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Group Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Title: Outline of Florida state government and comparative studies
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014989/00001
 Material Information
Title: Outline of Florida state government and comparative studies
Series Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Physical Description: 65 p. : maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, T. J ( Thomas Joseph ), b. 1870
Penny, James S
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1949
Edition: Rev. / -- by James S. Penny.
 Subjects
Subject: Comparative government   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographic references (p. 37-39).
Statement of Responsibility: by T.J. Brooks.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Sept., 1949".
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014989
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7383
ltuf - AJS6813
oclc - 44529198
alephbibnum - 001852459

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Outline of Florida state government
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Comparative studies
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Constitution of the United States
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
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Full Text
o +FV nJ.0AVU
: of no. 3


(L/' )


BULLETIN NO. 35 NEW SERIES


SEPT., 1949


Outline of Florida


State Government
AND

Comparative Studies


By T. J. BROOKS
Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture
Revised by
JAMES S. PENNY
Asst. Prof. of Journ., U. of Miami







STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner


~I~









OUTLINE OF FLORIDA STATE GOVERNMENT
By T. J. BROOKS
Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture


A. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
(a) SENATE: Composed of thirty-eight members, elected for four years-
one-half alternating with the other half, by even and odd
numbered districts, biennially.
(b) HOUSE: Composed of ninety-five members, elected biennially by
counties, representation based on legislative reapportionment.
Five largest counties have three representatives each, 18 next
largest have two each, all others have one representative each.

B. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
(a) SUPREME COURT: Consisting of not less than three, and not more.
than six members. Legislature of 1923 placed the number
at six.
(a') Method of Selection: Elective, six-year term for each and
elected at alternating elections.
(b') Jurisdiction:
(a') Original, may issue
1-Writs of mandamus;
2-Writs of certiorari;
3-Writs of prohibition;
4-Writs of quo warrant;
5-Writs of habeas corpus;
6-All writs necessary or proper to the complete ex-
ercise of its jurisdiction;
7-Any member has power to issue writs of habeas
corpus upon petition or on behalf of any person
held in actual custody, and may make such writs
returnable before him or the full bench, or any
Justice thereof, or before any Circuit Judge.
(b') Appellate in
1-All cases of law and equity originating in Circuit
Courts;
2-Appeals from Circuit Courts in cases arising before
Judges of the County Courts in matters pertaining
to their probate jurisdiction; the management of
estates of infants;
3-Cases of conviction of felony in the Criminal
Courts;
4-All criminal cases originating in the Circuit Courts.










(b) CIRCUIT COURTS; CIRCUIT JUDGES:


(a') Method of Selection: Appointed by the Governor and con-
firmed by the Senate, for a period of six years. By
custom they are nominated in primaries.

(b') Jurisdiction:
(a') Original and exclusive in
1-All cases in equity;
2-All cases of law not cognizable by inferior courts;
3-All cases involving the legality of tax assessment
or toll;
4-Action of ejectment;
5-All actions involving the titles or boundaries of
real estate;
6-All criminal cases not cognizable by the inferior
courts.

(b') Appellate
1-Actions of forcible entry and unlawful detainer-
and such other as the Legislature may provide.
2-Issuing writs of mandamus, injunction, quo war-
ranto, certiorari, prohibition, habeas corpus, and
all writs, etc.

(c') Direct Appellate in
1-All civil and criminal cases arising in the county
courts or before the County Judge in counties not
having county courts;
2-All misdemeanors tried in criminal courts;
3-Judgments and sentences of Mayor's Court;
4-All cases arising before Justices of the Peace in
counties where there are no county courts;

(d') Review of Supervisory
1-Matters arising before County Judges pertaining
to their probate jurisdiction, or to the estates and
interests of minors;
2-Such other matters as the Legislature may pre-
scribe.









(SENATE BILL NO. 4)
AN ACT Redistricting the State of Florida into Judicial Circuits, and
providing for the appointment of Circuit Judges, and repealing existing
laws in conflict with the provisions of this Act.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF
FLORIDA:
Section 1. That there shall be Fifteen Judicial Circuits in this State,
of not less than 50,000 inhabitants according to the State census of 1935,
and the county or counties composing each and the number of Circuit
Judges therein, respectively, shall be as follows:


JUDICIAL CIRCUITS

OF THE

STATE OF FLORIDA


First Circuit: Composed of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa and Walton,
and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Second Circuit: Composed of Franklin, Gadsden, Leon, Wakulla, Jeffer-
son and Liberty, and shall have two Circuit Judges, but one of whom
shall reside in Leon County;
Third Circuit: Composed of Madison, Taylor, LaFayette, Suwannee,
Hamilton, Columbia and Dixie, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Fourth Circuit: Composed of Duval, Clay and Nassau, and shall have
three Circuit Judges in addition to the Circuit Judge of the Circuit Court









of Duval County appointed under the provisions of Section 42, Article 5,
of the Constitution;
(Ed. Note: Additional judge added by Sections 1 & 2, Ch. 22618,
Acts of 1945.)
Fifth Circuit: Composed of Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Lake, Sumter,
and shall have two Circuit Judges;
-Sixth Circuit: Composed of Pinellas and Pasco, and shall have two
Circuit Judges;
(Ed. Note: Additional judge added by Sections 1-3, Ch. 22943, Acts
of 1945.)
Seventh Circuit: Composed of Volusia, Putnam, St. Johns and Flagler,
and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Eighth Circuit: Composed of Alachua, Baker, Gilchrist, Bradford, Union
and Levy, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Ninth Circuit: Composed of Brevard, Orange, Osceola, Seminole, Indian
River, Okeechobee, St. Lucie and Martin, and shall have three Circuit
Judges;
Tenth Circuit: Composed of Polk, Hardee and Highlands, and shall
have two Circuit Judges;
Eleventh Circuit: Composed of Dade and Monroe, and shall have four
Circuit Judges;
Twelfth Circuit: Composed of Manatee, Sarasota, DeSoto, Charlotte,
Glades, Lee, Hendry and Collier, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Thirteenth Circuit: The Thirteenth Judicial Circuit shall not be af-
fected by this Act and shall remain as provided under existing law;
(Ed. Note: Hillsborough County, two circuit judges.)
Fourteenth Circuit: Composed of Holmes, Washington, Bay, Jackson,
Calhoun and Gulf, and shall have two Circuit Judges;
Fifteenth Circuit: Composed of Broward and Palm Beach, and shall
have two Circuit Judges.
Section 2. That in Circuits composed of two or more counties having
only two Circuit Judges under the provisions of this Act, both Judges
shall not be residents of the same county, except that in the Tenth Circuit
one Judge shall, and the other Judge may reside in Polk County; Provided,
that in the Seventh Circuit one Judge shall reside in Volusia County, and
one Judge shall reside in one of the other counties of said Circuit, and
that in the Twelfth Circuit one Judge shall be appointed from and be an
actual bona fide resident of Lee County, and shall reside in Lee County
during the continuance of his appointment, and in the Ninth Circuit one
Judge shall reside in either Seminole or Brevard County, one Judge shall
reside in Orange or Osceola County and one Judge shall reside in Indian
River, Okeechobee, St. Lucie or Martin County; and that in the Eleventh
Circuit one Judge shall be appointed from and be an actual bona fide
resident of Monroe County, and shall reside in Monroe County during
the continuance of his appointment. Provided, however, the provisions of
this Section shall not apply to the Sixth Judicial Circuit.
Section 3. The Circuit Judges holding office at the time of the ratifica-
tion at the general election of 1934 of the amendment to Section 45 of
Article V of the Florida Constitution, shall severally continue in office and
exercise jurisdiction until their then existing term or terms of office as









Judge or Judges of the Circuits, respectively, in which the county of their
resident may be included.
Section 4. That there shall be at least two regular terms of the Circuit
Court held in each county each year, also any special term or terms that
may be necessary from time to time; Provided that such regular terms
may be held at such time or times as now fixed by law, or until changed
by statute; Provided that in Circuits having more than one Circuit Judge,
at least one of said Judges shall be available as nearly as possible at all
times to hold and conduct hearings in Chambers.
Section 4-A. That the regular and special terms of court of each county
of said respective circuits may be convened and held as now provided
for by law; providing, however, that regular and special terms of court
may be held and be in session in the same or different counties in such
circuits simultaneously. Separate minutes of each term, whether regular
or special, shall be kept by the Clerk of each court of such circuits.
Section 5. No civil or criminal cases, suits in equity, actions at law,
statutory or otherwise; and no writs, process, pleading, motion, information,
presentment, indictment, or other proceedings, order, finding, decree, judg-
ment or sentence, shall abate, be quashed, set aside, reversed, qualified,
dismissed, defeated, or held to be in error because of the changes in any
Circuit or Circuits, or Judge or Judges, State attorneys or other prosecuting
officers by reason of any provision or provisions of this Act.
Section 5-A. Provided, however, that this Act shall not be construed
as in anywise affecting or abolishing any other Courts or Judgeships in
any county by reason of any county or counties being added to or re-
moved from any Circuit; but all such other or inferior Courts or Judgeships
shall continue in full force and effect as now constituted and until changed
by law.
Section 6. This Act and all appointments under this Act shall take
effect sixty days after the same becomes a law, as provided under the
said Amendment of Section 45 of Article V, Constitution of Florida;
Provided that no Circuit Judge shall be appointed to any vacancy or to
any term of office except as authorized under the provisions of said Section
45 of Article V of the Constitution and this Act.
Section 7. All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith be and the
same are hereby repealed.
Approved May 31, 1935.
Filed in office Secretary of State May 31, 1935.
(c) CRIMINAL COURTS; JUDGES:
(a') Method of Selection:- Appointed by Governor for four years.
These courts are created by the Legislature. County Judges'
Courts in such counties have no jurisdiction on criminal
cases and -no prosecuting attorney.
(b1) Jurisdiction: In all criminal cases, not capital, which shall
arise in said counties respectively.
Escambia
(Court of Record, with Criminal Jurisdiction)
Dade
Duval
Hillsborough









Monroe
Orange
Palm Beach
Polk
Broward
CIVIL COURT OF RECORD
Duval
Dade
JUDGES OF THE COURT OF CRIMES
Dade County only.
(d) CIVIL COURT OF RECORD; JUDGES:
(a') Method of Selection: Appointed by the Governor and con-
firmed by the Senate-term four years.
(b') Jurisdiction: Original and exclusive in
(a') All cases at law including writs of attachment and
garnishment in value under $5,000.
(bW) Has not jurisdiction in cases of equity, or cases in-
volving the legality of a tax, assessment, a toll, or of
action of ejectment, or of action involving the title
or boundaries of real estate or in cases involving less
than $500.
(e) COUNTY COURTS:
(a') Method of Organization: By legislative enactment.
(b') Jurisdiction:
(a') Original in
1-All cases at law in which the demand or value
shall not exceed $500;
2-Proceedings relating to forcible entry;
3-Unlawful detention of lands and tenements;
4-Misdemeanors.
(b') Appellate in
I-Cases arising in the courts of Justices of the Peace.
Counties which have County Courts are: Broward, DeSoto, Gadsden,
Glades, Indian River, Jefferson, Lee, Manatee, Martin, Okeechobee, Osceola,
Pasco, Pinellas, Sarasota, Seminole and St. Lucie.
(f) COUNTY JUDGE:
(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four years. Also Judge
County Court where established.
(b') Jurisdiction:
(a') Original in
1-All cases in which the value of property involved
shall not exceed $100;
2-Proceedings relating to forcible entry or unlawful
detention of lands and tenements;
38-Such criminal cases as the Legislature may pre-
scribe;
4-Settlement of estates of decedents and minors;
5-Probate wills;









6-Grant letters testamentary and of administration
and guardianship;
7-The power of committing magistrate;
8-Issue all licenses required by law to be issued in
the county.
(g) JUSTICES OF THE PEACE:
(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four years.
(b') Jurisdiction:
(a') Original only:
1-Case in which the value of property involved does
not exceed $100;
2-Criminal cases excepting felonies as may be pre-
scribed by law;
3-Issue process for the arrest of all persons charged
with felonies and misdemeanors not within his
jurisdiction to try, and make the same returnable
before himself, or the County Judge for examina-
tion, commitment, or bail of the accused.
JUVENILE COURTS
Brevard
Dade
Duval
Hillsborough
Monroe
Orange
Pinellas
C. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
(a) THE GOVERNOR-CHIEF MAGISTRATE:
(a') How Chosen: By election every four years; not eligible
for two terms in succession.
(b') Power and Duties:
1-Commander-in-Chief of the military forces of the State
except when they are called into the Federal service;
2-Executes the laws of the State and recommends measures
to the Legislature;
3-May demand of the Supreme Court interpretation of pro-
visions of the State Constitution upon any question af-
fecting his executive powers;
4-Signs all grants and commissions;
5-Has power to suspend officers who are not liable to
impeachment;
6-Has veto power of bills passed by the Legislature or to
disapprove any items in bills making appropriations.
Veto may be overruled by a two-thirds vote of members
present in each house.
Member of the following Boards and Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;









2-State Board of Education;
3-Board of Internal Improvement;
4-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage District;
5-State Pension Board;
6-Board of Pardons;
7-Tax Equalization Board;
8-Sinking Fund Commission;
9-Budget Commission;
10-Text Book Commission;
11-Board of Administration;
12-Board of Conservation;
13-Florida State Advertising Commission.
(b) THE OFFICE OF SECRETARY OF STATE:
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and Com-
missions:
1-State Canvassing Board;
2-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
3-State Board of Pardons;
4-State Board of Education;
5-Budget Commission;
6-Text Book Commission;
7-Conservation Commission;
8-Labor Agents Licensing Board;
9-State Board of Vocational Education;
10-State Planning Board;
11-Trustees Teachers Retirement Fund;
12-Executive Board;
13-Florida State Advertising Commission;
14-Department of Public Safety Board.
(c') .Divisions of his Office: Has charge of capitol and grounds.
1-Division of Corporations;
2-Division of Elections and Commissions;
3-Division of Recording and Filing.
(d') Official Custodian of Capitol and Grounds.
1-The Great Seal;
2-Acts of the Legislature.
(c) THE OFFICE OF ATTORNEY GENERAL:
(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and Com-
missions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-State Board of Pardons;
4-Board of Tax Equalization;
5-State Board of Conservation;
6-Board of Appraisers of Securities;
7-Board of Railroad Property Assessors;









8-Board of Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund;
9-State Canvassing Board;
10-Budget Commission;
11-Sinking Fund Commission;
12-Board of Trustees Teachers Retirement Fund;
13-Department of Public Safety Board;
14-Board of Drainage Commissioners;
15-State Defense Council;
16-State Housing Board;
17-Text Book Commission.
(c1) Legal Advisor of:
1-The Governor;
2-The Cabinet Officers;
3-State Board of Health;
4-State Highway Board;
5-State Hotel Commission;
6-State Conservation Commission;
7-State Wild Life Commission;
8-State Plant Board;
9-State Board of Control;
10-Board of Tax Equalization;
11-Railroad Commission;
12-State Racing Commission.

(d) THE OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER:
(a1) Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b1) Functions: Member of the following Boards and Commis-
sions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-Board of Pardons;
3-State Canvassing Board;
4-Board of Finance;
5-Pension Board;
6-Railroad Assessment Board;
7-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage District;
8-Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund;
9-Budget Commission;
10-Board of Appraisers of Securities;
11-State Text Book Commission;
12-Florida Securities Commission.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of Accounts;
2-Division of Supervisor of State Banks;
3-Division of Tax Redemption;
4-Division of Pensions;
5-Division of Railroad Assessments;
6-Division of County Depositories;
7-Division of the "Blue Sky" Law;
8-Division of Bank Receivership.









(e) THE OFFICE OF TREASURER:
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and Com-
missionq:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage District;.
4-Board of. Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund;
5-Board of Pensions;
6-Board of Tax Equalization;
7-State Text Book Commission;
8-Florida Securities Commission;
9-Ex-Officio Insurance Commissioner;
10-Budget Commission;
11-Board of Administration;
12-Department of Public Safety Board;
13-Board of Trustees Teachers Retirement Fund;
14-State Housing Board;
15-State Vocational Education Board;
16-Railroad and Telegraph Assessment Board.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of Accounts;
2-Division of Insurance.

(f) THE OFFICE OF STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC IN-
STRUCTION:
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and Corn--
missions:
1-State Board of Education;
2-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
3-State Vocational Education Board;
4-State Text Book Commission;
5-Budget Commission.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Chief Clerk and Certificate Clerk;
2-Secretary;
3-State Director of Instruction;
4-State Director of School Finance;
5-State Supervisor of Agricultural Education;
6-State Supervisor of Trade and Industrial Education;
7-State Supervisor of Home Economics Education;
8-State Agent for Negro Rural Schools;
9-Director of Division of Schoolhouse Planning and Con-
struction;
10-Draftsman, Division of Schoolhouse Planning and Con-
struction.









(g) THE OFFICE OF COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE:
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four years.
(b') Functions: Is a member of the following Boards and Com-
missions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institutions;
2-Board of Pardons;
3-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage District;
4-Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund;
5-State Text Book Commission;
6-Budget Commission;
7-State Marketing Board;
8-Milk Control Board;
9-Board of Public Safety;
10-Conservation Board;
11-Florida Economic Advancement Council;
12-Florida Research Foundation.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of Agriculture and Immigration; also conducts
Census Bureau, Enumeration of State Resources, and
State Advertising;
2-Division of Pure Food and Drugs, Stock, Feed, Fertilizer,
Citrus Fruits, Milk, Gasoline and Oil Inspection;
3-Division of Land;
4-Division of Field Notes;
5-Division of Prison;
6-Division of Chemistry;
7-Division of State Marketing Bureau;
8-Division of Citrus Fruit Inspection;
9-Division of State Marketing Board;
10-Division of Seed Inspection.

BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS
BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF STATE INSTITUTIONS: This Board
is provided for in the Constitution and is composed of the Governor and
the cabinet. It has charge of the eleemosynary institutions of the
State-the Industrial School for Boys, Industrial School for Girls, State
Asylum, State Farm and Florida Farm Colony-lets contracts for State
printing and makes text book contracts, supervises State buildings and
lets contracts for improvements.
BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DIS-
TRICT: Composed of the Governor, Attorney General, Comptroller
and Commissioner of Agriculture. It is a governing board which has
charge of the drainage projects and the general work of reclaiming the
Everglades.
SINKING FUND COMMISSION: Composed of the Governor, Secretary
of State, Attorney General, Treasurer and Superintendent of Public
Instruction. Administers moneys received by the State banks as interest
on money on deposit, for retiring the State debt.









TRUSTEES OF THE INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT FUND: They ad-
minister the disposition of State lands and the proceeds thereof. They
are the Governor, Attorney General, Comptroller, Treasurer, and Com-
missioner of Agriculture.
STATE PENSION BOARD: Passes on all applications for pensions. Com-
posed of the Governor, Comptroller and Treasurer.
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH: Composed of four members appointed by
the Governor. Its duty is to administer laws on sanitation and health.
STATE VETERINARIAN: Under State Board of Health. His function
is to direct the work of eradication of the cattle tick, tuberculosis and
hog cholera.
STATE PLANT BOARD: The personnel is the same as that of the State
Board of Control. Its duty is to administer the law on plant disease
and the shipping of plants.
FOREIGN INVESTMENT BOARD: Composed of the Treasurer, the
Attorney General and the Comptroller. Administers laws on foreign
corporations doing business in the State.
BUDGET COMMISSION: Composed of the Governor, Comptroller, Treas-
urer, Attorney General, Secretary of State, Commissioner of Agriculture
and State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION: This Board is also established by
the Constitution. It is composed of the Governor, Attorney General,
Treasurer, Secretary of State, and State Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion. It has charge of the State School Fund, and collaborative super-
vision over State Colleges and the University with the Board of Control.
It has the power of veto over acts of the Board of Control in the
appointment of teachers and the setting of salaries. It may remove
subordinate officers.
STATE CANVASSING BOARD: Composed of Secretary of State, Attorney
General and Treasurer. Canvasses and reports on all election returns.
STATE PENSION BOARD: Passes on all applications for pensions. Com-
posed of the Governor, Comptroller and Treasurer.
STATE BOARD OF PARDONS: This is another Board created by the
Constitution. It is composed of the Governor, Attorney General, Comp-
troller, Commissioner of Agriculture and Secretary of State. It passes
on all questions of pardons.
STATE BOARD OF CONTROL: This statutory Board was created in
1905 when the Legislature undertook to consolidate the institutions of
higher education. It supervises the expenditures for the Institutions of
Higher Learning and makes recommendations to the Legislature con-
cerning them. The personnel is appointed by the Governor-five in
number, selected from different sections of the State, who serve without
pay.
STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT: Composed of five Commissioners,
who are appointed by the Governor, one from each Congressional Dis-
trict and one from the State-at-large, It directs the construction of
State highways.
FLORIDA INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION.









STATE BOARD OF DENTAL EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF PHARMACY.
STATE BOARD OF ACCOUNTANCY.
STATE BOARD OF MEDICAL EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF LAW EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF PLUMBING COMMISSIONERS.
STATE BOARD OF ARCHITECTURE.
STATE BOARD OF VETERINARY EXAMINERS.
STATE RACING COMMISSION.
STATE BOARD OF CHIROPRACTICS.
STATE RAILROAD COMMISSION.
STATE BOARD OF OPTOMETRY.
STATE BOARD OF OSTEOPATHIC EXAMINERS.
STATE BOARD OF EMBALMING.
STATE BOARD OF ENGINEERING EXAMINERS.
STATE SCHOOL BOOK COMMISSION.
STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION:
Wild Life, Shell and Salt Water Fish Commission.
State Geologist.
Hotel Commissioner.
State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
ADJUTANT GENERAL (Appointed by the Governor and holds office
at his pleasure, by provision of the Constitution; by Statute of 1921
the appointment is by advice and consent of the Senate).
STATE RAILROAD ASSESSMENT BOARD.
STATE REALTY BOARD.
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION BOARD.
BOARD OF EX-CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS HOME.
BUREAU OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION AND IDENTIFICATION.
STATE LABOR INSPECTOR.
SUPERVISING INSPECTOR OF NAVAL STORES.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU:
(The Marketing Commissioner is nominated by the Commissioner of
Agriculture and commissioned by the Governor.)-Function: (See Report
of that Office).
STATE MARKETING BOARD:
Has charge of Farm Warehouses.
INSPECTOR OF AIRCRAFT.
CHILD WELFARE COMMISSION.
MOTOR VEHICLE COMMISSION.
AUDITING COMMISSION.
FORESTRY COMMISSION.
LIBRARY COMMISSION.









MILK CONTROL BOARD.
COMMISSION FOR PROMOTION OF UNIFORMITY OF LEGISLA-
TION IN U. S.
STATE CONSTITUTIONAL, MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION.
DADE MEMORIAL COMMISSION.
JUDAH P. BENJAMIN MEMORIAL COMMISSION.
NATIONAL BOARD OF REVIEW, MOTION PICTURES.
FLORIDA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND.
FLORIDA CRIPPLED CHILDREN'S COMMISSION.
EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK COMMISSION.
STEPHEN FOSTER MEMORIAL.
CROSS STATE CANAL COMMISSION.


[ -:-


CONGRESSIONAL


DISTRICTS

OF THE


STATE OF FLORIDA









CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS
(1947 Supplement to Volume I, Florida Statutes, 1941)
Chapter 8
8.01 Division of state into congressional districts.-The State of Florida
be and the same is hereby divided into six congressional districts, same to
be numbered and designated as district number one, district number two,
district number three, district number four, district number five, and dis-
trict number six, to wit:
(1) The counties of Hardee, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Mana-
tee, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota shall constitute and compose the
first congressional district.
(2) The counties of Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Clay, Columbia, Dixie,
Duval, Gilchrist, Hamilton, Lafayette, Levy, Madison, Nassau, Suwannee,
Taylor, and Union shall constitute and compose the second congressional
district.
(3) The counties of Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf,
Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Wakulla,
Walton, and Washington shall constitute and compose the fourth congres-
sional district.
(4) The counties of Collier, Dade, and Monroe shall constitute and
compose the fourth congressional district,
(5) The counties of Brevard, Citrus, Flagler, Lake, Marion, Orange,
Osceola, Putnam, St. Johns, Seminole, Sumter, and Volusia shall constitute
and compose the fifth congressional district.
(6) The counties of Broward, Charlotte, DeSoto, Glades, Hendry, In-
dian River, Lee, Martin, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and St. Lucie shall
constitute and compose the sixth congressional district.
(Enacted as Par. 1-7, Chapter 21975, Acts of 1943)











COMPARATIVE STUDIES

By T. J. BROOKS

COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENTS

(1W) Definition: A study of the similarities and contrasts in,
the structure and administration of governments.

AS TO KINDS
(21) Explication
(12 ) Monarchies
(Based on heredity succession)
(22) Republics
(Based on elective officials)
(32) Provisional
(Temporary trial following W. W. II)
(42) Monarchies
(13) Afghanistan
(23) Belgium
(38) Denmark
(43) Egypt
(55) Ethiopia
(6') Great Britain
(Includes all dominions and
commonwealths)
(78) Greece
(88) Iran
(92) Iraq
(103) Luxemberg
(118) Netherlands
(12 ) Norway
(133) Saudi Arabia
(141) Siam
(153) Sweden
(52) Republics
(1) Albania
(23) Argentina
(3S) Bolivia
(48) Brazil
(5s) Bulgaria
(6-) Chile
(73) China
(83) Columbia
(93) Costa Rica
(10) Cuba
(11s) Czechoslovakia
(12) Dominican Republic
(183) Ecuador
(14*) Finland
(15s) France
(163) Guatemala
(173) Haiti
(183) Honduras
(19s) Hungary
(20) Iceland
(213) Ireland (Erie)
(223) Israel
(231) Italy
(243) Lebanon
(253) Liberia
(26-) Mexico










(27') Mongolia
(283) Nicaragua
(29') Panama
(S30) Paraguay
(31') Peru
(323) Philippines
(333) Poland
(343) Portugal
(353) Rumania
(36') Russia
(373) Salvador
(38') Spain
(393) Switzerland
(40') Syria
(41') Turkey
(42") United States
(433) Uruguay
(443) Venezuela
(453) Yugoslavia
(62) Provisional
(1') Germany
(2') Japan
(33) Korea
(4') Somaliland
(5') Trieste


MONARCHIES

AFGHANISTAN
CAPITAL: Kabul
AREA: 245,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 12,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Constitutional Monarchy
(11) Executive Branch
King
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, appointed by King
(22) Lower Chamber, Assembly, elective
(33) Judicial Department

BELGIUM
CAPITAL: Brussels
AREA: 11,755 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8,361,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Representative Hereditary Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
King
Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
Upper Chamber, Senate, 159
Lower Chamber, Deputies, 187
(31) Judicial Department

DENMARK
CAPITAL: Copenhagen
AREA: 16,568 Square Miles
POPULATION: 4,044,725
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(1 ) Executive Department
King
Cabinet
Premier










(2') Legislative Department (Rigsdag)
Upper Chamber, Landsting, 76
Lower Chamber, Folketing, 149
(3') Judicial Department

EGYPT
CAPITAL: Cairo
AREA: 383,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 17,819,500
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(1') Executive Branch of Government
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Senate
(22) Chamber of Deputies
(3') Judicial Department
Note: Since 1936, Constitution functions under British protection.

ETHIOPIA
CAPITAL: Addis Ababa
AREA: 350,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 7,500,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Branch
(12) Emperor
(22) Council of Ministers
(32) Prime Minister
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Senate
(22) Chamber of Deputies
(3') Judicial Department

GREAT BRITAIN
CAPITAL: London
AREA: 94,277 Square Miles
POPULATION: 46,688,814
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Limited Monarchy
(1') Executive Department
(12) King-Titular
(22) Cabinet
(32) Prime Minister
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, House of Lords, 168
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Commons, 615
For five year term, subject at all times to dissolu-
tion of Parliament by a vote against the program
of the party in power-when a new election is or-
dered.
(31) Judicial Department: It does not have the right to declare
Acts of Parliament "Unconstitutional." England
has no written constitution but she has a traditional
constitution well defined by custom and court de-
cisions.

ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN
CAPITAL: Khartoum
AREA: 969,600
POPULATION: 7,300,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Anglo-Egyptian Condominium
(11) Executive Department
The affairs of the Dependency are administered by a
Governor-General appointed by Egypt with the as-
sent of Great Britain











AUSTRALIA
CAPITAL: Canberra
AREA: 2,974,581 Square Miles
POPULATION: 7,3853,650
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Commonwealth
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor-General-appointed by England
(22) Cabinet
(32) Prime Minister
(21) Legislative Department, Federal Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 36
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 74
(31) Judicial Department

BALUCHISTAN
CAPITAL: Quetta
AREA: 130,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 800,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Baluchistan
(11) Executive Department
Chief Commissioner, under viceroy of India
(21) Judicial Department

BRITISH GUIANA
CAPITAL: Georgetown
'AREA: 89,480 Square Miles
POPULATION: 375,819
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Colonial
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor, appointed by Crown
(22) Executive Council, appointed by Crown
(21) Legislative Department
Council, semi-elective
(31) Judicial Department
CANADA
CAPITAL: Ottawa
AREA: 3,690,043 Square Miles
POPULATION: 11,975,000
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Dominion
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor-General-appointed by England
(22) Prime Minister-elected
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Commons
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Each of the nine Canadian Provinces have a separate parlia-
ment enjoying considerable local autonomy.
CEYLON
CAPITAL: Colombo
AREA: 25,322 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,650,825
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Dominion
(1') Executive Department
Governor
(21) Legislative Department
State Council of 61 members
(31) Judicial Department
CYPRUS
CAPITAL: Nicosia
AREA: 3,584 Square Miles
POPULATION: 424,656
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Colonial











(1') Executive Branch
(12) Governor
(22) Executive Council
(21) Legislative Branch
Legislative Council, semi-elective
(3') Judicial Department

FEDERATED MALAY STATES
CAPITAL: Kuala-Lumpur
AREA: 27,506 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,713,096
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Protectorate under Native Rulers
Note: The Federation is made up of four states, under a British-
supervised Federal Council. Local government in each of the
states is under a native ruler assisted by a British Resident.

INDIA
CAPITALS: Winter: New Delhi; Summer: Simla
AREA: 1,228,267 Square Miles
POPULATION: 330,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: An English Dominion of 1,094,300 Square
Miles and population of 270,612,000. The re-
mainder being "Indian States."
(1 ) Executive Department
(12) Ostensibly the King of England
(22) Viceroy or Governor-General
(32) The Cabinet
(42) A Premier
(21) Legislative Branch: Legislature
(12) Upper Chamber, Council of State, 60
(22) Lower Chamber, Legislative Assembly, 146
(3') Judicial Department

NEWFOUNDLAND
CAPITAL: St. John's
AREA: 42,734 Square Miles
POPULATION: 313,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: British Colonial
(1') Executive and Legislative Departments, Commission
Six Commissioners, three each from Britain and New-
foundland

NEW ZEALAND
CAPITAL: Wellington
AREA: 104,015 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,702,298
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Dominion
(11) Executive Department
(12) Governor-General
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department-Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Legislative Council, 30
(2') Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 80
(31) Judicial Department

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
CAPITAL: Pretoria (seat of administration)
Capetown (seat of legislature)
AREA: 472,347 Square Miles
POPULATION: 11,238,858
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Dominion
(1') Executive Department
(12) Governor-General
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier










(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 40
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 150
(31) Judicial Department

GREECE
CAPITAL: Athens
AREA: 51,145 Square Miles
POPULATION: 7,485,770
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Branch
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber
(22) Lower Chamber
(31) Judicial Department

IRAN (Persia)
CAPITAL: Teheran
AREA: 628,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 13,900,000 ', -
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) Crowned Ruler or Shah
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament, called Medjliss or
National Assembly
31) Judicial Department

IRAQ (Mesopotamia)
CAPITAL: Baghdad
AREA: 168,243 Square Miles
POPULATION: 4,803,430
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy, Limited
(1') Executive Branch
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(2') Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 20
(22) Lower Chamber, House, 107
(31) Judicial Department

LUXEMBERG
CAPITAL: Luxemberg
AREA: 998 Square Miles
POPULATION: 287,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Minister of State
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Council of State
(22) Chamber of Deputies
(32) Judicial Department

NETHERLANDS
CAPITAL: Amsterdam
SEAT OF GOVERNMENT: The Hague
AREA: 13,202 Square Miles
POPULATION: 9,539,103











FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(1') Executive Department
(12) Queen
(22) Cabinet
(83) Premier
(21) Legislative Department, States-General
(12) Upper Chamber, 50
(22) Lower Chamber, 100
(31) Judicial Department

NETHERLAND INDIA (Dutch East Indies)
CAPITAL: Batavia
AREA: 733,642 Square Miles
POPULATION: 70,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Colonial
(11) Executive Branch
Governor-General, nominated by Queen of Holland
(22) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, Advisory Council, 5 nominated
by the Queen
(2') Lower Chamber, Assembly (Volksraad) partially
elected, 60
(31) Judicial Department

NORWAY
CAPITAL: Oslo (name changed from Christiana)
AREA: 125,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,123,338
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(1 ) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament, or Storting
Composed of one body of 150
(31) Judicial Department

SAUDI ARABIA
CAPITAL: Mecca
AREA: 413,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 5,500,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(1') Executive Branch
(12) King
(22) Council of Ministers

SIAM
CAPITAL: Bangkok
AREA: 200,148 Square Miles
POPULATION: 19,100,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy
(1') Executive Department
(12) King
(22) State Council
(32) Prime Minister
21) Legislative Department
(12) Assembly of People's Representatives
(31) Judicial Department

SWEDEN
CAPITAL: Stockholm
AREA: 173,154 Square Miles
POPULATION: 6,597,348
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Monarchy










(11) Executive Department
(12) King
(22) Council of State
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Diet or Riksdag
(12) Upper Chamber, 150
(22) Lower Chamber, 230
38) Judicial Department


REPUBLICS

ALBANIA
CAPITAL: Tirane
AREA: 10,629 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,140,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) Executive Council
(21) Legislative Branch-People's Assembly
(12) Federal Council
(22) Council of Nationalities
(3') Judicial Department

ARGENTINA
CAPITAL: Buenos Aires
AREA: 1,072,745 Square Miles
POPULATION: 16,107,936
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department: Federal
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, 80
Elected for 9 years
Renewed by one-third a year
Elected by Provincial Legislatures
(22) Lower Chamber, 158
Four year term
Renewed by halves every two years
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Governors of Provinces, elected by local suffrage, exercise ex-
tensive provincial power.

BOLIVIA
CAPITALS: La Paz and Sucre
AREA: 416,040 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,854,100
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 24
(22) Lower Chamber, called the Chamber, 70
(81) Judicial Department

BRAZIL
CAPITAL: Rio de Janeiro
AREA: 3,285,318 Square Miles
POPULATION: 46,200,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet











(21) Legislative: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Federal Council, 30
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 150
(3t) Judicial Department

BULGARIA
CAPITAL: Sofia
AREA: 42,814 Square Miles
POPULATION: 7,022,206
KIND OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
President-Elected
(21) Legislative Department
Single Chamber, the Sobrange
(3') Judicial Department

CHILE
CAPITAL: Santiago
AREA: 287,890 Square Miles
POPULATION: 5,389,554
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 45
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 143
(31) Judicial Department

CHINA
CAPITAL: Nanking
AREA: 3,422,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 444,653,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) State Council
(22) President of Council
(2') Legislative
Standing Committees
(31) Judicial: Ministry of Justice and a Supreme Court
Note: China is at present involved in civil war which may result in
drastic changes

COLUMBIA
CAPITAL: Bogota
AREA: 440,846 Square Miles
POPULATION: 9,905,748
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate
(22) Lower Chamber, Departmental Assemblies
(3') Judicial Department

COSTA RICA
CAPITAL: San Jose
AREA: 19,238 Square Miles
POPULATION: 746,535
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet










(21) Legislative Branch, Parliamentary
A single Body, Congress, elected
(31) Judicial Department

CUBA
CAPITAL: Havana
AREA: 44,217 Square Miles
POPULATION: 4,778,583
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, 87
(22) Lower Chamber, 128
(831) Judicial Department

CZECHOSLOVAKIA
CAPITAL: Prague
AREA: 49,373 Square Miles
POPULATION: 12,035,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(2') Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 150
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 300
( 3) Judicial Department
Note: Very close political and economic relations with Russia.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
CAPITAL: Cuidad Trujillo
AREA: 19,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,059,835
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department
(1 ) Senate, 20
(22) Chamber of Deputies
(83) Judicial Department

ECUADOR
CAPITAL: Quito
AREA: 101,481 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,240,598
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 82
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 56
(831) Judicial Department

FINLAND
CAPITAL: Helsinki
AREA: 149,954 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,834,662
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Department
(12) President










(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(2') Legislative Department: One body-Chamber of Representa-
tives
(31) Judicial Department

FRANCE
CAPITAL: Paris
AREA: 212,659 Square Miles
POPULATION: 40,517,927
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Council of Republics
(22) Lower Chamber, National Assembly
(31) Judicial Department

ALGERIA
CAPITAL: Alger (Algiers)
AREA: 847,818 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8,983,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative Colonial
Note: Northern Algeria considered as three French Departments
(Provinces)
(11) Executive Branch, Local
Governor-General
(21) Legislative Branch
Each department is represented in the French National
Assembly at Paris by one Senator and three Deputies.
(31) Judicial Department

FRENCH WEST AFRICA
CAPITAL: Dakar
AREA: 1,814,810 Square Miles
POPULATION: 15,937,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: French Territorial, with Colonial Subdivi-
sions
(1') Executive Department, Territorial
Governor-General
(2') Legislative Department
Territorial Council
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Individual Colonies within French West Africa are adminis-
tered by Lieutenant-Governors.

MADAGASCAR
CAPITAL: Tananarive
AREA: 228,707 Square Miles
POPULATION: 4,198,090
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: French Colonial
(11) Executive Department
Governor-General from France

GUATEMALA
CAPITAL: Guatemala
AREA: 42,044 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,546,624
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(1') Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet










(21) Legislative Department
(12) Upper Chamber, Council of State, 7
(22) Lower Chamber, National Assembly, 69
(31) Judicial Department

HAITI
CAPITAL: Port-au-Prince
AREA: 11,069 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, appointed by President, 21
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, elected, 37
(31) Judicial Department

HONDURAS
CAPITAL: Tegucigalpa
AREA: 59,160 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,173,032
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Representative
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) ,Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Congress
Composed of 38 Deputies
(31) Judicial Department

HUNGRY
CAPITAL: Budapest
AREA: 35,875 Square Miles
POPULATION: 8,900,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
Provisional Representative government modeled after Soviet Union
following coup d'etat by Communists in 1947.

ICELAND
CAPITAL: Reykjavik
AREA: 39,709 Square Miles
POPULATION: 127,770
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
Ministry-83 members
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
One body of 49 members, the Althing, sharing power
with the ministry
(31) Judicial Department

IRELAND (Eire)
CAPITAL: Dublin
AREA: 26,601 Square Miles
POPULATION: 3,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Prime Minister
(32) Council of State
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament or Oireachtas
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, or Senad Eireann, 60
(22) Lower Chamber, Chamber of Deputies, or Dail
Eireann, 153
(31) Judicial Department











ISRAEL
CAPITAL: Tel Aviv
AREA: 5,500 Square Miles
POPULATION: 900,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(832) Premier
(2') Legislative Department
(12) Great Assembly, 120 members
(31) Judicial Department

ITALY
CAPITAL :Rome
AREA: 116,533 Square Miles
POPULATION: 44,636,775
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Senate
(22) Chamber of Deputies
31) Judicial Department

LEBANON
CAPITAL: Beyrouth
AREA: 3,926 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,165,208
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Parliament
(31) Judicial Department

LIBERIA
CAPITAL: Monrovia
AREA: 43,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,500,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(2') Legislative Department
(12) Senate
(22) House of Representatives
(31) Judicial Department

MEXICO
CAPITAL: Mexico City
AREA: 767,198 Square Miles
POPULATION: 19,653,552
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 58
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 170
(31) Judicial Department










MONGOLIA
CAPITAL: Ulan Bator Khoto (Urga)
AREA; 558,058 Square Miles
POPULATION: 880,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Tribal Chieftain Autonomy, Soviet influ-
ence

NICARAGUA
CAPITAL: Managua
AREA: 57,144 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,082,439
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Congress
(1) Upper Chamber, Senate, 24
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 43
(3') Judicial Department

PANAMA
CAPITAL: Panama
AREA: 28,575 Square Miles
POPULATION: 631,549
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch, National Assembly
A one-house body with 82 elected members
(3') Judicial Department

PARAGUAY
CAPITAL: Asuncion
AREA: 150,516 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,040,420
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Assembly, 42
(31) Judicial Department

PERU
CAPITAL: Lima
AREA: 482,257 Square Miles
POPULATION: 7,395,687
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(2') Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies
(31) Judicial Department

PHILIPPINES
CAPITAL: Manila
AREA: 115,600 Square Miles
POPULATION: 18,204,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Department
(1 ) President
(22) Cabinet










(21) Legislative Department, National Assembly
(12) Senate, 24
(22) House of Representatives, 98
(31) Judicial Department

POLAND
CAPITAL: Warsaw
AREA: 149,958 Square Miles
POPULATION: 34,220,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Council of State
(382) Premier
(21) Legislative Department: Sejm
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 96
(22) Lower Chamber, Diet, 208
(31) Judicial Department
Note: Very close political and economic relations with Russia.

PORTUGAL
CAPITAL: Lisbon
AREA: 34,904 Square Miles
POPULATION: 7,185,143
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President
(22) Privy Council
(32) Premier
(21) Legislative Department
(12) National Assembly
(22) Corporative Chamber
(31) Judicial Department
RUMANIA
CAPITAL: Bucharest
AREA: 91,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 16,409,367
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Department
(12) Council of Ministers
(22) Prime Minister
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies
(3') Judicial Department
Note: Under direct Communist domination.

RUSSIA
CAPITAL: Moscow
AREA: 8,187,253 Square Miles
POPULATION: 193,500,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Socialistic-Republic
(11) Executive Branch*
(12) President of Central Executive Committee and other
committees
(22) Cabinet or Council of People's Commissars
(21) Legislative Branch: Parliament
(12) Commission: Supreme Council or Verkhovny Soviet
(2') Soviet Congress
(18) Council of the Union, Soviet Soyuza, 472
(23) Council of Nationalists, Soviet Natsionalnos-
tei, 138
(31) Judicial Department
* The Secretary of the Communist Party is virtual dictator-Stalin
(Bolsheviki means "majority"; Soviet means "group")










SALVADOR
CAPITAL: San Salvador
AREA: 13,176 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,934,925
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12) President-elected
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Department
(12) Single chamber elected once a year
(31) Judicial Department

SPAIN
CAPITAL: Madrid
AREA: 190,050 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,608,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Department
(12 ) Council of Ministers
(22) President of Council (Dictator)
(21) Legislative Department: Parliament
Grand Council of Falangist Party
(83) Judicial Department

SWITZERLAND
CAPITAL: Berne
AREA:' 15,940 Square Miles
POPULATION: 4,265,703
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Federal Council
(32) Chancellor
(21) Legislative Branch
(12) Council of States, 44
(22) National Council, 190
(31) Judicial Department

SYRIA
CAPITAL: Damascus
AREA: 66,046 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,860,411
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch
Representative Council
(31) Judicial Department

TURKEY
CAPITAL: Ankara
AREA: 296,190 Square Miles
POPULATION: 18,871,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1') Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(32) Premier
(2') Legislative Branch: Grand National Assembly consisting of
317 Members
(31) Judicial Department












UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
CAPITAL: Washington
AREA: Continental U. S., 3,026,789 Square Miles
POPULATION: Continental U. S., 143,000,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Administrative Department
(12) President-Elected for four years
(22) Cabinet-Appointed by the President
(1') Secretary of State
(23) Secretary of Treasury
(33) Secretary of War
(4 ) Attorney General
(52) Secretary of The Navy
(63) Secretary of Interior
(7') Postmaster-General
(8s) Secretary of Agriculture
(93) Secretary of Commerce
(102) Secretary of Labor
(21) Legislative Department: Congress
(1) Upper House, 96-Elected for 6 years
(22) Lower House, 435-Elected for 2 years
(31) Supreme Court: May decide the constitutionality of laws
passed by Congress when cases are brought to Court in-
volving the validity of an Act. Nine Judges, appointed by
the President for life.
(1') Circuit Court of Appeals
(2') District Courts
(32) Court of Claims
(4*) Court of Customs

ALASKA
CAPITAL: Juneau
AREA: 586,400 Square Miles
POPULATION: 85,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: United States Territory
(11) Executive Branch
Governor, appointed by U. S. President
(21) Legislative Branch
Legislature with limited powers
(3') Judicial Department

HAWAII
CAPITAL: Honolulu
AREA: 6,406 Square Miles
POPULATION: 458,177
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: United States Territory
(1') Executive Branch
(12) Governor, appointed by U. S. President
(22) Secretary, appointed by U. S. President
(21) Legislative Branch: Legislature
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 15
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 30
(31) Judicial Department

PORTO RICO
CAPITAL: San Juan
AREA: 3,435 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,087,112
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: United States Territory
(11) Executive Branch
Governor, appointed by U. S. President
(2') Legislative Branch: Legislature
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 19
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives, 39
(31) Judicial Department










VIRGIN ISLANDS
CAPITAL: Charlotte Amalie
AREA: 133 Square Miles
POPULATION: 27,160
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: United States Dependency
(11) Executive Branch
Resident Governor, appointed by U. S. President
21) Legislative Branch
Colonial Councils
Partially elected by Municipality of St. Thomas and
St. John and Municipality of St. Croix
(3') Judicial Department

URUGUAY
CAPITAL: Montevideo
AREA: 72,153 Square Miles
POPULATION: 2,202,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Legislature
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 30
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 99
(31) Judicial Department

VENEZUELA
CAPITAL: Caracas
AREA: 352,141 Square Miles
POPULATION: 4,315,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(11) Executive Branch
(12) President
(22) Cabinet
(21) Legislative Branch: Congress
(12) Upper Chamber, Senate, 40
(22) Lower Chamber, Deputies, 85
(31) Judicial Department

YUGOSLAVIA
CAPITAL: Belgrade
AREA: 98,436 Square Miles
POPULATION: 16,243,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic
(1V) Executive Department
(12) Presidium (council)
(21) Legislative Department: People's Assembly
(12) Federal Council
(22) Council of Nationalities
(31) Judicial Department



PROVISIONAL

GERMANY
CAPITAL: Berlin
AREA: 137,674 Square Miles
POPULATION: 65,910,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Provisional
Note: Divided into four zones under military jurisdiction of U. S.,
France, England and Russia.










JAPAN
CAPITAL: Tokyo
AREA: 147,889 Square Miles
POPULATION: 73,114,308
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Provisional
(11) Executive Department
(12) Emperor
(22) Cabinet
(32) Prime Minister
(21) Legislative Department: Imperial Diet
(12) Upper Chamber, House of Councilors
(22) Lower Chamber, House of Representatives
(31) Judicial Department

KOREA (Chosen)
CAPITAL: Keijo (Seoul)
AREA: 85,206 Square Miles
POPULATION: 24,326,327
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Provisional

SOMALILAND
CAPITAL: Magadiscio
AREA: 190,000 Square Miles
POPULATION: 1,210,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Provisional Republic

TRIESTE
CAPITAL: Trieste
AREA: 285 Square Miles
POPULATION: 350,000
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Provisional under United Nations











A List of References on Comparative Politics and Government
with Special Reference to France, Germany,
Great Britain, Italy, etc.

GENERAL
Gazeteer of the 1937 Matthews-Northrop New International Atlas: Produced by J. W.
Clement Co., Buffalo, N. Y., for the Blue Ribbon Books Inc., New York, N. Y.
Gazeteer of the 1937 New International Atlas of the World: Published for American
Education Society, Chicago, 111.
Bonn, Moritz J. The crisis of European democracy. New Haven, Pub. for the Institute
of Politics by the Yale University press, 1925. 103 p. (The Institute of Politics
publications, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.) D653.B65
Bryce, James Bryce, viscount. Modern democracies. New York, The MacMillan Co.,
1921, 2 v.
Finer, Herman. Foreign governments at work; an introductory study, London, New
York, H. Milford, Oxford University press, 1921, 3 p. (The world of today. (24) ).
Goodnow, Frank J. Comparative administrative law; an analysis of the administrative
systems, national and local, of the United States, England, France, and Germany.
New York and London, G. P. Putnam's sons, 1903, 2v. in 1. JF1351.G65 1903
New governments of eastern Europe. New York, H. Holt & Co. (1927) 826 p. (Ameri-
can political science series; general editor, E. S. Corwin.) D443.G56
"Select documents on the new governments of eastern Europe" p. 559-800.
Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Russia.
Ray. Major European Governments, 1931. Ginn & Co., Boston.
Harden, Maximilian, Germany, France and England. Translated and edited by William
Cranston Lawton, New York, Brentano's (1924) 326 p. DD249.H3
Mallory, Political Handbook of the World, 1932, Harper Brothers, N.Y.
McBain, Howard L. The new constitutions of Europe, by Howard L. McBain and
Lindsay Rogers. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & Co., 1923, 612 p.
JF11.M25 1923
Bibliographical foot-notes.
Morley, The New Democratic Constitutions of Europe, 1928. Humphrey Milford, Lon-
don, England.
Pipkin, Charles W. Social politics and modern democracies. New York, The MacMil-
lan Co., 1931. 2v. HD7876.P47
Selected bibliography: v. 2, p. 387-402.
France, Great Britain.
Strong, Charles F. Modern political constitutions; an introduction 'to the comparative
study of their history and existing form. New York, London, G. P. Putnam's sons,
1930. 385 p.
"Books recommended": p. xii-xviii.
Steinberg, S. H. (ed). The Statesman's Yearbook. New York, The MacMillan Com-
pany.
The Frontier Press Co. (ed). The Lincoln Library of Essential Information. Buffalo,
N. Y., The Frontier Press Co.
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC
Argentina Republic. Constitution. Instruccion civica. La Constitucion national ex-
plicada articulo por articulo. Buenos Aires, JLauouane & cie., 1928. 238 p.
Rowe, Leo S. The federal system of the Argentine Republic. Washington. The Car-
negie institution of Washington, 1921. 161 p. (Carnegie institution of Washing-
ton, Publication No. 258) JL2018.R6
Bibliography: p. 133-136.
FRANCE
The'government of France. Authorized translation by J. Bayard Morris. London, G.
Allen & Unwin, Ltd. (1924) 222 p.
"This work was originally published in Paris in 1919. Since that time changes in
the French constitution have made certain passages obsolete and M. Barthelemy











has supplied me with new matter in order to bring the book up-to-date."-Trans-
lator's note.
Bibliography at end of each chapter.

GERMANY
Armstrong, Hamilton F. Hitler's reich, the first phase. New York, The MacMillan Co.,
1933. 73 p. DD251.A7
The new German constitution. Tr. from the French by Joseph Gollomb. New York,
A. A. Knopf, 1922. 339 p. JN3953.1922.B7
"The constitution of the German commonwealth" (text): p. 297-339.
Germany: twilight or new dawn? New York, Whittlesey house, McGraw-Hill book Co.,
inc., 1933. 226 p. DD253.G4 1933
Hitler, Adolph. My Battle. Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1933, 297 p.
A DD247.H5A32
Abridged and translated by E. T. S. Dugdale.
Germany in transition; lectures on the Harris foundation. 1924. Chicago, Illinois. The
University of Chicago press (1924) 236 p. DD249.K7
Matter, Johannes. Principles of the constitutional jurisprudence of the German na-
tional republic. Baltimore, the Johns Hopkins press, London, H. Milford, Oxford
University press, 1928. 682 p. (Semi-centennial publications of the Johns Hopkins
University, 1876-1926) JN3954.M3
Bibliography: p. 649-666.

GREAT BRITAIN
Adams, George B. Constitutional history of England. New York, H. Holt & Co. (1921)
518 p. (American Historical series. General Editor; C. H. Haskins.) JN118.A3
"General bibliography": p. ix-x.
Blauvelt, Mary Taylor. The development of cabinet government in England. New York,
the MacMillan Co.; London, MacMillan & Co., Ltd., 1902. 300 p. JN401.B7
Clarke, John J. Outlines of central government, including the judicial system of England.
3d. ed. London, New York, Sir I. Pitman '& Sons, Ltd., 1928. 251 p. Law
Bibliography: p. 215-236.
Emden, Cecil S. The people and the constitution. Oxford, The Clarendon press, 1933.
336 p. DA44.E5
Democracy at the crossways; a study in politics and history, with special reference to
Great Britain, London, MacMillan & Co., Ltd., 1919. 511 p. DA577.H4 1919
"List of the principal Books referred to": p. 497-504.
Hogan, Albert E. The government of Great Britain, its colonies and dependencies. 5th
ed., rev. and enl. by Isabel G. Powell. London, W. B. Clive, University totorial
press, Id., 1923. 272 p. JN321.H7 1923
Jenks, Edward. The government of the British empire. London, J. Murray (1929)
414 (i.e. 424) p. JN321.J44 1929
"Fourth edition November 1929."
Keith, Arthur Berriedale. The constitution, administration and laws of the Empire.
London, W. Callins Sons and Company, Ltd (1924) 355 p. (The British Empire,
a survey ... edited by Hugh Gunn. (111) ). DAll.K4
Bibliography: p. 824-334.

ITALY
Abbot, Willis J. Mussolini tells why he prefers fascism to parliamentarism for Italy.
(New York, Italian historical society, 1928) 13 p. (Italian historical society. Pam-
phlet no. 2) DG571.A7
Bonomi, Ivanhoe. From socialism to fascism; a study of contemporary Italy. Trans-
lated by John Murray. London, M. Hopkinson & Co., Ltd. 1924 147 p.
DG571.B65
Frerero, Guglielmo. Four years of fascism. Translated from the Italian "DaFiume a
Roma" by E. W. Dickes, with a forward by C. J. Squire Sprigge. London, P. S.
King & Son, Ltd. 1924. 138 p. DG571.F45
Goad, Harold E. The making of the corporate state; a study of fascist development.
London, Christophers (1932) 167 p. DG571-G55











JAPAN
Fujisawa, Rikitaro. The recent aims and political development of Japan. New Haven,
Pub. for the Institute of politics by Yale University press, 1923. 222 p. (The In-
stitute of Politics publications. Williams college, Williamstown, Mass.)
DS841.F8
Hershey, Amos S. Modern Japan, social-industrial-political, by Amos S. Hershey, and
Susanne W. Hershey. Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill Co. (1919 382 p. (Problems
of the nations, P. L. Haworth, Editor) DS806.H4
Quigley, Herold S. Japanese government and politics; an introductory study. New York,
London, The Century Co. (1932) 442 p. (The Century Political Science Series)
JQ1615.1932.Q5
"Select references" at end of each chapter; bibliographical foot-notes.

RUSSIA
Brailsford, Harry N. How the soviets work. New York, Vanguard press (1927) 169
p. (Vanguard studies of Soviet Russia) DK267.B7
Davis, Jerome, ed. The new Russia between the first and second five year plans. New
York, The John Day Co. (1933) 265 p. "A selected bibliography": p. 259-265.
DK266.D3
The communist party and the government, by Jerome Davis, p. 107-131.
Dreiser, Theodore. Dreiser looks at Russia, New York, H. Liveright, 1928. 264 p.
DK267.D7
Hoover, Calvin B. The economic life of soviet Russia. New York, The MacMillan
Co., 1931, 361 p. HC335.H6
Bibliography: p. 349-351.
Hopper, Bruce. Pan-sovietism, the issue before America and the world. Boston, and
New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931. 287 p. "A reproduction of eight lectures
entitled "Soviet Russia after thirteen years," given before Lowell institute in
1931."-Pref. DK266.H5
Russell, Bertrand Russell, 3d earl. Bolshevism: practice and theory. New York, Har-
court, Brace and Howe, 1920. 192 p.
Handbook of the Soviet Union.

SWITZERLAND
Brooks, Robert C. Civic training in Switzerland; a study of democratic life. Chicago,
Illinois, The University of Chicago press (1930) 436. (Studies in making of
citizens.) DQ36.B7










Constitution of the United States
(The italicised parts are obsolete because of the amendments cited in the
margin.)
The Constitution originally consisted of a preamble and seven Articles,
and in that form was adopted on Sept. 17, 1787, by a majority of the
55 delegates from 12 states which had begun its deliberations at Philadel-
phia on May 12 of that year. Rhode Island sent no delegates. Of the
65 chosen by other states, 10 did not attend. Of the delegates in attend-
ance, 16 declined or failed to sign.
Under the language of the Constitution itself (Article VII) ratification
by 9 states was sufficient for its establishment "between the states so ratify-
ing the same." New Hampshire, on June 21, 1788, was the ninth state
to ratify. But the Government did not declare the Constitution to be in
effect until the first Wednesday in March, 1789.
The signers of the original Constitution, by virtue of their membership
in Congress, were:
GEO. WASHINGTON, President and deputy from Virginia. New
Hampshire-John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman. Massachusetts-Nathaniel
Gorham, Rufus King. Connecticut-Wm. Saml. Johnson, Roger Sherman.
New York-Alexander Hamilton. New Jersey-Wil. Livingston, David
Brearley, Wm. Patterson, Jona. Dayton. Pennsylvania-B. Franklin, Robt.
Morris, Thos. Fitzsimons, James Wilson, Thomas Mifflin, Geo. Clymer,
Jared Ingersoll, Gouv. Morris. Delaware-Geo. Read, John Dickinson,
Jaco. Broom, Gunning Bedford jun, Richard Bassett. Maryland-James
McHenry, Danl. Carroll, Dan. of St. Thomas Jenifer. Virginia-John Blair,
James Madison, Jr. North Carolina-Wm. Blount, Hu. Williamson, Richd.
Dobbs Spaight. South Carolina-J. Rutledge, Charles Pinckney, Charles
Cotesworth Pinckney, Pierce Butler. Georgia-William Few, Abr. Baldwin.
Attest: William Jackson, Secretary.
The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original States in the
following order:
Del. (Dec. 7, 1787), unanimous; Penn. (Dec. 12, 1787), 43 to 23;
N. J. (Dec. 18, 1787), unanimous; Ga. (Jan. 2, 1788), unanimous; Conn.
(Jan. 9, 1788), 128 to 40; Mass. (Feb. 6, 1788), 187 to 168; Md. (Apr.
28, 1788), 63 to 11; So. Car. (May 23, 1788), 149 to 73; New Hamp.
June 21, 1788), 57 to 46; Va. (June 26, 1788), 89 to 79; N. Y. (July
26, 1788), 30 to 27; No. Car. (Nov. 21, 1789), 194 to 77; R. I. (May
29, 1790), 34 to 32.
(Vermont, by convention, ratified Jan. 10, 1791; and Congress, Feb. 18,
1791, admitted that State into the Union.)
THE CONSTITUTION
Preamble
We, the people of the United States in order to form a more perfect
Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquality, provide for the com-
mon defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of
liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Consti-
tution for the United States of America.









Article L
Section 1.-(Legislative powers; in whom vested:)
All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of
the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representa-
tives.
Section 2.-(House of Representatives, how and by whom chosen.
Qualifications of a Representative. Representatives and direct taxes,
how apportioned. Enumeration. Vacancies to be filled. Power of
choosing officers, and of impeachment.)
1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen
every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in
each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most
numerous branch of the State Legislature.
2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to
the age of twenty-five years and been seven years a citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State
in which he shall be chosen.
3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the
several States which may be included within this Union according to their
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Amended
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of by 14th
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. Amendmer
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent
term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number
of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but
each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumera-
tion shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose
3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1; Con- Amended
necticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1; by 14th
Maryland, 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5, and
Georgia, 3.
4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the
Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacan-
cies.
5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
Section 3.-(Senators, how and by whom chosen. How classified.
State Executive, when to make temporary appointments, in case, etc.
Qualifications of a Senator. President of the Senate, his right to
vote. President pro tem., and other officers of the Senate, how
chosen. Power to try impeachment. When President is tried, Chief
Justice to preside. Sentence.)
1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators See 17t
from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Amendme
Senator shall have one vote.
2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the
first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes.
The seats of -the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration









of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year,
and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third
17th may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation,
amendment. or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive
thereof may make temporary appointment until the next meeting of the
Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age
of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he
shall be chosen.
4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.
5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro
tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise
the office of President of the United States.
6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When
sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the
President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside;
and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of
the members present.
7. Judgment of cases of impeachment shall not extend further than
to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office
of honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and
punishment, according to law.
Section 4.-(Times, etc., of holding elections, how prescribed. One
session in each year.)
1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and
Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof;
but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations,
except as to places of choosing Senators.
2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by
law appoint a different day.
Section 5.-(Membership, Quorum, Adjournments, Rules. Power
to punish or expel. Journal. Time of adjournments, how limited, etc.)
1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifica-
tions of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum
to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and
may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such
manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.
2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its
members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds
expel a member.
3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time
to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment
require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House
on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered
on the journal.









4. Neither House, during the session of Congress shall, without the
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other
place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6.-(Compensation. Privileges. Disqualification in certain
cases.)
1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for
their services to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of
the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and
breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at
the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from
the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they shall not
be questioned in any other place.
2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he
was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the
United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof
shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any
office under the United States shall be a member of either House during
his continuance in office.

Section 7.-(House to originate all revenue bills. Veto. Bill may
be passed by two-thirds of each House, notwithstanding, etc. Bill,
not returned in ten days, to become a law. Provisions as to orders,
concurrent resolutions, etc.)
1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representa-
tives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on
other bills.
2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives
and the Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President
of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall
return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated,
who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to
reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall
agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to
the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if ap-
proved by two-thirds of that House it shall become a law. But in all
such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays,
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be
entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not
be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after
it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like
manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment
prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.
3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a
question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the, United
States; and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by him,
or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate
and the House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations
prescribed in the case of a bill.









Section 8.-(Powers of Congress.)
The Congress shall have power:
1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the
debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the
United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform through-
out the United States.
2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States.
3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several
States, and with the Indian tribes.
4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization and uniform laws on
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States.
5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and
fix the standard of weights and measures.
6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and
current coin of the United States.
7. To establish post-offices and post-roads.
8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing for
limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive rights to their respective
writings and discoveries.
9. To constitute- tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.
10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high
seas, and offences against the law of nations.
11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and to make
rules concerning captures on land and water.
12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to
that use shall be for a longer term than two years.
13. To provide and maintain a navy.
14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and
naval forces.
15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of
the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.
16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia,
and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service
of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment
of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the
discipline prescribed by Congress.
17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such
district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular
States and the acceptance of Congress become the seat of Government of
the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased
by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall
be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dry-docks, and other
needful buildings.
18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying
into execution the foregoing powers and all other powers vested by this
Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department
or officer thereof.









Section 9.-(Provision as to migration or importation of certain
persons. Habeas Corpus. Bills of attainder, etc. Taxes, how ap-
portioned. No export duty. No commercial preference. Money,
how drawn from Treasury, etc. No titular nobility. Officers not
to receive presents, etc.)
1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States
now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the Obsolete
Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Amendment.
tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars
for each person.
2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended,
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall, be passed.
4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion
to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.
5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.
6.. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or
revenue to the ports of one State over those of another, nor shall vessels
bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in
another.
7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of
appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the
receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from
time to time.
8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States. And no
person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the
consent of Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of
any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign state.

Section 10-(States prohibited from the exercise of certain powers.)
1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation, grant
letters of marque and reprisal, coin money, emit bills of credit, make
anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts, pass any
bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of
contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impost
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and
imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of
the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to
the revision and control of the Congress.
3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into agree-
ment or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage
in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not
admit of delay.









Article II.
Section 1.-(President; his term of office. Electors of President;
number and how appointed. Electors to vote on same day. Qualifi-
cations of President. On whom his duties devolve in case of his
removal, death, etc. President's compensation. His oath of office.)
1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of the United
States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years,
and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be elected
as follows:
2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof
may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of Senators
and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress;
but no Senator or Representative or person holding an office of trust or
Superceded profit under the United States shall be appointed an elector.
by 12th 3. The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot
for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the
same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons
voted for, and of the number, of votes for each, which list they shall sign
and certify and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of the
United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of
the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representa-
tives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The
person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such
number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if
there be more than one who has such a majority, and have an equal num-
ber of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose
by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority,
then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner
choose the President. But in choosing the President, the vote shall be
taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote. A
quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or members from
two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary
to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person
having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice
President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes,
the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.
4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and
the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the
same throughout the United States.
5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United
States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to
the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office
who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years and been fourteen
years a resident within the United States.
6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death,
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress
may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability,
both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then









act as President, and such officer shall then act accordingly until the
disability be removed or a President shall be elected.
7. The President shall at stated times, receive for his services a com-
pensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the
period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive
within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any
of them.
8. Before he enter on the execution of his office he shall take the follow-
ing oath or affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office
Df the President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability,
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."
Section 2.-(President to be Commander-in-Chief. He may require
opinions of Cabinet officers, etc., may pardon. Treaty-making power.
Nomination of certain officers. When President may fill vacancies.)
1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy
of the United States, and of the militia of the several States when called
into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion,
in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments
upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and
he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the
United States except in cases of impeachment.
2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the
Senate to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur;
and he shall nominate and by and with the advice and consent of the
Senate shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls,
judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of -the United States
whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which
shall be established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appoint-
ment of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone,
in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may
happen during the recess of the Senate by granting commissions, which
shall expire at the end of their next session.
Section 3.-(President shall communicate to Congress. He may
convene and adjourn Congress, in case of disagreement, etc. Shall
receive Ambassadors, execute laws, and commission officers.)
He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the
state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as
he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions,
convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between
them with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such
time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public
ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall
commission all the officers of the United States.
Section 4.-(All civil offices forfeited for certain crimes.)
The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States
shall be removed from office on impeachment for and conviction of treason,
bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors.









Article III.


Section 1.-(Judicial powers. Tenure. Compensation.)
The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme
Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time
ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts,
shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall at stated times
receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished
during their continuance in office.
Section 2.-(Judicial power; to what cases it extends. Original
jurisdiction of Supreme Court. Appellate. Trial by jury, etc. Trial,
where.)
1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising
under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made,
or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting am-
11th bassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty
Amendment. and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall
be a party; to controversies between two or more States, between a State
and citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between
citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States,
and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens,
or subjects.
2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls,
and those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have
original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme
Court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with such
exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.
3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by
jury, and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall
have been committed; but when not committed within any State the trial
shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.
Section 3.-(Treason defined. Proof of. Punishment of.)
1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war
against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.
No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two
witnesses to the same overt act, or, on confession in open court.
2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason,
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture
except during the life of the person attained.


Article IV.
Section 1.-(Each State to give credit to the public acts, etc., of
every other State.)
Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts,
records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress
may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records,
and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.









Section 2.-(Privileges of citizens of each State. Fugitives from
justice to be delivered up. Persons held to service having escaped,
to be delivered up.)
1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and im-
munities of citizens in the several States.
2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime
who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on
demand of the Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be
delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.
3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws
thereof, escaping into another shall in consequence of any law or regula-
tion therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be de-
livered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

Section 3.-(Admission of new State. Power of Congress over
territory and other property.)
1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but
no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any
other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States,
or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States
concerned, as well as of the Congress.
2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful
rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging
to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed
as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
Section 4.-(Republican form of government guaranteed. Each
State to be protected.)
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Repub-
lican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion,
and, on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the
Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.

Article V.

(Constitution: how amended. Proviso.)
The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it neces-
sary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application
of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a conven-
tion for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to
all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the
Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in
three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may
be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may
be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in
any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section of the
First Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of
its equal suffrage in the Senate.









Article VI.
(Certain debts, etc., declared valid. Supremacy of Constitution,
treaties, and laws of the United States. Oath to support Constitution.
by whom taken. No religious test.)
1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adop-
tion of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under
this Constitution as under the Confederation.
2. This Constittuion and the laws of the United States which shall be
made in pursuance thereof and all treaties made, or which shall be made,
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of
the land, and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything
in the Constittuion or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members
of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers,
both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by
oath or affirmation to support the Constitution; but no religious test shall
ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the
United States.

Article VII.
(What ratification shall establish Constitution.)
The ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for
the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the
same.


AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
OF THE UNITED STATES
Opposition in and out of Congress to the Constitution, in that it was
not sufficiently explicit as to individual and State rights, led to an agree-
ment to submit to the people immediately after the adoption of the
Constitution a number of safeguarding amendments.
And so it was that the First Congress, at its first session, at the City of
New York, Sept. 25, 1789, adopted and submitted to the States twelve
proposed amendments-A Bill of Rights, as it was then and ever since
has been popularly called. Ten of these amendments (now commonly
known as one to ten inclusive, but in reality three to twelve inclusive)
were ratified by the States as follows-New Jersey, Nov. 20, 1789; Maryland,
Dec. 19, 1789; North Carolina, Dec. 22, 1789; South Carolina, Jan. 19,
1790; New Hampshire, Jan. 25, 1790; Delaware, Jan. 28, 1790; Pennsyl-
vania, March 10, 1790; New York, March 27, 1790; Rhode Island, June
15, 1790; Vermont, Nov. 3, 1791; Virginia, Dec. 15, 1791. No ratification
by Connecticut, Georgia or Massachusetts is on record. These original ten
ratified amendments appear in order below as Articles I. to X. inclusive.
The two of the original proposed amendments which were not ratified
by the necessary number of States related, the first to apportionment of
Representatives; the second, to compensation of members of Congress.









Titles of Nobility
Congress, May 1, 1810, proposed to the States the following Amendment
to the Constitution:
"If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain
any title of nobility or honor, or shall, without the consent of Congress,
accept and retain any present, pension, office or emolument of any kind
whatever, from any emperor, king, prince or foreign power, such person
shall cease to be a citizen of the United States and shall be incapable of
holding any office of trust or profit under them or either of them."
It was ratified by Maryland, Dec. 25, 1810; Kentucky, Jan. 31, 1811;
Ohio, Jan. 31, 1811; Delaware, Feb. 2, 1811; Pennsylvania, Feb. 6, 1811;
New Jersey, Feb. 13, 1811; Vermont, Oct. 24, 1811; Tennessee, Nov. 21,
1811; Georgia, Dec. 13, 1811; North Carolina, Dec. 23, 1811; Massa-
chusetts, Feb. 27, 1812; New Hampshire, Dec. 10, 1812.
Rejected by New York (Senate), March 12, 1811; Connecticut, May
session, 1813; South Carolina, approved by Senate Nov. 28, 1811, reported
unfavorably in House and not further considered Dec. 7, 1813; Rhode
Island, Sept. 15, 1814.
The amendment failed, not having sufficient ratifications.


AMENDMENT TO PROHIBIT THE CONSTITUTION FROM
ABOLISHING OR INTERFERING WITH SLAVERY
(The Corwin Amendment)
Congress, March 2, 1861, proposed to the States the following Amend-
ment to the Constitution:
"No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize
or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State,
with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to
labor or service by the laws of said State."
Ratified by Ohio, March 13, 1861; Maryland, Jan. 10, 1862; Illinois
(convention), Feb. 14, 1862. The amendment failed, for lack of a suf-
ficient number of ratifications.









THE TEN ORIGINAL AMENDMENTS
(They were declared in force December 15, 1791.)
Article I.
Religious Establishment Prohibited. Freedom of Speech, of the
Press and Right to Petition.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech
or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to
petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Article II.
Right to Keep and Bear Arms.
A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State,
the right of the people to keep and bear arms shal not be infringed.

Article III.
No Soldier to be Quartered in any House, Unless, etc.
No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be pre-
scribed by law.
Article IV.
Right of Search and Seizure Regulated.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and
effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated,
and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath
or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and
the persons or things to be seized.

Article V.
Provisions Concerning Prosecution, Trial and Punishment-Private
Property not to be Taken for Public Use, Without Compensation.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime
unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases
arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual
service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor
be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor
shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

Article VI.
Right to Speedy Trial, Witnesses, etc.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy
and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein
the crime shall have been committed, which districts shall have been pre-
viously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause
of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to
have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have
the assistance of counsel for his defense.









Article VII.
Right of Trial by Jury.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact
tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United
States than according to the rules of the common law.
Article VIII.
Excessive Bail or Fines and Cruel Punishment Prohibited.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Article IX.
Rule of Construction of Constitution.
The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be con-
strued to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Article X.
Rights of States Under Constitution.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or
to the people.


Article XI.
Judicial Powers Construed.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Third Congress on the 5th of March, 1794, and was
declared to have been ratified in a message from the President to Congress,
dated Jan. 8, 1798.
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend
to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of
the United States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects
of any foreign state.


Article XII.
Manner of Choosing President and Vice-President.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Eighth Congress on the 12th of December, 1803,
and was declared to have been ratified in a proclamation by the Secretary
of State dated September 25, 1804. It was ratified by all the States ex-
cept Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for
President and Vice-President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabi-
tant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots
the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted
for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct list of all persons voted
for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the









number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and
transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United States,
directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall,
in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the
certificates and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the
greatest number of votes for President shall be President, if such number
be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person
have such majority, then from the persons having the highest number, not
exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of
Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation
from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist
of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority
of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of
Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice
shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following,
then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death
or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the
greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-President if
such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed,
and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on
the list the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the pur-
pose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no
person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible
to that of Vice-President of the United States.



Article XIII.
Slavery Abolished.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Thirty-eighth Congress on the 1st of February, 1865,
and was declared to have been ratified in a proclamation by the Secretary
of State dated December 18, 1865. It was rejected by Delaware and
Kentucky; was conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi; and
Texas took no action.
1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment
for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist
within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.


Article XIV.
Citizenship Rights Not to Be Abridged.
The following, popularly known as the Reconstruction Amendment, was
proposed to the Legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-ninth
Congress on the 16th day of June, 1866, and was declared to have been
ratified in a proclamation by the Secretary of State, dated July 23, 1868.









The amendment got the support of 23 Northern States: it was rejected
by Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern States. California
took no action. Subsequently it was ratified by the 10 Southern States.
1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to
the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State
wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall
abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor
shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without
due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the
equal protection of the laws.
Apportionment of Representatives in Congress.
2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States ac-
cording to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons
in each State excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote
at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice-President
of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and
judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is
denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one
years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged,
except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of repre-
sentation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number
of such male citizens shall bear the whole number of male citizens twenty-
one years of age in such State.
Power of Congress to Remove Disabilities of United States Officials
for Rebellion.
3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or
Elector of President and Vice-President or holding any office, civil or
military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having pre-
viously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the
United States, or as a member of any State Legislature or as an executive
or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United
States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same,
or given aid and comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by
a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
What Public Debts Are Valid.
4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by
law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for
services in suppressing insurrection and rebellion, shall not be questioned.
But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any
debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the
United States, or any claim for the loss of emancipation of any slave;
but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.
5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation
the provisions of this article.

Article XV.
Equal Rights for White and Colored Citizens.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Fortieth Congress on the 27th of February, 1869,









and was declared to have been ratified in a proclamation by the Secretary
of State, dated March 30, 1870. It was not acted on by Tennessee: it
was rejected by California, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Oregon:
ratified by the remaining 30 States. New York rescinded its ratification
January 5, 1870. New Jersey rejected it in 1870, but ratified it in 1871.
1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of
race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
2. The Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of this
article by appropriate legislation.


Article XVI.
Income Taxes Authorized.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Sixty-first Congress on the 12th day of July, 1909,
and was declared to have been ratified in a proclamation by the Secretary
of State, dated February 25, 1913. The income tax amendment was
ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Florida, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island, Utah, and Virginia.
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from
whatever sources derived, without apportionment among the several States,
and without regard to any census or enumeration.


Article XVII.
United States Senators to be Elected by Direct Popular Vote.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Sixty-second Congress on the 16th day of May,
1912, and was declared to have been ratified in a proclamation by the
Secretary of State, dated May 31, 1913. It got the vote of all the States
except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mary-
land, Mississippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, and Virginia.
1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators
from each States, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each
Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the
qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the
State Legislatures.
Vacancies in Senatorships, When Governor May Fill by Appoint-
ment.
2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the
Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election
to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of any State may
empower the Executive thereof to make temporary appointment until the
people fill the vacancies by election as the Legislature may direct.
3. This amendment shall not be construed as to affect the election or
term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Consti-
tution.









Article XVIII.

Liquor Prohibition Amendment.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Sixty-fifth Congress, December 18, 1917: and on
January 29, 1919, the United States Secretary of State proclaimed its
adoption by 36 States, and declared it in effect on January 16, 1920.
Mississippi was the first State to adopt, both houses of the Legislature
so voting on Jan. 8, 1918.
The total vote in the Senate of the various States was, 1,310 for, 237
against-83.6% dry. In the lower houses of the States the vote was, 3,782
for, 1,035 against-78.5% dry.
The amendment ultimately was adopted by all the States except Con-
necticut and Rhode Island. New Jersey ratified on March 10, 1922. The
vote in the State Senate was on March 7; in the House, on March 9.
Enforcement of the National Prohibition Act was in effect at 12 p.m.,
January 16, 1920, except as to certain sections of Title II, wherein other
dates were specified.
Early in 1920, the validity of the Eighteenth Amendment was upheld
by the Supreme Court of the United States, in suits to void, brought by
the States of Rhode Island and New Jersey, and by various brewers and
distillers.
1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture,
sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof
into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory
subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. Repealed
2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to by XXI
enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Amendment.
3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as
an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States,
as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the
submission hereof to the States by the Congress.



Article XIX.
Giving Nation-Wide Suffrage to Women.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Sixty-fifth Congress, having been adopted by the
House of Representatives, May 21, 1919, and by the Senate, June 4, 1919.
On August 26, 1920, the United States Secretary of State proclaimed it
in effect, having been adopted June 10, 1919-August 18, 1920, by three-
quarters of the States. The Tennessee House, August 31, rescinded its
ratification, 47 to 24.
1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied
or abridged by the United States or by any State on .account of sex.
2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to enforce the
provisions of this article.









Article XX
"Lame Duck" Amendment.
Terms of President and Vice-President to begin on Jan. 20; those
of Senators and Representatives, on Jan. 3.
The following amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States by the Seventy-second Congress, in March, 1932, a joint
resolution to that effect having been adopted, first by the House, and then,
on March 2, by the Senate:
Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice-President shall end at
noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representa-
tives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in which such terms
would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of
Lack of their successors shall then begin.
States to Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year,
adopt this
Amendment. and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless
they shall by law appoint a different day.
Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the
President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice-President elect
shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before
the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall
have failed to qualify, then the Vice-President elect shall act as President
until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law pro-
vide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice-President
elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the
manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall
act according until a President or Vice-President shall have qualified.
Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death
of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose
a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them,
and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate
may choose a Vice-President whenever the right of choice shall have
been devolved upon them.
Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October
following the ratification of this article.
Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
This ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-
kmendment fourths of the States within seven years from the date of its submission.
became
a law Up to Aug. 15, 1932, the proposed amendment had been ratified by
in 1936. the legislatures of 15 states-Virginia, New York, Mississippi, New Jersey,
Arkansas, South Carolina, Kentucky, Michigan, Maine, Rhode Island,
Louisiana, Illinois, Indiana, Texas and West Virginia.
The XXI amendment ratified in 1933 repealed the XVIII amendment.



Article XXL
Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of
the United States is hereby repealed.









Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory,
or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicat-
ing liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been rati-
fied as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several
States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date
of submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
This amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the several states
by the Seventy-Second Congress on the 20th day of February, 1933, and
was declared in effect, in a proclamation by the Secretary of State, dated
on the 5th day of December, 1933.


THE OATH OF A PRESIDENT
The Constitution directs that the President shall take the following oath
or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully
execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to the best
of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United
States."
George Washington, as President, took the following oath: "I do solemnly
swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States."
Washington, as Commander of the Continental Army, had taken the
following oath: "I do acknowledge the thirteen United States of America,
namely, New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, Connecticut,
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, to be free, independent, and sov-
ereign States, and declare that the people thereof owe no allegiance or
obedience to George the Third, King of Great Britain; that I renounce,
refuse, and adjure any allegiance or obedience to him; and I do swear
that I will, to the utmost of my power, support, maintain, and defend
the said United States against the said King, George the Third, and his
heirs and successors, and his and their abettors, assistants, and adherents,
and will serve the said United States in the office of General, which I
now hold, and in any other office which I may hereafter hold by their
appointment; or under their authority, with fidelity and honor and according
to the best of my skill and understanding. So help me God."









DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
(Unanimously adopted, July 4, 1776; signed by 54 delegates, Aug. 2, 1776;
by Thos. McKean, Del., in Oct., and by Matthew Thornton, N. Hamp., in
Nov. of that year.)
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with
another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and
equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle
them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they
should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That
to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving
their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any
Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right
of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government,
laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such
form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should
not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all ex-
perience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer while
evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to
which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpa-
tions, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce
them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw
off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now
the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Gov-
ernment. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history
of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the estab-
lishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let
Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary
for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing
importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be
obtained, and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to
them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accomniodation of large dis-
tricts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Repre-
sentation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable
to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable,
and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose
of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with
manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such .dissolutions, to cause others
to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation,









have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining
in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and
convulsions within.
He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that
purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing
to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the condi-
tions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent
to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of
their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of
Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies, without
the consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to
the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to
our constitution and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to
their Acts of pretended Legislation: For quartering large bodies of armed
troops among us: Foi protecting them by a mock Trial from punishment
for any Murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these
States: For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing
Taxes on us without our Consent: For depriving us in many cases of the
benefits of Trial by Jury: For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried
for pretended offenses: For abolishing the free System of English Laws
in a neighboring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government,
and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and
fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and
altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: For suspending
our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to
legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here by declaring us out of his Protection
and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and
destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to
complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with
circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most bar-
barous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas
to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their
friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us and has endeavoured
to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages,
whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages,
sexes and conditions. In every stage of these Oppressions We have
Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms. Our repeated Petitions
have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character
is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be









the ruler of a free people. Nor have We been wanting in attentions to
our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts
by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We
have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement
here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and
we have conjured them by their ties of our common kindred to disavow
these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and
correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and
of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which
denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind,
Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
WE, THEREFORE, the Representatives of the United States of America,
in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the
world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by authority
of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That
these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent
States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown,
and that all political connection between them and the State of Great
Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Inde-
pendent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract
Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which
Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declara-
tion, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we
mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred
Honor.


On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee introduced in the Continental
Congress a resolution which declared "That these United Colonies are,
and of right ought to be, free and independent states, and they are absolved
from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection
between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally
dissolved."
This resolution, seconded by John Adams, was put aside for a time;
but on June 10 a committee was appointed "to prepare a declaration to
the effect of the said first resolution." Of this committee Thomas Jefferson
was chairman; the other members were John Adams, Benjamin Franklin,
Robert R. Livingston and Roger Sherman.
The Declaration, drawn by Jefferson, and slightly amended by Adams
and Franklin, was presented to Congress on June 28.
On July 2, Lee's resolution, as given above, was passed, and on July 4,
the Declaration, substantially as prepared by Jefferson, was adopted, the
two most significant and important changes being the elimination of Jeffer-
sons arraignment of the British people, and of King George III, for his
encouraging and fostering the slave trade, which Jefferson called an
"execrable commerce.'
The declaration received the votes of all the colonies except New York,
whose delegates were at that time not authorized to commit themselves on
the question. On August 2 it was signed by the delegates then present,
two of the absentees affixing their signatures later.









Only one signer, Thornton, had taken no part in the discussion and
vote on independence.
Of the 56 signers, seven were not members of Congress on July 4, and
of those who were present on that day seven never affixed their signatures.
The signers and their families were proscribed as traitors by the British
Government, and rewards of 500 were offered for their apprehension.
The earliest known attempt in the American colonies of a declaration
of independence was at a town meeting at Mendon, Mass., in 1773.
There was also the Mecklenburg, N. C., declaration for independence,
May 20, 1775.
A letter written by Thomas Jefferson (dated July 1-2, 1776) to William
Fleming, was sold at auction, at N. Y. City, in Nov., 1930, for $23,000.
Jefferson had just been re-elected to Congress by a narrow margin. He
wrote of the plot of Gov. Tryon and Mayor David Matthews of New York
City to kill or capture General Washington.
A signature of Button Gwinnett, attached to a will as a witness, the
document having been filed in Georgia, was sold at auction at New York
City in April, 1926, for $22,500. Gwinnett was killed in a duel.
A letter of the Marine Committee at Philadelphia, July 12, 1776, con-
taining the signatures of Robert Morris, Button Gwinnett, Francis Lewis,
George Read, and Arthur Middleton, was sold for $51,000 on March 15,
192. Another Gwinnett signature sold for $28,500, in Nov., 1926, and
still another for $18,600 on Nov. 4, 1927, at N. Y. City.









THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA


South Carolina began the movement which led to the organization of
the Southern Confederacy by the adoption at Charleston on December
20, 1860, by a convention of the people of the following ordinance of
secession:
"We, the people of the State of South Carolina, in convention assembled,
do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the
ordinance adopted by us in convention on the 23d day of May, in the
year of our Lord 1788, whereby the Constitution of the United States
was ratified and also all acts and parts of acts of the General Assembly
of this State ratifying amendments of the said Constitution are hereby
repealed; and that the Union now subsisting between South Carolina and
other States under the name of the United States of America, is hereby
dissolved."
December 24 the Convention adopted a declaration setting forth the
cause of the secession of the State, and the Governor issued a proclamation
announcing the action of the State.
Acts of secession were adopted by the Legislatures of the other seceding
States, as follows:
Jan. 9, 1861, Mississippi, by a vote of 84 to 15
Jan. 10, 1861, Florida, by a vote of 62 to 7
Jan. 11, 1861, Alabama, by a vote of 61 to 39
Jan. 19, 1861, Georgia, by a vote of 208 to 89
Jan. 26, 1861, Louisiana, by a vote of 113 to 17
Feb. 1, 1861, Texas, by a vote of 166 to 7
April 17, 1861, Virginia, by a vote of 88 to 55
May 6, 1861, Arkansas, by a vote of 69 to 1
May 21, 1861, North Carolina, by a vote of unanimous
June 8, 1861, Tennessee, by a vote of unanimous
The States of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri, which were
afterward represented in the Confederate Congress, did not pass ordinances
of secession. In two States a popular vote was taken. The vote of
Virginia for secession was 128,884; opposed, 32,134. Of Tennessee, for
secession, 104,019; opposed, 47,238.
The congress of delegates from the seceding States met at Montgomery,
Ala., February 4, 1861, and prepared a provisional Constitution of the
Confederate States of America. This Constitution was discussed in detail
and adopted February 8. On the next day an election was held for chief
executive officers and Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, was elected pro-
visional President and Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, provisional
Vice-President.
On February 19, 1861, the joint convention of the provisional Senate
and House of Representatives counted the electoral vote for President and
Vice-President. The number of States voting was 11; total electoral votes,
109; all of which were for Jefferson Davis and Alexander H. Stephens.
President Davis was inaugurated at Montgomery, Ala., February 18,
1861, and again at Richmond, Va., February 22, 1862.
Secretaries of State-1861, Robert Toombs, Georgia; 1861, Robert M. T.
Hunter, Virginia; 1862, Judah P. Benjamin, Louisiana.









Secretaries of the Treasury-1861, C. G. Memminger, South Carolina;
1864, George A. Trenholm, South Carolina; 1865, John H. Reagan, Texas.
Secretaries of War-1861, Leroy P. Walker, Alabama; 1862, Judah P.
Benjamin, Louisiana; 1862, George W. Randolph, Virginia; 1862, Gustavus
W. Smith, Kentucky; 1862, James A. Seddon, Virginia; 1865, John C.
Breckinridge, Kentucky.
Secretary of the Navy-1861, Stephen R. Mallory, Florida.
Postmasters-General-1861, Henry T. Ellet, Mississippi; 1861, John H.
Reagan, Texas.
Attorneys-General-1861, Judah P. Benjamin, Louisiana; 1861, Thomas
Bragg, North Carolina; 1862, Thomas H. Watts, Alabama; 1864, George
Davis, North Carolina.
April 12, 1861, fire was opened by the South Carolina troops on Fort
Sumter, Charleston Harbor. The following was the notification served on
Major Robert Anderson, U. S. A., in command of the fort, by order of
Brig.-Gen. Beauregard, C. S. A.:
"Sir-By authority of Brig.-Gen. Beauregard, commanding the provisional
forces of the Confederate States, we have the honor to notify you that
he will open the fire of his batteries on Fort Sumter in one hour from
this time. We have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient
servants.
"James Chestnut, Jr., Aide-de-Camp; Stephen D. Lee, Aide-de-Camp."
The refusal of Major Anderson to surrender prior to the receipt of the
above note was as follows:
"Fort Sumter, April 11, 1861.
"General-I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your com-
munication demanding the evacuation of this fort, and to say in reply
thereto that it is a demand which I regret my sense of honor and my
obligation to my government prevents my compliance. Thanking you for
the fair and manly terms proposed and for the high compliment paid me,
I am, General, very respectfully your obedient servant,
"Robert Anderson, Major First Artillery, Commanding."
"Brig.-Gen. Beauregard, Commanding Provisional Army."
The last fight in the Civil War was at PalmettoRanche, Texas, May 11,
1865. Gen. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9,
1865.
All the States were represented in both Houses of Congress of the United
States May 23, 1872.




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