Bulletin No. 37
R.-.i tdl II C. W. ChA nnel
STATE OF FLORIDA
NATHAN MAYO . . Commi-ioner of Agricultuire
Introduction ---_ ----------
Breeds of Milk Goats ---
Saanen ------- ------
French Alpine ----- ----
Other Breeds ----------
Getting Started .---.-..-----
Breeding and Management ---.--
Pastures, Feeds and Feeding ....--- -
Housing _---.-___. ---------- -..-
Goat Health -- -------------
Internal Parasites ---------
Raising Kids -- ------
Fences -----.--- ----.....
Uses of Goat Milk .-------
Characteristics of Goat Milk -----
Profits from Goat Farming
Goat Herds -------------
Angora Goats ------------
Literature About Goats
-. --- 9
.---- .- 13
-. --- -. 15
-.--- -.. 17
.- --- -. 20
.-.-- - 22
COVER: Katrein's Charmaine, who holds the Nubian Milk Record and
the all-breed butterfat record with 4,248.3 pounds milk and
184.6 pounds butterfat in 305 days.
Goats In Florida
GOAT dairying is a growing industry in Florida. There
are large and small goat dairies near all the large cities
and in more and more of the smaller towns. Since there
has never been any experimental work on milk goats in the
State, the information herein must come from the goat
owners, themselves and other sources outside of Florida.
Many countries of the Old World have used a large num-
ber of goats since the earliest days of recorded history,
utilizing them in many ways-for meat, milk, beasts of bur-
den, hair for clothes, beds, etc. Goats are found in all parts
of the United States, with California and Texas probably
leading in goat population. There are many in the Central
States with several large, active goat Associations. The New
England States have many fine herds, also with their Asso-
ciations. Perhaps the most active Association is the Capitol
Dairy Goat Association in the Washington, D. C. area. At
the present time Florida has one goat association, the South
Central Milk Goat Association. This is a young, rather small
organization drawing its membership from a rather large
area. There are members as far north as Winter Haven and
Tampa, south to LaBelle, and east and west to the Coasts.
The slowness with which the milk goat business has de-
veloped in this country is due to several reasons. Probably
the most important reason is the inability to convince the
health authorities that a little 150 pound goat will not take
up as much room as a 1000 pound cow, hence making
building costs prohibitive.
The next reason is the unreasonable prejudice against
these animals, especially in the medical profession. How-
ever, this is being gradually overcome and there has been a
great change in the general attitude in the past ten years.
Still another reason is the difficulty in obtaining a steady
flow of milk throughout the year. Goats are seasonal breed-
ers and their natural time to kid is in the spring, making it
hard to produce an adequate supply of winter milk. This
has been remedied somewhat by lengthening the breeding
season by selecting does that will breed both before and
after the regular season which is September through Janu-
ary. Another way to be sure of winter milk is to lengthen
6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
the lactation period of does that hold up well in their milk,
many does milking profitably for 15 months or even 2 years.
The best natural conditions for goats are found in hilly
or mountainous regions where the climate is reasonably
cool. The Nubian breed, however was built up with goats
from hot countries like India and Egypt. None of them like
wet land and if kept in such place, they should be kept
in dry lot pens with cement floors and not pastured at all.
Many herds are kept very successfully under these condi-
tions. Goats will adapt themselves with more or less success
to many different sorts of climate and feed conditions.
Chikaming Andrue .... Nubian Buck
BREEDS OF MILK GOATS
There are four principal breeds of milk goats in the
United States. They are as follows in numerical order:
Nubian, Saanen, French Alpine, and Toggenburg. There are
a few of other breeds but none in Florida. In the past few
years great interest has been shown in the "British" goats.
Nrtbi Doe' -ote- A- mi Ml-k.. : r'4 .G
Nubi-an -Do.eCu.rtesy Ame M.lk- G.
Nubian Doe (Courtesy American Milk Goat
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
These are built up by using purebred males on high-produc-
ing grade females ,the female offspring, in turn being bred
to a purebred male of the same breed and on until they
have the characteristics of the breed being used and are,
to all intents and purposes purebred. A number of "British
Saanens" and "British Toggenburg" bucks have been im-
ported to this country to be used as herd sires. A section
of the herd books of the American Milk Goat Record Asso-
ciation has been opened to them. This same association is
encouraging this same type of breeding in the United
States, the seven-eights offspring being called "American."
In this, only the female offspring are recorded at present.
The American Goat Society does not recognize these new
breeds, registering only purebreds.
This breed leads in the number registered yearly. Anglo-
Nubians were developed in England in the period 1850 to
1875. Bucks were brought from India and Egypt and mated
to native British goats and the breed was developed. This
breed was admitted to the British herd books in 1910. The
first importations to this country were in 1909. Later more
importations followed and the name was shortened to
"Nubian" in the United States. The breed is so registered
in both Associations. Nubians are large and rangy with
short, glossy coats, large dark eyes, and a curved roman
nose, the more curved the better, and long, pendulous ears,
the longer the better. They may or may not have horns.
Nubians are all colors and combinations of colors, spotted
animals being common.
Standard weights and measurements for Nubians: Doe-
Height at withers, 30 inches and up, weight 130 pounds
and up. Buck-Height at withers, 35 inches and up, weight
175 pounds and up.
The Nubian has not been considered a heavy milking
breed until recent years but has had a high butterfat aver-
age. By careful breeding the production has been increased
until, in 1949, Katrein's Charmaine, on official test pro-
duced 4248.3 pounds of milk, 184.61 pounds of butterfat
in 305 days, giving her the milk and butterfat record of all
breeds in this country. This record she held until 1955,
when a Saanen, La Suise, Ida-Bee produced 4905.1 pounds
of milk and 182.7947 pounds of butterfat. Charmaine lost
the milk record but still holds the butterfat record. Nubians
do well in Florida.
GOATS IN FLORIDA 9
This is a Swiss breed having been bred in the mountains
of Switzerland for many generations. Saanens are white or
light cream color, white preferred. Black spots are allowed
on their skin but not in their coat. They may be long or
short haired, hornless or with horns.
Standard weights and measurements for Saanens: Doe-
Height 30 inches at withers and up, weight 135 pounds and
up. Buck-Height 35 inches at withers and up, weight 185
pounds and up.
The Saanen has straight or slightly dished facial lines,
ears erect or pointing forward. The buck usually has a
beard and the doe may have one.
Saanens are heavy, steady producers, usually quiet and
docile, and are good dairy animals, much in demand for
GOATS IN FLORIDA
This was the first breed to be imported to this country.
It has been immensely popular and led all other breeds for
many years. However, at present Toggenburgs stand fourth
in this country.
The Toggenburg is a Swiss breed, may be long or short
haired, horned or hornless, both does and bucks usually have
beards, and short erect ears. They are solid color, varying
from light fawn to dark chocolate, with two white stripes on
Toggenburg Buck (Courtesy AMGRA)
face, the ears outlined in white and white on legs and
rump. Standard weights and measurements for Toggen-
burgs: Doe-Height at withers 27 to 31 inches, weight 115
to 150 pounds. Buck-Height at withers 33 inches and up,
weight 160 pounds and up.
This is a docile, friendly, breed, the does being wonderful
producers, considering their small size. Their butterfat con-
tent is usually rather low.
Glenview Peg, one of the great producers of the breed,
made an official record of 3973 pounds of milk and 124.195
Toggenburg Doe (Courtesy AMGRA)
GOATS IN FLORIDA
pounds of butterfat in nine months and twenty-nine days.
There are very few Toggenburgs in Florida but there is
no reason why they should not thrive in the State as they
are a very healthy, rugged breed.
This is an increasingly popular breed in the United States.
French Alpines are very beautiful. They are different colors
and combinations of colors, some of these combinations
designated as cou-blanc, cou-clair, sungau, chamois, etc.
They have long, slender necks, graceful, alert heads,
rangy, short haired bodies, glossy coats, horned or hornless,
beards or beardless.
Standard weights and measurements for French Alpine.
Does-Height 29 to 36 inches at withers, weight not less
than 125 pounds. Bucks-Height 34 to 40 inches at with-
ers, weight not less than 170 pounds.
This breed is very large and the does are very heavy milk-
ers of medium butterfat content.
There are several other breeds in the United States but
they are in such small numbers that they are not generally
known. Among these are Swiss Alpines, Rock Alpines, Nor-
skas and Muricana.
The best way to get started with goats is to buy two good
grade does. Never buy just one goat as goats love company
and get very homesick when kept by themselves. It is
better for a beginner to start with grades for several rea-
sons. The cost is not so great as a good grade doe can be
purchased for about half the price of a purebred. The grade
is not as excitable and temperamental and is easier to learn
on. She will give the inexperienced milker as much and
probably more milk than a purebred. After working with
the grade doe and making sure he wants to keep goats, the
beginner is then ready for purebreds.
It is better to buy a doe that is bred and near her time
for kidding since she will accept her new home more readily
if she has her kids there. Milking does almost always go
French Alpine Buck (Courtesy AMGRA)
GOATS IN FLORIDA
down in production when moved, sometimes not recovering
production till the next kidding. Or the beginner may start
with doe kids taken after weaning, about four months old.
This is the ideal way if he is willing to wait till the kid is
old enough to produce milk.
The beginner should not buy a buck unless he has five
or more does. A purebred buck should always be used for
breeding. He should come from production stock on both
parents. The beginner should be very careful not to use
all naturally hornless stock. It is fine to have hornless kids
but it has been proven that horns, vigor and vitality are
closely related. Using entirely hornless stock causes herma-
phorditism. If one parent has horns, that is sufficient.
BREEDING AND MANAGEMENT
The age at which to breed a doe has two schools of
thought. One is to wait until the young doe is 15 months
old or even 2 years old. The other is to breed the young
does at about 9 months of age. Most breeders compromise
and breed at about 1 year old. The first way is slow and
expensive. If the doe is well grown and healthy the breed-
ing at one year is very satisfactory and she goes right on
growing through her first lactation.
A pregnant doe should be well fed. After she has been
dried off for her two months rest she should be fed just as
usual except the protein content should be decreased the
last two or three weeks. She should be left with the herd
until labor starts as goats fret and worry if put by them-
selves. The pregnant doe should be given all the mineral
she will take; it should be kept before her at all times.
During the last month she should be given tasteless, steam-
ed, bone meal once a week.' Most kidding troubles come
from a calcium deficiency.
A swollen or caked udder may occur. The doe should not
be milked dry for the first two days, the udder should be
relieved but not stripped. If congestion does occur, the
udder should be relieved by milking, then cloths wrung out
of HOT water applied, followed by applying carbolated
vaseline or an udder ointment or balm.
The doe should come into production gradually, not
reaching full production for two or three weeks or even
longer. She should be fed very carefully being sure not to
overfeed for the first week or ten days. Does have been
-French Alpine Doe (C y
French Alpine Doe (Courtesy AMGRA)
GOATS IN FLORIDA
known to have as many as six kids but usually have from
one to three, twins being most common.
Bucks should never be kept with the does for several
reasons. He may wear himself out and become sterile. The
odor of a buck during breeding season may get on the does
and flavor the milk. Does may get bred too young or too
soon after kidding. It is considered decidedly bad practice
to ever let the buck run with the does. This applies to milk
goats. A buck can be used as young as five months of age
but very sparingly, letting him serve a doe but one time.
From one year old he can be used as needed. The buck
should be fed and cared for exactly like the does. After all,
he is one-half the herd.
Buck banks are being started in different sections of the
country from which frozen semen can be bought. This is
shipped in dry ice and can be shipped great distances. Thus
the serious goatbreeder can secure semen from the very
finest bucks of the different breeds.
PASTURES, FEEDS, AND FEEDING
Goat feeding in Florida probably follows the same general
rule as in other parts of the country.
Most of the nationally known brands of concentrates are
available but at a higher price than in the north because of
the very high freight rates. Alfalfa, the goat's best feed,
is available but, since most of the chopped alfalfa iA shipped
from Colorado ,it costs almost as much per hundred pounds
as the concentrates.
Alfalfa has been grown in different parts of Florida ex-
perimentally, sometimes quite successfully, but in no ap-
preciable quantity as yet. However, the State Experiment
Stations are working with many different hay and pasture
grasses and legumes and have already found several that
are proving satisfactory.
The most widely grown of these at the present time is
pangola grass. It is used for pasture and also for a very
good quality hay. Several cuttings can be made during the
year. Goats soon learn to relish this hay. This grass is sub-
ject to cold so it is not a good winter pasture. A new hay
has been available in limited quantities the past few years.
This is alyce clover. This is a legume that compares very
favorably with alfalfa. Goats must learn to eat this but
after forming a taste for it, eat in quantities and thrive
18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Another very successful pasture grass is Pensacola Bahia
and this makes a good winter pasture since it is cold re-
Hubam clover grows well and is being planted extensive-
ly. Lupines are grown in parts of the State.
Many other varieties are in the experimental stage and,
no doubt, many of these will be grown later.
Coming In From Pasture
The big roughage crop in Florida is citrus pulp. This by-
product from the citrus processing plants has become big
business, the demand being greater than the supply. The
price has accordingly increased. However, it is still the
cheapest roughage otabinable in Florida.
As to feeding procedure, each goat owner has his own
ideas and no two feed exactly alike. The general consensus
seems to be to feed a lower protein content than is recom-
GOATS IN FLORIDA 19
mended. Instead of 16% total protein 12 or 13% seems
better in this year-round warm climate. For the Northern
part of the State 16% is probably right. During the rainy
season when the pastures lose some of their food content
or during an extremely cold snap more protein may be
added by feeding one of the high protein calf feeds.
A good method of feeding is as follows: Grain, either
prepared goat feed or regular dairy feed, twice a day, the
amount the does will clean up, followed by citrus pulp. Each
doe should have either a stall or be tied so she will get her
full amount of feed. Alfalfa and/or hay should be kept in
large feeders available to all when they are turned loose.
They should be allowed to stay in long enough to eat this
before being turned out to pasture. They should not be
put in pasture until the grass is dry in the morning and
should have shelter from rain and shade from the hot
sun. Highly bred milk goats cannot be kept out in the
rain as they are very susceptible to pneumonia.
If it is possible to run the goats on wild land in Florida,
they are in "goat heaven". They can browse on leaves,
bark of trees, roots, etc. While doing this, they also clear
Goats enjoy oranges, tangerines, guavas, and papayas.
The citrus fruits and guavas give them all they need of vita-
And now, perhaps the most important thing in Florida
feeding-minerals. This can be furnished in the large block
of mineralized salt, which they lick. Goats seem to need a
greater supply than they get this way so a supply of the
loose, powdered "range minerals" used for cattle should be
kept before them. In addition to all this, pregnant does
should be watched carefully and be given extra calcium and
phosphorus by feeding them a teaspoon of steamed bone
meal in molasses once or twice a week the last two months.
If pregnant does have enough minerals there will be few
While housing in Florida is much simpler than in a colder
climate, the goats must have shelter. A person owning only
two or three animals can use a shed or small building. Just
so it has a good roof and tight sides to keep out wind and
rain. For a larger number of goats a barn is necessary.
20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Concrete floors are best since they can be kept clean and
goats like them. Box stalls can be used, these having wood-
en floors or the goats can be tied or put in stanchions to
be fed. Each doe should have her own feeder so she will
obtain her proper amount. If fed together, some will get
cheated as goats enjoy fighting and the strong ones will
bully the weaker ones. The milking room may adjoin the
barn but be separate. The feed room should also be con-
nected with the barn for convenience in feeding and should
be tight and rat proof.
I .: -
An Afternoon Siesta
Goats are normally very healthy animals. but, like other
animals, they do get sick, ,.. Y: ,.-
They are subject to pneumonia if exposed to wet, incle-
ment weather. This is quite fatal to them so at the first
symptoms call the veterinarian.
GOATS IN FLORIDA 21
Digestive upsets occur but a good laxative will usually
be sufficient. Pregnant does will sometimes develop what
is known as pregnancy disease. This is generally from poor
diet or lack of sufficient minerals. Sometimes one-half cup
of corn syrup a day will help this but, if a severe case, the
veterinarian will need to give glucose intravenously.
Goats do not have tuberculosis and, in the United States,
seldom have brucellosis (Bang's disease). They should how-
ever, be tested for this yearly.
Goat's feet must be cared for regularly. Since domesti-
cated goats cannot run over rock ridges and cliffs as their
wild ancestors did, their hooves must be trimmed. This
should be done every three or four weeks. A knife or pair
of clippers may be used, trimming the hard outside hoof
even with the soft frog in the center. The heel should also
be trimmed so the foot has a flat standing surface. If
neglected, the hooves will curl under or out and make a
very mis-shapen foot which becomes tender and inflamed.
Sometimes they are so sore that the animal will not stand
but will crawl around on her knees. A goat in this condi-
tion cannot do her best in production. The feet should be
trimmed as regularly as any other chore. This is one thing
that the average goat owner neglects.
Since Florida has a warm climate the year round goats
have to be watched closely for worms of different kinds.
The most common ones in kids are round worms and tape-
worms. In adult goats the stomach worm causes the most
damage. Phenothiazine is used for stomach and round
worms or tablets prepared of copper sulphate, nicotine, and
kamela may be used. These last named tablets also con-
trol tapeworms somewhat. The United States Department of
Agriculture recommends the use of lead arsenate capsules
for tapeworms also.
If phenothiazine is used on milking does, it will turn the
milk pink for 2 or 3 milkings so it cannot be used for
human consumption but may be fed to kids. If the copper
sulphate-nicotine is used the doe must not have feed for 12
hours before using but it does not affect the milk. If worms
are suspected, droppings from each doe should be taken
to the local veterinarian to be examined under a micro-
scope and his advice as to treatment followed.
22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Usually, with milk goats, the kids are taken away as
soon as they are born and hand-fed, either by pan or bottle.
There are good reasons for doing this. The doe makes less
fuss than if they are left with her for several days, the
kids learn to eat much easier, generally drinking from a pan
the first time, the doe's udder isn't bruised by the kids
butting it, and most important, the kids can be put in
the pasture with the older goats as young as two weeks old,
since never having nursed the doe, they never try, and the
doe, never having had her kids, does not even recognize
The colustrum should be milked from the doe and fed to
the kids as it is very necessary to start their digestive sys-
tem working properly. The dam will usually give much more
colustrum than the kids will take but this should be kept in
the refrigerator and fed as long as it lasts, warming it care-
fully over hot water. It must be stirred constantly while
warming as it will thicken otherwise. It should be heated
to about 110 degrees. The young kid will not drink it if
it is not warm enough and it may be necessary to add hot
water to it before it finishes eating. The kid must be
handled gently as it is very timid and, if frightened, will
not eat. The nose should be put down to the milk gently
and it will soon try to drink. If the kid chokes, let it raise
it's head and repeat. Once in awhile, one will refuse to eat
the first time. Just let it go and wait several hours and try
it again. As soon as it is hungry enough it will eat. Kids
should be kept warm and dry. A box with a false bottom
of hardware cloth is ideal for the first few days. At first
a grain sack can be put in the bottom and changed as it
gets wet and soiled. Goat milk is best for kids although
they can be raised on cow's milk. Some people use the milk
substitutes on the market. A goat breeder usually feeds goat
milk to the kids for at least three months. The kids should
be fed three or four times a day for the first two weeks or
longer. Later they can be fed milk twice a day with hay
and grain at noon.
If the kids show promise of horns, they should be dis-
budded at three days to a week old. This can be determined
by examination. Usually the tiny tip of the horn can be
felt. If the hair is in a swirl where the horn is to come,
there will be horns. If the hair is smooth and the skin is
loose, the kid will be hornless.
GOATS IN FLORIDA
If any electric disbudding iron is used it should be heated
to red-hot. The hair should be clipped around the tip of
horn and the iron applied to each bud ten seconds using a
rotary motion. One person should hold the kid's head and
another apply the iron. As soon as the iron is removed
apply carbolated vaseline to each burned area, then sift
sulfathiazole powder over it. In a few moments the kid
will be playing around as usual. If kids are on the ground,
an anti-tetanus shot is advisable as goats are rather suscep-
tible to lockjaw. If they are on wire this is not necessary.
The horns can be removed by caustic sticks or paste. The
directions come with it. These sticks are very severe and
directions should be followed exactly. Removing the horns
is not pleasant but is very necessary as long, sharp horns
are dangerous to humans and even to the other goats.
Horns also get caught in fences as goats will push their
heads through and then the horns hold them there until
help comes. Horns also detract from the value if sold.
Doe and buck kids should be separated before three
months of age as there is danger of the young does getting
bred from then on.
24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Does are usually milked on a stand 12 to 18 inches
high. The stand should be long enough for the doe to stand
comfortably and should be 18 to 20 inches wide. There
should be a stanchion at the front to fasten the doe's head
and a feed box for grain. Some does like to eat while be-
ing milked, others prefer just to stand.
Some milkers prefer a high stand so they can stand up
to do the milking. There should be a runway built up to
such a stand since it is not wise to make a pregnant or old
doe jump onto the stand.
Does are milked from the side exactly like a cow. They
are milked twice a day and this should be at a regular time
each day. Very heavy milking does, anything over 8 pounds
a day, should be milked three times a day until production
The milking should be done in a room separate from the
barn, or partitioned off from the main barn.
The udders should be washed with a warm chlorine solu-
tion and dried. Paper towels are very satisfactory for this
and are not expensive. The milk should be strained or
filtered, cooled and kept in a refrigerator until used. Goat's
milk, taken care of properly will stay sweet longer than
Pastures and lots for goats must be WELL FENCED. A
three foot woven wire with two rows of barbed wire on top
is satisfactory but five foot woven wire is better. The wire
should be strung inside the posts except at the corner posts
on account of the goats' habit of rubbing against the fences.
They will soon push the staples out if the wire is fastened
in the usual way. Care must be taken to stretch the wire
very tight and posts must be set about 8 feet apart or not
more than 10 feet. They will seldom jump a fence topped
with barbed wire but may go through between the top of
the woven wire and the first strand of barbed wire. To pre-
vent this, tie the top of the woven wire to the first strand
of barbed wire every 20 inches.
USES OF GOAT'S MILK
Goat's milk can be used exactly as cow's milk. It is more
easily digested than cow's milk, thus can be used in many
GOATS IN FLORIDA 25
instances where cow's milk cannot be tolerated, especially
with babies and invalids. It is used very successfully in
cases of stomach ulcer. Most people allergic to cow's milk
can drink goat's milk.
Goat's milk has been generally used in Europe and Asia
for many generations. There the goat is known as the
"poor man's cow."
At first in this country, goat milk was produced for direct
consumption but more and more goat dairies are taking
over and at the present time there are large dairies near
most large cities and they are increasing in smaller towns.
This has been accomplished in spite of the unreasonable
prejudice against goats and also by the lack of cooperation
of the medical profession.
There are two large companies producing evaporated goat
milk and several smaller companies producing dried goat
One Type of Milking Stand
Arkansas has several cheese factories making cheese from
goat milk exclusively. Very good cheese can be made in the
home. This is a soft cheese somewhat like Swiss or Brie.
Goat milk makes a very delightful cottage cheese also.
Butter of the finest quality is made from goat milk but
here a cream separator is almost a necessity since the cream
does not raise readily on goat milk. If the milk is put in
shallow pans and kept in the refrigerator 12 to 24 hours,
about half the cream will come to the top and can be
skimmed off and used for butter.
To make butter, a little sour milk or buttermilk should
be added to the cream to be churned and the cream kept
at room temperature until it begins to thicken. Then it
26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
should be refrigerated until it is not over 60 degrees, 55
degrees is better in the summer. It is then ready to churn
in a hand or electric churn. A small amount can be churn-
ed in an electric mixer. It takes only a few minutes to
churn, usually ten minutes or less. After the butter comes
it should be taken out of the buttermilk into a bowl and
washed in icewater, then salted, about a tablespoon of salt
to the pound. The butter should stand a few minutes for
the salt to dissolve, then it should be worked with a spoon
Two Heavy Milking Does
or paddle and the excess water poured off after which it
can be molded into prints or put in a bowl and is ready for
use. Goat butter is white but a vegetable butter coloring
may be added. The only difference from butter made from
cow's milk is a lower melting point.
Goat milk can be used in cooking just the same as any
other milk and very delicious ice cream is made from it.
GOATS IN FLORIDA 27
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOAT MILK
Goat milk produced under clean conditions is very deli-
cious with no odor. It is seldom that a person, not used to
goat milk, can tell any difference from cow's milk. If given
goat milk with nothing said, he never knows he is not drink-
ing extra good cow's milk. Goat milk tastes slightly sweeter
and has a rich smooth taste from the butterfat being evenly
distributed through the milk.
As was mentioned before, a buck running with the does
may ruin the milk. Goat milk as a rule, has a very low
bacteria count. Absolutely bacteria free milk has been
taken from a goat, something that has never been done
with a cow. Thus, with a low bacteria count, goat milk
keeps sweet for unusually long periods of time. In cool
weather it is sometimes hard to sour goat milk properly
and cow's milk may have to be added.
Comparative tables show goat's milk and cow's milk
having almost the same composition. The butterfat varies
as much in different goats as it does in different cows. The
main difference is the fat globules in goat's milk are much
smaller and the curd of goat's milk is very fine which many
authorities consider the reason of the much easier digesti-
bility of goat's milk.
PROFITS FROM GOAT DAIRYING
It is not likely that the goat will ever compete seriously
with the dairy cow as a milk producer in America. Goat
dairying will always be more or less a specialty. Although
in consideration of size and food consumption, goats are
more efficient producers of milk than cows. A goat that pro-
duces two quarts (4 pounds) of milk a day is equal to a
4 or 5 gallon cow. Then, when you consider how many goats
make 4, 6 and the top producers 8 and 9 quarts a day, you
can see what this little animal can accomplish.
One of the principal reasons why the goat dairyman is
forced to ask such a high price for milk is the irregularity
of his sales. People who need and require the milk will buy
it until they recover somewhat or the baby that has been
doing so well on it will now tolerate other milk, and a cus-
omer is lost. A goat dairyman must take this into con-
sideration when setting his price. There are goat dairies
throughout the state operating successfully and the price
varies from 40 cents a quart in some places to as much as
one dollar a quart in others.
28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
A goat dairyman, whose herd averages 2 quarts a day
per head, should be able to operate at a profit. This takes
into consideration the lower production in the latter part of
the doe's milking period and her dry two months. A good
doe should milk ten months and have a two months rest.
However, many does now milk twelve, fifteen months or
even two years profitably and they are the dairyman's
Ready For Supper at Waterman's Goat Dairy, Sarasota
Not everyone can succeed with goats. They require quiet,
gentle treatment and must have affection to do their best.
Then they must be fed intelligently. Each goat must be
studied as to her own requirements. A goat will starve be-
fore she will eat food she dislikes.
Goats are not placid like cows but are highstrung, tem-
permental animals. Making a change in the barn or shift-
GOATS IN FLORIDA
ing an animal to another stall may upset her for several
days, even a change in the weather may affect her produc-
Goats can be and are profitable but it must be in their
way, not yours.
Prices for milk goats range from practically nothing on
up. But generally speaking, a good grade doe will sell
from $25.00 to $50.00. Registered purebreds from $50.00
up to several hundred dollars, about $100.00 being an
average price for a good one. Registered doe and buck
kids may be bought from $25.00 to $150.00. Recently a
French Alpine doe sold for $1,000.00.
There are two registry associations: The American Milk
Goat Registry Association and The American Goat Society.
At the present time there are three goat magazines, Dairy
Goat Journal, Columbia, Mo.; Better Goatkeeping, Harvard,
Mass.; and The Capriculturist, Chesterland, Ohio.
GOAT HERDS IN FLORIDA
There are many herds of goats in the state at the present
time, ranging from the family herd of one to five or more
does to the large commercial dairies.
Of the commercial dairies, perhaps the largest is the Dew
Bloom Dairy of Brandon serving the Tampa area. The dairy
is owned and operated by William J. Fietz. There are some
300 goats in this herd, different breeds, most of them
Most of the large dairies have several breeds and most
of them are grade animals. There are exceptions, one be-
ing the herd owned by Mrs. Godfrey Anderson of Pompano
Beach. Her herd is purebred Saanen. Another is the Peter
Rozma Goat Dairy of Miami which is purebred Nubian.
Other dairies reported in the state are:
Palmer Goat Dairy, Miami; 0. P. Reese, Miami; Dale Bib-
ler, Ft. Lauderdale; Mildred Naus, Hollywood; George Ma-
zer, Jacksonville; Vic's Goat Dairy, Ft. Myers; Miller's Goat
Dairy, Bradenton; Pine Acres Goat Dairy, St. Petersburg;
A. Schneider, Palatka; Boettinger Goat Dairy, Orlando;
Waterman Goat Dairy, Sarasota; and Janeth-Ann Goat
Dairy, Ormond Beach.
There are undoubtedly more throughout the state which
have not been reported.
30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Some of the Breeding Herds in the state:
The Yokelawn Herd of Crystal-line Toggenburgs owned
by Merle Rhinesmith of Dade City. This herd was brought
to Florida two years ago and is nationally known. Crystal
Vivian of Yokelawn T86994, AR 1226, 1556, 1905 is in this
herd. She was Breed leader for 1950 and her twin Crystal
Lil-Allie was runner up.
The Chanubian Herd of Nubians owned by Mrs. C. W.
Channel of Arcadia. This herd has been built up during the
past 16 years and has some of the best blood-lines, Jelinski,
Chikaming, Twin Cedars, and Ononedada. Unfortunately,
through lack of testing associations within reach, this herd
has never been put on test, although Mrs. Channel keeps
milk records, every drop of milk being weighed and re-
THE AMERICAN MILK GOAT RECORD
Members in Florida
Anderson, Mrs. Virginia, Route 1, Box 1400, Pom-
April, Matthew, 2102 East Hanna, Tampa.
Barber, Mortimer K., P. 0. Box 101, Ft. McCoy (n).
Channel, Mrs. C. W., 444 North Hillsboro Ave., Ar-
cadia (N, n).
Cogliano, Mrs. Doris R., Box 244, Chattahoochee
Craven, A. B., 1101 North Main Street, Crestview.
Ditto, Mrs. Mary K., R. D. 2, Fort Myers (N, n).
Lee, Mrs. M. Taylor, 735 East 56th Street, Hialeah.
Moore, Dr. Castles W., 311 Blount Building, Ft.
Morlock, William E., 1111 S. Tennessee Ave., Lake-
land (A, a).
Rhinesmith, Merle, Yokelawn, Route 1, Dade City.
St. Laurent, Miss Emma Marie, 6011 Sixth Street,
Scott, H. H. 4319 Woodmere Street, Jacksonville
Ward, H. B., 724 Gotham Ct., West Palm Beach.
GOATS IN FLORIDA
Dr. Castles W. Moore of Ft. Lauderdale is building up a
herd of purebred Nubians and has recently purchased one
of the best-bred young bucks to be brought into the state.
This is Jelinski's Persian whose granddam on both sides is
Myra del Valle, the well-known Nubian doe who held the
Nubian production record for some time, finally losing it
to her own daughter, Katrein's Charmaine. This fine sire
should be very valuable to Nubian breeders throughout
There are many other small herds of purebred animals
that can and probably will develop into breeding herds in
There Are Few Angoras in Florida
The Angora goat originated in Asia Minor and has been
distributed to nearly all parts of the world. They were first
brought to America in 1849 and were distributed first in the
Carolinas, Georgia and Tennessee. From there they spread
to all states.
The Angora also seems to succeed best on hilly and moun-
tainous land. At present large numbers of them are found in
Texas, New Mexico, California and other southwestern
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
states. The fleece of the Angora is known as mohair, and it
is longer and stronger than the wool of sheep. The amount
of fleece secured is somewhat less than from sheep, but it
brings a much higher price, occasionally three times that of
The Angora is medium or small in size, weighing from 60
to 100 pounds. Both sexes have horns and are able to pro-
tect themselves from enemies better than sheep and most
breeds of goats. One great use of the Angora is for clearing
This Herd Includes Some Angoras
off brush land, as it is naturally a browsing animal and will
destroy young trees and brush very effectively.
The adoption of the Angora to Florida conditions does
not seem especially good from past efforts. It does best in a
dry climate; rainy, warm weather seems against its nature.
Considerable numbers have been brought to this state from
Texas and Tennessee, but they do not seem to thrive as well
as in cooler regions. Trouble with both external and internal
parasites is more likely to occur, and foot-rot is more com-
mon on wet soils.
Prices for a registered Angora Buck, or doe, are rather
high, ranging from $40 to $100 each for fair individuals.
Some breeders have attempted to cross the Angora with the
common goat, but without much success. If you contem-
plate investing in Angoras, be careful as to the exact pur-
pose you have in mind. Limit the amount of money you
spend in securing breeding stock until you gain experience
or knowledge along this line.
GOATS IN FLORIDA
There are more common, native goats in the woods and
on the ranges of Florida, as well as most other southern
states, than there are of all other types combined. They are
small in size, are hardy and thrive well under adverse con-
ditions. In most cases they get nothing to eat beyond what
they find on the open ranges, and ordinarily their shelter
consists of the gifts of Providence. A few owners provide a
little care during bad weather.
Some claim that the common goat is a degenerate descen-
dant of some of the breeds of milk goats brought to this
country during colonial days and allowed to run wild. Many
flocks in Florida show the same color markings as the
brown and tan Toggenburgs. Some of the does among these
herds have fairly large udders and would undoubtedly pro-
duce a quart or more of milk a day, if properly fed and
handled. Many could be used to advantage for family milk
purposes, or by people who especially need goat milk for
for their infants and invalids.
Most common goats in Florida, however, are used for
meat production. The flesh of the young kid is very palat-
able and can scarcely be distinguished from mutton. In fact,
it is quite likely-at least assumed-that much of the meat
we buy as "mutton" or many of the "lamb chops" served us
in restaurants are nothing more than the flesh of goats.
However, as long as the quality is fully equal to that of
mutton, what harm is done? Many persons who are exacting
in their choice of meat actually demand goat meat-Some-
times spoken of on the market as "chevon"-in preference
to mutton or beef. If the animal is in good condition, if
the butchering is done right and if the meat is properly
cared for, it is a very nice food product.
A number of farmers in various parts of the state have
paid considerable attention to goat herds and have built up
a good demand for the meat among the butchers and special
customers of their localities. This is probably the best
opportunity for use of our hardy, native goats at present.
The main need of this industry is to secure a strain or
breed that will produce a larger carcass than the small ani-
mals now prevalent in the state. No breed of goat has been
found that is particularly and especially recommended for
large size and meat production. Perhaps the Anglo-Nubian
and the Saanen breeds could supply bucks that would per-
ceptibly increase the size of our ordinary native goats. The
34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
milk-producing characteristics could be disregarded, if the
owner wished to produce meat only. There is much waste
land in this part of the country and perhaps here is an
inviting field for the man who is interested in raising goats.
Some Farmers Use Goats to Browse Off Briars
GOATS IN FLORIDA
Year No. Farms No. Goats Value
1920 2299 45890 $ 146,331
1925 1939 36944 34,420
1930 2014 31698 46,193
1935 2643 42027 37,824
1940 1910 23519 24,428
1945 1819 21118 38,965
1950 1786 20000* t
1955 t 25000* t
Authority: U. S. Census
* Estimated by Author-(Milk Goats only)
t Information Unavailable
GOATS IN FLORIDA
VALUE OF GOATS is such that there are few sold for
meat on the open market, since many of the goat owners
kill only for their own use. The price per head on some of
the livestock auction markets has dropped noticeably from
$5 to $7 per head a few years ago ito presently $2 to $4
per head with very few numbers offered. Nannies are still
bringing in $7 to $9 per head, according to the Florida State
BOOKS ABOUT GOATS
Dairy Goat Journal, Columbia, Missouri
Aids to Goatkeeping, (5th Edition), by Carl A. Leach-
Dairy Goat Husbandry and Disease Control, by C. E.
The ABC of Goat Dairying, by Coutant-$1
Starting Right with Milk Goats, by Walsh-$3
Improved Milk Goats, by Will L. TeWalt-$1.50
1946 Yearbook of the British Goat Society-$1
1952 Yearbook of the British Goat Society-$1.50
1953 Yearbook of the British Goat Society-$1.50
The Milking Goat, by Dr. M. S. Steffen-$1.50
The Modern Dairy Goat, by Joan Shields-$2
Primer for Goatkeepers-50c
Butchering, Chevon, and Goat Hides-25c Get
Home Cheesemaking-25c All
Goat Products Cook Book-25c 5
Butter from Goat Milk-25c For
Formulas for Infant Feeding-25c $1.00
Understanding Heredity, by Goldschmidt-$3.75
Cheesemaking, by J. L. Sammis-$3.75
Practical Veterinarian, by Dr. G. H. Conn-$2.50
Success on the Small Farm-$2.50
Successful Part-Time Farming, by Pearson-$3.00
The Artificial Insemination of Dairy Cattle, by Herman
Artificial Insemination of Farm Animals, Rice-$4
The Home Veterinarian's Handbook, by Dr. E. T. Baker
Feeds and Feeding, by Morrison-$7
Five Acres and Independence, by Kains-$2.50
Breeding Better Livestock, by Rice-$6.50
36 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Available Free from:
Ralston Purina, Checkerboard Square, St. Louis 2,
Lots of Milk from Dairy Goats
Plans for a Dairy Goat Milk House
Milk and Feed Chart
Livestock Farming Guide, Dr. Hess & Clark, Inc., Ash-
land, Ohio, free.
Goat Milk Marketing, Dr. David Roberts, P. 0. Box 297,
Waukesha, Wisconsin, free.
How To Make Cheese, Chr. Hansen's Laboratory, Inc.,
Little Falls, N. Y., free.
How To Make Butter, Chr. Hansen's Laboratory, Inc.,
Little Falls, N. Y., free.
Profitable Dairy Goat Management, by P. E. Newman,
The Beacon Milling Company, Inc., Cayuga, N. Y., 25 cents.
Farm Sanitation, Parke Davis & Company, Detroit, Mich-
Nemazene Worm Tablets booklet, by Parke Davis & Com-
pany, Inc., Detroit, Mich., free.
Calf Manna For Goats, Albers Research Station, 1060
Stuart Building, Seattle 1, Washington, free.
There are also a number of other publications available
from various state departments of Agriculture, from the
U. S. Department of Agriculture, and from the organized
goat associations in each state.