet no. 2) DG571.A7
Bonomi, Ivanhoe. From socialism to fascism; a study of contemporary Italy. Trans-
lated by John Murray. London, M. Hopkinson & Co., Ltd. 1924 147 p.
DG571.B65
Ferrero, Guglielmo. Four years of fascism. Translated from the Italian "DaFiume
a Roma" by E. W. Dickes, with a forward by C. J. Squire Sprigge. London,
P. S. King & Son, Ltd. 1924. 138 p. DG571.F45
Goad, Harold E. The making of the corporate state; a study of fascist development.
London, Christophers (1932) 167 p. DG571-G55
Bibliography: p. 159-163

JAPAN

Fujisawa, Rikitaro. The recent aims and political development of Japan. New
Haven, Pub. for the Institute of politics by Yale University press, 1923. 222 p.
(The Institute of Politics publications. Williams college, Williamstown,
Mass.) DS841.F8
Hershey, Amos S. Modern Japan, social-industrial-political, by Amos S.
Hershey, and Susanne W. Hershey. Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill Co. (1919)
382 p. (Problems of the nations, P. L. Haworth, Editor) DS806.H4











Quigley, Herold S. Japanese government and politics; an introductory study.
New York, London, The Century Co. (1932) 442 p. (The Century Political
Science Series) JQ1615.1932.Q5
"Select references" at end of each chapter; bibliographical foot-notes.

RUSSIA

Brailsford, Harry N. How the soviets work. New York, Vanguard press (1927)
169 p. (Vanguard studies of Soviet Russia) DK267.B7
Davis, Jerome, ed. The new Russia between the first and second five year plans.
New York, The John Day Co. (1933) 265 p. "A selected bibliography": p.
259-265. DK266.D3
The communist party and the government, by Jerome Davis, p. 107-131.
Dreiser, Theodore. Dreiser looks at Russia, New York, H. Liveright, 1928. 264 p.
DK267.D7
Hoover, Calvin B. The economic life of soviet Russia. New York, The Mac-
Millan Co., 1931, 361 p. HC335.H6
Bibliography: p. 349-351.
Hopper, Brute. Pan-sovietism, the issue before America and the world. Boston,
and New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931. 287 p. "A reproduction of eight
lectures entitled "Soviet Russia after thirteen years," given before Lowell
institute in 1931."-Pref. DK266.H5
Russell, Bertrand Russell, 3d earl. Bolshevism: practice and theory. New York,
Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920. 192 p.
Handbook of the Soviet Union.

SWITZERLAND

Brooks, Robert C. Civic training in Switzerland; a study of democratic life. Chicago,
Illinois, The University of Chicago press (1930) 436. (Studies in making of
citizens.) DQ36.B7











Constitution of the United States

(The italicised parts are obsolete because of the amendments cited
in the margin.)
The Constitution originally consisted of a preamble and seven
Articles, and in that form was adopted on Sept. 17, 1787, by a majority
of the 55 delegates from 12 states which had begun its deliberations at
Philadelphia on May 12 of that year. Rhode Island sent no delegates.
Of the 65 chosen by other states, 10 did not attend. Of the delegates
in attendance, 16 declined or failed to sign.
Under the language of the Constitution itself (Article VII) rati-
fication by 9 states was sufficient for its establishment "between the
states so ratifying the same." New Hampshire, on June 21, 1788, was
the ninth state to ratify. But the Government did not declare the
Constitution to be in effect until the first Wednesday in March, 1789.
The signers of the original Constitution, by virtue of their member-
ship in Congress, were:
GEO. WASHINGTON, President and deputy from Virginia. New
Hampshire-John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman. Massachusetts-Na-
thaniel Gorham, Rufus King. Connecticut-Wm. Saml. Johnson,
Roger Sherman. New York-Alexander Hamilton. New Jersey-Wil.
Livingston, David Brearley, Wm. Patterson, Jona. Dayton. Pennsyl-
vania-B. Franklin, Robt. Morris, Thos. Fitzsimons, James Wilson,
Thomas Mifflin, Geo. Clymer, Jared Ingersoll, Gouv. Morris. Dela-
ware-Geo. Read, John Dickinson, Jaco. Broom, Gunning Bedford
jun, Richard Basset. Maryland-James McHenry, Danl. Carroll, Dan.
of St. Thomas Jenifer. Virginia-John Blair, James Madison, Jr.
North Carolina-Wm. Blount, Hu. Williamson, Richd. Dobbs Spaight.
South Carolina-J. Rutledge, Charles Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth
Pinckney, Pierce Butler. Georgia-William Few, Abr. Baldwin. At-
test: William Jackson, Secretary.
The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original States in the
following order:
Del. (Dec. 7, 1787), unanimous; Penn. (Dec. 12, 1787), 43 to 23;
N. J. (Dec. 18, 1787), unanimous; Ga. (Jan. 2, 1788), unanimous;
Conn. (Jan. 9, 1788), 128 to 40; Mass. (Feb. 6, 1788), 187 to 168;
Md. (Apr. 28, 1788), 63 to 11; So. Car. (May 23, 1788), 149 to 73;
New Hamp. (June 21, 1788), 57 to 46; Va. (June 26, 1788), 89 to 79;
N. Y. (July 26, 1788), 30 to 27; No. Car. (Nov. 21, 1789), 194 to 77;
R. I. (May 29, 1790), 34 to 32.
(Vermont, by convention, ratified Jan. 10, 1791; and Congress,
Feb. 18, 1791, admitted that State into the Union.)

THE CONSTITUTION
Preamble
We, the people of the United States in order to form a more perfect
Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the
common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the bless-
ings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish
this Constitution for the United States of America.









Article I.
Section 1.-(Legislative powers; in whom vested:)
All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress
of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Rep-
resentatives.
Section 2.-(House of Representatives, how and by whom
chosen. Qualifications of a Representative. Representatives and
direct taxes, how apportioned. Enumeration. Vacancies to be
filled. Power of choosing officers, and of impeachment.)
1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members
chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the
electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors
of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.
2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained
to the age of twenty-five years and been seven years a citizen of the
United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that
State in which he shall be chosen.
3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the
several States which may be included within this Union according to
their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the Amended
whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term Andment
of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse-
quent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct.
The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty
thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and
until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall
be entitled to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Amended
Plantations, 1; Connecticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsyl- Amendmet.
vania, 8; Delaware, 1; Maryland, 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5;
South Carolina, 5, and Georgia, 3.
4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the
Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such
vacancies.
5. The House of Representatives shall choose, their Speaker and
other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
Section 3.- (Senators, how and by whom chosen. How classi-
fied. State Executive, when to make temporary appointments, in
case, etc. Qualifications of a Senator. President of the Senate,
his right to vote. President pro tem., and other officers of the Sen-
ate, how chosen. Power to try impeachments. When President is
tried, Chief Justice to preside. Sentence.)
1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Sen-
ators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; SAme dnt
and each Senator shall have one vote.
2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the
first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three
classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at
the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration
of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth
year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacan-









cies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the
Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary
17menth appointment until the next meeting of the Legislature,which shall then
Amendment. fill such vacancies.
3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the
age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States,
and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for
which he shall be chosen.
4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.
5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President
pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall
exercise the office of President of the United States.
6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments.
When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation.
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice
shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concur-
rence of two-thirds of the members present.
7. Judgment of cases of impeachment shall not extend further than
to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office
of honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party con-
victed shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial,
judgment, and punishment, according to law.
Section 4.-(Times, etc., of holding elections, how prescribed.
One session in each year.)
1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators
and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legisla-
ture thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter
such regulations, except as to places of choosing Senators.
2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by
law appoint a different day.
Section 5.-(Membership, Quorum, Adjournments, Rules.
Power to punish or expel. Journal. Time of adjournments, how
limited, etc.)
1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and quali-
fications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a
quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent mem-
bers in such manner and under such penalties as each House may pro-
vide.
2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish
its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-
thirds expel a member.
3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from
time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their
judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of
either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those
present, be entered on the journal.
4. Neither House, during the session of Congress shall, without the
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any
other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
Section 6.-(Compensation. Privileges. Disqualification in
certain cases.)










1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation
for their services to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury
of the,United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony,
and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attend-
ance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and re-
turning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House
they shall not be questioned in any other place.
2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he
was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the
United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments
whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person
holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either
House during his continuance in office.
Section 7.-(House to originate all revenue bills. Veto. Bill
may be passed by two-thirds of each House, notwithstanding, etc.
Bill, not returned in ten days, to become a law. Provisions as to
orders, concurrent resolutions, etc.)
1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Repre-
sentatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as
on other bills.
2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives
and the Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the
President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if
not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it
shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their
journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration
two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent,
together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall
likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two-thirds of that House
it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses
shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons
voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each
House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President
within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been pre-
sented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed
it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return; in
which case it shall not be. a law.
3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a
question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the
United States; and before the same shall take effect shall be approved
by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of
the Senate and the House of Representatives, according to the rules
and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
Section 8.-(Powers of Congress.)
The Congress shall have power:
1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the
debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the
United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform
throughout the United States.
2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States.
3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the sev-
eral States, and with the Indian tribes.
4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization and uniform laws
on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States.
45










5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin,
and fix the standard of weights and measures.
6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities
and current coin of the United States.
7. To establish post-offices and post-roads.
8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing
for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive rights to their
respective writings and discoveries.
9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.
10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the
high seas, and offences against the law of nations.
11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and to make
rules concerning captures on land and water.
12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to
that use shall be for a longer term than two years.
13. To provide and maintain a navy.
14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land
and naval forces.
15. To provide for calling forth the malitia to execute the laws of
the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.
16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the malitia,
and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service
of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appoint-
ment of the officers, and the authority of training the malitia accord-
ing to the discipline prescribed by Congress.
17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over
such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of
particular States and the. acceptance of Congress become the seat of
Government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over
all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in
which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals,
dry-docks, and other needful buildings.
18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carry-
ing into execution the foregoing powers and all other powers vested
by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any
department or officer thereof.
Section 9.-(Provision as to migration or importation of cer-
tain persons. Habeas Corpus. Bills of attainder, etc. Taxes, how
apportioned. No export duty. No commercial preference. Money,
how drawn from Treasury, etc. No titular nobility. Officers not
to receive presents, etc.)
1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States
obsolete now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the
Amendment Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but
a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten
dollars for each person.
2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be sus-
pended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety
may require it.
3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.
4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in propor-
tion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.
46










5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.
6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or
revenue to the ports of one State over those of another, nor shall
vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay
duties in another.
7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence
of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account
of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published
from time to time.
8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States. And
no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without
the consent of Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or
title of any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign state.
Section 10-(States prohibited from the exercise of certain
powers.)
1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation,
grant letters of marque and reprisal, coin money, emit bills of credit,
make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts,
pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obli-
gation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any im-
post or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely
necessary for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all
duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for
the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall
be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.
3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into agree-
ment or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or en-
gage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as
will not admit of delay.

Article II.
Section 1.-(President; his term of office. Electors of Presi-
dent; number and how appointed. Electors to vote on same day.
Qualifications of President. On whom his duties devolve in case
of his removal, death, etc. President's compensation. His oath
of office.)
1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of the United
States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four
years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same
term, be elected as follows:
2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof
may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of Senators
and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress;
but no Senator or Representative or person holding an office of trust or
profit under the United States shall be appointed an elector. Superceded
3. The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot And nt.
for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the
same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons
voted for, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign
and certify and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of the










United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of
the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representa-
tives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The
person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such
number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if
there be more than one who has such a majority, and have an equal num-
ber of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose
by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority,
then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner
choose the President. But in choosing the President, the vote shall be
taken by States, the "representation from each State having one vote. A
quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or members from
two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary
to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person
having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice
President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes,
the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.
4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors
and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be
the same throughout the United States.
5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United
States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible
to the office of President; neither shall any person be. eligible to that
office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years and
been fourteen years a resident within the United States.
6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his
death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of
the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the
Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resigna-
tion, or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring
what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall then act
accordingly until the disability be removed or a President shall be
elected.
7. The President shall at stated times, receive for his services a
compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during
the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not re-
ceive within that period any other emolument from the United States,
or any of them.
8. Before he enter on the execution of his office he shall take the
following oath or affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my
ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United
States."
Section 2.-(President to be Commander-in-Chief. He may
require opinions of Cabinet officers, etc., may pardon. Treaty-
making power. Nomination of certain officers. When President
may fill vacancies.)
1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and
Navy of the United States, and of the malitia of the several States
when called into the actual service of the United States; he may re-
quire the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the









executive departments upon any subject relating to the duties of their
respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprives and par-
dons for offences against the United States except in cases of im-
peachment.
2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the
Senate to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present
concur; and he shall nominate and by and with the advice and consent
of the Senate shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and
consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the
United States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided
for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress may by
law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper
in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of depart-
ments.
3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may
happen during the recess of the Senate by granting commissions, which
shall expire at the end of their next session.
Section 3.-(President shall communicate to Congress. He
may convene and adjourn Congress, in case of disagreement, etc.
Shall receive Ambassadors, execute laws, and commission
officers.)
He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the
state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such meas-
ures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extra-
ordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in
case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of ad-
journment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper;
he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take
care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the
officers of the United States.
Section 4.-(All civil offices forfeited for certain crimes.)
The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United
States shall be removed from office on impeachment for and conviction
of treason, bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Article III.
Section 1-(Judicial powers. Tenure. Compensation.)
The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Su-
preme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from
time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme
and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and
shall at stated t.mes receive for their services a compensation which
shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
Section 2.-(Judicial power; to what cases it extends. Original
jurisdiction of Supreme Court. Appellate. Trial by jury, etc.
Trial, where.)
1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity
arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all
cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all
cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which
the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or IIth
more States, between a State and citizens of another State, between cit- Amendment.









izens of different States, between citizens of the same State claiming
lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the
citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.
2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and
consuls, and those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court
shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before men-
tioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to
law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the
Congress shall make.
3. The trail of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be
by jury, and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes
shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State
the trail shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law
have directed.
Section 3.--(Treason defined. Proof of. Punishment of.)
1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and
comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testi-
mony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open
court.
2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of
treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood
or forfeiture except during the life of the person attained.

Article IV.

Section 1.-(Each State to give credit to the public acts, etc.,
of every other State.)
Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts,
records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Con-
gress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts,
records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Section 2.-(Privileges of citizens of each State. Fugitives
from justice to be delivered up. Persons held to service having
escaped, to be delivered up.)
1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and
immunities of citizens in the several States.
2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other
crime who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall,
on demand of the Executive authority of the State from which he fled,
be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the
crime.
3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws
thereof, escaping into another shall in consequence of any law or
regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall
be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor
may be due.
Section 3.- (Admission of new States. Power of Congress over
territory and other property.)
1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union;
but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of
any other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or
more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures
of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress.









2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful
rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property be-
longing to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be
so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any
particular State.
Section 4.-(Republican form of government guaranteed.
Each State to be protected.)
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a
Republican form a government, and shall protect each of them against
invasion, and, on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive
(when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.

Article V.

(Constitution: how amended. Proviso.)
The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the
application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States,
shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either
case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Consti-
tution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the sev-
eral States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one
or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress;
provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year
one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the
first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and
that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal
suffrage in the Senate.
Article VI.

(Certain debts, etc., declared valid. Supremacy of Constitu-
tion, treaties, and laws of the United States. Oath to support
Constitution, by whom taken. No religious test.)
1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the
adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States
under this Constitution as under the Confederation.
2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall
be made in pursuance thereof and all treaties made, or which shall be
made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme
law of the land, and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby,
anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary not-
withstanding.
3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the
members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and
judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States,
shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support the Constitution; but
no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office
or public trust under the United States.

Article VII.

(What ratification shall establish Constitution.)
The ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient
for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratify-
ing the same.










AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
OF THE UNITED STATES
Opposition in and out of Congress to the Constitution, in that it was
not sufficiently explicit as to individual and State rights, led to an
agreement to submit to the people immediately after the adoption of
the Constitution a number of safeguarding amendments.
And so it was that the First Congress, at its first session, at the City
of New York, Sept. 25, 1789, adopted and submitted to the States
twelve proposed amendments-A Bill of Rights, as it was then and
ever since has been popularly called. Ten of these amendments (now
commonly known as one to ten inclusive, but in reality three to twelve
inclusive) were ratified by the States as follows-New Jersey, Nov. 20,
1789; Maryland, Dec. 19, 1789; North Carolina, Dec. 22, 1789; South
Carolina, Jan. 19, 1790; New Hampshire, Jan. 25, 1790; Delaware,
Jan. 28, 1790; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790; New York, March 27,
1790; Rhode Island, June 15, 1790; Vermont, Nov. 3, 1791; Virginia,
Dec. 15, 1791. No ratification by Connecticut, Georgia or Massa-
chusetts is on record. These original ten ratified amendments appear
in order below as Articles I. to X. inclusive.
The two of the original proposed amendments which were not rati-
fied by the necessary number of States related, the first to apportion-
ment of Representatives; the second, to compensation of members of
Congress.
Titles of Nobility
Congress, May 1, 1810, proposed to the States the following Amend-
ment to the Constitution:
"If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or
retain any title of nobility or honor, or shall, without the consent of
Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office or emolument
of any kind whatever, from any emperor, king, prince or foreign
power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States and
shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them
or either of them."
It was ratified by Maryland, Dec. 25, 1810; Kentucky, Jan. 31, 1811;
Ohio, Jan. 31, 1811; Delaware, Feb. 2, 1811; Pennsylvania, Feb. 6,
1811; New Jersey, Feb. 13, 1811; Vermont, Oct. 24, 1811; Tennessee,
Nov. 21, 1811; Georgia, Dec. 13, 1811; North Carolina, Dec. 23, 1811;
Massachusetts, Feb. 27, 1812; New Hampshire, Dec. 10, 1812.
Rejected by New York (Senate), March 12, 1811; Connecticut, May
session, 1813; South Carolina, approved by Senate Nov. 28, 1811, re-
ported unfavorably in House and not further considered Dec. 7, 1813;
Rhode Island, Sept. 15, 1814.
The amendment failed, not having sufficient ratifications.

AMENDMENT TO PROHIBIT THE CONSTITUTION FROM
ABOLISHING OR INTERFERING WITH SLAVERY
(The Corwin Amendment)
Congress, March 2, 1861, proposed to the States the following
Amendment to the Constitution:
"No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will author-
ize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any
State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons
held to labor or service by the laws of said State."
Ratified by Ohio, March 13, 1861; Maryland, Jan. 10, 1862; Illinois
(convention), Feb. 14, 1862. The amendment failed, for lack of a
sufficient number of ratifications.









THE TEN ORIGINAL AMENDMENTS
(They were declared in force December 15, 1791.)

Article I.
Religious Establishment Prohibited. Freedom of Speech, of
the Press and Right to Petition.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of
speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Article II.
Right to Keep and Bear Arms.
A well-regulated malitia being necessary to the security of a free
State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be in-
fringed.
Article III.
No Soldier to be Quartered in any House, Unless, etc.
No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be
prescribed by law.
Article IV.
Right of Search and Seizure Regulated.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers,
and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, sup-
ported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to
be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Article V.
Provisions Concerning Prosecution, Trial and Punishment-
Private Property not to be Taken for Public Use, Without Com-
pensation.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other infamous
crime unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except
in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the malitia, when in
actual service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person
be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or
limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness
against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without
due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use
without just compensation.
Article VI.
Right to Speedy Trial, Witnesses, etc.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which districts shall have
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature
and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses









against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his
favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Article VII.
Right of Trial by Jury.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no
fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the
United States than according to the rules of the common law.

Article VIII.
Excessive Bail or Fines and Cruel Punishment Prohibited.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed,
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Article IX.
Rule of Construction of Constitution.
The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Article X.
Rights of States Under Constitution.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution,
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respec-
tively, or to the people.

Article XI.
Judicial Powers Construed.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Third Congress on the 5th of March, 1794, and
was declared to have been ratified in a message from the President to
Congress, dated Jan. 8, 1798.
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against
one of the United States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or
subjects of any foreign state.


Article XII.
Manner of Choosing President and Vice-President.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Eighth Congress on the 12th of December, 1803,
and was declared to have been ratified in a proclamation by the Secre-
tary of State dated September 25, 1804. It was ratified by all the
States except Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Hamp-
shire.
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot
for President and Vice-President, one of whom at least shall not be an
inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their
ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the









person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct list
of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as
Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Govern-
ment of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the
President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House
of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then
be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for Presi-
dent shall be President, if such number be a majority of the whole
number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority,
then from the persons having the highest number, not exceeding three,
on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representa-
tives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choos-
ing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representa-
tion from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall
consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a
majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the
House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the
right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of
March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President,
as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the
President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-
President shall be the Vice-President if such number be a majority of
the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a ma-
jority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall
choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of
two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the
whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitu-
tionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that
of Vice-President of the United States.


Article XIII.
Slavery Abolished.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Thirty-eighth Congress on the 1st of February,
1865, and was declared to have been ratified in a proclamation by the
Secretary of State dated December 18, 1865. It was rejected by Dela-
ware and Kentucky; was conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mis-
sissippi; and Texas took no action.
1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punish-
ment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall
exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdic-
tion.
2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

Article XIV.
Citizenship Rights Not to Be Abridged.
The following, popularly known as the Reconstruction Amendment,
was proposed to the Legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-
ninth Congress on the 16th day of June, 1866, and was declared, to have
been ratified in a proclamation by the Secretary of State, dated July
23, 1868. The amendment got the support of 23 Northern States: it
was rejected by Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern









States. California took no action. Subsequently it was ratified by the
10 Southern States.
1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject
to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of
the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the
United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty,
or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within
its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Apportionment of Representatives in Congress.
2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of
persons in each State excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right
to vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and
Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the
executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legis-
lature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State,
being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in
any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime,
the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion
which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number
of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Power of Congress to Remove Disabilities of United States
Officials for Rebellion.
3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or
Elector of President and Vice-President or holding any office, civil or
military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having
previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of
the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature or as an
executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution
of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion
against the same, or given aid and comfort to the enemies thereof. But
Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such
disability.
What Public Debts Are Valid.
4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized
by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties
for services in suppressing insurrection and rebellion, shall not be
questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume
or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or re-
bellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss of eman-
cipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall
be held illegal and void.
5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legis-
lation the provisions of this article.


Article XV.
Equal Rights for White and Colored Citizens.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Fortieth Congress on the 27th of February, 1869,
and was declared to have been ratified in a proclamation by the Secre-
tary of State, dated March 30, 1870. It was not acted on by Tennessee:
it was rejected by California, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and
Oregon: ratified by the remaining 30 States. New York rescinded its










ratification January 5, 1870. New Jersey rejected it in 1870, but
ratified it in 1871.
1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not
be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account
of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
2. The Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of this
article by appropriate legislation.


Article XVI.
Income Taxes Authorized.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Sixty-first Congress on the 12th day of July,
1909, and was declared to have been ratified in a proclamation by the
Secretary of State, dated February 25, 1913. The income tax amend-
ment was ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Florida,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, and Virginia.
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes,
from whatever sources derived, without apportionment among the
several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.


Article XVII.
United States Senators to be Elected by Direct Popular Vote.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Sixty-second Congress on the 16th day of May,
1912, and was declared to have been ratified in a proclamation by the
Secretary of State, dated May 31, 1913. It got the vote of all the
States except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louis-
iana, Maryland, Mississippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, and
Virginia.
1. The Senate of the, United States shall be composed of two Sen-
ators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years;
and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall
have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous
branch of the State Legislatures.
Vacancies in Senatorships, When Governor May Fill by Ap-
pointment.
2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in
the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of
election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of any
State may empower the Executive thereof to make temporary appoint-
ment until the people fill the vacancies by election as the Legislature
may direct.
3. This amendment shall not be construed as to affect the election
or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the
Constitution.

Article XVIII.
Liquor Prohibition Amendment.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Sixthy-fifth Congress, December 18, 1917: and









on January 29, 1919, the United States Secretary of State proclaimed
its adoption by 36 States, and declared it in effect on January 16,
1920.
Mississippi was the first State to adopt, both houses of the legislature
so voting on Jan. 8, 1918.
The total vote in the Senate of the various States was, 1,310 for, 237
against-83.6 % dry. In the lower houses of the States the vote was,
3,782 for, 1,035 against-78.5% dry.
The amendment ultimately was adopted by all the States except
Connecticut and Rhode Island. New Jersey ratified on March 10, 1922.
The vote in the State Senate was on March 7; in the House, on March 9.
Enforcement of the National Prohibition Act was in effect at
12 p.m., January 16, 1920, except as to certain sections of Title II,
wherein other dates were specified.
Early in 1920, the validity of the Eighteenth Amendment was up-
held by the Supreme Court of the United States, in suits to void,
brought by the States of Rhode Island and New Jersey, and by various
brewers and distillers.
1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufac-
ture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importa-
tion thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and
all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is
hereby prohibited.
2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to
enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as
an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several
States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date
of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


Article XIX.
Giving Nation-Wide Suffrage to Women.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Sixty-fifth Congress, having been adopted by the
House of Representatives, May 21, 1919, and by the Senate, June 4,
1919. On August 26, 1920, the United States Secretary of State pro-
claimed it in effect, having been adopted June 10, 1919-August 18,
1920) by three-quarters of the States. The Tennessee House, August
31, rescinded its ratification, 47 to 24.
1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account
of sex.
2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to enfore
the provisions of this article.


ARTICLE XX
"Lame Duck" Amendment.
Terms of President and Vice-President to begin on Jan. 20;
those of Senators and Representatives, on Jan. 3.









The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Seventy-second Congress, in March, 1932, a
joint resolution to that effect having been adopted, first by the House,
and then, on March 2, by the Senate:
Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice-President shall end
at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and
Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in
which such terms would have ended if this article had not been rati-
fied; and the. terms of their successors shall then begin.
Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, Lack of
and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless optt this
they shall by law appoint a different day. Amendment.
Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the
President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice-President elect
shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen be-
fore the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President
elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice-President elect shall
act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Con-
gress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President
elect nor a Vice-President elect shall have qualified, declaring who
shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act
shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a Presi-
dent or Vice-President shall have qualified.
Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the
death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives
may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have de-
volved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons
from whom the Senate may choose a Vice-President whenever the
right of choice shall have been devolved upon them.
Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of Octo-
ber following the ratification of this article.
Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of
three-fourths of the States within seven years from the date of its This
submission. Amendment.
became
Up to Aug. 15, 1932, the proposed amendment had been ratified by a law
the legislatures of 15 states-Virginia, New York, Mississippi, New in 1936.
Jersey, Arkansas, South Carolina, Kentucky, Michigan, Maine, Rhode
Island, Louisiana, Illinois, Indiana, Texas, and West Virginia.
The XXI amendment ratified in 1933 repealed the XVIII amend-
ment.

ARTICLE XXI

Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution
of the United States is hereby repealed.
Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Ter-
ritory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein
of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby pro-
hibited.
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the sev-
eral States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from
the date of submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
This amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the several
states by the Seventy-Second Congress on the 20th day of February,









1933, and was declared in effect, in a proclamation by the Secretary of
State, dated on the 5th day of December, 1933.


THE OATH OF A PRESIDENT
The Constitution directs that the President shall take the following
oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faith-
fully execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to
the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution
of the United States."
George Washington, as President, took the following oath: "I do
solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the
United States."
Washington, as Commander of the Continental Army, had taken
the following oath: "I do acknowledge the thirteen United States of
America, namely, New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island,
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary-
land, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, to be
free, independent, and sovereign States, and declare that the people
thereof owe no allegiance or obedience to George the Third, King of
Great Britain; that I renounce, refuse, and adjure any allegiance or
obedience to him; and I do swear that I will, to the utmost of my power,
support, maintain, and defend the said United States against the said
King, George the Third, and his heirs and successors, and his and
their abettors, assistants, and adherents, and will serve the said United
States in the office of General, which I now hold, and in any other
office which I may hereafter hold by their appointment; or under their
authority, with fidelity and honor and according to the best of my skill
and understanding. So help me God."










DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
(Unanimously adopted, July 4, 1776; signed by 54 delegates, Aug. 2,
1776; by Thos. McKean, Del., in Oct., and by Matthew Thornton,
N. Hamp., in Nov. of that year.)
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with
another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate
and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God
entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that
they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happi-
ness. That to secure' these rights, Governments are instituted among
Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,
That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these
ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to insti-
tute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and
organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely
to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate
that Governments long established, should not be changed for light and
transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that
mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to
right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably
the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Des-
potism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government,
and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been
the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity
which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.
The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of re-
peated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the estab-
lishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let
Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and neces-
sary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent
should be obtained, and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to
attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of
Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and
formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncom-
fortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for
the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing
with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused' for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise;
the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of in-
vasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for
that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners;
refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and rais-
ing the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.









He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his
Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of
their offices, and the amount and' payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms
of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies, without
the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior
to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign
to our constitution and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent
to their Acts of pretended Legislation: For quartering large bodies of
armed troops among us: For protecting them by a mock Trial from
punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the inhabi-
tants of these States: For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the
world: For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: For depriving
us in many cases of the benefits of Trial by Jury: For transporting us
beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offenses: For abolishing the free
System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, establishing
therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as
to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the
same absolute rule into these Colonies: For taking away our Charters,
abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the
Forms of our Governments: For suspending our own Legislatures, and
declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases
whatsoever.
He has abdictated Government here by declaring us out of his Pro-
tection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns,
and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries
to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already be-
gun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in
the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized
nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high
Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners
of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us and has endeav-
oured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian
Savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruc-
tion of all ages, sexes and conditions. In every stage of these Oppres-
sions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms. Our
repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A
Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define
a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have We been
wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them
from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an un-
warrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the
circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have ap-
pealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured
them by their ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations,
which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.
They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.
We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our
Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in
War, in Peace Friends.
WE, THEREFORE, the Representatives of the United States of










America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme
Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name,
and by authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly pub-
lish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought
to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all
Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection be-
tween them and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be totally
dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full
Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish
Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent
States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with
a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually
pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.


On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee introduced in the Continental
Congress a resolution which declared "That these United Colonies are,
and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they are
absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political
connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought
to be, totally dissolved."
This resolution, seconded by John Ad'ams, was put aside for a time;
but on June 10 a committee was appointed "to prepare a declaration
to the effect of the said first resolution." Of this committee Thomas
Jefferson was chairman; the other members were John Adams, Benja-
min Franklin, Robert R. Livingston and Roger Sherman.
The Declaration, drawn by Jefferson, and slightly amended by
Adams and Franklin, was presented to Congress on June 28.
On July 2, Lee's resolution, as given above, was passed, and on July
4, the Declaration, substantially as prepared by Jefferson, was adopted,
the two most significant and important changes being the elimination
of Jefferson's arraignment of the British people, and of King George
III, for his encouraging and fostering the slave trade, which Jefferson
called an "execrable commerce."
The declaration received the votes of all the colonies except New
York, whose delegates were at that time not authorized to commit
themselves on the question. On August 2 it was signed by the delegates
then present, two of the absentees affixing their signatures later.
Only one signer, Thornton, had taken no part in the discussion and
vote on independence.
Of the 56 signers, seven were not members of Congress on July 4,
and of those who were present on that day seven never affixed their
signatures.
The signers and their families were proscribed as traitors by the
British Government, and rewards of 500 were offered for their appre-
hension.
The earliest known attempt in the American colonies of a declara-
tion of independence was at a town meeting at Mendon, Mass., in 1773.
There was also the Mecklenburg, N. C., declaration for independ-
ence, May 20, 1775.
A letter written by Thomas Jefferson (dated July 1-2 1776) to
William Fleming, was sold at auction, at N. Y. City, in Nov., 1930, for
$23,000. Jefferson had just been re-elected, to Congress by a narrow
margin. He wrote of the plot of Gov. Tryon and, Mayor David Mat-
thews of New York City to kill or capture General Washington.
A signature of Button Gwinnett, attached to a will as a witness, the
document having been filed in Georgia, was sold at auction at New
York City in April, 1926, for $22,500. Gwinnett was killed in a duel.










A letter of the Marine Committee at Philadelphia, July 12, 1776,
containing the signatures of Robert Morris, Button Gwinnett, Francis
Lewis, George Read, and Arthur Middleton, was sold for $51,000 on
March 15, 1927. Another Gwinnett signature sold for $28,500, in
Nov., 1926, and still another for $18,600 on Nov. 4, 1927, at N. Y. City.









THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA
South Carolina began the movement which led to the organization
of the Southern Confederacy by the adoption at Charleston on Decem-
ber 20, 1860, by a convention of the people of the following ordinance
of secession:
"We, the people of the State of South Carolina, in convention
assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and or-
dained, that the ordinance, adopted by us in convention on the 23d day
of May, in the year of our Lord 1788, whereby the Constitution of the
United States was ratified and also all acts and parts of acts of the
General Assembly of this State ratifying amendments of the said Con-
stitution are hereby repealed; and that the Union now subsisting be-
tween South Carolina and other States under the name of the United
States of America, is hereby dissolved:
December 24 the Convention adopted a declaration setting forth the
cause of the succession of the State, and the Governor issued a procla-
mation announcing the action of the State.
Acts of secession were adopted by the Legislatures of the other
seceding States, as follows:

Jan. 9, 1861, Mississippi, by a vote of 84 to 15
Jan. 10, 1861, Florida, by a vote of 62 to 7
Jan. 11, 1861, Alabama, by a vote of 61 to 39
Jan. 19, 1861, Georgia, by a vote of 208 to 89
Jan. 26, 1861, Louisiana, by a vote of 113 to 17
Feb. 1, 1861, Texas, by a vote of 166 to 7
April 17, 1861, Virginia, by a vote of 88 to 55
May, 6, 1861, Arkansas, by a vote of 69 to 1
May 21, 1861, North Carolina by a vote of unanimous
June 8, 1861, Tennessee, by a vote of unanimous
The States of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri, which
were afterward represented in the Confederate Congress, did not pass
ordinances of secession. In two States a popular vote was taken. The
vote of Virginia for secession was 128,884; opposed, 32,134. Of Ten-
nessee, for secession, 104,019; opposed, 47,238.
The congress of delegates from the seceding States met at Mont-
gomery, Ala., February 4, 1861, and prepared a provisional Constitu-
tion of the Confederate States of America. This Constitution was
discussed in detail and adopted February 8. On the next day an
election was held for chief executive officers and, Jefferson Davis, of
Mississippi, was elected provisional President and Alexander H.
Stephens, of Georgia, provisional Vice-President.
On February 19, 1861, the joint convention of the provisional Sen-
ate and House of Representatives counted the electoral vote for Presi-
dent and Vice-President. The number of States voting was 11; total
electoral votes, 109; all of which were for Jefferson Davis and Alex-
ander H. Stephens.
President Davis was inaugurated at Montgomery, Ala., February
18, 1861, and again at Richmond, Va., February 22, 1862.
Secretaries of State-1861, Robert Toombs, Georgia; 1861, Robert
M. T. Hunter, Virginia; 1862, Judah P. Benjamin, Louisiana.
Secretaries of the Treasury-1861, C. G. Memminger, South Caro-
lina; 1864, George A. Trenholm, South Carolina; 1865, John H.
Reagan, Texas.
Secretaries of War-1861, Leroy P. Walker, Alabama; 1862, Judah
P. Benjamin, Louisiana; 1862, George W. Randolph, Virginia; 1862,









Gustavus W. Smith, Kentucky; 1862, James A. Seddon, Virginia;
1865, John C. Breckinridge, Kentucky.
Secretary of the Navy-1861, Stephen R. Mallory, Florida.
Postmasters-General-1861, Henry T. Ellet, Mississippi; 1861,
John H. Reagan, Texas.
Attorneys-General-1861, Judah P. Benjamin, Louisiana; 1861,
Thomas Bragg, North Carolina; 1862, Thomas H. Watts, Alabama;
1864, George Davis, North Carolina.
April 12, 1861, fire was opened by the South Carolina troops on
Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor. The following was the notification
served on Major Robert Anderson, U. S. A., in command of the fort,
by order of Brig.-Gen. Beauregard, C. S. A.:
,"Sir-By authority of Brig.-Gen. Beauregard, commanding the pro-
visional forces of the Confederate States, we have the honor to notify
you that he will open the fire of his batteries on Fort Sumter in one
hour from this time. We have the honor to be, very respectfully,
your obedient servants.
"James Chestnut, Jr., Aide-de-Camp; Stephen D. Lee, Aide-de-Camp."
The refusal of Major Anderson to surrender prior to the receipt of
the above note was as follows:
"Fort Sumter, Abril 11, 1861.
"General-I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your
communication demanding the evacuation of this fort, and to say in
reply thereto that it is a demand which I regret my sense of honor and
my obligation to my government prevents my compliance. Thanking
you for the fair and manly terms proposed and for the high compliment
paid me, I am, General, very respectfully your obedient servant,
"Robert Anderson, Major First Artillery, Commanding."
"Brig.-Gen. Beauregard, Commanding Provisional Army."
The last fight in the Civil War was at Palmetto Ranche, Texas, May
11, 1865. Gen. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House, Va.,
April 9, 1865.
All the States were represented in both Houses of Congress of the
United States May 23, 1872.




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