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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Know your soil
 Chemical analyses of Florida...
 Characteristics, identification,...
 Utilization of Florida soils
 Key for classifying Florida...














Group Title: Bulletin. New Series
Title: The soils of Florida and their utilization
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014974/00001
 Material Information
Title: The soils of Florida and their utilization
Series Title: Bulletin. New Series
Physical Description: 34 p. : ill. (some col.), map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bryan, O. C ( Ollie Clifton ), b. 1894
Stoutamire, Ralph
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Department of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1930
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Classification   ( lcsh )
Adaptation (Biology)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by O.C. Bryan and Ralph Stoutamire.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "October, 1930."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014974
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7368
ltuf - AKD9405
oclc - 28570039
alephbibnum - 001962728

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Know your soil
        Page 5
    Chemical analyses of Florida soils
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Characteristics, identification, crop adaptations
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Utilization of Florida soils
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Key for classifying Florida soils
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text

Revised. See no.


Bulletin No. 42




Uhe


New Series


October, 1930


oils of Tlorida


And 'heir Utilization


By
0. C. BRYAN
and
RALPH STOUTAMIRE















State of Florida
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee


T. APPLEYARO, INC., TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

LIBRARY
FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
OAINESVIUL1.F. r[fl,


























DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture........ Tallahassee
T. J. Brooks, Assistant Commissioner.........:.... Tallahassee
Phil S. Taylor, Supervising Inspector .... ........ Tallahassee









CONTENTS
PAGE
I n t r o d u c t io n ........................................................................................................................... 5
Know Your Soil ......................... .......... ............. 5
Chemical Analyses of Florida Soils.................................. .......... 6
Chacteristics, Identification, Crop Adaptations ....... ..... 8
W ell-D rained U pland Soils................................................................. 8
N o rfo lk S o ils ....................................................................................... ...... 8
Orangeburg and Greenville Soils...................................... 10
Tifton Soils .................................................................................................................... 11
H off m an S oils .................................................................... .................. 12
J]u stis S oils........................ .... .................... ........... ................. 1 3
O rlando Soils .................................................................... ..... 13
,G a in esv ille S oils ............................................................................. ... .. 14
San ds an d S an d D un es.......................................................................... ..... 15
St. Lucie and Lakewood Sands .......................... 15
P alm B ea ch S an d s ......................................................................... ..... 1 5
D a d e S a n d s........................................................................... ..................... 1 6
Soils With Medium to Poor Natural Drainage........................ 16
G a d sd en -S o ils............................................................................ .. .... .. 1 6
Fellowship Soils...................... ............. 17
Hernando Soils ...................... .............................. 17
B la n to n S o ils....................................................................................... ........ 2 0
S cr a n to n S o ils : .................................................................................. ........ 2 1
Poorly Drained and Flatwoods Land ............. ...................... 22
B lad en an d C ox ville S oil .................................................................. 22
P lu m m er S o ils............................................................ ........ ................... 2 3
Portsmouth and St. Johns Soils ...... .............. 23
L eo n S o ils........................ ............................ ................................ 2 4
P ark w ood S oils .......... .............. ....... ............................ 25
SH y d e S o ils ................................................ .................................................... 2 6
M y a tte S o ils ............................................................... ............. ........... 2 6
O ck lock n ee S oils....................... ....................... ........................... 2 6
O rg a n ic S o ils .......................................................................................... .............. 2 6
M u ck s ...................... ... ............................................................. 2 7
-P e a t s ..................................... ............................................. ........................... 2 8
U utilization of F lorida Soils ................................................... .......................... 30
Key for Classifying Florida Soils........................................ 32












THE SOILS OF FLORIDA
AND THEIR UTILIZATION
By 0. C. Bryan and Ralph Stoutamire
THE soil, next to climate, is Florida's greatest and, most
fundamental natural resource. It is hardly possible to say
too much about the importance of the soil. Life itself de-
pends upon it. Civilization is limited by its fertility and ability
to produce. Therefore, a knowledge of the soil and its adapta-
tional limits is vital and necessary, especially for the progress
of agriculture.
The true value of a soil depends upon the kind and amount
of crops it will produce under average farming conditions. The
soil is the farmer's factory, and it is his primary business to so
manage the raw materials at his disposal-such as seed, fer-
tilizer, labor, water, sprays, etc.-that his crops may be grown
economically. If his factory does not grow crops profitably,
the farm operation is a failure, regardless of other efforts.
KNOW YOUR SOIL
Some soils are naturally adapted to the production of certain
crops and valueless for others. This difference in adaptation is
a law of the soil and can rarely be changed by man. It is, indeed,
fortunate for man that the crop adaptation of soils are variable.
This makes it possible to grow a wide variety of economic plants.
With the competition now confronting the farmer, it behooves
him as never before to use only those soils that will produce at a
profit under normal price conditions, rather than to use less
efficient soils and risk the chances for abnormal prices.
To know the soil and its adaptational limits is of tremendous
importance to the farmer. Crop adaptation is largely dependent
on the physical rather than the chemical properties of the soil.
Such physical properties as drainage, texture, structure, color
and topography determine crop adaptation and also form the
bases upon which soils are classified and evaluated.
The purpose of this bulletin is to bring together the informa-
tion dealing with the different soils of Florida, indicate their
approximate locations and point out their chief characteristics
and uses. It is hoped that this will prove helpful to those en-
gaged in farming and serve as a safe guide to those who con-
template engaging in this industry.
In regard to soil names, the term "soil series" represents
groups of soils that are alike in all characteristics except tex-
ture. Here "texture" refers to the size of the soil particles.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The series name is a local geographical term indicating where
the soil was first described and given official recognition. Thus
the Gainesville series was first described and given official
recognition near Gainesville, Florida. Soils in any series may
vary according to texture-as sands, loams, clays, etc. A com-
bination of the series name with texture constitutes a "soil
type"--the unit of soil classification. Variations within a type
produce a "soil phase." For example, the "shallow phase" of
Gainesville (series) fine sand (texture).
There are about 30 described soil series in Florida, each of
which contains several types, making a total of 75 or more dis-
tinct soil types, besides a much larger number of soil phases.
Although detailed studies (surveys) have not been made for
the entire state, representative counties and areas approximat-
ing a fourth of the state have been surveyed. Moreover, the
completed surveys have been so distributed as to give a general
idea of the entire state. It is assumed that the areas not sur-
veyed are in all probability similar to the counties already com-
pleted. These completed surveys, geological reports, and ex-
periment station bulletins form the basis of the information
contained herein.
CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF FLORIDA SOILS
From Table I it may be seen that many of Florida's soils are
low in the essential fertilizer nutrients. This accounts for the
general use of commercial fertilizers. The low content of
nutrients in these soils is due in a large measure to the influence
of subtropical climate on the porous soils. However, with care-
ful management and proper fertilization a wide range of cash
crops may be successfully grown on them.
Only in a general way is a chemical analysis of the soil worth
while. As a rule soils having a limestone origin are relatively
high in phosphorus, while those having poor drainage are high
in nitrogen. But there seems to be no definite correlation be-
tween soil analysis and crop adaptation. For example, Green-
ville and Hernando soils have a much higher nutritive content
than do Bladen and Portsmouth soils. Yet the latter are much
better adapted to the production of potatoes and strawberries
than the former. This difference is due to the natural proper-
ties of the soil, largely moisture supply. Many examples for
other crops might be given.










THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 7

Table 1: The content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potas-
sium in certain Florida sails, together with the acreage surveyed
!o date:




SOIL SERIES i 1




Bibb-........-....--.....-....----- ..--- ..- ...-........------- ----. 7,616
Bladen .......---............-................ .107 .027 .048 396,034
Blanton --............... . ............. .- ... 73,920
Dade.............----------------..........-----------...- .015 .024 .010 2,756
Coxville ........ ---- ... ... 2,404
Eustis .........----------------.....---...------ .033 .010 .047 28,224
Fellowship............... ... ---- ............----..--- .412 1.820 .042 34,432
Gadsden .................... ....... ..... ...... 56,448
Galveston --............-. .... ...... --... ... 5,690
Gainesville.. .. ......... ..... .............----------- .185 .328 .046 90,431
Greenville...-.............-- ........................----- 17,728
Hoffman........... --...............-- ...... ......... 1,216
Hernando.....---...............--------------...-..--...-....... .198 .080 .047 76,712
Hyde-......-----------...... ........ ... 118,784
Johnston ..----------..............--.................. ... 15,296
Lakewood .......- ------------.. ---------.......- ... ... 26,880
Leon.......------... -------...... ...................... .087 .007 .009 1,022,819
Muck and peaty muck................... 1.470 .476 .048 217,552
M yatte ...................................... -- 20,928
Norfolk .............. ..............--------------------......- .050 .019 .011 2,838,398
Orangeburg ....-.......................... .193 .190 .052 269,464
Orlando......-- --- .......... 37,184
Ocklocknee ............................-- -... 3,712
Palm Beach .........------------....--...........--.. ----- .153 .130 .014 19,008
Parkwood .......................----- ... --------- ...... .272 .462 .054 80,778
Portsmouth.--.....-----------------..... -----........ .206 .032 .010 854,204
Peat--.. ----------..------------- .. 2.790 .415 .037 260,900
Plummer---- ..------------------------...... 284,470
Scranton ----------...-.. ...- .............. ...-- .. .210 1.130 .019 51,124
St. Lucie ......................... ............ .013 .008 .006 178,856
St. Johns................................................ 259,523
Tifton.....................---...........---...
Swamp, marsh, meadow, etc ........... 678,544
Shell, mounds, coquina, etc.-....... 1,872
Coastal beach, sand hills..........










8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CHARACTERISTICS, IDENTIFICATION, CROP
ADAPTATIONS

The main objects of this bulletin are to-
1. Describe the soils of Florida in such a way that the farmer
or any other interested person might identify them, and
2. Suggest those crops which are adapted to these soils.
The location of the different soils is indicated in a general way
by the soil map on pages 18 and 19. The divisions of the map rep-
resent the dominant soils present. The soils within a division
are also indicated on the legend. The illustrations are included
as further aids in identifying the various soils.
Well-Drained Upland Soils
The well-drained uplands include those soils whose water table
is usually lower than 4 feet from the surface. The rolling sand
hills and practically all the uplands belong to this division.
In referring to the different soil series, it should be understood
that a series represents a group of soil types; e. g., the Norfolk
soils (series) include a number of types. The identification
characteristics and crop adaptations of the different upland soils
(series) are given on the following pages:
SNORFOLK SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Well drained, rolling pine and oak land.
2. Gray surface with yellow subsoil.
3. Subsoil always friable and sometimes drought.
4. Free from lime; slightly acid.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for watermelons, bright tobacco, tung
oil, citrus, peanuts and grapes.
2. Fair for corn, pecans, cotton, tomatoes, beans,
sweet potatoes and cucumbers.
3. Poor for sugarcane, cabbage, Irish potatoes and
other moisture-loving crops; valueless for straw-
berries and celery.

The Norfolk soils are found in almost every county in the
state and are by far the most extensive in Florida (see figure 1).
They are naturally low in organic matter, and that present is
rapidly lost under tillage operations unless the cropping system
provides for frequent additions of vegetable matter. Due to
the open nature of the sands, it is practically impossible to per-
manently increase their organic content with tilled crops.
Stirring the soil rapidly increases the aeration and oxidation
processes, which hastens the decomposition and loss of soil or-
ganic matter. Therefore, the organic matter in the form of
cover crops will have a greater lasting effect, though not always









THE S(lLS OF FLORIIDA


the most economical, if lift on th- -irta ce of the -oil rather than
turned under. This retairdi ,oxidation and A vrass sod will also retard oxidation and make po.sihle an i1-
etlase of -,nil organic matter.
Due to thliir open nature', the deep ) and r,.tuin little antc-r,
cruanuice matter aind plant nutrient-i. They -should nitI bh. planted



















Fig. 1. Norfolk fine sand, sho ring native vegetation and color of soil profile.

to sliallow-root' t-d vrop, except tihse adapted to drolnltihty ioils.
Jlowevr. deep-rooted viopis like eitlrui. iun oil and rapepe' mniy
be grown oonthese soilk with fair suLee-s. Frl.ituniifitly ina y t'f
the -.and from 4 to 6 feet below tihe sitrface'. This partially ac-ceints fo'r
the suci'ess of eilrus and other tropl tiO tihei s._- ,,al-.
Inasniuih as the plant nutrri-nil ar' low III 1 l_-. ,oils Vt-
Tablh 1), they require a vomnpleteit f,-rlitr f'ir in'-t.t easih rlcris.
They are also very re-,ponisiv i in ni'-' i"in i winter i'('er
('rops. bheiau.se' o.f their low hliinui- coit, nt. A r.'-lrt' aind .y--
lemafti p'Ograin of ifloW-int_ i '"e.-n nai i ire 1jr.lp ,i i l Ibe ,-i:ret
to .ihetO'ssifill fainliii:ig. lilh.s. ora(I iliie 1i ltt,' vail hPe ineori por-
ated in these ,oils, it is 'ldoubitful if the flertilizi-r will have ils
MilxiIimumi influence .
The -andIy 0 loaIls. ti e ,iil] tiil si.n i, wli.]e'li li;ii- a ; i a d1V
clay u hstl'ifi 1, 111 dy eeP prliliti ly iltiliz/el an1d ,ni, oiW to ti uviile
t\arty of crops. But at present the el,-i p ,atil.,s -h li. neit Ib,
planted io eultiva'lld crips. M.,-,t of til-he l-p. Niorf.lk -ati.ls
-lhoull be It'ft to forests.










10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ORANGEBURG AND GREENVILLE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Rolling to hilly, pine and hardwood hammock
lands.
2. (a) Brown surface with brick-red subsoil
(Orangeburg).
(b) Red surface with red subsoil (Greenville).
3. Friable sandy clay to clay subsoils-erodes easily.
4. Non-calcareous (without lime), usually acid, a
few iron pebbles occasionally.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for cotton, sweet potatoes, shade tobacco,
peppers, eggplants, tomatoes, pasture grasses,
tung oil, pecans, satsumas and peaches.
2. Fair for corn, sugarcane, bright tobacco, water-
melons, peanuts, cabbage and other truck crops.
3. Not adapted to strawberries, celery and mois-
ture-loving plants.




















Fig. 2. Orangeburg sandy loam soil with native hardwood vegetation.
Natural color.

The Orangeburg and Greenville soils are found in Florida
only in the western counties, and are most extensive around
Tallahassee and Marianna (see figure 2). They have much more
clay present, especially in the subsoil, than do Norfolk soils
and according to analyses they have a higher potential fertility.
The clay in the subsoils retains moisture much better than does
sand, thus preventing excessive under-drainage. On the other
hand, the slopes erode easily. Areas that erode easily should
be planted to pasture grasses or non-cultivated crops.
These soils represent some of the best farm lands in western
Florida. Sandy loams and loams are the principal types. Like










THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 11

Norfolk soils, Orangeburg and Greenville soils respond to fer-
tilizers and green manure crops. They are all low in organic
matter and unless a regular system of incorporating fresh or-
ganic matter into the soil is practiced, their natural fertility
will be greatly lowered. The clay types are inclined to bake and
become compact after heavy rains unless they are well supplied
with organic matter. Moreover, they do not warm up as early
in the spring as do the sandier types.
















- ,i _


















A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Well-drained, rolling pine or hammock land.
2. Brownish gray surface with yellowish clay sub-
soil.
3. Brown iron pebbles present in both surface and
subsoil.
4. Friable clayey subsoil, free of lime.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for cotton, peanuts, bright tobacco, water-
melons, pecans, tung oil, pasture grasses, blue-
berries, satsumas.
2. Fair for corn, sugarcane, cabbage, tomatoes and
certain truck crops.
3. Not adapted to strawberries, celery and mois-
ture-loving crops.

The Tifton soils are also found in the western counties (see
figure 3). They are closely associated with the Norfolk and
Orangeburg soils. Sand and sandy loams are the principal
types. In general Tifton soils are more fertile than Norfolk
soils. This is perhaps due to the clayey nature of the subsoil,
which prevents excessive under-drainage. In places the clay in
the subsoil has a reddish color approaching the Orangeburg
soils. Due to the inherent capacities of Tifton soils, they also
require fertilizers and frequent additions of fresh organic mat-
ter for the most economical crop production.
For the most part Tifton soils are managed and cropped in a
manner similar to Norfolk soils. To date no Tifton soil has been
described in Florida. However, field observations show that
they are more extensive than Greenville and, perhaps, Orange-
burg soils in many western counties.
HOFFMAN SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Rolling hammock soils, well drained.
2. Gray surface, with yellowish compact subsoil,
overlying pink and red sandy clay.
3. Non-calcareous, usually acid.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for corn, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, pasture
grasses, tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, pecans,
citrus, tung oil and many truck crops.
2. Fair for peanuts, cotton and bright tobacco.
3. Not adapted to strawberries, Irish potatoes,
celery and other moisture-loving crops.

The Hoffman soils are rather local, occurring in small areas
in the northern part of the peninsula. They are closely as-
sociated with Norfolk soils, but in general are considered more
fertile. This is due, perhaps, to the compact nature of the
subsoil and content of clay which makes for a greater water-
holding capacity. The high water supply accounts for the
adaptation of these soils to truck and general farm and fruit
crops.
They are usually managed and cropped in a manner similar
to Norfolk soils. Their small extent limits their importance.





PAGE
NOT AVAILABLE
FOR SCANNING










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


GAINESVILLE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Well-drained, rolling, hardwood hammock lands.
2. From grayish brown to chocolate red surface,
with a brownish red subsoil.
3. Friable structure; usually contains fragments of
chert.
4. The surface soil may be acid although limerock
is often found in the lower subsoil.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for cabbage, tomatoes, beans, sweet pota-
toes, peppers, watermelons and peanuts.
2. Fair for citrus, bright tobacco, corn and sugar-
cane.
3. Not adapted to strawberries, Irish potatoes,
celery and other water-loving crops.


Fig. 4. Gainesville sandy loam soil showing color of profile. Note the cherty
material (white) in the subsoil.

The Gainesville soils are located in small irregular areas in
the peninsula, extending as far north as Suwannee County (see
figure 4). They are potentially fertile, compared to most Flor-
ida soils. This is indicated in a general way by their chemical
analyses. The clayey types have a high water-holding capacity
and do not leach readily, while the sands are somewhat
drought. Some of the Gainesville sands in the eastern part of










THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 15

the state contain limerock (coquina) within from 2 to 3 feet
of the surface. Such areas are rather drought and are not
adapted to deep-rooted crops-like citrus, tung oil and pecans,
although citrus is being grown on them in a limited way. It is
interesting to note that the quality of fruit grown on these sands
is excellent, but the life o'f the tree is short. These soils respond
to fertilizer and green manure treatments, as do most Florida
soils.
Sands and Sand Dunes
The sand dunes represent almost pure quartz of a rather
drought nature. It is very probable that these sands were
once the shore line of bodies of water. Their chief characteristics
and crop adaptations are given below:
ST. LUCIE AND LAKEWOOD SANDS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Well-drained, rolling to undulating sands.
2. Light gray, incoherent surface sand overlying
a white sand (St. Lucie) ; overlying an orange-
colored sand at from 20 to 30 inches below the
surface (Lakewood).
3. Droughty, dune-like sand, scrubby vegetation,
rosemary and sand pine, non-calcareous.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for pineapples.
2. Fair for beans and citrus, where water can be
controlled.
3. Usually not planted to any crop other than pine-
apples and citrus.
The St. Lucie and Lakewood sands may be found in local areas
in almost any part of the state, particularly in the peninsular
counties. They are usually associated with Leon and Norfolk
soils. These sands are almost pure quartz, containing very little
organic matter and plant nutrients. They are excessively
leached, and are drought in most cases. So far as known these
sands have a very low agricultural value except for pineapples.
Lakewood sand is considered better for crops than St. Lucie
sand. Due to their low content of mineral nutrients, the value
of these sands even for forestry purposes may be limited.
PALM BEACH SANDS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Well-drained hammock sands.
2. Grayish "speckled" brown surface with light
brown sandy subsoil.
3. Calcareous shells are present in both surface
and subsoil.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for beans, peppers, tomatoes, cabbage and
other truck crops, as well as farm crops.
2. When not too calcareous good for citrus.
3. Not adapted to celery, strawberries, Irish
potatoes and other moisture-loving crops.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The Palm Beach sands occur in small localized areas along the
lower east coast. They are usually covered with a dense growth
of subtropical vegetation. Their subtropical location makes it
possible for them to grow a wide variety of truck and subtropi-
cal fruit crops, when properly managed and fertilized. Their
calcareous nature increases their value for certain truck crops.
Although Palm Beach sands have a comparatively high content
of nutrients, they require fertilizing in order to produce most
cash crops. They are not extensive.
DADE SANDS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Level to rolling pine and palmetto land.
2. Light gray sand underlaid with Oolitic limestone
which has an irregular pot-hole-like surface.
3. Drainage is usually excessive, making the land
somewhat drought at times.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Where moisture is near enough to the surface,
they grow good crops of vegetables-tomatoes,
cabbage, eggplant, etc.
2. Fair for sweet potatoes, citrus and other sub-
tropical fruits.
3. Not adapted to moisture-loving or acid-loving
crops.
The Dade sands are located in the southern part of Florida
particularly near the coast. Their subtropical location adapts
them to the production of a number of crops. In many cases
the Oolitic limerock underneath makes them undesirable for
deep-rooted crops like citrus and avocadoes, but when the trees
can be planted in the deeper places they do very well. Dade
sands are similar to St. Lucie sands in many respects. They are
very low in the essential plant nutrients and require liberal
applications of a complete fertilizer to grow cash crops. Like
most other sands in Florida, the Dade sands are also low in
organic matter and respond to regular additions of organic
matter.
Soils With Medium to Poor Natural Drainage

The soils within this group have a water table normally be-
tween 2 and 4 feet from the surface. Because of their nearness
to water, they are usually good for a number of crops. Their
identification characteristics and crop adaptations are given
below:
GADSDEN SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Sloping pine and hammock land.
2. Dark gray surface with yellowish gray, drab or
white subsoil.










THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 17

3. Soils are considered as collovial material brought
down from higher elevations.
4. Soils are usually. medium drained and free of
lime.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for corn, shade tobacco, sugarcane, cabbage,
tomatoes, pasture grasses and pecans.
2. Fair for watermelons, peanuts, cotton and sweet
potatoes.
3. Little value for celery and other crops having
high moisture requirements.
The Gadsden soils usually occur in narrow strips adjacent to
streams in the western counties. They make very good farm
land, being considered one of the best soils in western Florida.
They occur only to a limited extent and are not very important.
FELLOWSHIP SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Medium drained, level to rolling hammock soils.
2. Black surface with yellowish mottled drab to
bluish mottled subsoils.
3. Plastic and impervious subsoil, with chert and
limerock at lower depth.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Very good for corn, sugarcane, cabbage, tomatoes,
beans, cucumbers, pasture grasses and citrus.
2. Fair for sweet potatoes, peanuts, cotton, water-
melons and Irish potatoes when not too cal-
careous.
3. Not adapted to celery, strawberries, pecans and
tung oil.
The Fellowship soils are considered among the best truck soils
in the state (see figure 5). They are also good for citrus when
drained and when the limerock is not too near the surface. The
best Indian River citrus fruits are grown on Fellowship soils.
They contain a higher content of plant nutrients than do aver-
age flatwoods soils (see Table I). This possibly accounts for
their natural fertility. The plastic nature of the clay types
makes them difficult to manage, especially during wet seasons.
Like all other soils in Florida, they respond to fertilizers and
good soil management. Fellowship soils are also well adapted
to general farm crops and pasture grasses, making some of the
best pasture land in the state. The areas of Fellowship soils
are more extensive than is indicated in Table I.
HERNANDO SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Medium to well-drained rolling pine and ham-
mock lands.
2. Yellowish brown surface, with brownish yellow
friable subsoil.
3. Soils are usually acid in surface, although there
is evidence of limestone in the subsoil in places.


































GENERALIZED SOIL. PIAP OF FLORA?


saksoa~ts (Oa~ny~baa-y -i G,--oa'ii4), ~0y. :ols -.1h yell.-' .,ah-.
Zo/s (Nor fe/), and 5y~ayoAhbroao ,oehbfr Je-7's eT'-fa').

~) 3 Up/and soils with yr.oy sarferce and yellow saabsoa (Aerfeb9o, and
9ray-.broon pebbly SisoI 7fn)

a19-Ilia-y .$and A/il, "prs-.tcasy /iyAt yray .Soisarthye~low sandy s,-
(Ngaol raey soi/s i~/A aaor4'ect Yea'/Oweandiinkish S -6.0,l5 (Hofl
doark qro-y 3-i/s ,nh light 7o 1bole yellow s- bo i os ('Or/endo a ,


U M 1 Mdl 'lAs, 61-k saar # le.wMiaqht P-boi Prsna~U) .er 6a
Pleains, light Sands (846b), 9- &o biaock San-Zi5('J-Anrton), bi-os'
c .ey 's. v is (OckIr/C kene e).


dish brown suabsoils Corca'/),Poorlr oresned black seal.
overe~ly y mnar/- (Park wood), and dark..9r-oy to brown .soili wi
mortted, dr-ab, yellow, and rece ju6oials (iernan do anrs-e//OWSd
rlatwoods wiath black suarfeace rend lay/st sarbseal (Po#7tshnosrtij,
Black su-rface and jab.5,ss/ (W'r~eel, Dark 7ya-y stirface with'y
ad '-4da, N h mo/flt e ,! saebso,l/v(B/a der, nd Cok vIle), I ryht loose
scar'ds. s'eelyinp Isardpa4 (~Leorsj, Dark Saa-foce owevlyiny heoA
(st. .Tol-:),aray ssr-face, ciow faii, laandj('/rnre).ht j
cal-es (St Lzicee), Dark s .,-face on&ediayes,-/ (Parkivaoes).
wA. 1. sends end send Sores (.st Lucie), Brown rand5se' wt A
[] Sea Yhell/s pr-esent (Pa/rn geacA), LryAC sands ova,- omasnec./.r4
(Lake wood), Caray to lirpAf -sands over/ysry lame rock (Dade s.
an additions to SWa, rnps flataaodi, an~d beaho
fraaa,[ i~roas oaOf% soil (Peat), a,7d '60-es-s to black nan-
fibroas orrjOAic $,oil mc


----






















































~ak.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for citrus, bright tobacco, cucumbers, to-
matoes, peanuts, sweet potatoes, cotton and pas-
ture grasses.
2. Fair for corn, cabbage and sugarcane.
3. Not adapted to Irish potatoes, celery, strawber-
ries, tung oil and pecans.
The Hernando soils are similar to and closely associated with
Gainesville and Norfolk soils-possessing intermediate proper-
ties and crop adaptations. The heavier types sometimes have
a mottled subsoil, particularly where drainage is poor.


Fig. 5. Fellowship clay loam soil with native hardwood vegetation. Note
the mottled subsoil.

As a rule, Hernando soils are adapted to a wide variety of
crops when properly managed and fertilized. They are local in
extent, occurring in scattered areas in the peninsular and well-
drained portions of the gulf hammock belt.
BLANTON SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Level to undulating pine land.
2. Gray surface with pale yellowish and white
splotched subsoil.
3. Subsoil sandy and usually acid.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for cucumbers, beans, tung oil, citrus, pea-
nuts, cotton, pecans and pasture g-r.-s-
2. Fair for cabbage, tomatoes, corn, tobacco and
watermelons.










THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


The Blanton soils are located in the semi-flatwoods of the
state and are neither excessively wet nor excessively dry (see
figure 6). They make good soils for certain truck crops when
fertilized and properly managed. They are between Norfolk
and Leon soils from the standpoint of drainage, but more pro-
ductive than either. When closely associated with Leon soils,
Blanton soils have a hard-pan stratum from 4 to 5 feet below
the surface, but this stratum is too deep to affect the growth of
plants. Blanton soils are managed and cropped in a manner
similar to Norfolk soils.























SCRANTON SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Level to undulating hammock land.
2. Deep black surface, with yellowish subsoil.
3. Moist, friable structure.
4. Surface usually acid, although limerock may be
found at lower depth.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Very good for strawberries, cabbage, beans, to-
matoes, corn, sugarcane, citrus, tung oil, pas-
ture grasses, cucumbers, etc.
2. Fair for sweet potatoes, watermelons, tobacco and
peanuts.
The Scranton soils are found on the margins between the
lower flatwoods and hills (see figure 7). As a rule they are
more coherent and retain moisture better than do Norfolk soils.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


This, in addition to the fact that the surface is near the water
table, makes them somewhat moist, and well adapted to the pro-
duction of strawberries, cabbage and other moisture-loving
crops. Scranton soils are also considered one of Florida's most
productive soils for general farm crops and pasture grasses,
although their area is somewhat small compared to other types.
The most extensive areas are located around Plant City and
Starke. Compared to most of Florida's soils, they have a higher
content of plant nutrients, but for the production of cash crops
Scranton soils require a complete fertilizer.

Poorly Drained and Flatwoods Land

As a rule poorly drained soils require drainage before they
can be grown to cultivated crops. The water table is usually
less than 2 feet from the surface. When drained, however, they
make very good farm land. The identification characteristics
and crop adaptations of the different series of poorly drained
soils are given below:
BLADEN AND COXVILLE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Level, grassy flatwoods; wet.
2. Gray surface soil with light, yellowish, mottled
subsoil (Bladen) ; with yellowish red mottled sub-
soil (Coxville).
3. Usually the lower subsoil is a plastic sandy clay.
4. They are acid and free from lime materials.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Very good, when drained, for Irish potatoes, to-
matoes, corn, sugarcane, tung oil, citr.w, pecans,
pasture grasses, etc.
2. Fair for cabbage, beans and strawberries.
3. Not very well adapted to watermelons, tobacco,
sweet potatoes and cotton.

These soils are found in nearly all the flatwoods areas of the
state (see figure 7). To date there are approximately 400,000
acres of Bladen soils surveyed in Florida. Although their plant
nutrients are relatively low, they are well adapted to the pro-
duction of a variety of crops, when drained and fertilized, due
to their physical properties. They are ideally adapted to Irish
potatoes and are known as potato lands. Their plastic (clay)
subsoil retains soil moisture and nutrients much better than do
most Florida soils. Moreover the plastic nature of the subsoil
induces a slow movement of ground water, making it possible
to surface irrigate, if necessary. Bladen soils represent some
of the best land in Florida for pasturage, trucking, fruit grow-
ing and farm crops.











THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


PLUMMER SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Level to undulating grassy flatwoods; wet.
2. Gray surface with light to dingy-gray subsoil of
a loose, "quicksand" nature.
3. The soils are usually slightly acid and non-cal-
careous.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Suitable only for forests and native pasture
grasses.
They are associated with Bladen soils, but so far as known
they have little agricultural value, except for pasture and forest
purposes.























Fig. 7. Bladen fine sand showing native vegetation and color of soil profile.
Note the yellowish mottling in the subsoil.

PORTSMOUTH AND ST. JOHNS SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Low, wet, swampy land.
2. Black surface with light gray to white subsoil
(Portsmouth) ; black surface with brown hard-
pan in subsoil (St. Johns).
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. When drained, good for corn, potatoes, sugarcane,
cucumbers, strawberries, beans, cabbage, pasture
grasses, etc.
2. Fair for citrus, tung oil, celery, lettuce and
tomatoes.
3. Not adapted to tobacco, watermelons and cotton.
Portsmouth and St. Johns soils are perhaps the most exten-
sive poorly drained soils in the state, occurring in nearly all low










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


wet areas (see figure 8). Because of their high moisture con-
tent they are ideally adapted, when drained, to the production
of a number of moisture-loving crops. They have a higher con-
tent of organic matter than do most upland soils and, as a rule,
are more fertile. When properly fertilized and managed, Ports-
mouth and St. Johns soils are among the best lands in the state
for pasture, truck and general farm crops.
As a rule, St. Johns soils are more incoherent than are Ports-
mouth soils. The hardpan does not seem to affect their produc-
ing ability as it does Leon soils.




















Fig. 8. Portsmouth fine sand showing color of soil profile.

LEON SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Level pine and palmetto flatwoods.
2. Loose gray surface sand, overlying a light gray
subsoil which passes into a brown compact hard-
pan at from 15 to 25 inches below the surface.
3. The hardpan is usually hard and impervious,
non-calcareous and acid.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. When water is controlled, ideal for celery, to-
matoes and other truck crops.
2. Without water control, it is rather risky to put
cultivated crops on them. However, sorghum,
sweet potatoes and other crops are sometimes
grown on them, when properly fertilized.

The Leon soils are rather extensive in Florida, occurring in
nearly all fintuio iv, areas of the state (see figure 9). They are










THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


usually deceptive to the inexperienced farmer, and in their
natural state they are not very desirable for agricultural pur-
poses. But when sub-irrigated and properly fertilized they be-
come among the best soils of the state for truck crops. The
hard-pan serves as a reservoir for irrigation water, enabling the
farmer to control soil moisture economically. As a rule, Leon
soils are low in plant nutrients and require liberal applications
of fertilizer.


Fig. 9. Leon medium sand with native vegetation of saw palmetto and pine.
Note color of soil profile.

PARKWOOD SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Poorly drained, level hammock land.
2. Black surface with gray to cream-white marl
subsoil.
3. Highly calcareous.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Good for corn, sugarcane, cabbage, tomatoes, let-
tuce, beets, beans and pasture grasses.
2. Not very well adapted to citrus, tung oil, pecans,
Irish potatoes and strawberries.
These soils are not very extensive, occurring only in small
areas scattered throughout the peninsula. They are too cal-
careous for some crops, but may be profitably used for the pro-
duction of tomatoes, cabbage and other lime-loving plants. The
lime or marl underneath makes them undesirable for citrus,
tung oil or pecans, but they are good pasture and truck lands.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


HYDE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Wet, black surface, with black subsoil to a depth
of 3 feet.
2. Soils are usually silty and plastic, having been
developed from deposits of silt and organic mat-
ter.
3. Usually free of lime.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Very good for corn, sugarcane, Irish potatoes,
cabbage, tomatoes, onions, pasture grasses, etc.
2. Fair for strawberries, celery, lettuce, etc.
Hyde soils are local, occurring in small patches associated with
Portsmouth soils. They have a high moisture capacity and
their color indicates a high nitrogen content. When drained
these soils, although similar in crop adaptations, are more pro-
ductive than Portsmouth soils. They are not extensive.

MYATTE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Undulating, second river bottom lands.
2. Gray surface with yellow mottled clay subsoil.
3. Usually acid and plastic subsoil.
Their crop adaptations are similar to those of Bladen soils.
They are located along streams in western Florida and are
known as second-bottom lands. They are not extensive, nor
very important, although some are being cultivated. They re-
spond to fertilizer and good management.

OCKLOCKNEE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Level river flood plains soils in western Florida.
2. Brown surface with reddish brown plastic clay
subsoil; usually acid.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. When drained, good for corn, sugarcane, sweet
potatoes, pasture grasses, tomatoes, cabbage and
other similar crops.
2. Usually not adapted to cotton, peanuts, tobacco,
etc.
Lying along rivers, these soils are subject to overflow. Like
Myatte soils, they are local and-have a limited value.

Organic Soils
Florida has a rather large acreage of organic soils, the Ever-
glades being the most extensive area and representing almost
4,000,000 acres of continuous peat and muck deposits. Much
smaller deposits of peat and muck are scattered over other low
wet areas of the state. These soils have accumulated as a result of










THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


the retarding effect of water on the decomposition of organic
deposits. Such accumulations of organic deposits are known
as cumulose soils.
Their chief value lies in their high moisture capacity and high
nitrogen content. As a rule, moisture control is the greatest
problem confronting their reclamation. When drained too well
they decompose rapidly and become so dry that they burn
readily, and when wet they are not suitable for crops. Crops
grown on organic soils are damaged by cold much quicker than
on higher and lighter soils. Usually cumulose soils are deficient
in potassium. The high lime content of the Everglades in-
creases their agricultural value. Also an interesting character-
istic of these cumulose soils in the Everglades is their response
to the application of copper and manganese salts.


Fig. 10. Peat soil profile showing fibrous nature.

MUCKS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Highly organic; vegetable matter has reached an
advanced stage of decomposition and little of the
original plant parts are visible.
2. Usually black and plastic.
3. Contains from 50 to 85 percent of ash.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
Given under peats.










28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

PEATS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Highly organic; vegetable matter has not under-
gone an advanced stage of decomposition. Por-
tions of the original plant parts are still visible.
2. Usually brown and somewhat fibrous.
3. Less than 50 percent of ash is present.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS of Mucks and Peats:
1. Very good for corn, strawberries, celery, beans,
Irish potatoes, sugarcane, cabbage, tomatoes and
related plants.
2. As a rule muck is more desirable for crops than
peat. The calcareous peats and mucks are
adapted to peanuts. Only the shallow types
(less than 30 inches deep) are adapted to tree
crops like citrus. (See figure 10.)

Although this bulletin does not describe in detail all the
known soils in Florida, it does include those having official
description and names. Other soils will, no doubt, be officially
described by the United States Bureau of Soils as the county
surveys are completed. Local types have been observed, but
no official names have been given them. For example, (a) the
poorly drained, grassy flatwoods soils with orange-colored sub-
soil; (b) the black drought soils with dark gray subsoils over-
lying pebble phosphate; and (c) the well-drained gray soils with
gray subsoils. None of these types are very extensive.










THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


Table II: Crop adaptation of predominating soil types (fine sand)
in Florida.* (Only soil factor is considered.)


a )


JOIL SERIES C a

w., UG 4 C| P ||
C) lt4 M ;P UaI I I I P I

Bibb -....-...--.... | |0 0 [0 G 10 10 F P P 0 IF [G IF IP IF P


Bladen ............. G
Blanton............. F
:oxville .......----- G
Dade...............--------- P
Bustis.............. P
Fellowship....... G
4adsden............ G
4alveston ..........
4ainesville....... G-
3reenville ......... G
Jernando.......... G
Ioffman........... G
lohnston........... G
jyde.................. G
,akewood......... 0
,eon** ..-..--------- P
duck...........-..---- G
dyatte .......------ G
, orfolk.............. F
)rangeburg ...... 0G
)rlando............ G
)cklocknee....... G
"alm Beach. ___ G
'ortsmouth...... G
'arkwood......... G
'eat*** ........ G
'lummer ... .. 0
Icranton........... G
;t. Johns.......... G
;t. Lucie.......... 0O
,ifton............... [F


P P P
G P F
SP P
G P P
G P G
G F P
P G F
0 0 0
G G G
G G F
G G F
G G F
P P P
P P P
P O O0
P O 0
F 0 0
P G P
G P G
G G F
G F F
P P P
G F P
P P o
P F P
P O O
0 0 0
F F P
o P P
G F I G


F G G
0 P 0
O O
F G
0 P 0
0 P 0
F Ex P
P G 0

0 (G 0
O G 0
0 G 0
P G 0
G G F
G G G
0 0 0
0 0 0
G G G
P F P
0 P 0
0 F 10
P F 0O
G G P
0 G 0O
Ex G F
P Ex P
G G G
0 0 0
Ex G P
Ex G F

0 F 0


|Ex G
P F
Ex G
0 F
O F
F Ex
0 G
0 0
0 G
0 F
0 G
0 G
G G
G G

P F
G
P [G
O F
O F
P G
F G
O G
G G
P G
G G
P



[0 P I


G F
G G

0 0
G G
0 P
G G
0 0
0 0
G G

G G
F F
G F
P P

F 0
G G
G F

0 0
G G
G F
P P
F F
P P
0 0
P P
G F
F P
P P
JGO.G


Ex," excellent. "G," good. "F," fair. "P," poor. '*0," no good.
It should be understood that the rank indicated in this table is an average,
and that differences above or below the rank herein given may occur,
due to variation of the soil.
* Leon soils are excellent when water can be controlled.
** Calcareous peats produce good peanuts.


I


' '









30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA SOILS

The data in Table I show that a few soil series make up the
greater part of the area surveyed in Florida to date and that
some of these soils have a very low productive value. Judging
from the data in Table I, many of the soils have a limited acre-
age. By assuming that the area of land surveyed (one-fifth of
the state) represents a fair proportion of the mineral soils, our
potential land value can be estimated in a general way. Field
observations indicate that the proportion of the peat and muck
soils is higher than the table would indicate. This is probably
true also for other soils. It is very likely that the proportion
for the entire state is different from that of the fraction sur-
veyed. A general estimate is all that the table can be expected
to show.
The relative crop-producing capacity of the different soils is
indicated in Table II. The information in this table is based
on the knowledge of experienced farmers, as well as experi-
mental data. The results show in a general way the crop adap-
tation of the different soil series found in the state. All factors
other than soil were eliminated in placing a relative value for
the soil type. Moreover, these results are comparable for the
medium and fine sands of each series, inasmuch as they are the
most extensive. It should be understood that the relative value
of the different soils for any one crop may vary some from the
data in Table II, due to special treatment, seasonal factors, etc.,
as well as to the personal factor. One man may make a failure
where another succeeds, the difference being in the man rather
than in the soil. But as a rule the soil determines what can and
can not be done.
It is interesting to note that there are approximately 400,000
acres of Bladen soils surveyed to date in Florida. This is more
than four times the acreage planted to all truck crops combined
at present. The total acreage of Portsmouth, St. Johns, Fel-
lowship, Scranton and other soils is far greater than is now
being used. The present demand does not warrant increasing
the acreage of truck crops very much if any.
The question thus arises, what can the soil be used for to ad-
vantage and profit? With the climate and variety of soils in
(! Florida, it would appear that the state could profitably grow
more staple crops, as sugarcane, peanuts, sweet potatoes and'
pasture grasses, in addition to all the fruit and vegetable crops
the market will consume.
Florida has some excellent pasture lands, and if properly
seeded and managed sime of them would produce more feed per
acre than the best pastures in our northern and middle western









THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 31

states. Portsmouth, Bladen, Fellowship, St. Johns, Scranton
and other soils are excellent for pasture purposes. These soils
make good pasture land because they are inherently moist-a
necessary factor for abundant and luxuriant growth. Carpet,
Centipede, Bahia, Bermuda and Dallis grasses do well on these
soils.
Unless water can be controlled, it appears unsafe to attempt
to grow annual crops on the coarse sands of any series. So far
as known, it is unwise to attempt to grow crops on any type of
Plummer soils. Present information indicates that certain soils,
due to their inherent capacities, are well adapted to the produc-
tion of food crops, while others are not. It would seem that only
those soils adapted to the crop in question should be planted,
leaving those not adapted to any cultivated crops at present
to forests or other uses. It is possible to grow deep-rooted crops
on the deeper and more drought sands, but to plant these as
well as the customary annual crops on such soils reduces the
possibilities of success.











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


KEY FOR CLASSIFYING FLORIDA SOILS

The soils of Florida were derived through the weathering of
marine deposits of sands, clays and limestones. They are known
and classified as marine or coastal plain soils. The peat and
muck as well as the river flood-plain soils are of most recent
origin. The following key to the classification of Florida soils is
based on the classification of the United States Bureau of Soils:


I. Well-Drained, Rolling Uplands,
Derived From-
A. Non-calcareous sands and clays:
1. Gray surface soil with
(a) Yellow, friable subsoil


Dominant
Native
Vegetation

Pine, blackjack
and oak scrub


. (b) Pale yellow to light gray Pine, water and
subsoil willow oak
(c) Compact yellow, pink and Hardwood
gray plastic subsoils hammock
2. Brown to grayish brown soils
with
(a) Reddish brown to brown- Pine, oak and
ish red friable subsoils blackjack


(b) Bright red friable subsoil
(c) Brownish yellow friable
subsoils containing iron
pebbles
3. Red surface soils with
dark red friable subso'ls
B. Calcareous sand, clays and lime-
stone:
1. Gray to chocolate brown sur-
face with
(a) Chocolate brown to red
friable subsoil
(b) Yellowish brown to
brown friable subsoil
2. Brown speckled soils with
brown subsoils (shells)
3. Gray sandy surface, overly-
ing Oolitic limerock, irregular
surface
C. Sands and sand dunes:
1. Light gray sands with
(a) White sand subsoil
(b) Orange-yellow sand sub-
subsoil
(c) White glittering sand


Hardwood, pine
Hardwood, pine


Hardwood
hammock


Hardwood
hammock
Hardwood
hammock
Tropical hammock

Pine, palmetto


Rosemary,
spruce pine
Rosemary,
spruce pine
Very little


Soil
Series

Norfolk.

Orlando

Hoffman


Eustis


Orangeburg
Tifton


Greenville


Gainesville

HIernando

Palm Beach

Dade



St. Lucie

Lakewood


Galveston











THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


II. Level to Undulating Soils, Hav-
ing Medium to Fair Drainage,
Derived From-


Dominant
Native
Vegetation


A. Non-calcareous sands and sandy
clays:
1. Gray surface soils with yel- Pine and
low and gray splotched sub- willow oak
soils
2. Dark gray surface soils, with Hardwood
light yellow and gray sub- hammock
soils; colluvial
3. Deep black surface soils with Hardwood and
yellow subsoil pine hammock


B. Calcareous sands, clays and
limestone:
1. Black surface soil with a mot-
tled yellow, red and drab
plastic subsoil

2. Dark gray surface soils with
yellow and yellowish mottled
friable subsoil
III. Poorly Drained Soils, Level to
Undulating, Swamps or Flat-
woods, Derived From-
A. Non-calcareous sands and sandy
clays:
1. Black subsoils with
(a) Light gray to white fri-
able subsoils


Cabbage palmetto, Fellowship
hardwood hammock


Cabbage palmetto,
hardwood hammock


Low hammock,
cypress prairie


(b) Light gray and brown Low hammock,
hard-pan cypress prairie


Hernando


Portsmouth


St. Johns


(c) Black plastic subsoil


Low hammock


2. Gray surface soil with (flat-
woods)
(a) Light gray and yellowish Grass, pine,
mottled plastic sandy cypress
subsoils
(b) Light yellowish to red Grass, pine,
mottled plastic subsoils cypress


(c) Light dingy gray subsoil
with irregular pockets of
clay
(d) Loose gray sand with
brown impervious hard-
pan


Grass, pine,
cypress

Pine, scrub
palmetto


(e) Orange yellow sandy Pine, palmetto
subsoil


Soil
Series


Blanton


Gadsden



Scranton


Hyde


Bladen


Coxville

Plummer


Leon


Unclassified


1 33











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


III. Poorly Drained Soils, Level to Dominant
Undulating, Swamps or Flatf' Native
woods, Derived From-Con'd. Vegetation
B. Marl and limestone:
1. Gray to dark gray surface
soil with
(a) Light gray to creamy Cabbage palmetto,
colored marl subsoil hammock
(b) Yellowish mottled friable Cabbage palmetto,
subsoil hammock
IV. River Flood Plains Soils-
A. First bottom:
1. Light gray surface soils with Low hammock
dull gray subsoils, friable

2. Black surface soils with light Low hammock
gray and yellow mottled sub-
soils

3. Brown surface soils with Low hardwood
brownish red plastic subsoils hammock
B. Second bottom:
1. Gray .surface soil with yellow- Hammock pine
ish mottled plastic subsoil
2. Grayish brown surface soil Magnolia ham-
with drab, yellow and gray mock, pine
friable subsoil
V. Cumulose Soils-
A. Black organic material well de- Water-loving
composed plants, swamp

B. Brown to black organic material Treeless when
in which the parent plant parts deep; hammock
are still visible, when shallow


Soil
Series




Parkwood

Unclassified




Bibb

Johnston


Ocklocknee


Myatte


Gadsden




Muck

Peat




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