• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Know your soil
 Chemical analysis of Florida...
 Characteristics, identification,...
 Sands and sand dunes
 Soils with medium to poor natural...
 Poorly drained and flatwoods...
 Bladen and coxville soils
 Organic soils
 Utilization of Florida soils
 Key for classifying Florida...














Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Soils of Florida and their utilization
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014973/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soils of Florida and their utilization
Series Title: Bulletin. New series
Physical Description: 39 p. : ill. (some col.), map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bryan, O. C ( Ollie Clifton ), b. 1894
Stoutamire, Ralph
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1946
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Classification   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by O.C. Bryan and Ralph Stoutamire.
General Note: "November, 1946."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014973
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7367
ltuf - AMT2064
oclc - 44536188
alephbibnum - 002565784

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Know your soil
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Chemical analysis of Florida soils
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Characteristics, identification, crop adaptations
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Sands and sand dunes
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Soils with medium to poor natural drainage
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Poorly drained and flatwoods land
        Page 25
    Bladen and coxville soils
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Organic soils
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Utilization of Florida soils
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Key for classifying Florida soils
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
Full Text





No. 42. New Series


November, 1946


SOILS of FLORIDA
and

THEIR UTILIZATION
(Reprint)



By
0. C. BRYAN
and
RALPH STOUTAMIRE




*




STATE OF FLORIDA
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee


3a


ii








CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction.................................... 5
Know Your Soil....................... ..... 5
Chemical Analyses of Florida Soils ................ 7
Characteristc, Identification, Crop Adaptations..... 9
Well-Drained Upland Soils ................... 9
N orfolk Soils............ ............. 9
Orangeburg and Greenville Soils.......... i
Tifton Soils .................... 13
Hoffman Soils............. . ......... 14
Eustis Soils .............. ............. 15
O rlando Soils................ ......... 15
Gainesville Soils. ............... . . . 16
Sands and Sand Dunes....................... 17
St. Lucie and Lakewood Sands............ 17
Palm Beach Sands....................... 18
Dade Sands ............................. 19
Soils.with Medium to Poor Natural Drainage.. 19
G adsden Soils ............ .......... . 2-.
Fellow ship Soils........................ 2-
Hernando Soils....................... z3
Blanton Soils .......................... z4
Scranton Soils ........... .. .... 2.5
Poorly Drained and Flatwoods Land.......... 2-5
Bladen and Coxville Soils.................... z6
Plummer Soils.......................... 2z7
Portsmouth and St. Johns Soils. .......... 2-7
Leon Soils ............ ............ 2-8
Parkwood Soils...................... 2.9
Hyde Soils ... ............. 30
M yatte Soils.. ..................... 30
Ocklockonee Soils ....................... 31
Organic Soils................ ...... .. ... 31
Mucks ............ ........... 32-
Peats ................................. 32.
Utilization of Florida Soils ..... . .............. 35
Key for Classifying Florida Soils .................. 37









SOILS OF FLORIDA
AND THEIR UTILIZATION
By 0. C. Bryan and Ralph Stoutamire
T HE soil, next to climate, is Florida's greatest and
most fundamental natural resource. It is hardly pos-
sible to say too much about the importance of the
soil. Life itself depends upon it. Civilization is limited
by its fertility and ability to produce. Therefore, a
knowledge of the soil and its adaptational limits is
vital and necessary, especially for the progress of agri-
culture.
The true value of a soil depends upon the kind and
amount of crops it will produce under average farming
conditions. The soil is the farmer's factory, and it is
his primary business to so manage the raw materials at
his disposal-such as seed, fertilizer, labor, water,
sprays, etc.-that his crops may be grown economically.
If his factory does not grow crops profitably, the farm
operation is a failure, regardless of other efforts.

KNOW YOUR SOIL
Some soils are naturally adapted to the production of
certain crops and valueless for others. This difference
in adaptation is a law of the soil and can rarely be
changed by man. It is, indeed, fortunate for man that
the crop adaptations of soils are variable. This makes
it possible to grow a wide variety of economic plants.
With the competition now confronting the farmer, it
behooves him as never before to use only those soils
that will produce at a profit under normal price con-
ditions, rather than to use less efficient soils and risk
the chance for abnormal prices.
To know the soil and its adaptational limits is of
tremendous importance to the farmer. Crop adapta-
tion is largely dependent on the physical rather than
the chemical properties of the soil. Such physical







6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

properties as drainage, texture, structure, color and
topography determine crop adaptation and also form
the bases upon which soils are classified and evaluated.
The purpose of this bulletin is to bring together the
information dealing with the different soils of Florida,
indicate their approximate locations and point out their
chief characteristics and uses. It is hoped that this will
prove helpful to those engaged in farming and serve as
a safe guide to those who contemplate engaging in this
industry.
In regard to soil names, the term "soil series" repre-
sents groups of soils that are alike in all characteristics
except texture. Here "texture" refers to the size of the
soil particles. The series name is a local geographical
term indicating where the soil was first described and
given official recognition. Thus the Gainesville series
was first described and given official recognition near
Gainesville, Florida. Soils in any series may vary ac-
cording to texture-as sands, loams, clays, etc. A com-
bination of the series name with texture constitutes a
"soil type"-the unit of soil classification. Variations
within a type produce a "soil phase." For example,
the "shallow phase" of Gainesville (series) fine sand
(texture).
There are about 30 described soil series in Florida,
each of which contains several types, making a total of
75 or more distinct soil types, besides a much larger
number of soil phases.
Although detailed studies (surveys) have not been
made for the entire state, representative counties and
areas approximating a fourth of the state -have been
surveyed. Moreover, the completed surveys have been
so distributed as to give a general idea of the entire
state. It is assumed that the areas not surveyed are in
all probability similar to the counties already com-
pleted. These completed surveys, geological reports,
and experiment station bulletins form the basis of the
information contained herein.







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 7

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FLORIDA SOILS
From Table I it may be seen that many of Florida's
soils are low in the essential fertilizer nutrients. This
accounts for the general use of commercial fertilizers.
The low content of nutrients in these soils is due in a
large measure to the influence of subtropical climate on
the porous soils. However, with careful management
and proper fertilization a wide range of cash crops may
be successfully grown on them.
Only in a general way is a chemical analysis of the
soil worth while. As a rule soils having a limestone
origin are relatively high in phosphorous, while those
having poor drainage are high in nitrogen. But there
seems to be no definite correlation between soil analysis
and crop adaptation. For example, Greenville and
Hernando soils have a much higher nutritive content
than do Bladen and Portsmouth soils. Yet the latter
are much better adapted to the production of potatoes
and strawberries than the former. This difference is
due to the natural properties of the soil, largely moist-
ure supply. Many examples for other crops might be
given.









8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE





TABLE I.-THE CONTENT OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORIC ACID
AND POTASSIUM IN CERTAIN FLORIDA SOILS, TOGETHER
WITH THE ACREAGE SURVEYED TO DATE:





SOIL SERIES &


P. 0 P. 0 0P0 0 65

Bibb..................................... ...... ........ ........ 7,616
Bladen .................................. o107 .027 .048 396,034
Blanton.......................................... ... .... ........ ........ 73,92-10
Dade .............. : ................... .015 .02.4 .oIo 2,756
Coxville .................... ............ .......... ........ ..... .. 2-,404
Eustis................................... 033 .oio .047 2-8,114
Fellowship............................. .. 412. 1.82-o .042- 34,432
Gadsden .. .......................... ........ ........ ........ 56,448
G alveston............................... ....... ........ ........ 5,690
Gainesville.................. ... ....... 185 .32-8 .046 90,431
Greenville ................................ ........ ......... ....... 17,72.8
Hoffman ...................................... ........ ....... 1 ,216
Hernando .............................. 198 .o8o .047 76,712.
Hyde .. ........................... ........ ........ ........ 118,784
Johnston.. ........................... ....... ........ ....... 15 ,296
Lakewood ........................................... ....... 6,880
Leon......... ........................... .087 .007 .009 1,022.,819
Muck and peaty muck..................... 1.470 .476 .048 2-17,552-
M yatte .............. ................ . ........ ... .... .. ... 0 ,928
Norfolk................................ o050o .019 .oi 2,2-83,398
Orangeburg.................... ......... 193 .19o .052- 269,464
O rlando ...... .............................. ....... ...... . . .. .. 37 84
Ocklockonee .............. ........ ........ ........ 3,712-
Palm Beach .................... ......... 153 .130 .014 19,00oo8
Parkwood.. ......................... .172. .462. .054 80,778
Portsmouth ............................. .206 .032- .010 845 ,204
Peat ..................................... 1.790 .415 .037 2.60,900
Plummer ... ......................... ................ .......2. 84,470
Scranton ................................ .1o 1.130 .019 5I,I24
St. Lucie ................................ 013 .0o 8 .006 178,856
St. Johns ....................... .... .... ... .... ...... 2-59 ,52-3
T ifton ................................... . ....... ....... ........ .........
Swamp, marsh, meadows, etc ............. ...................... 678,544
Shell, mounds, coquina.................. ........................ 1 ,871
Coastal beach, sand hills ... .................. ........................







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 9

CHARACTERISTICS, IDENTIFICATION, CROP
ADAPTATIONS
The main objects of this bulletin are to-
i. Describe the soils of Florida in such a way that
the farmer or any other interested person might inden-
tify them, and
z. Suggest those crops which are adapted to these
soils.
The location of the different soils is indicated in a
general way by the soil map on pages 2-o and 2.1. .The
divisions of the map represent the dominant soils
present. The soils within a division are also indicated
on the legend. The illustrations are included as further
aids in identifying the various soils.

Well-Drained Upland Soils
The well-drained uplands include those soils whose
water table is usually lower than 4 feet from the sur-
face. The rolling sand hills and practically all the up-
lands belong to this division. In referring to the dif-
ferent soil series, it should be understood that a series
represents a group of soil types; e. g., the Norfolk soils
(series) include a number of types. The identification
characteristics and crop adaptations of the different
upland soils (series) are given on the following pages:

NORFOLK SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Well-drained, rolling pine and oak land.
2. Gray surface with yellow subsoil.
3. Subsoil always friable and sometimes drought.
4. Free from lime; slightly acid.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Good for watermelons, bright tobacco, tung oil, citrus,
peanuts and grapes.
2.. Fair for corn, pecans, cotton, tomatoes, beans, sweet
potatoes and cucumbers.
3. Poor for sugarcane, cabbage, Irish potatoes and other mois-
ture-loving crops; valueless for strawberries and celery.







10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The Norfolk soils are found in almost ever count-
in the state and are by far the most extensive upland
soils in Florida (see Fig I", They arc naturally lo%%- in
organic matter, and that present is rapidly lost under
tillage operations unless the cropping system provides
tor frequent additions of vegetable matter. Due to the
open nature of thc sands, it is pracricalIl impossible to
permanently increase cheir organic content with tilled
crops
















Fig. 1. Norfolk fine sand, showing native vegetation and color
of soil profile.

Stirring the soil rapidly increases the aeration and
oxidation processes, %which hastens the decomposition
and loss of soil organic matter. Therefore, the organic
matter in the form of cover crops will have a greater
lasting effect, though not alxvavs the most economical,
if left on the surface of the soil rather than turned under.
This retards oxidation and decomposition losses. A
grass sod will also retard oxidation and make possible
an increase of soil organic matter
Due to their open nature. the deep sands remain little
'water, organic matter and plant nutrients The\ should
not be planted to shallow-roored crops, except those







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


adapted to drought soils. However, deep-rooted crops
like citrus, tung oil and grapes may be grown on these
soils with fair success. Fortunately many of the sands
in the ridge area contain a stratum of sandy clay from 4
to 6 feet below the surface. This partially accounts for
the success of citrus and other crops on these sands.

Inasmuch as the plant nutrients are low in these soils
(see Table I), they require a complete fertilizer for most
cash crops. They are also very responsive to summer
and winter cover crops, because of their low humus
content. A regular and systematic program of grow-
ing green manure crops is the secret to successful farm-
ing. Unless organic matter can be incorporated in these
soils, it is doubtful if the fertilizer will have its maxi-
mum influence.

The sandy loams, fine sands and sands which have a
sandy clay substratum, may be profitably utilized and
grown to a wide variety of crops. But at present the
deep sands should not be planted to cultivated crops.
Most of the deep Norfolk sands should be left to forests.

ORANGEBURG AND GREENVILLE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Rolling to hilly, pine and hardwood hammock lands.
2.. (a) Brown, surface with brick-red subsoil (Orangeburg).
(b) Red si rface with red subsoil (Greenville).
3. Friable sandy clay to clay subsoils slopes-erode easily.
4. Non-calcareous (without lime), usually acid and occasion-
ally a few iron pebbles in the subsoil.

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Good for cotton, sweet potatoes, shade tobacco, peppers,
eggplants, tomatoes, pasture grasses, tung oil, pecans, sat-
sumas and peaches.
2. Fair for corn, sugarcane, bright tobacco, watermelons,
peanuts, cabbage and other truck crops.
3. Not adapted to strawberries, celery and moisture-loving
plants.







1. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 2. Orangeburg sandy loam soil with native hardwood vegetation.
Natural color.

The Orangeburg and Greenville soils arc found in
Florida only in rhc western counties, and arc most ex-
tensive around Tallahassec and Marianna K(see Fig. 2.',.
They have much more clay present. especially in the
subsoil, than do the Norfolk soils and according to
analysc.s the\ ha\c a higher potential fertility. The
cla\ in the subsoils retains mnoisurL much better than
docs "and, thus prcvcnting excessive under-drainage
On the othcr hand, the slopes crode easily Areas that
erode casil\ should be planted to pasture grasses or non-
cultivated crops
These soils represent sonic of the best farm lands in
\\cstcrn Florida Sand- loams and loams are the prin-
cipal types. Like Norfolk soils, Orangcburg and Green-
ville soils respond to fe-rilizers and green manure crops
Thcy arc all loiw in organic matter and unless a regular
stA-icm of incorporating fresh organic matter into the
soil is practiced, their natural fertility \%ill be greatly
lowered The clay types are inclined to bake and be-
come compact after hcavy rains unless they are well
supplied with organic matter Moreover, they do not
warm up as carl\ in the spring as do the sandier types.









THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 13


~;~I4 ~


S. ".


Fig. 3. Profile of TiftOn sandy loam soil with native pine. Note the
pebbles in the soil profile.

TIFTON SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
I. Well-drained, rolling pine or hammock land.
z. Brownish gray surface with yellowish clay subsoil.
3. Brown iron pebbles present in both surface and subsoil.
4. Friable clayey subsoil, free of lime.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Good for cotton, peanuts, bright tobacco, watermelons,
pecans, tung oil, pasture grasses, blueberries, satsumas.
2. Fair for corn, sugarcane, cabbage, tomatoes and certain
truck crops.
3. Not adapted to strawberries, celery and moisture-loving
crops.








14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The Tifton !soils are also found in the western coun-
ties (see Fig. 3). They are closely associated with the
Norfolk and Orangeburg soils. Sand and sandy loams
are the principal types. In general Tifton soils are
more fertile than Norfolk soils. This is perhaps due
to the clayey nature of the subsoil, which prevents ex-
cessive under-drainage. In places the clay in the sub-
soil has a reddish color approaching the Orangeburg
soils. Due to the inherent capacities of Tifton soils,
they also require fertilizers and frequent additions of
fresh organic matter for the most economical crop
production.
For the most part Tifton soils are managed and crop-
ped in a manner similar to Norfolk soils. To date no
Tifton soil has been described in Florida. However,
field observations show. that they are more extensive
than Greenville and, perhaps, Orangeburg soils in some
western counties.
HOFFMAN SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
t. Rolling hammock soils, well drained.
2. Gray surface, with yellowish compact subsoil, overlying
pink and red sandy clay.
3. Non-calcareous, usually acid.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
I. Good for corn, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, pasture grasses,
tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, pecans, citrus, tung oil and
many truck crops.
2. Fair for peanuts, cotton and bright tobacco.
3. Not adapted to strawberries, Irish potatoes, celery and
other moisture loving crops.

The Hoffman soils are rather local, occurring in small
areas in the northern part of the peninsula. They are
closely associated with Norfolk soils, but in general
are considered more fertile. This is due, perhaps, to
the compact nature of the subsoil and content of clay
which makes for a greater water-holding capacity.
The high water supply accounts for the adaptation of
these soils to truck and general farm and fruit crops.







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


They are usually managed and cropped in a manner
similar to Norfolk soils. Their small extent limits
their importance.

EUSTIS SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
I. Well-drained, rolling pine land.
2.. Grayish brown surface, with reddish yellow to yellowish
red subsoil.
3. Soil is usually sandy and friable; free of limestone material.

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Similar to Norfolk soils.

The Eustis soils are found in the ridge counties of
the peninsula, in scattered areas, particularly around
Tavares, Eustis and Leesburg. They are a little more
fertile than Norfolk soils. This is very likely due to
their higher content of clay than is contained in Nor-
folk soils. Although Eustis soils contain a low con-
tent of the fertilizer nutrients, they grow good crops
when properly fertilized and managed. Like Norfolk
soils they respond very well to cover crops. Due to
the somewhat drought nature of Eustis soils, they are
better adapted to deep-rooted crops, like citrus and
tung oil, than to shallow-rooted crops. Eustis soils
are not extensive in Florida.

ORLANDO SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Level to undulating hammock land.
2. Dark gray surface, usually deep, with a brownish gray to
light yellowish gray subsoil.
3. Always sandy and free of calcareous materials (lime).
4. Surface soil is usually deep and difficult to wet when dry.

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
1. Very good for tomatoes, cucumbers, watermelons, peppers
and other truck crops; also good for citrus, tung oil and
pecans.
2. Not well adapted to strawberries, celery and Irish potatoes.







16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The Orlando soils occur in the peninsular portion of
Florida. They are more fertile than Norfolk soils, due
to their higher content of moisture and organic matter.
They also have a deeper surface and a higher permanent
water table than do Norfolk soils. When dry, Orlando
soils are powdery and difficult to wet.

Like Norfolk soils, they respond to a complete ferti-
lizer for most cash crops. All types of the Orlando
series may be profitably farmed, while the deep sands of
the Norfolk series may not. The extent of Orlando
soil is rather small compared to that of Norfolk soils.

GAINESVILLE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Well-drained, rolling, hardwood hammock lands.
z. From grayish brown to chocolate red surface, with a brown-
ish red subsoil.
3. Friable structure; usually contains fragments of chert.
4. The surface soil may be acid although limerock is often
found in the lower subsoil.

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Good for cabbage, tomatoes, beans, sweet potatoes, peppers,
watermelons and peanuts.
2.. Fair for citrus, bright tobacco, corn and sugarcane.
3. Not adapted to strawberries, Irish potatoes, celery and other
water-loving crops.

The Gainesville soils are located in small irregular
areas in the peninsula, extending as far north as Su-
wannee County (see Fig. 4). They are potentially
fertile, compared to most Florida soils. This is indi-
cated in a general way by their chemical analyses. The
clayey types have a high water-holding capacity and
do not leach readily, while the sands are somewhat
drought. Some of the Gainesville sands in the eastern
part of the state contain limerock (coquina) within
from z to 3 feet of the surface. Such areas are rather
drought and are not adapted to deep-rooted crops-







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


Fig. 4. Gainesville sandy loam soil showing color of profile. Note the
cherty material white, in the subsoil.

like citrus, tung oil and pecans, although citrus is being
grown on them in a limited way It is interesting to
note that the quality of fruit grown on these sands is
excellent, but the life of the tree is short. These soils
respond to fertilizer and green manure treatments, as
do most Florida soils.
Sand aml Sanid Dies
The sand dunes represent almost pure quartz of a
rather drought nature It is very probable that these
sands were once the shore line of bodies of water. Their
chief characteristics and crop adaptations are given be-
low:
ST. LUCIE AND LAKEWOOD SANDS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Well-drained,-rol:ini to [ rudalin[ng ands.
2. Light gray, incoherent n Lrfaict ind ov-erl, inrg .i .I'rc and
(St. Lucie); overlh in an oringc-colorlcJ .and at trom n ,.,
30 inches below the surla.:c 'Lake, 'od ..
3. Droughty, dune-hike sand. 'crubb, ,tecurion) ro-cn-ur,
and sand pine, non-ca.l. Ic ,:nu.







18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Good for pineapples.
2. Fair for beans and citrus, where water can be controlled.
3. Usually not planted to any crop other than pineapples and
citrus.

The St. Lucie and Lakewood sands may be found in
local- areas in almost any part of the state, particularly
in the peninsular counties. They are usually associated
with Leon and Norfolk soils. These sands are almost
pure quartz, containing very little organic matter and
plant nutrients. They are excessively leached, and are
droughcy in most cases. So far as known these sands
hive a very .low agricultural value except for pine-
apples. 'Lakewood sand is considered better for- crops
than St. Lucie sand. Due to their low content of min-
eral nutrients-, the value of these sands even for forestry
purposes may .be limited.

PALM BEACH SANDS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
x. Well-drained hammock sands.
2.. Grayish "speckled" brown surface with light brown sandy
subsoil.
3. Calcareous shells are present in both surface and subsoil.

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
I. Good for beans, peppers, tomatoes, cabbage and other truck
crops, as well as farm crops.
a. When not too calcareous, good for citrus.
3. Not adapted to celery, strawberries, Irish potatoes and
other moisture-loving crops.

The Palm Beach sands occur in small localized areas
along the lower east coast. They are usually covered with
a dense growth of subtropical vegetation. Their sub-
tropical location makes it possible for them to grow a
wide variety of truck and subtropical fruit crops, when
properly managed and fertilized. Their calcareous
nature increases their value for certain truck crops.







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 19

Although Palm Beach sands have a comparatively
-high content of nutrients they require fertilizing in
order to produce most cash crops. They are not ex-
tensive.
DADE SANDS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Level to rolling pine and palmetto land.
2.. Light grays and underlain with Oolitic limestone which has
an irregular pot-hole-like surface.
3. Drainage is usually excessive, making the land somewhat
drought at times.

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Where moisture is near enough to the surface, theY grow
good crops of vegetables-tomatoes, cabbage, eggplant, etc.
2.. Fair for sweet potatoes, citrus and other subtropical fruits.
3. Not adapted to moisture-loving or acid-loving crops.

The Dade sands are located in the southern part of
Florida, particularly near the coast. Their subtropical
location adapts them to the production of a number of
crops. In many cases the Oolitic limerock underneath
makes them undesirable for deep-rooted crops like
citrus and avocadoes, but when the trees can be planted
in the deeper places they do very well. Dade sands are
similar to St. Lucie sands in many respects. They are
very low in the essential plant nutrients and require
liberal applications of a complete fertilizer to grow
cash crops. Like most other sands in Florida, the
Dade sands are also low in organic matter and respond
to regular additions of organic matter.

Soils with Medium to Poor Natural Drainage

The soils within this group have a water table norm-
ally between z2 and 4 feet from the surface. Because of
their nearness to water, they are usually good for a
number of crops. Their identification characteristics
and crop adaptations are given, beginning on page 22.





































GENERALIZED SOIL [AP OF FLt





sass.**, C'oya.. ur a.; 0'5a.'.. I 1ra 4.'5 0.1'? tea.
A' \ 1 .23..a 9r.o, sn b br' *. 't rehi I ," f" t



* -as.nry. -.. c r t .a (i.rf cs o )ana r 'c.* l^&. ort -I


-: =9 SG9.* h-t s.f J t J nre /. At y A os ... |,fyelloi.. So
^ H i u.' l e ys) 9 0.o'5 s .e 9 : l.-i ,,;/ o^ asse ..bin s t^, j tb. cisi
n,^are qf.d so.'s .nv/A / q9 t to pa/- /3./ow s a 6bsojs (On-anc5), -
A Arowf f > o. A y.S** *n .ra 5.jt on'jc I (t u^sl s)


* r dal MaC's* A^* to r elar/o IA./A /..il i^ s ubsco( Jj ( Pa roIuwau *)_ >
plains J.7hf a*"*s sj cOb), ra L b cA ,and s j (JohA rto0),


:/ya. y 4 01 Ij (Uf. Qt. Co. n )

b.'o f nro o i ub ji/. .aLnJ. r.eIi'Jg 'o.r., dra.an.a C 1 -
*'/tr i .", w** .- [ 0Q e i.4.2.2r0 .20a a.3 .''. ry r .a '0o.s n r io..
-stE.' ,ia .rat. o b n a r* C a a .ti Ji.'s jgri *''i.Orsio 50 4

C,,1 ,o0jd .s.'i *.2.5 Ju.r.rta..- .oo 3 *',,ne s!b.h .. s (Prit-ear.
J .3 t j4 r i-iot U00. 5.bsont g ) .ra r t- yf Jaerface aV
B .a ar '.o4 4 me t 'sa : a .o.,.s ,' oa. a u..-y LCa, ci L yn/t I
ao.i a ..,* 4r "p ny .a i..r ".arI jar. Jue/ace o.Prloi'4
i.'t ..J^- t si .Ze s Surfac" e a~/ i cr wf I a mis{ '. ^f sfn^S & ^Ai
i-.ure .:. L.u..c) .jar. surface 0.ier/ypn, 'nar(f (Pa'-w.vcQo

I ] wir nd laai aona 5 andl SMi.s \ I L..c.>' i.r 7rand.
is fAeJls ore5SeC (Peam 3,sct/ Lfi.' Sr rtaa oavr o'inft
j *ar..'oud) (ray to /.9 At j 7ands oer'/yinyg /I "at (ck .
0 adistlioi 01 o Si- artip / 'o ood oeat bcarhc5

* d3-o-.. /,Abro*s oge9.Cm sod/ (p..ao, arim jrOe.it to bias/c

F.bro s organic .0o 1 ( much)



















/


Alk,







2_ DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

GADSDEN SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
I. Sloping pine and hammock land.
2.. Dark gray surface with yellowish gray, drab or white sub-
soil.
3. Soils are considered as colluvial material brought down
from higher elevations.
4. Soils are usually medium drained and free of lime.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Good for corn, shade tobacco, sugarcane, cabbage, toma-
toes, pasture grasses and pecans.
2.. Fair for watermelons, peanuts, cotton and sweet potatoes.
3. Little value for celery and other crops having high moisture
requirements.

The Gadsden soils usually occur in narrow strips
adjacent to streams in the western counties. They
make very good farm land, being considered one of the
best soils in western Florida. They occur only to a
limited extent and a're not very important.

FELLOWSHIP SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Medium drained, level to rolling hammock soils.
2.. Black surface with yellowish mottled drab to bluish mottled
subsoils,
3. Plastic and impervious subsoil, with chert and limerock at
lower depths.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Very good for corn, sugarcane, cabbage, tomatoes, beans,
cucumbers, pasture grasses and citrus.
2.. Fair for sweet potatoes, peanuts, cotton, watermelons, and
Irish potatoes when not too calcareous.
3. Not adapted to celery, strawberries, pecans and tung oil.

The Fellowship soils are considered among the best
soils in the state. They are also good for citrus when
drained and when the limerock is not too near the sur-
face. The best Indian River citrus fruits are grown on
Fellowship soils. They contain a higher content of
plant nutrients than do the average flatwoods soils
(see Table I). -This possibly accounts for their natural







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 2-3

fertility. The plastic nature of the clay types makes
them difficult to manage, especially during wet seasons.
Like all other soils in Florida, they respond to ferti-
lizers and good soil management. Fellowship soils are
also well adapted to general farm crops and pasture
grasses, making some of the best pasture land in the
state. The areas of Fellowship soils are more exten-
,sive than is indicated in Table I.

HERNANDO SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
x. Medium to well-drained rolling pine and hammock lands.
2. Yellowish brown surface, with brownish yellow friable
subsoil.
3. Soils are usually acid in surface, although there is evidence
of limestone in the subsoil in places.

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Good for citrus, bright tobacco, cucumbers, tomatoes, pea-
nuts, sweet potatoes, cotton and pasture grasses.
2.. Fair for corn, cabbage and sugarcane.
3. Not adapted to Irish potatoes, celery, strawberries, tung oil
and pecans.

The Hernando soils are similar to and closely asso-
ciated with Gainesville and Norfolk soils-possessing
intermediate properties and crop adaptations. The
heavier types sometimes have a mottled subsoil, par-
ticularly where drainage is poor.

As a rule, Hernando soils are adapted to a wide
variety of crops when properly managed and fertilized.
They are local in extent, occurring in scattered areas in
the peninsular and well-drained portions of the gulf
hammock belt.







24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



















Fig. 5. Blanton soil showing growth of pine and small underbrush.

BLANTON SOILS

i. Level to undulating pine land.
2. Gray surface with pale yellowish and white splotched sub-
soil.
3. Subsoil sandy and usually acid.

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
I. Good for cucumbers, beans, tung oil, citrus, peanuts, cotton,
pecans and pasture grasses.
2.. Fair for cabbage, tomatoes, corn, tobacco and watermelons.

The Blanton soils are located in the semi-flatwoods
of the state and are neither excessively wet nor exces-
sively dry (see Fig. 5). They make good soils for cer-
tain truck crops when fertilized and properly managed.
They are between Norfolk and Leon soils fromotched the
standpoint of drainage, but suallyore productive than either.
When closely associated with Leon soil, Blanton soils
have a hard-pan stratum from 4 to 5 feet below the
surface, but this stratum is too deep to affect the growth
of plants. Blanton soils are managed and cropped in a
manner similar to Norfolk soils.
manner similar to Norfolk soils.







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA -5

SCRANTON SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Level to undulating hammock land.
2.. Deep black surface, with yellowish subsoil.
3. Moist, friable structure.
-. Surface usually acid, although limerock may be found at
lower depth.

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
I. Very good for strawberries, cabbage, beans, tomatoes, corn,
sugarcane, citrus, tung oil, pasture grasses, cucumbers, etc.
2.. Fair for sweet potatoes, watermelons, tobacco and peanuts.

The Scranton soils are found on the margins between
the lower flatwoods and hills (see Fig. 6). As a rule
they are more coherent and retain moisture better than
do Norfolk soils. This, in addition to the fact that the
surface is near the water table, makes them somewhat
moist, and well adapted to the .production of straw-
berries, cabbage and other moisture-loving crops. Scran-
ton soils are also considered one of Florida's most
productive soils fdr general farm crops and pasture
grasses, although their area is somewhat small com-'
pared to other types. The most extensive areas are
located around Plant City and Stark. Compared to
most of Florida's soils, they have a higher content of
plant nutrients, but for the production of cash crops
Scranton soils require a complete fertilizer.

Poorly Drained and Flatwoods Land

As a rule the poorly drained soils require drainage be-
fore they can be grown to cultivated crops. The water
table is usually less than 2. feet from the surface. When
drained, however, they make very good farm land.
The identification characteristics and crop adaptations
of the different series of poorly drained soils are given
on the following pages.








:6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 6. Bladen fine sand showing native vegetation and color of soil
profile. Note the yellowish mottling in the subsoil

BLADEN AND COXVILLE SOILS
IDENTitIIC.\TION
S Lc. l- cri; l.,t c-... J., .:[
t Jra, uriface Ii!l [h 1i I r. Iellu-I' ]h. moullld !ubudl
Blade, '. *..,rh yellow ish red rn.m,[rlicJ luil i '.-Ok illc
iIu.Illi [tic lo Ce ;ub:-o l ]i pla'. tc :.irld cl.i
4 Thi jrL- icld .Ind tree 'tr.rm 'irnie mratLria.i.

B POP .\D\PTATION'
\ ':r' ',:.-'.. "thenr Jr ljncJ. tor ]r,|i poTaurnc- conil[lue'.
*.)rl] j irjlr : [uri.El i t. c:i[rbu. r,..ja ,. pi.rurc crib.,o .

Fair for cahbic:, I,.ans arJ rr,. E bcrrn c
Nor 'r\ ',el adipred _. ,rm !Lo robiccoi. --'.CLl
potsroc' and Lio.non

These soils are found in nearly all the flat\-oods areas
of the state 'see Fig. 6'. To date there are approxi-
mately 400,000 acres of Bladen soils sur\-cyed in Florida.
Although their plant nutrients are relatively low, they
are \\-ell adapted to the production of a variety of crops,
when drained and fertilized, due to their physical prop-
erties. They arc ideally adapted to Irish potatoes and








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA '27


are known as potato lands. Their plastic (clay) sub-
soil retains moisture and nutrients much better than
do most Florida soils. Moreover the plastic nature of
the subsoil induces a slow movement of ground water,
making it possible to surface irrigate, if necessary.
Bladen soils represent some of the best land in Florida
for pasturage, trucking, fruit growing and farm crops.

PLUMMER SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Level to undulating grass flatwoods; wet.
i. Gray surface with light to dingy-gray subsoil of a loose,
"quicksand" nature.
3. The soils are usually slightly acid and non-calcareous.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Suitable only for forests and native pasture grasses.

They are associated with Bladen soils, but so far as
known they have little agricultural value, except for
pasture and forest purposes.

PORTSMOUTH AND ST. JOHNS SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
1. Low, wet, swamp land.
2. Black surface with light gray to white subsoil (Ports-
mouth); black surface with brown hardpan in subsoil (St.
Johns).
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. When drained, good for corn, potatoes, sugarcane, cucum-
bers, strawberries,- beans, cabbage, pasture grasses, etc.
2-. Fair for citrus, tung oil, celery, lettuce and tomatoes.
3. Not adapted to tobacco, watermelons and cotton.

Portsmouth and St. Johns soils are perhaps the most
extensive poorly drained soils in the state, occurring
in nearly all low wet areas (see Fig. 7). Because of
their high moisture content they are ideally adapted,
when drained, to the production of a number of moisture-
loving crops. They have a higher content of organic








IS DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 7. Portsmouth fine sand showing color of soil profile.

marrcr than do most upland soils, and, as a rule, arc
more fertilc When propc-rly fertilized and managed,
Portrnouth and St Johns soils arc among the bhsr
lands in the state for pasture, truck and general farm
crops

As, a rule, St Johns soils are more incoherent than
arc Portsmouth soils. The hardpan does not seem to
affect rheir producing ability as it does Leon soils.

LEON SOILS
IDENTIFi.CATION
I LUrl pine and p.il m[U laic ..,od
i. Looic gray" surface sand. oerl Iing 1 I ich[c eris hub.iil hi'ch
p fic- in[r) bro'v : Cornmpar haripIr. ir fl trmin I '. [o i j n' he
beh.,.' rhe ,urfiace.
I The harJp.an I. uu.ally hird anJ inmper iju. norn-c.ialc'irc.,.,
an] .cid
B t ROP ADAPTATION$
I '% hein ircLr is controlled, =dc.l! tor :lcrv. o .tro ci s in,
oLiher [raicl crup-.
S \\ ithotl v. i,-r conrol, r i. rather rniki ti put culirj. jrc
Lrops on [herr,. Ho.-I cr. s.orRhurn. ,'.vecr poiricesi aad
olhcr crops are iornlrorim ; r.ir Lon rhc i, .' hn ri propi.rl
tcrtih,"ed







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 19


Fig. 8. Leon sand with native vegetation of saw palmetto and pine.
Note color of soil profile.

The Leon soils are rather extensive in Florida, occur-
ring in nearly all flatwoods areas of rhc scare ,'see Fig.
8). They are usually deceptive to rhc inexperienced
farmer, and in their natural state the\ are not vcrv dc-
sirable for agricultural purposes. But \vhen sub-
irrigated and properly fertilized thev become among
the best soils of the state for truck crops. The hardpan
serves as a reservoir for irrigation water, enabling the
farmer to control soil moisture economically. As a
rule, Leon soils are low in plant nutrients and require
liberal applications of fertilizer.

PARKWOOD SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Poorly drained, level hammock land.
2.. Black surface with gray to cream-whir.. mr. I .ub,.,il.
3. Highly calcareous.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Good for corn, sugarcane, cabbage, tom.,oiO. ILrte.. hbe r
beans and pasture grasses.
2. Not very well adapted to citrus, tuir, ol,. rcir,.. ih
potatoes and strawberries.







30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

These soils are not very extensive, occurring only in
small areas scattered throughout the peninsula. They
are too calcareous.for some crops, but may be profitably
used for the production of tomatoes, cabbage and other
lime-loving plants. The lime or marl underneath makes
then undesirable for citrus, tung oil or pecans, but they
are good pasture and truck lands.

HYDE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Wet,-black surface, with black subsoil to a depth of 3 feet.
2.. Soils are usually silty and plastic, having been developed
from deposits of silt and organic matter.
3. Usually free of lime.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. Very good for corn, sugarcane, Irish potatoes, cabbage,
tomatoes, onions, pasture grasses, etc.
2.. Fair for strawberries, celery, lettuce, etc.

Hyde soils are local, occurring in small patches as-
sociated with Portsmouth soils. They have a high
moisture capacity and their color indicates a high
nitrogen content. When drained these soils, although
similar in crop adaptations, are more productive than
Portsmouth soils. They are not extensive.

MYATTE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Undulating second river bottom lands.
2.. Gray surface with yellow mottled clay subsoil.
3. Usually acid and plastic subsoil.

Their crop adaptations are similar to those of Bladen
soils. They are located along streams in western Flor-
ida and are known as second-bottom lands. They are
not extensive, nor very important, although some are
being cultivated. They respond to fertilizer and good
management.







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 31

OCKLOCKONEE SOILS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Level river flood plains soils in western Florida.
a. Brown surface with reddish brown plastic clay subsoil;
usually acid.
B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
i. When drained, good for corn, sugarcane, sweet potatoes,
pasture grasses, tomatoes, cabbage and other similar crops.
2.. Usually not adapted to cotton, peanuts, tobacco, etc.

Lying along rivers, these soils are subject to over-
flow. Like Myatte soils, they are local and have a
limited value.

Organic Soils

Florida has a rather large acreage of organic soils,
the Everglades being the most extensive area and rep-
resenting almost 4,000,000 acres of continuous peat and
muck deposits. Much smaller deposits of peat and
muck are scattered over other low wet areas of the state.
These soils have accumulated as a result of the retard-
ing effect of water on the decomposition of organic de-
posits. Such accumulations of organic deposits are
known as cumulose soils.
Their chief value lies in their high moisture capacity
and high nitrogen content. As a rule, moisture con-
trol 'is the greatest problem confronting their reclama-
tion. When drained too well they decompose rapidly
and become so dry that they burn readily, and when
wet they are not suitable for crops. Crops grown on
organic soils are damaged by cold much quicker than
on higher and lighter soils. Usually cumulose soils are
deficient in potassium. The high lime content of the
Everglades increases their agricultural value. Also an
interesting characteristic of these cumulose soils in the
Everglades is their response to the application of copper
and manganese salts.








32z DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE







--. -.. "
N.

.-*lq s r... ,t. .A













Fig. 9. Peat soil profile showing fibrous nature.


MUCKS
A. IDENTIFICATION:
i. Highly organic; vegetable matter has reached an advanced
stage of decomposition and little of the original plant parts
are visible.
i. Usually black and plastic.
3. Contains from 50 to 85 percent of ash.

B. CROP ADAPTATIONS:
Given under peats

EATS
A IDENTIFICATION:
i. Highly organic; vegetable matter has not undergone an
advanced stage of decomposition. Portions of the original
plants parts are still visible.
2. Usually brown and somewhat fibrous.
3. Less than so per cent of ash is present.







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


B. CROP ADAPTATIONS of Mucks and Peats:
i. Very good for corn, strawberries, celery, beans, Irish pota-
toes, sugarcane, cabbage, tomatoes and related plants.
7. As a rule muck is more desirable for crops than peat. The
calcareous peats and mucks are adapted to peanuts. Only
the shallow type (less than 30 inches deep) are adapted to
tree crops like citrus. (See Fig. 9.)

Although this bulletin does not describe in detail all
the known soils in Florida, it does include those having
official descriptions and names. Other soils will, no
doubt, be officially described by the United States
Bureau of Soils as the county surveys are completed.
Local types have been observed, but no official names
have been given them. For example, (a) the poorly
drained, grassy flatwoods soils with orange-colored
subsoil; (b) the black drought soils with dark gray
subsoils overlying pebble phosphate; and (c) the well-
drained gray soils with gray subsoils. None of these
types are very extensive.









34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

TABLE II.-CROP ADAPTATION OF PREDOMINATING SOIL
TYPES (FINE SAND) IN FLORIDA.* (ONLY SOIL FACTOR IS
CONSIDERED.)




01 0 .0
U S F. 00 00




Bibb ......... F P 0 0 G 0 0 F P P 0 F G F P FP
Bladen ...... G P P P P G P P GF G G ExG F G FF
Blanton...... F G G P F G F F F O P O P F G G GG
Coxville..... G F P P P G P F G F G G ExG G G G F
Dade ........P P G P P F G F F O P O O F P 0 0 0
Eustis........ P F G P G F G G F O P O O F G G GG
Fellowship... G F G F P Ex F F ExF Ex P F Ex G OP P
Gadsden.....G F P G F G F F GP G O O G G G GG
Galveston.... 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Gainesville... G G G G G G G G G G O O G G 0 0 G
Greenville ...G G G G F G G G G O G O O F G G G G
Hernando ....G G G G F G G G GO G O O G G O F G
Hoffman.....G G G G F G G G G P G O O G G G GG
Johnston..... G P P P G P P GG G F G G F F FP
Hyde ........G P P P P G P P G G G G G G G G F P
Lakewood.... 0 P O O O O O P 0 O O O P F P P P
Leon** ...... P O P O O F P F P O O O P F P P PO
Muck........ G P F O O G P P G G G G G G FF O
Myatte ......G F P G P G F P G P F P P G G G GP
Norfolk...... F G G P G F G F F O P O O F GG F G
Orangeburg... G G G G F G G G G O F O O F G G G G
Orlando......G G G F F G F F G P F O P G G G GF
Ocklockonee .G P P P P G P P G G G P F G F G F F
Palm Beach... G F G F P G F F G O G O O G F P P G
Portsmouth... G P P P O G P F G ExG F G G F F F P
Parkwood.... G F P F P G P P ExP ExP P G P P PP
Peat***...... G O P O O G P P G G G G G G O O OO
Plummer .....O O O O P O O O O O O P P P P P 0
Scranton.....G F F F P G P G G ExG P G G G G FF
St. Johns..... G P P P P G P P G ExG F G G F F P P
St. Lucie .....O ooooo P P P P P
Tifton.......F G G F G G G GGO F O P G G GG


"Ex," excellent; "G," good; "F," fair; "P," poor; "0," no good.
*It should be understood that the rank indicated in this table is an average and
that differences above or below the rank herein given may occur, due to varia-
tion of the soil.
**Leon soils are excellent when water can be controlled.
***Calcareous peats produce good peanuts.







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 35

UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA SOILS
The data in Table I shows that a few soil series make
up the greater part of the area surveyed in Florida to
date and that some of these soils have a very low pro-
ductive value. Judging from the data in Table I, many
of the soils have a limited acreage. By assuming that
the area of the land surveyed (one-fifth of the state)
represents a fair portion of the mineral soils, our poten-
tial land value can be estimated in a general way. Field
observations indicate that the proportion of the peat
and muck soils is higher than the table would indicate.
This is probably true also for other soils. It is very
likely that the proportion for the entire state is dif-
ferent from that of the fraction surveyed. A general
estimate is all that the table can be expected to show.
The relative crop-producing capacity of the different
soils is indicated in Table II. The information in this
table is based on the knowledge of experienced farmers,
as well as experimental data. The results show in a
general way the crop adaptation of the different soil
series found in the state. All factors other than soil
were eliminated in placing a relative value for the soil
type. Moreover, these results are comparable for the
medium and fine sands of each series, inasmuch as they
are the most extensive. It should be understood that
the relative value of the different soils for any one crop
may vary some from the data in Table II, due to special
treatment, seasonal factors, etc., as well as to the per-
sonal factor. One man may make a failure where an-
other succeeds, the difference being in the man rather
than in the soil. But as a rule the soil determines what
can and can not be done.
It is interesting to note that there are approximately
400,000 acres of Bladen soils surveyed to date in Florida.
This is more than four times the acreage planted to all
truck crops combined at present. The total acreage of
Portsmouth, St. Johns, Fellowship, Scranton and other
soils is far greater than is now being used. The present







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


demand does not warrant increasing the acreage of
truck crops very much if any.
The question thus arises, what can the soil be used
for to advantage and profit? With the climate and
variety of soils in Florida, it would appear that the
state could profitably grow more staple crops, as sugar-
cane, peanuts, sweet potatoes and pasture grasses, in
addition to all the fruit and vegetable crops the market
will consume.
Florida has some excellent pasture lands, and if prop-
erly seeded and managed some of them would produce
more feed per acre than the best pastures in our northern
and middle western states. Portsmouth, Bladen, Fellow-
ship, St. Johns, Scranton and other soils are excellent
for pasture purposes. These soils make good pasture
land because they are inherently moist-a necessary
factor for abundant and luxuriant growth. Carpet,
Centipede, Bahia, Bermuda and Dallis grasses do well
on these soils.
Unless water can be controlled, it appears unsafe to
attempt to grow annual crops on the coarse sands of any
series. So far as known, it is unwise to attempt to
grow crops on any type of Plummer soils. Present in-
formation indicates that certain soils due to their in-
herent capacities, are well adapted to the production of
food crops, while others are not. It would seem that
only those soils adapted to the crop in question should
be planted, leaving those not adapted to any cultivated
crops at present to forests or other uses. It is possible
to grow deep-rooted crops on the deeper and more
drought sands, but to plant these as well as the cus-
tomary annual crops on such soils reduces the possi-
bilities of success.









THE SOILS OF FLORIDA


KEY FOR CLASSIFYING FLORIDA SOILS

The soils of Florida were derived through the weather-
ing of marine deposits of sands, clays and limestones.
They are known and classified as marine or coastal
plain soils: The peat and muck as well as the river
flood-plain soils are of most recent origin. The follow-
ing key to the classification of Florida soils is based on
the classification of the United States Bureau of Soils:


I. Well-Drained, Rolling Up-
lands, Derived From-
A. Non-calcareous sands and clays:
i. Gray surface soil with
(a) Yellow, friable subsoil

(b) Pale yellow to light gray
subsoil
(c) Compact yellow pink and
gray plastic subsoils
2. Brown to grayish brown soils with
(a) Reddish brown to brown-
ish red friable subsoils
(b) Bright red friable subsoil
(c) Brownish yellow friable
subsoil containing iron
pebbles
3. Red surface soils with
(a) White sand subsoil
B. Calcareous sand, clays and lime-
stone:
i. Gray to chocolate brown surface
with
(a) Chocolate brown to red
friable subsoil
(b) Yellowish brown to brown
friable subsoil
2. Brown speckled soils with brown
subsoils (shells)
3. Gray sandy surface overlying
Oolitic limerock, irregular
C. Sands and sand dunes:
i. Light gray surface with
(a) White subsoils
(b) Orange-yellow sand sub-
soil
(c) White glittering sand


Dominant
Native
Vegetation



Pine, blackjack and
oak scrub
Pine, water and
willow oak
Hardwood Hammock


Pine, oak and
blackjack
Hardwood, pine
Hardwood, pine



Hardwood hammock




Hardwood hammock



Tropical hammock

Pine, palmetto



Rosemary, spruce pine
Rosemary, spruce pine


Very little


Soil
Series



Norfolk

Orlando

Hoffman


Eustis

Orangeburg
Tifton



Greenville




Gainesville

Hernando

Palm Beach

Dade



St. Lucie
Lakewood

Galveston









38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


II. Level to Undulating Soils,
Having Medium to Fair
Drainage, Derived From-
A. Non-calcareous sands and sandy
clays:
1. Gray surface soils with yellow and
gray splotched subsoils
2.. Dark gray surface soils, with light
yellow and gray subsoils; colluvial
3. Deep black surface soils with
yellow subsoil
B. Calcareous sands, clays and lime-
stone:
i. Black surface soil with a mottled
yellow red and drab plastic subsoil
2. Dark gray surface soils with yellow
and yellowish mottled friable sub-
soil

III. Poorly Drained Soils, Level
to Undulating, Swamps
or Flatwoods, Derived
From-
A. Non-calcareous sands and sandy
clays:
i. Black surface soils with
(a) Light gray to white fri-
able subsoils
(b) Light gray and brown
hardpan
(c) Black plastic subsoil
2. Gray surface (flatwoods) soil with
(a) Light gray and yellowish
mottled plastic sandy sub-
soils
(b) Light yellowish to red
mottled plastic subsoils
(c) Light dingy gray subsoil
with irregular pockets of
clay
(d) Loose gray sand with
brown impervious hard-
pan
(e) Orange yellow sandy sub-
soil
B. Marl and limestone:
i. Gray to dark gray surface soil with
(a)- Light gray to creamy
colored marl subsoil
(b) Yellowish mottled friable
subsoil


Dominant
Native
Vegetation


Pine and willow oak

Hardwood hammock

Hardwood and
pine hammock


Cabbage palmetto,
hardwood hammock
Cabbage palmetto,
hardwood hammock


Low hammock
cypress prairie
Low hammock,
cypress prairie
Low hammock

Grass pine
cypress

Grass, pine, cypress

Grass, pine, cypress


Pine, scrub palmetto


Pine, palmetto




Cabbage palmetto,
hammock
Cabbage palmetto,
hammock


Soil
Series


Blanton

Gadsden

Scranton



Fellowship

Hernando


Portsmouth

St. Johns

Hyde

Bladen


Coxville

Plummer


Leon


Unclassified


Parkwood

Unclassified









THE SOILS OF FLORIDA 39


IV. River Flood Plains Soils- .
A. First bottom:
i. Light gray surface soils with dull
gray subsoils, friable
2. Black surface soils with light gray
and yellow mottled subsoils
3. Brown surface soils with brownish
red plastic subsoils

B. Second bottom:
i. Gray surface soil with yellowish
mottled plastic subsoil
z. Grayish brown surface soil with
drab, yellow and gray friable sub-
soil

V. Cumulose Soils-
A. Black organic material well de-
composed
* B. Brown to black organic material in
which the parent plant parts are still
visible


Dominant
Native
Vegetation


Low hammock

Low hammock

Low hardwood
hammock


Hammock pine

Magnolia hammock,
pine




Water-loving plants,
swamp
Treeless when deep;
hammock when
shallow


Soil
Series


Bibb

Johnston

Ocklockonee



Myatte

Gadsden





Muck

Peat




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